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Sample records for demonstrate comprehension difficulties

  1. Early Identification of Reading Comprehension Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catts, Hugh W.; Nielsen, Diane Corcoran; Bridges, Mindy Sittner; Liu, Yi-Syuan

    2016-01-01

    Most research on early identification of reading disabilities has focused on word reading problems and little attention has been given to reading comprehension difficulties. In this study, we investigated whether measures of language ability and/or response to language intervention in kindergarten uniquely predicted reading comprehension…

  2. How specific are specific comprehension difficulties?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønberg, Louise Flensted-Jensen; Petersen, Dorthe Klint

    2016-01-01

    as measured on a phonological coding measure. However, the proportion was smaller than the often reported 10-15 % and even smaller when average sight word recognition was also set as a criterion for word reading ability. Compared to average comprehenders, the poor comprehenders’ sight word recognition......This study explores the occurrence of poor comprehenders, i.e., children identified with reading comprehension difficulties in spite of age-appropriate word reading skills. It supports the findings that some children do show poor reading comprehension in spite of age-appropriate word reading...... and daily reading of literary texts were significantly below that of average readers. This study indicates that a lack of reading experience and, likewise, a lack of fluent word reading may be important factors in understanding nine-year-old poor comprehenders’ difficulties....

  3. A Comprehensive General Chemistry Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeder, Ryan D.; Jeffery, Kathleen A.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the use of a comprehensive demonstration suitable for a high school or first-year undergraduate introductory chemistry class. The demonstration involves placing a burning candle in a container adjacent to a beaker containing a basic solution with indicator. After adding a lid, the candle will extinguish and the produced…

  4. Reading comprehension difficulties in children with rolandic epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Nicola K; Lew, Adina R; Palmer, Tom M; Basu, Helen; De Goede, Christian; Iyer, Anand; Cain, Kate

    2018-03-01

    Difficulties in reading comprehension can arise from either word reading or listening comprehension difficulties, or a combination of the two. We sought to determine whether children with rolandic epilepsy had poor reading comprehension relative to typically developing comparison children, and whether such difficulties were associated with word reading and/or general language comprehension difficulties. In this cross-sectional study, children with rolandic epilepsy (n=25; 16 males, 9 females; mean age 9y 1mo, SD 1y 7mo) and a comparison group (n=39; 25 males, 14 females; mean age 9y 1mo, SD 1y 3mo) completed assessments of reading comprehension, listening comprehension, word/non-word reading, speech articulation, and Non-verbal IQ. Reading comprehension and word reading were worse in children with rolandic epilepsy (F 1,61 =6.89, p=0.011, ηp2=0.10 and F 1,61 =6.84, p=0.011, ηp2=0.10 respectively), with listening comprehension being marginal (F 1,61 =3.81, p=0.055, ηp2=0.06). Word reading and listening comprehension made large and independent contributions to reading comprehension, explaining 70% of the variance. Children with rolandic epilepsy may be at risk of reading comprehension difficulties. Thorough assessment of individual children is required to ascertain whether the difficulties lie with decoding text, or with general comprehension skills, or both. Children with rolandic epilepsy may be at risk of poor reading comprehension. This was related to poor word reading, poor listening comprehension, or both. Reading comprehension interventions should be tailored to the profile of difficulties. © 2017 Mac Keith Press.

  5. Reading Comprehension Difficulties among French Students of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reading Comprehension Difficulties among French Students of the University of Education, Winneba: ... The quality of work done depends so much on the level of understanding of the reading text by students. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  6. Reading Comprehension Difficulties in Chinese-English Bilingual Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xiuhong; McBride, Catherine; Shu, Hua; Ho, Connie Suk-Han

    2018-02-01

    The co-occurrence of reading comprehension difficulties for first language (L1) Chinese and second language (L2) English and associated longitudinal cognitive-linguistic correlates in each language were investigated. Sixteen poor comprehenders in English and 16 poor comprehenders in Chinese, 18 poor readers in both, and 18 children with normal performance in both were identified at age 10. The prevalence rate for being poor in both was 52.94%, suggesting that approximately half of children who are at risk for Chinese reading comprehension difficulty are also at risk for English reading comprehension difficulty. Chinese word reading, phonological, and morphological awareness were longitudinal correlates of poor comprehension in Chinese. English word reading and vocabulary were longitudinal correlates of poor comprehension in English. Chinese phonological awareness was an additional correlate of poor comprehension in English. Moreover, poor comprehenders in both Chinese and English showed slower rapid automatized naming scores than the other groups. Findings highlight some factors that might be critical for reading comprehension in L1 Chinese and L2 English; fluency is likely to be a critical part of reading comprehension across languages. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Investigating Patterns of Errors for Specific Comprehension and Fluency Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koriakin, Taylor A.; Kaufman, Alan S.

    2017-01-01

    Although word reading has traditionally been viewed as a foundational skill for development of reading fluency and comprehension, some children demonstrate "specific" reading comprehension problems, in the context of intact word reading. The purpose of this study was to identify specific patterns of errors associated with reading…

  8. Oral and Written Expression in Children With Reading Comprehension Difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carretti, Barbara; Motta, Eleonora; Re, Anna Maria

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have highlighted that children with reading comprehension difficulties also have problems in tasks that involve telling a story, in writing or verbally. The main differences identified regard poor comprehenders' lower level of coherence in their productions by comparison with good comprehenders. Only one study has compared poor and good comprehenders' performance in both modalities (oral and written), however, to see whether these modalities differently influence poor comprehenders' performance. We qualitatively and quantitatively compared the performance of good and poor comprehenders in oral and written narrative tasks with the aim of shedding light on this issue. Regression analyses were also used to explore the role of working memory and vocabulary in explaining individual differences. Our results showed that the two groups produced narratives of comparable length, with similar percentages of spelling mistakes, whereas they differed in terms of the quality of their narratives, regardless of the modality. These differences were qualified by analyzing the children's use of connective devices, and poor comprehenders were found to use a higher proportion of additive devices than good comprehenders. Regression analyses showed that working memory (particularly the intrusion errors measure) explained a modest part of the qualitative differences in narrative production. Implications for our theoretical understanding of poor comprehenders' profiles and education are discussed. © Hammill Institute on Disabilities 2014.

  9. The Assessment of Reading Comprehension Difficulties for Reading Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolley, Gary

    2008-01-01

    There are many environmental and personal factors that contribute to reading success. Reading comprehension is a complex interaction of language, sensory perception, memory, and motivational aspects. However, most existing assessment tools have not adequately reflected the complex nature of reading comprehension. Good assessment requires a…

  10. [A comprehensive assessment of ATMP. Difficulties and approaches].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanner, M; Nagel, E

    2011-07-01

    Advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMP) are associated with high expectations because they offer new opportunities for the treatment of diseases, e.g., the possibility of regenerating damaged or lost tissue. What the products (gene therapy, somatic cell therapy, and tissue engineered products) have in common is an innovative and complex development process that combines science and engineering. At the same time, this field of research is becoming increasingly interdisciplinary and requires international cooperation. A comprehensive assessment of ATMP has to take these issues into account. The application of Beauchamp and Childress' Four Principles (Principle-Based Ethics) as well as Discourse Ethics as a framework may lead to a broader consideration of medical ethics issues.

  11. Learners' Listening Comprehension Difficulties in English Language Learning: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilakjani, Abbas Pourhosein; Sabouri, Narjes Banou

    2016-01-01

    Listening is one of the most important skills in English language learning. When students listen to English language, they face a lot of listening difficulties. Students have critical difficulties in listening comprehension because universities and schools pay more attention to writing, reading, and vocabulary. Listening is not an important part…

  12. Speech comprehension difficulties in chronic tinnitus and its relation to hyperacusis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Vielsmeier

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available AbstractObjectiveMany tinnitus patients complain about difficulties regarding speech comprehension. In spite of the high clinical relevance little is known about underlying mechanisms and predisposing factors. Here, we performed an exploratory investigation in a large sample of tinnitus patients to (1 estimate the prevalence of speech comprehension difficulties among tinnitus patients, to (2 compare subjective reports of speech comprehension difficulties with objective measurements in a standardized speech comprehension test and to (3 explore underlying mechanisms by analyzing the relationship between speech comprehension difficulties and peripheral hearing function (pure tone audiogram, as well as with co-morbid hyperacusis as a central auditory processing disorder. Subjects and MethodsSpeech comprehension was assessed in 361 tinnitus patients presenting between 07/2012 and 08/2014 at the Interdisciplinary Tinnitus Clinic at the University of Regensburg. The assessment included standard audiological assessment (pure tone audiometry, tinnitus pitch and loudness matching, the Goettingen sentence test (in quiet for speech audiometric evaluation, two questions about hyperacusis, and two questions about speech comprehension in quiet and noisy environments (How would you rate your ability to understand speech?; How would you rate your ability to follow a conversation when multiple people are speaking simultaneously?. Results Subjectively reported speech comprehension deficits are frequent among tinnitus patients, especially in noisy environments (cocktail party situation. 74.2% of all investigated patients showed disturbed speech comprehension (indicated by values above 21.5 dB SPL in the Goettingen sentence test. Subjective speech comprehension complaints (both in general and in noisy environment were correlated with hearing level and with audiologically-assessed speech comprehension ability. In contrast, co-morbid hyperacusis was only correlated

  13. Difficulties That English Teachers Encounter While Teaching Listening Comprehension and Their Attitudes towards Them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alrawashdeh, Ayah Isam; Al-zayed, Norma Nawaf

    2017-01-01

    This study is aimed at investigating the difficulties that English teachers encountered while teaching listening comprehension and their attitudes towards the subjectin Karak schools. To achieve the objectives of the study, the researcher used two instruments: a teacher's questionnaire and informal interviews. In order to answer the questions of…

  14. Effects of Semantic Ambiguity Detection Training on Reading Comprehension Achievement of English Learners with Learning Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jozwik, Sara L.; Douglas, Karen H.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined how explicit instruction in semantic ambiguity detection affected the reading comprehension and metalinguistic awareness of five English learners (ELs) with learning difficulties (e.g., attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, specific learning disability). A multiple probe across participants design (Gast & Ledford, 2010)…

  15. Improving Language Comprehension in Preschool Children with Language Difficulties: A Cluster Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Åste M.; Melby-Lervåg, Monica; Lervåg, Arne

    2017-01-01

    Background: Children with language comprehension difficulties are at risk of educational and social problems, which in turn impede employment prospects in adulthood. However, few randomized trials have examined how such problems can be ameliorated during the preschool years. Methods: We conducted a cluster randomized trial in 148 preschool…

  16. Role of Working Memory in Explaining the Performance of Individuals with Specific Reading Comprehension Difficulties: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carretti, Barbara; Borella, Erika; Cornoldi, Cesare; De Beni, Rossana

    2009-01-01

    It is well established that working memory is related to reading comprehension ability. However, its role in explaining specific reading comprehension difficulties is still under debate: the issue mainly concerns whether the contribution of working memory is dependent on task modality (verbal tasks being more predictive than visuo-spatial tasks)…

  17. High School Students With Reading Comprehension Difficulties: Results of a Randomized Control Trial of a Two-Year Reading Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Sharon; Roberts, Greg; Wexler, Jade; Vaughn, Michael G; Fall, Anna-Mária; Schnakenberg, Jennifer B

    2015-01-01

    A 2-year, randomized control trial with 9th to 10th grade students with significant reading problems was provided for 50 minutes a day in small groups. Comparison students were provided an elective class and treatment students the reading intervention. Students were identified as demonstrating reading difficulties through failure on their state accountability test and were randomly assigned to one of three treatment conditions and a business as usual (BAU) condition: reading without dropout prevention, reading with dropout prevention, dropout prevention without reading, or a BAU condition. Findings from the 2-year reading intervention (reading with and without dropout prevention combined and BAU) are reported in this article. Students in reading treatment compared to students in BAU demonstrated significant gains on reading comprehension (effect size = .43), and improved reading was associated with better grades in social studies. Findings from this study provide a rationale for further implementation and investigation of intensive intervention for high school students with reading difficulties. © Hammill Institute on Disabilities 2014.

  18. A COMPREHENSIVE TECHNICAL REVIEW OF THE DEMONSTRATION BULK VITRIFICATION SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SCHAUS, P.S.

    2006-01-01

    In May 2006, CH2M Hill Hanford Group, Inc. chartered an Expert Review Panel (ERP) to review the current status of the Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (DBVS). It is the consensus of the ERP that bulk vitrification is a technology that requires further development and evaluation to determine its potential for meeting the Hanford waste stabilization mission. No fatal flaws (issues that would jeopardize the overall DBVS mission that cannot be mitigated) were found, given the current state of the project. However, a number of technical issues were found that could significantly affect the project's ability to meet its overall mission as stated in the project ''Justification of Mission Need'' document, if not satisfactorily resolved. The ERP recognizes that the project has changed from an accelerated schedule demonstration project to a formally chartered project that must be in full compliance with DOE 413.3 requirements. The perspective of the ERP presented herein, is measured against the formally chartered project as stated in the approved Justification of Mission Need document. A justification of Mission Need document was approved in July 2006 which defined the objectives for the DBVS Project. In this document, DOE concluded that bulk vitrification is a viable technology that requires additional development to determine its potential applicability to treatment of a portion of the Hanford low activity waste. The DBVS mission need statement now includes the following primary objectives: (1) process approximately 190,000 gallons of Tank S-109 waste into fifty 100 metric ton boxes of vitrified product; (2) store and dispose of these boxes at Hanford's Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF); (3) evaluate the waste form characteristics; (4) gather pilot plant operability data, and (5) develop the overall life cycle system performance of bulk vitrification and produce a comparison of the bulk vitrification process to building a second LAW Immobilization facility or other

  19. High School Students with Reading Comprehension Difficulties: Results of a Randomized Control Trial of a Two-Year Reading Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Sharon; Roberts, Greg; Wexler, Jade; Vaughn, Michael G.; Fall, Anna-Mária; Schnakenberg, Jennifer B.

    2015-01-01

    A 2-year, randomized control trial with 9th to 10th grade students with significant reading problems was provided for 50 minutes a day in small groups. Comparison students were provided an elective class and treatment students the reading intervention. Students were identified as demonstrating reading difficulties through failure on their state…

  20. Classifying insulin regimens--difficulties and proposal for comprehensive new definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neu, A; Lange, K; Barrett, T; Cameron, F; Dorchy, H; Hoey, H; Jarosz-Chobot, P; Mortensen, H B; Robert, J-J; Robertson, K; de Beaufort, C

    2015-09-01

    Modern insulin regimens for the treatment of type 1 diabetes are highly individualized. The concept of an individually tailored medicine accounts for a broad variety of different insulin regimens applied. Despite clear recommendations for insulin management in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes there is little distinctiveness about concepts and the nomenclature is confusing. Even among experts similar terms are used for different strategies. The aim of our review--based on the experiences of the Hvidoere Study Group (HSG)--is to propose comprehensive definitions for current insulin regimens reflecting current diabetes management in childhood and adolescence. The HSG--founded in 1994--is an international group representing 24 highly experienced pediatric diabetes centers, from Europe, Japan, North America and Australia. Different benchmarking studies of the HSG revealed a broad variety of insulin regimens applied in each center, respectively. Furthermore, the understanding of insulin regimens has been persistently different between the centers since more than 20 yr. Not even the terms 'conventional' and 'intensified therapy' were used consistently among all members. Besides the concepts 'conventional' and 'intensified', several other terms for the characterization of insulin regimens are in use: Basal Bolus Concept (BBC), multiple daily injections (MDI), and flexible insulin therapy (FIT) are most frequently used, although none of these expressions is clearly or consistently defined. The proposed new classification for insulin management will be comprehensive, simple, and catchy. Currently available terms were included. This classification may offer the opportunity to compare therapeutic strategies without the currently existing confusion on the insulin regimen. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. The relationship between different measures of oral reading fluency and reading comprehension in second-grade students who evidence different oral reading fluency difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Justin C; Sevcik, Rose A; Morris, Robin D; Lovett, Maureen W; Wolf, Maryanne; Kuhn, Melanie; Meisinger, Beth; Schwanenflugel, Paula

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether different measures of oral reading fluency relate differentially to reading comprehension performance in two samples of second-grade students: (a) students who evidenced difficulties with nonsense-word oral reading fluency, real-word oral reading fluency, and oral reading fluency of connected text (ORFD), and (b) students who evidenced difficulties only with oral reading fluency of connected text (CTD). Participants (ORFD, n = 146 and CTD, n = 949) were second-grade students who were recruited for participation in different reading intervention studies. Data analyzed were from measures of nonsense-word oral reading fluency, real-word oral reading fluency, oral reading fluency of connected text, and reading comprehension that were collected at the pre-intervention time point. Correlational and path analyses indicated that real-word oral reading fluency was the strongest predictor of reading comprehension performance in both samples and across average and poor reading comprehension abilities. Results of this study indicate that real-word oral reading fluency was the strongest predictor of reading comprehension and suggest that real-word oral reading fluency may be an efficient method for identifying potential reading comprehension difficulties.

  2. [Evaluation on intervention measures of comprehensive control for parasitic diseases in demonstration plot of Xiangyun County].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen-Juan, Li; Shao-Rong, Chen; Yan-Hong, Li; Wen, Fang; Chun-Rong, Ke; Li-Bo, Wang

    2011-10-01

    To evaluate the effect of comprehensive intervention measures to control and prevent parasitic diseases in the demonstration plot of Xiangyun County, so as to provide the evidence for establishing appropriate measures of parasitic diseases control and prevention. The baseline data of soil-transmitted nematode infections were obtained in 2006. A series of intervention measures, including health education, deworming, drinking water improvement,latrine improvement, and environment reconstruction, were performed for three years and the effect of the comprehensive intervention measures was evaluated by the national expert group in 2009. The awareness rate of parasitic disease knowledge of residents in 2009 (86.96%) was significantly higher than that in 2006 (35.20%) (Chi2 = 122.95, P transmitted nematode infections, the infection rates of Ascaris lumbricoides in both 2006 and 2009 were the highest and the rates were 18.74% and 2.08%, respectively. In the demonstration plots for parasitic diseases control and prevention of Xiangyun County, the effect of the comprehensive intervention measures which take health education as the forerunner and give priority to control source of parasite infection is remarkable. The measures implemented can achieve the purpose to reduce the infection rates of parasites and improve human health.

  3. [Effect of comprehensive control and prevention for chronic disease in demonstration plot of Chongqing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Li; Ding, Xian-bin; Mao, De-qiang; Feng, Lian-gui; Wang, Yu-lin; Jiao, Yan; Zhang, Chun-hua; Lü, Xiao-yan; Li, Hong; Xia, Yi-yin

    2013-03-01

    To evaluate the effect of comprehensive control and prevention for chronic diseases in demonstration plot of Chongqing. Residents were enrolled through multi-stage stratified random sampling method from 17 districts or counties which had successfully established demonstration plots and 21 districts or counties which had not established demonstration plots (non-demonstration plot for short) yet on May, 2012. Questionnaire was designed to survey awareness of health knowledge, health behaviors and utilization of health supportive tools. The results were analyzed by SPSS 15.0 software. We investigated 15 108 residents, 6156 of which were in demonstration plot and others (8951) were not. The findings revealed the percentage of the people who were aware the national action of health lifestyle in demonstration plot and in non-demonstration plot were 44.4% (2734/6157) and 40.2% (3598/8951), respectively, and the awareness of the hypertension risk of too much sodium were 72.4% (4458/6156) and 67.5% (6042/8951), respectively, and the awareness of the cardinal vascular disease (CVD) risk of obesity and overweight were 77.2% (4753/6157) and 69.6% (6230/8951), respectively. About the residents' health behaviors in demonstration plot and in non-demonstration plot, the utilization rates of salt restriction scoop or pot were 23.5% (1447/6157) and 17.9% (1602/8951), and the utilization rates of oil restriction pot were 16.7% (1028/6157) and 11.8% (1064/8951), respectively. Totally, 33 of the 37 indexes were shown higher in demonstration plot than that in non-demonstration plot (P plot was more effective, and the remarkable improvement of health knowledge and behaviors level had been achieved in demonstration plot.

  4. Swarm intelligence in fish? The difficulty in demonstrating distributed and self-organised collective intelligence in (some) animal groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannou, Christos C

    2017-08-01

    Larger groups often have a greater ability to solve cognitive tasks compared to smaller ones or lone individuals. This is well established in social insects, navigating flocks of birds, and in groups of prey collectively vigilant for predators. Research in social insects has convincingly shown that improved cognitive performance can arise from self-organised local interactions between individuals that integrates their contributions, often referred to as swarm intelligence. This emergent collective intelligence has gained in popularity and been directly applied to groups of other animals, including fish. Despite being a likely mechanism at least partially explaining group performance in vertebrates, I argue here that other possible explanations are rarely ruled out in empirical studies. Hence, evidence for self-organised collective (or 'swarm') intelligence in fish is not as strong as it would first appear. These other explanations, the 'pool-of-competence' and the greater cognitive ability of individuals when in larger groups, are also reviewed. Also discussed is why improved group performance in general may be less often observed in animals such as shoaling fish compared to social insects. This review intends to highlight the difficulties in exploring collective intelligence in animal groups, ideally leading to further empirical work to illuminate these issues. Copyright © 2016 The Author. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. How Problems of Reading Fluency and Comprehension Are Related to Difficulties in Syntactic Awareness Skills among Fifth Graders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtari, Kouider; Thompson, H. Brian

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we assessed and analyzed 5th grade students' levels of syntactic awareness in relation to their reading fluency and comprehension. The aim was to examine the role of syntactic awareness (children's awareness of the syntactic structure of sentences and their ability to reflect on and manipulate that structure) as a potential source…

  6. Gender Moderates Association between Emotional-Behavioral Problems and Text Comprehension in Children with Both Reading Difficulties and ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mano, Quintino R.; Jastrowski Mano, Kristen E.; Denton, Carolyn A.; Epstein, Jeffery N.; Tamm, Leanne

    2017-01-01

    Evidence suggests that higher order linguistic functioning such as text comprehension is particularly vulnerable to emotional modulation. Gender has been identified as an important moderating variable in emotional expression such that girls tend toward internalizing emotions (e.g., sadness, anxiety) whereas boys tend toward externalizing emotions…

  7. 78 FR 72840 - Drug Products That Present Demonstrable Difficulties for Compounding Under Sections 503A and 503B...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-04

    ... reasonably demonstrate an adverse effect on the safety or effectiveness of that drug product'' (section 503A... because it included restrictions on the advertising or promotion of the compounding of any particular drug... effect on the safety or effectiveness of that drug product. In addition, the DQSA adds a new section 503B...

  8. An Explanation for the Difficulty of Leading Conceptual Change Using a Counterintuitive Demonstration: The Relationship between Cognitive Conflict and Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gyoungho; Byun, Taejin

    2012-01-01

    Bringing successful teaching approaches for stimulating conceptual change to normal classrooms has been a major challenge not only for teachers but also for researchers. In this study, we focused on the relationship between cognitive conflict and responses to anomalous data when students are confronted with a counterintuitive demonstration in the…

  9. A Pilot Demonstration of Comprehensive Mental Health Services in Inner-City Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Heather J.; Gouze, Karen; Cicchetti, Colleen; Arend, Richard; Mehta, Tara; Schmidt, Janet; Skvarla, Madelynn

    2011-01-01

    Background: National policy statements increasingly espouse the delivery of comprehensive mental health services in schools. In response to the limited evidence supporting this recommendation, the purpose of this study was to assess the need for, and feasibility, desirability, and outcomes of a full model of comprehensive mental health services in…

  10. Teachers' practices and perceptions regarding listening strategies, and perceptions of difficulties likely to arise in English listening comprehension lessons

    OpenAIRE

    Yükselci, Sema

    2003-01-01

    Cataloged from PDF version of article. Students at English-medium universities (EMUs) in Turkey need to develop strategic listening abilities to prepare for English-medium content instruction. Listening strategies need to be taught because they help learners deal with incoming speech, particularly when comprehension is not complete. This study aimed to explore the extent to which teacher participants (a) incorporate listening strategies into teaching listening (b) perceive l...

  11. [Language and executive functioning skills of students with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and in reading comprehension difficulties (RCD)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda Casas, Ana; Fernández Andrés, María Inmaculada; García Castellar, Rosa; Roselló Miranda, Belén; Colomer Diago, Carla

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this work was to study the specificity of deficits in linguistic and executive functioning of students with ADHD and with RCD and to determine the profile of deficits in the comorbid group (ADHD+RCD). Participants in the study were 84 students, ages 12-16 years divided into four groups with an equal number of subjects (N= 21): ADHD, RCD, ADHD+RCD and comparison group (without ADHD and without RCD). We measured vocabulary, oral comprehension, lexical access, verbal and visual working memory, inhibition and attention. The results show that the ADHD+RCD group presents the most important linguistic deficits, followed by the RCD group. On the other hand, the three clinical groups (ADHD, RCD and ADHD+RCD) display greater performance problems in working memory than the comparison group, whereas the two groups with ADHD had more problems in attention and inhibition. These results suggest the dissociation of linguistic and executive deficits that affect the RCD group and ADHD group to a greater extent, respectively. Lastly, the comorbid group showed deficits both in language and in executive skills. We discuss the implications of these findings for designing interventions.

  12. [Study on the effectiveness of implementation: the National Demonstration Areas for Comprehensive Prevention and Control of Non-communicable Diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J; Jin, R R; Li, J J; Li, J L; Su, X W; Deng, G J; Ma, S; Zhao, J; Wang, Y P; Bian, F; Qu, Y M; Shen, Z Z; Jiang, Y; Liu, Y L

    2018-04-10

    Objective: To assess the implementation and impact of programs carried out by the National Demonstration Areas for Comprehensive Prevention and Control of Non-communicable Diseases. Methods: Both sociological and epidemiological methods were used to collect qualitative and quantitative data in November and December, 2016 in order to conduct on process and outcome evaluation of the above mentioned objective. In the meantime, case study was also conducted. Results: All the National Demonstration Areas for Comprehensive Prevention and Control of Non-communicable Diseases were found well implemented across the country, with health education and health promotion, surveillance and safeguard measures in particular. A government-led and inter-sector coordination and communication mechanism had been well established, with more than 16 non-health departments actively involved. 28.7% of the residents living in the National Demonstration Areas for Comprehensive Prevention and Control of Non-communicable Diseases were aware of the key messages related to chronic diseases. Among the residents, 72.1% of them consumed vegetables and 53.6% consumed fruits daily, with another 86.9% walked at least 10 minutes per day. Over 70% of the patients with hypertension or diabetes reported that they were taken care of by the Community Health Centers, and above 50% of them were under standardized management. Residents, living in the National Demonstration Areas under higher ranking of implementation scores, were more likely to be aware of relevant knowledge on chronic disease control and prevention ( OR =6.591, 95% CI : 5.188-8.373), salt reduction ( OR =1.352, 95% CI : 1.151-1.589), oil reduction ( OR =1.477, 95% CI : 1.249-1.746) and recommendation on physical activities ( OR =1.975, 95% CI : 1.623- 2.403). Conclusion: The implementation of programs carried out by the National Demonstration Areas for Comprehensive Prevention and Control of Non-communicable Diseases had served a local

  13. Reading Comprehension and Autism in the Primary General Education Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Neal Nghia; Leytham, Patrick; Schaefer Whitby, Peggy; Gelfer, Jeffrey I.

    2015-01-01

    Reading comprehension is a critical building block for effective early literacy development. Many students with autism spectrum disorder demonstrate difficulties in reading comprehension. These difficulties may be attributed to deficits in Theory of Mind, Weak Central Coherence, and Executive Functioning. Given the rise in the number of students…

  14. The Relations among Oral and Silent Reading Fluency and Comprehension in Middle School: Implications for Identification and Instruction of Students with Reading Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denton, Carolyn A.; Barth, Amy E.; Fletcher, Jack M.; Wexler, Jade; Vaughn, Sharon; Cirino, Paul T.; Romain, Melissa; Francis, David J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relations among oral and silent reading fluency and reading comprehension for students in Grades 6 to 8 (n = 1,421) and the use of fluency scores to identify middle school students who are at risk for failure on a high-stakes reading test. Results indicated moderate positive relations between…

  15. Comprehensive assessment of regional selenium resources in soils based on the analytic hierarchy process: Assessment system construction and case demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ruoyu; Song, Shuai; Shi, Yajing; Shi, Yajuan; Lu, Yonglong; Zheng, Xiaoqi; Xu, Xiangbo; Wang, Yurong; Han, Xuesong

    2017-12-15

    The redundancy or deficiency of selenium in soils can cause adverse effects on crops and even threaten human health. It was necessary to assess selenium resources with a rigorous scientific appraisal. Previous studies of selenium resource assessment were usually carried out using a single index evaluation. A multi-index evaluation method (analytic hierarchy process) was used in this study to establish a comprehensive assessment system based on consideration of selenium content, soil nutrients and soil environmental quality. The criteria for the comprehensive assessment system were classified by summing critical values in the standards with weights and a Geographical Information System was used to reflect the regional distribution of the assessment results. Boshan, a representative region for developing selenium-rich agriculture, was taken as a case area and classified into Zone I-V, which suggested priority areas for developing selenium-rich agriculture. Most parts of the North and Midlands of Boshan were relatively suitable for development of selenium-rich agriculture. Soils in south fractions were contaminated by Cd, PAHs, HCHs and DDTs, in which it was forbidden to farm. This study was expected to provide the basis for developing selenium-rich agriculture and an example for comprehensive evaluation of relevant resources in a region. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Executive Dysfunction among Children with Reading Comprehension Deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locascio, Gianna; Mahone, E. Mark; Eason, Sarah H.; Cutting, Laurie E.

    2010-01-01

    Emerging research supports the contribution of executive function (EF) to reading comprehension; however, a unique pattern has not been established for children who demonstrate comprehension difficulties despite average word recognition ability (specific reading comprehension deficit; S-RCD). To identify particular EF components on which children…

  17. [Study on the overall implementation status of the National Demonstration Areas for Comprehensive Prevention and Control of Non-communicable Diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J J; Li, J L; Zhang, J; Jin, R R; Ma, S; Deng, G J; Su, X W; Bian, F; Qu, Y M; Hu, L L; Jiang, Y

    2018-04-10

    Objective: To understand the current overall status of implementation on the National Demonstration Areas of Comprehensive Prevention and Control of Non-communicable Diseases. Methods: According to the scheme design of the questionnaires, all the National Demonstration Areas were involved in this study. For each National Demonstration Areas, eight departments were selected to complete a total of 12 questionnaires. Results: Scores related to the implementation of the National Demonstration Areas accounted for 71.8% of the total 170 points. Based on the scores gathered from this study, the 23-items-index-system that represented the status of project implementation was classified into seven categories. Categories with higher percentile scores would include: monitoring (88.0%), safeguard measures (75.0%), health education and health promotion (75.0%). Categories with lower percentile scores would include: the national health lifestyle actions (67.7%), community diagnosis (66.7%), discovery and intervention of high-risk groups (64.7%), and patient management (60.9%). There were significant differences noticed among the eastern, central and western areas on items as safeguard measures, health education/promotion, discovery and intervention of high-risk groups. In all, the implementation programs in the eastern Demonstration Areas seemed better than in the central or western regions. As for the 23 items, five of the highest scores appeared on policy support, mortality surveillance, tumor registration, reporting system on cardiovascular/cerebrovascular events, and on tobacco control, respectively. However, the lowest five scores fell on healthy diet, patient self-management program, oral hygiene, setting up the demonstration units and promotion on basic public health services, respectively. The overall scores in the eastern region was higher than that in the central or the western regions. The scores in the central and western regions showed basically the same. Conclusions

  18. [Current status on prevalence, treatment and management of hypertension among Chinese adults in the National Demonstration Areas for Comprehensive Prevention and Control of Non-communicable Diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, R R; Zhang, J; Li, J L; Li, J J; Ma, S; Bian, F; Deng, G J; Su, X W; Shen, Z Z; Wang, Y P; Jiang, Y

    2018-04-10

    Objective: To investigate the current status of prevalence, treatment, and management on hypertension among Chinese adults from the National Demonstration Areas for Comprehensive Prevention and Control of Non-communicable Diseases. Methods: We selected a total of 4 000 residents aged ≥18 years for this questionnaire-based survey by multi-stage clustering sampling in 10 National Demonstration Areas between November and December, 2016. Results: There were 3 891 effective questionnaires. The self-reported prevalence of hypertension among aged ≥35 years was 31.47% (1 011/3 213). For the past two weeks, the self-reported treatment of hypertension was 86.75%(877/1 011), with the rates of guidance as 56.87% (575/1 011) on physical activity, 40.95% (414/1 011) on diet, 38.33% (385/1 011) on weight management, and 22.75% (228/1 011) on smoking cessation. For the past 12 months, 74.68% (755/1 011) of the residents aged ≥35 years were under the proper management and 62.12% (628/1 011) of them were under the standardized management programs. The follow-up program lasted for 4 ( P(25) - P(75) : 4-12) times per year, with 15 ( P(25) - P(75) : 10-20) minutes per each visit. Hypertensive patients would mainly visit the outpatient clinics (53.51%), followed by home visits (22.91%) and telephone calls (13.64%). Rate of satisfaction on management services was 94.83% (716/755) from the hypertensive patients. Multivariate analysis showed that the rate of self-reported treatment ( OR =1.986, 95% CI : 1.222-3.228) and self-reported standardized management ( OR =2.204, 95% CI : 1.519-3.199) on hypertension were higher in the Demonstration Areas with higher implementation scores of self-reported non-communicable diseases management. Conclusions: Prevention and management on hypertension in the Demonstration Areas had met the requirement set for the Demonstration Areas during the "12th Five-Year Plan" . Projects on setting up the National Non-communicable Diseases Demonstration Areas

  19. A comprehensive assessment of the effects of Bt cotton on Coleomegilla maculata demonstrates no detrimental effects by Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunhe Li

    Full Text Available The ladybird beetle, Coleomegilla maculata (DeGeer, is a common and abundant predator in many cropping systems. Its larvae and adults are predaceous, feeding on aphids, thrips, lepidopteran larvae and plant tissues, such as pollen. Therefore, this species is exposed to insecticidal proteins expressed in insect-resistant, genetically engineered cotton expressing Cry proteins derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt. A tritrophic bioassay was conduced to evaluate the potential impact of Cry2Ab- and Cry1Ac-expressing cotton on fitness parameters of C. maculata using Bt-susceptible and -resistant larvae of Trichoplusia ni as prey. Coleomegilla maculata survival, development time, adult weight and fecundity were not different when they were fed with resistant T. ni larvae reared on either Bt or control cotton. To ensure that C. maculata were not sensitive to the tested Cry toxins independent from the plant background and to add certainty to the hazard assessment, C. maculata larvae were fed artificial diet incorporated with Cry2Ab, Cry1Ac or both at >10 times higher concentrations than in cotton tissue. Artificial diet containing E-64 was included as a positive control. No differences were detected in any life-table parameters between Cry protein-containing diet treatments and the control diet. In contrast, larvae of C. maculata fed the E-64 could not develop to the pupal stage and the 7-d larval weight was significantly negatively affected. In both feeding assays, the stability and bioactivity of Cry proteins in the food sources were confirmed by ELISA and sensitive-insect bioassays. Our results show that C. maculata is not affected by Bt cotton and is not sensitive to Cry2Ab and Cry1Ac at concentrations exceeding the levels in Bt cotton, thus demonstrating that Bt cotton will pose a negligible risk to C. maculata. More importantly, this study demonstrates a comprehensive system for assessing the risk of genetically modified plants on non

  20. [Management programs on diabetes among Chinese adults in the National Demonstration Areas for Comprehensive Prevention and Control of Non-communicable Diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, R R; Li, J J; Zhang, J; Li, J L; Bian, F; Deng, G J; Ma, S; Su, X W; Zhao, J; Jiang, Y

    2018-04-10

    Objective: To understand the current situation on management of diabetes mellitus patients aged 35 and above in the National Demonstration Areas for Comprehensive Prevention and Control of Non-communicable Diseases, in China. Methods: Local residents, aged 18 years and above were randomly selected by a complex, multistage, probability sampling method. Face-to-face questionnaire survey was carried out between November and December 2016. Rates regarding prevalence, treatment and management of diabetes were calculated, and influencing factors of diabetes were analyzed by using the non-conditional logistic regression model. Results: A total of 3 213 residents aged ≥35 years were included in this study, of which 11.48% (369/3 213) reported that they had ever been informed by a doctor or other health worker that their blood sugar level was high or being diabetic. The rate of self-reported treatment among the diabetic patients was 83.20% (307/369). Rates on overall management and standardized management were 69.92% (258/369) and 53.66% (198/369), respectively. Higher rates were seen in residents aged 55 to 64 years, 76.32% for overall management and 59.65% for standardized management. Through multiple logistic regression analysis, we found that standardized management for diabetes was much higher in the Demonstration Areas located in the eastern areas ( OR =2.942, 95% CI : 1.547-5.594), or patients with characteristics including high implementation score ( OR =3.499, 95% CI : 1.865-6.563), already signed family doctors ( OR =5.661, 95% CI : 3.237-9.899), or without hypertension ( OR =1.717, 95% CI : 1.010- 2.920). Residents who were living in the first and second batch areas of implementation or responding to the NCDs with positive attitude were more likely to accept standardized management. Conclusion: Prevention and management programs on diabetes had met the requirements set for the Demonstration Areas which had promoted the specific implementation and further

  1. Components and context: exploring sources of reading difficulties for language minority learners and native English speakers in urban schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieffer, Michael J; Vukovic, Rose K

    2012-01-01

    Drawing on the cognitive and ecological domains within the componential model of reading, this longitudinal study explores heterogeneity in the sources of reading difficulties for language minority learners and native English speakers in urban schools. Students (N = 150) were followed from first through third grade and assessed annually on standardized English language and reading measures. Structural equation modeling was used to investigate the relative contributions of code-related and linguistic comprehension skills in first and second grade to third grade reading comprehension. Linguistic comprehension and the interaction between linguistic comprehension and code-related skills each explained substantial variation in reading comprehension. Among students with low reading comprehension, more than 80% demonstrated weaknesses in linguistic comprehension alone, whereas approximately 15% demonstrated weaknesses in both linguistic comprehension and code-related skills. Results were remarkably similar for the language minority learners and native English speakers, suggesting the importance of their shared socioeconomic backgrounds and schooling contexts.

  2. Comprehensive geriatric assessment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-09-14

    Sep 14, 2007 ... i.e. difficulty performing simple physical and mental tasks necessary for daily life. ... Definition. Comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) is a multidimensional .... The formation of a programme of therapy is decided on.

  3. Residents in difficulty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mette Krogh; O'Neill, Lotte; Hansen, Dorthe Høgh

    2016-01-01

    Background The majority of studies on prevalence and characteristics of residents in difficulty have been conducted in English-speaking countries and the existing literature may not reflect the prevalence and characteristics of residents in difficulty in other parts of the world such as the Scand...... in a healthcare system. From our perspective, further sociological and pedagogical investigations in educational cultures across settings and specialties could inform our understanding of and knowledge about pitfalls in residents’ and doctors’ socialization into the healthcare system....

  4. Time Estimation Deficits in Childhood Mathematics Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurks, Petra P. M.; van Loosbroek, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Time perception has not been comprehensively examined in mathematics difficulties (MD). Therefore, verbal time estimation, production, and reproduction were tested in 13 individuals with MD and 16 healthy controls, matched for age, sex, and intellectual skills. Individuals with MD performed comparably to controls in time reproduction, but showed a…

  5. Investigation of meta-linguistic and meta-cognitive intervention to improve comprehension of coordinating conjunctions

    OpenAIRE

    O'Shea, Sheila

    2013-01-01

    non-peer-reviewed Background: There is a limited evidence base available in the area of oral language comprehension for children with primary language comprehension difficulties, with existing research which demonstrates treatment effectiveness largely focusing on pre-school or older school age children. Objectives: This pilot study aims to investigate the efficacy of individually-tailored intervention and strategies to improve the oral comprehension skills of a child with primary langu...

  6. Comprehensive assessment of health education and health promotion in five non-communicable disease demonstration districts in China: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qiaohua; Huang, Yuelong; Chen, Biyun

    2017-12-26

    This study aims to develop assessment indicators of health education and promotion for non-communicable disease (NCD) demonstration districts in China and to identify significant factors associated with NCD health education and promotion work. Three complementary techniques were used to conduct this study in Hunan Province, China, between late 2013 and 2015. The Delphi technique was used to develop weighted assessment indicators, followed by the rank sum ratio (RSR) to normalise the weights through rank conversion. Lastly, the technique for order of preference by similarity to ideal solution was conducted to assess five randomly selected NCD demonstration districts representing five different orientations in the province. A total of 24 assessment indicators were constructed covering the following sections: organisational management, fund support, personnel supplies, health education and promotion, people's awareness of NCDs, management and control of patients with NCD, satisfaction with health education and promotion and health literacy of residents. Five districts were selected as samples for evaluation (Furong District, Ziyang District, Shaodong County, Shuangfeng County and Luxi County). Performance varied among the sites, with Furong District greatly surpassing the other sites, especially in fund support, media promotion, technical support for publicity materials, community promotion and supportive environment supplies. The latter four factors were also much greater in the second-ranked Luxi County site than those in the other sites (except Furong District). There were gaps in health education and promotion work in NCD demonstration districts in Hunan Province. The districts that performed better had obvious advantages in fund support, media promotion, technical support, community promotion and supportive environment supplies. Our study provided both a methodological reference and an assessment indicator framework for similar future studies. © Article author

  7. Energy taxation difficulties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landsberg, H.H.

    1993-01-01

    This paper assesses what may be the underlying reasons for the Clinton administration's recent failure to pass the Btu Tax on energy sources and the current difficulties that this Administration is experiencing in acquiring nation wide consensus on a gasoline tax proposal. Two difficulties stand out - regional differences in climate and thus winter heating requirements, and the differences from state to state in transportation system preferences. The paper cites the positive aspects of energy taxation by noting the petroleum industry's efforts to develop a new less polluting reformulated gasoline

  8. Difficulty scaling through incongruity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lankveld, van G.; Spronck, P.; Rauterberg, G.W.M.; Mateas, M.; Darken, C.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we discuss our work on using the incongruity measure from psychological literature to scale the difficulty level of a game online to the capabilities of the human player. Our approach has been implemented in a small game called Glove.

  9. Breathing difficulty - lying down

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... other conditions that lead to it) Panic disorder Sleep apnea Snoring Home Care Your health care provider may recommend self-care measures. For example, weight loss may be suggested if you are obese. When to Contact a Medical Professional If you have any unexplained difficulty in breathing ...

  10. NEW CONTRIBUTIONS TO READING DIFFICULTIES INTERVENTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VÍCTOR SANTIUSTE BERMEJO

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a synthesis of the intervention programs and strategies to treat reading difficulties. The synthesisincludes a review of the last published articles on the issue, both in Spanish and English. It also presents the visits todifferent Language Rehabilitation Centers in the Community of Madrid including the approaches applied in thesecenters. Besides the description of the general intervention strategies applied to reading problems, some of theprograms to treat specific difficulties of words decoding and recognizing are explained, and the programs to treatreading comprehension and fluidity.

  11. Veganism: Motivations and Difficulties

    OpenAIRE

    Beck, Mathilde Therese Claudine; Harvey, John Carr; Trauth, Christina

    2017-01-01

    An increasing number of people are adopting a vegan lifestyle, which means to stop consuming products, that are made from or based on animals, like meat, dairy or eggs. However, the number of research concerning veganism is limited. As the existing research is mainly concentrating on the process of adopting a vegan lifestyle and the view of vegans, these findings shall be examined further with the question, What are the motivation and difficulties about adopting a plant based vegan diet in We...

  12. Idiopathic chondrolysis - diagnostic difficulties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlowski, K.; Scougall, J.; Royal Alexandra Hospital for Children, Sydney

    1984-01-01

    Four cases of idiopathic chondrolysis of the hip in three white girls and one Maori girl are reported. The authors stress the causes why a disease with characteristic clinical and radiographic appearances and normal biochemical findings presents diagnostic difficulties. It is suspected that idiopathic chondrolysis is a metabolic disorder of chondrocytes, triggered by environment circumstances in susceptible individuals. Idiopathic chondrolysis is probably one of the most common causes of coxarthrosis in women. (orig.)

  13. Comprehensive Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Comprehensive Care Share this page Facebook Twitter Email Comprehensive Care Understand the importance of comprehensive MS care ... In this article A complex disease requires a comprehensive approach Today multiple sclerosis (MS) is not a ...

  14. Reading comprehension and reading related abilities in adolescents with reading disabilities and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghelani, Karen; Sidhu, Robindra; Jain, Umesh; Tannock, Rosemary

    2004-11-01

    Reading comprehension is a very complex task that requires different cognitive processes and reading abilities over the life span. There are fewer studies of reading comprehension relative to investigations of word reading abilities. Reading comprehension difficulties, however, have been identified in two common and frequently overlapping childhood disorders: reading disability (RD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The nature of reading comprehension difficulties in these groups remains unclear. The performance of four groups of adolescents (RD, ADHD, comorbid ADHD and RD, and normal controls) was compared on reading comprehension tasks as well as on reading rate and accuracy tasks. Adolescents with RD showed difficulties across most reading tasks, although their comprehension scores were average. Adolescents with ADHD exhibited adequate single word reading abilities. Subtle difficulties were observed, however, on measures of text reading rate and accuracy as well as on silent reading comprehension, but scores remained in the average range. The comorbid group demonstrated similar difficulties to the RD group on word reading accuracy and on reading rate but experienced problems on only silent reading comprehension. Implications for reading interventions are outlined, as well as the clinical relevance for diagnosis.

  15. Mathematics difficulties & classroom leadership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Maria Christina Secher

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates possible links between inclusion, students, for whom mathematics is extensively difficult, and classroom leadership through a case study on teaching strategies and student participation in four classrooms at two different primary schools in Denmark. Three sets of results...... are presented: 1) descriptions of the teachers’ classroom leadership to include all their students in the learning community, 2) the learning community produced by stated and practiced rules for teaching and learning behavior, 3) the classroom behavior of students who experience difficulties with mathematics....... The findings suggest that the teachers’ pedagogical choices and actions support an active learning environment for students in diverse learning needs, and that the teachers practise dimensions of inclusive classroom leadership that are known to be successful for teaching mathematics to all students. Despite...

  16. Student difficulties with Gauss' law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanim, Stephen

    2000-09-01

    Many students in introductory courses have difficulty solving Gauss' law problems. Through interviews with students and analysis of solutions to homework and examination questions we have identified some specific conceptual difficulties that often contribute to students' inability to solve quantitative Gauss' law problems. We give examples of common difficulties and discuss instructional implications.

  17. Hydrology under difficulties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1964-08-15

    An unusual hydrological investigation is being carried out in Kenya by IAEA, at Lake Chala, a volcanic crater with no visible inlet or outlet. The problem is to determine whether the lake has any connection with a number of springs near Taveta, some six miles distant: this relationship is important in assessing the possibility of expanding the Taveta irrigation scheme. Questions of water rights and utilization are involved, since the lake is situated on the Tanganyikan border. The method adopted is that of labelling the waters of the lake with small quantities of water containing radioactive hydrogen (tritium). There are some special features in this instance, one being the difficulty of access. The lake is entirely surrounded by steep cliffs. A track was cut by British Army engineers, and the boat and all supplies were taken down by this route. Another problem was presented by the depth of the lake, which amounts to 300 feet. It is necessary to ensure the regular mixing of the tritium throughout. This has been done by means of hundreds of plastic bottles, which were dropped from the boat at regular intervals as it made a series of carefully-plotted traverses. Each bottle had a weight attached, and was perforated by two small holes. By this means, as the bottle sank the contents were progressively released until it reached the bottom, thus ensuring an even diffusion of tritium throughout the lake.

  18. [Difficulties in learning mathematics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebollo, M A; Rodríguez, A L

    2006-02-13

    To discuss our concern for some aspects of mathematics learning disorders related to the nomenclature employed and their diagnosis; these aspects refer to the term 'dyscalculia' and to its diagnosis (especially syndromatic diagnosis). We also intend to propose a classification that could help to define the terminology. Lastly we are going to consider the different aspects of diagnosis and to determine which of them are indispensable in the diagnosis of primary and secondary disorders. As far as the nomenclature is concerned, we refer to the term 'dyscalculia'. The origins of the term are analysed along with the reasons why it should not be used in children with difficulties in learning mathematics. We propose a classification and denominations for the different types that should undoubtedly be discussed. With respect to the diagnosis, several problems related to the syndromatic diagnosis are considered, since in our country there are no standardised tests with which to study performance in arithmetic and geometry. This means that criterion reference tests are conducted to try to establish current and potential performance. At this stage of the diagnosis pedagogical and psychological studies must be conducted. The important factors with regard to the topographical and aetiological diagnoses are prior knowledge, results from the studies that have been carried out and findings from imaging studies. The importance of a genetic study must be defined in the aetiological diagnosis. We propose a nomenclature to replace the term 'dyscalculia'. Standardised tests are needed for the diagnosis. The need to establish current and potential performance is hierarchized. With regard to the topographical diagnosis, we highlight the need for more information about geometry, and in aetiological studies the analyses must be conducted with greater numbers of children.

  19. Fractions Learning in Children with Mathematics Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jing; Siegler, Robert S.

    2017-01-01

    Learning fractions is difficult for children in general and especially difficult for children with mathematics difficulties (MD). Recent research on developmental and individual differences in fraction knowledge of children with MD and typically achieving (TA) children has demonstrated that U.S. children with MD start middle school behind their TA…

  20. Executive dysfunction among children with reading comprehension deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locascio, Gianna; Mahone, E Mark; Eason, Sarah H; Cutting, Laurie E

    2010-01-01

    Emerging research supports the contribution of executive function (EF) to reading comprehension; however, a unique pattern has not been established for children who demonstrate comprehension difficulties despite average word recognition ability (specific reading comprehension deficit; S-RCD). To identify particular EF components on which children with S-RCD struggle, a range of EF skills was compared among 86 children, ages 10 to 14, grouped by word reading and comprehension abilities: 24 average readers, 44 with word recognition deficits (WRD), and 18 S-RCD. An exploratory principal components analysis of EF tests identified three latent factors, used in subsequent group comparisons: Planning/ Spatial Working Memory, Verbal Working Memory, and Response Inhibition. The WRD group exhibited deficits (relative to controls) on Verbal Working Memory and Inhibition factors; S-RCD children performed more poorly than controls on the Planning factor. Further analyses suggested the WRD group's poor performance on EF factors was a by-product of core deficits linked to WRD (after controlling for phonological processing, this group no longer showed EF deficits). In contrast, the S-RCD group's poor performance on the planning component remained significant after controlling for phonological processing. Findings suggest reading comprehension difficulties are linked to executive dysfunction; in particular, poor strategic planning/organizing may lead to reading comprehension problems.

