WorldWideScience

Sample records for demonstrate beneficial effects

  1. Beneficial Pleiotropic Effects of Statins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojca Lunder

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: In the current article we review the pharmacological mechanisms of action, which contribute to the beneficial pleiotropic effects of statins. Described mechanisms are supported by the evidence obtained from clinical trials in the last decade.

  2. [Prebiotics: concept, properties and beneficial effects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corzo, N; Alonso, J L; Azpiroz, F; Calvo, M A; Cirici, M; Leis, R; Lombó, F; Mateos-Aparicio, I; Plou, F J; Ruas-Madiedo, P; Rúperez, P; Redondo-Cuenca, A; Sanz, M L; Clemente, A

    2015-02-07

    Prebiotics are non-digestible food ingredients (oligosaccharides) that reach the colon and are used as substrate by microorganisms producing energy, metabolites and micronutrients used for the host; in addition they also stimulate the selective growth of certain beneficial species (mainly bifidobacteria and lactobacilli) in the intestinal microbiota. In this article, a multidisciplinary approach to understand the concept of prebiotic carbohydrates, their properties and beneficial effects in humans has been carried out. Definitions of prebiotics, reported by relevant international organizations and researchers, are described. A comprehensive description of accepted prebiotics having strong scientific evidence of their beneficial properties in humans (inulin-type fructans, FOS, GOS, lactulose and human milk oligosaccharides) is reported. Emerging prebiotics and those which are in the early stages of study have also included in this study. Taken into account that the chemical structure greatly influences carbohydrates prebiotic properties, the analytical techniques used for their analysis and characterization are discussed. In vitro and in vivo models used to evaluate the gastrointestinal digestion, absorption resistance and fermentability in the colon of prebiotics as well as major criteria to design robust intervention trials in humans are described. Finally, a comprehensive summary of the beneficial effects of prebiotics for health at systemic and intestinal levels is reported. The research effort on prebiotics has been intensive in last decades and has demonstrated that a multidisciplinary approach is necessary in order to claim their health benefits.

  3. Beneficial effects of antioxidative lactic acid bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisako Nakagawa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is caused by exposure to reactive oxygen intermediates. The oxidative damage of cell components such as proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids one of the important factors associated with diabetes mellitus, cancers and cardiovascular diseases. This occurs as a result of imbalance between the generations of oxygen derived radicals and the organism’s antioxidant potential. The amount of oxidative damage increases as an organism ages and is postulated to be a major causal factor of senescence. To date, many studies have focused on food sources, nutrients, and components that exert antioxidant activity in worms, flies, mice, and humans. Probiotics, live microorganisms that when administered in adequate amounts provide many beneficial effects on the human health, have been attracting growing interest for their health-promoting effects, and have often been administered in fermented milk products. In particular, lactic acid bacteria (LAB are known to conferre physiologic benefits. Many studies have indicated the antioxidative activity of LAB. Here we review that the effects of lactic acid bacteria to respond to oxidative stress, is connected to oxidative-stress related disease and aging.

  4. Beneficial and adverse effects of chemopreventive agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Mu; Park, Kwang-Kyun

    2003-03-01

    The beneficial and adverse effects of some chemopreventive agents, such as Vitamins A, C, E, beta-carotene, indole-3-carbinol, capsaicin, garlic, and aloe are reviewed. Two large randomized trials with a lung cancer endpoint, the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene (ATBC) Prevention Study and the Beta-Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial (CARET), suggested that antioxidants might be harmful in smokers. However, the results of the Linxian study and of the ATBC or the CARET studies were significantly different in this respect, and therefore, the relationship between antioxidant and carcinogenesis remains open to debate. Indole-3-carbinol has cancer promoting activities in the colon, thyroid, pancreas, and liver, whereas capsaicin alters the metabolism of chemical carcinogens and may promote carcinogenesis at high doses. Organosulfur compounds and selenium from garlic have no or a little enhancing effect on cancer promotion stage. Information upon chemopreventive mechanisms that inhibit carcinogenesis is imperfect, although the causes and natures of certain human cancers are known. Therefore, definitive preventive guidelines should be carefully offered for various types of tumors, which properly consider ethnic variations, and the efficacies and the safety of chemopreventive agents.

  5. Comparison of In-Vitro and Ex-Vivo Wound Healing Assays for the Investigation of Diabetic Wound Healing and Demonstration of a Beneficial Effect of a Triterpene Extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueck, Christopher; Volksdorf, Thomas; Houdek, Pia; Vidal-y-Sy, Sabine; Sehner, Susanne; Ellinger, Bernhard; Lobmann, Ralf; Larena-Avellaneda, Axel; Reinshagen, Konrad; Ridderbusch, Ina; Kohrmeyer, Klaas; Moll, Ingrid; Daniels, Rolf; Werner, Philipp; Merfort, Irmgard; Brandner, Johanna M.

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a frequent cause for chronic, difficult-to-treat wounds. New therapies for diabetic wounds are urgently needed and in-vitro or ex-vivo test systems are essential for the initial identification of new active molecules. The aim of this study is to compare in-vitro and ex-vivo test systems for their usability for early drug screening and to investigate the efficacy of a birch bark triterpene extract (TE) that has been proven ex-vivo and clinically to accelerate non-diabetic wound healing (WH), in a diabetic context. We investigated in-vitro models for diabetic WH, i.e. scratch assays with human keratinocytes from diabetic donors or cultured under hyperglycaemic conditions and a newly developed porcine ex-vivo hyperglycaemic WH model for their potential to mimic delayed diabetic WH and for the influence of TE in these test systems. We show that keratinocytes from diabetic donors often fail to exhibit significantly delayed WH. For cells under hyperglycaemic conditions significant decrease is observed but is influenced by choice of medium and presence of supplements. Also, donor age plays a role. Interestingly, hyperglycaemic effects are mainly hyperosmolaric effects in scratch assays. Ex-vivo models under hyperglycaemic conditions show a clear and substantial decrease of WH, and here both glucose and hyperosmolarity effects are involved. Finally, we provide evidence that TE is also beneficial for ex-vivo hyperglycaemic WH, resulting in significantly increased length of regenerated epidermis to 188±16% and 183±11% (SEM; p<0.05) compared to controls when using two different TE formulations. In conclusion, our results suggest that microenvironmental influences are important in WH test systems and that therefore the more complex hyperglycaemic ex-vivo model is more suitable for early drug screening. Limitations of the in-vitro and ex-vivo models are discussed. Furthermore our data recommend TE as a promising candidate for in-vivo testings in diabetic

  6. Beneficial effect of Curcumin in Letrozole induced polycystic ovary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sushma Reddy

    2016-04-01

    Conclusion: Curcumin showed beneficial effects in Letrozole induced PCOS in female Wistar rats. Its effect was comparable to that of Clomiphene citrate, most widely used treatment for ovulation induction in PCOS condition.

  7. Potential beneficial effects of garlic in oncohematology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miroddi, M; Calapai, F; Calapai, G

    2011-06-01

    The use of non-conventional medicines, especially herbal medicine, is common in patients with cancers including haematologic malignancies. Diet components may also modify the risk of cancer through the influence on multiple processes, including DNA repair, cell proliferation and apoptosis. Garlic (Allium sativum), considered either food or herbal medicine, possesses antimutagenic and antiproliferative properties that can be used in anticancer interventions. We analyzed literature data on effects of garlic and garlic compounds which can serve as basic information to design clinical approach in oncohematology. Garlic contains water soluble and oil-soluble sulfur compounds. The latter are responsible for anticancer effects exerted through multiple mechanisms such as: inhibition of metabolic carcinogenic activation, arrest of cell cycle, antioxidant and pro-apoptotic action. Evidence about the effects of main sulfur compounds diallyl sulfide (DAS), diallyl disulfide (DADS), diallyl trisulfide (DATS), ajoene and S-allylmercaptocysteine (SAMC) in oncohematology was described. Our research highlights that data on garlic in oncohematology are essentially represented by pre-clinical studies. Although these studies must be considered as preliminary, they provided insight into biological activities of garlic compounds and support a rationale for the use of substances such as DAS, DADS, DATS and ajoene as promising anticancer agents in oncohematology.

  8. Climate change effects on beneficial plant-microorganism interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Compant, Stéphane; van der Heijden, Marcel G. A.; Sessitsch, Angela

    2017-01-01

    It is well known that beneficial plant-associated microorganisms may stimulate plant growth and enhance resistance to disease and abiotic stresses. The effects of climate change factors such as elevated CO2, drought and warming on beneficial plant-microorganism interactions are increasingly being explored. This now makes it possible to test whether some general patterns occur and whether different groups of plant-associated microorganisms respond differently or in the same way to climate chan...

  9. Climate change effects on beneficial plant-microorganism interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compant, Stéphane; van der Heijden, Marcel G A; Sessitsch, Angela

    2010-08-01

    It is well known that beneficial plant-associated microorganisms may stimulate plant growth and enhance resistance to disease and abiotic stresses. The effects of climate change factors such as elevated CO(2), drought and warming on beneficial plant-microorganism interactions are increasingly being explored. This now makes it possible to test whether some general patterns occur and whether different groups of plant-associated microorganisms respond differently or in the same way to climate change. Here, we review the results of 135 studies investigating the effects of climate change factors on beneficial microorganisms and their interaction with host plants. The majority of studies showed that elevated CO(2) had a positive influence on the abundance of arbuscular and ectomycorrhizal fungi, whereas the effects on plant growth-promoting bacteria and endophytic fungi were more variable. In most cases, plant-associated microorganisms had a beneficial effect on plants under elevated CO(2). The effects of increased temperature on beneficial plant-associated microorganisms were more variable, positive and neutral, and negative effects were equally common and varied considerably with the study system and the temperature range investigated. Moreover, numerous studies indicated that plant growth-promoting microorganisms (both bacteria and fungi) positively affected plants subjected to drought stress. Overall, this review shows that plant-associated microorganisms are an important factor influencing the response of plants to climate change.

  10. THE BENEFICIAL EFFECTS OF SPORT ON ANXIETY AND DEPRESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Perrotta

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available It is well established that exercise increases energy levels and mood state. At least 20 published studies, indicate a link between physical activity and signs of prosperity. There is much medical evidence showing the beneficial effects of exercise on cardiovascular disease, obesity and diabetes. Currently there is growing interest to see ifphysical activity can also improve symptoms of mental illness

  11. Health effects of predatory beneficial mites and wasps in greenhouses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bælum, Jesper; Enkegaard, Annie; Doekes, Gert

    2007-01-01

    A three-year study of 579 greenhouse workers in 31 firms investigated the effect of four different beneficial arthropods. It was shown that the thrips mite Amblyseeius cucumeris and the spider mite predator Phytoseiulus persimilis may cause allergy measured by blood tests as well as eye and nose...

  12. Health effects of predatory beneficial mites and wasps in greenhouses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bælum, Jesper; Enkegaard, Annie; Doekes, Gert

    2007-01-01

    A three-year study of 579 greenhouse workers in 31 firms investigated the effect of four different beneficial arthropods. It was shown that the thrips mite Amblyseeius cucumeris and the spider mite predator Phytoseiulus persimilis may cause allergy measured by blood tests as well as eye and nose...... symptoms. No effect was seen by the predator wasp Aphidius colemani nor the predator mite Hypoaspis miles and no effect on lung diseases were seen....

  13. Health effects of predatory beneficial mites and wasps in greenhouses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bælum, Jesper; Enkegaard, Annie; Doekes, Gert;

    A three-year study of 579 greenhouse workers in 31 firms investigated the effect of four different beneficial arthropods. It was shown that the thrips mite Amblyseeius cucumeris and the spider mite predator Phytoseiulus persimilis may cause allergy measured by blood tests as well as eye and nose...... symptoms. No effect was seen by the predator wasp Aphidius colemani nor the predator mite Hypoaspis miles and no effect on lung diseases were seen....

  14. Energy Drink Consumption: Beneficial and Adverse Health Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsunni, Ahmed Abdulrahman

    2015-10-01

    Consumption of energy drinks has been increasing dramatically in the last two decades, particularly amongst adolescents and young adults. Energy drinks are aggressively marketed with the claim that these products give an energy boost to improve physical and cognitive performance. However, studies supporting these claims are limited. In fact, several adverse health effects have been related to energy drink; this has raised the question of whether these beverages are safe. This review was carried out to identify and discuss the published articles that examined the beneficial and adverse health effects related to energy drink. It is concluded that although energy drink may have beneficial effects on physical performance, these products also have possible detrimental health consequences. Marketing of energy drinks should be limited or forbidden until independent research confirms their safety, particularly among adolescents.

  15. Beneficial effects of green tea: A literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuttan Ramadasan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The health benefits of green tea for a wide variety of ailments, including different types of cancer, heart disease, and liver disease, were reported. Many of these beneficial effects of green tea are related to its catechin, particularly (--epigallocatechin-3-gallate, content. There is evidence from in vitro and animal studies on the underlying mechanisms of green tea catechins and their biological actions. There are also human studies on using green tea catechins to treat metabolic syndrome, such as obesity, type II diabetes, and cardiovascular risk factors. Long-term consumption of tea catechins could be beneficial against high-fat diet-induced obesity and type II diabetes and could reduce the risk of coronary disease. Further research that conforms to international standards should be performed to monitor the pharmacological and clinical effects of green tea and to elucidate its mechanisms of action.

  16. Beneficial effects of intermittent hypobaric hypoxia on the body

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi ZHANG; Zhao-nian ZHOU

    2012-01-01

    Myocardial ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) is a common problem in clinic and there is no satisfactory method for prevention or treatment of I/R injury so far.Chronic intermittent hypobaric hypoxia (CIHH),similar to the concept of ischemia preconditioning(IPC)or altitude hypoxia adaptation (AHA),has been recognized to confer a protective effect on heart against I/R injury with a longer protective effect than IPC and a less adverse effect than AHA.It has been proved that CIHH increases myocardial tolerance to ischemia or hypoxia,reserving cardiac function and preventing arrhythmia during I/R.Multiple mechanisms or pathway underlying the cardiac protection of ClHH have been proposed,such as induction of heatshock protein,enhancement of myocardial antioxidation capacity,increase of coronary flow and myocardial capillary angiogenesis,activation of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-sensitive potassium channels,inhibition of mitochondrial permeability transition pores,and activation of protein kinase C (PKC) and induced nitric oxide synthase (iNOS).In addition,CIHH has been found having many beneficial effects on the body,such as promotion of health,increase of oxygen utilization,and prevention or treatment for some diseases.The beneficial effects of ClHH and potential mechanisms are reviewed mainly based on the researches performed by our group.

  17. Beneficial effect of sesame oil on heavy metal toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, Victor Raj Mohan; Hsu, Dur-Zong; Liu, Ming-Yie

    2014-02-01

    Heavy metals become toxic when they are not metabolized by the body and accumulate in the soft tissue. Chelation therapy is mainly for the management of heavy metal-induced toxicity; however, it usually causes adverse effects or completely blocks the vital function of the particular metal chelated. Much attention has been paid to the development of chelating agents from natural sources to counteract lead- and iron-induced hepatic and renal damage. Sesame oil (a natural edible oil) and sesamol (an active antioxidant) are potently beneficial for treating lead- and iron-induced hepatic and renal toxicity and have no adverse effects. Sesame oil and sesamol significantly inhibit iron-induced lipid peroxidation by inhibiting the xanthine oxidase, nitric oxide, superoxide anion, and hydroxyl radical generation. In addition, sesame oil is a potent inhibitor of proinflammatory mediators, and it attenuates lead-induced hepatic damage by inhibiting nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-1β levels. Because metal chelating therapy is associated with adverse effects, treating heavy metal toxicity in addition with sesame oil and sesamol may be better alternatives. This review deals with the possible use and beneficial effects of sesame oil and sesamol during heavy metal toxicity treatment.

  18. Potential beneficial effects of butyrate in intestinal and extraintestinal diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Roberto Berni Canani; Margherita Di Costanzo; Ludovica Leone; Monica Pedata; Rosaria Meli; Antonio Calignano

    2011-01-01

    The multiple beneficial effects on human health of the short-chain fatty acid butyrate, synthesized from nonabsorbed carbohydrate by colonic microbiota, are well documented. At the intestinal level, butyrate plays a regulatory role on the transepithelial fluid transport,ameliorates mucosal inflammation and oxidative status,reinforces the epithelial defense barrier, and modulates visceral sensitivity and intestinal motility. In addition,a growing number of studies have stressed the role of butyrate in the prevention and inhibition of colorectal cancer. At the extraintestinal level, butyrate exerts potentially useful effects on many conditions, including hemoglobinopathies, genetic metabolic diseases,hypercholesterolemia, insulin resistance, and ischemic stroke. The mechanisms of action of butyrate are different;many of these are related to its potent regulatory effects on gene expression. These data suggest a wide spectrum of positive effects exerted by butyrate, with a high potential for a therapeutic use in human medicine.

  19. Beneficial effects of melatonin in experimental models of Alzheimer disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong CHENG; Zheng FENG; Qing-zhu ZHANG; Jun-tian ZHANG

    2006-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD), a progressive degenerative disorder, is characterized by the presence of amyloid deposits, neurofibrillary tangles and neuron loss.Emerging evidence indicates that antioxidants could be useful either for the prevention or treatment of AD. It has been shown that melatonin is a potent antioxidant and free radical scavenger. Additionally, melatonin stimulates several antioxidative enzymes and improves mitochondrial energy metabolism. These findings led us to study amyloid precursor protein transgenic mice, ovariectomized rats, and pheochromocytoma and astroglioma cell lines, to observe whether melatonin had any effect on Alzheimer's symptoms or pathological changes. We found that melatonin had many beneficial effects in experimental models of AD, including improvement of cognitive function, anti-oxidative injury, anti-apoptosis, inhibition of β-amyloid (Aβ) deposition and Aβ fiber formation. Several groups have shown that melatonin has an inhibitory effect on tau protein hyperphosphorylation.These actions may potentially slow down or stop the progression of dementia.

  20. Beneficial Effects of Temperate Forage Legumes that Contain Condensed Tannins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer W. MacAdam

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The two temperate forage legumes containing condensed tannins (CT that promote ruminant production are birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.; BFT and sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia Scop.; SF. Both are well-adapted to the cool-temperate climate and alkaline soils of the Mountain West USA. Condensed tannins comprise a diverse family of bioactive chemicals with multiple beneficial functions for ruminants, including suppression of internal parasites and enteric methane. Birdsfoot trefoil contains 10 to 40 g·CT·kg−1 dry matter (DM, while SF contains 30 to 80 g·CT·kg−1 DM. Our studies have focused on these two plant species and have demonstrated consistently elevated rates of gain for beef calves grazing both BFT and SF. Novel results from our BFT research include carcass dressing percentages and consumer sensory evaluations equivalent to feedlot-finished steers and significantly greater than grass-finished steers, but with omega-3 fatty acid concentrations equal to grass-finished beef. We have further demonstrated that ruminants fed BFT or SF will consume more endophyte-infected tall fescue (Schedonorus arundinaceus (Schreb. Dumort. forage or seed than ruminants fed a non-CT forage legume. There is great potential value for sustainable livestock production in the use of highly digestible, nitrogen-fixing legumes containing tannins demonstrated to improve ruminant productivity.