  1. Reading comprehension in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Laura L; Rutledge, Stefanie

    2014-05-01

    Although individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) self-report reading problems and experience difficulties in cognitive-linguistic functions that support discourse-level reading, prior research has primarily focused on sentence-level processing and auditory comprehension. Accordingly, the authors investigated the presence and nature of reading comprehension in PD, hypothesizing that (a) individuals with PD would display impaired accuracy and/or speed on reading comprehension tests and (b) reading performances would be correlated with cognitive test results. Eleven adults with PD and 9 age- and education-matched control participants completed tests that evaluated reading comprehension; general language and cognitive abilities; and aspects of attention, memory, and executive functioning. The PD group obtained significantly lower scores on several, but not all, reading comprehension, language, and cognitive measures. Memory, language, and disease severity were significantly correlated with reading comprehension for the PD group. Individuals in the early stages of PD without dementia or broad cognitive deficits can display reading comprehension difficulties, particularly for high- versus basic-level reading tasks. These reading difficulties are most closely related to memory, high-level language, and PD symptom severity status. The findings warrant additional research to delineate further the types and nature of reading comprehension impairments experienced by individuals with PD.

  2. The Prevalence of Reading Difficulties among Children in Scholar Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rosita Cecilia

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates the prevalence of reading difficulties among children in scholar age and analyses the socio-demographic characteristics of learners who presented reading difficulties in central Italy. A sample of 623 students 7-11 aged, was assessed with the Italian MT standardized tests. Information on gender, age, handedness, and other socio-demographic variables were also gathered. The study showed that 11% of learners presented poor comprehension skills. The reading speed difficulties were more common than the reading correctness problems: about 7% of children vs 1% were dyslexics due to slow reading. There were no significant differences regarding gender, age. However, dominant hand and the school location seemed to affect the speed difficulties and the comprehension problems. The analyses showed that attending a school located in a rural area was statistically associated with the reading difficulties. Left-handed children were more likely to be slow decoders and/or poor comprehenders. These findings may be used in the early diagnosis of poor readers. These difficulties often have a chronic progression with substantial psychosocial limitations and psychological stress, so children with reading difficulties should be identified as early as possible.

  3. ERRORS AND DIFFICULTIES IN TRANSLATING LEGAL TEXTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia, CHIRILA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the accurate translation of legal texts has become highly important as the mistranslation of a passage in a contract, for example, could lead to lawsuits and loss of money. Consequently, the translation of legal texts to other languages faces many difficulties and only professional translators specialised in legal translation should deal with the translation of legal documents and scholarly writings. The purpose of this paper is to analyze translation from three perspectives: translation quality, errors and difficulties encountered in translating legal texts and consequences of such errors in professional translation. First of all, the paper points out the importance of performing a good and correct translation, which is one of the most important elements to be considered when discussing translation. Furthermore, the paper presents an overview of the errors and difficulties in translating texts and of the consequences of errors in professional translation, with applications to the field of law. The paper is also an approach to the differences between languages (English and Romanian that can hinder comprehension for those who have embarked upon the difficult task of translation. The research method that I have used to achieve the objectives of the paper was the content analysis of various Romanian and foreign authors' works.

  4. Difficulties in emotion regulation in patients with eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruscitti, Catherine; Rufino, Katrina; Goodwin, Natalie; Wagner, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    A defining characteristic of eating disorders (EDs) is difficulty with emotion regulation (ER). Previous research indicates that ED subtypes demonstrate differing ER difficulties. Specifically, individuals with Anorexia Nervosa (AN) or Bulimia Nervosa (BN) show greater impairment in their ability to regulate emotions in areas such as achieving goals while upset, reacting impulsively to distress, and effectively using coping strategies, as compared to those with Binge Eating Disorder (BED). However, limited research includes the diagnostic category of Eating Disorder, Not Otherwise Specified (EDNOS). The aim of this study was to better understand ER difficulties for all ED diagnoses, especially EDNOS. It was hypothesized that patients with EDs will demonstrate similar ER difficulties as psychiatric patients without EDs and that patients with EDNOS will be similar in their total level of ER difficulties but will differ in their specific types of difficulties in ER as compared to patients with other EDs. Participants included 404 adults presenting to an inpatient psychiatric hospital. Psychiatric diagnoses, including EDs, were determined using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM Disorders. Differences in specific and overall difficulties with ER were examined across psychiatric patients using the multidimensional Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale. Results of this study indicate that individuals with EDs have greater ER difficulties in most domains of ER and that those with BED and EDNOS demonstrate the most significant differences in ER as compared to psychiatric patients without EDs. Additionally, it was found that ED subtypes typically did not differ in terms of specific difficulties in ER. One exception emerged indicating that individuals with BED demonstrated significantly greater difficulty on the Limited Access to Emotion Regulation Strategies subscale as compared to those with EDNOS. Researchers were able to clarify difficulties in ER across ED

  5. Difficulty Swallowing After Stroke (Dysphagia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stroke Heroes Among Us Difficulty Swallowing After Stroke (Dysphagia) Updated:Nov 15,2016 Excerpted and adapted from "Swallowing Disorders After a Stroke," Stroke Connection Magazine July/August ...

  6. Workplace bullying and sleep difficulties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Åse Marie; Hogh, Annie; Garde, Anne Helene

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aims of the present study were to investigate whether being subjected to bullying and witnessing bullying at the workplace was associated with concurrent sleep difficulties, whether frequently bullied/witnesses have more sleep difficulties than occasionally bullied....../witnesses, and whether there were associations between being subjected to bullying or witnessing bullying at the workplace and subsequent sleep difficulties. METHODS: A total of 3,382 respondents (67 % women and 33 % men) completed a baseline questionnaire about their psychosocial work environment and health....... The overall response rate was 46 %. At follow-up 2 years later, 1671 of those responded to a second questionnaire (49 % of the 3,382 respondents at baseline). Sleep difficulties were measured in terms of disturbed sleep, awakening problems, and poor quality of sleep. RESULTS: Bullied persons and witnesses...

  7. Blink activity and task difficulty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Y; Yamaoka, K

    1993-08-01

    This study investigated the relationship between task difficulty and blink activity, which includes blink rate, blink amplitude, and blink duration. Two kinds of tasks established two levels of difficulty. In Exp. 1, a mental arithmetic task was used to examine the relationship. Analysis showed that blink rate for a difficult task was significantly higher than that for an easier one. In Exp. 2, a letter-search task (hiragana Japanese alphabet) was used while the other conditions were the same as those in Exp. 1; however, the results of this experiment were not influenced by the difficulty of the task. As results indicate that blink rate is related to not only difficulty but also the nature of the task, the nature of the task is probably dependent on a mechanism in information processing. The results for blink amplitude and blink duration showed no systematic change during either experiment.

  8. Desirable difficulties in vocabulary learning

    OpenAIRE

    Bjork, RA; Kroll, JF

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 by the Board of Trustees of the University of Illinois. In this article we discuss the role of desirable difficulties in vocabulary learning from two perspectives, one having to do with identifying conditions of learning that impose initial challenges to the learner but then benefit later retention and transfer, and the other having to do with the role of certain difficulties that are intrinsic to language processes, are engaged during word learning, and reflect how language is underst...

  9. Addressing the Difficulties of Learners in the Reading Class ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluates reading comprehension instruction at senior high schools in Accra. Classroom observation was used to identify the techniques used by teachers in the reading class and questionnaire was used to collect information from learners about the difficulties they have in understanding text. It reports that the ...

  10. Adolescent Bullying and Sleep Difficulties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon C. Hunter

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated whether adolescents who report having been bullied, being bullies, or report both being a bully and being bullied experience more sleep difficulties than children uninvolved in bullying. The study drew upon cognitive theories of insomnia, investigating whether the extent to which young people report worrying about bullying can moderate associations between victimization and sleep difficulties. Participants were 5420 adolescents who completed a self-report questionnaire. Pure Victims (OR = 1.72, 95% CI [1.07, 2.75], Pure Bullies (OR = 1.80, 95% CI [1.16, 2.81], and Bully-Victims (OR = 2.90, 95% CI [1.17, 4.92] were all more likely to experience sleep difficulties when compared to uninvolved young people. The extent to which young people reported worrying about being bullied did not moderate the links between victimization and sleep difficulties. In this way, bullying is clearly related to sleep difficulties among adolescents but the conceptual reach of the cognitive model of insomnia in this domain is questioned.

  11. Evidence-based interventions for reading and language difficulties: creating a virtuous circle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowling, Margaret J; Hulme, Charles

    2011-03-01

    BACKGROUND. Children may experience two very different forms of reading problem: decoding difficulties (dyslexia) and reading comprehension difficulties. Decoding difficulties appear to be caused by problems with phonological (speech sound) processing. Reading comprehension difficulties in contrast appear to be caused by problems with 'higher level' language difficulties including problems with semantics (including deficient knowledge of word meanings) and grammar (knowledge of morphology and syntax). AIMS. We review evidence concerning the nature, causes of, and treatments for children's reading difficulties. We argue that any well-founded educational intervention must be based on a sound theory of the causes of a particular form of learning difficulty, which in turn must be based on an understanding of how a given skill is learned by typically developing children. Such theoretically motivated interventions should in turn be evaluated in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to establish whether they are effective, and for whom. RESULTS. There is now considerable evidence showing that phonologically based interventions are effective in ameliorating children's word level decoding difficulties, and a smaller evidence base showing that reading and oral language (OL) comprehension difficulties can be ameliorated by suitable interventions to boost vocabulary and broader OL skills. CONCLUSIONS. The process of developing theories about the origins of children's educational difficulties and evaluating theoretically motivated treatments in RCTs, produces a 'virtuous circle' whereby theory informs practice, and the evaluation of effective interventions in turn feeds back to inform and refine theories about the nature and causes of children's reading and language difficulties. ©2010 The British Psychological Society.

  12. Working memory contributions to reading comprehension components in middle childhood children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrysochoou, Elisavet; Bablekou, Zoe; Tsigilis, Nikolaos

    2011-01-01

    This study examined working memory contributions to reading comprehension subskills in Greek children (mean age 9 years, 1 month). The phonological loop of the Baddeley and Hitch working memory model was assessed with 3 recall tasks (words, nonwords, and digits) and a word list matching task. The central executive (CE) was assessed with 3 tasks (listening, counting, and backward digit recall). Participants were also given a receptive vocabulary task, a reading fluency task, and written stories accompanied by comprehension questions. Canonical correlation analyses showed that the comprehension variables were related to the CE rather than the phonological loop measures. CE functions were more strongly associated with elaborative inference generation (involving significant offline processing) and comprehension control (involving metacognitive monitoring). Smaller yet significant associations were observed between the CE and the necessary inference and literal comprehension measures, whereas a moderate relationship was found in the case of the simile comprehension variable. Among the CE variables, listening recall demonstrated the highest loading on the canonical function, followed by moderate yet significant counting and backward digit recall loadings. Vocabulary was found to fully mediate several associations between working memory and comprehension measures; however, the relationship between listening recall and elaborative inferences was partly mediated. Reading fluency and, on several occasions, Greek vocabulary knowledge did not mediate the relationships between CE measures and comprehension skills assessed. This study demonstrates the usefulness of CE measures for identifying young children's possible difficulties in carrying out specific reading comprehension processes.

  13. Tested Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, George L.

    1983-01-01

    An apparatus is described in which effects of pressure, volume, and temperature changes on a gas can be observed simultaneously. Includes use of the apparatus in demonstrating Boyle's, Gay-Lussac's, and Charles' Laws, attractive forces, Dalton's Law of Partial pressures, and in illustrating measurable vapor pressures of liquids and some solids.…

  14. Tested Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Describes two demonstrations to illustrate characteristics of substances. Outlines a method to detect the changes in pH levels during the electrolysis of water. Uses water pistols, one filled with methane gas and the other filled with water, to illustrate the differences in these two substances. (TW)

  15. Profiling classroom reading comprehension development practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Of specific concern is the lack of representation of the sampled South African learners at the PIRLS international benchmarks, revealing a distinct lack of their development of thinking and reasoning abilities for reading comprehension. To shed light on potential reasons for learners' reading comprehension difficulties, this ...

  16. Early Identification of Reading Difficulties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mads; Nielsen, Anne-Mette Veber; Juul, Holger

    2017-01-01

    Early screening for reading difficulties before the onset of instruction is desirable because it allows intervention that is targeted at prevention rather than remediation of reading difficulties. However, early screening may be too inaccurate to effectively allocate resources to those who need...... them. The present study compared the accuracy of early screening before the onset of formal reading instruction with late screening six months into the first year of instruction. The study followed 164 Danish students from the end of Grade 0 to the end of Grade 2. Early screening included measures...... of phonemic awareness, rapid naming, letter knowledge, paired associate learning, and reading. Late screening included only reading. Results indicated that reading measures improved substantially as predictors over the first six months of Grade 1, to the point where late reading measures alone provided...

  17. Sentence comprehension following moderate closed head injury in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leikin, Mark; Ibrahim, Raphiq; Aharon-Peretz, Judith

    2012-09-01

    The current study explores sentence comprehension impairments among adults following moderate closed head injury. It was hypothesized that if the factor of syntactic complexity significantly affects sentence comprehension in these patients, it would testify to the existence of syntactic processing deficit along with working-memory problems. Thirty-six adults (18 closed head injury patients and 18 healthy controls matched in age, gender, and IQ) participated in the study. A picture-sentence matching task together with various tests for memory, language, and reading abilities were used to explore whether sentence comprehension impairments exist as a result of a deficit in syntactic processing or of working-memory dysfunction. Results indicate significant impairment in sentence comprehension among adults with closed head injury compared with their non-head-injured peers. Results also reveal that closed head injury patients demonstrate considerable decline in working memory, short-term memory, and semantic knowledge. Analysis of the results shows that memory impairment and syntactic complexity contribute significantly to sentence comprehension difficulties in closed head injury patients. At the same time, the presentation mode (spoken or written language) was found to have no effect on comprehension among adults with closed head injury, and their reading abilities appear to be relatively intact.

  18. The role of sensorimotor difficulties in autism spectrum conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penelope Hannant

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractIn addition to difficulties in social communication, current diagnostic criteria for autism spectrum conditions (ASC also incorporate sensorimotor difficulties; repetitive motor movements and atypical reactivity to sensory input (APA, 2013. This paper explores whether sensorimotor difficulties are associated with the development and maintenance of symptoms in ASC. Firstly, studies have shown difficulties coordinating sensory input into planning and executing movement effectively in ASC. Secondly, studies have shown associations between sensory reactivity and motor coordination with core ASC symptoms, suggesting these areas each strongly influence the development of social and communication skills. Thirdly, studies have begun to demonstrate that sensorimotor difficulties in ASC could account for reduced social attention early in development, with a cascading effect on later social, communicative and emotional development. These results suggest that sensorimotor difficulties not only contribute to non-social difficulties such as narrow circumscribed interests, but also to the development of social behaviours such as effectively coordinating eye contact with speech and gesture, interpreting others’ behaviour and responding appropriately. Further research is needed to explore the link between sensory and motor difficulties in ASC, and their contribution to the development and maintenance of ASC.

  19. Identification of children with reading difficulties: Cheap can be adequate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mads; Nielsen, Anne-Mette Veber

    Classification of reading difficulties: Cheap screening can be accurate Purpose: Three factors are important for identification of students in need of remedial instruction: accuracy, timeliness, and cost. The identification has to be accurate to be of any use, the identification has to be timely......, inexpensive testing. The present study investigated the classification accuracy of three screening models varying in timeliness and cost. Method: We compared the ROC statistics of three logistic models for predicting end of Grade 2 reading difficulties in a sample of 164 students: 1) an early, comprehensive...... model using a battery of Grade 0 tests, including phoneme awareness, rapid naming, and paired associate learning, 2) a late, comprehensive model adding reading measures from January of Grade 1, and 3) a late, inexpensive model using only group-administered reading measures from January of Grade 1...

  20. Difficulties in emotion regulation in patients with eating disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Ruscitti, Catherine; Rufino, Katrina; Goodwin, Natalie; Wagner, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    Background A defining characteristic of eating disorders (EDs) is difficulty with emotion regulation (ER). Previous research indicates that ED subtypes demonstrate differing ER difficulties. Specifically, individuals with Anorexia Nervosa (AN) or Bulimia Nervosa (BN) show greater impairment in their ability to regulate emotions in areas such as achieving goals while upset, reacting impulsively to distress, and effectively using coping strategies, as compared to those with Binge Eating Disorde...

  1. Ghosts, Troubles, Difficulties, and Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raahauge, Kirsten Marie

    2016-01-01

    not consider ‘ghosts’ or ‘haunting’ as a possible explanation. This causes difficulties when they narrate and contextualise their experience, and typically they present ambiguous narratives and stress their disbelief at and bewilderment with the experiences. Still, as I will try to show in my article......, their bewilderment and the way they use the notions ‘ghost’ and ‘haunting’ point to possible reinterpretations of these notions, so that the narrative mediation shapes not only the experience but also the ways that ‘ghosts’ and ‘haunting’ are reinterpreted in contemporary Denmark....

  2. Gestalt Imagery: A Critical Factor in Language Comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Nanci

    1991-01-01

    Lack of gestalt imagery (the ability to create imaged wholes) can contribute to language comprehension disorder characterized by weak reading comprehension, weak oral language comprehension, weak oral language expression, weak written language expression, difficulty following directions, and a weak sense of humor. Sequential stimulation using an…

  3. Identifying and addressing student difficulties with the ideal gas law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kautz, Christian Hans

    This dissertation reports on an in-depth investigation of student understanding of the ideal gas law. The research and curriculum development were mostly conducted in the context of algebra- and calculus-based introductory physics courses and a sophomore-level thermal physics course. Research methods included individual demonstration interviews and written questions. Student difficulties with the quantities: pressure, volume, temperature, and the number of moles were identified. Data suggest that students' incorrect and incomplete microscopic models about gases contribute to the difficulties they have in answering questions posed in macroscopic terms. In addition, evidence for general reasoning difficulties is presented. These research results have guided the development of curriculum to address the student difficulties that have been identified.

  4. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-03-01

    The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) supports the applied research, development, demonstration, and evaluation of a suite of advanced technologies that offer promising solutions to the problems associated with the remediation of buried waste. BWID addresses the difficult remediation problems associated with DOE complex-wide buried waste, particularly transuranic (TRU) contaminated buried waste. BWID has implemented a systems approach to the development and demonstration of technologies that will characterize, retrieve, treat, and dispose of DOE buried wastes. This approach encompasses the entire remediation process from characterization to post-monitoring. The development and demonstration of the technology is predicated on how a technology fits into the total remediation process. To address all of these technological issues, BWID has enlisted scientific expertise of individuals and groups from within the DOE Complex, as well as experts from universities and private industry. The BWID mission is to support development and demonstration of a suite of technologies that, when integrated with commercially-available technologies, forms a comprehensive, remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste throughout the DOE Complex. BWID will evaluate and validate demonstrated technologies and transfer this information and equipment to private industry to support the Office of Environmental Restoration (ER), Office of Waste Management (WM), and Office of Facility Transition (FT) remediation planning and implementation activities

  5. Regulatory difficulties in a developing country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, W.R. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    The regulatory agency assigned the task of regulating the initial entry into the field of nuclear power generation by a developing country has a very difficult job. Based on the authors' experience during the start-up and initial operation of Ko-Ri Unit I, the first power reactor in the Republic of Korea, observations on regulatory difficulties and recommendations for improved regulatory effectiveness are offered. The problem areas can be loosely grouped into three general categories: (1) Lack of adequate technical knowledge which is the basis for all effective regulation; (2) Difficulties with understanding and utilization of the required regulatory documentation; (3) Failure to establish the proper regulatory environment. Examples are cited from actual experience during the Ko-Ri Unit I start-up to demonstrate the impact that regulatory activities can have on a plant construction and testing programme. The problems encountered are not unique to developing countries but also exist in the United States of America. Recommendations are offered which should be beneficial to either newly formed regulatory agencies or agencies wishing to improve their abilities and effectiveness. These include: (1) Additional training of regulatory inspectors in plant operations; (2) Additional experience gained by participation in regulatory activities in other countries; (3) Increased attention given to regulatory documents, especially plant technical specifications; (4) Establishment of formal lines of communication between the utility and the regulatory agency; (5) Clear definition of regulatory responsibilities to avoid areas of overlapping jurisdiction; (6) Active participation by the regulatory staff very early in the project. It is hoped that these and other recommendations offered will greatly improve regulatory effectiveness and at the same time demonstrate that when the decision is made to 'go nuclear', a strong commitment must be made to develop and support a technically

  6. Neuroimaging Evidence of Comprehension Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Baker

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to synthesize the emerging neuroimaging literature that reveals how the brain responds when readers and listeners encounter texts that demand monitoring of their ongoing comprehension processes. Much of this research has been undertaken by cognitive scientists who do not frame their work in metacognitive terms, and therefore it is less likely to be familiar to psychologists who study metacognition in educational contexts. The important role of metacognition in the development and use of academic skills is widely recognized. Metacognition is typically defined as the awareness and control of one's own cognitive processes. In the domain of reading, the most important metacognitive skill is comprehension monitoring, the evaluation and regulation of comprehension. Readers who monitor their understanding realize when they have encountered difficulty making sense of the text, and they apply error correction procedures to attempt to resolve the difficulty. Metacognition depends on executive control skills that continue to develop into early adulthood, in parallel with the maturation of the executive control regions of the prefrontal cortex. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI and event-related potentials (ERP have been used for some time to study neural correlates of basic reading processes such as word identification, but it is only within recent years that researchers have turned to the higher-level processes of text comprehension. The article describes illustrative studies that reveal changes in neural activity when adults apply lexical, syntactic, or semantic standards to evaluate their understanding.

  7. [Central diabetes insipidus: diagnostic difficulties].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matoussi, N; Aissa, K; Fitouri, Z; Hajji, M; Makni, S; Bellagha, I; Ben Becher, S

    2008-06-01

    Central diabetes insipidus is rare in children. Characteristic features include polyuria and polydipsia due to arginine vasopressin deficiency. The differential diagnosis of polyuric states may be difficult. Etiologic diagnosis of central diabetes insipidus may be an equally difficult task. To specify the difficulties encountered in the diagnosis of central diabetes insipidus and to point out features of the etiologic work-up and of long-term follow-up of children with idiopathic central diabetes insipidus. A retrospective study of 12 children admitted with a polyuria/polydipsia syndrome to the pediatric - consultation and emergency unit of the children's hospital of Tunis between 1988 and 2005. Children with acquired nephrogenic central diabetes insipidus were excluded. Fourteen-hour fluid restriction test and/or desmopressin test were used without plasma vasopressin measurement. Eight patients were classified as having central diabetes insipidus, which was severe in seven children and partial in one girl. One patient was classified as having primary polydipsia. The diagnosis remains unclear in three patients. The etiological work-up in eight patients with central diabetes insipidus enabled the identification of Langerhan's-cell histiocytosis in two patients and neurosurgical trauma in one. The cause was considered idiopathic in five patients. The median follow-up of the five patients with idiopathic central diabetes insipidus was five years two months plus or minus six years seven months (range five months, 14.5 years). During this follow-up, neither brain magnetic resonance imaging scans findings nor anterior pituitary function have changed. Fluid restriction and desmopressin tests did not enable an accurate distinction between partial diabetes insipidus and primary polydipsia. Regular surveillance is warranted in patients with idiopathic central diabetes insipidus to identify potential etiologies.

  8. DYSPNEA ASSOCIATED WITH ANXIETY: MISTAKES AND DIFFICULTIES IN THE DIAGNOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. Tyukalova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Two clinical cases that demonstrate the difficulties diagnosing the causes of shortness of breath, coupled with anxiety, are analyzed. From the standpoint of modern neurophysiology it explains the relationship of these conditions. There were revealed typical diagnostic mistakes: «the effect of precocious focusing", "the negative effect of the narrow specialization

  9. Proverb and idiom comprehension in Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempler, D; Van Lancker, D; Read, S

    1988-01-01

    Twenty-nine patients diagnosed with Probable Alzheimer Disease were administered tests of word, familiar phrases (idioms and proverbs), and novel phrase comprehension. From the early stage of the disease, patients performed worse at understanding familiar phrases than single words or novel phrases. The results uphold common observations that AD patients have difficulty interpreting abstract meanings. Cognitive variables responsible for poor idiom/proverb comprehension and the clinical implications of this new protocol are discussed.

  10. Fractions Learning in Children With Mathematics Difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jing; Siegler, Robert S

    Learning fractions is difficult for children in general and especially difficult for children with mathematics difficulties (MD). Recent research on developmental and individual differences in fraction knowledge of children with MD and typically achieving (TA) children has demonstrated that U.S. children with MD start middle school behind their TA peers in fraction understanding and fall further behind during middle school. In contrast, Chinese children, who like the MD children in the United States score in the bottom one third of the distribution in their country, possess reasonably good fraction understanding. We interpret these findings within the framework of the integrated theory of numerical development. By emphasizing the importance of fraction magnitude knowledge for numerical understanding in general, the theory proved useful for understanding differences in fraction knowledge between MD and TA children and for understanding how knowledge can be improved. Several interventions demonstrated the possibility of improving fraction magnitude knowledge and producing benefits that generalize to fraction arithmetic learning among children with MD. The reasonably good fraction understanding of Chinese children with MD and several successful interventions with U.S. students provide hope for the improvement of fraction knowledge among American children with MD.

  11. Intervention for children with word-finding difficulties: a parallel group randomised control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Wendy; Hughes, Lucy Mari; Masterson, Jackie; Thomas, Michael; Fedor, Anna; Roncoli, Silvia; Fern-Pollak, Liory; Shepherd, Donna-Lynn; Howard, David; Shobbrook, Kate; Kapikian, Anna

    2017-07-31

    The study investigated the outcome of a word-web intervention for children diagnosed with word-finding difficulties (WFDs). Twenty children age 6-8 years with WFDs confirmed by a discrepancy between comprehension and production on the Test of Word Finding-2, were randomly assigned to intervention (n = 11) and waiting control (n = 9) groups. The intervention group had six sessions of intervention which used word-webs and targeted children's meta-cognitive awareness and word-retrieval. On the treated experimental set (n = 25 items) the intervention group gained on average four times as many items as the waiting control group (d = 2.30). There were also gains on personally chosen items for the intervention group. There was little change on untreated items for either group. The study is the first randomised control trial to demonstrate an effect of word-finding therapy with children with language difficulties in mainstream school. The improvement in word-finding for treated items was obtained following a clinically realistic intervention in terms of approach, intensity and duration.

  12. The Effective Teacher's Guide to Autism and Communication Difficulties: Practical Strategies, Second Edition. The Effective Teacher's Guides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Michael

    2011-01-01

    In this welcome second edition of "The Effective Teacher's Guide to Autism and Communication Difficulties", best-selling author Michael Farrell addresses how teachers and others can develop provision for students with autism and students that have difficulties with speech, grammar, meaning, use of language and comprehension. Updated and expanded,…

  13. Comprehensive Logistics

    CERN Document Server

    Gudehus, Timm

    2012-01-01

    Modern logistics comprises operative logistics, analytical logistics and management of logistic networks. Central task of operative logistics is the efficient supply of required goods at the right place within the right time. Tasks of analytical logistics are designing optimal networks and systems, developing strategies for planning, scheduling and operation, and organizing efficient order and performance processes. Logistic management plans, implements and operates logistic networks and schedules orders, stocks and resources. This reference-book offers a unique survey of modern logistics. It contains proven strategies, rules and tools for the solution of a multitude of logistic problems. The analytically derived algorithms and formulas can be used for the computer-based planning of logistic systems and for the dynamic scheduling of orders and resources in supply networks. They enable significant improvements of performance, quality and costs. Their application is demonstrated by several examples from industr...

  14. Postoperative Feeding Difficulties after Repair of Congenital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Of these, 24 (37.5%) developed feeding difficulties in the immediate post operative period. The causes of the feeding difficulties were Gastro-oesophageal reflux (GOR) 9, Recurrent diaphragmatic hernia 8, Adhesive intestinal obstruction 4, Poor intestinal motility 2, Campylobacter enteritis, 1, Hypertrophic pyloric stenosis, 1.

  15. Students’ difficulties in probabilistic problem-solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arum, D. P.; Kusmayadi, T. A.; Pramudya, I.

    2018-03-01

    There are many errors can be identified when students solving mathematics problems, particularly in solving the probabilistic problem. This present study aims to investigate students’ difficulties in solving the probabilistic problem. It focuses on analyzing and describing students errors during solving the problem. This research used the qualitative method with case study strategy. The subjects in this research involve ten students of 9th grade that were selected by purposive sampling. Data in this research involve students’ probabilistic problem-solving result and recorded interview regarding students’ difficulties in solving the problem. Those data were analyzed descriptively using Miles and Huberman steps. The results show that students have difficulties in solving the probabilistic problem and can be divided into three categories. First difficulties relate to students’ difficulties in understanding the probabilistic problem. Second, students’ difficulties in choosing and using appropriate strategies for solving the problem. Third, students’ difficulties with the computational process in solving the problem. Based on the result seems that students still have difficulties in solving the probabilistic problem. It means that students have not able to use their knowledge and ability for responding probabilistic problem yet. Therefore, it is important for mathematics teachers to plan probabilistic learning which could optimize students probabilistic thinking ability.

  16. Researching Learning Difficulties: A Guide for Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Jill; Lacey, Penny

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this book is to provide a source for teachers and other professionals working with children and adults with learning difficulties and disabilities that will enable them to: (1) access selected recent and relevant research in the field of learning difficulties, drawn from a range of disciplines and groups of people; (2) reflect on…

  17. Levels of Text Comprehension in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD): The Influence of Language Phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Rebecca; Norbury, Courtenay Frazier

    2014-01-01

    Many children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have reading comprehension difficulties, but the level of processing at which comprehension is most vulnerable and the influence of language phenotype on comprehension skill is currently unclear. We explored comprehension at sentence and passage levels across language phenotypes. Children with ASD…

  18. Do dyslexics have auditory input processing difficulties?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mads

    2011-01-01

    Word production difficulties are well documented in dyslexia, whereas the results are mixed for receptive phonological processing. This asymmetry raises the possibility that the core phonological deficit of dyslexia is restricted to output processing stages. The present study investigated whether....... The finding suggests that input processing difficulties are associated with the phonological deficit, but that these difficulties may be stronger above the level of phoneme perception.......Word production difficulties are well documented in dyslexia, whereas the results are mixed for receptive phonological processing. This asymmetry raises the possibility that the core phonological deficit of dyslexia is restricted to output processing stages. The present study investigated whether...... a group of dyslexics had word level receptive difficulties using an auditory lexical decision task with long words and nonsense words. The dyslexics were slower and less accurate than chronological age controls in an auditory lexical decision task, with disproportionate low performance on nonsense words...

  19. Mastoidectomy: anatomical parameters x surgical difficulty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira Júnior, Anastácio Rodrigues

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The lowered temporal meninges and/ or anterior sigmoid sinus are contiditions that can determine surgical difficulties in performing mastoidectomy. Objective: To correlate in the tomography the extent of the prolapse of the sigmoid sinus and of temporal meninges with the surgical difficulty in the mastoidectomy. Method: The tomographic measurements of prolapse sigmoid and of temporal meninges were correlated with the presence or non-presence of the surgical difficulty observed during the mastoidectomy procedure in patients with ostomatoiditis chronic (n=30. Form of study: Contemporary cohort transverse. Results: In 10 patients were observed surgical difficulty distributed as: due to prolapse of the sigmoid sinus (n = 2 or temporal meninges prolapse (n = 7 or both (n = 1. In patients in which the surgical difficulty was due to sigmoid sinus prolapse, the tomography distance of the anterior border of the sigmoid sinus to posterior wall of external auditory canal was lower than 9 mm. In patients in which surgical difficulty was due to temporal meninges prolapse, the tomographic distance to the upper plane of the petrous bone was 7 mm. Conclusion: The computerized tomography distance between the temporal meninges and the upper plane of the petrous bone 7 mm and the distance of the anterior border of the sigmoid sinus to posterior wall of external auditory canal was lower than 9 mm are predictive to the surgical difficulties to perform mastoidectomy.

  20. Motor and Coordination Difficulties in Children with Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Elisabeth; Pratt, Michelle L; Kanji, Zara; Bartoli, Alice Jones

    2017-01-01

    To date, very few studies have explored the incidence of motor impairment amongst children with social, emotional and behavioural difficulties (social, emotional and mental health (SEMH); formerly SEBD in England). Following research that suggests an increase in motor difficulties in young children and adolescents with SEMH difficulties, this…

  1. Sleep Difficulties and Alcohol Use Motives in Female Rape Victims With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Nishith, Pallavi; Resick, Patricia A.; Mueser, Kim T.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between sleep difficulties and drinking motives in female rape victims with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Seventy-four participants were assessed for PTSD symptoms, depression, sleep difficulties, and drinking motives. Results demonstrated that neither PTSD symptoms nor depression were related to any motives for using alcohol. On the other hand, after controlling for education, sleep difficulties were significantly related to dr...

  2. LEARNING DIFFICULTIES: AN ANALYSIS BASED ON VIGOTSKY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriane Cenci

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available We aimed, along the text, to bring a reflection upon learning difficulties based on Socio-Historical Theory, relating what is observed in schools to what has been discussed about learning difficulties and the theory proposed by Vygotsky in the early XX century. We understand that children enter school carrying experiences and knowledge from their cultural group and that school ignores such knowledge very often. Then, it is in such disengagement that emerges what we started to call learning difficulties. One cannot forget to see a child as a whole – a student is a social being constituted by culture, language and specific values to which one must be attentive.

  3. Patterns of Language Comprehension Deficit in Abused and Neglected Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Lynn; And Others

    1988-01-01

    A study of the relationship between child abuse/neglect and language disability compared 30 abused, generally neglected, or severely neglected children, aged 3-8, to 10 nonabused controls. Results on language comprehension tests suggest that abused and severely neglected children show greater difficulty with language comprehension tasks than their…

  4. Older Adults' Comprehension of Transformational and Deactivation Negation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolin, Sara J.

    2015-01-01

    The present research aimed to examine young and older adults' comprehension of negated text to determine the locus of older adults' difficulty in understanding this text construction. Participants were asked to read short passages at their own pace, complete a lexical decision task, and answer a comprehension question about what they had read.…

  5. Can monitoring in language comprehension in Autism Spectrum Disorder be modulated? Evidence From P600 to Semantic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koolen, S.; Vissers, C.T.W.M.; Egger, J.I.M.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) generally show impairments in language comprehension. It is often assumed that these difficulties reflect a linguistic deficit. We propose, however, that language difficulties result from atypical cognitive control processes. Recent

  6. Comprehensive Psychiatric Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facts for Families Guide Facts for Families - Vietnamese Comprehensive Psychiatric Evaluation No. 52; Updated October 2017 Evaluation ... with serious emotional and behavioral problems need a comprehensive psychiatric evaluation. Comprehensive psychiatric evaluations usually require a ...

  7. Children's hypertext comprehension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Segers, P.C.J.; Segers, E.; Broek, P. van den

    2017-01-01

    The present chapter gives an overview of the literature on hypertext comprehension, children's hypertext comprehension and individual variation therein, ending with a perspective for future research. Hypertext comprehension requires the reader to make bridging inferences between the different parts

  8. Player Modeling for Intelligent Difficulty Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missura, Olana; Gärtner, Thomas

    In this paper we aim at automatically adjusting the difficulty of computer games by clustering players into different types and supervised prediction of the type from short traces of gameplay. An important ingredient of video games is to challenge players by providing them with tasks of appropriate and increasing difficulty. How this difficulty should be chosen and increase over time strongly depends on the ability, experience, perception and learning curve of each individual player. It is a subjective parameter that is very difficult to set. Wrong choices can easily lead to players stopping to play the game as they get bored (if underburdened) or frustrated (if overburdened). An ideal game should be able to adjust its difficulty dynamically governed by the player’s performance. Modern video games utilise a game-testing process to investigate among other factors the perceived difficulty for a multitude of players. In this paper, we investigate how machine learning techniques can be used for automatic difficulty adjustment. Our experiments confirm the potential of machine learning in this application.

  9. Applying a Systemic Procedure to Locate Career Decision-Making Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gati, Itamar; Amir, Tamar

    2010-01-01

    Locating clients' career decision-making difficulties is one of the first steps in career counseling. The authors demonstrate the feasibility and utility of a systematic 4-stage procedure for locating and interpreting career decision-making difficulties by analyzing responses of 626 college students (collected by Tai, 2007) to the Career…

  10. Juveniles' Miranda comprehension: Understanding, appreciation, and totality of circumstances factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelle, Heather; Romaine, Christina L Riggs; Goldstein, Naomi E S

    2015-06-01

    This study examined juvenile justice-involved youths' understanding and appreciation of the Miranda warnings' rights to silence and legal counsel using the Miranda Rights Comprehension Instruments (Goldstein, Zelle, & Grisso, 2012). It also examined the relationships between totality of circumstances factors and understanding and appreciation of rights. Data were collected from 183 youths (140 boys) in pre- and postadjudication facilities in 2 states. Overall, youths demonstrated greater difficulty on measures of appreciation than understanding, with particular deficits in their abilities to comprehend the abstract concept of the right to silence. Results varied slightly by instrument, highlighting the importance of a multimodal assessment of these complex abilities. Examination of totality of circumstances factors identified relationships between some factors (e.g., age, verbal IQ, academic achievement) and Miranda comprehension, but revealed that other factors (e.g., gender, number of previous arrests) were not significantly related to Miranda understanding or appreciation. The findings support a nuanced conceptualization of Miranda rights comprehension that acknowledges the complexity of understanding and appreciating the warnings. Empirical analyses also support the continued use of some totality of circumstances factors and abandonment of others. Findings underscore the necessity of multimodal assessment and interpretation when conducting capacity to waive Miranda rights evaluations. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. DIFFICULTIES TO LEARN AND TO TEACH MODERN PHYSICS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Antonowiski

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Physics is engaged in scientific and technological development in several areas, however, its learning in high school has high failure rates that demonstrate a low level of use. It is a science that allows us to understand the nature of the macroscopic and atomic matter, but it is taught in a disjointed manner, upon presentation of concepts, laws and mathematical sentences, repetitive exercises that have taken the preparatory character for college entrance. Thus, the student gets stuck sentences featuring a partial knowledge and disposable. This study aimed to analyze the main difficulties that undergraduate students in Physics have in Modern Physics learning. Point out the difficulties in teaching and learning Physics is not an easy task and to identify them comes the difficulty of how to solve them. After analysis of several hypotheses we can conclude that there is no single factor responsible for the difficulty of the teaching and learning of Modern Physics. The lack of time to work and developed since middle school, stimulating the curiosity of students, adequately trained teachers, lack of structure offered by the government, parents' responsibilities and students in learning, among others, constitute a major challenge for successful teaching and learning of Modern Physics

  12. DIFFICULTIeS OF TOTAL HIP REPLACEMENT IN PATIENTS WITH ANKYLOSING SPONDYLITIS (case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Tikhilov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A distinctive feature of patients with ankylosing spondylitis is the formation of hip ankylosis in an extremely unfavorable functional position combined with upset of sagittal balance of the body along with a thoracolumbar kyphosis. Treatment of these patients poses considerable technical difficulties and is often associated with complications. The authors report a clinical case of a female 40 years old patient with confirmed rhizomelic spondylitis. The patient mainly complained of fixed malposition of the right lower extremity (hip ankylosis in extreme 1450 flexion and 1500 abduction combined with a severe fixed spine deformity (thoracic kyphosis 920, lumbar lordosis 170. Considering significant sagittal balance disorder it was decided to go for a two-stage procedure. Total hip arthroplasty of the right joint was performed at the first stage. At the second stage the authors corrected thoracolumbar spinal deformity by Th12 (type PSO 4 and L2 (type PSO 3 wedge resections and converging resected vertebral bodies by a multilevel fixation system with transpedicular support elements. The interval between the stages was 11 months. Two-stage treatment of this patient al-lowed to avoid adverse postoperative complications and to achieve a significant functional improvement in one year after treatment started. The sum of points before and after the treat-ment amounted respectively to 46 and 79 on Harris Hip Score, 17 and 38 points on Oxford Hip Score (OHS. To summarize, comprehensive treatment with planning of all subsequent steps prior to hip replacement is the method of choice for avoidance of postoperative complications in patients with ankylosing spondylitis accompanied by a significant upset of sagittal balance.

  13. Sleep difficulties and alcohol use motives in female rape victims with posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishith, P; Resick, P A; Mueser, K T

    2001-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between sleep difficulties and drinking motives in female rape victims with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Seventy-four participants were assessed for PTSD symptoms, depression, sleep difficulties, and drinking motives. Results demonstrated that neither PTSD symptoms nor depression were related to any motives for using alcohol. On the other hand, after controlling for education, sleep difficulties were significantly related to drinking motives for coping with negative affect, but not pleasure enhancement or socialization. The findings suggest that sleep difficulties may be an important factor contributing to alcohol use in rape victims with PTSD.

  14. Humor comprehension and appreciation: an FMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolo, Angela; Benuzzi, Francesca; Nocetti, Luca; Baraldi, Patrizia; Nichelli, Paolo

    2006-11-01

    Humor is a unique ability in human beings. Suls [A two-stage model for the appreciation of jokes and cartoons. In P. E. Goldstein & J. H. McGhee (Eds.), The psychology of humour. Theoretical perspectives and empirical issues. New York: Academic Press, 1972, pp. 81-100] proposed a two-stage model of humor: detection and resolution of incongruity. Incongruity is generated when a prediction is not confirmed in the final part of a story. To comprehend humor, it is necessary to revisit the story, transforming an incongruous situation into a funny, congruous one. Patient and neuroimaging studies carried out until now lead to different outcomes. In particular, patient studies found that right brain-lesion patients have difficulties in humor comprehension, whereas neuroimaging studies suggested a major involvement of the left hemisphere in both humor detection and comprehension. To prevent activation of the left hemisphere due to language processing, we devised a nonverbal task comprising cartoon pairs. Our findings demonstrate activation of both the left and the right hemispheres when comparing funny versus nonfunny cartoons. In particular, we found activation of the right inferior frontal gyrus (BA 47), the left superior temporal gyrus (BA 38), the left middle temporal gyrus (BA 21), and the left cerebellum. These areas were also activated in a nonverbal task exploring attribution of intention [Brunet, E., Sarfati, Y., Hardy-Bayle, M. C., & Decety, J. A PET investigation of the attribution of intentions with a nonverbal task. Neuroimage, 11, 157-166, 2000]. We hypothesize that the resolution of incongruity might occur through a process of intention attribution. We also asked subjects to rate the funniness of each cartoon pair. A parametric analysis showed that the left amygdala was activated in relation to subjective amusement. We hypothesize that the amygdala plays a key role in giving humor an emotional dimension.

  15. How Specific are Specific Comprehension Difficulties? An Investigation of Poor Reading Comprehension in Nine-Year-Olds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønberg, Louise; Petersen, Dorthe Klint

    2015-01-01

    comprehenders, the poor comprehenders’ orthographic coding and daily reading of literary texts were significantly below those of average readers. This study indicates that a lack of reading experience, and likewise, a lack of fluent word reading, may be important factors in understanding 9-year-old poor...

  16. Students’ difficulties in solving linear equation problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wati, S.; Fitriana, L.; Mardiyana

    2018-03-01

    A linear equation is an algebra material that exists in junior high school to university. It is a very important material for students in order to learn more advanced mathematics topics. Therefore, linear equation material is essential to be mastered. However, the result of 2016 national examination in Indonesia showed that students’ achievement in solving linear equation problem was low. This fact became a background to investigate students’ difficulties in solving linear equation problems. This study used qualitative descriptive method. An individual written test on linear equation tasks was administered, followed by interviews. Twenty-one sample students of grade VIII of SMPIT Insan Kamil Karanganyar did the written test, and 6 of them were interviewed afterward. The result showed that students with high mathematics achievement donot have difficulties, students with medium mathematics achievement have factual difficulties, and students with low mathematics achievement have factual, conceptual, operational, and principle difficulties. Based on the result there is a need of meaningfulness teaching strategy to help students to overcome difficulties in solving linear equation problems.

  17. Numerical Magnitude Representation in Children With Mathematical Difficulties With or Without Reading Difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobia, Valentina; Fasola, Anna; Lupieri, Alice; Marzocchi, Gian Marco

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the spatial numerical association of response codes (SNARC), the flanker, and the numerical distance effects in children with mathematical difficulties. From a sample of 720 third, fourth, and fifth graders, 60 children were selected and divided into the following three groups: typically developing children (TD; n = 29), children with mathematical difficulties only (MD only; n = 21), and children with mathematical and reading difficulties (MD+RD; n = 10). Children were tested with a numerical Eriksen task that was built to assess SNARC, numerical distance, and flanker (first and second order congruency) effects. Children with MD only showed stronger SNARC and second order congruency effects than did TD children, whereas the numerical distance effects were similar across the three groups. Finally, the first order congruency effect was associated with reading difficulties. These results showed that children with mathematical difficulties with or without reading difficulties were globally more impaired when spatial incompatibilities were presented. © Hammill Institute on Disabilities 2014.

  18. Do age-related word retrieval difficulties appear (or disappear) in connected speech?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavé, Gitit; Goral, Mira

    2017-09-01

    We conducted a comprehensive literature review of studies of word retrieval in connected speech in healthy aging and reviewed relevant aphasia research that could shed light on the aging literature. Four main hypotheses guided the review: (1) Significant retrieval difficulties would lead to reduced output in connected speech. (2) Significant retrieval difficulties would lead to a more limited lexical variety in connected speech. (3) Significant retrieval difficulties would lead to an increase in word substitution errors and in pronoun use as well as to greater dysfluency and hesitation in connected speech. (4) Retrieval difficulties on tests of single-word production would be associated with measures of word retrieval in connected speech. Studies on aging did not confirm these four hypotheses, unlike studies on aphasia that generally did. The review suggests that future research should investigate how context facilitates word production in old age.

  19. Constraint Programming for Context Comprehension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning

    2014-01-01

    A close similarity is demonstrated between context comprehension, such as discourse analysis, and constraint programming. The constraint store takes the role of a growing knowledge base learned throughout the discourse, and a suitable con- straint solver does the job of incorporating new pieces...

  20. Multisensory perceptual learning is dependent upon task difficulty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Niear, Matthew A; Koo, Bonhwang; Wallace, Mark T

    2016-11-01

    There has been a growing interest in developing behavioral tasks to enhance temporal acuity as recent findings have demonstrated changes in temporal processing in a number of clinical conditions. Prior research has demonstrated that perceptual training can enhance temporal acuity both within and across different sensory modalities. Although certain forms of unisensory perceptual learning have been shown to be dependent upon task difficulty, this relationship has not been explored for multisensory learning. The present study sought to determine the effects of task difficulty on multisensory perceptual learning. Prior to and following a single training session, participants completed a simultaneity judgment (SJ) task, which required them to judge whether a visual stimulus (flash) and auditory stimulus (beep) presented in synchrony or at various stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) occurred synchronously or asynchronously. During the training session, participants completed the same SJ task but received feedback regarding the accuracy of their responses. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three levels of difficulty during training: easy, moderate, and hard, which were distinguished based on the SOAs used during training. We report that only the most difficult (i.e., hard) training protocol enhanced temporal acuity. We conclude that perceptual training protocols for enhancing multisensory temporal acuity may be optimized by employing audiovisual stimuli for which it is difficult to discriminate temporal synchrony from asynchrony.

  1. Cardiac rehabilitation: a comprehensive review

    OpenAIRE

    Lear, Scott A; Ignaszewski, Andrew

    2001-01-01

    Abstract Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is a commonly used treatment for men and women with cardiovascular disease. To date, no single study has conclusively demonstrated a comprehensive benefit of CR. Numerous individual studies, however, have demonstrated beneficial effects such as improved risk-factor profile, slower disease progression, decreased morbidity, and decreased mortality. This paper will review the evidence for the use of CR and discuss the implications and limitations of these stu...

  2. Working Memory in Students with Mathematical Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur, I. R. D.; Herman, T.; Ningsih, S.

    2018-04-01

    Learning process is the activities that has important role because this process is one of the all factors that establish students success in learning. oftentimes we find so many students get the difficulties when they study mathematics. This condition is not only because of the outside factor but also it comes from the inside. The purpose of this research is to analyze and give the representation how students working memory happened in physical education students for basic statistics subjects which have mathematical difficulties. The subjects are 4 students which have a mathematical difficulties. The research method is case study and when the describe about students working memory are explanated deeply with naturalistic observation. Based on this research, it was founded that 4 students have a working memory deficit in three components. The components are phonological loop, visuospatial sketchpad, dan episodic buffer.

  3. Tinnitus and Sleep Difficulties After Cochlear Implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierzycki, Robert H; Edmondson-Jones, Mark; Dawes, Piers; Munro, Kevin J; Moore, David R; Kitterick, Pádraig T

    To estimate and compare the prevalence of and associations between tinnitus and sleep difficulties in a sample of UK adult cochlear implant users and those identified as potential candidates for cochlear implantation. The study was conducted using the UK Biobank resource, a population-based cohort of 40- to 69-year olds. Self-report data on hearing, tinnitus, sleep difficulties, and demographic variables were collected from cochlear implant users (n = 194) and individuals identified as potential candidates for cochlear implantation (n = 211). These "candidates" were selected based on (i) impaired hearing sensitivity, inferred from self-reported hearing aid use and (ii) impaired hearing function, inferred from an inability to report words accurately at negative signal to noise ratios on an unaided closed-set test of speech perception. Data on tinnitus (presence, persistence, and related distress) and on sleep difficulties were analyzed using logistic regression models controlling for gender, age, deprivation, and neuroticism. The prevalence of tinnitus was similar among implant users (50%) and candidates (52%; p = 0.39). However, implant users were less likely to report that their tinnitus was distressing at its worst (41%) compared with candidates (63%; p = 0.02). The logistic regression model suggested that this difference between the two groups could be explained by the fact that tinnitus was less persistent in implant users (46%) compared with candidates (72%; p reported difficulties with sleep were similar among implant users (75%) and candidates (82%; p = 0.28), but participants with tinnitus were more likely to report sleep difficulties than those without (p explanation is supported by the similar prevalence of sleep problems among implant users and potential candidates for cochlear implantation, despite differences between the groups in tinnitus persistence and related emotional distress. Cochlear implantation may therefore not be an appropriate intervention

  4. Current nuclear employees with psychological difficulties: prevalence, assessment, and disposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajwaj, T.; Chardos, S.; Lavin, P.; Ford, T.; McGee, R.K.