  1. Critical evaluation of toxic versus beneficial effects of methylglyoxal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukdar, D; Chaudhuri, B S; Ray, M; Ray, S

    2009-10-01

    In various organisms, an array of enzymes is involved in the synthesis and breakdown of methylglyoxal. Through these enzymes, it is intimately linked to several other physiologically important metabolites, suggesting that methylglyoxal has some important role to play in the host organism. Several in vitro and in vivo studies showed that methylglyoxal acts specifically against different types of malignant cells. These studies culminated in a recent investigation to evaluate a methylglyoxal-based formulation in treating a small group of cancer patients, and the results were promising. Methylglyoxal acts against a number of pathogenic microorganisms. However, recent literature abounds with the toxic effects of methylglyoxal, which are supposed to be mediated through methylglyoxal-derived advanced glycation end products (AGE). Many diseases such as diabetes, cataract formation, hypertension, and uremia are proposed to be intimately linked with methylglyoxal-derived AGE. However methylglyoxal-derived AGE formation and subsequent pathogenesis might be a very minor event because AGE are nonspecific reaction products that are derived through the reactions of carbonyl groups of reducing sugars with amino groups present in the side chains of lysine and arginine and in terminal amino groups of proteins. Moreover, the results of some in vitro experiments with methylglyoxal under non-physiological conditions were extrapolated to the in vivo situation. Some experiments even showed contradictory results and were differently interpreted. For this reason conclusions about the potential beneficial effects of methylglyoxal have often been neglected, thus hindering the advancement of medical science and causing some confusion in fundamental understanding. Overall, the potential beneficial effects of methylglyoxal far outweigh its possible toxic role in vivo, and it should be utilized for the benefit of suffering humanity.

  2. Coffee components and cardiovascular risk: beneficial and detrimental effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godos, Justyna; Pluchinotta, Francesca Romana; Marventano, Stefano; Buscemi, Silvio; Li Volti, Giovanni; Galvano, Fabio; Grosso, Giuseppe

    2014-12-01

    Coffee consists of several biological active compounds, such as caffeine, diterpenes, chlorogenic acids, and melanoidins, which may affect human health. The intake of each compound depends on the variety of coffee species, roasting degree, type of brewing method and serving size. The bioavailability and the distribution of each compound and its metabolites also contribute to coffee mechanisms of action. The health benefits of coffee consumption regarding cardiovascular system and metabolism mostly depend on its antioxidant compounds. In contrast, diterpenes and caffeine may produce harmful effects by raising lipid fraction and affecting endothelial function, respectively. Studying the mechanism of action of coffee components may help understanding weather coffee's impact on health is beneficial or hazardous. In this article, we reviewed the available information about coffee compounds and their mechanism of action. Furthermore, benefits and risks for cardiovascular system associated with coffee consumption will be discussed.

  3. Beneficial effects of footbaths in controlling spasticity after stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Shuji; Shimodozono, Megumi; Etoh, Seiji; Shimozono, Yurika; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Kawahira, Kazumi

    2010-07-01

    Footbaths are considered to provide beneficial thermal therapy for post-stroke patients with spasticity, but their anti-spastic effects have not been investigated comprehensively. The present study aimed to evaluate alterations in motor-neuron excitability using F-wave parameters in post-stroke patients with spastic hemiplegia. Subjects’ legs below the knee joint were immersed in water at 41°C and F-wave recordings were made over the abductor hallucis muscle before, immediately after, and 30 min after thermal treatment. Antidromic stimulation was performed on the tibial nerve at the ankle. Measurements included F-wave amplitude, F-wave/M-response ratio, changes in modified Ashworth scale (MAS), body temperature and surface-skin temperature. The mean values of both F-wave parameters were higher on the affected side before footbath treatment. In post-stroke patients, the mean values of F-wave parameters were significantly reduced after footbath treatment ( P rehabilitation.

  4. Beneficial effect of hyperbaric oxygenation on liver regeneration in cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdogan, Mehmet; Ersoy, Eren; Dundar, Kadir; Albayrak, Levent; Devay, Seda; Gundogdu, Haldun

    2005-12-01

    Underlying hepatic injury and cirrhosis are leading factors that interfere with the post-operative liver regeneration and function. Hyperbaric oxygenation (HBO) has been reported to ameliorate the ischemia-reperfusion injury of the liver, to induce compensatory hypertrophy of the predicted remnant liver in rats after portal vein ligation and to augment liver regeneration after hepatectomy in non-cirrhotic rats. Our aim was to determine the effect of HBO treatment on liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy in normal and cirrhotic mice in this experimental study. The effect of HBO on liver regeneration was studied in a mice model combining carbon tetrachloride induced cirrhosis and partial hepatectomy. Mice were divided into four groups: Control, cirrhotic, non-cirrhotic HBO-treated, and cirrhotic HBO-treated. All animals underwent 40% hepatectomy. Liver regeneration was evaluated by the proliferating cell nuclear antigen-labeling index. Serum aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels were measured to evaluate liver injury. Serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels were significantly decreased in HBO-treated cirrhotic group compared to cirrhosis group after hepatectomy (P = 0.001 and P = 0.014, respectively). The proliferating cell nuclear antigen labeling index was significantly higher in HBO treated cirrhotic group than in cirrhotic group after hepatectomy (P = 0.022). Our results suggest that HBO treatment improves liver functions and augments hepatocyte regeneration in cirrhotic mice after hepatectomy. Post-operative HBO treatment may have a beneficial effect on post-operative liver function and regeneration in cirrhotic patients.

  5. Multifarious Beneficial Effect of Nonessential Amino Acid, Glycine: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meerza Abdul Razak

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Glycine is most important and simple, nonessential amino acid in humans, animals, and many mammals. Generally, glycine is synthesized from choline, serine, hydroxyproline, and threonine through interorgan metabolism in which kidneys and liver are the primarily involved. Generally in common feeding conditions, glycine is not sufficiently synthesized in humans, animals, and birds. Glycine acts as precursor for several key metabolites of low molecular weight such as creatine, glutathione, haem, purines, and porphyrins. Glycine is very effective in improving the health and supports the growth and well-being of humans and animals. There are overwhelming reports supporting the role of supplementary glycine in prevention of many diseases and disorders including cancer. Dietary supplementation of proper dose of glycine is effectual in treating metabolic disorders in patients with cardiovascular diseases, several inflammatory diseases, obesity, cancers, and diabetes. Glycine also has the property to enhance the quality of sleep and neurological functions. In this review we will focus on the metabolism of glycine in humans and animals and the recent findings and advances about the beneficial effects and protection of glycine in different disease states.

  6. The beneficial effects of taurine to counteract sarcopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scicchitano, Bianca M; Sica, Gigliola

    2016-11-22

    Aging is a multifactorial process characterized by several features including low-grade inflammation, increased oxidative stress and reduced regenerative capacity, which ultimately lead to alteration in morpho-functional properties of skeletal muscle, thus promoting sarcopenia. This condition is characterized by a gradual loss of muscle mass due to an unbalance between protein synthesis and degradation, finally conveying in functional decline and disability. The development of specific therapeutic approaches able to block or reverse this condition may represent an invaluable tool for the promotion of a healthy aging among elderly. It is well established that changes in the quantity and the quality of dietary proteins, as well as the intake of specific amino acids, are able to counteract some of the physiopathological processes related to the progression of the loss of muscle mass and may have beneficial effects in improving the anabolic response of muscle in the elderly. Taurine is a non-essential amino acid expressed in high concentration in several mammalian tissues and particularly in skeletal muscle where it is involved in the modulation of intracellular calcium concentration and ion channel regulation and where it also acts as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory factor. The aim of this review is to summarize the pleiotropic effects of taurine on specific muscle targets and to discuss its role in regulating signaling pathways involved in the maintenance of muscle homeostasis. We also highlight the potential use of taurine as a therapeutic molecule for the amelioration of skeletal muscle function and performance severely compromised during aging.

  7. Small Beneficial Effect of Caffeinated Energy Drink Ingestion on Strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Nora B; Hardy, Michelle A; Millard-Stafford, Mindy L; Warren, Gordon L

    2016-07-01

    Collier, NB, Hardy, MA, Millard-Stafford, ML, and Warren, GL. Small beneficial effect of caffeinated energy drink ingestion on strength. J Strength Cond Res 30(7): 1862-1870, 2016-Because caffeine ingestion has been found to increase muscle strength, our aim was to determine whether caffeine when combined with other potential ergogenic ingredients, such as those in commercial energy drinks, would have a similar effect. Fifteen young healthy subjects were used in a double-blind, repeated-measures experimental design. Each subject performed 3 trials, ingesting either a caffeinated energy drink, an uncaffeinated version of the drink, or a placebo drink. The interpolated twitch procedure was used to assess maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) strength, electrically evoked strength, and percent muscle activation during MVIC of the knee extensors both before and after drink ingestion, and after a fatiguing bout of contractions; electromyographic (EMG) amplitude of the knee extensors during MVIC was also assessed. The mean (±SE) change in MVIC strength from before to after drink ingestion was significantly greater for the caffeinated energy drink compared with placebo [+5.0 (±1.7) vs. -0.5 (±1.5)%] and the difference between the drinks remained after fatigue (p = 0.015); the strength changes for the uncaffeinated energy drink were not significantly different from those of the other 2 drinks at any time. There was no significant effect of drink type on the changes in electrically evoked strength, percent muscle activation, and EMG from before to after drink ingestion. This study indicates that a caffeinated energy drink can increase MVIC strength but the effect is modest and the strength increase cannot be attributed to increased muscle activation. Whether the efficacy of energy drinks can be attributed solely to caffeine remains unclear.

  8. BENEFICIAL EFFECTS OF SUDARSHANA KRIYA IN TYPE II DIABETES MELLITUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupama

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sudarshana kriya is a Sanskrit term meaning ―proper vision, purified action by controlling the breath. Kri means to act with awareness. It normalizes breathing by concentrating on it systematically. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 40 subjects with type II diabetes 20 males, 20 females with age group of 40-60 were chosen. They underwent sudarshana kriya training for 6 days organized in Bangalore. A written consent was taken from subjects. They participated in 6 day Sudarshana kriya training held at Bangalore by a trained teacher. This 6 day training includes Sudarshana kriya and meditation. Our Study is designed to study the glycemic control and antilipemic effect of Sudarshana kriya in TypeII Diabetes Mellitus. RESULTS: Sudarshana kriya appears to be specialized pranayamic breathing capable of inducing series of beneficial changes besides causing significant fall of sugar levels, total cholesterol, triglyceride levels (p<0.001 and a raise in HDL cholesterol (p<0.001 CONCLUSION: Sudarshan Kriya can be used along with oral hypoglycemic agents as a holistic adjunct approach for a better glycemic and lipid profile control. Regular practice of Sudarshana Kriya reduces symptoms of mental depression for treating stress and anxiety in post- traumatic stress disorder. Sudarshana Kriya leaves one more alert aware, attentive and focused

  9. Beneficial Effects of Childhood Selective Dorsal Rhizotomy in Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, T S; Edwards, Caleb; Liu, Jenny L; Walter, Deanna M; Dobbs, Matthew B

    2017-03-05

    .  Orthopedic surgeries were pursued by 59% of patients. The most common orthopedic surgeries were hamstring lengthenings (31%), Achilles tendon lengthenings (18%), adductor lengthenings (16%), and derotational osteotomies (16%). Twenty-four percent of all patients later underwent hip surgery and 8% had surgeries on their knees.  Conclusion: Results of this study indicate that the beneficial effects of childhood SDR extend to adulthood quality of life and ambulatory function without late side effects of surgery.

  10. Aldosterone receptor antagonists--how cardiovascular actions may explain their beneficial effects in heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovaert, P; Elliott, J; Bernay, F; Guillot, E; Bardon, T

    2010-04-01

    Historically, aldosterone receptor antagonists (ARA) have been classified as 'potassium sparing diuretics'. However, the positive effect of spironolactone, the most extensively studied ARA, on morbidity and mortality observed in humans suffering cardiac insufficiency could not be explained by the renal effect of the drug alone, and a pivotal clinical study has led to extensive research. Many experimental studies have demonstrated that ARA have previously unexpected beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system including reduction in remodelling of the vascular smooth muscle cells and myocytes and improvement of endothelial cell dysfunction in heart failure. These effects improve vascular compliance and slow down the progression of left ventricular dysfunction and end-organ damage. Furthermore, aldosterone receptor blockade also restores the baroreceptor reflex, improving heart rate variability in heart failure in humans. Some of these effects have been demonstrated in dog models of cardiac disease and so justified further investigation of the potential benefit of ARA in dogs with congestive heart failure (CHF). Positive effects of spironolactone on morbidity and mortality appear to have been seen in studies conducted in dogs suffering from naturally occurring CHF. In addition, eplerenone has been shown to have benefits in canine models of heart failure. The precise mechanisms by which ARA produce these beneficial effects in dogs remain to be determined but this group of drugs clearly provide therapeutic actions out-with their diuretic effects.

  11. Intestinal innate antiviral immunity and immunobiotics: beneficial effects against rotavirus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Villena

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The mucosal tissues of the gastrointestinal tract are the main portal entry of pathogens such as rotavirus (RVs, which is a leading cause of death due to diarrhea among young children across the globe and a major cause of severe acute intestinal infection in livestock animals. The interactions between intestinal epithelial cells (IECs and immune cells with RVs have been studied for several years, and now it is known that the innate immune responses triggered by this virus can have both beneficial and detrimental effects for the host. It was demonstrated that natural RVs infection in infants and experimental challenges in mice result in the intestinal activation of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs like Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3 and striking secretion of pro-inflammatory mediators that can lead to increased local tissue damage and immunopathology. Therefore, modulating desregulated intestinal immune responses triggered by PRRs activation are a significant promise for reducing the burden of RVs diseases. The ability of immunoregulatory probiotic microorganisms (immunobiotics to protect against intestinal infections such as those caused by RVs, are among the oldest effects studied for these important group of beneficial microbes. In this review, we provide an update of the current status on the modulation of intestinal antiviral innate immunity by immunobiotics, and their beneficial impact on RVs infection. In addition, we describe the research of our group that demonstrated the capacity of immunobiotic strains to beneficially modulated TLR3-triggered immune response in IECs, reduce the disruption of intestinal homeostasis caused by intraepithelial lymphocytes, and improve the resistance to RVs infections.

  12. Beneficial effects of pro-/antioxidant-based nutraceuticals in the skin rejuvenation techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Luca, C; Deeva, I; Mikhal'Chik, E; Korkina, L

    2007-04-15

    Modern technologies of skin rejuvenation include many physical and chemical intervention tools--laser irradiation, oxygen and ozone therapy, chemical peels, plastic surgery operations--affecting by different mechanisms the sensitive physiological free radical/antioxidant balance in the skin. All these interventions induce from mild to severe tissue damage, providing beneficial biochemical stimuli for skin re-epithelization and rejuvenation. Paradoxically, free radical production in the course of tissue inflammation helps to combat free radical damage consequent to the ageing process. We have studied two animal models (experimental burn and trichloracetic peeling), reproducing on the Wistar rat the effects generated by the commonly practiced aesthetic medicine procedures of laser resurfacing and chemical peels, demonstrating that the severe oxidative stress induced both systemically and on skin can be modulated by the oral pre- and post treatment administration of specific nutraceutical formulations. Potent antioxidants (RRR-alpha-tocopherol, coenzyme Q10), enhancing antioxidant defences, coupled with mild pro-oxidants, enhancers of a specific immune defense (soy phospholipids, L-methionine), at the blood and the skin levels, proved in fact to be beneficial in vivo, on the rat, for skin healing, trophism and accelerated re-epithelization. Data obtained allow us to predict the possibility of innovative protocols for dermocosmetology, enabling successful lowering of the risk of permanent adverse effects, and prolonging the duration of the beneficial effects of dermocosmetologic procedures.

  13. Neuro beneficial effects of Pimpinella anisum against lead exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Kahloula

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The essential oil of Pimpinella anisum has been widely used in traditional medicine to treat a variety of diseases, including some neurological disorders. Aims: This study was aimed to test, in vivo, the possible anxiolytic and antidepressant effects, of the essential oil of Pimpinella anisum against chronic lead acetate (0.2% intoxication during the gestation and lactation period, in Wistar rat pups. Settings and Design: Wistar rat pups were exposed to lead via their dams′ drinking water from postnatal day (PND 1 to (PND 21. After weaning, the lead-exposed rats received injections of essential oil of Pimpinella anisum (0.5 ml/kg for 15 days. The level of anxiety, depression and locomotor activity were studied. Materials and Methods: The behaviours evaluated were: Locomotor activity (open-field test, anxiety (dark and light compartment and elevated plus maze tests, and depression (forced swimming test. Statistical Analysis: The data were analysed by two-way analyses of variance (ANOVAs. When a significant difference was found, the Student-Newman-Keuls post-hoc test was conducted. For all analyses, the difference was considered to be significant at P ≤ 0.05. Results: The results of the present study demonstrate that developmental lead exposure induces, on the one hand, impairments of body ( P < 0.001 and brain weight ( P < 0.05, respectively, and on the other hand, increases the level of anxiety ( P < 0.001, depression ( P < 0.001 and locomotor hyperactivity ( P < 0.001, compared to control rats. Administration of the essential oil of Pimpinella anisum entrains reduction in the level of anxiety ( P < 0.001, depression ( P < 0.001 and correct locomotor hyperactivity ( P < 0.001 in rats exposed to lead beforehand. Conclusion: In conclusion, our results demonstrate that developmental lead exposure induces significant perturbation of emotional reactivity that can be improved by treatment with the essential oil of Pimpinella anisum

  14. Beneficial effects of mild stress (hormetic effects): dietary restriction and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouda, Katsuyasu; Iki, Masayuki

    2010-01-01

    Hormesis is defined as a dose-response phenomenon characterized by low-dose stimulation and high-dose inhibition, and has been recognized as representing an overcompensation for mild environmental stress. The beneficial effects of mild stress on aging and longevity have been studied for many years. In experimental animals, mild dietary stress (dietary restriction, DR) without malnutrition delays most age-related physiological changes, and extends maximum and average lifespan. Animal studies have also demonstrated that DR can prevent or lessen the severity of cancer, stroke, coronary heart disease, autoimmune disease, allergy, Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. The effects of DR are considered to result from hormetic mechanisms. These effects were reported by means of various DR regimens, such as caloric restriction, total-nutrient restriction, alternate-day fasting, and short-term fasting. Mild dietary stress, including restriction of amount or frequency of intake, is the essence of DR. For more than 99% of their history, humans lived as hunter-gatherers and adapted to restrictions in their food supply. On the other hand, an oversufficiency of food for many today has resulted in the current global epidemic of obesity and obesity-related diseases. DR may be used, therefore, as a novel approach for therapeutic intervention in several diseases, when detailed information about effects of mild dietary stress on human health is obtained from clinical trials.