    1987-01-01

    Although industry standards and federal regulations require employees of nuclear power plants to demonstrate psychological stability and sound judgment before being initially granted unescorted access to the plant, it is obvious that emotional difficulties can develop subsequently. The development of emotional problems in current plant employees raises concerns about the safety of the public and the plant, the effectiveness of the organizations, the loss of important technical skills and experience, and the human cost to the employee and his/her family. This paper reports the experience of the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) in cases of reconsideration of psychological clearance of unescorted access, i.e., the review of psychological clearances of nuclear plant employees who have developed psychological difficulties

  5. Student difficulties regarding symbolic and graphical representations of vector fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurens Bollen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The ability to switch between various representations is an invaluable problem-solving skill in physics. In addition, research has shown that using multiple representations can greatly enhance a person’s understanding of mathematical and physical concepts. This paper describes a study of student difficulties regarding interpreting, constructing, and switching between representations of vector fields, using both qualitative and quantitative methods. We first identified to what extent students are fluent with the use of field vector plots, field line diagrams, and symbolic expressions of vector fields by conducting individual student interviews and analyzing in-class student activities. Based on those findings, we designed the Vector Field Representations test, a free response assessment tool that has been given to 196 second- and third-year physics, mathematics, and engineering students from four different universities. From the obtained results we gained a comprehensive overview of typical errors that students make when switching between vector field representations. In addition, the study allowed us to determine the relative prevalence of the observed difficulties. Although the results varied greatly between institutions, a general trend revealed that many students struggle with vector addition, fail to recognize the field line density as an indication of the magnitude of the field, confuse characteristics of field lines and equipotential lines, and do not choose the appropriate coordinate system when writing out mathematical expressions of vector fields.

  6. Student difficulties regarding symbolic and graphical representations of vector fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollen, Laurens; van Kampen, Paul; Baily, Charles; Kelly, Mossy; De Cock, Mieke

    2017-12-01

    The ability to switch between various representations is an invaluable problem-solving skill in physics. In addition, research has shown that using multiple representations can greatly enhance a person's understanding of mathematical and physical concepts. This paper describes a study of student difficulties regarding interpreting, constructing, and switching between representations of vector fields, using both qualitative and quantitative methods. We first identified to what extent students are fluent with the use of field vector plots, field line diagrams, and symbolic expressions of vector fields by conducting individual student interviews and analyzing in-class student activities. Based on those findings, we designed the Vector Field Representations test, a free response assessment tool that has been given to 196 second- and third-year physics, mathematics, and engineering students from four different universities. From the obtained results we gained a comprehensive overview of typical errors that students make when switching between vector field representations. In addition, the study allowed us to determine the relative prevalence of the observed difficulties. Although the results varied greatly between institutions, a general trend revealed that many students struggle with vector addition, fail to recognize the field line density as an indication of the magnitude of the field, confuse characteristics of field lines and equipotential lines, and do not choose the appropriate coordinate system when writing out mathematical expressions of vector fields.

  7. Difficulties in Initial Algebra Learning in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jupri, Al; Drijvers, Paul; van den Heuvel-Panhuizen, Marja

    2014-01-01

    Within mathematics curricula, algebra has been widely recognized as one of the most difficult topics, which leads to learning difficulties worldwide. In Indonesia, algebra performance is an important issue. In the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2007, Indonesian students' achievement in the algebra domain was…

  8. Communication difficulties between radiobiologists and radiotherapists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revesz, L.

    1977-01-01

    The communication difficulties between radiobiologists and radiotherapists are attributable to the existence of two cultures in radiology, separated by different philosophies, values, standards and attitudes. Integrated education in the separate branches of science and joint experimental ventures are proposed in order to develop unifying concepts. (author)

  9. Difficulties in initial algebra learning in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jupri, Al; Drijvers, Paulus; van den Heuvel - Panhuizen, Marja

    2014-01-01

    Within mathematics curricula, algebra has been widely recognized as one of the most difficult topics, which leads to learning difficulties worldwide. In Indonesia, algebra performance is an important issue. In the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2007, Indonesian

  10. Infrared difficulties with thermal quantum field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grandou, T.

    1997-01-01

    Reviewing briefly the two main difficulties encountered in thermal quantum field theories at finite temperature when dealing with the Braaten-Pisarski (BP) resummation program, the motivation is introduced of an analysis relying on the bare perturbation theory, right from the onset. (author)

  11. Binomial test models and item difficulty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Linden, Willem J.

    1979-01-01

    In choosing a binomial test model, it is important to know exactly what conditions are imposed on item difficulty. In this paper these conditions are examined for both a deterministic and a stochastic conception of item responses. It appears that they are more restrictive than is generally

  12. Students' Difficulties with Vector Calculus in Electrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollen, Laurens; van Kampen, Paul; De Cock, Mieke

    2015-01-01

    Understanding Maxwell's equations in differential form is of great importance when studying the electrodynamic phenomena discussed in advanced electromagnetism courses. It is therefore necessary that students master the use of vector calculus in physical situations. In this light we investigated the difficulties second year students at KU Leuven…

  13. Difficulties in Learning Inheritance and Polymorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberman, Neomi; Beeri, Catriel; Kolikant, Yifat Ben-David

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on difficulties related to the concepts of inheritance and polymorphism, expressed by a group of 22 in-service CS teachers with an experience with the procedural paradigm, as they coped with a course on OOP. Our findings are based on the analysis of tests, questionnaires that the teachers completed in the course, as well as on…

  14. Learning Difficulties and Nutrition: Pills or Pedagogy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Roy

    1999-01-01

    Examines the efforts to find effective ameliorative measures for literacy difficulties such as dyslexia and dyspraxia, focusing on noneducational techniques found in holistic medicine, complementary therapies, and nutritional supplements. Maintains that dyslexia has become big business for drug companies and that the appropriate research regarding…

  15. Mathematics Difficulties: Does One Approach Fit All?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, Sue; Rockliffe, Freda

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews the nature of learning difficulties in mathematics and, in particular, the nature and prevalence of dyscalculia, a condition that affects the acquisition of arithmetical skills. The evidence reviewed suggests that younger children (under the age of 10) often display a combination of problems, including minor physical…

  16. Quantization and hall effect: necessities and difficulties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed Bouketir; Hishamuddin Zainuddin

    1999-01-01

    The quantization procedure is a necessary tool for a proper understanding of many interesting quantum phenomena in modern physics. In this note, we focus on geometrical framework for such procedures, particularly the group-theoretic approach and their difficulties. Finally we look through the example of Hall effect as a quantized macroscopic phenomenon with group-theoretic quantization approach. (author)

  17. Pupils' Difficulties: What Can the Teacher Do?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, C. J.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses how the teacher can deal with difficulties pupils of varying ages have in understanding certain chemical ideas. The article does not support using a Piagetian model for science courses in secondary schools. It suggests that Ausubel's learning theory is of much more use to the practicing teacher. (HM)

  18. Older Adults Have Difficulty in Decoding Sarcasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Louise H.; Allen, Roy; Bull, Rebecca; Hering, Alexandra; Kliegel, Matthias; Channon, Shelley

    2015-01-01

    Younger and older adults differ in performance on a range of social-cognitive skills, with older adults having difficulties in decoding nonverbal cues to emotion and intentions. Such skills are likely to be important when deciding whether someone is being sarcastic. In the current study we investigated in a life span sample whether there are…

  19. Measuring Difficulty in English-Chinese Translation: Towards a General Model of Translation Difficulty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Sanjun

    2012-01-01

    Accurate assessment of a text's level of translation difficulty is critical for translator training and accreditation, translation research, and the language industry as well. Traditionally, people rely on their general impression to gauge a text's translation difficulty level. If the evaluation process is to be more effective and the…

  20. Memory Abilities in Children with Mathematical Difficulties: Comorbid Language Difficulties Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimann, Giselle; Gut, Janine; Frischknecht, Marie-Claire; Grob, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated cognitive abilities in children with difficulties in mathematics only (n = 48, M = 8 years and 5 months), combined mathematical and language difficulty (n = 27, M = 8 years and 1 month) and controls (n = 783, M = 7 years and 11 months). Cognitive abilities were measured with seven subtests, tapping visual perception,…

  1. Let's do comprehension 5-6

    CERN Document Server

    Brodie, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Let's Do Comprehension is a brand new series of six titles in the popular 'Let's Do' range. Each book contains a rich variety of stimulating reading passages, accompanied by questions of varying difficulty. Designed to be used at home, each book includes tips and clues from Alice the Alligator as well as extra challenges in Brodie's Brain Boosters. There is a clear answer section for reference by parents and children, together with bright, colourful reward stickers.

  2. Let's do comprehension 8-9

    CERN Document Server

    Brodie, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Let's Do Comprehension is a brand new series of six titles in the popular 'Let's Do' range. Each book contains a rich variety of stimulating reading passages, accompanied by questions of varying difficulty. Designed to be used at home, each book includes tips and clues from Alice the Alligator as well as extra challenges in Brodie's Brain Boosters. There is a clear answer section for reference by parents and children, together with bright, colourful reward stickers.

  3. Understanding reading comprehension amongst Maltese speaking children.

    OpenAIRE

    Grech, Louisa.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis investigated reading comprehension levels amongst Maltese bilingual students. A total of 428 participants, aged between 8 and 13, from state schools across Malta, were tested and the results of five studies presented. The primary purpose underlying the research was to inform the development of assessment procedures that can be used in the identification of children who have specific difficulties in reading within the Maltese context. Initially, the suitability of reading comprehen...

  4. Communication difficulties in teenagers with health impairments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samokhvalova, Anna G.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary psychological and pedagogical studies pay special attention to the socialization of physically impaired children, inclusive education and methods of providing such children with a safe environment to assist in their development. However, difficulties in interpersonal communication experienced by children with health impairments have remained beyond the research scope. The authors conducted a comparative analysis of communication difficulties in typically developed teenagers aged 12-13 years (n = 100 and the problems faced by their peers with visual (n = 30, auditory (n = 30, speech (n = 25 and motor (n = 15 impairments. Actual communication difficulties in teenagers were studied in two ways: the subjective component of impaired communication was registered through a content analysis of a sentence completion test and the objective manifestations of impaired communication were identified through expert evaluation of children’s communicative behavior (educators and psychologists who had been in close contact with the teenagers acted as experts. First, the authors identified typical standard communication problems that were characteristic of teenagers aged 12-13 years, that is, problems with aggression, tolerance, the ability to admit wrongdoing and make concessions, empathy, self-control, self-analysis and self-expression in communication. Second, typical communication difficulties characteristic of physically impaired children were revealed: failure to understand meaning; feelings of awkwardness and shame of oneself; expectations of a negative attitude toward oneself; gelotophobia; and manifestations of despotism, petulance and egotism as defensive reactions in situations of impaired communication. Third, the authors described specific communication difficulties in teenagers with auditory, visual, speech and motor impairments.

  5. [Detection and specific studies in procedural learning difficulties].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magallón, S; Narbona, J

    2009-02-27

    The main disabilities in non-verbal learning disorder (NLD) are: the acquisition and automating of motor and cognitive processes, visual spatial integration, motor coordination, executive functions, difficulty in comprehension of the context, and social skills. AIMS. To review the research to date on NLD, and to discuss whether the term 'procedural learning disorder' (PLD) would be more suitable to refer to NLD. A considerable amount of research suggests a neurological correlate of PLD with dysfunctions in the 'posterior' attention system, or the right hemisphere, or the cerebellum. Even if it is said to be difficult the delimitation between NLD and other disorders or syndromes like Asperger syndrome, certain characteristics contribute to differential diagnosis. Intervention strategies for the PLD must lead to the development of motor automatisms and problem solving strategies, including social skills. The basic dysfunction in NLD affects to implicit learning of routines, automating of motor skills and cognitive strategies that spare conscious resources in daily behaviours. These limitations are partly due to a dysfunction in non-declarative procedural memory. Various dimensions of language are also involved: context comprehension, processing of the spatial and emotional indicators of verbal language, language inferences, prosody, organization of the inner speech, use of language and non-verbal communication; this is why the diagnostic label 'PLD' would be more appropriate, avoiding the euphemistic adjective 'non-verbal'.

  6. Impacts of a Comprehensive School Readiness Curriculum for Preschool Children at Risk for Educational Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonigan, Christopher J.; Phillips, Beth M.; Clancy, Jeanine L.; Landry, Susan H.; Swank, Paul R.; Assel, Michael; Taylor, Heather B.; Klein, Alice; Starkey, Prentice; Domitrovich, Celene E.; Eisenberg, Nancy; Villiers, Jill; Villiers, Peter; Barnes, Marcia

    2015-01-01

    This article reports findings from a cluster-randomized study of an integrated literacy- and math-focused preschool curriculum, comparing versions with and without an explicit socioemotional lesson component to a business-as-usual condition. Participants included 110 classroom teachers from randomized classrooms and approximately eight students…

  7. Technical Text Comprehension Difficulties in the Usage of Reflexive Verbs in the French Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Dubikaltytė-Raugalienė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The author researches the problems of textual competence and especially the reflexive constructions in the texts of French speciality. It was established that there exists some difference in the usage of reflective verbs in the French and the Lithuanian language especially in the field of passive voice and a wider semantics of modal and aspect verbs and that raises not a fen problems of effective text reading problems.

  8. Comprehensive metabolic panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metabolic panel - comprehensive; Chem-20; SMA20; Sequential multi-channel analysis with computer-20; SMAC20; Metabolic panel 20 ... Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Comprehensive metabolic panel (CMP) - blood. In: ... Tests and Diagnostic Procedures . 6th ed. St Louis, MO: ...

  9. Comprehensive Teacher Education: A Handbook of Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education, Washington, DC.

    Since 1992, AACTE and the DeWitt Wallace-Reader's Digest Fund have worked in partnership to advance the knowledge base of comprehensive teacher education. The AACTE/DeWitt Wallace-Reader's Digest Fund's Comprehensive Teacher Education National Demonstration Project is grounded in the mutual belief that preparation of classroom teachers must…

  10. Age-related differences in warning symbol comprehension and training effectiveness: effects of familiarity, complexity, and comprehensibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesch, M F; Horrey, W J; Wogalter, M S; Powell, W R

    2011-10-01

    Age-related changes in selective attention, inhibitory efficiency, and the ability to form new associations suggest that older adults may have greater difficulty with more complex and less comprehensible symbols. We examined comprehension of symbols varying in terms of ratings of familiarity, complexity, and comprehensibility, by younger (aged 18-35) and older (aged 55-70) adults. It was found that older adults have greater difficulty than younger adults in comprehending warning symbols and that accident scenario training improves comprehension. Regression analyses indicated that familiarity and comprehensibility were important in determining performance on the pre-training comprehension test by both younger and older adults. However, training eliminated the effects of stimulus characteristics for younger adults, while older adults' comprehension continued to be significantly influenced by comprehensibility. We suggest that symbol design incorporates cues to knowledge to facilitate the linkage between new knowledge (i.e. the warning symbol) and relevant knowledge in long-term memory. Statement of Relevance: Symbol characteristics play an important role in age-related differences in warning symbol comprehension. To optimise comprehension by older adults, symbols should have a clear relationship with areal-world referent. Alternatively, symbol design could incorporate cues to knowledge to facilitate the linkage between new knowledge and relevant knowledge in long-term memory.

  11. Subjective executive difficulties – a study using the Dysexecutive Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Małgorzata Szepietowska

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Subjective executive difficulties, understood as a sense of disruption of planning, control and correction of one’s own activity, is often reported by healthy as well as clinical individuals. Self-report measures such as the Dysexecutive Questionnaire (DEX-S are used to assess the severity of this feeling. The diagnostic value of this method is debated due to the numerous factors affecting the beliefs on executive deficits. Aim of the study: With reference to inconclusive data concerning the underlying factors of subjective executive deficits and the value of self-report measures the following aims of the present study were established: a determination of the demographic, clinical and cognitive characteristics of individuals with various levels of subjective executive difficulties, b finding which of these variables contribute to the risk of subjective executive difficulties increase. Material and methods: The study included 213 adult individuals. DEX-S as well as measures of cognitive assessment (Montreal Cognitive Assessment, MoCA; subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised, WAIS-R and depressive mood assessment [Geriatric Depression Scale (Short Form, GDS-15] were used. Demographic variables (age, gender and educational level as well as clinical variables (lack of/presence of central nervous system disease history, including lateralised brain pathology were also taken into consideration. Based on DEX-S results a cluster analysis was performed and two groups of subjects with a different level of subjective executive difficulties were identified: low-severity group (individuals reporting no complaints regarding executive deficits and high-severity group (individuals with complaints. Group comparisons demonstrated that individuals complaining about executive deficits have a higher depressive mood index and lower scores on some subtests used to assess cognitive functions. The results of logistic regression analysis

  12. Comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of all species of swordtails and platies (Pisces: Genus Xiphophorus) uncovers a hybrid origin of a swordtail fish, Xiphophorus monticolus, and demonstrates that the sexually selected sword originated in the ancestral lineage of the genus, but was lost again secondarily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ji Hyoun; Schartl, Manfred; Walter, Ronald B; Meyer, Axel

    2013-01-29

    ancestral state for the genus Xiphophorus. Further, we provide a well supported estimation of the phylogenetic relationships between the previously unresolved northern swordtail groups. This comprehensive molecular phylogeny of the entire genus Xiphophorus provides evidence that a second swordtail species, X. monticolus, arose through hybridization. Previously, we demonstrated that X. clemenciae, another southern swordtail species, arose via hybridization. These findings highlight the potential key role of hybridization in the evolution of this genus and suggest the need for further investigations into how hybridization contributes to speciation more generally.

  13. Comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of all species of swordtails and platies (Pisces: Genus Xiphophorus uncovers a hybrid origin of a swordtail fish, Xiphophorus monticolus, and demonstrates that the sexually selected sword originated in the ancestral lineage of the genus, but was lost again secondarily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Ji Hyoun

    2013-01-01

    selected sword trait is shown to be the most likely ancestral state for the genus Xiphophorus. Further, we provide a well supported estimation of the phylogenetic relationships between the previously unresolved northern swordtail groups. Conclusions This comprehensive molecular phylogeny of the entire genus Xiphophorus provides evidence that a second swordtail species, X. monticolus, arose through hybridization. Previously, we demonstrated that X. clemenciae, another southern swordtail species, arose via hybridization. These findings highlight the potential key role of hybridization in the evolution of this genus and suggest the need for further investigations into how hybridization contributes to speciation more generally.

  14. EXPLORING STUDENTS‟ DIFFICULTIES IN READING ACADEMIC TEXTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ira Ernawati

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Academic texts play an important role for university students. However, those texts are considered difficult. This study is intended to investigate students‘ difficulties in reading academic texts. The qualitative approach was employed in this study. The design was a case study. The participants were ten students from fifth semester of CLS: EE (Classroom Language and Strategy: Explaining and Exemplifying class who were selected by using purposive sampling. The data were gathered from students‘ journal reflections, observation, and interview. The finding shows that the students encountered reading difficulties in area of textual factors, namely vocabulary, comprehending specific information, text organization, and grammar and human factors including background knowledge, mood, laziness, and time constraint.

  15. Difficulties in radiodiagnosis of children's tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolinova, E.; Zitkova, M.; Suchmova, M.; Jirasek, M.

    1984-01-01

    Some problems of current radiodiagnosis in pediatric oncology are discussed. The main cause of errors in diagnosis and of difficulties barring timely correct diagnosis is the relatively small number of tumors in children and the ensuing lack of knowledge and experience in diagnosis. The situation can only be improved by the disciplined observance of purposeful diagnostic procedures and the centralization of these procedures at specialized departments. (author)

  16. DIFFICULTY OF AMENDMENT AND INTERPRETATIVE CHOICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Coan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The extreme difficulty of amending the U.S. Constitution plays a central but largely unexamined role in theoretical debates over interpretive choice. In particular, conventional wisdom assumes that the extreme difficulty of Article V amendment weakens the case for originalism. This view might ultimately be correct, but it is not the freestanding argument against originalism it is often presumed to be. Rather, it depends on contestable normative and empirical premises that require defense. If those premises are wrong, the stringency of Article V might actually strengthen the case for originalism. Or Article V might have no impact on that case one way or another. This “complexity thesis” highlights and clarifies the role that difficulty of amendment plays across a range of significant interpretive debates, including those surrounding writtenness, John Hart Ely’s representation-reinforcement theory, interpretive pluralism, and originalism as a theory of positive law. It also has important implications for the under-studied relations between statutory and constitutional interpretation and federal and state constitutional interpretation.

  17. Feeding Difficulties in Children with Esophageal Atresia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Lisa; Rosen, Rachel

    2016-06-01

    The current available literature evaluating feeding difficulties in children with esophageal atresia was reviewed. The published literature was searched through PubMed using a pre-defined search strategy. Feeding difficulties are commonly encountered in children and adults with repaired esophageal atresia [EA]. The mechanism for abnormal feeding includes both esophageal and oropharyngeal dysphagia. Esophageal dysphagia is commonly reported in patients with EA and causes include dysmotility, anatomic lesions, esophageal outlet obstruction and esophageal inflammation. Endoscopic evaluation, esophageal manometry and esophograms can be useful studies to evaluate for causes of esophageal dysphagia. Oropharyngeal dysfunction and aspiration are also important mechanisms for feeding difficulties in patients with EA. These patients often present with respiratory symptoms. Videofluoroscopic swallow study, salivagram, fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing and high-resolution manometry can all be helpful tools to identify aspiration. Once diagnosed, management goals include reduction of aspiration during swallowing, reducing full column reflux into the oropharynx and continuation of oral feeding to maintain skills. We review specific strategies which can be used to reduce aspiration of gastric contents, including thickening feeds, changing feeding schedule, switching formula, trialing transpyloric feeds and fundoplication. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Interventions for Children's Language and Literacy Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowling, Margaret J.; Hulme, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Against a backdrop of research on individual differences in reading disorders, this review considers a range of effective interventions to promote reading and language skills evaluated by our group. The review begins by contrasting the reading profiles seen in dyslexia and reading comprehension impairment and then argues that different…

  19. Patient comprehension of emergency department care and instructions: are patients aware of when they do not understand?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Kirsten G; Heisler, Michele; Smith, Dylan M; Robinson, Claire H; Forman, Jane H; Ubel, Peter A

    2009-04-01

    To be able to adhere to discharge instructions after a visit to the emergency department (ED), patients should understand both the care that they received and their discharge instructions. The objective of this study is to assess, at discharge, patients' comprehension of their ED care and instructions and their awareness of deficiencies in their comprehension. We conducted structured interviews of 140 adult English-speaking patients or their primary caregivers after ED discharge in 2 health systems. Participants rated their subjective understanding of 4 domains: (1) diagnosis and cause; (2) ED care; (3) post-ED care, and (4) return instructions. We assessed patient comprehension as the degree of agreement (concordance) between patients' recall of each of these domains and information obtained from chart review. Two authors scored each case independently and discussed discrepancies before providing a final concordance rating (no concordance, minimal concordance, partial concordance, near concordance, complete concordance). Seventy-eight percent of patients demonstrated deficient comprehension (less than complete concordance) in at least 1 domain; 51% of patients, in 2 or more domains. Greater than a third of these deficiencies (34%) involved patients' understanding of post-ED care, whereas only 15% were for diagnosis and cause. The majority of patients with comprehension deficits failed to perceive them. Patients perceived difficulty with comprehension only 20% of the time when they demonstrated deficient comprehension. Many patients do not understand their ED care or their discharge instructions. Moreover, most patients appear to be unaware of their lack of understanding and report inappropriate confidence in their comprehension and recall.

  20. Modelling Question Difficulty in an A Level Physics Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisp, Victoria; Grayson, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    "Item difficulty modelling" is a technique used for a number of purposes such as to support future item development, to explore validity in relation to the constructs that influence difficulty and to predict the difficulty of items. This research attempted to explore the factors influencing question difficulty in a general qualification…

  1. Student Difficulties in Learning Density: A Distributed Cognition Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lihua; Clarke, David

    2012-08-01

    Density has been reported as one of the most difficult concepts for secondary school students (e.g. Smith et al. 1997). Discussion about the difficulties of learning this concept has been largely focused on the complexity of the concept itself or student misconceptions. Few, if any, have investigated how the concept of density was constituted in classroom interactions, and what consequences these interactions have for individual students' conceptual understanding. This paper reports a detailed analysis of two lessons on density in a 7th Grade Australian science classroom, employing the theory of Distributed Cognition (Hollan et al. 1999; Hutchins 1995). The analysis demonstrated that student understanding of density was shaped strongly by the public classroom discussion on the density of two metal blocks. It also revealed the ambiguities associated with the teacher demonstration and the student practical work. These ambiguities contributed to student difficulties with the concept of density identified in this classroom. The results of this study suggest that deliberate effort is needed to establish shared understanding not only about the purpose of the activities, but also about the meaning of scientific language and the utility of tools. It also suggests the importance of appropriate employment of instructional resources in order to facilitate student scientific understanding.

  2. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostelnik, K.M.

    1991-12-01

    This document presents the plan of activities for the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) program which supports the environmental restoration (ER) objectives of the Department of Energy (DOE) Complex. Discussed in this plan are the objectives, organization, roles and responsibilities, and the process for implementing and managing BWID. BWID is hosted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), but involves participants from throughout the DOE Complex, private industry, universities, and the international community. These participants will support, demonstrate, and evaluate a suite of advanced technologies representing a comprehensive remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste. The processes for identifying technological needs, screening candidate technologies for applicability and maturity, selecting appropriate technologies for demonstration, field demonstrating, evaluation of results and transferring technologies to environmental restoration programs are also presented. This document further describes the elements of project planning and control that apply to BWID. It addresses the management processes, operating procedures, programmatic and technical objectives, and schedules. Key functions in support of each demonstration such as regulatory coordination, safety analyses, risk evaluations, facility requirements, and data management are presented

  3. Using the Nudge and Shove Methods to Adjust Item Difficulty Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royal, Kenneth D

    2015-01-01

    In any examination, it is important that a sufficient mix of items with varying degrees of difficulty be present to produce desirable psychometric properties and increase instructors' ability to make appropriate and accurate inferences about what a student knows and/or can do. The purpose of this "teaching tip" is to demonstrate how examination items can be affected by the quality of distractors, and to present a simple method for adjusting items to meet difficulty specifications.

  4. On the study and difficulties of mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    De Morgan, Augustus

    2005-01-01

    One of the twentieth century's most eminent mathematical writers, Augustus De Morgan enriched his expositions with insights from history and psychology. On the Study and Difficulties of Mathematics represents some of his best work, containing points usually overlooked by elementary treatises, and written in a fresh and natural tone that provides a refreshing contrast to the mechanical character of common textbooks.Presuming only a knowledge of the rules of algebra and Euclidean theorems, De Morgan begins with some introductory remarks on the nature and objects of mathematics. He discusses the

  5. NECCESITY AND DIFFICULTY OF R D PERFORMANCEMEASUREMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MariaFekete-Farkas

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We are living in a globalized world with increasing population which is facingsevere global economic and financial crises as well as serious environmentalproblems. The possibilities to overcome these difficulties can be interpreted asthe need for sustainable development calling for innovation, increased R Dspending with increased R D effectiveness and efficiency. Besides greaterattentionforthe need of deeper understanding of the innovation process and therole of R D in it, this paper has discussed the many analytical problems thatconfront a researcher in this area, and additionally calls for research oncollaboration between universities and industry. Among other conclusions thispaper also provides a new way of thinking for policy makers and performancemonitoring committees.

  6. [IgE myeloma. Laboratory typing difficulties].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovone, Nora S; Fuente, María Cristina; Gastiazoro, Ana María; Alfonso, Graciela; Freitas, María Josefina

    2014-01-01

    The IgE multiple myeloma is a rare neoplasm of plasma cell accounting for 0.01% of all plasma cell dyscrasias. They are generally of more aggressive development and to date there are no more than 50 cases published in current literature. Laboratory studies are, in these cases, essential for the classification of the monoclonal component in serum and urine. The aim of this presentation is to report a patient diagnosed with IgE myeloma and to point out that the laboratory difficulties noted in these rare cases can lead to an erroneous report.

  7. Intervention program efficacy for spelling difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Maria Nobre; Capellini, Simone Aparecida

    2014-01-01

    To develop an intervention procedure for spelling difficulties and to verify the effectiveness of the intervention program in students with lower spelling performance. We developed an intervention program for spelling difficulties, according to the semiology of the errors. The program consisted of three modules totaling 16 sessions. The study included 40 students of the third to fifth grade of public elementary education of the city of Marilia (SP), of both genders, in aged of eight to 12 years old, being distributed in the following groups: GI (20 students with lower spelling performance) and GII (20 students with higher spelling performance). In situation of pre and post-testing, all groups were submitted to the Pro-Orthography. The results statistically analyzed showed that, in general, all groups had average of right that has higher in post-testing, reducing the types of errors second semiologycal classification, mainly related to natural spelling errors. However, the results also showed that the groups submitted to the intervention program showed better performance on spelling tests in relation to not submitted. The intervention program developed was effective once the groups submitted showed better performance on spelling tests in relation to not submitted. Therefore, the intervention program can help professionals in the Health and Education to minimize the problems related to spelling, giving students an intervention that is effective for the development of the spelling knowledge.

  8. The buried waste integrated demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostelnik, K.M.

    1991-01-01

    There are numerous locations throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) Complex where wastes have been buried in the ground or stored for future disposal. Much of this buried waste is contaminated with hazardous and radioactive materials. An extensive research program has been initiated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to develop and demonstrate advanced remediation techniques for DOE Complex buried waste. The purpose of the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID), is to develop a scientifically sound and deployable remediation system consisting of advanced technologies which address the buried waste characteristics of the DOE Complex. This comprehensive remediation system win include technologies for the entire remediation cycle (cradle-to-grave). Technologies developed and demonstrated within the BWID will be transferred to the DOE Complex sites with buried waste, to private industry, and to universities. Multidirectional technology transfer is encouraged by the BWID. Identification and evaluation of plausible technological solutions are an ongoing activity of the BWID. A number of technologies are currently under development throughout the DOE Complex, private industry, and universities. Technology integration mechanisms have been established by BWID to facilitate collaborative research and demonstration of applicable remedial technologies for buried waste. Successful completion of the BWID will result in the development of a proven and deployable system at the INEL and other DOE Complex buried waste sites, thereby supporting the DOE Complex's environmental restoration objectives

  9. Electrophysiology of prosodic and lexical-semantic processing during sentence comprehension in aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, Shannon M; Love, Tracy; Midgley, Katherine J; Holcomb, Phillip J; Shapiro, Lewis P

    2017-12-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) were used to examine how individuals with aphasia and a group of age-matched controls use prosody and themattic fit information in sentences containing temporary syntactic ambiguities. Two groups of individuals with aphasia were investigated; those demonstrating relatively good sentence comprehension whose primary language difficulty is anomia (Individuals with Anomic Aphasia (IWAA)), and those who demonstrate impaired sentence comprehension whose primary diagnosis is Broca's aphasia (Individuals with Broca's Aphasia (IWBA)). The stimuli had early closure syntactic structure and contained a temporary early closure (correct)/late closure (incorrect) syntactic ambiguity. The prosody was manipulated to either be congruent or incongruent, and the temporarily ambiguous NP was also manipulated to either be a plausible or an implausible continuation for the subordinate verb (e.g., "While the band played the song/the beer pleased all the customers."). It was hypothesized that an implausible NP in sentences with incongruent prosody may provide the parser with a plausibility cue that could be used to predict syntactic structure. The results revealed that incongruent prosody paired with a plausibility cue resulted in an N400-P600 complex at the implausible NP (the beer) in both the controls and the IWAAs, yet incongruent prosody without a plausibility cue resulted in an N400-P600 at the critical verb (pleased) only in healthy controls. IWBAs did not show evidence of N400 or P600 effects at the ambiguous NP or critical verb, although they did show evidence of a delayed N400 effect at the sentence-final word in sentences with incongruent prosody. These results suggest that IWAAs have difficulty integrating prosodic cues with underlying syntactic structure when lexical-semantic information is not available to aid their parse. IWBAs have difficulty integrating both prosodic and lexical-semantic cues with syntactic structure, likely due to a

  10. Biodiesel Mass Transit Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    The Biodiesel Mass Transit Demonstration report is intended for mass transit decision makers and fleet managers considering biodiesel use. This is the final report for the demonstration project implemented by the National Biodiesel Board under a gran...

  11. Authoring Effective Demonstrations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fu, Dan; Jensen, Randy; Salas, Eduardo; Rosen, Michael A; Ramachandran, Sowmya; Upshaw, Christin L; Hinkelman, Elizabeth; Lampton, Don

    2007-01-01

    ... or human role-players for each training event. We report our ongoing efforts to (1) research the nature and purpose of demonstration, articulating guidelines for effective demonstration within a training context, and (2...

  12. Comparing Demonstratives in Kwa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is a comparative study of demonstrative forms in three K wa languages, ... relative distance from the deictic centre, such as English this and that, here and there. ... Mostly, the referents of demonstratives are 'activated' or at least.

  13. Polarized Light Corridor Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, G. R.

    1990-01-01

    Eleven demonstrations of light polarization are presented. Each includes a brief description of the apparatus and the effect demonstrated. Illustrated are strain patterns, reflection, scattering, the Faraday Effect, interference, double refraction, the polarizing microscope, and optical activity. (CW)

  14. Case in Language Comprehension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bader, Markus; Lamers, Monique

    2012-01-01

    Research on human language comprehension has been heavily influenced by properties of the English language. Since case plays only a minor role in English, its role for language comprehension has only recently become a topic for extensive research on psycholinguistics. In the psycholinguistic

  15. Spectrum of Physics Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasiak, W.; Godlewska, M.; Rosiek, R.; Wcislo, D.

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents the results of research on the relationship between self-assessed comprehension of physics lectures and final grades of junior high school students (aged 13-15), high school students (aged 16-18) and physics students at the Pedagogical University of Cracow, Poland (aged 21). Students' declared level of comprehension was measured…

  16. Vers une Redefinition de la Comprehension Ecrite en Langue Etrangere (Towards a Redefinition of Reading Comprehension in a Foreign Language). Melanges Pedagogiques, 1975.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, D.; And Others

    Up to the present, the Centre de Recherches et d'Applications Pedagogiques en Langues has approached the development of reading comprehension skills in English as a second language in terms of morpho-syntactic development. This article proposes to examine difficulties in reading comprehension based not on morpho-syntax but on the textual and…

  17. Estimating the Difficulty Level of EFL Texts: Applying Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Pourdana

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to explore the impact of difficulty level of texts on EFL learners’ reading comprehension through the application of Bloom’s cognitive taxonomy. The researchers’ primary assumption was that reading EFL texts would become more difficult as the learners’ performance proceeds from a text targeting their Knowledge abilities through the texts tapping on their Comprehension, Application, Analysis, Synthesis to Evaluation abilities. To fulfil the ultimate purpose of the research, 32 undergraduate students majoring in English translation at Islamic Azad University, Karaj Branch, Iran took part in this investigation in 2011. In addition to Comprehensive English Language Test (CELT, the participants were given a teacher–made reading comprehension test, included six short reading passages from 154 to 166 ranges of words and 30 multiple- choice items which compiled and constructed based on the six levels in the hierarchy of Bloom’s cognitive taxonomy. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA proved that except for the fifth level, the Synthesis text, the EFL learners’ performance was graded properly based on the difficulty levels expected and explored in Bloom’s levels of Cognitive Domain. The findings in this study are considerably practical in developing EFL materials and teaching reading skills and strategies.

  18. Neuronal basis of speech comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specht, Karsten

    2014-01-01

    Verbal communication does not rely only on the simple perception of auditory signals. It is rather a parallel and integrative processing of linguistic and non-linguistic information, involving temporal and frontal areas in particular. This review describes the inherent complexity of auditory speech comprehension from a functional-neuroanatomical perspective. The review is divided into two parts. In the first part, structural and functional asymmetry of language relevant structures will be discus. The second part of the review will discuss recent neuroimaging studies, which coherently demonstrate that speech comprehension processes rely on a hierarchical network involving the temporal, parietal, and frontal lobes. Further, the results support the dual-stream model for speech comprehension, with a dorsal stream for auditory-motor integration, and a ventral stream for extracting meaning but also the processing of sentences and narratives. Specific patterns of functional asymmetry between the left and right hemisphere can also be demonstrated. The review article concludes with a discussion on interactions between the dorsal and ventral streams, particularly the involvement of motor related areas in speech perception processes, and outlines some remaining unresolved issues. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Human Auditory Neuroimaging. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Parents' difficulties with decisions about childhood immunisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Helen; Campion-Smith, Charles; Thomas, Sarah; Ward, William

    2008-10-01

    Uptake of childhood immunisation fluctuates in the UK. Convenience, access and parents' relationships with professionals influence uptake. This study explores the decision-making by parents about their children's immunisation through focus groups with analysis to identify categories of concern. Issues raised in focus groups included fear, risk, anger, worry and guilt, confusion, difficulty of decision-making and trust of professionals. The parents of completely and incompletely immunised children shared areas of concern, but there were also significant differences. There was a subset of parents of incompletely immunised children who had decided that their children would not have full immunisation, and this group had little trust in information provided by healthcare professionals. Simply providing more information is unlikely to change their decision.

  20. Modeling Polymorphemic Word Recognition: Exploring Differences among Children with Early-Emerging and Late- Emerging Word Reading Difficulty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, Devin M.; Steacy, Laura M.; Compton, Donald L.; Gilbert, Jennifer K.; Goodwin, Amanda P.; Cho, Eunsoo; Lindstrom, Esther R.; Collins, Alyson A.

    2016-01-01

    Comprehensive models of derived polymorphemic word recognition skill in developing readers, with an emphasis on children with reading difficulty (RD), have not been developed. The purpose of the present study was to model individual differences in polymorphemic word recognition ability at the item level among 5th-grade children (N = 173)…

  1. A Case Study: The Implementation of a Problem-Solving Model with a Student with Reading Difficulties in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozmen, E. Ruya; Doganay-Bilgi, Arzu

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this case study was to improve the reading accuracy and reading comprehension of a 10-year-old fourth-grade female student with reading difficulties. For that purpose, the problem- solving model was implemented in four stages. These stages included problem identification, problem analysis, intervention, and evaluation. During the…

  2. Strategy Guideline: Demonstration Home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savage, C.; Hunt, A.

    2012-12-01

    This guideline will provide a general overview of the different kinds of demonstration home projects, a basic understanding of the different roles and responsibilities involved in the successful completion of a demonstration home, and an introduction into some of the lessons learned from actual demonstration home projects. Also, this guideline will specifically look at the communication methods employed during demonstration home projects. And lastly, we will focus on how to best create a communication plan for including an energy efficient message in a demonstration home project and carry that message to successful completion.

  3. Strategy Guideline. Demonstration Home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, A.; Savage, C.

    2012-12-01

    This guideline will provide a general overview of the different kinds of demonstration home projects, a basic understanding of the different roles and responsibilities involved in the successful completion of a demonstration home, and an introduction into some of the lessons learned from actual demonstration home projects. Also, this guideline will specifically look at the communication methods employed during demonstration home projects. And lastly, we will focus on how to best create a communication plan for including an energy efficient message in a demonstration home project and carry that message to successful completion.

  4. Strategies for Improving Non-Fiction Reading Comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Karen; Caspari, Amy

    This report describes a program for introducing students to strategies for improving their comprehension of non-fiction materials. The targeted population consisted of students of one third grade class in a small, middle class suburb, northwest of a large, midwestern city. Difficulty reading and comprehending non-fiction material was documented…

  5. Reading Comprehension, Learning Styles, and Seventh Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Judy

    2010-01-01

    Reading is a basic life skill. Unfortunately, in 2007, only 29% of all eighth graders were able to comprehend at or above a proficient reading comprehension level. Sensory learning styles (kinesthetic, tactile, auditory, and visual) affect the way that students prefer to learn and the areas in which they will have difficulty learning. This study…

  6. Neural correlates of pragmatic language comprehension in autism spectrum disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tesink, C.M.J.Y.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Petersson, K.M.; Gaag, R.J. van der; Kan, C.C.; Tendolkar, I.; Hagoort, P.

    2009-01-01

    Difficulties with pragmatic aspects of communication are universal across individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Here we focused on an aspect of pragmatic language comprehension that is relevant to social interaction in daily life: the integration of speaker characteristics inferred from

  7. Neural correlates of pragmatic language comprehension in autism spectrum disorders.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tesink, C.M.J.Y.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Petersson, K.M.; Gaag, R.J. van der; Kan, C.C.; Tendolkar, I.; Hagoort, P.

    2009-01-01

    Difficulties with pragmatic aspects of communication are universal across individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Here we focused on an aspect of pragmatic language comprehension that is relevant to social interaction in daily life: the integration of speaker characteristics inferred from

  8. Functional Anatomy of Listening and Reading Comprehension during Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berl, Madison M.; Duke, Elizabeth S.; Mayo, Jessica; Rosenberger, Lisa R.; Moore, Erin N.; VanMeter, John; Ratner, Nan Bernstein; Vaidya, Chandan J.; Gaillard, William Davis

    2010-01-01

    Listening and reading comprehension of paragraph-length material are considered higher-order language skills fundamental to social and academic functioning. Using ecologically relevant language stimuli that were matched for difficulty according to developmental level, we analyze the effects of task, age, neuropsychological skills, and post-task…

  9. Quantifying siting difficulty: a case study of US transmission line siting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vajjhala, S.P. [Resources for the Future, Washington DC (United States); Fischbeck, P.S. [Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Departments of Social and Decision Sciences and Engineering and Public Policy

    2007-01-15

    The worldwide demand for new energy infrastructures has been paralleled in recent years by the increasing difficulty of siting major facilities. Siting difficulty is the subject of widespread discussion, but because of the complexity of the problem, potential solutions are not obvious or well understood. This paper presents a two-step policy-level framework that first develops an empirical measure of siting difficulty and then qualitatively assesses its major causes. The approach is based on the creation and aggregation of four siting indicators that are independent of the common causes and localized effects of siting problems. The proposed framework is demonstrated for the case of US transmission line siting. Results of the analyses reveal significant variations in state siting difficulty and industry experts' perceptions of its dominant causes, with implications for the long-term success of Regional Transmission Organizations (RTOs) and knowledge transfer among siting professionals in the deregulated industry. (author)

  10. Persistent Handwriting Difficulties in Children With ADHD After Treatment With Stimulant Medication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brossard-Racine, Marie; Shevell, Michael; Snider, Laurie; Bélanger, Stacey Ageranioti; Julien, Marilyse; Majnemer, Annette

    2015-07-01

    Children with ADHD often present with handwriting difficulties. However, the extent to which motor and attention skills influence performance in this group has not yet been explored. The objective of this study was to examine the factors associated with change in handwriting performance. This study examines the factors associated with change in handwriting performance of 49 children newly diagnosed with ADHD (mean age = 8.4 [SD=1.3] years) prior to and 3 months following use of a stimulant medication. Handwriting legibility and speed improved significantly at follow-up evaluation. However, most of the children with legibility difficulties at baseline continued to demonstrate difficulties when evaluated 3 months after initiation of medication. Change in handwriting legibility was best determined by improvements in visual-motor integration skills (β = 0.07-0.10; p Handwriting difficulties are common in children with ADHD, and medication alone is not sufficient to resolve these challenges. © 2012 SAGE Publications.

  11. Development of cognitive processes inschoolchildren with learning difficulties inthe light ofanalysis ofWISC-R results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Mazurkiewicz-Gronowska

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available For several years now, noticeable has been a significant increase in the interest of psychologists – practitioners and scientists, of parents and teachers in the issues of dyslexia, dyscalculia, and other developmental disorders. Specific learning difficulties constitute one of the most prevalent causes of reporting children to psychological and pedagogic outpatient departments. The results of the performed studies enable inter- and intra-group comparisons as well as a global analysis of the structure of intellectual development in children with various learning difficulties. This leads to interesting conclusions and allows for comprehensive scientific discussions. The subject of the article is presentation of the results of studies and conclusions formulated according to them, about the structure of intellectual development of children with learning difficulties diagnosed in two psychological-pedagogic outpatient departments in Lublin region (Psychological-Pedagogic Outpatient Department No 5 in Lublin and PsychologicalPedagogic Outpatient Department No 2 in Zamość. Analysed were the results of the WISC-R scale obtained by schoolchildren from forms IV-VI of elementary schools and junior secondary schools in Lublin and schools of Zamość county. As scholastic difficulties constitute quite a comprehensive term, generally perceived as problems in acquisition of information and mastering school skills, in our study we take into account the following three groups of schoolchildren: with developmental dyslexia, intelligence lower than average, and specific disorders in arithmetic skills. The performed analyses are aimed at familiarization with the developmental level of the schoolchildren’s cognitive functions and their intellectual skills structure based on a three-factor analysis. Our studies continue earlier analyses, including more comprehensive research areas with larger groups.

  12. Why People with More Emotion Regulation Difficulties Made a More Deontological Judgment: The Role of Deontological Inclinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lisong; Li, Zhongquan; Wu, Xiaoyuan; Zhang, Ziyuan

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the key role of emotion in moral judgment, and explored the relationship between emotion regulation and moral judgment. The present study investigated the influence of individual differences in emotion regulation difficulties on moral judgment. Study 1 examined whether individuals with high emotion regulation difficulties made a more deontological judgment. Study 2 explored the underlying mechanism using a process-dissociation approach, examining whether deontological inclinations and utilitarian inclinations separately or jointly accounted for the association. The results indicated that individuals with high emotion regulation difficulties rated the utilitarian actions less morally appropriate, and one's deontological inclinations mediated the association between emotion regulation difficulties and moral judgment.

  13. Quotient-Comprehension Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenta Cho

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Quotients and comprehension are fundamental mathematical constructions that can be described via adjunctions in categorical logic. This paper reveals that quotients and comprehension are related to measurement, not only in quantum logic, but also in probabilistic and classical logic. This relation is presented by a long series of examples, some of them easy, and some also highly non-trivial (esp. for von Neumann algebras. We have not yet identified a unifying theory. Nevertheless, the paper contributes towards such a theory by introducing the new quotient-and-comprehension perspective on measurement instruments, and by describing the examples on which such a theory should be built.

  14. Comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Marie; Hochstrasser, Stefan; Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe O

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The costs of comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation are established and compared to the corresponding costs of usual care. The effect on health-related quality of life is analyzed. METHODS: An unprecedented and very detailed cost assessment was carried out, as no guidelines existed...... and may be as high as euro 1.877. CONCLUSIONS: Comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation is more costly than usual care, and the higher costs are not outweighed by a quality of life gain. Comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation is, therefore, not cost-effective....

  15. Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The U.S. Department of Energy Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) provides a collaborative, shared infrastructure to...

  16. Leadership: difficulties and potentials of a introvert leader in organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Henrique Faria Carvalho da Costa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to demonstrate through theoretical and bibliographical potentials and difficulties encountered in introvert searches. Leadership, overcoat can be seen as a great symphony, having the leader as the maestro. What determines whether the presentation it is good or not is the ability and / or skill that the leader has to influence their subordinates to act to the music according. To lead is one of the most crucial tasks within organizations. Considering that, companies seek people with a particular style of leadership, taking into account factors such as assertiveness, public speaking skills and body language. These are common characteristics of the extroverted style, however, the paper will be about the opposite style, Known as by introversion, reflection, understanding and cooperative sense. The results show that introverted leadership is almost insignificant minority or in organizations where through studies is full with their ability to lead a team in one sector or even an organization.

  17. Status of Muslim Immigrants' Children with Learning Difficulties in Vienna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohsin, M. Naeem; Shabbir, Muhammad; Saeed, Wizra; Mohsin, M. Saleem

    2013-01-01

    The study was conducted to know the status of Muslim immigrants' children with learning difficulties and importance of parents' involvement for the education whose children are with learning difficulties, and the factors responsible for the learning difficulties among immigrants' children. There were 81 immigrant children with learning…

  18. Spectrum of physics comprehension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blasiak, W; Godlewska, M; Rosiek, R; Wcislo, D

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents the results of research on the relationship between self-assessed comprehension of physics lectures and final grades of junior high school students (aged 13-15), high school students (aged 16-18) and physics students at the Pedagogical University of Cracow, Poland (aged 21). Students' declared level of comprehension was measured during a physics lecture on a prearranged scale of 1-10 with the use of a personal response system designed for the purpose of this experiment. Through the use of this tool, we obtained about 2000 computer records of students' declared comprehension of a 45 min lecture, which we named ‘the spectrum of comprehension’. In this paper, we present and analyse the correlation between students' declared comprehension of the content presented in the lecture and their final learning results. (paper)

  19. Comprehensibility and Prosody Ratings for Pronunciation Software Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Warren

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In the context of a project developing software for pronunciation practice and feedback for Mandarin-speaking learners of English, a key issue is how to decide which features of pronunciation to focus on in giving feedback. We used naïve and experienced native speaker ratings of comprehensibility and nativeness to establish the key features affecting comprehensibility of the utterances of a group of Chinese learners of English. Native speaker raters assessed the comprehensibility of recorded utterances, pinpointed areas of difficulty and then rated for nativeness the same utterances, but after segmental information had been filtered out. The results show that prosodic information is important for comprehensibility, and that there are no significant differences between naïve and experienced raters on either comprehensibility or nativeness judgements. This suggests that naïve judgements are a useful and accessible source of data for identifying the parameters to be used in setting up automated feedback.

  20. FAMILY BUSINESSES AND THE DIFFICULTIES ENCOUNTERED BY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Martins

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available There are few family owned businesses that survive to the next generation. In general, 30% of these businesses are passed on to second generation families and less than 15% survive to third generation families. There has been little research done on third generation family businesses. Therefore the main purpose of this paper is to identify the principal difficulties of passing on managerial skills to the third generation owners. This study uses a case study of a Brazilian family organization composed of twelve enterprises. The instrument to collect data was an individually guided recorded interview with all of the family managers (1ª, 2ª e 3ª generation. The technique applied, was suggested for Miles & Huberman (1994 to group the data in analytical categories to facilitate the analyzed speeches contained in the 49 blocks of responses. As a result, the transition the business to the third generation owners has been strongly associated with the relation between family and business by the following factors: a the succession process influenced by emotional and family values; b conflicts, rivalries and divergences of strategic visions and business goals between the family generations; c lack of professional criteria to hire relatives; and d fragility of communication and consequent asymmetry of information among the family members.