  15. Beneficial effects of herbs, spices and medicinal plants on the metabolic syndrome, brain and cognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panickar, Kiran S

    2013-03-01

    Herbs and spices have been used since ancient times to not only improve the flavor of edible food but also to prevent and treat chronic health maladies. While the scientific evidence for the use of such common herbs and medicinal plants then had been scarce or lacking, the beneficial effects observed from such use were generally encouraging. It is, therefore, not surprising that the tradition of using such herbs, perhaps even after the advent of modern medicine, has continued. More recently, due to an increased interest in understanding the nutritional effects of herbs/spices more comprehensively, several studies have examined the cellular and molecular modes of action of the active chemical components in herbs and their biological properties. Beneficial actions of herbs/spices include anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-hypertensive, gluco-regulatory, and anti-thrombotic effects. One major component of herbs and spices is the polyphenols. Some of the aforementioned properties are attributed to the polyphenols and they are associated with attenuating the metabolic syndrome. Detrimental changes associated with the metabolic syndrome over time affect brain and cognitive function. Metabolic syndrome and type-2 diabetes are also risk factors for Alzheimer's disease and stroke. In addition, the neuroprotective effects of herbs and spices have been demonstrated and, whether directly or indirectly, such beneficial effects may also contribute to an improvement in cognitive function. This review evaluates the current evidence available for herbs/spices in potentially improving the metabolic syndrome, as well as their neuroprotective effects on the brain, and cognitive function in animal and human studies.

  16. Beneficial effects of Bacopa monnieri extract on opioid induced toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, Muhammad; Subhan, Fazal; Ullah, Ihsan; Ali, Gowhar; Alam, Javaid; Shah, Rehmat

    2016-02-01

    The present study examined the hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity of morphine and illicit street heroin and their amelioration by a standardized methanolic extract of Bacopa monnieri (L.) (mBME) in rats. Morphine or street heroin was administered at a dose of 20 mg/kg for 14 and 21 days. mBME (40 mg/kg) or ascorbic acid (50 mg/kg) was administered two hours before morphine or street heroin. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used for the standardization of bacoside-A major components in mBME. The antioxidant potential of mBME was evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay. Administration of morphine and street heroin resulted in marked elevation of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and creatinine. Histopathological changes induced by morphine and street heroin after 14 days were of reversible nature while treatment for 21 days was associated with irreversible changes. Pretreatment with mBME or ascorbic acid restored the elevation of serum ALT, AST and creatinine and protected liver and kidneys from the toxicological influence of morphine and street heroin. HPLC analysis showed that mBME contained bacoside-A major components i.e. bacoside-A3 (37.5 μg/mg), bacopaside-II (4.62 μg/mg) and bacopasaponin-C (1.91 μg/mg). The EC50 for the DPPH free radical scavenging assay revealed that mBME possessed strong antioxidant potential. These results concluded that as compared to morphine, street heroin was associated with severe biochemical and histopathological changes in the liver and kidneys. Bacopa monnieri having strong antioxidant potential may provide a beneficial herbal remedy for the efficient management of opioid related hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity.

  17. Beneficial effects of Bacopa monnieri extract on opioid induced toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Shahid

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity of morphine and illicit street heroin and their amelioration by a standardized methanolic extract of Bacopa monnieri (L. (mBME in rats. Morphine or street heroin was administered at a dose of 20 mg/kg for 14 and 21 days. mBME (40 mg/kg or ascorbic acid (50 mg/kg was administered two hours before morphine or street heroin. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was used for the standardization of bacoside-A major components in mBME. The antioxidant potential of mBME was evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical scavenging assay. Administration of morphine and street heroin resulted in marked elevation of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST and creatinine. Histopathological changes induced by morphine and street heroin after 14 days were of reversible nature while treatment for 21 days was associated with irreversible changes. Pretreatment with mBME or ascorbic acid restored the elevation of serum ALT, AST and creatinine and protected liver and kidneys from the toxicological influence of morphine and street heroin. HPLC analysis showed that mBME contained bacoside-A major components i.e. bacoside-A3 (37.5 μg/mg, bacopaside-II (4.62 μg/mg and bacopasaponin-C (1.91 μg/mg. The EC50 for the DPPH free radical scavenging assay revealed that mBME possessed strong antioxidant potential. These results concluded that as compared to morphine, street heroin was associated with severe biochemical and histopathological changes in the liver and kidneys. Bacopa monnieri having strong antioxidant potential may provide a beneficial herbal remedy for the efficient management of opioid related hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity.

  18. Beneficial and Detrimental Effects of UV on Aquatic Organisms: Implications of Spectral Variation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williamson, C.E.; Neale, P.J.; Grad, G.; Lange, de H.J.; Hargreaves, B.R.

    2001-01-01

    Solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) may have beneficial as well as detrimental effects on living systems. For example, UV-B radiation (280¿320 nm) is generally damaging, while UV-A radiation (320¿400 nm) may cause damage or stimulate beneficial photorepair of UV-B damage. The nature of both direct and

  19. Music listening after stroke: beneficial effects and potential neural mechanisms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Särkämö, Teppo; Soto, David

    2012-01-01

    .... Then we will present findings about the short‐ and long‐term effects of music listening on the recovery of cognitive function in stroke patients and the underlying neural mechanisms of these music effects...

  20. Beneficial Effects of Probiotic and Food Borne Yeasts on Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saloomeh Moslehi-Jenabian

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Besides being important in the fermentation of foods and beverages, yeasts have shown numerous beneficial effects on human health. Among these, probiotic effects are the most well known health effects including prevention and treatment of intestinal diseases and immunomodulatory effects. Other beneficial functions of yeasts are improvement of bioavailability of minerals through the hydrolysis of phytate, folate biofortification and detoxification of mycotoxins due to surface binding to the yeast cell wall.

  1. Beneficial effects of probiotic and food borne yeasts on human health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moslehi Jenabian, Saloomeh; Pedersen, Line Lindegaard; Jespersen, Lene

    2010-01-01

    Besides being important in the fermentation of foods and beverages, yeasts have shown numerous beneficial effects on human health. Among these, propiotic effects are the most well known health effects including prevention and treatment of intestinal diseases and immunomodulatory effects. Other be...... beneficial functions of yeasts are improvement of bioavailability of minerals through the hydrolysis of phytate, folate biofortification and detoxification of mycotoxins due to surface binding to the yeast cell wall....

  2. Music listening after stroke: beneficial effects and potential neural mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Särkämö, Teppo; Soto, David

    2012-04-01

    Music is an enjoyable leisure activity that also engages many emotional, cognitive, and motor processes in the brain. Here, we will first review previous literature on the emotional and cognitive effects of music listening in healthy persons and various clinical groups. Then we will present findings about the short- and long-term effects of music listening on the recovery of cognitive function in stroke patients and the underlying neural mechanisms of these music effects. First, our results indicate that listening to pleasant music can have a short-term facilitating effect on visual awareness in patients with visual neglect, which is associated with functional coupling between emotional and attentional brain regions. Second, daily music listening can improve auditory and verbal memory, focused attention, and mood as well as induce structural gray matter changes in the early poststroke stage. The psychological and neural mechanisms potentially underlying the rehabilitating effect of music after stroke are discussed. © 2012 New York Academy of Sciences.

  3. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria: Beneficial effects for healthy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... These mechanisms were grouped into three clusters according to the PGPR effects on plant physiology. ... of antibiotics, lytic enzymes, hydrogen cyanide and volatile compounds. In view of ...

  4. Beneficial Effects of UV-Radiation: Vitamin D and beyond

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Trummer, Christian; Pandis, Marlene; Verheyen, Nicolas; Grübler, Martin; Gaksch, Martin; Obermayer-Pietsch, Barbara; Tomaschitz, Andreas; Pieber, Thomas; Pilz, Stefan; Schwetz, Verena

    2016-01-01

    Aside from its well-known effects on bone and mineral metabolism, vitamin D may also play an important role in extra-skeletal processes like immunologic diseases, cancer, or cardiovascular diseases...

  5. Imitation and Creativity: Beneficial Effects of Propulsion Strategies and Specificity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mecca, Jensen T.; Mumford, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Prior studies examining imitation of exemplar solutions have produced a mixed pattern of findings with some studies indicating that exemplar imitation contributes to creative problem-solving and other studies indicating that it may inhibit creative problem-solving. In the present effort, it is argued that the effects of exemplar imitation on…

  6. Beneficial neurocognitive effects of transcranial laser in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Enrique; Barrett, Douglas W; Saucedo, Celeste L; Huang, Li-Da; Abraham, Jacob A; Tanaka, Hirofumi; Haley, Andreana P; Gonzalez-Lima, F

    2017-07-01

    Transcranial infrared laser stimulation (TILS) at 1064 nm, 250 mW/cm(2) has been proven safe and effective for increasing neurocognitive functions in young adults in controlled studies using photobiomodulation of the right prefrontal cortex. The objective of this pilot study was to determine whether there is any effect from TILS on neurocognitive function in older adults with subjective memory complaint at risk for cognitive decline (e.g., increased carotid artery intima-media thickness or mild traumatic brain injury). We investigated the cognitive effects of TILS in older adults (ages 49-90, n = 12) using prefrontal cortex measures of attention (psychomotor vigilance task (PVT)) and memory (delayed match to sample (DMS)), carotid artery intima-media thickness (measured by ultrasound), and evaluated the potential neural mechanisms mediating the cognitive effects of TILS using exploratory brain studies of electroencephalography (EEG, n = 6) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, n = 6). Cognitive performance, age, and carotid artery intima-media thickness were highly correlated, but all participants improved in all cognitive measures after TILS treatments. Baseline vs. chronic (five weekly sessions, 8 min each) comparisons of mean cognitive scores all showed improvements, significant for PVT reaction time (p < 0.001), PVT lapses (p < 0.001), and DMS correct responses (p < 0.05). The neural studies also showed for the first time that TILS increases resting-state EEG alpha, beta, and gamma power and promotes more efficient prefrontal blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD)-fMRI response. Importantly, no adverse effects were found. These preliminary findings support the use of TILS for larger randomized clinical trials with this non-invasive approach to augment neurocognitive function in older people to combat aging-related and vascular disease-related cognitive decline.

  7. Beneficial effects of botulinum toxin type A in trigeminal neuralgia

    OpenAIRE

    Zúñiga, Carlos; Díaz,Sergio; Piedimonte, Fabián; Micheli, Federico

    2008-01-01

    Botulinum toxin has been thoroughly studied as a potential tool in the treatment of several pain syndromes. Therefore, we assessed the clinical effects of botulinum toxin type A injections in 12 patients with otherwise unresponsive idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia. Patients were infiltrated with 20-50 units of botulinum toxin in trigger zones. Those who presented with mandibular involvement were also infiltrated in the masseter muscle. The patients were assessed on a weekly basis using the Vis...

  8. Energy Drink Consumption: Beneficial and Adverse Health Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Alsunni, Ahmed Abdulrahman

    2015-01-01

    Consumption of energy drinks has been increasing dramatically in the last two decades, particularly amongst adolescents and young adults. Energy drinks are aggressively marketed with the claim that these products give an energy boost to improve physical and cognitive performance. However, studies supporting these claims are limited. In fact, several adverse health effects have been related to energy drink; this has raised the question of whether these beverages are safe. This review was carri...

  9. Beneficial effects of botulinum toxin type A in trigeminal neuralgia

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Zúñiga; Sergio Díaz; Fabián Piedimonte; Federico Micheli

    2008-01-01

    Botulinum toxin has been thoroughly studied as a potential tool in the treatment of several pain syndromes. Therefore, we assessed the clinical effects of botulinum toxin type A injections in 12 patients with otherwise unresponsive idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia. Patients were infiltrated with 20-50 units of botulinum toxin in trigger zones. Those who presented with mandibular involvement were also infiltrated in the masseter muscle. The patients were assessed on a weekly basis using the Vis...

  10. Beneficial effects of humic acid on micronutrient availability to wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackowiak, C. L.; Grossl, P. R.; Bugbee, B. G.

    2001-01-01

    Humic acid (HA) is a relatively stable product of organic matter decomposition and thus accumulates in environmental systems. Humic acid might benefit plant growth by chelating unavailable nutrients and buffering pH. We examined the effect of HA on growth and micronutrient uptake in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grown hydroponically. Four root-zone treatments were compared: (i) 25 micromoles synthetic chelate N-(4-hydroxyethyl)ethylenediaminetriacetic acid (C10H18N2O7) (HEDTA at 0.25 mM C); (ii) 25 micromoles synthetic chelate with 4-morpholineethanesulfonic acid (C6H13N4S) (MES at 5 mM C) pH buffer; (iii) HA at 1 mM C without synthetic chelate or buffer; and (iv) no synthetic chelate or buffer. Ample inorganic Fe (35 micromoles Fe3+) was supplied in all treatments. There was no statistically significant difference in total biomass or seed yield among treatments, but HA was effective at ameliorating the leaf interveinal chlorosis that occurred during early growth of the nonchelated treatment. Leaf-tissue Cu and Zn concentrations were lower in the HEDTA treatment relative to no chelate (NC), indicating HEDTA strongly complexed these nutrients, thus reducing their free ion activities and hence, bioavailability. Humic acid did not complex Zn as strongly and chemical equilibrium modeling supported these results. Titration tests indicated that HA was not an effective pH buffer at 1 mM C, and higher levels resulted in HA-Ca and HA-Mg flocculation in the nutrient solution.

  11. Beneficial effects of humic acid on micronutrient availability to wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackowiak, C. L.; Grossl, P. R.; Bugbee, B. G.

    2001-01-01

    Humic acid (HA) is a relatively stable product of organic matter decomposition and thus accumulates in environmental systems. Humic acid might benefit plant growth by chelating unavailable nutrients and buffering pH. We examined the effect of HA on growth and micronutrient uptake in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grown hydroponically. Four root-zone treatments were compared: (i) 25 micromoles synthetic chelate N-(4-hydroxyethyl)ethylenediaminetriacetic acid (C10H18N2O7) (HEDTA at 0.25 mM C); (ii) 25 micromoles synthetic chelate with 4-morpholineethanesulfonic acid (C6H13N4S) (MES at 5 mM C) pH buffer; (iii) HA at 1 mM C without synthetic chelate or buffer; and (iv) no synthetic chelate or buffer. Ample inorganic Fe (35 micromoles Fe3+) was supplied in all treatments. There was no statistically significant difference in total biomass or seed yield among treatments, but HA was effective at ameliorating the leaf interveinal chlorosis that occurred during early growth of the nonchelated treatment. Leaf-tissue Cu and Zn concentrations were lower in the HEDTA treatment relative to no chelate (NC), indicating HEDTA strongly complexed these nutrients, thus reducing their free ion activities and hence, bioavailability. Humic acid did not complex Zn as strongly and chemical equilibrium modeling supported these results. Titration tests indicated that HA was not an effective pH buffer at 1 mM C, and higher levels resulted in HA-Ca and HA-Mg flocculation in the nutrient solution.

  12. Consumer perception of beneficial effects of probiotics for human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijkers, G T; Bimmel, D; Grevers, D; den Haan, N; Hristova, Y

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the knowledge, perception and buying behaviour of probiotics. 72 participants in Middelburg, the Netherlands, filled out a detailed questionnaire regarding probiotics and their customer and consumer behaviour. It can be concluded from this study that the concept of probiotics is generally poorly understood. Health-conscious consumers seem to be the group most aware of the correct meaning of the term probiotics. Almost 50% of the participants did not believe that probiotics had any health effect. Independent organisations and/or government agencies appeared to be the preferred source of information on the functionality of probiotics.

  13. Beneficial Effects of UV-Radiation: Vitamin D and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trummer, Christian; Pandis, Marlene; Verheyen, Nicolas; Grübler, Martin R.; Gaksch, Martin; Obermayer-Pietsch, Barbara; Tomaschitz, Andreas; Pieber, Thomas R.; Pilz, Stefan; Schwetz, Verena

    2016-01-01

    Aside from its well-known effects on bone and mineral metabolism, vitamin D may also play an important role in extra-skeletal processes like immunologic diseases, cancer, or cardiovascular diseases. Even though meta-analyses showed that vitamin D supplementation reduces fractures, falls, and overall mortality, its potential benefits did not find universal acclaim. Several health care authorities published Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) for vitamin D, most of them ranging from 600 to 800 international units (IU) per day, corresponding to a serum level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D of at least 20 ng/mL (50 nmol/L). However, studies conducted in the general population revealed a much lower overall intake of vitamin D than the proposed RDAs. Thus, strategies to increase the vitamin D intake in the general population, e.g., food fortification or vitamin D supplementation, are needed to match the existing evidence and recommendations. Therefore, several currently ongoing projects aim to investigate the effect of vitamin D supplementation in the general population and try to establish food-based solutions to improve vitamin D status. PMID:27775585

  14. Influence of alignment of the pyramid on its beneficial effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Surekha; Rao, Guruprasad; Murthy, K Dilip; Bhat, P Gopalakrishna

    2007-05-01

    The present study was aimed to find out whether a change in the alignment of the pyramid from the north-south axis causes any variation in the effects produced by it on plasma cortisol levels and markers of oxidative stress in erythrocytes of adult-female Wistar rats. Plasma cortisol and erythrocyte TBARS levels were significantly lower whereas erythrocyte GSH was significantly higher in rats kept in pyramid that was aligned on the four cardinal points--north, east, south and west, as compared to normal control rats. Although there was a significant difference in the plasma cortisol level between normal control group and the group of rats kept in randomly aligned pyramid, there was no significant difference between these two groups for the other parameters. Erythrocyte TBARS levels in the group of rats kept in the randomly aligned pyramid was significantly higher than that in the group kept in the magnetically aligned pyramid. The results suggest that the north-south alignment of the pyramid is crucial for its expected effects.

  15. Beneficial Effects of UV-Radiation: Vitamin D and beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Trummer

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Aside from its well-known effects on bone and mineral metabolism, vitamin D may also play an important role in extra-skeletal processes like immunologic diseases, cancer, or cardiovascular diseases. Even though meta-analyses showed that vitamin D supplementation reduces fractures, falls, and overall mortality, its potential benefits did not find universal acclaim. Several health care authorities published Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs for vitamin D, most of them ranging from 600 to 800 international units (IU per day, corresponding to a serum level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D of at least 20 ng/mL (50 nmol/L. However, studies conducted in the general population revealed a much lower overall intake of vitamin D than the proposed RDAs. Thus, strategies to increase the vitamin D intake in the general population, e.g., food fortification or vitamin D supplementation, are needed to match the existing evidence and recommendations. Therefore, several currently ongoing projects aim to investigate the effect of vitamin D supplementation in the general population and try to establish food-based solutions to improve vitamin D status.