  1. Respiratory difficulties and breathing disorders in achondroplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afsharpaiman, S; Saburi, A; Waters, Karen A

    2013-12-01

    Respiratory difficulties and breathing disorders in achondroplasia are thought to underlie the increased risk for sudden infant death and neuropsychological deficits seen in this condition. This review evaluates literature regarding respiratory dysfunctions and their sequelae in patients with achondroplasia. The limited number of prospective studies of respiratory disease in achondroplasia means that observational studies and case series provide a large proportion of the data regarding the spectrum of respiratory diseases in achondroplasia and their treatments. Amongst clinical respiratory problems described, snoring is the commonest observed abnormality, but the reported incidence of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) shows wide variance (10% to 75%). Reported treatments of OSA include adenotonsillectomy, the use of CPAP, and surgical improvement of the airway, including mid-face advancement. Otolaryngologic manifestations are also common. Respiratory failure due to small thoracic volumes is reported, but uncommon. Mortality rate at all ages was 2.27 (CI: 1.7-3.0) with age-specific mortality increased at all ages. Sudden death was most common in infants and children. Cardiovascular events are the main cause of mortality in adults. Despite earlier recognition and treatment of respiratory complications of achondroplasia, increased mortality rates and other complications remain high. Future and ongoing evaluation of the prevalence and impact of respiratory disorders, particularly OSA, in achondroplasia is recommended. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Multidisciplinary intervention for childhood feeding difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Jeanne; Hill, Rebecca J; Ware, Robert S; Ziviani, Jenny; Dodrill, Pamela

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether operant conditioning (OC) or systematic desensitization (SysD) intervention resulted in more improvements in dietary variety/intake, and more reductions in difficult mealtime behaviors. Children 2 to 6 years with autism spectrum disorder or with a nonmedically complex history were recruited. Feeding difficulties were confirmed based on clinical assessment. Participants were randomized to receive 10 OC or SysD sessions (parents could opt for intervention once per week, or intensively within a week). Immersive parent education was delivered across both arms. A 3-month review was provided to measure outcomes postintervention. In total, 68 participants (87%) completed the study. There were no significant differences in outcome measures between the OC and SysD intervention groups from baseline to 3-month review. When the data were combined across both groups, however, significant improvements in primary outcome measures were observed (P education, these 2 intervention approaches are effective. Further research is required in exploring these interventions across other subgroups, and examining outcomes for longer periods.

  3. [Difficulties in psychology and sexual behavior].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    After an introduction by S. Kepes (Fertilite Orthogenie 4(4): 174-177,1972) the participants and audience discussed general topics such as the physician-patient relationship, unconscious motives, attitudes of male partners and physicians, and treatment of minors. Resistance by male partners toward contraception was considered due to fear of inadequacy in the face of female sexuality or to adherence to a double moral standard for wives. A gynecologist claimed that high school students are more likely to request contraception and use it effectively than they were 5 years ago; a midwife said that less privileged adolescents frequently become pregnant. Opinions were expressed that it is inappropriate to consider contraception from a psychological viewpoint, since it is part of a revolution toward a better life; that some psychological difficulties come from the doctor having preferences for certain methods; that the pill does not cause frigidity but is often blamed for preexisting problems; that the press frightens women away from taking the pill; that physicians should prescribe contraception to minors without seeking parental consent (unlawful in France).

  4. [Increasing difficulties for scientific publication in Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Elena

    2014-03-01

    A very important increase in the costs of the edition of scientific journals has taken place in Venezuela, due to difficulties in obtaining imported free acid paper and other materials used for handling documents. Like other journals, Investigaci6n Clinica has been considering switching completely to a digital publication format; however there are several reasons that prevent us to doing it at this time: the journal is distributed in printed form to many national institutions, which do not have immediate access to digital information. In addition, there exists a commitment of shipment of printed issues for some international indices and in exchange with other national and foreign journals, whose printed format we receive. Another important aspect is that our University maintains a weak technological platform that makes difficult the immediacy required for the interchange with authors and consulted referees of received papers; and there is a latent danger of limitations in the use of digital technologies, due to current national politic problems. Consequently, we need to continue with the printed format, but must reduce the amount of printed issues, so as not to limit the number of papers published in each edition. Nevertheless, there is an ever increasing number of contributions from foreign researches and Investigaci6n Clinica has been recently included in two new international indices, the SEIIC from Argentina and the Infobase Index from India, reasons that obligate us to maintain our levels of excellence and commitment to our authors and readers.

  5. Innovative technology demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.B.; Luttrell, S.P.; Hartley, J.N.; Hinchee, R.

    1992-04-01

    The Innovative Technology Demonstration (ITD) program at Tinker Air Force Base (TAFB), Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, will demonstrate the overall utility and effectiveness of innovative technologies for site characterization, monitoring, and remediation of selected contaminated test sites. The current demonstration test sites include a CERCLA site on the NPL list, located under a building (Building 3001) that houses a large active industrial complex used for rebuilding military aircraft, and a site beneath and surrounding an abandoned underground tank vault used for storage of jet fuels and solvents. The site under Building 3001 (the NW Test Site) is contaminated with TCE and Cr +6 ; the site with the fuel storage vault (the SW Tanks Site) is contaminated with fuels, BTEX and TCE. These sites and others have been identified for cleanup under the Air Force's Installation Restoration Program (IRP). This document describes the demonstrations that have been conducted or are planned for the TAFB

  6. Laser Communications Relay Demonstration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — LCRD is a minimum two year flight demonstration in geosynchronous Earth orbit to advance optical communications technology toward infusion into Deep Space and Near...

  7. Spacecraft Fire Safety Demonstration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of the Spacecraft Fire Safety Demonstration project is to develop and conduct large-scale fire safety experiments on an International Space Station...

  8. Education Payload Operation - Demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    Education Payload Operation - Demonstrations (EPO-Demos) are recorded video education demonstrations performed on the International Space Station (ISS) by crewmembers using hardware already onboard the ISS. EPO-Demos are videotaped, edited, and used to enhance existing NASA education resources and programs for educators and students in grades K-12. EPO-Demos are designed to support the NASA mission to inspire the next generation of explorers.

  9. Can Early Years Professionals Determine Which Preschoolers Have Comprehension Delays? A Comparison of Two Screening Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seager, Emily; Abbot-Smith, Kirsten

    2017-01-01

    Language comprehension delays in pre-schoolers are predictive of difficulties in a range of developmental domains. In England, early years practitioners are required to assess the language comprehension of 2-year-olds in their care. Many use a format based on the Early Years Foundation Stage Unique Child Communication Sheet (EYFS:UCCS) in which…

  10. Vocabulary and Syntactic Knowledge Factors in 5th Grade Students' Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtari, Kouider; Niederhauser, Dale S.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we examined 5th grade students' levels of vocabulary knowledge and syntactic awareness relative to their reading comprehension performance. The aim was to explore the contributions of vocabulary and syntactic awareness as potential sources of reading comprehension difficulty for these readers. Overall, we found that both vocabulary…

  11. Irvine Smart Grid Demonstration, a Regional Smart Grid Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yinger, Robert [Southern California Edison Company, Rosemead, CA (United States); Irwin, Mark [Southern California Edison Company, Rosemead, CA (United States)

    2015-12-29

    ISGD was a comprehensive demonstration that spanned the electricity delivery system and extended into customer homes. The project used phasor measurement technology to enable substation-level situational awareness, and demonstrated SCE’s next-generation substation automation system. It extended beyond the substation to evaluate the latest generation of distribution automation technologies, including looped 12-kV distribution circuit topology using URCIs. The project team used DVVC capabilities to demonstrate CVR. In customer homes, the project evaluated HAN devices such as smart appliances, programmable communicating thermostats, and home energy management components. The homes were also equipped with energy storage, solar PV systems, and a number of energy efficiency measures (EEMs). The team used one block of homes to evaluate strategies and technologies for achieving ZNE. A home achieves ZNE when it produces at least as much renewable energy as the amount of energy it consumes annually. The project also assessed the impact of device-specific demand response (DR), as well as load management capabilities involving energy storage devices and plug-in electric vehicle charging equipment. In addition, the ISGD project sought to better understand the impact of ZNE homes on the electric grid. ISGD’s SENet enabled end-to-end interoperability between multiple vendors’ systems and devices, while also providing a level of cybersecurity that is essential to smart grid development and adoption across the nation. The ISGD project includes a series of sub-projects grouped into four logical technology domains: Smart Energy Customer Solutions, Next-Generation Distribution System, Interoperability and Cybersecurity, and Workforce of the Future. Section 2.3 provides a more detailed overview of these domains.

  12. The behaviour and self-esteem of children with specific speech and language difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, G; Dockrell, J

    2000-12-01

    parents rated the latter group as having more behaviour difficulties. Multiple regression analyses identified language comprehension and reading comprehension as the only predictors of the parents' rating of behaviour (on the SDQ). No relationship was found with the teachers' ratings. Behavioural difficulties, but not low self-esteem, are common in children of 7-8 years with SSLD, but the differences in patterns of relationship between parents and teachers, and with respect to children attending mainstream and special schools, challenge simple interpretations of comorbidity.

  13. "I Want to Feel Like a Full Man": Conceptualizing Gay, Bisexual, and Heterosexual Men's Sexual Difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonagh, Lorraine K; Nielsen, Elly-Jean; McDermott, Daragh T; Davies, Nathan; Morrison, Todd G

    2018-01-01

    Current understandings of sexual difficulties originate from a model that is based on the study of heterosexual men and women. Most research has focused on sexual difficulties experienced by heterosexual men incapable of engaging in vaginal penetration. To better understand men's perceptions and experiences of sexual difficulties, seven focus groups and 29 individual interviews were conducted with gay (n = 22), bisexual (n = 5), and heterosexual (n = 25) men. In addition, the extent to which difficulties reported by gay and bisexual men differ from heterosexual men was explored. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis applying an inductive approach. Two intercorrelated conceptualizations were identified: penis function (themes: medicalization, masculine identity, psychological consequences, coping mechanisms) and pain (themes: penile pain, pain during receptive anal sex). For the most part, gay, bisexual, and heterosexual men reported similar sexual difficulties; differences were evident regarding alternative masculinity, penis size competition, and pain during receptive anal sex. The results of this study demonstrate the complexity of men's sexual difficulties and the important role of sociocultural, interpersonal, and psychological factors. Limitations and suggested directions for future research are outlined.

  14. Informed consent comprehension in African research settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afolabi, Muhammed O; Okebe, Joseph U; McGrath, Nuala; Larson, Heidi J; Bojang, Kalifa; Chandramohan, Daniel

    2014-06-01

    Previous reviews on participants' comprehension of informed consent information have focused on developed countries. Experience has shown that ethical standards developed on Western values may not be appropriate for African settings where research concepts are unfamiliar. We undertook this review to describe how informed consent comprehension is defined and measured in African research settings. We conducted a comprehensive search involving five electronic databases: Medline, Embase, Global Health, EthxWeb and Bioethics Literature Database (BELIT). We also examined African Index Medicus and Google Scholar for relevant publications on informed consent comprehension in clinical studies conducted in sub-Saharan Africa. 29 studies satisfied the inclusion criteria; meta-analysis was possible in 21 studies. We further conducted a direct comparison of participants' comprehension on domains of informed consent in all eligible studies. Comprehension of key concepts of informed consent varies considerably from country to country and depends on the nature and complexity of the study. Meta-analysis showed that 47% of a total of 1633 participants across four studies demonstrated comprehension about randomisation (95% CI 13.9-80.9%). Similarly, 48% of 3946 participants in six studies had understanding about placebo (95% CI 19.0-77.5%), while only 30% of 753 participants in five studies understood the concept of therapeutic misconception (95% CI 4.6-66.7%). Measurement tools for informed consent comprehension were developed with little or no validation. Assessment of comprehension was carried out at variable times after disclosure of study information. No uniform definition of informed consent comprehension exists to form the basis for development of an appropriate tool to measure comprehension in African participants. Comprehension of key concepts of informed consent is poor among study participants across Africa. There is a vital need to develop a uniform definition for

  15. Perceptual discrimination difficulty and familiarity in the Uncanny Valley: more like a "Happy Valley".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheetham, Marcus; Suter, Pascal; Jancke, Lutz

    2014-01-01

    The Uncanny Valley Hypothesis (UVH) predicts that greater difficulty perceptually discriminating between categorically ambiguous human and humanlike characters (e.g., highly realistic robot) evokes negatively valenced (i.e., uncanny) affect. An ABX perceptual discrimination task and signal detection analysis was used to examine the profile of perceptual discrimination (PD) difficulty along the UVH' dimension of human likeness (DHL). This was represented using avatar-to-human morph continua. Rejecting the implicitly assumed profile of PD difficulty underlying the UVH' prediction, Experiment 1 showed that PD difficulty was reduced for categorically ambiguous faces but, notably, enhanced for human faces. Rejecting the UVH' predicted relationship between PD difficulty and negative affect (assessed in terms of the UVH' familiarity dimension), Experiment 2 demonstrated that greater PD difficulty correlates with more positively valenced affect. Critically, this effect was strongest for the ambiguous faces, suggesting a correlative relationship between PD difficulty and feelings of familiarity more consistent with the metaphor happy valley. This relationship is also consistent with a fluency amplification instead of the hitherto proposed hedonic fluency account of affect along the DHL. Experiment 3 found no evidence that the asymmetry in the profile of PD along the DHL is attributable to a differential processing bias (cf. other-race effect), i.e., processing avatars at a category level but human faces at an individual level. In conclusion, the present data for static faces show clear effects that, however, strongly challenge the UVH' implicitly assumed profile of PD difficulty along the DHL and the predicted relationship between this and feelings of familiarity.

  16. Which Environmental Factors Have the Highest Impact on the Performance of People Experiencing Difficulties in Capacity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Loidl

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Disability is understood by the World Health Organization (WHO as the outcome of the interaction between a health condition and personal and environmental factors. Comprehensive data about environmental factors is therefore essential to understand and influence disability. We aimed to identify which environmental factors have the highest impact on the performance of people with mild, moderate and severe difficulties in capacity, who are at risk of experiencing disability to different extents, using data from a pilot study of the WHO Model Disability Survey in Cambodia and random forest regression. Hindering or facilitating aspects of places to socialize in community activities, transportation and natural environment as well as use and need of personal assistance and use of medication on a regular basis were the most important environmental factors across groups. Hindering or facilitating aspects of the general environment were the most relevant in persons experiencing mild levels of difficulties in capacity, while social support, attitudes of others and use of medication on a regular basis were highly relevant for the performance of persons experiencing moderate to higher levels of difficulties in capacity. Additionally, we corroborate the high importance of the use and need of assistive devices for people with severe difficulties in capacity.

  17. Cyber Bullying and Internalizing Difficulties: Above and beyond the Impact of Traditional Forms of Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonanno, Rina A.; Hymel, Shelley

    2013-01-01

    Although recent research has demonstrated significant links between involvement in cyber bullying and various internalizing difficulties, there exists debate as to whether these links are independent of involvement in more traditional forms of bullying. The present study systematically examined the association between involvement in cyber…

  18. Measurement of functional task difficulty during motor learning: What level of difficulty corresponds to the optimal challenge point?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akizuki, Kazunori; Ohashi, Yukari

    2015-10-01

    The relationship between task difficulty and learning benefit was examined, as was the measurability of task difficulty. Participants were required to learn a postural control task on an unstable surface at one of four different task difficulty levels. Results from the retention test showed an inverted-U relationship between task difficulty during acquisition and motor learning. The second-highest level of task difficulty was the most effective for motor learning, while learning was delayed at the most and least difficult levels. Additionally, the results indicate that salivary α-amylase and the performance dimension of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration-Task Load Index (NASA-TLX) are useful indices of task difficulty. Our findings suggested that instructors may be able to adjust task difficulty based on salivary α-amylase and the performance dimension of the NASA-TLX to enhance learning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Learning From Demonstration?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Christian; Bertelsen, Niels Haldor

    2014-01-01

    Demonstration projects are often used in the building sector to provide a basis for using new processes and/or products. The climate change agenda implies that construction is not only required to deliver value for the customer, cost reductions and efficiency but also sustainable buildings....... This paper reports on an early demonstration project, the Building of a passive house dormitory in the Central Region of Denmark in 2006-2009. The project was supposed to deliver value, lean design, prefabrication, quality in sustainability, certification according to German standards for passive houses......, and micro combined heat and power using hydrogen. Using sociological and business economic theories of innovation, the paper discusses how early movers of innovation tend to obtain only partial success when demonstrating their products and often feel obstructed by minor details. The empirical work...

  20. Solar renovation demonstration projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruun Joergensen, O [ed.

    1998-10-01

    In the framework of the IEA SHC Programme, a Task on building renovation was initiated, `Task 20, Solar Energy in Building Renovation`. In a part of the task, Subtask C `Design of Solar Renovation Projects`, different solar renovation demonstration projects were developed. The objective of Subtask C was to demonstrate the application of advanced solar renovation concepts on real buildings. This report documents 16 different solar renovation demonstration projects including the design processes of the projects. The projects include the renovation of houses, schools, laboratories, and factories. Several solar techniques were used: building integrated solar collectors, glazed balconies, ventilated solar walls, transparent insulation, second skin facades, daylight elements and photovoltaic systems. These techniques are used in several simple as well as more complex system designs. (au)

  1. Biodenitrification demonstration test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benear, A.K.; Murray, S.J.; Lahoda, E.J.; Leslie, J.W.; Patton, J.B.; Menako, C.R.

    1987-08-01

    A two-column biodenitrification (BDN) facility was constructed at the Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC) in 1985 and 1986 to test the feasibility of biological treatment for industrial nitrate-bearing waste water generated at FMPC. This demonstration facility comprises one-half of the proposed four-column production facility. A demonstration test was conducted over a four month period in 1987. The results indicate the proposed BDN production facility can process FMPC industrial wastewater in a continuous manner while maintaining an effluent that will consistently meet the proposed NPDES limits for combined nitrate nitrogen (NO 3 -N) and nitrite nitrogen (NO 2 -N). The proposed NPDES limits are 62 kg/day average and 124 kg/day maximum. These limits were proportioned to determine that the two-column demonstration facility should meet the limits of 31 kg/day average and 62 kg/day maximum

  2. Distributed picture compilation demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Richard; Anderson, John; Leal, Jeff; Mullin, David; Nicholson, David; Watson, Graham

    2004-08-01

    A physical demonstration of distributed surveillance and tracking is described. The demonstration environment is an outdoor car park overlooked by a system of four rooftop cameras. The cameras extract moving objects from the scene, and these objects are tracked in a decentralized way, over a real communication network, using the information form of the standard Kalman filter. Each node therefore has timely access to the complete global picture and because there is no single point of failure in the system, it is robust. The demonstration system and its main components are described here, with an emphasis on some of the lessons we have learned as a result of applying a corpus of distributed data fusion theory and algorithms in practice. Initial results are presented and future plans to scale up the network are also outlined.

  3. Photovoltaic demonstration projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillett, W B; Hacker, R J; Kaut, W [eds.

    1991-01-01

    This book, the proceedings of the fourth PV-Contractors' Meeting organized by the Commission of the European Communities, Directorate-General for Energy, held at Brussels on 21 and 22 November 1989, provides an overview of the photovoltaic demonstration projects which have been supported in the framework of the Energy Demonstration Program since 1983. It includes reports by each of the contractors who submitted proposals in 1983, 1984, 1985 and 1986, describing progress with their projects. Summaries of the discussions held at the meeting, which included contractors whose projects were submitted in 1987, are also presented. The different technologies which are being demonstrated concern the modules, the cabling of the array, structure design, storage strategy and power conditioning. The various applications include desalination, communications, dairy farms, water pumping, and warning systems. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  4. Electric vehicle demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouellet, M. [National Centre for Advanced Transportation, Saint-Jerome, PQ (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    The desirable characteristics of Canadian projects that demonstrate vehicle use in real-world operation and the appropriate mechanism to collect and disseminate the monitoring data were discussed in this presentation. The scope of the project was on passenger cars and light duty trucks operating in plug-in electric vehicle (PHEV) or battery electric vehicle modes. The presentation also discussed the funding, stakeholders involved, Canadian travel pattern analysis, regulatory framework, current and recent electric vehicle demonstration projects, and project guidelines. It was concluded that some demonstration project activities may have been duplicated as communication between the proponents was insufficient. It was recommended that data monitoring using automatic data logging with minimum reliance on logbooks and other user entry should be emphasized. figs.

  5. The Difficulties of English as a Foreign Language (EFL Learners in Understanding Pragmatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fauzia

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Pragmatics is the study of the relation of signs to interpreters. For English foreign language (EFL learners, the knowledge and comprehensible input of pragmatics is much needed. This paper is based on research project. The writer did the research survey by giving some respondents questionnaire. The respondent is some students from UAD, which is taken randomly. Besides using open questionnaire, the writer also got the data from in depth interview with some EFL learners, the native speaker who teaches English, and also did literature review from some books. The result of the research then gives some evidences that EFL learners difficulties in understanding the English pragmatics occurs in 1 greeting, 2 apologizing, 3 complimenting, and 4 thanking. The factors that promotes EFL learners’ difficulties in understanding because 1 the different culture and values between native speaker and learners; 2 habit that the usually use in their daily life.

  6. A developmental study of proverb comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, D A

    1982-09-01

    Growth in proverb comprehension was hypothesized to result from the gradual emergence of cognitive abilities reflected in a sequence of increasingly complex abilities: story matching, transfer of relations, desymbolization, proverb matching, and paraphrase. Items for these abilities for each of 10 proverbs of two structural types were administered in three test sessions to 438 students in grades three to seven. An analogy subtest was used to measure general intelligence. ANOVA yielded significant main effects for grade, tasks, and proverbs (all p's less than .01). A significant task x proverb interaction (p less than .01) revealed the difficulty of precise control over the language of the items. Proverb structure had no measurable impact on difficulty. Analogy score was a significant factor in performance (p less than .01) but not as potent as age (p less than .01). The sequential order of abilities received only weak confirmation, though tasks did correlate among themselves with medium strength (r's = .50-.70). Individual interviews added a qualitative dimension to the findings. The suitability of cognitive hierarchical models for proverb comprehension was questioned.

  7. Innovative technology demonstrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.B.; Luttrell, S.P.; Hartley, J.N.

    1992-08-01

    Environmental Management Operations (EMO) is conducting an Innovative Technology Demonstration Program for Tinker Air Force Base (TAFB). Several innovative technologies are being demonstrated to address specific problems associated with remediating two contaminated test sites at the base. Cone penetrometer testing (CPT) is a form of testing that can rapidly characterize a site. This technology was selected to evaluate its applicability in the tight clay soils and consolidated sandstone sediments found at TAFB. Directionally drilled horizontal wells was selected as a method that may be effective in accessing contamination beneath Building 3001 without disrupting the mission of the building, and in enhancing the extraction of contamination both in ground water and in soil. A soil gas extraction (SGE) demonstration, also known as soil vapor extraction, will evaluate the effectiveness of SGE in remediating fuels and TCE contamination contained in the tight clay soil formations surrounding the abandoned underground fuel storage vault located at the SW Tanks Site. In situ sensors have recently received much acclaim as a technology that can be effective in remediating hazardous waste sites. Sensors can be useful for determining real-time, in situ contaminant concentrations during the remediation process for performance monitoring and in providing feedback for controlling the remediation process. Following the SGE demonstration, the SGE system and SW Tanks test site will be modified to demonstrate bioremediation as an effective means of degrading the remaining contaminants in situ. The bioremediation demonstration will evaluate a bioventing process in which the naturally occurring consortium of soil bacteria will be stimulated to aerobically degrade soil contaminants, including fuel and TCE, in situ

  8. Innovative technology demonstrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.B.; Hartley, J.N.; Luttrell, S.P.

    1992-04-01

    Currently, several innovative technologies are being demonstrated at Tinker Air Force Base (TAFB) to address specific problems associated with remediating two contaminated test sites at the base. Cone penetrometer testing (CPT) is a form of testing that can rapidly characterize a site. This technology was selected to evaluate its applicability in the tight clay soils and consolidated sandstone sediments found at TAFB. Directionally drilled horizontal wells have been successfully installed at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Savannah River Site to test new methods of in situ remediation of soils and ground water. This emerging technology was selected as a method that may be effective in accessing contamination beneath Building 3001 without disrupting the mission of the building, and in enhancing the extraction of contamination both in ground water and in soil. A soil gas extraction (SGE) demonstration, also known as soil vapor extraction, will evaluate the effectiveness of SGE in remediating fuels and TCE contamination contained in the tight clay soil formations surrounding the abandoned underground fuel storage vault located at the SW Tanks Site. In situ sensors have recently received much acclaim as a technology that can be effective in remediating hazardous waste sites. Sensors can be useful for determining real-time, in situ contaminant concentrations during the remediation process for performance monitoring and in providing feedback for controlling the remediation process. A demonstration of two in situ sensor systems capable of providing real-time data on contamination levels will be conducted and evaluated concurrently with the SGE demonstration activities. Following the SGE demonstration, the SGE system and SW Tanks test site will be modified to demonstrate bioremediation as an effective means of degrading the remaining contaminants in situ

  9. Is severity of motor coordination difficulties related to co-morbidity in children at risk for developmental coordination disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoemaker, Marina M; Lingam, Raghu; Jongmans, Marian J; van Heuvelen, Marieke J G; Emond, Alan

    2013-10-01

    Aim of the study was to investigate whether 7-9 year old children with severe motor difficulties are more at risk of additional difficulties in activities in daily living, academic skills, attention and social skills than children with moderate motor difficulties. Children (N=6959) from a population based cohort, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), were divided into three groups based on their scores on the ALSPAC Coordination Test at age 7: control children (scores above 15th centile; N=5719 [82.1%]); children with moderate (between 5th and 15th centile; N=951 [13.7%]); and children with severe motor difficulties (below 5th centile N=289 [4.2%]). Children with neurological disorders or an IQactivities of daily living (ADL); academic skills (reading, spelling and handwriting); attention; social skills (social cognition and nonverbal skills). Children with severe motor difficulties demonstrated a higher risk of difficulties in ADL, handwriting, attention, reading, and social cognition than children with moderate motor difficulties, who in turn had a higher risk of difficulties than control children in five out of seven domains. Screening and intervention of co-morbid problems is recommended for children with both moderate and severe motor difficulties. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Gigashot Optical Laser Demonstrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deri, R. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-10-13

    The Gigashot Optical Laser Demonstrator (GOLD) project has demonstrated a novel optical amplifier for high energy pulsed lasers operating at high repetition rates. The amplifier stores enough pump energy to support >10 J of laser output, and employs conduction cooling for thermal management to avoid the need for expensive and bulky high-pressure helium subsystems. A prototype amplifier was fabricated, pumped with diode light at 885 nm, and characterized. Experimental results show that the amplifier provides sufficient small-signal gain and sufficiently low wavefront and birefringence impairments to prove useful in laser systems, at repetition rates up to 60 Hz.

  11. Photovoltaic demonstration projects 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillett, W B; Hacker, R J [Halcrow (William) and Partners, Swindon (UK); Kaut, W [eds.

    1989-01-01

    This book, the proceedings of the third Photovoltaic Contractors' Meeting organised by the Commission of the European Communities, Directorate-General for Energy provides an overview of the photovoltaic demonstration projects which have been supported by the Energy Directorate of the Commission of the European Communities since 1983. It includes reports by each of the contractors who submitted proposals in 1983, 1984 and 1985, describing progress with their projects. The different technologies which are being demonstrated concern the modules, the cabling of the array, structure design, storage strategy and power conditioning. The various applications include powering of houses, villages, recreation centres, water desalination, communications, dairy farms, water pumping and warning systems. (author).

  12. Inseparable Phone Books Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balta, Nuri; Çetin, Ali

    2017-01-01

    This study is aimed at first introducing a well-known discrepant event; inseparable phone books and second, turning it into an experiment for high school or middle school students. This discrepant event could be used especially to indicate how friction force can be effective in producing an unexpected result. Demonstration, discussion, explanation…

  13. PHARUS ASAR demonstrator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, A.J.E.; Bree, R.J.P. van; Calkoen, C.J.; Dekker, R.J.; Otten, M.P.G.; Rossum, W.L. van

    2001-01-01

    PHARUS is a polarimetric phased array C-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), designed and built for airborne use. Advanced SAR (ASAR) data in image and alternating polarization mode have been simulated with PHARUS to demonstrate the use of Envisat for a number of typical SAR applications that are

  14. Demonstrating the Gas Laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holko, David A.

    1982-01-01

    Presents a complete computer program demonstrating the relationship between volume/pressure for Boyle's Law, volume/temperature for Charles' Law, and volume/moles of gas for Avagadro's Law. The programing reinforces students' application of gas laws and equates a simulated moving piston to theoretical values derived using the ideal gas law.…

  15. Astronomy LITE Demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brecher, Kenneth

    2006-12-01

    Project LITE (Light Inquiry Through Experiments) is a materials, software, and curriculum development project. It focuses on light, optics, color and visual perception. According to two recent surveys of college astronomy faculty members, these are among the topics most often included in the large introductory astronomy courses. The project has aimed largely at the design and implementation of hands-on experiences for students. However, it has also included the development of lecture demonstrations that employ novel light sources and materials. In this presentation, we will show some of our new lecture demonstrations concerning geometrical and physical optics, fluorescence, phosphorescence and polarization. We have developed over 200 Flash and Java applets that can be used either by teachers in lecture settings or by students at home. They are all posted on the web at http://lite.bu.edu. For either purpose they can be downloaded directly to the user's computer or run off line. In lecture demonstrations, some of these applets can be used to control the light emitted by video projectors to produce physical effects in materials (e.g. fluorescence). Other applets can be used, for example, to demonstrate that the human percept of color does not have a simple relationship with the physical frequency of the stimulating source of light. Project LITE is supported by Grant #DUE-0125992 from the NSF Division of Undergraduate Education.

  16. A Magnetic Circuit Demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderkooy, John; Lowe, June

    1995-01-01

    Presents a demonstration designed to illustrate Faraday's, Ampere's, and Lenz's laws and to reinforce the concepts through the analysis of a two-loop magnetic circuit. Can be made dramatic and challenging for sophisticated students but is suitable for an introductory course in electricity and magnetism. (JRH)

  17. Readability Formulas and User Perceptions of Electronic Health Records Difficulty: A Corpus Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jiaping; Yu, Hong

    2017-03-02

    Electronic health records (EHRs) are a rich resource for developing applications to engage patients and foster patient activation, thus holding a strong potential to enhance patient-centered care. Studies have shown that providing patients with access to their own EHR notes may improve the understanding of their own clinical conditions and treatments, leading to improved health care outcomes. However, the highly technical language in EHR notes impedes patients' comprehension. Numerous studies have evaluated the difficulty of health-related text using readability formulas such as Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level (FKGL), Simple Measure of Gobbledygook (SMOG), and Gunning-Fog Index (GFI). They conclude that the materials are often written at a grade level higher than common recommendations. The objective of our study was to explore the relationship between the aforementioned readability formulas and the laypeople's perceived difficulty on 2 genres of text: general health information and EHR notes. We also validated the formulas' appropriateness and generalizability on predicting difficulty levels of highly complex technical documents. We collected 140 Wikipedia articles on diabetes and 242 EHR notes with diabetes International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision code. We recruited 15 Amazon Mechanical Turk (AMT) users to rate difficulty levels of the documents. Correlations between laypeople's perceived difficulty levels and readability formula scores were measured, and their difference was tested. We also compared word usage and the impact of medical concepts of the 2 genres of text. The distributions of both readability formulas' scores (Preadability predictions and laypeople's perceptions were weak. Furthermore, despite being graded at similar levels, documents of different genres were still perceived with different difficulty (Preadability formulas' predictions did not align with perceived difficulty in either text genre. The widely used readability formulas were

  18. Commercial truck platooning demonstration in Texas – level 2 automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Through this project, the Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) funded the creation of a comprehensive truck platooning demonstration in Texas, serving as a proactive effort in assessing innovative operational strategies to position TxDOT as a l...

  19. THE NATURE OF COMPREHENSION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CLELAND, DONALD L.

    THE NATURE OF COMPREHENSION IS DEFINED AND CLARIFIED. THE LITERATURE IS SURVEYED TO SHOW THAT THE DEVELOPMENT OF CONCEPTS IS IMPORTANT IN INTELLECTUAL ACTIVITIES. IT IS POINTED OUT THAT CONCEPTS ARE BUILT FROM PERCEPTS, IMAGES, SENSATION, AND MEMORIES, AND THAT THE STEPS WHICH ARE EMPLOYED AS CONCEPTS ARE BUILT AND REFINED AND INCLUDE PERCEIVING,…

  20. Comprehension Strategy Gloves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Gayle

    2002-01-01

    Describes the idea of creating a glove for each of the comprehension strategies for use with different text structures. Notes that the gloves serve as a multisensory approach by providing visual clues through icons on each finger and the palm. Discusses three different gloves: the prereading glove, the narrative text structure glove, and the…

  1. Painless reading comprehension

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, EdD, Darolyn "Lyn"

    2016-01-01

    Reading comprehension gets easier as students learn what kind of reader they are, discover how to keep facts in their head, and much more. Bonus Online Component: includes additional games, including Beat the Clock, a line match game, and a word scramble.

  2. Comprehensive Environmental Management Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hjeresen, D.L.; Roybal, S.L.

    1994-01-01

    This report contains information about Los Alamos National Laboratory's Comprehensive Environmental Management Plan. The topics covered include: waste minimization, waste generation, environmental concerns, public relations of the laboratory, and how this plan will help to answer to the demands of the laboratory as their mission changes

  3. A comprehensive psychiatric service

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, A G

    1984-01-01

    A comprehensive psychiatric service was established in 1969 in the Faroe Islands. This service was created as a department of a general hospital. The spheres covered by this department, operating in the midst of the community were: acute and chronic patients, a liaison-psychiatric service...

  4. Creating a supportive learning environment for students with learning difficulties

    OpenAIRE

    Grah, Jana

    2013-01-01

    Co-building of supporting learning environment for the learners with learning difficulties is one of the 21st century inclusive school’s elements. Since the physical presence of learners with learning difficulties in the classroom does not self-evidently lead to an effective co-operation and implementation of 21st century inclusive school, I have dedicated my doctor thesis to the establishment of supporting learning environment for the learners with learning difficulties in primary school wit...

  5. Prediction and Stability of Mathematics Skill and Difficulty

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Rebecca B.; Cirino, Paul T.; Barnes, Marcia A.; Ewing-Cobbs, Linda; Fuchs, Lynn S.; Stuebing, Karla K.; Fletcher, Jack M.

    2012-01-01

    The present study evaluated the stability of math learning difficulties over a 2-year period and investigated several factors that might influence this stability (categorical vs. continuous change, liberal vs. conservative cut point, broad vs. specific math assessment); the prediction of math performance over time and by performance level was also evaluated. Participants were 144 students initially identified as having a math difficulty (MD) or no learning difficulty according to low achievem...

  6. Grammatical Templates: Improving Text Difficulty Evaluation for Language Learners

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Shuhan; Andersen, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Language students are most engaged while reading texts at an appropriate difficulty level. However, existing methods of evaluating text difficulty focus mainly on vocabulary and do not prioritize grammatical features, hence they do not work well for language learners with limited knowledge of grammar. In this paper, we introduce grammatical templates, the expert-identified units of grammar that students learn from class, as an important feature of text difficulty evaluation. Experimental clas...

  7. Late Emerging Reading Difficulties in English Language Learners

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia, Nicole Marie

    2015-01-01

    Research has identified a group of students who do not begin to exhibit reading difficulties until fourth or fifth grade, suggesting late-emerging reading difficulties. Considering that these students do not show signs of reading difficulties in early grades, attempting to identify these students early becomes problematic. Additionally, little is known regarding the characteristics of late-emerging reading deficits within English language learner (ELL) populations. The purpose of this study w...

  8. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Strategy Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostelnik, K.M.

    1993-02-01

    The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) supports the applied research, development, demonstration, and evaluation of a suite of advanced technologies that form a comprehensive remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste. These efforts are identified and coordinated in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ERWM) needs and objectives. The present focus of BWID is to support retrieval and ex situ treatment configuration options. Future activities will explore and support containment and stabilization efforts in addition to the retrieval/ex situ treatment options. Long and short term strategies of the BWID are provided. Processes for identifying technological needs, screening candidate technologies for BWID applicability, researching technical issues, field demonstrating technologies, evaluating demonstration results to determine each technology's threshold of capability, and commercializing successfully demonstrated technologies for implementation for environmental restoration also are presented in this report

  9. Effects of Psychological Attention on Pronoun Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Jennifer E.; Lao, Shin-Yi C.

    2015-01-01

    Pronoun comprehension is facilitated for referents that are focused in the discourse context. Discourse focus has been described as a function of attention, especially shared attention, but few studies have explicitly tested this idea. Two experiments used an exogenous capture cue paradigm to demonstrate that listeners’ visual attention at the onset of a story influences their preferences during pronoun resolution later in the story. In both experiments trial-initial attention modulated listeners’ transitory biases while considering referents for the pronoun, whether it was in response to the capture cue or not. These biases even had a small influence on listeners’ final interpretation of the pronoun. These results provide independently-motivated evidence that the listener’s attention influences the on-line processes of pronoun comprehension. Trial-initial attentional shifts were made on the basis of non-shared, private information, demonstrating that attentional effects on pronoun comprehension are not restricted to shared attention among interlocutors. PMID:26191533

  10. Remote monitoring demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caskey, Susan; Olsen, John

    2006-01-01

    The recently upgraded remote monitoring system at the Joyo Experimental Reactor uses a DCM-14 camera module and GEMINI software. The final data is compatible both with the IAEA-approved GARS review software and the ALIS software that was used for this demonstration. Features of the remote monitoring upgrade emphasized compatibility with IAEA practice. This presentation gives particular attention to the selection process for meeting network security considerations at the O'arai site. The Joyo system is different from the NNCA's ACPF system, in that it emphasizes use of IAEA standard camera technology and data acquisition and transmission software. In the demonstration itself, a temporary virtual private network (VPN) between the meeting room and the server at Sandia in Albuquerque allowed attendees to observe data stored from routine transmissions from the Joyo Fresh Fuel Storage to Sandia. Image files from a fuel movement earlier in the month showed Joyo workers and IAEA inspectors carrying out a transfer. (author)

  11. Commercial incineration demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borduin, L.C.; Neuls, A.S.

    1981-01-01

    Low-level radioactive wastes (LLW) generated by nuclear utilities presently are shipped to commercial burial grounds for disposal. Substantially increasing shipping and disposal charges have sparked renewed industry interest in incineration and other advanced volume reduction techniques as potential cost-saving measures. Repeated inquiries from industry sources regarding LLW applicability of the Los Alamos controlled-air incineration (CAI) design led DOE to initiate this commercial demonstration program in FY-1980. The selected program approach to achieving CAI demonstration at a utility site is a DOE sponsored joint effort involving Los Alamos, a nuclear utility, and a liaison subcontractor. Required development tasks and responsibilities of the particpants are described. Target date for project completion is the end of FY-1985

  12. Photovoltaic demonstration projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaut, W [Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium); Gillett, W B; Hacker, R J [Halcrow Gilbert Associates Ltd., Swindon (GB)

    1992-12-31

    This publication, comprising the proceedings of the fifth contractor`s meeting organized by the Commission of the European Communities, Directorate-General for Energy, provides an overview of the photovoltaic demonstration projects which have been supported in the framework of the energy demonstration programme since 1983. It includes reports by each of the contractors who submitted proposals in 1987 and 1988, describing progress within their projects. Projects accepted from earlier calls for proposals and not yet completed were reviewed by a rapporteur and are discussed in the summary section. The results of the performance monitoring of all projects and the lessons drawn from the practical experience of the projects are also presented in the summaries and conclusions. Contractors whose projects were submitted in 1989 were also present at the meeting and contributed to the reported discussions. This proceeding is divided into four sessions (General, Housing, technical presentations, other applications) and 24 papers are offered.

  13. AVNG system demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thron, Jonathan Louis [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mac Arthur, Duncan W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kondratov, Sergey [VNIIEF; Livke, Alexander [VNIIEF; Razinkov, Sergey [VNIIEF

    2010-01-01

    An attribute measurement system (AMS) measures a number of unclassified attributes of potentially classified material. By only displaying these unclassified results as red or green lights, the AMS protects potentially classified information while still generating confidence in the measurement result. The AVNG implementation that we describe is an AMS built by RFNC - VNIIEF in Sarov, Russia. To provide additional confidence, the AVNG was designed with two modes of operation. In the secure mode, potentially classified measurements can be made with only the simple red light/green light display. In the open mode, known unclassified material can be measured with complete display of the information collected from the radiation detectors. The AVNG demonstration, which occurred in Sarov, Russia in June 2009 for a joint US/Russian audience, included exercising both modes of AVNG operation using a number of multi-kg plutonium sources. In addition to describing the demonstration, we will show photographs and/or video taken of AVNG operation.

  14. Comprehensive analysis of a medication dosing error related to CPOE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsky, Jan; Kuperman, Gilad J; Patel, Vimla L

    2005-01-01

    This case study of a serious medication error demonstrates the necessity of a comprehensive methodology for the analysis of failures in interaction between humans and information systems. The authors used a novel approach to analyze a dosing error related to computer-based ordering of potassium chloride (KCl). The method included a chronological reconstruction of events and their interdependencies from provider order entry usage logs, semistructured interviews with involved clinicians, and interface usability inspection of the ordering system. Information collected from all sources was compared and evaluated to understand how the error evolved and propagated through the system. In this case, the error was the product of faults in interaction among human and system agents that methods limited in scope to their distinct analytical domains would not identify. The authors characterized errors in several converging aspects of the drug ordering process: confusing on-screen laboratory results review, system usability difficulties, user training problems, and suboptimal clinical system safeguards that all contributed to a serious dosing error. The results of the authors' analysis were used to formulate specific recommendations for interface layout and functionality modifications, suggest new user alerts, propose changes to user training, and address error-prone steps of the KCl ordering process to reduce the risk of future medication dosing errors.

  15. Is comprehension of problem solutions resistant to misleading heuristic cues?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Rakefet; Leiser, David; Shpigelman, Maya

    2013-05-01

    Previous studies in the domain of metacomprehension judgments have primarily used expository texts. When these texts include illustrations, even uninformative ones, people were found to judge that they understand their content better. The present study aimed to delineate the metacognitive processes involved in understanding problem solutions - a text type often perceived as allowing reliable judgments regarding understanding, and was not previously considered from a metacognitive perspective. Undergraduate students faced difficult problems. They then studied solution explanations with or without uninformative illustrations and provided judgments of comprehension (JCOMPs). Learning was assessed by application to near-transfer problems in an open-book test format. As expected, JCOMPs were polarized - they tended to reflect good or poor understanding. Yet, JCOMPs were higher for the illustrated solutions and even high certainty did not ensure resistance to this effect. Moreover, success in the transfer problems was lower in the presence of illustrations, demonstrating a bias stronger than that found with expository texts. Previous studies have suggested that weak learners are especially prone to being misled by superficial cues. In the present study, matching the difficulty of the task to the ability of the target population revealed that even highly able participants were not immune to misleading cues. The study extends previous findings regarding potential detrimental effects of illustrations and highlights aspects of the metacomprehension process that have not been considered before. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Antares: preliminary demonstrator results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouchner, A.

    2000-05-01

    The ANTARES collaboration is building an undersea neutrino telescope off Toulon (Mediterranean sea) with effective area ∼ 0.1 km 2 . An extensive study of the site properties has been achieved together with software analysis in order to optimize the performance of the detector. Results are summarized here. An instrumented line, linked to shore for first time via an electro-optical cable, has been immersed late 1999. The preliminary results of this demonstrator line are reported. (author)

  17. The Majorana Demonstrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguayo, Estanislao; Fast, James E.; Hoppe, Eric W.; Keillor, Martin E.; Kephart, Jeremy D.; Kouzes, Richard T.; LaFerriere, Brian D.; Merriman, Jason H.; Orrell, John L.; Overman, Nicole R.; Avignone, Frank T.; Back, Henning O.; Combs, Dustin C.; Leviner, L.; Young, A.; Barabash, Alexander S.; Konovalov, S.; Vanyushin, I.; Yumatov, Vladimir; Bergevin, M.; Chan, Yuen-Dat; Detwiler, Jason A.; Loach, J. C.; Martin, R. D.; Poon, Alan; Prior, Gersende; Vetter, Kai; Bertrand, F.; Cooper, R. J.; Radford, D. C.; Varner, R. L.; Yu, Chang-Hong; Boswell, M.; Elliott, S.; Gehman, Victor M.; Hime, Andrew; Kidd, M. F.; LaRoque, B. H.; Rielage, Keith; Ronquest, M. C.; Steele, David; Brudanin, V.; Egorov, Viatcheslav; Gusey, K.; Kochetov, Oleg; Shirchenko, M.; Timkin, V.; Yakushev, E.; Busch, Matthew; Esterline, James H.; Tornow, Werner; Christofferson, Cabot-Ann; Horton, Mark; Howard, S.; Sobolev, V.; Collar, J. I.; Fields, N.; Creswick, R.; Doe, Peter J.; Johnson, R. A.; Knecht, A.; Leon, Jonathan D.; Marino, Michael G.; Miller, M. L.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Schubert, Alexis G.; Wolfe, B. A.; Efremenko, Yuri; Ejiri, H.; Hazama, R.; Nomachi, Masaharu; Shima, T.; Finnerty, P.; Fraenkle, Florian; Giovanetti, G. K.; Green, M.; Henning, Reyco; Howe, M. A.; MacMullin, S.; Phillips, D.; Snavely, Kyle J.; Strain, J.; Vorren, Kris R.; Guiseppe, Vincente; Keller, C.; Mei, Dong-Ming; Perumpilly, Gopakumar; Thomas, K.; Zhang, C.; Hallin, A. L.; Keeter, K.; Mizouni, Leila; Wilkerson, J. F.

    2011-09-03

    A brief review of the history and neutrino physics of double beta decay is given. A description of the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR research and development program, including background reduction techniques, is presented in some detail. The application of point contact (PC) detectors to the experiment is discussed, including the effectiveness of pulse shape analysis. The predicted sensitivity of a PC detector array enriched to 86% to 76Ge is given.

  18. IGCC technology and demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palonen, J [A. Ahlstrom Corporation, Karhula (Finland). Hans Ahlstrom Lab.; Lundqvist, R G [A. Ahlstrom Corporation, Helsinki (Finland); Staahl, K [Sydkraft AB, Malmoe (Sweden)

    1997-12-31

    Future energy production will be performed by advanced technologies that are more efficient, more environmentally friendly and less expensive than current technologies. Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants have been proposed as one of these systems. Utilising biofuels in future energy production will also be emphasised since this lowers substantially carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere due to the fact that biomass is a renewable form of energy. Combining advanced technology and biomass utilisation is for this reason something that should and will be encouraged. A. Ahlstrom Corporation of Finland and Sydkraft AB of Sweden have as one part of company strategies adopted this approach for the future. The companies have joined their resources in developing a biomass-based IGCC system with the gasification part based on pressurised circulating fluidized-bed technology. With this kind of technology electrical efficiency can be substantially increased compared to conventional power plants. As a first concrete step, a decision has been made to build a demonstration plant. This plant, located in Vaernamo, Sweden, has already been built and is now in commissioning and demonstration stage. The system comprises a fuel drying plant, a pressurised CFB gasifier with gas cooling and cleaning, a gas turbine, a waste heat recovery unit and a steam turbine. The plant is the first in the world where the integration of a pressurised gasifier with a gas turbine will be realised utilising a low calorific gas produced from biomass. The capacity of the Vaernamo plant is 6 MW of electricity and 9 MW of district heating. Technology development is in progress for design of plants of sizes from 20 to 120 MWe. The paper describes the Bioflow IGCC system, the Vaernamo demonstration plant and experiences from the commissioning and demonstration stages. (orig.)

  19. IGCC technology and demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palonen, J. [A. Ahlstrom Corporation, Karhula (Finland). Hans Ahlstrom Lab.; Lundqvist, R.G. [A. Ahlstrom Corporation, Helsinki (Finland); Staahl, K. [Sydkraft AB, Malmoe (Sweden)

    1996-12-31

    Future energy production will be performed by advanced technologies that are more efficient, more environmentally friendly and less expensive than current technologies. Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants have been proposed as one of these systems. Utilising biofuels in future energy production will also be emphasised since this lowers substantially carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere due to the fact that biomass is a renewable form of energy. Combining advanced technology and biomass utilisation is for this reason something that should and will be encouraged. A. Ahlstrom Corporation of Finland and Sydkraft AB of Sweden have as one part of company strategies adopted this approach for the future. The companies have joined their resources in developing a biomass-based IGCC system with the gasification part based on pressurised circulating fluidized-bed technology. With this kind of technology electrical efficiency can be substantially increased compared to conventional power plants. As a first concrete step, a decision has been made to build a demonstration plant. This plant, located in Vaernamo, Sweden, has already been built and is now in commissioning and demonstration stage. The system comprises a fuel drying plant, a pressurised CFB gasifier with gas cooling and cleaning, a gas turbine, a waste heat recovery unit and a steam turbine. The plant is the first in the world where the integration of a pressurised gasifier with a gas turbine will be realised utilising a low calorific gas produced from biomass. The capacity of the Vaernamo plant is 6 MW of electricity and 9 MW of district heating. Technology development is in progress for design of plants of sizes from 20 to 120 MWe. The paper describes the Bioflow IGCC system, the Vaernamo demonstration plant and experiences from the commissioning and demonstration stages. (orig.)

  20. Cognitive Correlates of Listening Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Suk; Phillips, Beth

    2014-01-01

    In an effort to understand cognitive foundations of oral language comprehension (i.e., listening comprehension), we examined how inhibitory control, theory of mind, and comprehension monitoring are uniquely related to listening comprehension over and above vocabulary and age. A total of 156 children in kindergarten and first grade from…

  1. Lunar Water Resource Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscatello, Anthony C.

    2008-01-01

    In cooperation with the Canadian Space Agency, the Northern Centre for Advanced Technology, Inc., the Carnegie-Mellon University, JPL, and NEPTEC, NASA has undertaken the In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) project called RESOLVE. This project is a ground demonstration of a system that would be sent to explore permanently shadowed polar lunar craters, drill into the regolith, determine what volatiles are present, and quantify them in addition to recovering oxygen by hydrogen reduction. The Lunar Prospector has determined these craters contain enhanced hydrogen concentrations averaging about 0.1%. If the hydrogen is in the form of water, the water concentration would be around 1%, which would translate into billions of tons of water on the Moon, a tremendous resource. The Lunar Water Resource Demonstration (LWRD) is a part of RESOLVE designed to capture lunar water and hydrogen and quantify them as a backup to gas chromatography analysis. This presentation will briefly review the design of LWRD and some of the results of testing the subsystem. RESOLVE is to be integrated with the Scarab rover from CMIJ and the whole system demonstrated on Mauna Kea on Hawaii in November 2008. The implications of lunar water for Mars exploration are two-fold: 1) RESOLVE and LWRD could be used in a similar fashion on Mars to locate and quantify water resources, and 2) electrolysis of lunar water could provide large amounts of liquid oxygen in LEO, leading to lower costs for travel to Mars, in addition to being very useful at lunar outposts.