  16. Beneficial effect of lantibiotic nisin in rabbit husbandry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauková, Andrea; Chrastinová, Lubica; Plachá, Iveta; Kandričáková, Anna; Szabóová, Renáta; Strompfová, Viola; Chrenková, Mária; Cobanová, Klaudia; Zitňan, Rudolf

    2014-03-01

    Nisin is a bacteriocin marketed as Nisaplin. The aim of our work was to test its in vivo effect in a rabbit model; its effect on phagocytic activity (PA) and morphometry has not so far been studied. Post-weaning rabbits (48), 5 weeks old (both sexes, Hycole breed), were divided into the experimental (E) and the control groups (C), 24 animals in each. They were fed a commercial diet with access to water ad libitum. Rabbits in E had nisin additionally administered to their drinking water (500 IU-20 μg per animal/day) for 28 days. The experiment lasted 42 days. On day 28, significant decrease in coagulase-positive (CoPS) staphylococci and coliforms was noted (p < 0.01) in faeces of group E compared with C. Pseudomonads and clostridiae were also significantly reduced (p < 0.001; p < 0.05) and slight decrease was also in CoNS and enterococci. On day 42, coliforms were still significantly reduced (p < 0.001) in faeces; slight decrease in CoPS and pseudomonads was noted. In the caecum, significant decrease in pseudomonads (p < 0.05) was noted on day 28; slight decrease in coliforms. In the appendix slight decrease in coliforms, pseudomonads was obtained on both days. PA was increased significantly in E on days 28, 42 (p < 0.001). Biochemical parameters were not influenced; nor were volatile fatty acids or lactic acid in the chymus. Nisin application did not evoke oxidative stress. In group E, an increase in average body weight gain (about 9.4 %) was noted. The villus height/crypt depth ratio was not influenced; that is, resorption surface and functionality of mucosa were not influenced.

  17. Revaccination with Live Attenuated Vaccines Confer Additional Beneficial Nonspecific Effects on Overall Survival: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine S. Benn

    2016-08-01

    Interpretation: Revaccination with live vaccines led to substantial reductions in overall mortality. These findings challenge current understanding of vaccines and may explain the beneficial effects of campaigns with live vaccines.

  18. Mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of Kaiyu Granule for depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xi Jin; Yidan Zhang; Qiaoying Li; Jianjun Zhao

    2013-01-01

    The proprietary Chinese medicine preparation Kaiyu Granule is made of bupleurum, nutgrass ga-lingale rhizome, szechwan lovage rhizome, turmeric root tuber, white peony alba, cape jasmine fruit, fried semen ziziphi jujubae, and prepared liquorice root. It is a common recipe for the clinical treatment of depression in China. In this study, after 21 days of unpredictable stress exposure, Wistar rats exhibited similar behavioral changes to patients with depression. Moreover, G-protein-coupled inwardly rectifying K+channel 1 mRNA and protein expression were significantly reduced in rat hippocampal CA1 and CA3 regions. However, G-protein-coupled inwardly rectifying K+channel 1 mRNA, protein expression, and rat behavior were clearly better after administration of 12, 8, or 4 g/kg of Kaiyu Granule when depression model rats underwent stress. 12 g/kg of Kaiyu Granule had the most obvious effects on the increased expression of G-protein-coupled inwardly rectifying K+channel 1 mRNA and protein in rat hippocampal CA1 and CA3 regions. These results suggested that Kaiyu Granule improved depression by affecting G-protein-coupled inwardly fying K+channel 1 expression in the rat hippocampus.

  19. BENEFICIAL EFFECTS OF LEVOTHYROXINE IN THE TREATMENT OF SUBCLINICAL HYPOTHYROIDISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulic Mersudin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:Increased cardiovascular risk in thyroid dysfunction is associated with disorders of lipid and lipoproteins, endothelial dysfunction, metabolic, hormonal, hemodynamic changes and coagulation disorders. Subclinical hypothyroidism is characterized by a suprarnormal level of TSH with normal levels of thyroid hormones. The correlation between subclinical hypothyroidism of the lipid profile and cardiovascular outcomes remains unclear. Several intervention studies assessed the effect of levothyroxine therapy on the lipid profile of patients with subclinical hypothyroidism and obtained conflicting results. The aim of the research is to determine whether subclinical hypothyroidism is associated with the atherogenic lipid profile and whether these changes are reversible after the introduction of the L-thyroxine replacement therapy. Method: The study included 51 patients over 50 years of age with subclinical hypothyroidism. All the participants were subjected to an examination programme which included a detailed anamnesis and physical examination, laboratory tests (total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, T3, T4, TSH. After eight weeks of levothyroxine therapy, the same laboratory parameters were determined in the patients. Results: Subjects with subclinical hypothyroidism had high average values: TSH (12.77 + 2.78 mIU / ml, total cholesterol (7.55 ± 0.79 mmol / l, LDL cholesterol (5.03 ± 0.61 mmol / l, triglycerides (2.48 ± 1.01 mmol / l; and the average value of HDL cholesterol was within reference values (1.12 ± 0.21 mmol / l. After eight weeks of levothyroxine replacement therapy, there was a statistically significant reduction of average values (p <0.0001: TSH (3.83 ± 1.33 mIU / ml, total cholesterol (6.28 ± 0.96 mmol / l, LDL cholesterol ( 4.03 ± 0.70 mmol / mmol / l l, triglycerides (1.98 ± 0.87 mmol / l; and the average value of HDL cholesterol increased significantly (p <0.0001 (1.32 ± 0.22 mmol

  20. Novel small-molecule AMPK activator orally exerts beneficial effects on diabetic db/db mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yuan-Yuan; Yu, Li-Fang; Zhang, Li-Na; Qiu, Bei-Ying; Su, Ming-Bo; Wu, Fang; Chen, Da-Kai; Pang, Tao; Gu, Min; Zhang, Wei; Ma, Wei-Ping; Jiang, Hao-Wen; Li, Jing-Ya, E-mail: jyli@mail.shcnc.ac.cn; Nan, Fa-Jun, E-mail: fjnan@mail.shcnc.ac.cn; Li, Jia, E-mail: jli@mail.shcnc.ac.cn

    2013-12-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which is a pivotal guardian of whole-body energy metabolism, has become an attractive therapeutic target for metabolic syndrome. Previously, using a homogeneous scintillation proximity assay, we identified the small-molecule AMPK activator C24 from an optimization based on the original allosteric activator PT1. In this paper, the AMPK activation mechanism of C24 and its potential beneficial effects on glucose and lipid metabolism on db/db mice were investigated. C24 allosterically stimulated inactive AMPK α subunit truncations and activated AMPK heterotrimers by antagonizing autoinhibition. In primary hepatocytes, C24 increased the phosphorylation of AMPK downstream target acetyl-CoA carboxylase dose-dependently without changing intracellular AMP/ATP ratio, indicating its allosteric activation in cells. Through activating AMPK, C24 decreased glucose output by down-regulating mRNA levels of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) in primary hepatocytes. C24 also decreased the triglyceride and cholesterol contents in HepG2 cells. Due to its improved bioavailability, chronic oral treatment with multiple doses of C24 significantly reduced blood glucose and lipid levels in plasma, and improved the glucose tolerance of diabetic db/db mice. The hepatic transcriptional levels of PEPCK and G6Pase were reduced. These results demonstrate that this orally effective activator of AMPK represents a novel approach to the treatment of metabolic syndrome. - Highlights: • C24 activates AMPK through antagonizing autoinhibition within α subunit. • C24 activates AMPK in hepatocytes and decreases glucose output via AMPK. • C24 exerts beneficial effects on diabetic db/db mice. • C24 represents a novel therapeutic for treatment of metabolic syndrome.

  1. Beneficial effects of increased lysozyme levels in Alzheimer's disease modelled in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandin, Linnea; Bergkvist, Liza; Nath, Sangeeta; Kielkopf, Claudia; Janefjord, Camilla; Helmfors, Linda; Zetterberg, Henrik; Blennow, Kaj; Li, Hongyun; Nilsberth, Camilla; Garner, Brett; Brorsson, Ann-Christin; Kågedal, Katarina

    2016-10-01

    Genetic polymorphisms of immune genes that associate with higher risk to develop Alzheimer's disease (AD) have led to an increased research interest on the involvement of the immune system in AD pathogenesis. A link between amyloid pathology and immune gene expression was suggested in a genome-wide gene expression study of transgenic amyloid mouse models. In this study, the gene expression of lysozyme, a major player in the innate immune system, was found to be increased in a comparable pattern as the amyloid pathology developed in transgenic mouse models of AD. A similar pattern was seen at protein levels of lysozyme in human AD brain and CSF, but this lysozyme pattern was not seen in a tau transgenic mouse model. Lysozyme was demonstrated to be beneficial for different Drosophila melanogaster models of AD. In flies that expressed Aβ1-42 or AβPP together with BACE1 in the eyes, the rough eye phenotype indicative of toxicity was completely rescued by coexpression of lysozyme. In Drosophila flies bearing the Aβ1-42 variant with the Arctic gene mutation, lysozyme increased the fly survival and decreased locomotor dysfunction dose dependently. An interaction between lysozyme and Aβ1-42 in the Drosophila eye was discovered. We propose that the increased levels of lysozyme, seen in mouse models of AD and in human AD cases, were triggered by Aβ1-42 and caused a beneficial effect by binding of lysozyme to toxic species of Aβ1-42 , which prevented these from exerting their toxic effects. These results emphasize the possibility of lysozyme as biomarker and therapeutic target for AD. © 2016 The Authors. The FEBS Journal published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  2. The unexpected beneficial effect of the L-valley population on the electron mobility of GaAs nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marin, E. G., E-mail: egmarin@ugr.es, E-mail: franruiz@ugr.es, E-mail: agodoy@ugr.es; Ruiz, F. G., E-mail: egmarin@ugr.es, E-mail: franruiz@ugr.es, E-mail: agodoy@ugr.es; Godoy, A., E-mail: egmarin@ugr.es, E-mail: franruiz@ugr.es, E-mail: agodoy@ugr.es; Tienda-Luna, I. M.; Gámiz, F. [Departamento de Electrónica, Universidad de Granada, Av. Fuentenueva S/N, 18071, Granada (Spain)

    2015-01-12

    The impact of the L-valley population on the transport properties of GaAs cylindrical nanowires (NWs) is analyzed by numerically calculating the electron mobility under the momentum relaxation time approximation. In spite of its low contribution to the electron mobility (even for high electron populations in small NWs), it is demonstrated to have a beneficial effect, since it significantly favours the Γ-valley mobility by screening the higher Γ-valley energy subbands.