  2. Waste and Disposal: Demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neerdael, B.; Buyens, M.; De Bruyn, D.; Volckaert, G.

    2002-01-01

    Within the Belgian R and D programme on geological disposal, demonstration experiments have become increasingly important. In this contribution to the scientific report 2001, an overview is given of SCK-CEN's activities and achievements in the field of large-scale demonstration experiments. In 2001, main emphasis was on the PRACLAY project, which is a large-scale experiment to demonstrate the construction and the operation of a gallery for the disposal of HLW in a clay formation. The PRACLAY experiment will contribute to enhance understanding of water flow and mass transport in dense clay-based materials as well as to improve the design of the reference disposal concept. In the context of PRACLAY, a surface experiment (OPHELIE) has been developed to prepare and to complement PRACLAY-related experimental work in the HADES Underground Research Laboratory. In 2001, efforts were focussed on the operation of the OPHELIE mock-up. SCK-CEN also contributed to the SELFRAC roject which studies the self-healing of fractures in a clay formation

  3. [Comprehension of hazard pictograms of chemical products among cleaning workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martí Fernández, Francesc; van der Haar, Rudolf; López López, Juan Carlos; Portell, Mariona; Torner Solé, Anna

    2015-01-01

    To assess the comprehension among cleaning workers of the hazard pictograms as defined by the Globally Harmonized System (GHS) of the United Nations, concerning the classification, labeling and packaging of substances and mixtures. A sample of 118 workers was surveyed on their perception of the GHS hazard pictograms. Comprehensibility was measured by the percentage of correct answers and the degree to which they reflected International Organization for Standardization and American National Standards Institute standards for minimum level of comprehension. The influence of different variables to predict comprehension capacity was assessed using a logistic regression model. Three groups of pictograms could be distinguished which were statistically differentiated by their comprehensibility. Pictograms reflecting "acute toxicity" and "flammable", were described correctly by 94% and 95% of the surveyed population, respectively. For pictograms reflecting "systemic toxicity", "corrosive", "warning", "environment" and "explosive" the frequency of correct answers ranged from 48% to 64%, whereas those for pictograms "oxidizing" and "compressed gas" were interpreted correctly by only 7% of respondents. Prognostic factors for poor comprehension included: not being familiar with the pictograms, not having received training on safe use of chemical products, being an immigrant and being 54 years of age or older. Only two pictograms exceeded minimum standards for comprehension. Training, a tool proven to be effective to improve the correct interpretation of danger symbols, should be encouraged, especially in those groups with greater comprehension difficulties. Copyright belongs to the Societat Catalana de Salut Laboral.

  4. Reformulating Psychological Difficulties in People with Parkinson’s Disease: The Potential of a Social Relational Approach to Disablism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Simpson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Research investigating the psychological difficulties experienced by people with Parkinson's disease (PD is dominated by individualistic neurobiological and psychological perspectives. Therefore, this opinion paper draws on a reformulation of the social model of disability, Thomas' (1999 and (2007 social relational approach to disablism, to offer an alternative way of conceptualising psychological difficulties experienced by people with PD. This opinion paper explores the ways in which socially imposed restrictions and stigma may contribute to psychological difficulties by using Thomas' (2007 concept of psychoemotional disablism. By using the lens of psychoemotional disablism, this paper demonstrates that people with PD can be exposed to stigmatising attitudes and interactions which could contribute to restrictions, feelings of shame, and psychological difficulties such as depression. Accordingly, it is argued that further attention to the link between psychological difficulties and social dimensions of disablism in PD is needed in both research arenas and clinical practice to broaden understandings and interventions for people with PD.

  5. The comprehension of mathematic problems in primary school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Pérez Ariza

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the result of the research project “A study of causes of difficulties in learning comprehension from an interdisciplinary perspective in Camagüey. The main objective of that study is to propose a methodology for the comprehension of mathematic problems in primary school. In designing the methodology, the characteristics of this text variety, basic principle of the theory of reading comprehension and problem solving were taking into account. In this research work several theoretical methods were used —analysis-synthesis, historical-logical, inductive-deductive— to elaborate the theoretical framework, while modeling and system approach in the methodology construction. Additionally, empirical methods were used in order to assess the knowledge about comprehension of mathematic problems; among them observation and analysis of the activity results.

  6. How Spoken Language Comprehension is Achieved by Older Listeners in Difficult Listening Situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Bruce A; Avivi-Reich, Meital; Daneman, Meredyth

    2016-01-01

    Comprehending spoken discourse in noisy situations is likely to be more challenging to older adults than to younger adults due to potential declines in the auditory, cognitive, or linguistic processes supporting speech comprehension. These challenges might force older listeners to reorganize the ways in which they perceive and process speech, thereby altering the balance between the contributions of bottom-up versus top-down processes to speech comprehension. The authors review studies that investigated the effect of age on listeners' ability to follow and comprehend lectures (monologues), and two-talker conversations (dialogues), and the extent to which individual differences in lexical knowledge and reading comprehension skill relate to individual differences in speech comprehension. Comprehension was evaluated after each lecture or conversation by asking listeners to answer multiple-choice questions regarding its content. Once individual differences in speech recognition for words presented in babble were compensated for, age differences in speech comprehension were minimized if not eliminated. However, younger listeners benefited more from spatial separation than did older listeners. Vocabulary knowledge predicted the comprehension scores of both younger and older listeners when listening was difficult, but not when it was easy. However, the contribution of reading comprehension to listening comprehension appeared to be independent of listening difficulty in younger adults but not in older adults. The evidence suggests (1) that most of the difficulties experienced by older adults are due to age-related auditory declines, and (2) that these declines, along with listening difficulty, modulate the degree to which selective linguistic and cognitive abilities are engaged to support listening comprehension in difficult listening situations. When older listeners experience speech recognition difficulties, their attentional resources are more likely to be deployed to

  7. Self-Control of Task Difficulty During Early Practice Promotes Motor Skill Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrieux, Mathieu; Boutin, Arnaud; Thon, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to determine whether the effect of self-control of task difficulty on motor learning is a function of the period of self-control administration. In a complex anticipation-coincidence task that required participants to intercept 3 targets with a virtual racquet, the task difficulty was either self-controlled or imposed to the participants in the two phases of the acquisition session. First, the results confirmed the beneficial effects of self-control over fully prescribed conditions. Second, the authors also demonstrated that a partial self-control of task difficulty better promotes learning than does a complete self-controlled procedure. Overall, the results revealed that these benefits are increased when this choice is allowed during early practice. The findings are discussed in terms of theoretical and applied perspectives.

  8. Demonstration of HITEX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, H.D.; Woodall, K.B.

    1993-01-01

    A model reactor for HITEX successfully demonstrated the concept of high-temperature isotopic exchange in a closed loop simulating the conditions for fusion fuel cleanup. The catalyst of platinum on alumina pellets provided a surface area large enough to operate the reactor at 400 degrees celsius with flow rates up to 2 L/min. A 15-L tank containing a mixture of 4% CD 4 in H 2 was depleted in deuterium within 75 minutes down to 100 ppm HD above the natural concentration of HD in the make-up hydrogen stream. The application to tritium removal from tritiated impurities in a hydrogen stream will work as well or better

  9. Visual Electricity Demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, James

    2017-09-01

    The Visual Electricity Demonstrator (VED) is a linear diode array that serves as a dynamic alternative to an ammeter. A string of 48 red light-emitting diodes (LEDs) blink one after another to create the illusion of a moving current. Having the current represented visually builds an intuitive and qualitative understanding about what is happening in a circuit. In this article, I describe several activities for this device and explain how using this technology in the classroom can enhance the understanding and appreciation of physics.

  10. Exploration Medical System Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, D. A.; Watkins, S. D.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exploration class missions will present significant new challenges and hazards to the health of the astronauts. Regardless of the intended destination, beyond low Earth orbit a greater degree of crew autonomy will be required to diagnose medical conditions, develop treatment plans, and implement procedures due to limited communications with ground-based personnel. SCOPE: The Exploration Medical System Demonstration (EMSD) project will act as a test bed on the International Space Station (ISS) to demonstrate to crew and ground personnel that an end-to-end medical system can assist clinician and non-clinician crew members in optimizing medical care delivery and data management during an exploration mission. Challenges facing exploration mission medical care include limited resources, inability to evacuate to Earth during many mission phases, and potential rendering of medical care by non-clinicians. This system demonstrates the integration of medical devices and informatics tools for managing evidence and decision making and can be designed to assist crewmembers in nominal, non-emergent situations and in emergent situations when they may be suffering from performance decrements due to environmental, physiological or other factors. PROJECT OBJECTIVES: The objectives of the EMSD project are to: a. Reduce or eliminate the time required of an on-orbit crew and ground personnel to access, transfer, and manipulate medical data. b. Demonstrate that the on-orbit crew has the ability to access medical data/information via an intuitive and crew-friendly solution to aid in the treatment of a medical condition. c. Develop a common data management framework that can be ubiquitously used to automate repetitive data collection, management, and communications tasks for all activities pertaining to crew health and life sciences. d. Ensure crew access to medical data during periods of restricted ground communication. e. Develop a common data management framework that

  11. Commercial incineration demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vavruska, J.S.; Borduin, L.C.

    1982-01-01

    Low-level radioactive wastes (LLW) generated by nuclear utilities presently are shipped to commercial burial grounds for disposal. Increasing transportation and disposal costs have caused industry to consider incineration as a cost-effective means of volume reduction of combustible LLW. Repeated inquiries from the nuclear industry regarding the applicability of the Los Alamos controlled air incineration (CAI) design led the DOE to initiate a commercial demonstration program in FY-1980. Development studies and results in support of this program involving ion exchange resin incineration and fission/activation product distributions within the Los Alamos CAI are described

  12. Demonstration tokamak power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdou, M.; Baker, C.; Brooks, J.; Ehst, D.; Mattas, R.; Smith, D.L.; DeFreece, D.; Morgan, G.D.; Trachsel, C.

    1983-01-01

    A conceptual design for a tokamak demonstration power plant (DEMO) was developed. A large part of the study focused on examining the key issues and identifying the R and D needs for: (1) current drive for steady-state operation, (2) impurity control and exhaust, (3) tritium breeding blanket, and (4) reactor configuration and maintenance. Impurity control and exhaust will not be covered in this paper but is discussed in another paper in these proceedings, entitled Key Issues of FED/INTOR Impurity Control System

  13. Difficulties in emotion regulation and risky driving among Lithuanian drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šeibokaitė, Laura; Endriulaitienė, Auksė; Sullman, Mark J M; Markšaitytė, Rasa; Žardeckaitė-Matulaitienė, Kristina

    2017-10-03

    Risky driving is a common cause of traffic accidents and injuries. However, there is no clear evidence of how difficulties in emotion regulation contribute to risky driving behavior, particularly in small post-Soviet countries. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between difficulties in emotion regulation and self-reported risky driving behavior in a sample of Lithuanian drivers. A total of 246 nonprofessional Lithuanian drivers participated in a cross-sectional survey. Difficulties in emotion regulation were assessed using the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS; Gratz and Roemer 2004), and risky driving behavior was assessed using the Manchester Driver Behaviour Questionnaire (DBQ; Lajunen et al. 2004). Males scored higher than females in aggressive violations and ordinary violations. Females scored higher for the nonacceptance of emotional responses, whereas males had more difficulties with emotional awareness than females. More difficulties in emotion regulation were positively correlated with driving errors, lapses, aggressive violations, and ordinary violations for both males and females. Structural equation modeling showed that difficulties in emotion regulation explained aggressive and ordinary violations more clearly than lapses and errors. When controlling for interactions among the distinct regulation difficulties, difficulties with impulse control and difficulties engaging in goal-directed behavior predicted risky driving. Furthermore, nonacceptance of emotional responses and limited access to emotion regulation strategies were related to less violations and more driving errors. Emotion regulation difficulties were associated with the self-reported risky driving behaviors of Lithuanian drivers. This provides useful hints for improving driver training programs in order to prevent traffic injuries.

  14. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration stakeholder involvement model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaupanger, R.M.; Kostelnik, K.M.; Milam, L.M.

    1994-04-01

    The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) is a program funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development. BWID supports the applied research, development, demonstration, and evaluation of a suite of advanced technologies that together form a comprehensive remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste. Stakeholder participation in the DOE Environmental Management decision-making process is critical to remediation efforts. Appropriate mechanisms for communication with the public, private sector, regulators, elected officials, and others are being aggressively pursued by BWID to permit informed participation. This document summarizes public outreach efforts during FY-93 and presents a strategy for expanded stakeholder involvement during FY-94

  15. Does reading strategy instruction improve students’ comprehension?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyetunji, Christianah Oluwatoyin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the effect of reading strategy instruction on Second Language (L2 students’ reading comprehension in a Botswana College of Education. The intervention programme was implemented based on the observation that some trainee teachers failed to improve on their L2 proficiency after spending a year in the L2 classroom. Prior to the intervention, difficulty in reading and comprehending had been identified as one of the contributing factors to their failure to improve on their proficiency level. A reading comprehension test was used to collect data from participants who were trainee teachers at a College of Education in Botswana before and after the intervention. The six-week intervention programme focused on seven reading strategies, namely the use of background knowledge, self-questioning, inferencing, rereading, drawing conclusions, identifying main ideas and summarising. The findings suggest that strategy training can increase L2 students’ reading comprehension. Based on the findings, it is recommended that strategy training be introduced into the L2 syllabus of the primary school teacher trainees in all Botswana Colleges of Education.

  16. Smart Grid Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Craig [National Rural Electric Cooperative Association, Arlington, VA (United States); Carroll, Paul [National Rural Electric Cooperative Association, Arlington, VA (United States); Bell, Abigail [National Rural Electric Cooperative Association, Arlington, VA (United States)

    2015-03-11

    The National Rural Electric Cooperative Association (NRECA) organized the NRECA-U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Smart Grid Demonstration Project (DE-OE0000222) to install and study a broad range of advanced smart grid technologies in a demonstration that spanned 23 electric cooperatives in 12 states. More than 205,444 pieces of electronic equipment and more than 100,000 minor items (bracket, labels, mounting hardware, fiber optic cable, etc.) were installed to upgrade and enhance the efficiency, reliability, and resiliency of the power networks at the participating co-ops. The objective of this project was to build a path for other electric utilities, and particularly electrical cooperatives, to adopt emerging smart grid technology when it can improve utility operations, thus advancing the co-ops’ familiarity and comfort with such technology. Specifically, the project executed multiple subprojects employing a range of emerging smart grid technologies to test their cost-effectiveness and, where the technology demonstrated value, provided case studies that will enable other electric utilities—particularly electric cooperatives— to use these technologies. NRECA structured the project according to the following three areas: Demonstration of smart grid technology; Advancement of standards to enable the interoperability of components; and Improvement of grid cyber security. We termed these three areas Technology Deployment Study, Interoperability, and Cyber Security. Although the deployment of technology and studying the demonstration projects at coops accounted for the largest portion of the project budget by far, we see our accomplishments in each of the areas as critical to advancing the smart grid. All project deliverables have been published. Technology Deployment Study: The deliverable was a set of 11 single-topic technical reports in areas related to the listed technologies. Each of these reports has already been submitted to DOE, distributed to co-ops, and

  17. Comprehensive hard materials

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    Comprehensive Hard Materials deals with the production, uses and properties of the carbides, nitrides and borides of these metals and those of titanium, as well as tools of ceramics, the superhard boron nitrides and diamond and related compounds. Articles include the technologies of powder production (including their precursor materials), milling, granulation, cold and hot compaction, sintering, hot isostatic pressing, hot-pressing, injection moulding, as well as on the coating technologies for refractory metals, hard metals and hard materials. The characterization, testing, quality assurance and applications are also covered. Comprehensive Hard Materials provides meaningful insights on materials at the leading edge of technology. It aids continued research and development of these materials and as such it is a critical information resource to academics and industry professionals facing the technological challenges of the future. Hard materials operate at the leading edge of technology, and continued res...

  18. The effect of disfluency on mind wandering during text comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, Myrthe; Mills, Caitlin; Kopp, Kristopher; D'Mello, Sidney

    2017-06-01

    When reading, we frequently find ourselves thinking about something other than the text. These attentional lapses, known as mind wandering (MW), are negatively correlated with text comprehension. Previous studies have shown that more syntactically and semantically difficult texts elicit more MW, because textual difficulty impedes the construction of a mental model of the text, which makes it more difficult to suppress off-task thoughts. But is it possible to reduce MW without altering the content of the text itself? We hypothesized that reading a perceptually disfluent text might require more attentional resources, even if the content remained the same, leaving fewer resources available for MW. To test this idea, we manipulated the typefaces (fluent [Arial] or disfluent [ ]) of two instructional texts on scientific research methods (each about 1,490 words long), and found that MW was less frequent when participants read the disfluent text. There were no comprehension differences between the fluent and disfluent groups. However, we did find an indirect effect of disfluency on comprehension through MW, suggesting that disfluency influences comprehension by enhancing attention. These findings provide insights into how processing difficulty and attention interact during reading comprehension.

  19. 501 reading comprehension questions

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This updated edition offers the most extensive and varied practice for all types of questions students might face on standardized and in-class tests. With this guide, students will learn to develop expert reading strategies, understand how to read faster and with greater comprehension, overcome reading anxiety, and increase appreciation of reading for pleasure. This book's step-by-step approach provides graduated coverage that moves from the basics to more advanced reading.

  20. Emotional Intelligence, Personality Traits and Career Decision Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Fabio, Annamaria; Palazzeschi, Letizia

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to take an in-depth look at the role of emotional intelligence and personality traits in relation to career decision difficulties. The Italian version of the Career Decision Difficulties Questionnaire (CDDQ), the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory: Short (Bar-On EQ-i: S), and the Big Five Questionnaire (BFQ) were administered to…

  1. Learner's Learning Experiences & Difficulties towards (ESL) among UKM Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maarof, Nooreiny; Munusamy, Indira Malani A/P

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate the learners learning experiences and difficulties of ESL among the UKM undergraduates. This study will be focusing on identifying the factors behind Malaysian undergraduate's experiences and also their difficulties in the English as Second Language (ESL) classroom. This paper discusses some of the issues of English…

  2. Common Factors Among Family Medicine Residents Who Encounter Difficulty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binczyk, Natalia M; Babenko, Oksana; Schipper, Shirley; Ross, Shelley

    2018-04-01

    Residents in difficulty are costly to programs in both time and resources, and encountering difficulty can be emotionally harmful to residents. Approximately 10% of residents will encounter difficulty at some point in training. While there have been several studies looking at common factors among residents who encounter difficulty, some of the findings are inconsistent. The objective of this study was to determine whether there are common factors among the residents who encounter difficulty during training in a large Canadian family medicine residency program. Secondary data analysis was performed on archived resident files from a Canadian family medicine residency program. Residents who commenced an urban family medicine residency program between the years of 2006 and 2014 were included in the study. Five hundred nine family medicine residents were included in data analysis. Residents older than 30 years were 2.33 times (95% CI: 1.27-4.26) more likely to encounter difficulty than residents aged 30 years or younger. Nontransfer residents were 8.85 times (95% CI: 1.17-66.67) more likely to encounter difficulty than transfer residents. The effects of sex, training site, international medical graduate status, and rotation order on the likelihood of encountering difficulty were nonsignificant. Older and nontransfer residents may be facing unique circumstances and may benefit from additional support from the program.

  3. Assessment of Pragmatic Difficulties and Socioemotional Adjustment in Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Marion; Oliver, Alice

    2005-01-01

    Background: In professional practice, psychologists and other professionals such as therapists and teachers receive referrals of many children who present with social, emotional and behavioural difficulties that are difficult to understand and assess. The problems of some of these children may stem from pragmatic difficulties in communication.…

  4. A Theoretical Framework towards Understanding of Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulou, Maria S.

    2014-01-01

    Children's emotional and behavioural difficulties are the result of multiple individual, social and contextual factors working in concert. The current paper proposes a theoretical framework to interpret students' emotional and behavioural difficulties in schools, by taking into consideration teacher-student relationships, students'…

  5. Graphical modeling for item difficulty in medical faculty exams

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . Conclusion: The ... difficulty criteria. Key words: Item difficulty, quality control, statistical process control, variable control charts ..... assumed that 68% of the values fall in the interval ± 1.S; .... The balance of the construction of items of exam has ...

  6. Early Writing Deficits in Preschoolers with Oral Language Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puranik, Cynthia S.; Lonigan, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether preschool children with language impairments (LI), a group with documented reading difficulties, also experience writing difficulties. In addition, a purpose was to examine if the writing outcomes differed when children had concomitant cognitive deficits in addition to oral language problems. A…

  7. School Success for Kids with Dyslexia and Other Reading Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunson, Walter E.

    2012-01-01

    "School Success for Kids With Dyslexia and Other Reading Difficulties" provides parents and teachers with goals that will meet the needs of students who are struggling with reading, leading them to work through their difficulties and enjoy reading. It includes information, assessments, and techniques that parents, teachers, and school…

  8. Learning Difficulty and Learner Identity: A Symbiotic Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Eliana

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on a longitudinal case study of an adult EFL learner who perceived himself as having difficulty learning English. Both learning difficulty and learner identity are viewed as being constructed in discursive interactions throughout one's life and, hence, amenable to reconstruction. Data collected from classroom interactions,…

  9. Electrodynamic Dust Shield Demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankie, Charles G.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the project was to design and manufacture a device to demonstrate a new technology developed by NASA's Electrostatics and Surface Physics Laboratory. The technology itself is a system which uses magnetic principles to remove regolith dust from its surface. This project was to create an enclosure that will be used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the invention to The Office of the Chief Technologist. ONE of the most important challenges of space exploration is actually caused by something very small and seemingly insignificant. Dust in space, most notably on the moon and Mars, has caused many unforeseen issues. Dirt and dust on Earth, while a nuisance, can be easily cleaned and kept at bay. However, there is considerably less weathering and erosion in space. As a result, the microscopic particles are extremely rough and abrasive. They are also electrostatically charged, so they cling to everything they make contact with. This was first noted to be a major problem during the Apollo missions. Dust would stick to the spacesuits, and could not be wiped off as predicted. Dust was brought back into the spacecraft, and was even inhaled by astronauts. This is a major health hazard. Atmospheric storms and other events can also cause dust to coat surfaces of spacecraft. This can cause abrasive damage to the craft. The coating can also reduce the effectiveness of thermal insulation and solar panels.' A group of engineers at Kennedy Space Center's Electrostatics and Surface Physics Laboratory have developed a new technology, called the Electrodynamic Dust Shield, to help alleviate these problems. It is based off of the electric curtain concept developed at NASA in 1967. "The EDS is an active dust mitigation technology that uses traveling electric fields to transport electrostatically charged dust particles along surfaces. To generate the traveling electric fields, the EDS consists of a multilayer dielectric coating with an embedded thin electrode grid

  10. Fuel Cell Demonstration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald Brun

    2006-09-15

    In an effort to promote clean energy projects and aid in the commercialization of new fuel cell technologies the Long Island Power Authority (LIPA) initiated a Fuel Cell Demonstration Program in 1999 with six month deployments of Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) non-commercial Beta model systems at partnering sites throughout Long Island. These projects facilitated significant developments in the technology, providing operating experience that allowed the manufacturer to produce fuel cells that were half the size of the Beta units and suitable for outdoor installations. In 2001, LIPA embarked on a large-scale effort to identify and develop measures that could improve the reliability and performance of future fuel cell technologies for electric utility applications and the concept to establish a fuel cell farm (Farm) of 75 units was developed. By the end of October of 2001, 75 Lorax 2.0 fuel cells had been installed at the West Babylon substation on Long Island, making it the first fuel cell demonstration of its kind and size anywhere in the world at the time. Designed to help LIPA study the feasibility of using fuel cells to operate in parallel with LIPA's electric grid system, the Farm operated 120 fuel cells over its lifetime of over 3 years including 3 generations of Plug Power fuel cells (Lorax 2.0, Lorax 3.0, Lorax 4.5). Of these 120 fuel cells, 20 Lorax 3.0 units operated under this Award from June 2002 to September 2004. In parallel with the operation of the Farm, LIPA recruited government and commercial/industrial customers to demonstrate fuel cells as on-site distributed generation. From December 2002 to February 2005, 17 fuel cells were tested and monitored at various customer sites throughout Long Island. The 37 fuel cells operated under this Award produced a total of 712,635 kWh. As fuel cell technology became more mature, performance improvements included a 1% increase in system efficiency. Including equipment, design, fuel, maintenance

  11. Difficulties encountered in collaborative care: logistics trumps desire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legault, Frances; Humbert, Jennie; Amos, Stephanie; Hogg, William; Ward, Natalie; Dahrouge, Simone; Ziebell, Laura

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the development of collaborative relationships between family physicians (FPs) and Anticipatory And Preventative Team Care (APTCare) team members providing care to medically complex patients who have been identified as at-risk for negative health outcomes. We undertook a qualitative study of a primary health care intervention in a family practice. Interviews were held with FPs and ATPCare intervention nurse practitioners (NPs) and pharmacists. Focus groups were conducted and a survey was administered to participating FPs, NPs, and pharmacists. NPs and pharmacists maintained a log recording their tasks and moments of collaboration. Scheduling demands rendered face-to-face collaboration difficult, leaving the team to rely on technological tools to keep in touch. Limited space meant the APTCare team had to work out of a downstairs office, limiting informal interactions with the practitioners on the main level. We demonstrate that the difficulties inherent in collaborative care are independent of the patient population being cared for. Regardless of the patient population and sector of health care, developing collaborative relationships and learning to work collaboratively is difficult and takes time. What many of these teams need is ongoing support and education about how to make these collaborative care practices work.

  12. Evaluation of maths training programme for children with learning difficulties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antje Ehlert

    2013-06-01

    The study at hand focuses on the question of whether educationally impaired children with large deficits in mathematics can be supported successfully by means of a highly adaptive support measure (MARKO-T, and whether the effects of this support can be maintained over a certain period. For this, 32 educationally impaired third-graders with math deficits were supported individually with MARKO-T twice a week, over a period of ten weeks. As control group, 32 similarly impaired third-graders were paralleled according to the mathematical and cognitive achievements of the training group. Two further control groups, each with 32 unimpaired first-graders, were paralleled according to their mathematical and cognitive achievements, respectively. The results showed that the very poor mathematical performance of the educationally impaired children could be significantly improved with this support programme. Four months after the end of the training, significant support effects could still be established when compared to the educationally impaired control group. The comparison with the two control groups demonstrated that the developmental curve of the children with learning difficulties increased in a way that was comparable to that of the unimpaired first-graders.

  13. Swallowing difficulties for cerebellar stroke may recover beyond three years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Périé, S; Wajeman, S; Vivant, R; St Guily, J L

    1999-01-01

    Swallowing disorders after stroke or skull base surgery can be life threatening. Although late recovery can occur, it remains poorly documented. We report a case of a 54-year-old woman with dysphagia resulting from a cerebellar stroke with hemorrhage that was evacuated through craniotomy. Swallowing difficulties were assessed by a videoendoscopic swallowing study. She presented with disruption of swallow initiation and impairment of the pharyngeal stage, resulting in hypopharyngeal stasis and penetration with aspiration. Supportive swallowing therapy was conducted with careful reeducation to assist initiation of the pharyngeal stage as well as development of compensatory postural technique. Initial improvement was very slow but became rapidly progressive from the 31st month after the stroke. By the 34th month, oral feeding was possible without aspiration. This case demonstrates that improvement in swallowing function can be expected even 3 years after stroke or skull base surgery. Determination of predictive factors for late functional recovery is of great importance and should be the focus of further investigation.

  14. Fusion-power demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henning, C.D.; Logan, B.G.; Carlson, G.A.; Neef, W.S.; Moir, R.W.; Campbell, R.B.; Botwin, R.; Clarkson, I.R.; Carpenter, T.J.

    1983-01-01

    As a satellite to the MARS (Mirror Advanced Reactor Study) a smaller, near-term device has been scoped, called the FPD (Fusion Power Demonstration). Envisioned as the next logical step toward a power reactor, it would advance the mirror fusion program beyond MFTF-B and provide an intermediate step toward commercial fusion power. Breakeven net electric power capability would be the goal such that no net utility power would be required to sustain the operation. A phased implementation is envisioned, with a deuterium checkout first to verify the plasma systems before significant neutron activation has occurred. Major tritium-related facilities would be installed with the second phase to produce sufficient fusion power to supply the recirculating power to maintain the neutral beams, ECRH, magnets and other auxiliary equipment

  15. Spent fuel pyroprocessing demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFarlane, L.F.; Lineberry, M.J.

    1995-01-01

    A major element of the shutdown of the US liquid metal reactor development program is managing the sodium-bonded spent metallic fuel from the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II to meet US environmental laws. Argonne National Laboratory has refurbished and equipped an existing hot cell facility for treating the spent fuel by a high-temperature electrochemical process commonly called pyroprocessing. Four products will be produced for storage and disposal. Two high-level waste forms will be produced and qualified for disposal of the fission and activation products. Uranium and transuranium alloys will be produced for storage pending a decision by the US Department of Energy on the fate of its plutonium and enriched uranium. Together these activities will demonstrate a unique electrochemical treatment technology for spent nuclear fuel. This technology potentially has significant economic and technical advantages over either conventional reprocessing or direct disposal as a high-level waste option

  16. Industrial demonstration trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelee, M.; Fabre, C.; Villepoix, R. de; Fra, J.; Le Foulgoc, L.; Morel, Y.; Querite, P.; Roques, R.

    1975-01-01

    Prototypes of the plant components, meeting the specifications set by the process and built by industrial firms in collaboration with the supervisor and the C.E.A., are subjected to trial runs on the UF 6 test bench of the Pierrelatte testing zone. These items of equipment (diffuser, compressor, exchanger) are placed in an industrial operation context very similar to that of an enrichment plant. Their performance is measured within a broad region around the working point and their reliability observed over periods up to several tens of thousands of hours. Between 1969 and 1973 six industrial demonstration test benches have been built, marking the stages in the technical preparation of the 1973 file on the basis of which the decision of building was taken by Eurodif [fr

  17. Fusion Power Demonstration III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.D.

    1985-07-01

    This is the third in the series of reports covering the Fusion Power Demonstration (FPD) design study. This volume considers the FPD-III configuration that incorporates an octopole end plug. As compared with the quadrupole end-plugged designs of FPD-I and FPD-II, this octopole configuration reduces the number of end cell magnets and shortens the minimum ignition length of the central cell. The end-cell plasma length is also reduced, which in turn reduces the size and cost of the end cell magnets and shielding. As a contiuation in the series of documents covering the FPD, this report does not stand alone as a design description of FPD-III. Design details of FPD-III subsystems that do not differ significantly from those of the FPD-II configuration are not duplicated in this report

  18. TPA device for demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-02-01

    The TPA (torus plasma for amature) is a small race-trac type device made by the technical service division to demonstrate basic properties of plasma such as electron temperature, conductivity, effect of helical field for toroidal drift, and shape of plasma in mirror and cusp magnetic field in linear section. The plasmas are produced by RF discharge (-500W) and/or DC discharge (-30 mA) within glass discharge tube. Where major radius is 50 cm, length of linear section is 50 cm, toroidal magnetic field is 200 gauss. The device has been designed to be compact with only 100 V power source (-3.2 KW for the case without helical field) and to be full automatic sequence of operation. (author)

  19. Fusion power demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henning, C.D.; Logan, B.G.

    1983-01-01

    As a satellite to the MARS (Mirror Advanced Reactor Study) a smaller, near-term device has been scoped, called the FPD (Fusion Power Demonstration). Envisioned as the next logical step toward a power reactor, it would advance the mirror fusion program beyond MFTF-B and provide an intermediate step toward commercial fusion power. Breakeven net electric power capability would be the goal such that no net utility power would be required to sustain the operation. A phased implementation is envisioned, with a deuterium checkout first to verify the plasma systems before significant neutron activation has occurred. Major tritium-related facilities would be installed with the second phase to produce sufficient fusion power to supply the recirculating power to maintain the neutral beams, ECRH, magnets and other auxiliary equipment

  20. How reading comprehension is embodied and why that matters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur M. GLENBERG

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Reading comprehension, much like comprehension of situations and comprehension of oral language, is embodied. In all cases, comprehension is the ability to take effective action on the basis ofaffordances related to the body, the physical world, and personal goals and cultural norms. In language contexts, action-based comprehension arises from simulating the linguistic content usingneural and bodily systems of perception, action, and emotion. Within this framework, a new approach to teaching reading comprehension is described: Teach children how to simulate while reading. TheMoved by Reading intervention teaches simulation in two stages. In the first stage, physical manipulation, children manipulate toys to simulate the content of what they are reading. After success in physically manipulating the toys, the children are taught to manipulate the toys in imagination. Research demonstrates that both physical and imagined manipulation leads to large gains in memory and comprehension.

  1. How reading comprehension is embodied and why that matters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur M. Glenberg

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Reading comprehension, much like comprehension of situations and comprehension of oral language, is embodied. In all cases, comprehension is the ability to take effective action on the basis of affordances related to the body, the physical world, and personal goals and cultural norms. In language contexts, action-based comprehension arises from simulating the linguistic content using neural and bodily systems of perception, action, and emotion. Within this framework, a new approach to teaching reading comprehension is described: Teach children how to simulate while reading. The Moved by Reading intervention teaches simulation in two stages. In the first stage, physical manipulation, children manipulate toys to simulate the content of what they are reading. After success in physically manipulating the toys, the children are taught to manipulate the toys in imagination. Research demonstrates that both physical and imagined manipulation leads to large gains in memory and comprehension.

  2. Dynamic wall demonstration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakatsui, L.; Mayhew, W.

    1990-12-01

    The dynamic wall concept is a ventilation strategy that can be applied to a single family dwelling. With suitable construction, outside air can be admitted through the exterior walls of the house to the interior space to function as ventilation air. The construction and performance monitoring of a demonstration house built to test the dynamic wall concept in Sherwood Park, Alberta, is described. The project had the objectives of demonstrating and assessing the construction methods; determining the cost-effectiveness of the concept in Alberta; analyzing the operation of the dynamic wall system; and determining how other components and systems in the house interact with the dynamic wall. The exterior wall construction consisted of vinyl siding, spun-bonded polyolefin-backed (SBPO) rigid fiberglass sheathing, 38 mm by 89 mm framing, fiberglass batt insulation and 12.7 mm drywall. The mechanical system was designed to operate in the dynamic (negative pressure) mode, however flexibility was provided to allow operation in the static (balanced pressure) mode to permit monitoring of the walls as if they were in a conventional house. The house was monitored by an extensive computerized monitoring system. Dynamic wall operation was dependent on pressure and temperature differentials between indoor and outdoor as well as wind speed and direction. The degree of heat gain was found to be ca 74% of the indoor-outdoor temperature differential. Temperature of incoming dynamic air was significantly affected by solar radiation and measurement of indoor air pollutants found no significant levels. 4 refs., 34 figs., 11 tabs.

  3. Differential constraints on the working memory and reading abilities of individuals with learning difficulties and typically developing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayliss, Donna M; Jarrold, Christopher; Baddeley, Alan D; Leigh, Eleanor

    2005-09-01

    This study examined the factors that constrain the working memory span performance and reading ability of individuals with generalized learning difficulties. In the study, 50 individuals with learning difficulties (LD) and 50 typically developing children (TD) matched for reading age completed two working memory span tasks. Participants also completed independent measures of the processing and storage operations involved in each working memory span task and Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices. The results showed that despite an equivalent level of working memory span, the relative importance of the constraints on working memory differed between the groups. In addition, working memory span was not closely related to word recognition or sentence comprehension performance in the LD group. These results suggest that the working memory span performance of LD and TD individuals may reflect different working memory limitations and that individuals with generalized learning difficulties may approach cognitive tasks in a qualitatively different way from that of typically developing individuals.

  4. [The difficulties of contraception: conflicts and paradoxes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cribier, F

    1988-06-01

    This work uses clinical examples to explore sources of conflict and denial of patients and physicians during contraception consultations. The discovery of oral contraceptives (OCs) and improvements in mechanical contraception raised hopes that couples could achieve total control of their fertility. But continued high abortion rates and the persistence of sexual problems and maladjustments have demonstrated that contraception alone is not a panacea. Conflicts about contraception may be conscious and quickly expressed during a consultation, even if a medical pretext is given. The resentment when 1 partner desires a child and the other does not for example can translate into a conflict about contraception. Some women are fully aware of their own ambivalence about pregnancy and contraception and able to express it openly, but very often the woman's concerns are expressed by questions, fears, and verbal slips. The fear that pills are unnatural or will cause congenital defects can be interpreted as an expression of guilt over the pleasure that pills permit. Sterility is the ultimate fear caused by this unlimited possibility for pleasure. In the majority of cases, physical complaints are the means by which contraception clients address their physicians. In some cases, intolerance to OCs may actually be a hysterical manifestation that is not understood. Such symptoms as nausea, breast swelling, dizziness, vomiting, nervousness, and insomnia may be signs of early pregnancy as well as of intolerance for pills. Intolerance to pills may be caused by intolerance of a sexuality in which all things seem possible but in which the individual feels unrecognized by the partner. The resulting aggression may be turned inward in the form of a morbid symptom or of forgetting or stopping pill use, recourse to abortion, and demand for recognition. Acting out, especially by adolescents, is common in the area of contraception. In some cases the psychological or emotional needs of the patient

  5. Listening comprehension across the adult lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommers, Mitchell S; Hale, Sandra; Myerson, Joel; Rose, Nathan; Tye-Murray, Nancy; Spehar, Brent

    2011-01-01

    Although age-related declines in perceiving spoken language are well established, the primary focus of research has been on perception of phonemes, words, and sentences. In contrast, relatively few investigations have been directed at establishing the effects of age on the comprehension of extended spoken passages. Moreover, most previous work has used extreme-group designs in which the performance of a group of young adults is contrasted with that of a group of older adults and little if any information is available regarding changes in listening comprehension across the adult lifespan. Accordingly, the goals of the current investigation were to determine whether there are age differences in listening comprehension across the adult lifespan and, if so, whether similar trajectories are observed for age-related changes in auditory sensitivity and listening comprehension. This study used a cross-sectional lifespan design in which approximately 60 individuals in each of 7 decades, from age 20 to 89 yr (a total of 433 participants), were tested on three different measures of listening comprehension. In addition, we obtained measures of auditory sensitivity from all participants. Changes in auditory sensitivity across the adult lifespan exhibited the progressive high-frequency loss typical of age-related hearing impairment. Performance on the listening comprehension measures, however, demonstrated a very different pattern, with scores on all measures remaining relatively stable until age 65 to 70 yr, after which significant declines were observed. Follow-up analyses indicated that this same general pattern was observed across three different types of passages (lectures, interviews, and narratives) and three different question types (information, integration, and inference). Multiple regression analyses indicated that low-frequency pure-tone average was the single largest contributor to age-related variance in listening comprehension for individuals older than 65 yr, but

  6. Why People with More Emotion Regulation Difficulties Made a More Deontological Judgment: The Role of Deontological Inclinations

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Lisong; Li, Zhongquan; Wu, Xiaoyuan; Zhang, Ziyuan

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the key role of emotion in moral judgment, and explored the relationship between emotion regulation and moral judgment. The present study investigated the influence of individual differences in emotion regulation difficulties on moral judgment. Study 1 examined whether individuals with high emotion regulation difficulties made a more deontological judgment. Study 2 explored the underlying mechanism using a process-dissociation approach, examining whether deo...

  7. Overlapping genetic and child-specific nonshared environmental influences on listening comprehension, reading motivation, and reading comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenker, Victoria J; Petrill, Stephen A

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the genetic and environmental influences on observed associations between listening comprehension, reading motivation, and reading comprehension. Univariate and multivariate quantitative genetic models were conducted in a sample of 284 pairs of twins at a mean age of 9.81 years. Genetic and nonshared environmental factors accounted for statistically significant variance in listening and reading comprehension, and nonshared environmental factors accounted for variance in reading motivation. Furthermore, listening comprehension demonstrated unique genetic and nonshared environmental influences but also had overlapping genetic influences with reading comprehension. Reading motivation and reading comprehension each had unique and overlapping nonshared environmental contributions. Therefore, listening comprehension appears to be related to reading primarily due to genetic factors whereas motivation appears to affect reading via child-specific, nonshared environmental effects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Overlapping Genetic and Child-Specific Nonshared Environmental Influences on Listening Comprehension, Reading Motivation, and Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenker, Victoria J.; Petrill, Stephen A.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the genetic and environmental influences on observed associations between listening comprehension, reading motivation, and reading comprehension. Univariate and multivariate quantitative genetic models were conducted in a sample of 284 pairs of twins at a mean age of 9.81 years. Genetic and nonshared environmental factors accounted for statistically significant variance in listening and reading comprehension, and nonshared environmental factors accounted for variance in reading motivation. Furthermore, listening comprehension demonstrated unique genetic and nonshared environmental influences but also had overlapping genetic influences with reading comprehension. Reading motivation and reading comprehension each had unique and overlapping nonshared environmental contributions. Therefore, listening comprehension appears to be related to reading primarily due to genetic factors whereas motivation appears to affect reading via child-specific, nonshared environmental effects. PMID:26321677

  9. Functional Anatomy of Listening and Reading Comprehension during Development

    OpenAIRE

    Berl, Madison M.; Duke, Elizabeth S.; Mayo, Jessica; Rosenberger, Lisa R.; Moore, Erin N.; VanMeter, John; Ratner, Nan Bernstein; Vaidya, Chandan J.; Gaillard, William Davis

    2010-01-01

    Listening and reading comprehension of paragraph-length material are considered higher-order language skills fundamental to social and academic functioning. Using ecologically relevant language stimuli that were matched for difficulty according to developmental level, we analyze the effects of task, age, neuropsychological skills, and post-task performance on fMRI activation and hemispheric laterality. Areas of supramodal language processing are identified, with the most robust region being l...

  10. Determining Which Introductory Physics Topics Pre-Service Physics Teachers Have Difficulty Understanding and What Accounts for These Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Esin; Yagbasan, Rahmi

    2012-01-01

    This study aims at diagnosing which subjects pre-service physics teachers have difficulty understanding in introductory physics courses and what accounts for these difficulties. A questionnaire consisting of two qualitative questions was used to collect data for this study. The questionnaire was administered to 101 pre-service physics teachers who…

  11. University Students with Reading Difficulties: Do Perceived Supports and Comorbid Difficulties Predict Well-being and GPA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stack-Cutler, Holly L.; Parrila, Rauno K.; Torppa, Minna

    2016-01-01

    We examined the impact of the number of comorbid difficulties, social support, and community support on life satisfaction and academic achievement among 120 university students or recent graduates with self-reported reading difficulties. Participants completed a questionnaire assessing perceived social support, perceived community support, the…

  12. A Demonstration of Lusail

    KAUST Repository

    Mansour, Essam; Abdelaziz, Ibrahim; Ouzzani, Mourad; Aboulnaga, Ashraf; Kalnis, Panos

    2017-01-01

    There has been a proliferation of datasets available as interlinked RDF data accessible through SPARQL endpoints. This has led to the emergence of various applications in life science, distributed social networks, and Internet of Things that need to integrate data from multiple endpoints. We will demonstrate Lusail; a system that supports the need of emerging applications to access tens to hundreds of geo-distributed datasets. Lusail is a geo-distributed graph engine for querying linked RDF data. Lusail delivers outstanding performance using (i) a novel locality-aware query decomposition technique that minimizes the intermediate data to be accessed by the subqueries, and (ii) selectivityawareness and parallel query execution to reduce network latency and to increase parallelism. During the demo, the audience will be able to query actually deployed RDF endpoints as well as large synthetic and real benchmarks that we have deployed in the public cloud. The demo will also show that Lusail outperforms state-of-the-art systems by orders of magnitude in terms of scalability and response time.

  13. A Demonstration of Lusail

    KAUST Repository

    Mansour, Essam

    2017-05-10

    There has been a proliferation of datasets available as interlinked RDF data accessible through SPARQL endpoints. This has led to the emergence of various applications in life science, distributed social networks, and Internet of Things that need to integrate data from multiple endpoints. We will demonstrate Lusail; a system that supports the need of emerging applications to access tens to hundreds of geo-distributed datasets. Lusail is a geo-distributed graph engine for querying linked RDF data. Lusail delivers outstanding performance using (i) a novel locality-aware query decomposition technique that minimizes the intermediate data to be accessed by the subqueries, and (ii) selectivityawareness and parallel query execution to reduce network latency and to increase parallelism. During the demo, the audience will be able to query actually deployed RDF endpoints as well as large synthetic and real benchmarks that we have deployed in the public cloud. The demo will also show that Lusail outperforms state-of-the-art systems by orders of magnitude in terms of scalability and response time.

  14. Demonstration exercise 'Cavtat 09'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trut, D.

    2009-01-01

    The demonstration exercise is to show a terrorist attack in urban area resulting in a certain number of injured people. On 7th April 2009 a terrorist group HAL 9000 is in Cavtat and set up an explosive devices with chemical reagents in several spots with intention to activate them and cause great number of victims. On the same day, in area of the Cavtat Croatia Hotel, which is hosting the world CBMTS Congress, Cavtat Police Station notice several masked persons, in escapement. Hotel personnel alerted the County 112 Center about noticed devices placed by chlorine dioxide tanks, for water conditioning. Intervention police came to block entrance to this area and evacuate hotel's guests and congress members. An explosion and fire occurs from where the position of water-conditioning plant and chlorine dioxide tank. The 112 Center alarms fire-fighters for fight fire and decontamination action and HAZMAT Civil Support Team from Georgia (participated the congress). In the meantime, guests have been instructed not to leave their rooms and to hermetically close doors and windows with available material to keep away potential toxic fume. Decision makers form the County Protection and Rescue Headquarters monitors the situation till the end of alert for the population in the area of Cavtat.(author)

  15. Tidd PFBC demonstration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marrocco, M. [American Electric Power, Columbus, OH (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The Tidd project was one of the first joint government-industry ventures to be approved by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in its Clean Coal Technology Program. In March 1987, DOE signed an agreement with the Ohio Power Company, a subsidiary of American Electric Power, to refurbish the then-idle Tidd plant on the banks of the Ohio River with advanced pressurized fluidized bed technology. Testing ended after 49 months of operation, 100 individual tests, and the generation of more than 500,000 megawatt-hours of electricity. The demonstration plant has met its objectives. The project showed that more than 95 percent of sulfur dioxide pollutants could be removed inside the advanced boiler using the advanced combustion technology, giving future power plants an attractive alternative to expensive, add-on scrubber technology. In addition to its sulfur removal effectiveness, the plant`s sustained periods of steady-state operation boosted its availability significantly above design projections, heightening confidence that pressurized fluidized bed technology will be a reliable, baseload technology for future power plants. The technology also controlled the release of nitrogen oxides to levels well below the allowable limits set by federal air quality standards. It also produced a dry waste product that is much easier to handle than wastes from conventional power plants and will likely have commercial value when produced by future power plants.

  16. Assessing children's inference generation: what do tests of reading comprehension measure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowyer-Crane, Claudine; Snowling, Margaret J

    2005-06-01

    Previous research suggests that children with specific comprehension difficulties have problems with the generation of inferences. This raises important questions as to whether poor comprehenders have poor comprehension skills generally, or whether their problems are confined to specific inference types. The main aims of the study were (a) using two commonly used tests of reading comprehension to classify the questions requiring the generation of inferences, and (b) to investigate the relative performance of skilled and less-skilled comprehenders on questions tapping different inference types. The performance of 10 poor comprehenders (mean age 110.06 months) was compared with the performance of 10 normal readers (mean age 112.78 months) on two tests of reading comprehension. A qualitative analysis of the NARA II (form 1) and the WORD comprehension subtest was carried out. Participants were then administered the NARA II, WORD comprehension subtest and a test of non-word reading. The NARA II was heavily reliant on the generation of knowledge-based inferences, while the WORD comprehension subtest was biased towards the retention of literal information. Children identified by the NARA II as having comprehension difficulties performed in the normal range on the WORD comprehension subtests. Further, children with comprehension difficulties performed poorly on questions requiring the generation of knowledge-based and elaborative inferences. However, they were able to answer questions requiring attention to literal information or use of cohesive devices at a level comparable to normal readers. Different reading tests tap different types of inferencing skills. Lessskilled comprehenders have particular difficulty applying real-world knowledge to a text during reading, and this has implications for the formulation of effective intervention strategies.

  17. [I want to breastfeed my baby: Unvealing the experiences of women who lived process difficulties in their breastfeeding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchini Raies, Camila; Márquez Doren, Francisca; Rivera Martínez, María Soledad

    2017-01-01

    Breastfeeding is the most beneficial feeding practice for infants. However, it is not always the first choice for mothers and their encouragement and support from health professionals is variable. To understand the experience of mothers who had difficulties with their breastfeeding process. A phenomenological study was conducted in a University Health center. Twelve breastfeeding women were included. Data collection technique was in depth interviews, taped recorded with participants’ consent. Phenomenological analysis of data followed Streubert´s method. The rigor of the study was guarded by criteria for qualitative research and the research process. Ethical aspects were sheltered through the informed consent process, confidentiality and methodological rigor. The experience of living difficulties in the breastfeeding process is revealed in five comprehensive categories: recognizing the difficulties with breastfeeding; emotional impact when unable to breastfeed; motivation to overcome the difficulty and ask for help; support for breastfeeding recovery; and transition process from stress and anxiety to peace, gratification and empowerment. The understanding of this experience is qualitative evidence that contributes to a comprehensive understanding of the situation of each mother and child, allowing to improve support care interventions in health.

  18. The Immediate Effects of Deep Pressure on Young People with Autism and Severe Intellectual Difficulties: Demonstrating Individual Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lana Bestbier

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Deep pressure is widely used by occupational therapists for people with autism spectrum disorders. There is limited research evaluating deep pressure. Objective. To evaluate the immediate effects of deep pressure on young people with autism and severe intellectual disabilities. Methods. Mood and behaviour were rated for 13 pupils with ASD and severe ID before and after deep pressure sessions. Results. Sufficient data was available from 8 participants to be analysed using Tau-U, a nonparametric technique that allows for serial dependence in data. Six showed benefits statistically. Five of these showed benefits across all domains, and one showed benefits on three out of five domains. Relevance to Clinical Practice. Deep pressure appears to be of immediate benefit to this population with autism and severe ID, but the heterogeneity of response suggests that careful monitoring of response should be used and deep pressure discontinued when it is no longer of benefit. Limitations. This is an open label evaluation study using rating scales. Recommendations for Future Research. Future studies of the use of deep pressure should use physiological response measures, in addition to blinded raters for aspects of behaviours such as attitude to learning psychological health not captured physiologically.

  19. An Alternative to Language Learner Dependence on L2 Caption-Reading Input for Comprehension of Sitcoms in a Multimedia Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C.-H.

    2014-01-01

    Most second/foreign language (L2) learners have difficulty understanding listening input because of its implicit and ephemeral nature, and they typically have better reading comprehension than listening comprehension skills. This study examines the effects of using an interactive advance-organizer activity on the DVD video comprehension of L2…

  20. Kinesthetic Transverse Wave Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantidos, Panagiotis; Patapis, Stamatis

    2005-09-01

    This is a variation on the String and Sticky Tape demonstration "The Wave Game," suggested by Ron Edge. A group of students stand side by side, each one holding a card chest high with both hands. The teacher cues the first student to begin raising and lowering his card. When he starts lowering his card, the next student begins to raise his. As succeeding students move their cards up and down, a wave such as that shown in the figure is produced. To facilitate the process, students' motions were synchronized with the ticks of a metronome (without such synchronization it was nearly impossible to generate a satisfactory wave). Our waves typically had a frequency of about 1 Hz and a wavelength of around 3 m. We videotaped the activity so that the students could analyze the motions. The (17-year-old) students had not received any prior instruction regarding wave motion and did not know beforehand the nature of the exercise they were about to carry out. During the activity they were asked what a transverse wave is. Most of them quickly realized, without teacher input, that while the wave propagated horizontally, the only motion of the transmitting medium (them) was vertical. They located the equilibrium points of the oscillations, the crests and troughs of the waves, and identified the wavelength. The teacher defined for them the period of the oscillations of the motion of a card to be the total time for one cycle. The students measured this time and then several asserted that it was the same as the wave period. Knowing the length of the waves and the number of waves per second, the next step can easily be to find the wave speed.

  1. Exploring communication difficulties in pediatric hematology: oncology nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citak, Ebru Akgun; Toruner, Ebru Kilicarslan; Gunes, Nebahat Bora

    2013-01-01

    Communication plays an important role for the well being of patients, families and also health care professionals in cancer care. Conversely, ineffective communication may cause depression, increased anxiety, hopelessness and decreased of quality life for patients, families and also nurses. This study aimed to explore communication difficulties of pediatric hematology/oncology nurses with patients and their families, as well as their suggestions about communication difficulties. It was conducted in a pediatric hematology/oncology hospital in Ankara, Turkey. Qualitative data were collected by focus groups, with 21 pediatric hematology/oncology nursing staff from three groups. Content analysis was used for data analysis. Findings were grouped in three main categories. The first category concerned communication difficulties, assessing problems in responding to questions, ineffective communication and conflicts with the patient's families. The second was about the effects of communication difficulties on nurses and the last main category involved suggestions for empowering nurses with communication difficulties, the theme being related to institutional issues. Nurses experience communication difficulties with children and their families during long hospital stays. Communication difficulties particularly increase during crisis periods, like at the time of first diagnosis, relapse, the terminal stage or on days with special meaning such as holidays. The results obtained indicate that pediatric nurses and the child/family need to be supported, especially during crisis periods. Feeling of empowerment in communication will improve the quality of care by reducing the feelings of exhaustion and incompetence in nurses.

  2. Using miscue analysis to assess comprehension in deaf college readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertini, John; Mayer, Connie

    2011-01-01

    For over 30 years, teachers have used miscue analysis as a tool to assess and evaluate the reading abilities of hearing students in elementary and middle schools and to design effective literacy programs. More recently, teachers of deaf and hard-of-hearing students have also reported its usefulness for diagnosing word- and phrase-level reading difficulties and for planning instruction. To our knowledge, miscue analysis has not been used with older, college-age deaf students who might also be having difficulty decoding and understanding text at the word level. The goal of this study was to determine whether such an analysis would be helpful in identifying the source of college students' reading comprehension difficulties. After analyzing the miscues of 10 college-age readers and the results of other comprehension-related tasks, we concluded that comprehension of basic grade school-level passages depended on the ability to recognize and comprehend key words and phrases in these texts. We also concluded that these diagnostic procedures provided useful information about the reading abilities and strategies of each reader that had implications for designing more effective interventions.

  3. A comprehensive French grammar

    CERN Document Server

    Price, Glanville

    2013-01-01

    Characterized by clear and accessible explanations, numerous examples and sample sentences, a new section on register and tone, and useful appendices covering topics including age and time, A Comprehensive French Grammar, Sixth Edition is an indispensable tool for advanced students of French language and literature.A revised edition of this established, bestselling French grammarIncludes a new section on register and medium and offers expanded treatment of French punctuationFeatures numerous examples and sample sentences, and useful appendices covering topics including age, time, and dimension

  4. Comprehensive multiplatform collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kundan; Wu, Xiaotao; Lennox, Jonathan; Schulzrinne, Henning G.

    2003-12-01

    We describe the architecture and implementation of our comprehensive multi-platform collaboration framework known as Columbia InterNet Extensible Multimedia Architecture (CINEMA). It provides a distributed architecture for collaboration using synchronous communications like multimedia conferencing, instant messaging, shared web-browsing, and asynchronous communications like discussion forums, shared files, voice and video mails. It allows seamless integration with various communication means like telephones, IP phones, web and electronic mail. In addition, it provides value-added services such as call handling based on location information and presence status. The paper discusses the media services needed for collaborative environment, the components provided by CINEMA and the interaction among those components.

  5. The impact of senior medical students' personal difficulties on their communication patterns in breaking bad news.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meitar, Dafna; Karnieli-Miller, Orit; Eidelman, Shmuel

    2009-11-01

    To evaluate the possible influence of personal difficulties and barriers that are within the news bearer and his or her self-awareness (SA) of them, on the patterns of communication during encounters involving breaking bad news (BBN). Following an intensive BBN course in 2004, 103 senior medical students at the Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, were evaluated for BBN competencies by the analysis of their written descriptions of how they visualized their manner of delivering bad news to a patient described in a challenging vignette. The students were further asked to reflect on their own difficulties and barriers that surfaced in response to reading the narrative presented in the vignette and in delivering the bad news. Using an immersion crystallization narrative analysis method, the authors analyzed the relationship between the students' BBN strategies and their self-perceived barriers and difficulties. Four types of communicators were identified and related to 45 different personal and professional barriers that the students, through self-reflection, found in themselves. These perceived barriers as well as the ability to self-reflect on them influenced their patterns of communication in their envisioned and written-down encounters, including the level of emotional connectedness, information provided, and the chosen focus-of-care paradigm (physician-centered, patient-centered, or relationship-centered). These findings empirically demonstrate that intrapersonal difficulties within the communicator and his or her level of SA about them influenced the manner and content of the communication during the encounter. This finding suggests that enhancing SA and addressing personal and professional difficulties could help physicians' capability to cope with challenging communication tasks. The authors propose a working tool (the Preparatory SPIKES) to facilitate the integration of self-reflection (by identifying personal difficulties) into day-by-day planning

  6. Comprehensive overview of prostatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Farhan Ullah; Ihsan, Awais Ullah; Khan, Hidayat Ullah; Jana, Ruby; Wazir, Junaid; Khongorzul, Puregmaa; Waqar, Muhammad; Zhou, Xiaohui

    2017-10-01

    Prostatitis is a common urinary tract syndrome that many doctors find problematic to treat effectively. It is the third most commonly found urinary tract disease in men after prostate cancer and Benign Prostate Hyperplasia (BPH). Prostatitis may account for 25% of all office visits made to the urological clinics complaining about the genital and urinary systems all over the world. In the present study, we classified prostatitis and comprehensively elaborated the etiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of acute bacterial prostatitis (category I), chronic bacterial prostatitis (category II), chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS) (category III), and asymptomatic prostatitis (category IV). In addition, we also tried to get some insights about other types of prostatitis-like fungal, viral and gonococcal prostatitis. The aim of this review is to present the detail current perspective of prostatitis in a single review. To the best of our knowledge currently, there is not a single comprehensive review, which can completely elaborate this important topic in an effective way. Furthermore, this review will provide a solid platform to conduct future studies on different aspects such as risk factors, mechanism of pathogenesis, proper diagnosis, and rational treatment plans for fungal, viral, and gonococcal prostatitis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Comprehensive national energy strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    This Comprehensive National Energy Strategy sets forth a set of five common sense goals for national energy policy: (1) improve the efficiency of the energy system, (2) ensure against energy disruptions, (3) promote energy production and use in ways that respect health and environmental values, (4) expand future energy choices, and (5) cooperate internationally on global issues. These goals are further elaborated by a series of objectives and strategies to illustrate how the goals will be achieved. Taken together, the goals, objectives, and strategies form a blueprint for the specific programs, projects, initiatives, investments, and other actions that will be developed and undertaken by the Federal Government, with significant emphasis on the importance of the scientific and technological advancements that will allow implementation of this Comprehensive National Energy Strategy. Moreover, the statutory requirement of regular submissions of national energy policy plans ensures that this framework can be modified to reflect evolving conditions, such as better knowledge of our surroundings, changes in energy markets, and advances in technology. This Strategy, then, should be thought of as a living document. Finally, this plan benefited from the comments and suggestions of numerous individuals and organizations, both inside and outside of government. The Summary of Public Comments, located at the end of this document, describes the public participation process and summarizes the comments that were received. 8 figs.

  8. The difference a word makes: responding to questions on 'disability' and 'difficulty' in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Marguerite

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the current efforts to measure disability in a comparable manner internationally, the effects of using different types of wording in questions, and the implications of the approach of asking about 'difficulties' rather than 'disability' on the use of disability statistics. The study design was qualitative. Twenty-one focus groups were run with adults responding for themselves. Nine groups were classified a priori by the author as 'disabled', six as 'unsure', and the last six as 'non-disabled'. The participants completed a questionnaire using the Washington Group on Disability Statistics (WG) Short Set, the South African Census 2001 question, and the question 'Are you disabled?'. This was followed by group discussion on these questions and on how the concept of disability is understood by group participants. Participants understand disability as being a permanent, unchangeable state, mostly physical, and where a person is unable to do anything. The participants in the three groups of allocated disability status (disabled, unsure and non-disabled) provided quite different responses on the three questions. All participants in the 'disabled' and 'unsure' groups reported having 'difficulty' on the WG questions, but the 'unsure' groups did not identify as being 'disabled' on either of the two other questions. Using questions that ask about 'difficulty' rather than 'disability' provides a more comprehensive and inclusive measure of disability with a clearer understanding of what is being measured. Asking about 'difficulty' provides an improved measure of disability status for effective data collection and analysis to promote development, implementation and monitoring of disability-inclusive policies.

  9. The Frequency of Rapid Pupil Dilations as a Measure of Linguistic Processing Difficulty.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Demberg

    Full Text Available While it has long been known that the pupil reacts to cognitive load, pupil size has received little attention in cognitive research because of its long latency and the difficulty of separating effects of cognitive load from the light reflex or effects due to eye movements. A novel measure, the Index of Cognitive Activity (ICA, relates cognitive effort to the frequency of small rapid dilations of the pupil. We report here on a total of seven experiments which test whether the ICA reliably indexes linguistically induced cognitive load: three experiments in reading (a manipulation of grammatical gender match/mismatch, an experiment of semantic fit, and an experiment comparing locally ambiguous subject versus object relative clauses, all in German, three dual-task experiments with simultaneous driving and spoken language comprehension (using the same manipulations as in the single-task reading experiments, and a visual world experiment comparing the processing of causal versus concessive discourse markers. These experiments are the first to investigate the effect and time course of the ICA in language processing. All of our experiments support the idea that the ICA indexes linguistic processing difficulty. The effects of our linguistic manipulations on the ICA are consistent for reading and auditory presentation. Furthermore, our experiments show that the ICA allows for usage within a multi-task paradigm. Its robustness with respect to eye movements means that it is a valid measure of processing difficulty for usage within the visual world paradigm, which will allow researchers to assess both visual attention and processing difficulty at the same time, using an eye-tracker. We argue that the ICA is indicative of activity in the locus caeruleus area of the brain stem, which has recently also been linked to P600 effects observed in psycholinguistic EEG experiments.

  10. Task Number and Cognitive Complexity as Determinants of Difficulty ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. O. E. OSUAGWU

    2013-09-01

    Sep 1, 2013 ... amenable to item analysis and are sample- ... as item difficulty, item discrimination, and .... The aim of this study is to determine: ... and then evaluators will have to pay significant ... calculated and the test statistics were used to.

  11. Teaching chemistry to students with learning difficulties: exemplary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Teaching chemistry to students with learning difficulties: exemplary adaptive instructional practices of experienced teachers. ... Arguably, today's science classrooms are witnessing a situation in which students experience a special learning ...

  12. Brain injury and severe eating difficulties at admission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærsgaard, Annette; Kaae Kristensen, Hanne

    Objective: The objective of this pilot study was to explore and interpret the way that individuals with acquired brain injury, admitted to inpatient neurorehabilitation with severe eating difficulties, experienced eating nine to fifteen months after discharge. Methods: Four individuals with acqui......Objective: The objective of this pilot study was to explore and interpret the way that individuals with acquired brain injury, admitted to inpatient neurorehabilitation with severe eating difficulties, experienced eating nine to fifteen months after discharge. Methods: Four individuals...... with acquired brain injury were interviewed via qualitative semi-structured interviews. An explorative study was conducted to study eating difficulties. Qualitative content analysis was used. Results: Four main themes emerged from the analysis: personal values related to eating, swallowing difficulties, eating......-of-life. The preliminary findings provide knowledge regarding the patient perspective of adapting to and developing new strategies for activities related to eating, however, further prospective, longitudinal research in a larger scale and with repeated interviews is needed....

  13. Individual difficulties faced by persons with mobility impairments

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Greeff, M

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Disabled persons are experiencing additional difficulties when interacting with systems, applications or devices and also have their own unique requirements that enable them to use a system. If the design of the system does not support...

  14. The effectiveness of anger management's training on difficulty of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences ... The purpose of this research is the effect of anger management training on adolescents' emotional regulation. ... Keywords: Anger management, Difficulty in emotion regulation, Adolescent ...

  15. From bureaucratic tot post-bureaucratic: the difficulties of transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Josserand, E.; Teo, S.; Clegg, S.R.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose - Modern bureaucracies are under reconstruction, bureaucracy being no longer "modern"; they are becoming "post" bureaucratic. Defining the post-bureaucratic organization as a hybrid form provides insight into the intrinsic difficulties involved in the refurbishment of large complex

  16. Orthogonally Evolved AI to Improve Difficulty Adjustment in Video Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hintze, Arend; Olson, Randal; Lehman, Joel Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Computer games are most engaging when their difficulty is well matched to the player's ability, thereby providing an experience in which the player is neither overwhelmed nor bored. In games where the player interacts with computer-controlled opponents, the difficulty of the game can be adjusted...... not only by changing the distribution of opponents or game resources, but also through modifying the skill of the opponents. Applying evolutionary algorithms to evolve the artificial intelligence that controls opponent agents is one established method for adjusting opponent difficulty. Less-evolved agents...... (i.e. agents subject to fewer generations of evolution) make for easier opponents, while highly-evolved agents are more challenging to overcome. In this publication we test a new approach for difficulty adjustment in games: orthogonally evolved AI, where the player receives support from collaborating...

  17. A Case Study of Three Satellite Technology Demonstration School Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Gordon

    The Satellite Technology Demonstration (STD) represented a cooperative and complex effort involving federal, regional, state and local interests and demonstrated the feasibility of media distribution by communication satellite of social services for rural audiences. As part of a comprehensive evaluation plan, the summative data base was augmented…

  18. Communication difficulties in children identified with psychiatric problems

    OpenAIRE

    Helland, Wenche Andersen

    2010-01-01

    Several studies have pointed to an overlap between different developmental psychopathological conditions and language impairments, and difficulties with communication have been identified in children of various diagnostic backgrounds. This thesis is based on three empirical studies, and the purposes are to investigate communication difficulties as reported by parents, in children identified with psychiatric problems as well as to evaluate a Norwegian adaptation of the Children’...

  19. Reading for Meaning: Reading Comprehension Skills in ASD and the Role of Oral Language, Central Coherence, and Executive Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Meghan M.

    2016-01-01

    Reading comprehension is a complex interactional process whereby the accumulated meaning of sounds, words, and sentences is integrated to form a meaningful representation of text. It is well established that many individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have reading comprehension difficulties, but less is understood about the underlying…

  20. Effects of reciprocal teaching on reading comprehension of low-achieving adolescents. The importance of specific teacher skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Okkinga; Dr. A.J.S. van Gelderen; R. van Steensel

    2016-01-01

    Low-achieving adolescents are known to have difficulties with reading comprehension. This article discusses how reciprocal teaching can improve low-achieving adolescents' reading comprehension in whole-classroom settings (as opposed to small-group settings) and to what extent intervention effects

  1. Effects of reciprocal teaching on reading comprehension of low-achieving adolescents. The importance of specific teacher skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okkinga, Mariska; van Steensel, Roel; van Gelderen, Amos J.S.; Sleegers, Peter J.C.

    2018-01-01

    Low-achieving adolescents are known to have difficulties with reading comprehension. This article discusses how reciprocal teaching can improve low-achieving adolescents' reading comprehension in whole-classroom settings (as opposed to small-group settings) and to what extent intervention effects

  2. Effects of Reciprocal Teaching on Reading Comprehension of Low-Achieving Adolescents. The Importance of Specific Teacher Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okkinga, Mariska; van Steensel, Roel; van Gelderen, Amos J. S.; Sleegers, Peter J. C.

    2018-01-01

    Low-achieving adolescents are known to have difficulties with reading comprehension. This article discusses how reciprocal teaching can improve low-achieving adolescents' reading comprehension in whole-classroom settings (as opposed to small-group settings) and to what extent intervention effects are dependent on teacher behaviour. Over the course…

  3. Teaching Reading Comprehension to Learners with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Predictors of Teacher Self-Efficacy and Outcome Expectancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accardo, Amy L.; Finnegan, Elizabeth G.; Gulkus, Steven P.; Papay, Clare K.

    2017-01-01

    Learners with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often exhibit difficulty in the area of reading comprehension. Research connecting the learning needs of individuals with ASD, existing effective practices, teacher training, and teacher perceptions of their own ability to teach reading comprehension is scarce. Quantitative survey methodology and…

  4. Investigating reading comprehension through EEG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Baretta

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-8026.2012n63p69   Experimental studies point that different factors can influence reading comprehension, such as the topic, text type, reading task, and others. The advances in technologies for the past decades have provided researchers with several possibilities to investigate what goes on in one’s brain since their eyes meet the page until comprehension is achieved. Since the mid-80’s, numerous studies have been conducted with the use of the electroencephalogram (EEG to investigate the process of reading, through the analysis of different components – n400, n100 or n1, P2, among others. These components reveal, for example, how the brain integrates the meaning of a specific word in the semantic context of a given sentence.  based on previous studies, which demonstrate that different types of words affect cognitive load, this paper aims at investigating how the brain processes function and content words inserted in expository and narrative texts with suitable / unsuitable conclusions. results showed that the type of text and word influence the cognitive load in different scalp areas (midline, right and left hemispheres. The  n1s were more pronounced to the content words inserted in narrative texts and to the function words inserted in the expository type of texts, corroborating former studies.

  5. Managing social difficulties: roles and responsibilities of patients and staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Penny; Bingham, Laura; Taylor, Sally; Hanif, Naheed; Podmore, Emma; Velikova, Galina

    2012-01-01

    Implementation of guidance on assessment and management of psychosocial and supportive-care problems or needs will be successful only if consideration is given to existing skills, experience and expectations of staff and patients. This study examines the roles and responsibilities of staff, patients and families in relation to management of social difficulties and proposes a pathway for response. A qualitative study was performed using staff and patient interviews. Seventeen doctors and 16 nurses were interviewed using patient scenarios and a support service questionnaire. Patients (n = 41) completed a screening questionnaire (the Social Difficulties Inventory) and were interviewed. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed and subjected to a Framework analysis. Analysis examined (1) actions taken by staff and patients in response to social difficulties, (2) reasons given for action taken and (3) perceptions of staff and patients of who was responsible for taking action. Staff were confident concerning clinically related issues (i.e. mobility) but more hesitant concerning difficulties related to money, work and family concerns. Patients liked to cope with problems on their own where possible, would have liked information or support from staff but were uncertain how to access this. Results led to development of a hierarchy of interventions in response to detected social difficulties. For routine assessment of social difficulties, patients, nurses and doctors will have to work collaboratively, with nurses taking a lead in discussion. For specific clinically related problems doctors would play a more primary role. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Review of student difficulties in upper-level quantum mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandralekha Singh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Upper Division Physics Courses.] Learning advanced physics, in general, is challenging not only due to the increased mathematical sophistication but also because one must continue to build on all of the prior knowledge acquired at the introductory and intermediate levels. In addition, learning quantum mechanics can be especially challenging because the paradigms of classical mechanics and quantum mechanics are very different. Here, we review research on student reasoning difficulties in learning upper-level quantum mechanics and research on students’ problem-solving and metacognitive skills in these courses. Some of these studies were multiuniversity investigations. The investigations suggest that there is large diversity in student performance in upper-level quantum mechanics regardless of the university, textbook, or instructor, and many students in these courses have not acquired a functional understanding of the fundamental concepts. The nature of reasoning difficulties in learning quantum mechanics is analogous to reasoning difficulties found via research in introductory physics courses. The reasoning difficulties were often due to overgeneralizations of concepts learned in one context to another context where they are not directly applicable. Reasoning difficulties in distinguishing between closely related concepts and in making sense of the formalism of quantum mechanics were common. We conclude with a brief summary of the research-based approaches that take advantage of research on student difficulties in order to improve teaching and learning of quantum mechanics.

  7. Psychodermatology: A comprehensive review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savita Yadav

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Psychodermatology is an interesting domain of dermatology that overlaps with psychiatry. This arena in dermatology has received limited diligence, partly due to lack of training in this realm. We present here a comprehensive review of salient features and treatment updates in primary psychiatric dermatoses and have also discussed the role of psyche in psychophysiological cutaneous disorders. Secondary psychiatric morbidity is relatively common among patients visiting the dermatologists but often overlooked and uncared for. Dermatologist should be able to initiate basic pharmacotherapy, should be knowledgeable about various non-pharmacological treatments and know the right time to refer the patient to the psychiatrist. Awareness and pertinent treatment of psychodermatological disorders among dermatologists will lead to a more holistic treatment approach and better prognosis in this unique group of patients.

  8. Comprehensive Environmental Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hjeresen, D.L.

    1994-01-01

    The Environmental Management Program at Los Alamos National Laboratory is in the process of initiating and then implementing a Comprehensive Environmental Management Plan (CEMP). There are several environmental impact and compliance drivers for this initiative. The Los Alamos CEMP is intended to be a flexible, long-range process that predicts, minimizes, treats, and disposes of any waste generated in execution of the Los Alamos mission - even if that mission changes. The CEMP is also intended to improve stakeholder and private sector involvement and access to environmental information. The total quality environmental management (TQEM) process will benchmark Los Alamos to private sector and DOE operations, identify opportunities for improvement, prioritize among opportunities, implement projects, measure progress, and spur continuous improvement in Environmental Management operations

  9. Comprehensive nuclear materials

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, Todd; Stoller, Roger; Yamanaka, Shinsuke

    2012-01-01

    Comprehensive Nuclear Materials encapsulates a panorama of fundamental information on the vast variety of materials employed in the broad field of nuclear technology. The work addresses, in five volumes, 3,400 pages and over 120 chapter-length articles, the full panorama of historical and contemporary international research in nuclear materials, from Actinides to Zirconium alloys, from the worlds' leading scientists and engineers. It synthesizes the most pertinent research to support the selection, assessment, validation and engineering of materials in extreme nuclear environments. The work discusses the major classes of materials suitable for usage in nuclear fission, fusion reactors and high power accelerators, and for diverse functions in fuels, cladding, moderator and control materials, structural, functional, and waste materials.

  10. Mind-Reading Difficulties in the Siblings of People with Asperger's Syndrome: Evidence for a Genetic Influence in the Abnormal Development of a Specific Cognitive Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorris, L.; Espie, C. A. E.; Knott, F.; Salt, J.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Previous research suggests that the phenotype associated with Asperger's syndrome (AS) includes difficulties in understanding the mental states of others, leading to difficulties in social communication and social relationships. It has also been suggested that the first-degree relatives of those with AS can demonstrate similar…

  11. Development and psychometric characteristics of the SCI-QOL Bladder Management Difficulties and Bowel Management Difficulties item banks and short forms and the SCI-QOL Bladder Complications scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulsky, David S; Kisala, Pamela A; Tate, Denise G; Spungen, Ann M; Kirshblum, Steven C

    2015-05-01

    To describe the development and psychometric properties of the Spinal Cord Injury--Quality of Life (SCI-QOL) Bladder Management Difficulties and Bowel Management Difficulties item banks and Bladder Complications scale. Using a mixed-methods design, a pool of items assessing bladder and bowel-related concerns were developed using focus groups with individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) and SCI clinicians, cognitive interviews, and item response theory (IRT) analytic approaches, including tests of model fit and differential item functioning. Thirty-eight bladder items and 52 bowel items were tested at the University of Michigan, Kessler Foundation Research Center, the Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago, the University of Washington, Craig Hospital, and the James J. Peters VA Medical Center, Bronx, NY. Seven hundred fifty-seven adults with traumatic SCI. The final item banks demonstrated unidimensionality (Bladder Management Difficulties CFI=0.965; RMSEA=0.093; Bowel Management Difficulties CFI=0.955; RMSEA=0.078) and acceptable fit to a graded response IRT model. The final calibrated Bladder Management Difficulties bank includes 15 items, and the final Bowel Management Difficulties item bank consists of 26 items. Additionally, 5 items related to urinary tract infections (UTI) did not fit with the larger Bladder Management Difficulties item bank but performed relatively well independently (CFI=0.992, RMSEA=0.050) and were thus retained as a separate scale. The SCI-QOL Bladder Management Difficulties and Bowel Management Difficulties item banks are psychometrically robust and are available as computer adaptive tests or short forms. The SCI-QOL Bladder Complications scale is a brief, fixed-length outcomes instrument for individuals with a UTI.

  12. A Comprehensive Approach to Climate Change: Options and Obstacles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuglestvedt, J.S.; Skodvin, T.

    1996-06-01

    The main topics of this report are: (1) key elements in the development of a formula for a comprehensive approach to climate change, (2) relations between gases due to atmospheric chemistry interactions and common emission sources, (3) climate effects of existing international agreements on atmospheric emissions, and (4) methods for comparing gases. Building on the text of the climate convention itself, the authors develop an operational definition of a comprehensive approach and list 13 gases which should be included. There are not many adequate methods of comparing gases with different properties. At present the best choice is the Global Warming Potentials method (GWP), although it leaves the environmentally and politically important issue of the time horizon unresolved. An appendix comments on difficulties of including NOx emitted from surface sources in a comprehensive approach under the FCCC (UN`s Framework Convention on Climate Change). 73 refs., 20 figs., 13 tabs.

  13. Older Adults' Experiences of Sexual Difficulties: Qualitative Findings From the English Longitudinal Study on Ageing (ELSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinchliff, Sharron; Tetley, Josie; Lee, David; Nazroo, James

    2018-02-01

    There is a growing body of evidence demonstrating that sexual activity is important to the quality of life of older adults, and that it can be influenced by physical, psychological, and social factors. However, older adults' experiences of sexual difficulties remain relatively unexplored. This article draws on qualitative data collected as part of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA). Participants answered a Sexual Relationships and Activities Questionnaire (SRA-Q), which included an open comment box for further details, 1,084 (1/7) of which were completed. These data were analyzed using Template Analysis, and findings on the experiences of sexual difficulties are presented in this article. Sexual difficulties were contextualized within the couple relationship and could be detrimental to the relationship, particularly if the partner would not seek professional help. Participants reported that sexual difficulties could also have a negative impact on psychological well-being, described mainly as frustration, depression, and sadness. For some participants the supportive nature of their relationship buffered these impacts. Few had sought professional help; those who had reported helpful and unhelpful experiences. These findings add to the limited evidence base and have implications for health care in the context of global aging and a growing recognition of older adults' sexual rights.

  14. A Framework for Understanding the Patterns of Student Difficulties in Quantum Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Chandralekha

    2015-04-01

    Compared with introductory physics, relatively little is known about the development of expertise in advanced physics courses, especially in the case of quantum mechanics. We describe a theoretical framework for understanding the patterns of student reasoning difficulties and how students develop expertise in quantum mechanics. The framework posits that the challenges many students face in developing expertise in quantum mechanics are analogous to the challenges introductory students face in developing expertise in introductory classical mechanics. This framework incorporates the effects of diversity in students' prior preparation, goals and motivation for taking upper-level physics courses in general as well as the ``paradigm shift'' from classical mechanics to quantum mechanics. The framework is based on empirical investigations demonstrating that the patterns of reasoning, problem-solving, and self-monitoring difficulties in quantum mechanics bear a striking resemblance to those found in introductory classical mechanics. Examples from research in quantum mechanics and introductory classical mechanics will be discussed to illustrate how the patterns of difficulties are analogous as students learn to unpack the respective principles and grasp the formalism in each knowledge domain during the development of expertise. Embracing such a theoretical framework and contemplating the parallels between the difficulties in these two knowledge domains can enable researchers to leverage the extensive literature for introductory physics education research to guide the design of teaching and learning tools for helping students develop expertise in quantum mechanics. Support from the National Science Foundation is gratefully acknowledged.

  15. Difficulty buying food, BMI, and eating habits in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Anne; Maguire, Jonathon L; Carsley, Sarah; Chen, Yang; Lebovic, Gerald; Omand, Jessica; Parkin, Patricia; Birken, Catherine S

    2018-01-22

    To determine whether parent report of difficulty buying food was associated with child body mass index (BMI) z-score or with eating habits in young children. This was a cross-sectional study in primary care offices in Toronto, Ontario. Subjects were children aged 1-5 years and their caregivers, recruited through the TARGet Kids! Research Network from July 2008 to August 2011. Regression models were developed to test the association between parent report of difficulty buying food because of cost and the following outcomes: child BMI z-score, parent's report of child's intake of fruit and vegetables, fruit juice and sweetened beverages, and fast food. Confounders included child's age, sex, birth weight, maternal BMI, education, ethnicity, immigration status, and neighbourhood income. The study sample consisted of 3333 children. Data on difficulty buying food were available for 3099 children, and 431 of these (13.9%) were from households reporting difficulty buying food. There was no association with child BMI z-score (p = 0.86). Children from households reporting difficulty buying food (compared with never having difficulty buying food) had increased odds of consuming three or fewer servings of fruits and vegetables per day (odds ratio [OR]: 1.31, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.03-1.69), more than one serving of fruit juice/sweetened beverage per day (OR: 1.60, 95% CI: 1.28-2.00), and, among children 1-2 years old, one or more servings of fast food per week (OR: 2.91, 95% CI: 1.67-5.08). Parental report of difficulty buying food is associated with less optimal eating habits in children but not with BMI z-score.

  16. Computational text analysis and reading comprehension exam complexity towards automatic text classification

    CERN Document Server

    Liontou, Trisevgeni

    2014-01-01

    This book delineates a range of linguistic features that characterise the reading texts used at the B2 (Independent User) and C1 (Proficient User) levels of the Greek State Certificate of English Language Proficiency exams in order to help define text difficulty per level of competence. In addition, it examines whether specific reader variables influence test takers' perceptions of reading comprehension difficulty. The end product is a Text Classification Profile per level of competence and a formula for automatically estimating text difficulty and assigning levels to texts consistently and re

  17. Selectivity of lexical-semantic disorders in Polish-speaking patients with aphasia: evidence from single-word comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jodzio, Krzysztof; Biechowska, Daria; Leszniewska-Jodzio, Barbara

    2008-09-01

    Several neuropsychological studies have shown that patients with brain damage may demonstrate selective category-specific deficits of auditory comprehension. The present paper reports on an investigation of aphasic patients' preserved ability to perform a semantic task on spoken words despite severe impairment in auditory comprehension, as shown by failure in matching spoken words to pictured objects. Twenty-six aphasic patients (11 women and 15 men) with impaired speech comprehension due to a left-hemisphere ischaemic stroke were examined; all were right-handed and native speakers of Polish. Six narrowly defined semantic categories for which dissociations have been reported are colors, body parts, animals, food, objects (mostly tools), and means of transportation. An analysis using one-way ANOVA with repeated measures in conjunction with the Lambda-Wilks Test revealed significant discrepancies among these categories in aphasic patients, who had much more difficulty comprehending names of colors than they did comprehending names of other objects (F((5,21))=13.15; pexplanation in terms of word frequency and/or visual complexity was ruled out. Evidence from the present study support the position that so called "global" aphasia is an imprecise term and should be redefined. These results are discussed within the connectionist and modular perspectives on category-specific deficits in aphasia.

  18. Dutch Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA): training improves scores for comprehensibility and difficulty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Danique Haven; Martine J. Sealy; Jan Roodenburg; Dr. C.P. van der Schans; Dr. Harriët Jager-Wittenaar; Anne van der Braak; Faith Ottery

    2015-01-01

    The Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA) is a validated instrument to assess and monitor malnutrition. The PG-SGA consists of both patient-reported and professional-reported items. A professional should be able to correctly interpret all items. Untrained professionals may

  19. Do People With Psychosis Have Specific Difficulties Regulating Emotions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, Tania M; Hartmann, Maike; Köther, Ulf; Moritz, Steffen

    2015-01-01

    Difficulties in emotion regulation (ER) are present in psychotic disorders, but their precise nature is not yet fully understood and it is unclear which difficulties are unique to psychosis compared with other disorders. This study investigated whether ER difficulties in psychosis are more prominent for the ability to modify emotions or for the ability to tolerate and accept them. Furthermore, it investigated whether ER difficulties occur for sadness, anxiety, anger and shame likewise. ER skills were assessed in participants with psychotic disorders (n = 37), participants with depression (n = 30) and healthy controls (n = 28) using the Emotion Regulation Skill Questionnaire that asks participants to rate the intensity of different emotions over the past week and the skills employed to handle each of them. Compared with healthy controls, participants with psychosis showed reduced skills related to awareness, understanding and acceptance of potentially distressing emotions, but not in the ability to modify them. These differences remained significant after controlling for depression. Participants with psychosis showed reduced ER skills in regard to all of the assessed emotions compared with the healthy controls, despite the fact that they only reported sadness as being significantly more intense. The participants with depression showed a similar pattern of ER skills to the psychosis sample, although with a tendency towards even more pronounced difficulties. It is concluded that psychosis is characterized by difficulties in using specific ER skills related to awareness, understanding and acceptance to regulate anger, shame, anxiety and sadness. These difficulties are not unique to psychosis but nevertheless present a promising treatment target. The participants with psychosis found it more difficult to be aware of their emotions, to understand them and to accept them than the healthy control group. However, they reported equal skills when it came to

  20. Undergraduate Students’ Difficulties in Reading and Constructing Phylogenetic Tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sa'adah, S.; Tapilouw, F. S.; Hidayat, T.

    2017-02-01

    Representation is a very important communication tool to communicate scientific concepts. Biologists produce phylogenetic representation to express their understanding of evolutionary relationships. The phylogenetic tree is visual representation depict a hypothesis about the evolutionary relationship and widely used in the biological sciences. Phylogenetic tree currently growing for many disciplines in biology. Consequently, learning about phylogenetic tree become an important part of biological education and an interesting area for biology education research. However, research showed many students often struggle with interpreting the information that phylogenetic trees depict. The purpose of this study was to investigate undergraduate students’ difficulties in reading and constructing a phylogenetic tree. The method of this study is a descriptive method. In this study, we used questionnaires, interviews, multiple choice and open-ended questions, reflective journals and observations. The findings showed students experiencing difficulties, especially in constructing a phylogenetic tree. The students’ responds indicated that main reasons for difficulties in constructing a phylogenetic tree are difficult to placing taxa in a phylogenetic tree based on the data provided so that the phylogenetic tree constructed does not describe the actual evolutionary relationship (incorrect relatedness). Students also have difficulties in determining the sister group, character synapomorphy, autapomorphy from data provided (character table) and comparing among phylogenetic tree. According to them building the phylogenetic tree is more difficult than reading the phylogenetic tree. Finding this studies provide information to undergraduate instructor and students to overcome learning difficulties of reading and constructing phylogenetic tree.

  1. Visual difficulty and employment status in the world.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanen Harrabi

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Using a world-wide, population-based dataset, we sought to examine the relationship between visual difficulty and employment status. METHODS: The World Health Survey was conducted in 70 countries throughout the world in 2003 using a random, multi-stage, stratified, cluster sampling design. Far vision was assessed by asking about the level of difficulty in seeing and recognizing a person you know across the road (i.e. from a distance of about 20 meters. Responses included none, mild, moderate, severe, or extreme/unable. Participants were asked about their current job, and if they were not working, the reason why (unable to find job, ill health, homemaker, studies, unpaid work, other. The occupation in the last 12 months was obtained. Multinomial regression was used accounting for the complex survey design. RESULTS: Of those who wanted to work, 79% of those with severe visual difficulty and 64% of those with extreme visual difficulty were actually working. People who had moderate, severe, or extreme visual difficulty had a higher odds of not working due to an inability to find a job and of not working due to ill health after adjusting for demographic and health factors (P<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: As the major causes of visual impairment in the world are uncorrected refractive error and cataract, countries are losing a great deal of labor productivity by failing to provide for the vision health needs of their citizens and failing to help them integrate into the workforce.

  2. Visual difficulty and employment status in the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrabi, Hanen; Aubin, Marie-Josee; Zunzunegui, Maria Victoria; Haddad, Slim; Freeman, Ellen E

    2014-01-01

    Using a world-wide, population-based dataset, we sought to examine the relationship between visual difficulty and employment status. The World Health Survey was conducted in 70 countries throughout the world in 2003 using a random, multi-stage, stratified, cluster sampling design. Far vision was assessed by asking about the level of difficulty in seeing and recognizing a person you know across the road (i.e. from a distance of about 20 meters). Responses included none, mild, moderate, severe, or extreme/unable. Participants were asked about their current job, and if they were not working, the reason why (unable to find job, ill health, homemaker, studies, unpaid work, other). The occupation in the last 12 months was obtained. Multinomial regression was used accounting for the complex survey design. Of those who wanted to work, 79% of those with severe visual difficulty and 64% of those with extreme visual difficulty were actually working. People who had moderate, severe, or extreme visual difficulty had a higher odds of not working due to an inability to find a job and of not working due to ill health after adjusting for demographic and health factors (P<0.05). As the major causes of visual impairment in the world are uncorrected refractive error and cataract, countries are losing a great deal of labor productivity by failing to provide for the vision health needs of their citizens and failing to help them integrate into the workforce.

  3. Do Pocket Electronic Dictionaries Influence Word Retention and Reading Comprehension? Their Effects and Mediating Factors

    OpenAIRE

    小林, 千穂

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the effectiveness of pocket electronic dictionaries (EDs) compared with printed dictionaries (PDs) on searching behavior, word retention, and reading comprehension. It also investigates how factors such as test formats, learners' proficiency level, and text difficulty are related to the effects of EDs. Thirty-six Japanese university students participated in the study. They read an English text and answered comprehension questions, while circling the words they looked up. T...

  4. The 2001 Comprehensive Review

    CERN Multimedia

    Åkesson, T

    A new approach for CERN to monitor the LHC-experiments' technical and scientific progress was introduced last year: The Comprehensive Reviews. A significant fraction of the full LHCC committee is mobilized during two days to review the complete project status. This event took place for ATLAS during 2-3 of July this year. With a rather exhaustive program we presented our status in 39 talks. It was a demanding and close to impossible task for the referees to comprehend the ATLAS status by listening to this massive amount of information, but from the ATLAS point-of-view we judged it important that the referees were exposed to both the progress and the remaining problem areas. The referees were satisfied with our status; probably more so this year than last year. They judged the main critical issues to be: The schedules of the barrel toroid, the end-cap TRT, the LAr barrel and end-cap A, and the MDTs. The procurement of radiation hard electronics was also thought to be a critical issue. They were informed of ...

  5. Comprehensive facilities plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    The Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory`s Comprehensive Facilities Plan (CFP) document provides analysis and policy guidance for the effective use and orderly future development of land and capital assets at the Berkeley Lab site. The CFP directly supports Berkeley Lab`s role as a multiprogram national laboratory operated by the University of California (UC) for the Department of Energy (DOE). The CFP is revised annually on Berkeley Lab`s Facilities Planning Website. Major revisions are consistent with DOE policy and review guidance. Facilities planing is motivated by the need to develop facilities for DOE programmatic needs; to maintain, replace and rehabilitate existing obsolete facilities; to identify sites for anticipated programmatic growth; and to establish a planning framework in recognition of site amenities and the surrounding community. The CFP presents a concise expression of the policy for the future physical development of the Laboratory, based upon anticipated operational needs of research programs and the environmental setting. It is a product of the ongoing planning processes and is a dynamic information source.

  6. Comprehensive eye evaluation algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agurto, C.; Nemeth, S.; Zamora, G.; Vahtel, M.; Soliz, P.; Barriga, S.

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, several research groups have developed automatic algorithms to detect diabetic retinopathy (DR) in individuals with diabetes (DM), using digital retinal images. Studies have indicated that diabetics have 1.5 times the annual risk of developing primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) as do people without DM. Moreover, DM patients have 1.8 times the risk for age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Although numerous investigators are developing automatic DR detection algorithms, there have been few successful efforts to create an automatic algorithm that can detect other ocular diseases, such as POAG and AMD. Consequently, our aim in the current study was to develop a comprehensive eye evaluation algorithm that not only detects DR in retinal images, but also automatically identifies glaucoma suspects and AMD by integrating other personal medical information with the retinal features. The proposed system is fully automatic and provides the likelihood of each of the three eye disease. The system was evaluated in two datasets of 104 and 88 diabetic cases. For each eye, we used two non-mydriatic digital color fundus photographs (macula and optic disc centered) and, when available, information about age, duration of diabetes, cataracts, hypertension, gender, and laboratory data. Our results show that the combination of multimodal features can increase the AUC by up to 5%, 7%, and 8% in the detection of AMD, DR, and glaucoma respectively. Marked improvement was achieved when laboratory results were combined with retinal image features.

  7. Information Integration Technology Demonstration (IITD)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Loe, Richard

    2001-01-01

    The objectives of the Information Integration Technology Demonstration (IITD) were to investigate, design a software architecture and demonstrate a capability to display intelligence data from multiple disciplines...

  8. Meeting the needs of children and young people with speech, language and communication difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Geoff; Dockrell, Julie; Desforges, Martin; Law, James; Peacey, Nick

    2010-01-01

    The UK government set up a review of provision for children and young people with the full range of speech, language and communication needs led by a Member of Parliament, John Bercow. A research study was commissioned to provide empirical evidence to inform the Bercow Review. To examine the efficiency and effectiveness of different arrangements for organizing and providing services for children and young people with needs associated with primary speech, language and communication difficulties. Six Local Authorities in England and associated Primary Care Trusts were selected to represent a range of locations reflecting geographic spread, urban/rural and prevalence of children with speech, language and communication difficulties. In each case study, interviews were held with the senior Local Authority manager for special educational needs and a Primary Care Trust senior manager for speech and language therapy. A further 23 head teachers or heads of specialist provision for speech, language and communication difficulties were also interviewed and policy documents were examined. A thematic analysis of the interviews produced four main themes: identification of children and young people with speech, language and communication difficulties; meeting their needs; monitoring and evaluation; and research and evaluation. There were important differences between Local Authorities and Primary Care Trusts in the collection, analysis and use of data, in particular. There were also differences between Local Authority/Primary Care Trust pairs, especially in the degree to which they collaborated in developing policy and implementing practice. This study has demonstrated a lack of consistency across Local Authorities and Primary Care Trusts. Optimizing provision to meet the needs of children and young people with speech, language and communication difficulties will require concerted action, with leadership from central government. The study was used by the Bercow Review whose

  9. Vocabulary and syntactic knowledge factors in 5th grade students’ reading comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouider Mokhtari

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we examined 5th grade students’ levels of vocabulary knowledge and syntactic awareness relative to their reading comprehension performance. The aim was to explore the contributions of vocabulary and syntactic awareness as potential sources of reading comprehension difficulty for these readers. Overall, we found that both vocabulary knowledge and syntactic awareness contributed in significant yet unique ways to students’ reading comprehension performance. Students who showed weaknesses in vocabulary and syntax also performed poorly on measures of reading comprehension. Additionally, we found that syntactic awareness explained a small amount of additional variance in reading comprehension beyond what was explained by vocabulary. The implications of these findings are discussed in light of research and practice addressing the relationships among syntax, vocabulary, and reading comprehension for more and less skilled readers.

  10. Cultural Knowledge in News Comprehension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathieu, David

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the main lines of the design and the findings of a reception study on news comprehension. This empirical study is a comparison of the comprehension processes of Danes and French Canadians over a set of news texts from both countries. Comprehension is explored from a cultural...... perspective, through the lens of cognition and pragmatics, revealing the role played by cultural knowledge in comprehension and the underlying relationship between a text and its intended audience. It is argued that recipients ‘problematise’ the news texts, a process by which the texts answer questions...

  11. SITE COMPREHENSIVE LISTING (CERCLIS) (Superfund)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Information System (CERCLIS) (Superfund) Public Access Database contains a selected set of...

  12. Difficulties concerning Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 in children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Rebouças Moreira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the knowledge on diabetes in children and adolescents and the difficulties regarding the disease. Methods: a quantitative study with 40 patients from 6 to 17 years older who were subjected on a questionnaire based on self-care behaviors proposed by the American Association of Diabetes Educators. Results: the average age was 11.6 years with predominance of the female gender (57.5%, most attending grade school (80.0%, naming the parents as primary caregivers (72.5%. Regarding the knowledge about the disease, the item with the highest percentage of errors was about the pathophysiology of Diabetes Mellitus type 1. On the difficulties related to the treatment, food control and application of insulin had higher frequency. Conclusion:the study revealed a high percentage of correct answers among the participants, suggesting knowledge about the disease. Nevertheless, they reported food control and insulin therapy as the main difficulties related to treatment.

  13. DIFFICULTIES IN TEACHING AND LEARNING GRAMMAR IN AN EFL CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdu Mohammed Al-Mekhlafi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The role of grammar instruction in an ESL/EFL context has been for decades a major issue for students and teachers alike. Researchers have debated whether grammar should be taught in the classroom and students, for their part, have generally looked upon grammar instruction as a necessary evil at best, and an avoidable burden at worst. The paper reports a study undertaken to investigate the difficulties teachers face in teaching grammar to EFL students as well as those faced by students in learning it, in the teachers' perception. The study aimed to find out whether there are significant differences in teachers' perceptions of difficulties in relation to their gender, qualification, teaching experience, and the level they teach in school, thus providing insights into their own and their students' difficulties. Mean scores and t-test were used to interpret the data. The main findings are reported with implications.

  14. Divided attention: an undesirable difficulty in memory retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspelin, Nicholas; Ruthruff, Eric; Pashler, Harold

    2013-10-01

    How can we improve memory retention? A large body of research has suggested that difficulty encountered during learning, such as when practice sessions are distributed rather than massed, can enhance later memory performance (see R. A. Bjork & E. L. Bjork, 1992). Here, we investigated whether divided attention during retrieval practice can also constitute a desirable difficulty. Following two initial study phases and one test phase with Swahili-English word pairs (e.g., vuvi-snake), we manipulated whether items were tested again under full or divided attention. Two days later, participants were brought back for a final cued-recall test (e.g., vuvi-?). Across three experiments (combined N = 122), we found no evidence that dividing attention while practicing retrieval enhances memory retention. This finding raises the question of why many types of difficulty during practice do improve long-term retention, but dividing attention does not.

  15. How language production shapes language form and comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryellen C MacDonald

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Language production processes can provide insight into how language comprehension works and language typology—why languages tend to have certain characteristics more often than others. Drawing on work in memory retrieval, motor planning, and serial order in action planning, the Production-Distribution-Comprehension (PDC account links work in the fields of language production, typology, and comprehension: 1 faced with substantial computational burdens of planning and producing utterances, language producers implicitly follow three biases in utterance planning that promote word order choices that reduce these burdens, thereby improving production fluency. 2 These choices, repeated over many utterances and individuals, shape the distributions of utterance forms in language. The claim that language form stems in large degree from producers’ attempts to mitigate utterance planning difficulty is contrasted with alternative accounts in which form is driven by language use more broadly, language acquisition processes, or producers’ attempts to create language forms that are easily understood by comprehenders. 3 Language perceivers implicitly learn the statistical regularities in their linguistic input, and they use this prior experience to guide comprehension of subsequent language. In particular, they learn to predict the sequential structure of linguistic signals, based on the statistics of previously-encountered input. Thus key aspects of comprehension behavior are tied to lexico-syntactic statistics in the language, which in turn derive from utterance planning biases promoting production of comparatively easy utterance forms over more difficult ones. This approach contrasts with classic theories in which comprehension behaviors are attributed to innate design features of the language comprehension system and associated working memory. The PDC instead links basic features of comprehension to a different source: production processes that shape

  16. Difficulties implementing a mental health guideline: an exploratory investigation using psychological theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eccles Martin P

    2007-03-01

    to these domains were unlikely to constitute difficulties in implementation. 'Environmental context and resources' was the lowest scoring domain, with 'Emotion' scoring the second lowest, suggesting that these were likely to be areas for considering intervention. The two main resources identified as problems were time and training. The emotions that appeared to potentially influence the offer of family therapy were self-doubt and fear. Conclusion This exploratory study demonstrates an approach to developing a theoretical understanding of implementation difficulties.

  17. Perceived Difficulties in e-Learning During the First Term at University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina Kavaliauskienė

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose—the focus of this article is to explore difficulties that are encountered by students during the first term at university. It is well known that students can have various problems in learning English and make mistakes in grammar, vocabulary, and pronunciation. The native language of a learner affects learning and using English. Speaking and e-listening are the skills that are more common on an everyday basis than reading and writing. Moreover, these skills are more difficult to master. English vocabulary presents another problem for language learners. Albeit, at the university level students study English for Specific Purposes (ESP, in other words, the foreign language for their future profession, and they might face particular difficulties in their studies of ESP. Design/methodology/approach—the research paper adopts the qualitative research approach. The questionnaire on learner perceptions of difficulties in e-learning was administered to students of three different specializations. Students’ self-assessments of achievements or failures were analysed. Findings. The results indicated that perceptions of difficulties to adapting to university studies depended on their chosen specialization. The findings show that undergraduates of all three investigated specializations encounter the same difficulties, but to a different degree. In other words, there are no significantly specific difficulties due to the complexity of the professional vocabulary that students must learn. The ratings of Psychology, Social Work and Public Policy and Management students reveal higher mean values and wider range of Standard Deviations than reported by other researchers (Berman, Cheng, 2001. The results obtained imply that Lithuanian learners are more positive than their foreign counterparts. Computations of Pearson’s correlations coefficients demonstrate that there are some good correlational relationships within each specialization. Research

  18. Psychosocial difficulties from the perspective of persons with neuropsychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coenen, Michaela; Cabello, Maria; Umlauf, Silvia; Ayuso-Mateos, José Luis; Anczewska, Marta; Tourunen, Jouni; Leonardi, Matilde; Cieza, Alarcos

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine whether persons with neuropsychiatric disorders experience a common set of psychosocial difficulties using qualitative data from focus groups and individual interviews. The study was performed in five European countries (Finland, Italy, Germany, Poland and Spain) using the focus groups and individual interviews with persons with nine neuropsychiatric disorders (dementia, depression, epilepsy, migraine, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, stroke and substance dependence). Digitally recorded sessions were analysed using a step-by-step qualitative and quantitative methodology resulting in the compilation of a common set of psychosocial difficulties using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) as a framework. Sixty-seven persons participated in the study. Most persons with neuropsychiatric disorders experience difficulties in emotional functions, sleeping, carrying out daily routine, working and interpersonal relationships in common. Sixteen out of 33 psychosocial difficulties made up the common set. This set includes mental functions, pain and issues addressing activities and participation and provides first evidence for the hypothesis of horizontal epidemiology of psychosocial difficulties in neuropsychiatric disorders. This study provides information about psychosocial difficulties that should be covered in the treatment and rehabilitation of persons with neuropsychiatric disorders regardless of clinical diagnoses. Emotional problems, work and sleep problems should be addressed in all the treatments of neuropsychiatric disorders regardless of their specific diagnosis, etiology and severity. Personality issues should be targeted in the treatment for neurological disorders, whereas communication skill training may also be useful for mental disorders. The effects of medication and social environment on patient's daily life should be considered in all the

  19. Educator perspectives on the postsecondary transition difficulties of students with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Rebecca; Muskett, Ashley E; White, Susan W

    2017-10-01

    Addressing the challenges of adolescents and emerging adults with autism spectrum disorder is crucial to improving the outcomes of these students in the postsecondary setting. Although secondary and postsecondary educators and staff are critical to helping these students access services, there has been little investigation into the perspectives of this stakeholder group, with respect to the needs of postsecondary students with autism spectrum disorder. A series of focus groups was conducted with secondary and postsecondary educators to understand educator perspectives related to the challenges faced by postsecondary students with autism spectrum disorder. Competence, autonomy and independence, and the development and sustainment of interpersonal relationships emerged as primary areas of difficulty and corresponding need. Results suggest that targeted interventions addressing these areas should be implemented, prior to and during enrollment in a postsecondary setting, to facilitate transition in a comprehensive manner.

  20. Difficulties in getting treatment for injuries in rural Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hang, H M; Byass, P

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge about the health-seeking behaviour of injury patients is important for the improvement of community health services. The aims of this study were: (1) to describe the healthcare-seeking behaviour of injury patients; (2) to examine factors associated with injury patients seeking care at health facilities; and (3) to describe the costs of health care for injury patients. This study took place in Bavi District, northern Vietnam within a longitudinal community surveillance site (FilaBavi). All non-fatal unintentional injuries occurring in a sample of 24,776 people during 2000 were recorded. The injury questionnaire included information on care-seeking behaviour, severity and consequences of injury. Both univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to find associations between sociodemographic factors and utilization of any health services, as well as for each type of health service used, compared with the group who did not use any health services. Of 24,776 persons living in the study area, 1917 reported 2079 new non-fatal debilitating injuries during the four 3-month periods of observation. Health-seeking behaviour relating to the first 1917 injuries was analysed. Self-treatment was most common (51.7%), even in cases of severe injury. There was low usage of public health services (23.2%) among injury patients. Long distances, poor economic status and residence in difficult geographic areas such as highlands and mountains were barriers for seeking health services. A large proportion of household income was spent on treating injury patients. Poor people spent a greater proportion of their income on health care than the rich, and often used less qualified or untrained private providers. These results demonstrate the logistical and financial difficulties associated with the treatment of injuries in rural Vietnam. This suggests the need to make public health subsidies available more efficiently and equitably. Whilst this study looked at the

  1. Self reported behavioral and emotional difficulties in relation to dentition status among school going children of Dilsukhnagar, Hyderabad, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adepu Srilatha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral health has strong biological, psychological, and social projections, which influence the quality of life. Thus, developing a common vision and a comprehensive approach to address children′s social, emotional, and behavioral health needs is an integral part of the child and adolescent′s overall health. Aim: To assess and compare the behavior and emotional difficulties among 15-year-olds and to correlate it with their dentition status based on gender. Study Settings and Design: A cross-sectional questionnaire study among 15-year-old schoolgoing children in six private schools in Dilsukhnagar, Hyderabad, India. Materials and Methods: The behavior and emotional difficulties were assessed using self-reported Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ. The dentition status was recorded by the criteria given by the World Health Organization (WHO in the Basic Oral Health Survey Assessment Form (1997. Statistical Analysis: Independent Student′s t-test was used for comparison among the variables. Correlation between scales of SDQ and dentition status was done using Karl Pearson′s correlation coefficient method. Results: Girls reported more emotional problems and good prosocial behavior and males had more conduct problems, hyperactivity, peer problems, and total difficulty problems. Total decayed-missing-filled teeth (DMFT and decayed component were significantly and positively correlated with total difficulty, emotional symptom, and conduct problems scale while missing component was correlated with the hyperactivity scale and filled component with prosocial behavior. Conclusion: DMFT and its components showed an association with all scales of SDQ except for peer problem scale. Thus, the oral health of children was significantly influenced by behavioral and emotional difficulties; so, changes in the mental health status will affect the oral health of children.

  2. Self reported behavioral and emotional difficulties in relation to dentition status among school going children of Dilsukhnagar, Hyderabad, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srilatha, Adepu; Doshi, Dolar; Reddy, Madupu Padma; Kulkarni, Suhas; Reddy, Bandari Srikanth

    2016-01-01

    Oral health has strong biological, psychological, and social projections, which influence the quality of life. Thus, developing a common vision and a comprehensive approach to address children's social, emotional, and behavioral health needs is an integral part of the child and adolescent's overall health. To assess and compare the behavior and emotional difficulties among 15-year-olds and to correlate it with their dentition status based on gender. Study Settings and Design: A cross-sectional questionnaire study among 15-year-old schoolgoing children in six private schools in Dilsukhnagar, Hyderabad, India. The behavior and emotional difficulties were assessed using self-reported Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). The dentition status was recorded by the criteria given by the World Health Organization (WHO) in the Basic Oral Health Survey Assessment Form (1997). Independent Student's t-test was used for comparison among the variables. Correlation between scales of SDQ and dentition status was done using Karl Pearson's correlation coefficient method. Girls reported more emotional problems and good prosocial behavior and males had more conduct problems, hyperactivity, peer problems, and total difficulty problems. Total decayed-missing-filled teeth (DMFT) and decayed component were significantly and positively correlated with total difficulty, emotional symptom, and conduct problems scale while missing component was correlated with the hyperactivity scale and filled component with prosocial behavior. DMFT and its components showed an association with all scales of SDQ except for peer problem scale. Thus, the oral health of children was significantly influenced by behavioral and emotional difficulties; so, changes in the mental health status will affect the oral health of children.

  3. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration lessons learned: 1993 technology demonstrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostelnik, K.M.; Owens, K.J.

    1994-01-01

    An integrated technology demonstration was conducted by the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Cold Test Pit in the summer of 1993. This program and demonstration was sponsored by the US Department of Energy Office of Technology Development. The demonstration included six technologies representing a synergistic system for the characterization and retrieval of a buried hazardous waste site. The integrated technology demonstration proved very successful and a summary of the technical accomplishments is presented. Upon completion of the integrated technology demonstration, cognizant program personnel participated in a lessons learned exercise. This exercise was conducted at the Simplot Decision Support Center at Idaho State University and lessons learned activity captured additional information relative to the integration of technologies for demonstration purposes. This information will be used by BWID to enhance program planning and strengthen future technology demonstrations

  4. Legal aspects of public health: difficulties in controlling vector-borne and zoonotic diseases in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Marcílio S; de Moraes, Josué

    2014-11-01

    In recent years, vector-borne and zoonotic diseases have become a major challenge for public health. Dengue fever and leptospirosis are the most important communicable diseases in Brazil based on their prevalence and the healthy life years lost from disability. The primary strategy for preventing human exposure to these diseases is effective insect and rodent control in and around the home. However, health authorities have difficulties in controlling vector-borne and zoonotic diseases because residents often refuse access to their homes. This study discusses aspects related to the activities performed by Brazilian health authorities to combat vector-borne and zoonotic diseases, particularly difficulties in relation to the legal aspect, which often impede the quick and effective actions of these professionals. How might it be possible to reconcile the need to preserve public health and the rule on the inviolability of the home, especially in the case of abandoned properties or illegal residents and the refusal of residents to allow the health authority access? Do residents have the right to hinder the performance of health workers even in the face of a significant and visible focus of disease transmission? This paper argues that a comprehensive legal plan aimed at the control of invasive vector-borne and zoonotic diseases including synanthropic animals of public health importance should be considered. In addition, this paper aims to bridge the gap between lawyers and public health professionals and to facilitate communication between them. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Determining which introductory physics topics pre-service physics teachers have difficulty understanding and what accounts for these difficulties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Şahin, Esin; Yağbasan, Rahmi

    2012-01-01

    This study aims at diagnosing which subjects pre-service physics teachers have difficulty understanding in introductory physics courses and what accounts for these difficulties. A questionnaire consisting of two qualitative questions was used to collect data for this study. The questionnaire was administered to 101 pre-service physics teachers who have completed the courses Physics 1 (Mechanics 1), Physics 2 (Mechanics 2), Physics 3 (Electricity) and Physics 4 (Magnetism). Of the pre-service physics teachers 28 were second year, 26 were third year, 27 were fourth year and 20 were fifth year students. The results of the data analysis indicated that the percentage of students who think that Magnetism has the most difficult subjects is the highest compared to the others. The reasons why the pre-service physics teachers experience difficulty in understanding the subjects have been grouped into four categories. (paper)

  6. Pragmatic Comprehension Development through Telecollaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafieyan, Vahid; Sharafi-Nejad, Maryam; Khavari, Zahra; Eng, Lin Siew; Mohamed, Abdul Rashid

    2014-01-01

    Pragmatic comprehension can be ideally developed through contact with target language speakers. This contact can be provided in English as Foreign Language contexts through telecollaboration. To test the actual effect of telecollaboration on the development of pragmatic comprehension, 30 Iranian undergraduates of English as a Foreign Language…

  7. Proverb comprehension impairments in schizophrenia are related to executive dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoma, Patrizia; Hennecke, Marie; Mandok, Tobias; Wähner, Alfred; Brüne, Martin; Juckel, Georg; Daum, Irene

    2009-12-30

    The study aimed to investigate the pattern of proverb comprehension impairment and its relationship to proverb familiarity and executive dysfunction in schizophrenia. To assess the specificity of the impairment pattern to schizophrenia, alcohol-dependent patients were included as a psychiatric comparison group, as deficits of executive function and theory of mind as well as dysfunction of the prefrontal cortex, which have been related to proverb comprehension difficulties, are common in both disorders. Twenty-four schizophrenia patients, 20 alcohol-dependent patients and 34 healthy controls were administered a multiple-choice proverb interpretation task incorporating ratings of subjective familiarity and measures of executive function. Schizophrenia patients chose the correct abstract and meaningful interpretations less frequently and instead chose the incorrect concrete (both meaningless and meaningful) proverb interpretations more often than alcohol-dependent patients and healthy controls. Relative to healthy controls, schizophrenia patients also chose more abstract-meaningless response alternatives and were impaired in all executive domains. Impaired divided attention was most consistently associated with proverb interpretation deficits in both patient groups. Taken together, schizophrenia patients showed a specific pattern of proverb comprehension impairments related to executive dysfunction and symptoms. The comparison with the alcohol-dependent subgroup suggests that a more comprehensive and severe impairment of complex higher-order cognitive functions including executive behavioural control and non-literal language comprehension might be associated with frontal dysfunction in schizophrenia as compared to alcohol use disorder.

  8. Delayed Self-Recognition in Autism: A Unique Difficulty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunphy-Lelii, Sarah; Wellman, Henry M.

    2012-01-01

    Achieving a sense of self is a crucial task of ordinary development. With which aspects of self do children with autism have particular difficulty? Two prior studies concluded that children with autism are unimpaired in delayed self-recognition; we confirm and clarify this conclusion by examining it in conjunction with another key aspect of self…

  9. Students' Conceptual Difficulties in Quantum Mechanics: Potential Well Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcan, Ozgur; Didis, Nilufer; Tasar, Mehmet Fatih

    2009-01-01

    In this study, students' conceptual difficulties about some basic concepts in quantum mechanics like one-dimensional potential well problems and probability density of tunneling particles were identified. For this aim, a multiple choice instrument named Quantum Mechanics Conceptual Test has been developed by one of the researchers of this study…

  10. Linear Algebra Revisited: An Attempt to Understand Students' Conceptual Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Sandra; Henderson, Jenny

    2009-01-01

    This article looks at some of the conceptual difficulties that students have in a linear algebra course. An overview of previous research in this area is given, and the various theories that have been espoused regarding the reasons that students find linear algebra so difficult are discussed. Student responses to two questions testing the ability…

  11. On the difficulties of acquiring mathematical experience: Case rural education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Booss-Bavnbek, Bernhelm

    2014-01-01

    Based on a variety of philosophical approaches and my own work for decades in pure and applied mathematics teaching and research, I explain my view upon the basic difficulties of acquiring the “Mathematical Experience” (in the sense of P.J. Davis and R. Hersh 1981) and submit a list of claims how...

  12. Communication difficulties perceived by parents of children with developmental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ingrid Ya I; Fernandes, Fernanda Dreux Miranda

    2014-01-01

    The child's inclusion in his/her social-cultural context is very important to his/her adaptation and well-being. The family has a major role as a facilitator of this process. Therefore the difficulties of these families in communicating with children with communication disorders are an important issue to be assessed in order to support orientations to families. The present study aimed to identify and compare communication difficulties perceived by parents of children with Down Syndrome (DS), Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and Specific Language Impairment (SLI). Information was gathered with the use of a questionnaire with 24 questions regarding the perception of parents about their child communication disorders and the difficulties they identify. The questions were divided into four domains: 1 - Parents' personal difficulties; 2 - Parents' impression about themselves regarding their child; 3 - Parents' impressions about other persons' reactions to their child and 4 - Parents' impression about their child. Sixty parents were the subjects of this study: 20 had children with DS, 20 with SLI and 20 with ASD. All children had ages between 6 and 12 years. It was possible to observe that there was significant difference between the parents of ASD children with those of DS and SLI on the second, third and fourth domains. The questionnaire is effective to the identification of the communication disorders of ASD children based on their parents' reports but not to other developmental disorders.

  13. Magnetic order in graphite: Experimental evidence, intrinsic and extrinsic difficulties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esquinazi, P.; Barzola-Quiquia, J.; Spemann, D.; Rothermel, M.; Ohldag, H.; Garcia, N.; Setzer, A.; Butz, T.

    2010-01-01

    We discuss recently obtained data using different experimental methods including magnetoresistance measurements that indicate the existence of metal-free high-temperature magnetic order in graphite. Intrinsic as well as extrinsic difficulties to trigger magnetic order by irradiation of graphite are discussed in view of recently published theoretical work.

  14. Determining Difficulty of Questions in Intelligent Tutoring Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunel, Korhan; Asliyan, Rifat

    2009-01-01

    The object of this study is to model the level of a question difficulty by a differential equation at a pre-specified domain knowledge, to be used in an educational support system. For this purpose, we have developed an intelligent tutoring system for mathematics education. Intelligent Tutoring Systems are computer systems designed for improvement…

  15. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obel, Carsten; Heiervang, Einar; Rodriguez, Alina

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) has been translated into the different Nordic languages between 1996 and 2003. During the past few years, SDQs have been completed for nearly 100,000 children and adolescents in population-based studies as well as in clinical samples...

  16. Beyond Stigmatization of Children with Difficulties in Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hido, Margarita; Shehu, Irena

    2010-01-01

    In the Albanian schools settings does not exist religious discrimination, neither gender discrimination, but there exists a discrimination, as unfair against children called "difficulty". The children who drop out of school are by far less numerous compared with those who start school, but who are not properly treated, so that they can…

  17. Eye Movements Reveal How Task Difficulty Moulds Visual Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Angela H.; Hulleman, Johan

    2013-01-01

    In two experiments we investigated the relationship between eye movements and performance in visual search tasks of varying difficulty. Experiment 1 provided evidence that a single process is used for search among static and moving items. Moreover, we estimated the functional visual field (FVF) from the gaze coordinates and found that its size…

  18. Common difficulties experienced by grade 12 students in learning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to examine the nature and causes of common difficulties experienced by grade twelve students in learning chemistry in Ebinat preparatory school. A qualitative method was employed to investigate the questions, which used interviews and questionnaires with students and teachers. The key ...

  19. Student Difficulties Regarding Symbolic and Graphical Representations of Vector Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollen, Laurens; van Kampen, Paul; Baily, Charles; Kelly, Mossy; De Cock, Mieke

    2017-01-01

    The ability to switch between various representations is an invaluable problem-solving skill in physics. In addition, research has shown that using multiple representations can greatly enhance a person's understanding of mathematical and physical concepts. This paper describes a study of student difficulties regarding interpreting, constructing,…

  20. Brain Regions Underlying Word Finding Difficulties in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trebuchon-Da Fonseca, Agnes; Guedj, Eric; Alario, F-Xavier; Laguitton, Virginie; Mundler, Olivier; Chauvel, Patrick; Liegeois-Chauvel, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Word finding difficulties are often reported by epileptic patients with seizures originating from the language dominant cerebral hemisphere, for example, in temporal lobe epilepsy. Evidence regarding the brain regions underlying this deficit comes from studies of peri-operative electro-cortical stimulation, as well as post-surgical performance.…

  1. Are Difficulties Balancing Work and Family Associated with Subsequent Fertility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Siwei; Hynes, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    Despite considerable interest in the causes and consequences of work-family conflict, and the frequent suggestion in fertility research that difficulty in balancing work and family is one of the factors leading to low fertility rates in several developed countries, little research uses longitudinal data to examine whether women who report…

  2. Difficulties on the road to a liberalized energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koevoet, H.

    2001-01-01

    Starting January 1, 2002 about 55,000 consumers of electricity and 2,100 consumers of natural gas (small and medium-sized businesses) in the Netherlands can choose their own supplier. Some of the constraints and difficulties with respect to the liberalized energy market in the Netherlands are discussed

  3. Interdisciplinary collaboration and conflict about inclusion and children in difficulties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røn Larsen, Maja

    My paper builds on the “sub-project C” concerned with: Legislation and administration as institutional conditions for interdisciplinary collaboration about children in difficulties in school. I have been doing the research together within, Stine Jørgensen, who is a researcher at the faculty of law...

  4. Preoperative ultrasonography and prediction of technical difficulties during laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daradkeh, S S; Suwan, Z; Abu-Khalaf, M

    1998-01-01

    A prospective study was carried out to investigate the value of preoperative ultrasound findings for predicting difficulties encountered during laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). Altogether 160 consecutive patients with symptomatic gallbladder (GB) disease (130 females, 30 males) referred to the Jordan University Hospital were recruited for the purpose of this study. All patients underwent detailed ultrasound examination 24 hours prior to LC. The overall difficulty score (ODS), as a dependent variable, was based on the following operative parameters: duration of surgery, bleeding, dissection of Calot's triangle, dissection of gallbladder wall, adhesions, spillage of bile, spillage of stone, and difficulty of gallbladder extraction. Multiple regression analysis was used to assess the significance of the following preoperative ultrasound variables (independent) for predicting the variation in the ODS: size of the GB, number of GB stones, size of stones, location of GB stones, thickness of GB wall, common bile duct (CBD) diameter, and liver size. Only thickness of GB wall and CBD diameter were found to be significant predictors of the variation in the ODS (adjusted R2 = 0.25). We conclude that the preoperative ultrasound examination is of value for predicting difficulties encountered during LC, but it is not the sole predictor.

  5. Financial difficulties lead OPEC countries on the prices correction way

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    The financial difficulties of OPEC countries are going to lead them to correct the petroleum prices. In front of a decreasing since 1992, it is necessary to make them grow of about $1 the barrel. It is the principal conclusion of Bali meeting for next months even perhaps for next years

  6. Sleep Difficulties and Academic Performance in Norwegian Higher Education Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayley, Amie C.; Sivertsen, Børge; Hysing, Mari; Vedaa, Øystein; Øverland, Simon

    2017-01-01

    Background: Sleep difficulties are common among university students and may detrimentally affect academic outcomes. Despite this, remarkably little information is currently available during this critical developmental period of early adulthood, and thus, the direct effect on measurable domains of academic ability and proficiency is equivocal.…

  7. Sleep difficulties and academic performance in Norwegian higher education students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayley, Amie C; Sivertsen, Børge; Hysing, Mari; Vedaa, Øystein; Øverland, Simon

    2017-12-01

    Sleep difficulties are common among university students and may detrimentally affect academic outcomes. Despite this, remarkably little information is currently available during this critical developmental period of early adulthood, and thus, the direct effect on measurable domains of academic ability and proficiency is equivocal. To evaluate the associations between difficulties initiating and maintaining sleep (DIMS) and subjective and objective academic performance in a large sample of university students. A total of 12,915 students who participated in large student survey in Norway from 24 February 2014 to 27 March 2014. DIMS was assessed by the Hopkins Symptoms Checklist (HSCL-25), and academic outcomes included failed examinations, delayed study progress, and school-related self-efficacy (General Self-Efficacy Scale). Difficulties initiating and maintaining sleep was independently associated with increased odds for poor school performance for all academic outcomes. Reporting 'extreme' DIMS was associated with increased odds of reporting delayed study progress (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.25, 95% CI 1.01-1.57, p academic outcomes as well as poorer self-rated academic proficiency among higher education students. Amelioration of sleep difficulties may improve overall academic performance and health outcomes in affected students. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  8. Tracking Change in Children with Severe and Persisting Speech Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newbold, Elisabeth Joy; Stackhouse, Joy; Wells, Bill

    2013-01-01

    Standardised tests of whole-word accuracy are popular in the speech pathology and developmental psychology literature as measures of children's speech performance. However, they may not be sensitive enough to measure changes in speech output in children with severe and persisting speech difficulties (SPSD). To identify the best ways of doing this,…

  9. Handwriting difficulties in juvenile idiopathic arthritis: a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haberfehlner, Helga; Visser, Bart; Daffertshofer, Andreas; van Rossum, Marion Aj; Roorda, Leo D.; van der Leeden, Marike; Dekker, Joost; Hoeksma, Agnes F.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to describe handwriting difficulties of primary school children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), and to investigate possible correlations with hand function and writing performance. In a cross-sectional approach, 15 children with JIA and reported handwriting

  10. Career Decision-Making Difficulties of Turkish Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacanli, Feride

    2016-01-01

    The purposes of this study are (1) to adapt the Career Decision-Making Difficulties Questionnaire (CDDQ) to Turkish high school students and (2) to examine gender differences, grade differences, and differences between "decided" and "undecided" students. The sample consisted of 2509 adolescent students. The results showed that…

  11. Fast and Efficient Discrimination of Traveling Salesperson Problem Stimulus Difficulty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dry, Matthew J.; Fontaine, Elizabeth L.

    2014-01-01

    The Traveling Salesperson Problem (TSP) is a computationally difficult combinatorial optimization problem. In spite of its relative difficulty, human solvers are able to generate close-to-optimal solutions in a close-to-linear time frame, and it has been suggested that this is due to the visual system's inherent sensitivity to certain geometric…

  12. Using Student Performance to Judge the Difficulty of Examinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roegner, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    This contribution focuses on a scheme developed to characterize the level of difficulty of an examination in the course "Linear Algebra for Engineers" and on the transfer of the underlying idea to a similar scheme for examinations in the course "Analysis I for Engineers". Using these schemes, it is possible to define standards…

  13. Difficulties in Learning and Teaching Statistics: Teacher Views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koparan, Timur

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to define teacher views about the difficulties in learning and teaching middle school statistics subjects. To serve this aim, a number of interviews were conducted with 10 middle school maths teachers in 2011-2012 school year in the province of Trabzon. Of the qualitative descriptive research methods, the…

  14. Specific Learning Difficulties--What Teachers Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Diana

    2015-01-01

    This book clearly explains what Specific Learning Difficulties (SpLD) are, and describes the symptoms of conditions most commonly encountered in the mainstream classroom: dyslexia, dyspraxia, dyscalculia, dysgraphia, Autism Spectrum Disorder, ADHD, and OCD. The author provides an overview of the strengths and weaknesses commonly associated with…

  15. Investigating Difficulties of Learning Computer Programming in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alakeel, Ali M.

    2015-01-01

    Learning computer programming is one of the main requirements of many educational study plans in higher education. Research has shown that many students face difficulties acquiring reasonable programming skills during their first year of college. In Saudi Arabia, there are twenty-three state-owned universities scattered around the country that…

  16. Could Specific Braille Reading Difficulties Result from Developmental Dyslexia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veispak, Anneli; Ghesquiere, Pol

    2010-01-01

    A proportion of children with visual impairments have specific reading difficulties that cannot be easily explained. This article reviews the data on problems with braille reading and interprets them from the framework of the temporal-processing deficit theory of developmental dyslexia.

  17. Right is not always wrong: DTI and fMRI evidence for the reliance of reading comprehension on language-comprehension networks in the right hemisphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz-Kraus, Tzipi; Grainger, Molly; DiFrancesco, Mark; Vannest, Jennifer; Holland, Scott K

    2015-03-01

    The Simple View theory suggests that reading comprehension relies on automatic recognition of words combined with language comprehension. The goal of the current study was to examine the structural and functional connectivity in networks supporting reading comprehension and their relationship with language comprehension within 7-9 year old children using Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) and fMRI during a Sentence Picture Matching task. Fractional Anisotropy (FA) values in the left and right Inferior Longitudinal Fasciculus (ILF) and Superior Longitudinal Fasciculus (SLF), known language-related tracts, were correlated from DTI data with scores from the Woodcock-Johnson III (WJ-III) Passage Comprehension sub-test. Brodmann areas most proximal to white-matter regions with significant correlation to Passage Comprehension scores were chosen as Regions-of-Interest (ROIs) and used as seeds in a functional connectivity analysis using the Sentence Picture Matching task. The correlation between percentile scores for the WJ-III Passage Comprehension subtest and the FA values in the right and left ILF and SLF indicated positive correlation in language-related ROIs, with greater distribution in the right hemisphere, which in turn showed strong connectivity in the fMRI data from the Sentence Picture Matching task. These results support the participation of the right hemisphere in reading comprehension and may provide physiologic support for a distinction between different types of reading comprehension deficits vs difficulties in technical reading.

  18. Identifying predictors of physics item difficulty: A linear regression approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesic, Vanes; Muratovic, Hasnija

    2011-06-01

    Large-scale assessments of student achievement in physics are often approached with an intention to discriminate students based on the attained level of their physics competencies. Therefore, for purposes of test design, it is important that items display an acceptable discriminatory behavior. To that end, it is recommended to avoid extraordinary difficult and very easy items. Knowing the factors that influence physics item difficulty makes it possible to model the item difficulty even before the first pilot study is conducted. Thus, by identifying predictors of physics item difficulty, we can improve the test-design process. Furthermore, we get additional qualitative feedback regarding the basic aspects of student cognitive achievement in physics that are directly responsible for the obtained, quantitative test results. In this study, we conducted a secondary analysis of data that came from two large-scale assessments of student physics achievement at the end of compulsory education in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Foremost, we explored the concept of “physics competence” and performed a content analysis of 123 physics items that were included within the above-mentioned assessments. Thereafter, an item database was created. Items were described by variables which reflect some basic cognitive aspects of physics competence. For each of the assessments, Rasch item difficulties were calculated in separate analyses. In order to make the item difficulties from different assessments comparable, a virtual test equating procedure had to be implemented. Finally, a regression model of physics item difficulty was created. It has been shown that 61.2% of item difficulty variance can be explained by factors which reflect the automaticity, complexity, and modality of the knowledge structure that is relevant for generating the most probable correct solution, as well as by the divergence of required thinking and interference effects between intuitive and formal physics knowledge

  19. Identifying predictors of physics item difficulty: A linear regression approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasnija Muratovic

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale assessments of student achievement in physics are often approached with an intention to discriminate students based on the attained level of their physics competencies. Therefore, for purposes of test design, it is important that items display an acceptable discriminatory behavior. To that end, it is recommended to avoid extraordinary difficult and very easy items. Knowing the factors that influence physics item difficulty makes it possible to model the item difficulty even before the first pilot study is conducted. Thus, by identifying predictors of physics item difficulty, we can improve the test-design process. Furthermore, we get additional qualitative feedback regarding the basic aspects of student cognitive achievement in physics that are directly responsible for the obtained, quantitative test results. In this study, we conducted a secondary analysis of data that came from two large-scale assessments of student physics achievement at the end of compulsory education in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Foremost, we explored the concept of “physics competence” and performed a content analysis of 123 physics items that were included within the above-mentioned assessments. Thereafter, an item database was created. Items were described by variables which reflect some basic cognitive aspects of physics competence. For each of the assessments, Rasch item difficulties were calculated in separate analyses. In order to make the item difficulties from different assessments comparable, a virtual test equating procedure had to be implemented. Finally, a regression model of physics item difficulty was created. It has been shown that 61.2% of item difficulty variance can be explained by factors which reflect the automaticity, complexity, and modality of the knowledge structure that is relevant for generating the most probable correct solution, as well as by the divergence of required thinking and interference effects between intuitive and formal

  20. Managing PBL difficulties in an industrial engineering and management program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anabela Alves

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Project-Based Learning (PBL is considered to be an active learning methodology which can be used to develop both technical and transversal competences in engineering programs. This methodology demands a great deal of work effort from the students and also from the teachers and it requires a meticulous plan and a well-managed project as well. These activities go far beyond the normal activities in traditional lectures, enabling to outpace the difficulties that spur along the way that may be both complex and demotivating. This methodology has been implemented in the Integrated Master Degree on Industrial Engineering and Management (IEM, at one public university in Portugal, since the 2004/2005 academic year. The aim of this paper is to identify and discuss the main difficulties of the implementation of PBL, mainly from the teachers’ perspectives. Additionally, some effective strategies will be recommended to overcome such difficulties. Design/methodology/approach: The perceptions of the teachers were collected through a survey based on six main themes. The participants in the study include eight teachers from the five courses of the first semester of the first year of the IEM program involved in the 2012/2013 and 2013/2014 editions. Findings: Integration of courses in the project; student assessment; growing number of students in each team and the need of physical spaces for them; and compartmentalized knowledge has emerged as the main difficulties. To overcome these difficulties some key strategies were recommended. Originality/value: A new perspective based on course teachers' views and experiences will deepen the understanding of the problems and provide inputs for the development of strategies that may improve the effectiveness of PBL and introduce changes for its successful implementation. These strategies are intended to be transferable to other contexts, as most of the problems and constraints are common to other active learning

  1. Handwriting difficulties in juvenile idiopathic arthritis: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberfehlner, Helga; Visser, Bart; Daffertshofer, Andreas; van Rossum, Marion Aj; Roorda, Leo D; van der Leeden, Marike; Dekker, Joost; Hoeksma, Agnes F

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to describe handwriting difficulties of primary school children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), and to investigate possible correlations with hand function and writing performance. In a cross-sectional approach, 15 children with JIA and reported handwriting difficulties were included together with 15 healthy matched controls. Impairments (signs of arthritis or tenosynovitis, reduced grip force and limited range of motion of the wrist (wrist-ROM)), activity limitations (reduced quality and speed of handwriting, pain during handwriting), and participation restrictions (perceived handwriting difficulties at school) were assessed and analysed. Although selected by the presence of handwriting difficulties, the majority of the JIA children (73%) had no active arthritis of the writing hand, and only minor hand impairments were found. Overall, the JIA children performed well during the short handwriting test, but the number of letters they wrote per minute decreased significantly during the 5-minute test, compared to the healthy controls. JIA patients had significantly higher pain scores on a 100 mm Visual Analogue Scale, compared to the healthy controls. The actual presence of arthritis, and limitation in grip force and wrist-ROM did not correlate with reported participation restrictions with regard to handwriting at school. The JIA children reported pain during handwriting, and inability to sustain handwriting for a longer period of time. The results of this pilot study show that JIA children with handwriting difficulties, experience their restrictions mainly through pain and the inability to sustain handwriting for a longer period of time. No correlations could be found with impairments.

  2. Managing PBL difficulties in an industrial engineering and management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, A.; Sousa, R.; Moreira, F.; Carvalho, M.A.; Cardoso, E.; Pimenta, P.; Malheiro, T.; Brito, I.; Fernandes, S.; Mesquita, D.

    2016-01-01

    Project-Based Learning (PBL) is considered to be an active learning methodology which can be used to develop both technical and transversal competences in engineering programs. This methodology demands a great deal of work effort from the students and also from the teachers and it requires a meticulous plan and a well-managed project as well. These activities go far beyond the normal activities in traditional lectures, enabling to outpace the difficulties that spur along the way that may be both complex and demotivating. This methodology has been implemented in the Integrated Master Degree on Industrial Engineering and Management (IEM), at one public university in Portugal, since the 2004/2005 academic year. The aim of this paper is to identify and discuss the main difficulties of the implementation of PBL, mainly from the teachers’ perspectives. Additionally, some effective strategies will be recommended to overcome such difficulties. Design/methodology/approach: The perceptions of the teachers were collected through a survey based on six main themes. The participants in the study include eight teachers from the five courses of the first semester of the first year of the IEM program involved in the 2012/2013 and 2013/2014 editions. Findings: Integration of courses in the project; student assessment; growing number of students in each team and the need of physical spaces for them; and compartmentalized knowledge has emerged as the main difficulties. To overcome these difficulties some key strategies were recommended. Originality/value: A new perspective based on course teachers' views and experiences will deepen the understanding of the problems and provide inputs for the development of strategies that may improve the effectiveness of PBL and introduce changes for its successful implementation. These strategies are intended to be transferable to other contexts, as most of the problems and constraints are common to other active learning approaches. (Author)

  3. Managing PBL difficulties in an industrial engineering and management program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, A.; Sousa, R.; Moreira, F.; Carvalho, M.A.; Cardoso, E.; Pimenta, P.; Malheiro, T.; Brito, I.; Fernandes, S.; Mesquita, D.

    2016-07-01

    Project-Based Learning (PBL) is considered to be an active learning methodology which can be used to develop both technical and transversal competences in engineering programs. This methodology demands a great deal of work effort from the students and also from the teachers and it requires a meticulous plan and a well-managed project as well. These activities go far beyond the normal activities in traditional lectures, enabling to outpace the difficulties that spur along the way that may be both complex and demotivating. This methodology has been implemented in the Integrated Master Degree on Industrial Engineering and Management (IEM), at one public university in Portugal, since the 2004/2005 academic year. The aim of this paper is to identify and discuss the main difficulties of the implementation of PBL, mainly from the teachers’ perspectives. Additionally, some effective strategies will be recommended to overcome such difficulties. Design/methodology/approach: The perceptions of the teachers were collected through a survey based on six main themes. The participants in the study include eight teachers from the five courses of the first semester of the first year of the IEM program involved in the 2012/2013 and 2013/2014 editions. Findings: Integration of courses in the project; student assessment; growing number of students in each team and the need of physical spaces for them; and compartmentalized knowledge has emerged as the main difficulties. To overcome these difficulties some key strategies were recommended. Originality/value: A new perspective based on course teachers' views and experiences will deepen the understanding of the problems and provide inputs for the development of strategies that may improve the effectiveness of PBL and introduce changes for its successful implementation. These strategies are intended to be transferable to other contexts, as most of the problems and constraints are common to other active learning approaches. (Author)

  4. Captions and Reduced Forms Instruction: The Impact on EFL Students' Listening Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie Chi; Chang, Peichin

    2014-01-01

    For many EFL learners, listening poses a grave challenge. The difficulty in segmenting a stream of speech and limited capacity in short-term memory are common weaknesses for language learners. Specifically, reduced forms, which frequently appear in authentic informal conversations, compound the challenges in listening comprehension. Numerous…

  5. Fiction and Non-Fiction Reading and Comprehension in Preferred Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topping, Keith J.

    2015-01-01

    Are the books preferred and most enjoyed by children harder than other books they read? Are non-fiction books read and understood at the same level of difficulty as fiction books? The Accelerated Reader software offers computerized comprehension quizzes of real books individually chosen by children, giving children (and teachers, librarians, and…

  6. Informational Text Comprehension: Its Challenges and How Collaborative Strategic Reading Can Help

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCown, Margaret Averill; Thomason, Gina B.

    2014-01-01

    With the increased emphasis on informational text with Common Core State Standards and the difficulty many students have with this type of text, this study examined the effects of Collaborative Strategic Reading (CSR) on informational text comprehension and metacognitive awareness of fifth grade students. Participating students included a…

  7. Promoting At-Risk Preschool Children's Comprehension through Research-Based Strategy Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBruin-Parecki, Andrea; Squibb, Kathryn

    2011-01-01

    Young children living in poor urban neighborhoods are often at risk for reading difficulties, in part because developing listening comprehension strategies and vocabulary knowledge may not be a priority in their prekindergarten classrooms, whose curriculums typically focus heavily on phonological awareness and alphabet knowledge. Prereading…

  8. An Exploratory Study of NNES Graduate Students' Reading Comprehension of English Journal Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kate Tzu-Ching

    2017-01-01

    The academic success of non-native English speaker (NNES) graduate students greatly relies on their ability to read and comprehend English journal articles (EJA). The purpose of this study was to identify NNES graduate students' comprehension difficulties and reading strategies when reading EJA. In addition, the study explored how the relationship…

  9. Effects of an Informational Text Reading Comprehension Intervention for Fifth-Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchey, Kristen D.; Palombo, Kimberly; Silverman, Rebecca D.; Speece, Deborah L.

    2017-01-01

    Upper elementary school students who have reading problems may have difficulty in one or more areas of reading, each requiring specific types of interventions. This study evaluated a short-term reading intervention for 46 fifth-grade students with poor reading comprehension. Students were randomly assigned to an intervention or no treatment…

  10. Integrated Ground Operations Demonstration Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall goal of the AES Integrated Ground Operations Demonstration Units (IGODU) project is to demonstrate cost efficient cryogenic operations on a relevant...

  11. Cargo Data Management Demonstration System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-02-01

    Delays in receipt and creation of cargo documents are a problem in international trade. The work described demonstrates some of the advantages and capabilities of a computer-based cargo data management system. A demonstration system for data manageme...

  12. Efficacy of a Word- and Text-Based Intervention for Students With Significant Reading Difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Sharon; Roberts, Garrett J; Miciak, Jeremy; Taylor, Pat; Fletcher, Jack M

    2018-05-01

    We examine the efficacy of an intervention to improve word reading and reading comprehension in fourth- and fifth-grade students with significant reading problems. Using a randomized control trial design, we compare the fourth- and fifth-grade reading outcomes of students with severe reading difficulties who were provided a researcher-developed treatment with reading outcomes of students in a business-as-usual (BAU) comparison condition. A total of 280 fourth- and fifth-grade students were randomly assigned within school in a 1:1 ratio to either the BAU comparison condition ( n = 139) or the treatment condition ( n = 141). Treatment students were provided small-group tutoring for 30 to 45 minutes for an average of 68 lessons (mean hours of instruction = 44.4, SD = 11.2). Treatment students performed statistically significantly higher than BAU students on a word reading measure (effect size [ES] = 0. 58) and a measure of reading fluency (ES = 0.46). Though not statistically significant, effect sizes for students in the treatment condition were consistently higher than BAU students for decoding measures (ES = 0.06, 0.08), and mixed for comprehension (ES = -0.02, 0.14).

  13. Teleoperation for learning by demonstration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kukliński, Kamil; Fischer, Kerstin; Marhenke, Ilka

    2014-01-01

    Learning by demonstration is a useful technique to augment a robot's behavioral inventory, and teleoperation allows lay users to demonstrate novel behaviors intuitively to the robot. In this paper, we compare two modes of teleoperation of an industrial robot, the demonstration by means of a data...... glove and by means of a control object (peg). Experiments with 16 lay users, performing assembly task on the Cranfield benchmark objects, show that the control peg leads to more success, more efficient demonstration and fewer errors....

  14. Helicopter detection and classification demonstrator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koersel, A.C. van

    2000-01-01

    A technology demonstrator that detects and classifies different helicopter types automatically, was developed at TNO-FEL. The demonstrator is based on a PC, which receives its acoustic input from an all-weather microphone. The demonstrator uses commercial off-the-shelf hardware to digitize the

  15. Assessing implementation difficulties in tobacco use prevention and cessation counselling among dental providers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murtomaa Heikki

    2011-05-01

    provided the highest mean score (60%; 95% CI, 55.0 to 65.0. Three factors were extracted that explain 70.8% of the variance: motivation (47.6% of variance, α = 0.86, capability (13.3% of variance, α = 0.83, and opportunity (10.0% of variance, α = 0.71. Conclusions This study demonstrated a theoretically informed approach to identifying possible implementation difficulties in TUPAC counselling among dental providers. This approach provides a method for moving from diagnosing implementation difficulties to designing and evaluating interventions.

  16. Assessing implementation difficulties in tobacco use prevention and cessation counselling among dental providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amemori, Masamitsu; Michie, Susan; Korhonen, Tellervo; Murtomaa, Heikki; Kinnunen, Taru H

    2011-05-26

    .0 to 65.0). Three factors were extracted that explain 70.8% of the variance: motivation (47.6% of variance, α = 0.86), capability (13.3% of variance, α = 0.83), and opportunity (10.0% of variance, α = 0.71). This study demonstrated a theoretically informed approach to identifying possible implementation difficulties in TUPAC counselling among dental providers. This approach provides a method for moving from diagnosing implementation difficulties to designing and evaluating interventions.

  17. Invented Spelling, Word Stress, and Syllable Awareness in Relation to Reading Difficulties in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Sheena; Ding, Yi; Ness, Molly; Chen, Eric C

    2018-06-01

    The study assessed the clinical utility of an invented spelling tool and determined whether invented spelling with linguistic manipulation at segmental and supra-segmental levels can be used to better identify reading difficulties. We conducted linguistic manipulation by using real and nonreal words, incorporating word stress, alternating the order of consonants and vowels, and alternating the number of syllables. We recruited 60 third-grade students, of which half were typical readers and half were poor readers. The invented spelling task consistently differentiated those with reading difficulties from typical readers. It explained unique variance in conventional spelling, but not in word reading. Word stress explained unique variance in both word reading and conventional spelling, highlighting the importance of addressing phonological awareness at the supra-segmental level. Poor readers had poorer performance when spelling both real and nonreal words and demonstrated substantial difficulty in detecting word stress. Poor readers struggled with spelling words with double consonants at the beginning and ending of words, and performed worse on spelling two- and three-syllable words than typical readers. Practical implications for early identification and instruction are discussed.

  18. Visual performance on detection tasks with double-targets of the same and different difficulty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Alan H S; Courtney, Alan J; Ma, C W

    2002-10-20

    This paper reports a study of measurement of horizontal visual sensitivity limits for 16 subjects in single-target and double-targets detection tasks. Two phases of tests were conducted in the double-targets task; targets of the same difficulty were tested in phase one while targets of different difficulty were tested in phase two. The range of sensitivity for the double-targets test was found to be smaller than that for single-target in both the same and different target difficulty cases. The presence of another target was found to affect performance to a marked degree. Interference effect of the difficult target on detection of the easy one was greater than that of the easy one on the detection of the difficult one. Performance decrement was noted when correct percentage detection was plotted against eccentricity of target in both the single-target and double-targets tests. Nevertheless, the non-significant correlation found between the performance for the two tasks demonstrated that it was impossible to predict quantitatively ability for detection of double targets from the data for single targets. This indicated probable problems in generalizing data for single target visual lobes to those for multiple targets. Also lobe area values obtained from measurements using a single-target task cannot be applied in a mathematical model for situations with multiple occurrences of targets.

  19. An evaluation of clinical treatment of convergence insufficiency for children with reading difficulties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dusek Wolfgang A

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study investigates two different treatment options for convergence insufficiency CI for a group of children with reading difficulties referred by educational institutes to a specialist eye clinic in Vienna. Methods One hundred and thirty four subjects (aged 7-14 years with reading difficulties were referred from an educational institute in Vienna, Austria for visual assessment. Each child was given either 8Δ base-in reading spectacles (n = 51 or computerised home vision therapy (HTS (n = 51. Thirty two participants refused all treatment offered (clinical control group. A full visual assessment including reading speed and accuracy were conducted pre- and post-treatment. Results Factorial analyses demonstrated statistically significant changes between results obtained for visits 1 and 2 for total reading time, reading error score, amplitude of accommodation and binocular accommodative facility (within subjects effects (p Conclusions Reading difficulties with no apparent intellectual or psychological foundation may be due to a binocular vision anomaly such as convergence insufficiency. Both the HTS and prismatic correction are highly effective treatment options for convergence insufficiency. Prismatic correction can be considered an effective alternative to HTS.

  20. Post-stimulus endogenous and exogenous oscillations are differentially modulated by task difficulty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun; Lou, Bin; Gao, Xiaorong; Sajda, Paul

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the modulation of post-stimulus endogenous and exogenous oscillations when a visual discrimination is made more difficult. We use exogenous frequency tagging to induce steady-state visually evoked potentials (SSVEP) while subjects perform a face-car discrimination task, the difficulty of which varies on a trial-to-trial basis by varying the noise (phase coherence) in the image. We simultaneously analyze amplitude modulations of the SSVEP and endogenous alpha activity as a function of task difficulty. SSVEP modulation can be viewed as a neural marker of attention toward/away from the primary task, while modulation of post-stimulus alpha is closely related to cortical information processing. We find that as the task becomes more difficult, the amplitude of SSVEP decreases significantly, approximately 250-450 ms post-stimulus. Significant changes in endogenous alpha amplitude follow SSVEP modulation, occurring at approximately 400-700 ms post-stimulus and, unlike the SSVEP, the alpha amplitude is increasingly suppressed as the task becomes less difficult. Our results demonstrate simultaneous measurement of endogenous and exogenous oscillations that are modulated by task difficulty, and that the specific timing of these modulations likely reflects underlying information processing flow during perceptual decision-making.

  1. A human-machine interface evaluation method: A difficulty evaluation method in information searching (DEMIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Jun Su; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2009-01-01

    A human-machine interface (HMI) evaluation method, which is named 'difficulty evaluation method in information searching (DEMIS)', is proposed and demonstrated with an experimental study. The DEMIS is based on a human performance model and two measures of attentional-resource effectiveness in monitoring and detection tasks in nuclear power plants (NPPs). Operator competence and HMI design are modeled to be most significant factors to human performance. One of the two effectiveness measures is fixation-to-importance ratio (FIR) which represents attentional resource (eye fixations) spent on an information source compared to importance of the information source. The other measure is selective attention effectiveness (SAE) which incorporates FIRs for all information sources. The underlying principle of the measures is that the information source should be selectively attended to according to its informational importance. In this study, poor performance in information searching tasks is modeled to be coupled with difficulties caused by poor mental models of operators or/and poor HMI design. Human performance in information searching tasks is evaluated by analyzing the FIR and the SAE. Operator mental models are evaluated by a questionnaire-based method. Then difficulties caused by a poor HMI design are evaluated by a focused interview based on the FIR evaluation and then root causes leading to poor performance are identified in a systematic way.

  2. The radiology of abdominal calcification including demonstration of a readily useful and comprehensive classification scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, S.R.

    1995-01-01

    The analysis of abdominal calcifications and other radiopacities on plain radiographs is often a diagnostic challenge. Occasionally, historical information will be a value; at times, physical examination will contribute important clues. Laboratory date such as the presence of microscopic hematuria will sometimes be helpful. Yet, very frequently, the appearance of the opacity is unexpected. The contents are morphology; concretions; conduit wall, cyst wall, solid mass calcification; mobility; effect of respiration; effect of peristalsis, growth of masses

  3. Comprehensive Maritime Awareness (CMA) - Joint Capabilities Technology Demonstration (JCTD), FY 06-09

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dwyer, Chris

    2006-01-01

    ...) vision is to share maritime shipping information and tracks throughout the world to deter use of commercial maritime shipping for terrorism, WMD proliferation, drugs, piracy, and human trafficking...

  4. The radiology of abdominal calcification including demonstration of a readily useful and comprehensive classification scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, S R [University Hospital, Newark, New Jersey (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The analysis of abdominal calcifications and other radiopacities on plain radiographs is often a diagnostic challenge. Occasionally, historical information will be a value; at times, physical examination will contribute important clues. Laboratory date such as the presence of microscopic hematuria will sometimes be helpful. Yet, very frequently, the appearance of the opacity is unexpected. The contents are morphology; concretions; conduit wall, cyst wall, solid mass calcification; mobility; effect of respiration; effect of peristalsis, growth of masses.

  5. On the Role of Working Memory in the Comprehension of Conversation⁃al Implicatures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘方华

    2012-01-01

      According to theory, working memory capacity should be related to comprehension ability, in this thesis, it tries to jus⁃tify the relationship between working memory capacity and comprehension of conversational implicatures. Through theoretical hypothesizing and empirical demonstration, the relationship between working memory and the comprehension of conversational implicatures, especially role that the phonological loop plays in the comprehension of conversational implicatures caused by literal violation to the maxim of manner, is justified in the thesis.

  6. Computer skills and internet use in adults aged 50-74 years: influence of hearing difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henshaw, Helen; Clark, Daniel P A; Kang, Sujin; Ferguson, Melanie A

    2012-08-24

    difficulties (odds ratio [OR]=1.57, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.06-2.30, P=.02). Those with moderate+ hearing difficulties had lower odds of PC use compared with those with no hearing difficulties, both overall (OR=0.58, 95% CI 0.39-0.87, P=.008) and in the younger group (OR=0.49, 95% CI 0.26-0.86, P=.008). Similar results were demonstrated for Internet use by age group (older: OR=1.57, 95% CI 0.99-2.47, P=.05; younger: OR=0.32, 95% CI 0.16-0.62, P=.001). Hearing health care is of particular relevance to older adults because of the prevalence of age-related hearing loss. Our data show that older adults experiencing slight hearing difficulty have increased odds of greater PC skill and Internet use than those reporting no difficulty. These findings suggest that PC and Internet delivery of hearing screening, information, and intervention is feasible for people between 50-74 years who have hearing loss, but who would not typically present to an audiologist.

  7. Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration project: Cross-site evaluation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration (CORD) project links public health and primary care interventions in three projects described in detail in accompanying articles in this issue of Childhood Obesity. This article describes a comprehensive evaluation plan to determine the extent to which th...

  8. Comprehensive supernate treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egan, B.Z.; Collins, J.L.; Davidson, D.J.; Anderson, K.K.; Chase, C.W.

    1996-01-01

    This task involves the recovery of the liquid (supernatant or supernate) portions of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Melton Valley Storage Tank waste in a hot cell and treatment of the supernate to separate and remove the radionuclides. The supernate is utilized in testing various sorbent materials for removing cesium, strontium, and technetium from the highly alkaline, saline solutions. Batch tests are used to evaluate and select the most promising materials for supernate treatment to reduce the amount of waste for final disposal. Once the sorbents have been selected based on the results from the batch tests, small column tests are made to verify the batch data. Additional data from these tests can be used for process design. The sorption tests emphasize evaluation of newly developed sorbents and engineered forms of sorbents. Methods are also evaluated for recovering the radionuclides from the sorbents, including evaluating conditions for eluting ion exchange resins. A final report will summarize the results and compare the results with those of other investigators, along with recommendations for separating and concentrating radionuclides from DOE storage tank supernates at Oak Ridge and other sites. Documentation of the data and the significance of the findings will be compared, and recommendations will be provided to likely users of the data in EM-30. This program also provides input to the supernate treatment process demonstration projects at ORNL

  9. Smoke-Free Medical Facility Campus Legislation: Support, Resistance, Difficulties and Cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Gary Wheeler

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Although medical facilities restrict smoking inside, many people continue to smoke outside, creating problems with second-hand smoke, litter, fire risks, and negative role modeling. In 2005, Arkansas passed legislation prohibiting smoking on medical facility campuses. Hospital administrators (N=113 were surveyed pre- and post-implementation. Administrators reported more support and less difficulty than anticipated. Actual cost was 10-50% of anticipated cost. Few negative effects and numerous positive effects on employee performance and retention were reported. The results may be of interest to hospital administrators and demonstrate that state legislation can play a positive role in facilitating broad health-related policy change.

  10. Paraneoplastic syndrome in urothelial carcinoma of the kidney: difficulty in diagnosis and deterioration in prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. E. Mamaev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Paraneoplastic syndrome is not a common concomitance of urothelial tumors. The literature describes a few tens of clinical cases in which urothelial cancer has become a cause of marked nonspecific tumor-associated reactions, associated with the presence of the tumor. Bladder tumors are at stake in all cases. The given clinical observation describes paraneoplastic manifestations in high-grade urothelial carcinoma of the kidney. It demonstrates difficulties in differential diagnosis and gives a retrospective estimate of diagnostic and therapeutic tactics.

  11. Recommendations to address the difficulties encountered when determining linezolid resistance from whole genome sequencing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beukers, Alicia G; Hasman, Henrik; Hegstad, Kristin; van Hal, Sebastiaan J

    2018-05-29

    Mutations associated with linezolid resistance within the V domain of 23S rRNA are annotated using an Escherichia coli numbering system. The 23S rRNA gene varies in length, nucleotide sequence and copy number between bacterial species. Consequently, this numbering system is not intuitive and can lead to confusion when locating mutation sites using whole genome sequencing data. Using the mutation G2576T as an example, we demonstrate the difficulties associated with using the E. coli numbering system. © Crown copyright 2018.

  12. Framework for understanding the patterns of student difficulties in quantum mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Marshman

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Upper Division Physics Courses.] Compared with introductory physics, relatively little is known about the development of expertise in advanced physics courses, especially in the case of quantum mechanics. Here, we describe a framework for understanding the patterns of student reasoning difficulties and how students develop expertise in quantum mechanics. The framework posits that the challenges many students face in developing expertise in quantum mechanics are analogous to the challenges introductory students face in developing expertise in introductory classical mechanics. This framework incorporates both the effects of diversity in upper-level students’ prior preparation, goals, and motivation in general (i.e., the facts that even in upper-level courses, students may be inadequately prepared, have unclear goals, and have insufficient motivation to excel as well as the “paradigm shift” from classical mechanics to quantum mechanics. The framework is based on empirical investigations demonstrating that the patterns of reasoning, problem-solving, and self-monitoring difficulties in quantum mechanics bear a striking resemblance to those found in introductory classical mechanics. Examples from research in quantum mechanics and introductory classical mechanics are discussed to illustrate how the patterns of difficulties are analogous as students learn to unpack the respective principles and grasp the formalism in each knowledge domain during the development of expertise. Embracing such a framework and contemplating the parallels between the difficulties in these two knowledge domains can enable researchers to leverage the extensive literature for introductory physics education research to guide the design of teaching and learning tools for helping students develop expertise in quantum mechanics.

  13. Framework for understanding the patterns of student difficulties in quantum mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshman, Emily; Singh, Chandralekha

    2015-12-01

    [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Upper Division Physics Courses.] Compared with introductory physics, relatively little is known about the development of expertise in advanced physics courses, especially in the case of quantum mechanics. Here, we describe a framework for understanding the patterns of student reasoning difficulties and how students develop expertise in quantum mechanics. The framework posits that the challenges many students face in developing expertise in quantum mechanics are analogous to the challenges introductory students face in developing expertise in introductory classical mechanics. This framework incorporates both the effects of diversity in upper-level students' prior preparation, goals, and motivation in general (i.e., the facts that even in upper-level courses, students may be inadequately prepared, have unclear goals, and have insufficient motivation to excel) as well as the "paradigm shift" from classical mechanics to quantum mechanics. The framework is based on empirical investigations demonstrating that the patterns of reasoning, problem-solving, and self-monitoring difficulties in quantum mechanics bear a striking resemblance to those found in introductory classical mechanics. Examples from research in quantum mechanics and introductory classical mechanics are discussed to illustrate how the patterns of difficulties are analogous as students learn to unpack the respective principles and grasp the formalism in each knowledge domain during the development of expertise. Embracing such a framework and contemplating the parallels between the difficulties in these two knowledge domains can enable researchers to leverage the extensive literature for introductory physics education research to guide the design of teaching and learning tools for helping students develop expertise in quantum mechanics.

  14. Combining expedited cleanup with innovative technology demonstrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagood, M.C.; Rohay, V.J.; Valcich, P.J.; Brouns, T.M.; Cameron, R.J.

    1993-04-01

    A Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) expedited response action (ERA) has been initiated at the Hanford Site, Washington, for the removal of carbon tetrachloride from contaminated soils to mitigate further contamination of the groundwater. Soil vapor extraction with aboveground collection and treatment was chosen as the preferred remedial technology for the first phase of the ERA. At the same time, innovative technology demonstrations are being conducted in coordination with the ERA to determine the viability of emerging technologies that can be used to characterize, remediate, and monitor carbon tetrachloride and cocontaminants. The overall goal is to improve the performance and decrease the costs of carbon tetrachloride remediation while maintaining a safe working environment

  15. Working memory resources in young children with mathematical difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyttälä, Minna; Aunio, Pirjo; Hautamäki, Jarkko

    2010-02-01

    Working memory (WM) (Baddeley, 1986, 1997) is argued to be one of the most important cognitive resources underlying mathematical competence (Geary, 2004). Research has established close links between WM deficits and mathematical difficulties. This study investigated the possible deficits in WM, language and fluid intelligence that seem to characterize 4- to 6-year-old children with poor early mathematical skills before formal mathematics education. Children with early mathematical difficulties showed poor performance in both verbal and visuospatial WM tasks as well as on language tests and a fluid intelligence test indicating a thoroughly lower cognitive base. Poor WM performance was not moderated by fluid intelligence, but the extent of WM deficits was related to language skills. The educational implications are discussed.

  16. Research on Difficulty in Indonesia Students Learning Chinese Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Anggreani

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Chinese has become the world’s second language. Each language has its own law, as is the Chinese. Indonesian students have difficulty in learning Chinese which are are not surprising. Every language has various characteristics, so do Chinese and Bahasa Indonesia. Article analyzes difficulties to learn Chinese, especially for Indonesian students, those are tone, grammar, sounds of “er hua” such as Alice retroflex. The respondents are 100 Indonesian students who are randomly selected for testing samples analyzed. Since there is no tone in Bahasa Indonesia, it makes a lot of Indonesian students in the learning process often appear in Chinese foreign accent phenomenon. This article expects to explore the problem by studying the formation of the causes and solutions. Indonesian students learning Chinese was designed to provide some teaching and learning strategies.

  17. The Affective Dimensions of Mathematical Difficulties in Schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morena Lebens

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical difficulties (MDs are frequently characterised by cognitive deficits such as ineffective problem solving strategies and a lack of computational fluency. The established literature indicates that mathematical achievement is not only a function of cognitive factors but it also points to the importance of affective factors for the development of mathematical achievement. In the light of this evidence, the exploration of children's affective responses towards mathematics becomes a central issue. Whereas previous studies tended to research affective motivational constructs such as self-efficacy in isolation from other related constructs, the literature suffers from a shortage of research on the relationship between different affective motivational variables and their impact on mathematical achievement in different age and achievement bands. The present paper aims to address this aim by employing a newly developed instrument to measure affective motivational variables. Overall, the present findings support the assumption that children of average ability are less influenced by affective factors than children with mathematical difficulties.

  18. [Efficacy of decoding training for children with difficulty reading hiragana].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, Hitoshi; Tanaka, Daisuke; Seki, Ayumi; Wakamiya, Eiji; Hirasawa, Noriko; Iketani, Naotake; Kato, Ken; Koeda, Tatsuya

    2013-05-01

    The present study aimed to clarify the efficacy of decoding training focusing on the correspondence between written symbols and their readings for children with difficulty reading hiragana (Japanese syllabary). Thirty-five children with difficulty reading hiragana were selected from among 367 first-grade elementary school students using a reading aloud test and were then divided into intervention (n=15) and control (n=20) groups. The intervention comprised 5 minutes of decoding training each day for a period of 3 weeks using an original program on a personal computer. Reading time and number of reading errors in the reading aloud test were compared between the groups. The intervention group showed a significant shortening of reading time (F(1,33)=5.40, phiragana.

  19. Comprehensive Error Rate Testing (CERT)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) implemented the Comprehensive Error Rate Testing (CERT) program to measure improper payments in the Medicare...

  20. Luck is Hard to Beat: The Difficulty of Sports Prediction

    OpenAIRE

    Aoki, Raquel YS; Assuncao, Renato M; de Melo, Pedro OS Vaz

    2017-01-01

    Predicting the outcome of sports events is a hard task. We quantify this difficulty with a coefficient that measures the distance between the observed final results of sports leagues and idealized perfectly balanced competitions in terms of skill. This indicates the relative presence of luck and skill. We collected and analyzed all games from 198 sports leagues comprising 1503 seasons from 84 countries of 4 different sports: basketball, soccer, volleyball and handball. We measured the competi...

  1. Player Modeling Using HOSVD towards Dynamic Difficulty Adjustment in Videogames

    OpenAIRE

    Anagnostou , Kostas; Maragoudakis , Manolis

    2012-01-01

    Part 3: Second International Workshop on Computational Intelligence in Software Engineering (CISE 2012); International audience; In this work, we propose and evaluate a Higher Order Singular Value Decomposition (HOSVD) of a tensor as a means to classify player behavior and adjust game difficulty dynamically. Applying this method to player data collected during a plethora of game sessions resulted in a reduction of the dimensionality of the classification problem and a robust classification of...

  2. An Educational Application of Online Games for Learning Difficulties

    OpenAIRE

    M. Margoudi; Z. Smyrnaiou

    2015-01-01

    The current paper presents the results of a conducted case study. During the past few years the number of children diagnosed with Learning Difficulties has drastically augmented and especially the cases of ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder). One of the core characteristics of ADHD is a deficit in working memory functions. The review of the literature indicates a plethora of educational software that aim at training and enhancing the working memory. Neverthele...

  3. Stress and suicidal ideation among adolescents having academic difficulty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priti Arun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Academically typically achieving adolescents were compared with students having academic difficulty on stress and suicidal ideas. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 75 academically typically achieving adolescents were compared with 105 students with academic difficulty and 52 students with specific learning disability (SLD. Academic functioning was assessed using teacher's screening instrument, intelligence quotient, and National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences index for SLD. Stress and suicidal ideas were assessed using general health questionnaire, suicide risk-11, and Mooney Problem Checklist (MPC. Appropriate statistical methods were applied. Results: Three groups were comparable on age, gender, mother's working status, being only child, nuclear family, self-reported academic decline, and type of school. About half of adolescents reported psychological problems on General Health Questionnaire (mean score >3 in all the groups. Academically typically achieving adolescents showed higher stressors in peer relationships, planning for future and suicidal ideation compared to adolescents with academic difficulty. Adolescents face stress regarding worry about examinations, family not understanding what child has to do in school, unfair tests, too much work in some subjects, afraid of failure in school work, not spending enough time in studies, parental expectations, wanting to be more popular, worried about a family member, planning for the future, and fear of the future. Significant positive correlation was seen between General Health Questionnaire scores and all four subscales of MPC. Suicidal ideas showed a negative correlation with MPC. Interpretations and Conclusions: Adolescents experience considerable stress in multiple areas irrespective of their academic ability and performance. Hence, assessment and management of stress among adolescents must extend beyond academic difficulties.

  4. The role of vocabulary, working memory and inference making ability in reading comprehension in Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Hannah; Heath, James

    2011-01-01

    Thirteen children and young adults with Down syndrome (DS) completed tests of language and reading and their performance was compared to that of three control groups. Reading comprehension was confirmed to be a specific deficit in DS and found to be strongly correlated with underlying language skills. Although reading comprehension was more strongly related to language ability in the DS group, this was shown to be a function of more advanced word recognition rather than a characteristic of DS per se. Individuals with DS were found to have greater difficulty with inferential comprehension questions than expected given their overall comprehension ability and the reading profile associated with DS was found to be similar to that of children known as poor comprehenders. It is recommended that oral language training programs, similar to those that have been shown to improve reading comprehension in poor comprehenders, be trialed with children who have DS. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The relationship between component skills, reading experience, and reading comprehension in Danish 3rd graders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønberg, Louise Flensted-Jensen; Petersen, Dorthe Klint

    data sets were obtained from 179 Danish Grade 3 pupils. Participants were given a standard reading comprehension test requiring multiple-choice answers to six different texts of various length and type. Orthographic and phonological coding, as well as non-verbal problem solving were assessed by means......Purpose The main aim of this study was to investigate the contribution of aspects of vocabulary, word reading abilities, and reading experience to reading comprehension, and to analyse sub-samples of students with comprehension difficulties. Method The study employed a cross-sectional design. Full......: path, street, road, river). Results Data analyses showed that in the entire sample, skills of semantic lexical structuring and reading experience made strong contributions to reading comprehension. Analyses of the pupils below the 25%-percentile in reading comprehension revealed that for the vast...

  6. The mechanism of suppression: a component of general comprehension skill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gernsbacher, M A; Faust, M E

    1991-03-01

    We investigated whether the cognitive mechanism of suppression underlies differences in adult comprehension skill. Less skilled comprehenders reject less efficiently the inappropriate meanings of ambiguous words (e.g., the playing card vs. garden tool meaning of spade), the incorrect forms of homophones (e.g., patients vs. patience), the highly typical but absent members of scenes (e.g., a tractor in a farm scene), and words superimposed on pictures or pictures surrounding words. However, less skilled comprehenders are not less cognizant of what is contextually appropriate; in fact, they benefit from a biasing context just as much (and perhaps more) as more skilled comprehenders do. Thus, less skilled comprehenders do not have difficulty enhancing contextually appropriate information. Instead, we suggest that less skilled comprehenders suffer from a less efficient suppression mechanism, which we conclude is an important component of general comprehension skill.

  7. Maternal abuse history and self-regulation difficulties in preadolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delker, Brianna C; Noll, Laura K; Kim, Hyoun K; Fisher, Philip A

    2014-12-01

    Although poor parenting is known to be closely linked to self-regulation difficulties in early childhood, comparatively little is understood about the role of other risk factors in the early caregiving environment (such as a parent's own experiences of childhood abuse) in developmental pathways of self-regulation into adolescence. Using a longitudinal design, this study aimed to examine how a mother's history of abuse in childhood relates to her offspring's self-regulation difficulties in preadolescence. Maternal controlling parenting and exposure to intimate partner aggression in the child's first 24-36 months were examined as important early social and environmental influences that may explain the proposed connection between maternal abuse history and preadolescent self-regulation. An ethnically diverse sample of mothers (N=488) who were identified as at-risk for child maltreatment was recruited at the time of their children's birth. Mothers and their children were assessed annually from the child's birth through 36 months, and at age 9-11 years. Structural equation modeling and bootstrap tests of indirect effects were conducted to address the study aims. Findings indicated that maternal abuse history indirectly predicted their children's self-regulation difficulties in preadolescence mainly through maternal controlling parenting in early childhood, but not through maternal exposure to aggression by an intimate partner. Maternal history of childhood abuse and maternal controlling parenting in her child's early life may have long-term developmental implications for child self-regulation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Upper-division student difficulties with the Dirac delta function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethany R. Wilcox

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Dirac delta function is a standard mathematical tool that appears repeatedly in the undergraduate physics curriculum in multiple topical areas including electrostatics, and quantum mechanics. While Dirac delta functions are often introduced in order to simplify a problem mathematically, students still struggle to manipulate and interpret them. To characterize student difficulties with the delta function at the upper-division level, we examined students’ responses to traditional exam questions and a standardized conceptual assessment, and conducted think-aloud interviews. Our analysis was guided by an analytical framework that focuses on how students activate, construct, execute, and reflect on the Dirac delta function in the context of problem solving in physics. Here, we focus on student difficulties using the delta function to express charge distributions in the context of junior-level electrostatics. Common challenges included invoking the delta function spontaneously, translating a description of a charge distribution into a mathematical expression using delta functions, integrating 3D or non-Cartesian delta function expressions, and recognizing that the delta function can have units. We also briefly discuss implications of these difficulties for instruction.

  9. Difficulties in Balint groups: a qualitative study of leaders' experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjeldmand, Dorte; Holmström, Inger

    2010-11-01

    Balint groups (BGs) are a means of enhancing competence in the physician-patient relationship and are also regarded as beneficial for GPs' mental health. However, voluntary BGs are still few, some members terminate their participation, and problems are reported in obligatory groups in residency programmes. This raises questions about possible negative aspects of BGs. To examine difficulties in BGs as experienced by BG leaders. Qualitative study using interviews. Eight BG leaders from five countries were interviewed. The interviews focused on the informants' experiences of difficulties in their groups and were analysed with a systematic text-condensation method. Three categories of difficulties emerged from the analysis: 1) the individual physician having needs, vulnerabilities, and defences; 2) the group (including the leader) having problems of hidden agendas, rivalries, and frames; and 3) the surrounding environment defining the conditions of the group. BGs were found to fit into modern theories of small groups as complex systems. They are submitted to group dynamics that are sometimes malicious, and are exposed to often tough environmental conditions. Professionally conducted BGs seem to be a gentle, efficient method to train physicians, but with limitations. Participation of a member demands psychological stability and an open mind. BGs need support from the leadership of healthcare organisations in order to exist.

  10. Access to care for children with emotional/behavioral difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning-Smith, Carrie; Alang, Sirry

    2016-06-01

    Emotional/behavioral difficulties (EBDs) are increasingly diagnosed in children, constituting some of the most common chronic childhood conditions. Left untreated, EBDs pose long-term individual and population-level consequences. There is a growing evidence of disparities in EBD prevalence by various demographic characteristics. This article builds on this research by examining disparities in access to medical care for children with EBD. From 2008 to 2011, using data from the US National Health Interview Survey (N = 31,631) on sample children aged 4-17, we investigate (1) whether having EBD affects access to care (modeled as delayed care due to cost and difficulty making an appointment) and (2) the role demographic characteristics, health insurance coverage, and frequency of service use play in access to care for children with EBD. Results indicate that children with EBD experience issues in accessing care at more than twice the rate of children without EBD, even though they are less likely to be uninsured than their counterparts without EBD. In multivariable models, children with EBD are still more likely to experience delayed care due to cost and difficulty making a timely appointment, even after adjusting for frequency of health service use, insurance coverage, and demographic characteristics. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. The curation of genetic variants: difficulties and possible solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Kapil Raj; Maden, Narendra; Poudel, Barsha; Pradhananga, Sailendra; Sharma, Amit Kumar

    2012-12-01

    The curation of genetic variants from biomedical articles is required for various clinical and research purposes. Nowadays, establishment of variant databases that include overall information about variants is becoming quite popular. These databases have immense utility, serving as a user-friendly information storehouse of variants for information seekers. While manual curation is the gold standard method for curation of variants, it can turn out to be time-consuming on a large scale thus necessitating the need for automation. Curation of variants described in biomedical literature may not be straightforward mainly due to various nomenclature and expression issues. Though current trends in paper writing on variants is inclined to the standard nomenclature such that variants can easily be retrieved, we have a massive store of variants in the literature that are present as non-standard names and the online search engines that are predominantly used may not be capable of finding them. For effective curation of variants, knowledge about the overall process of curation, nature and types of difficulties in curation, and ways to tackle the difficulties during the task are crucial. Only by effective curation, can variants be correctly interpreted. This paper presents the process and difficulties of curation of genetic variants with possible solutions and suggestions from our work experience in the field including literature support. The paper also highlights aspects of interpretation of genetic variants and the importance of writing papers on variants following standard and retrievable methods. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. The "RAP" on Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagaman, Jessica L.; Luschen, Kati; Reid, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Reading problems are one of the most frequent reasons students are referred for special education services and the disparity between students with reading difficulties and those who read successfully appears to be increasing. As a result, there is now an emphasis on early intervention programs such as RTI. In many cases, early intervention in…

  13. The Comprehensive Inner Magnetosphere-Ionosphere Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fok, M.-C.; Buzulukova, N. Y.; Chen, S.-H.; Glocer, A.; Nagai, T.; Valek, P.; Perez, J. D.

    2014-01-01

    Simulation studies of the Earth's radiation belts and ring current are very useful in understanding the acceleration, transport, and loss of energetic particles. Recently, the Comprehensive Ring Current Model (CRCM) and the Radiation Belt Environment (RBE) model were merged to form a Comprehensive Inner Magnetosphere-Ionosphere (CIMI) model. CIMI solves for many essential quantities in the inner magnetosphere, including ion and electron distributions in the ring current and radiation belts, plasmaspheric density, Region 2 currents, convection potential, and precipitation in the ionosphere. It incorporates whistler mode chorus and hiss wave diffusion of energetic electrons in energy, pitch angle, and cross terms. CIMI thus represents a comprehensive model that considers the effects of the ring current and plasmasphere on the radiation belts. We have performed a CIMI simulation for the storm on 5-9 April 2010 and then compared our results with data from the Two Wide-angle Imaging Neutral-atom Spectrometers and Akebono satellites. We identify the dominant energization and loss processes for the ring current and radiation belts. We find that the interactions with the whistler mode chorus waves are the main cause of the flux increase of MeV electrons during the recovery phase of this particular storm. When a self-consistent electric field from the CRCM is used, the enhancement of MeV electrons is higher than when an empirical convection model is applied. We also demonstrate how CIMI can be a powerful tool for analyzing and interpreting data from the new Van Allen Probes mission.

  14. Lexical competition in nonnative speech comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    FitzPatrick, Ian; Indefrey, Peter

    2010-06-01

    Electrophysiological studies consistently find N400 effects of semantic incongruity in nonnative (L2) language comprehension. These N400 effects are often delayed compared with native (L1) comprehension, suggesting that semantic integration in one's second language occurs later than in one's first language. In this study, we investigated whether such a delay could be attributed to (1) intralingual lexical competition and/or (2) interlingual lexical competition. We recorded EEG from Dutch-English bilinguals who listened to English (L2) sentences in which the sentence-final word was (a) semantically fitting and (b) semantically incongruent or semantically incongruent but initially congruent due to sharing initial phonemes with (c) the most probable sentence completion within the L2 or (d) the L1 translation equivalent of the most probable sentence completion. We found an N400 effect in each of the semantically incongruent conditions. This N400 effect was significantly delayed to L2 words but not to L1 translation equivalents that were initially congruent with the sentence context. Taken together, these findings firstly demonstrate that semantic integration in nonnative listening can start based on word initial phonemes (i.e., before a single lexical candidate could have been selected based on the input) and secondly suggest that spuriously elicited L1 lexical candidates are not available for semantic integration in L2 speech comprehension.

  15. Identifying and addressing specific student difficulties in advanced thermal physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Trevor I.

    As part of an ongoing multi-university research study on student understanding of concepts in thermal physics at the upper division, I identified several student difficulties with topics related to heat engines (especially the Carnot cycle), as well as difficulties related to the Boltzmann factor. In an effort to address these difficulties, I developed two guided-inquiry worksheet activities (a.k.a. tutorials) for use in advanced undergraduate thermal physics courses. Both tutorials seek to improve student understanding of the utility and physical background of a particular mathematical expression. One tutorial focuses on a derivation of Carnot's theorem regarding the limit on thermodynamic efficiency, starting from the Second Law of Thermodynamics. The other tutorial helps students gain an appreciation for the origin of the Boltzmann factor and when it is applicable; focusing on the physical justification of its mathematical derivation, with emphasis on the connections between probability, multiplicity, entropy, and energy. Student understanding of the use and physical implications of Carnot's theorem and the Boltzmann factor was assessed using written surveys both before and after tutorial instruction within the advanced thermal physics courses at the University of Maine and at other institutions. Classroom tutorial sessions at the University of Maine were videotaped to allow in-depth scrutiny of student successes and failures following tutorial prompts. I also interviewed students on various topics related to the Boltzmann factor to gain a more complete picture of their understanding and inform tutorial revisions. Results from several implementations of my tutorials at the University of Maine indicate that students did not have a robust understanding of these physical principles after lectures alone, and that they gain a better understanding of relevant topics after tutorial instruction; Fisher's exact tests yield statistically significant improvement at the

  16. Comprehensive evaluation of future site alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shain, D.I.; Jones, M.E.; Ryan, K.

    1994-01-01

    Due to rapid changes occurring within the Nuclear Weapons complex, the need for integrated planning designed to combine multiple program needs into one strategic plan has become a necessity. This is more apparent as diverse DOE programs compete for dwindling resources. These programs range from traditional production operations, environmental and waste management, to facility transition, economic development, decontamination and decommissioning, and environmental restoration activities. Each program can influence another, thus increasing the difficulty of distinguishing program elements. The method in developing comprehensive plans becomes even more complicated when environmental compliance issues, regulatory agreements and stakeholder values are considered. AT the Department of Energy's (DOE) Rocky Flats Plant (RFP), all of these program conditions exist. This paper addresses a set of tools which are being developed at RFP that provides key planning elements and alternatives assessment for the DOE's Office of Planning and Integration (OPI) and National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Compliance Officer at RFP. This set of tools is referred to as the Systems Engineering Analysis (SEA)

  17. Effects of Fact Retrieval Tutoring on Third-Grade Students with Math Difficulties with and without Reading Difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Sarah R; Fuchs, Lynn S; Fuchs, Douglas; Cirino, Paul T; Fletcher, Jack M

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of fact retrieval tutoring as a function of math difficulty (MD) subtype, that is, whether students have MD alone (MD-only) or have concurrent difficulty with math and reading (MDRD). Third graders (n = 139) at two sites were randomly assigned, blocking by site and MD subtype, to four tutoring conditions: fact retrieval practice, conceptual fact retrieval instruction with practice, procedural computation/estimation instruction, and control (no tutoring). Tutoring occurred for 45 sessions over 15weeks for 15-25 minutes per session. Results provided evidence of an interaction between tutoring condition and MD subtype status for assessment of fact retrieval. For MD-only students, students in both fact retrieval conditions achieved comparably and outperformed MD-only students in the control group as well as those in the procedural computation/estimation instruction group. By contrast, for MDRD students, there were no significant differences among intervention conditions.

  18. Optics Demonstrations Using Cylindrical Lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Dragia; Nikolov, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we consider the main properties of cylindrical lenses and propose several demonstrational experiments that can be performed with them. Specifically we use simple glasses full of water to demonstrate some basic geometrical optics principles and phenomena. We also present some less standard experiments that can be performed with such…

  19. Production and Comprehension of Time Reference in Korean Nonfluent Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jiyeon; Kwon, Miseon; Na, Hae Ri; Bastiaanse, Roelien; Thompson, Cynthia K.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Individuals with nonfluent agrammatic aphasia show impaired production and comprehension of time reference via verbal morphology. However, cross-linguistic findings to date suggest inconsistent evidence as to whether tense processing in general is impaired or time reference to the past is selectively difficult in this population. This study examined production and comprehension of time reference via verb morphology in Korean-speaking individuals with nonfluent aphasia. Methods A group of 9 healthy controls and 8 individuals with nonfluent aphasia (5 for the production task) participated in the study. Sentence priming production and auditory sentence to picture matching tasks were used, parallel with the previous cross-linguistic experiments in English, Chinese, Turkish, and others. Results The participants with nonfluent aphasia showed different patterns of impairment in production and comprehension. In production, they were impaired in all time references with errors being dominated by substitution of incorrect time references and other morpho-phonologically well-formed errors, indicating a largely intact morphological affixation process. In comprehension, they showed selective impairment of the past, consistent with the cross-linguistic evidence from English, Chinese, Turkish, and others. Conclusion The findings suggest that interpretation of past time reference poses particular difficulty in nonfluent aphasia irrespective of typological characteristics of languages; however, in production, language-specific morpho-semantic functions of verbal morphology may play a significant role in selective breakdowns of time reference. PMID:26290861

  20. A Randomized Control Trial of Working Memory Training with and without Strategy Instruction: Effects on Young Children's Working Memory and Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Peng; Fuchs, Douglas

    2017-01-01

    Researchers are increasingly interested in working memory (WM) training. However, it is unclear whether it strengthens comprehension in young children who are at risk for learning difficulties. We conducted a modest study of whether the training of verbal WM would improve verbal WM and passage listening comprehension and whether training effects…

  1. The Role of Reading Fluency in Children's Text Comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Cañizo, Marta; Suárez-Coalla, Paz; Cuetos, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Understanding a written text requires some higher cognitive abilities that not all children have. Some children have these abilities, since they understand oral texts; however, they have difficulties with written texts, probably due to problems in reading fluency. The aim of this study was to determine which aspects of reading fluency are related to reading comprehension. Four expositive texts, two written and two read by the evaluator, were presented to a sample of 103 primary school children (third and sixth grade). Each text was followed by four comprehension questions. From this sample we selected two groups of participants in each grade, 10 with good results in comprehension of oral and written texts, and 10 with good results in oral and poor in written comprehension. These 40 subjects were asked to read aloud a new text while they were recorded. Using Praat software some prosodic parameters were measured, such as pausing and reading rate (number and duration of the pauses and utterances), pitch and intensity changes and duration in declarative, exclamatory, and interrogative sentences and also errors and duration in words by frequency and stress. We compared the results of both groups with ANOVAs. The results showed that children with less reading comprehension made more inappropriate pauses and also intersentential pauses before comma than the other group and made more mistakes in content words; significant differences were also found in the final declination of pitch in declarative sentences and in the F0 range in interrogative ones. These results confirm that reading comprehension problems in children are related to a lack in the development of a good reading fluency.

  2. Social relationship difficulties in autism and reactive attachment disorder: Improving diagnostic validity through structured assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Claire; O'Hare, Anne; Mactaggart, Fiona; Green, Jonathan; Young, David; Gillberg, Christopher; Minnis, Helen

    2015-05-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) versus Reactive Attachment Disorder (RAD) is a common diagnostic challenge for clinicians due to overlapping difficulties with social relationships. RAD is associated with neglect or maltreatment whereas ASD is not: accurate differential diagnosis is therefore critical. Very little research has investigated the relationship between the two, and it is unknown if standardised measures are able to discriminate between ASD and RAD. The current study aimed to address these issues. Fifty eight children with ASD, and no history of maltreatment, were group matched on age with 67 children with RAD. Group profiles on multi-informant measures of RAD were investigated and group differences explored. Discriminant function analysis determined assessment features that best discriminated between the two groups. Although, according to parent report, children with ASD presented with significantly fewer indiscriminate friendliness behaviours compared to the RAD group (p<0.001), 36 children with ASD appeared to meet core RAD criteria. However, structured observation clearly demonstrated that features were indicative of ASD and not RAD for all but 1 of these 36 children. Children with RAD and children with ASD may demonstrate similar social relationship difficulties but there appears to be a difference in the social quality of the interactions between the groups. In most cases it was possible to differentiate between children with ASD and children with RAD via structured observation. Nevertheless, for a small proportion of children with ASD, particularly those whose difficulties may be more subtle, our current standardised measures, including structured observation, may not be effective in differentiating RAD from ASD. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Reading and listening comprehension and their relation to inattention and hyperactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Kate; Bignell, Simon

    2014-03-01

    Children with diagnoses of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) frequently have reading problems. To date, it is not clear whether poor reading is associated with both inattention and hyperactivity and also whether poor reading comprehension is the result of poor word reading skills or more general language comprehension weaknesses. We report two studies to examine how reading and listening comprehension skills are related to inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity. Separate groups of 7- to 11-year-olds participated in each study. In both studies, we used teacher ratings of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity to identify three groups at risk of ADHD: poor attention, high hyperactivity, poor attention and high hyperactivity, and also same-age controls. In Study 1, we explored how inattention and hyperactivity predicted reading after controlling for non-verbal IQ and vocabulary. In Study 2, we compared listening and reading comprehension in these groups. Poor attention was related to poor reading comprehension, although the relation was partially mediated by word reading skill (Study 1). Groups with high hyperactivity had weak listening comprehension relative to reading comprehension (Study 2). These results indicate that the reading comprehension problems of children with attention difficulties are related to poor word reading and that listening comprehension is particularly vulnerable in children at risk of ADHD. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  4. Reading comprehension skills of young adults with childhood diagnoses of dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransby, Marilyn J; Swanson, H Lee

    2003-01-01

    This study explores the contribution of cognitive processes to comprehension skills in adults who suffered from childhood developmental dyslexia (CD). The performance of adults with CD (ages 17 to 23), chronological age-matched (CA) adults, and reading level-matched (RL) children was compared on measures of phonological processing, naming speed, working memory (WM), general knowledge, vocabulary, and comprehension. The results showed that adults with CD scored lower on measures of phonological processing, naming speed, WM, general knowledge, and vocabulary when compared to CA readers but were comparable to RL children on the majority of process measures. Phonological processing, naming speed, vocabulary, general knowledge, and listening comprehension contributed independent variance to reading comprehension accuracy, whereas WM, intelligence, phonological processing, and listening comprehension contributed independent variance to comprehension fluency. Adults with CD scored lower than CA adults and higher than RL children on measures of lexical processing, WM, and listening comprehension when word recognition and intelligence were partialed from the analysis. In summary, constraints in phonological processing and naming speed mediate only some of the influence of high-order processes on reading comprehension. Furthermore, adults with CD experience difficulties in WM, listening comprehension, and vocabulary independently of their word recognition problems and intellectual ability.

  5. Offsite demonstrations for MWLID technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, C.; Gruebel, R.

    1995-01-01

    The goal of the Offsite Demonstration Project for Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration (MWLID)-developed environmental site characterization and remediation technologies is to facilitate the transfer, use, and commercialization of these technologies to the public and private sector. The meet this goal, the project identified environmental restoration needs of mixed waste and/or hazardous waste landfill owners (Native American, municipal, DOE, and DoD); documenting potential demonstration sites and the contaminants present at each site; assessing the environmental regulations that would effect demonstration activities; and evaluating site suitability for demonstrating MWLID technologies at the tribal and municipal sites identified. Eighteen landfill sites within a 40.2-km radius of Sandia National Laboratories are listed on the CERCLIS Site/Event Listing for the state of New Mexico. Seventeen are not located within DOE or DoD facilities and are potential offsite MWLID technology demonstration sites. Two of the seventeen CERCLIS sites, one on Native American land and one on municipal land, were evaluated and identified as potential candidates for off-site demonstrations of MWLID-developed technologies. Contaminants potentially present on site include chromium waste, household/commercial hazardous waste, volatile organic compounds, and petroleum products. MWLID characterization technologies applicable to these sites include Magnetometer Towed Array, Cross-borehole Electromagnetic Imaging, SitePlanner trademark/PLUME, Hybrid Directional Drilling, Seamist trademark/Vadose Zone Monitoring, Stripping Analyses, and x-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy for Heavy Metals

  6. Notional Airspace Operations Demonstration Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trongale, Nicholas A.

    2006-01-01

    The airspace operations demonstration (AOD) is intended to show that the Access 5 Step 1 functional requirements can be met. The demonstration will occur in two phases. The initial on-range phase will be carried out in restricted airspace to demonstrate the cooperative collision avoidance (CCA) functional requirements and to provide risk-reduction for the AOD by allowing the test team to rehearse some elements of the demonstration mission. The CCA system to be used in these flights is based on Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) which is a commercially-available system by which airplanes constantly broadcast their current position and altitude to other aircraft and ground resources over a dedicated radio datalink. The final phase will occur in the national airspace (NAS) and will be the formal demonstration of the remainder of the proposed functional requirements. The general objectives of the AOD are as follows: (1) Demonstrate that the UAS can aviate in the NAS (2) Demonstrate that the UAS can navigate in the NAS (3) Demonstrate that the UAS can communicate with the NAS (4) Demonstrate that the UAS can perform selected collision avoidance functions in the NAS (5) Demonstrate that the UAS can evaluate and avoid weather conflicts in the NAS (6) Demonstrate that the UAS can provide adequate command and control in the NAS In addition to the stated objectives, there are a number of goals for the flight demonstration. The demo can be accomplished successfully without achieving these goals, but these goals are to be used as a guideline for preparing for the mission. The goals are: (1) Mission duration of at least 24 hours (2) Loiter over heavy traffic to evaluate the data block issue identified during the Access 5 Airspace Operations Simulations (3) Document the contingency management process and lessons learned (4) Document the coordination process for Ground Control Stations (GCS) handoff (5) Document lessons learned regarding the process of flying in

  7. Memory mechanisms supporting syntactic comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, David; Waters, Gloria

    2013-04-01

    Efforts to characterize the memory system that supports sentence comprehension have historically drawn extensively on short-term memory as a source of mechanisms that might apply to sentences. The focus of these efforts has changed significantly in the past decade. As a result of changes in models of short-term working memory (ST-WM) and developments in models of sentence comprehension, the effort to relate entire components of an ST-WM system, such as those in the model developed by Baddeley (Nature Reviews Neuroscience 4: 829-839, 2003) to sentence comprehension has largely been replaced by an effort to relate more specific mechanisms found in modern models of ST-WM to memory processes that support one aspect of sentence comprehension--the assignment of syntactic structure (parsing) and its use in determining sentence meaning (interpretation) during sentence comprehension. In this article, we present the historical background to recent studies of the memory mechanisms that support parsing and interpretation and review recent research into this relation. We argue that the results of this research do not converge on a set of mechanisms derived from ST-WM that apply to parsing and interpretation. We argue that the memory mechanisms supporting parsing and interpretation have features that characterize another memory system that has been postulated to account for skilled performance-long-term working memory. We propose a model of the relation of different aspects of parsing and interpretation to ST-WM and long-term working memory.

  8. Comprehension of atypical literary text and scholastic achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božin Aurel A.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available With the aim of gaining insight into literary text comprehension and the linkage between that comprehension and scholastic achievement during the first years of schooling, a research was conducted on the sample of 152 third and fourth grade pupils from one urban and one rural school. After having read silently a selected atypical excerpt from one literary text, interviewed pupils filled out the questionnaire constructed for the purposes of this research starting from the 11 categories of text comprehension singled out based on the theory of comprehension and interpretation of literary text and the current curriculum. In the first part of the research we applied the Children's orientation scale by Malka Margalit, and school marks were used as a measurement of scholastic achievement. Research results point out that, among other things, inferring on the basis of what has been read poses the greatest difficulty for third and fourth graders, that is, that almost three quarters of them are not capable of determining the meaning of some representative sentences from that text. In the positive sense, it was established that almost three quarters of them perceive beautiful poetic expressions and about 80% of them can at least to a certain extent recognize character descriptions, emotional situations and moods, that is, discover significant facts. Answers to the questions regarding the majority of categories of text comprehension are significantly correlated with scholastic achievement. As expected, the highest correlations between the measures on text comprehension categories are with the marks in native (Serbian language. Partial correlations between the measures on certain categories of text comprehension and measurements of scholastic achievement (excluding the influence of feeling of coherence are not significantly different from bivariate. Based on the obtained data, authors conclude that the utilized system of categories can be a useful tool for

  9. Rural mental health workforce difficulties: a management perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, T; Sutton, K; Maybery, D

    2010-01-01

    The recruitment, retention and training of mental health workers is of major concern in rural Australia, and the Gippsland region of Victoria is no exception. Previous studies have identified a number of common factors in these workforce difficulties, including rurality, difficulties of access to professional development and training, and professional and personal isolation. However, those previous studies have often focused on medicine and been based on the perspectives of practitioners, and have almost ignored the perspectives of managers of rural mental health services. The study reported in this article sought to contribute to the development of a more sustainable and effective regional mental health workforce by complementing earlier insights with those of leading administrators, managers and senior clinicians in the field. The study took a qualitative approach. It conducted semi-structured in-person interviews with 24 managers of health/mental-health services and senior administrators and clinicians working in organisations of varying sizes in the public and private sectors. Thematic content analysis of the transcribed interviews identified core difficulties these managers experienced in the recruitment, retention and training of employees. The study found that some of the issues commonly resulting in difficulties in recruiting, retaining and developing a trained workforce in rural areas, such as rurality (implying personal and professional isolation, distances to deliver service and small organisations) and a general shortage of trained personnel, are significant in Gippsland. Through its focus on the perspectives of leaders in the management of rural mental health services, however, the study found other key issues that contribute to workforce difficulties. Many, including the unattractive nature of mental health work, the fragmented administration of the mental health system, short-term and tied funding, and shortcomings in training are external to

  10. Measurment and Reporting of Comprehensive Income: Search ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Measurment and Reporting of Comprehensive Income: Search, Challenges, ... of periods of stable and unstable economic situation and satisfies varied users' ... Keywords: Historical accounting; comprehensive income; asset valuation model.

  11. Determinants of footwear difficulties in people with plantar heel pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Justin; Pappas, Evangelos; Adams, Roger; Crosbie, Jack; Burns, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    Plantar heel pain is a common foot disorder aggravated by weight-bearing activity. Despite considerable focus on therapeutic interventions such as orthoses, there has been limited investigation of footwear-related issues in people with plantar heel pain. The aim of this study was to investigate whether people with plantar heel pain experience footwear-related difficulties compared to asymptomatic individuals, as well as identifying factors associated with footwear comfort, fit and choice. The footwear domain of the Foot Health Status Questionnaire (FHSQ) was assessed in 192 people with plantar heel pain and 69 asymptomatic controls. The plantar heel pain group was also assessed on a variety of measures including: foot posture, foot strength and flexibility, pedobarography and pain level. A univariate analysis of covariance, with age as the covariate, was used to compare the heel pain and control groups on the FHSQ footwear domain score. A multiple regression model was then constructed to investigate factors associated with footwear scores among participants with plantar heel pain. When compared to asymptomatic participants, people with plantar heel pain reported lower FHSQ footwear domain scores (mean difference -24.4; p footwear scores were associated with maximum force beneath the postero-lateral heel during barefoot walking, toe flexor strength and gender. People with plantar heel pain experience difficulty with footwear comfort, fit and choice. Reduced heel loading during barefoot walking, toe flexor weakness and female gender are all independently associated with reports of footwear difficulties in people with heel pain. Increased focus, in both clinical and research settings, is needed to address footwear-related issues in people with plantar heel pain.

  12. Demonstration of Cauchy: Understanding Algebraic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.L. Costa

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: In this study we present some considerations about the End of Course Work undergraduate Full Degree in Mathematics / UFMT, drafted in 2011, and by taking title "A story about Cauchy and Euler's theorem on polyhedra" that gave birth to our research project Master of Education, begun in 2012, on the approaches of Euler's theorem on polyhedra in mathematics textbooks. At work in 2011 presented some considerations about the history of Euler's theorem for polyhedra which focus the demonstration presented by Cauchy (1789-1857, who tries to generalize it, relying on assumptions not observable in Euclidean geometry. Therefore, we seek the accessible literature on the history of mathematics; relate some aspects of the demonstration Cauchy with historical events on the development of mathematics in the nineteenth century, which allowed the acceptance of such a demonstration by mathematicians of his time.Keywords: History of Mathematics. Euler's Theorem on Polyhedra. Demonstration of Cauchy.

  13. CT Demonstration of Caput Medusae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Edward C.; Vilensky, Joel A.

    2009-01-01

    Maximum intensity and volume rendered CT displays of caput medusae are provided to demonstrate both the anatomy and physiology of this portosystemic shunt associated with portal hypertension. (Contains 2 figures.)

  14. The Effect of Tutoring With Nonstandard Equations for Students With Mathematics Difficulty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Sarah R; Driver, Melissa K; Julian, Tyler E

    2015-01-01

    Students often misinterpret the equal sign (=) as operational instead of relational. Research indicates misinterpretation of the equal sign occurs because students receive relatively little exposure to equations that promote relational understanding of the equal sign. No study, however, has examined effects of nonstandard equations on the equation solving and equal-sign understanding of students with mathematics difficulty (MD). In the present study, second-grade students with MD (n = 51) were randomly assigned to standard equations tutoring, combined tutoring (standard and nonstandard equations), and no-tutoring control. Combined tutoring students demonstrated greater gains on equation-solving assessments and equal-sign tasks compared to the other two conditions. Standard tutoring students demonstrated improved skill on equation solving over control students, but combined tutoring students' performance gains were significantly larger. Results indicate that exposure to and practice with nonstandard equations positively influence student understanding of the equal sign. © Hammill Institute on Disabilities 2013.

  15. Difficulties of adaptation to Order 453 by radiology services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padilha Filho, L.G.; Chernicharo, C.C.; Montone Junior, V.; Lenine, R.C.; Berquo, F.R.; Koch, H.A.; Costa, V.C.M. da; Rodrigues, I.V.; Duarte, N.S.; Silva, M.O. da

    2001-01-01

    This work has as its objective to present some difficulties of adaptation of a Radiological Service to Order 453, of Health Ministry. The Order 453, gives regulations to use of radiodiagnostic techniques and require the implementation of Quality Assurance Programs in all institution that make use of ionizing radiation. A survey of functioning conditions of General Hospital - Radiological Service of Santa Casa de Misericordia do Rio de Janeiro, was performed with basis on Order 453. After analysis of these conditions, were noticed some needs as, improvement of professional competence about radiation protection and implementation of a Quality Assurance Program in radiological unit of this hospital

  16. CONTRIBUTING FACTORS TOWARDS DIFFICULTIES IN GENERATING IDEAS AMONG TECHNICAL STUDENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Yee Mei Heong

    2013-01-01

    Idea is a thought or collection of thoughts that are important to decision making and problem solving.  The purpose of this research was to analysis the factors contributing to difficulty in generating ideas among technical students.  A total of 375 technical students from four technical universities in Malaysia were randomly selected as samples.  A set of questionnaires was developed and used as research instrument.  The findings indicated that a total of 319 (85.1%) technical students faced...

  17. Colombian Artists and Digital Music Platforms: Some Difficulties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Palacio Puerta

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Internet provides new business opportunities for the music industry, especially for both independent artists and record companies. The reason of the latter is the great proliferation and growth of digital music platforms. However, contrary to statistics, artists have not been able to benefit of such opportunities in the expected manner. The academic development on this subject is in its beginnings especially with respect to the Colombian panorama, therefore for the first time in the literature, this paper draws some of the difficulties that the Colombian artists face in the world of the digital music.

  18. Difficulties with Prenatal Diagnosis of the Walker-Warburg Syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low, A.S.C.; Lee, S.L.; Tan, A.S.A.; Chan, D.K.L.; Chan, L.L.

    2005-01-01

    We describe a postnatally diagnosed case of Walker-Warburg syndrome - a form of congenital muscular dystrophy with lissencephaly and eye abnormalities. We reviewed the literature to highlight its clinico-radiological diagnostic features and discuss the difficulties encountered with prenatal diagnosis, especially in cases with no positive family history. An increased awareness of this rare but lethal condition, and a high index of suspicion during routine antenatal ultrasound, could prompt further advanced fetal ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging, and aid in timely prenatal diagnosis, management, and counseling. Brain/brainstem, congenital, magnetic resonance imaging, obstetrics, pediatrics, ultrasound

  19. ADULTS’ LEARNING IN A MULTILEVEL GROUP: DIFFICULTIES AND PROSPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salamatina, I.I.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the necessary conditions of modernization of higher education system of the Russian Federation is to increase the level of academic mobility of the teaching community of Russian Universities. To solve this problem in 2014 in the State University of Humanities and Social Studies it was made the decision to organize the biennial English language courses for teachers of non-linguistic specialties, to enhance their level of proficiency. The greatest difficulty in teaching was because of different levels of language proficiency, so the teacher had to develop an effective methodology of teaching English for different levels of students.

  20. [Double localization of pancreatic insulinoma. Diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungureanu, C D; David, L; Braşoveanu, V; Herlea, V; Coculescu, M; Popescu, I

    2005-01-01

    Insulinomas are the most common cause of hypoglycemia resulting from endogenous hyperinsulinism. Because most of insulinomas are less than 2 cm in size and rarely they not may be visible by CT scan or transabdominal ultrasonography. Intraoperative ultrasonography may be a solution. Although as surgical method is preferred enucleation because operative time is shorter and easier and the low frequency postoperative complications, pancreaticoduodenectomy Whipple is indicated in selected cases. We report a case of double insulinoma located in the head of the pancreas in which the diagnosis and surgical treatment presented difficulties which determined a particular clinical evolution.