  3. Beneficial Effects of Traditional Seasonings on Quality Characteristics of Fermented Sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seong, Pil-Nam; Seo, Hyun-Woo; Kang, Sun-Moon; Kim, Yoon-Seok; Cho, Soo-Hyun; Kim, Jin-Hyoung; Hoa, Van-Ba

    2016-08-01

    Though traditional seasonings are widely used in many dishes, however, no attention has been paid to the investigation of their effects on quality characteristics of food products. The present investigation was undertaken to study the effects of incorporating several traditional seasonings including doenjang (fermented soybean paste), gochu-jang (red pepper paste), fresh medium-hot, and hot peppers, and fresh garlic on the lipid oxidation, cholesterol content and sensory characteristics of fermented sausages. Six fermented sausage treatments (5 with 1% (w/w) each test seasoning and 1 without added test seasoning (control) were prepared. The addition of seasonings generally had beneficial effects on the improvement of fermented sausage's quality however the effects differed depending on the each type of seasonings added. Significant lower pH values were found in all fermented sausages made with the seasonings while, lower levels of lipid oxidation were found in the treatments with hot peppers and garlic as compared with the control (psausages made with gochu-jang had significantly higher Commission International de l'Eclairagea* (redness) value in comparison with the control. Noticeably, incorporating doenjang, medium-hot peppers, hot peppers and garlic resulted in reduction of 26.50, 32.54, 47.04, and 48.54 mg cholesterol/100 g samples, respectively (psausages made with seasonings. The current work demonstrates that the test seasonings represent potentially natural ingredients to be used for producing healthier fermented sausages.

  4. The beneficial effects of massage therapy for insomnia in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hachul

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available With increases life expectancy, the incidence of undesirable manifestations of menopause has increased as well. The effects of lost ovarian function include progressive decrease in estradiol secretion, trophic changes in the breast, vasomotor symptoms, anxiety, depression, and sleep disorders. Insomnia, which has physiological consequences and can result in a loss of quality of life, is prevalent in women after menopause. Hormone therapy has been widely used to reduce menopausal symptoms, but its use in recent years has been questioned because of the reported risks of cardiovascular events and increased incidence of tumors. This controversy has generated significant interest in non-hormonal treatments among both physicians and patients. Our previous research has shown a positive effect of massage therapy on menopausal symptoms. We explored the hypothesis that massage therapy would produce beneficial effects in postmenopausal women through inflammatory and immunological changes. Recent results from self-report questionnaires have shown improvements in sleep pattern and quality of life following massage therapy. These findings demonstrate the effectiveness of massage therapy for the treatment of postmenopausal symptoms, particularly insomnia, and indicate that it is a promising line of research.

  5. The beneficial effects of massage therapy for insomnia in postmenopausal women☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachul, H.; Oliveira, D.S.; Bittencourt, L.R.A.; Andersen, M.L.; Tufik, S.

    2014-01-01

    With increases life expectancy, the incidence of undesirable manifestations of menopause has increased as well. The effects of lost ovarian function include progressive decrease in estradiol secretion, trophic changes in the breast, vasomotor symptoms, anxiety, depression, and sleep disorders. Insomnia, which has physiological consequences and can result in a loss of quality of life, is prevalent in women after menopause. Hormone therapy has been widely used to reduce menopausal symptoms, but its use in recent years has been questioned because of the reported risks of cardiovascular events and increased incidence of tumors. This controversy has generated significant interest in non-hormonal treatments among both physicians and patients. Our previous research has shown a positive effect of massage therapy on menopausal symptoms. We explored the hypothesis that massage therapy would produce beneficial effects in postmenopausal women through inflammatory and immunological changes. Recent results from self-report questionnaires have shown improvements in sleep pattern and quality of life following massage therapy. These findings demonstrate the effectiveness of massage therapy for the treatment of postmenopausal symptoms, particularly insomnia, and indicate that it is a promising line of research. PMID:26483913

  6. The beneficial effects of massage therapy for insomnia in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachul, H; Oliveira, D S; Bittencourt, L R A; Andersen, M L; Tufik, S

    2014-06-01

    With increases life expectancy, the incidence of undesirable manifestations of menopause has increased as well. The effects of lost ovarian function include progressive decrease in estradiol secretion, trophic changes in the breast, vasomotor symptoms, anxiety, depression, and sleep disorders. Insomnia, which has physiological consequences and can result in a loss of quality of life, is prevalent in women after menopause. Hormone therapy has been widely used to reduce menopausal symptoms, but its use in recent years has been questioned because of the reported risks of cardiovascular events and increased incidence of tumors. This controversy has generated significant interest in non-hormonal treatments among both physicians and patients. Our previous research has shown a positive effect of massage therapy on menopausal symptoms. We explored the hypothesis that massage therapy would produce beneficial effects in postmenopausal women through inflammatory and immunological changes. Recent results from self-report questionnaires have shown improvements in sleep pattern and quality of life following massage therapy. These findings demonstrate the effectiveness of massage therapy for the treatment of postmenopausal symptoms, particularly insomnia, and indicate that it is a promising line of research.

  7. Part-list cuing effects in children: A developmental dissociation between the detrimental and beneficial effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Thomas; Aslan, Alp

    2017-09-21

    Providing a subset of previously studied items as a retrieval cue can both impair and improve recall of the remaining items. Here, we investigated the development of these two opposing effects of such part-list cuing in children. Using listwise directed forgetting to manipulate study context access, three child age groups (7-8, 9-11, and 13-14years) and young adults studied a list of items and, after study, were asked to either forget or continue remembering the list. After presentation of a second list, participants were tested on predefined target items from the original list in either the presence or absence of the list's remaining (nontarget) items serving as retrieval cues. Results revealed that part-list cuing impaired recall of to-be-remembered target items regardless of age. In contrast, part-list cuing improved recall of to-be-forgotten target items in the adult and the oldest child groups but not in the two younger child groups. This finding suggests a developmental dissociation between the two opposing effects of part-list cuing, indicating that the beneficial effect develops later than the detrimental effect. In particular, following the view that the beneficial effect of part-list cuing arises from reactivation of the study context, the results suggest that elementary school children have difficulty in capitalizing on context reactivation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Beneficial metabolic effects of a probiotic via butyrate-induced GLP-1 hormone secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Hariom; Lee, Ji-Hyeon; Lloyd, John; Walter, Peter; Rane, Sushil G

    2013-08-30

    Obesity and diabetes are associated with excess caloric intake and reduced energy expenditure resulting in a negative energy balance. The incidence of diabetes has reached epidemic proportions, and childhood diabetes and obesity are increasing alarmingly. Therefore, it is important to develop safe, easily deliverable, and economically viable treatment alternatives for these diseases. Here, we provide data supporting the candidacy of probiotics as such a therapeutic modality against obesity and diabetes. Probiotics are live bacteria that colonize the gastrointestinal tract and impart beneficial effects for health. However, their widespread prescription as medical therapies is limited primarily because of the paucity of our understanding of their mechanism of action. Here, we demonstrate that the administration of a probiotic, VSL#3, prevented and treated obesity and diabetes in several mouse models. VSL#3 suppressed body weight gain and insulin resistance via modulation of the gut flora composition. VSL#3 promoted the release of the hormone GLP-1, resulting in reduced food intake and improved glucose tolerance. The VSL#3-induced changes were associated with an increase in the levels of a short chain fatty acid (SCFA), butyrate. Using a cell culture system, we demonstrate that butyrate stimulated the release of GLP-1 from intestinal L-cells, thereby providing a plausible mechanism for VSL#3 action. These findings suggest that probiotics such as VSL#3 can modulate the gut microbiota-SCFA-hormone axis. Moreover, our results indicate that probiotics are of potential therapeutic utility to counter obesity and diabetes.

  9. Beneficial effects of omega-3 fatty acids in the proteome of high-density lipoprotein proteome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burillo Elena

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Omega-3 poly-unsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs have demonstrated to be beneficial in the prevention of cardiovascular disease, however, the mechanisms by which they perform their cardiovascular protection have not been clarified. Intriguingly, some of these protective effects have also been linked to HDL. The hypothesis of this study was that ω-3 PUFAs could modify the protein cargo of HDL particle in a triglyceride non-dependent mode. The objective of the study was to compare the proteome of HDL before and after ω-3 PUFAs supplemented diet. Methods A comparative proteomic analysis in 6 smoker subjects HDL before and after a 5 weeks ω-3 PUFAs enriched diet has been performed. Results Among the altered proteins, clusterin, paraoxonase, and apoAI were found to increase, while fibronectin, α-1-antitrypsin, complement C1r subcomponent and complement factor H decreased after diet supplementation with ω-3 PUFAs. Immunodetection assays confirmed these results. The up-regulated proteins are related to anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-atherosclerotic properties of HDL, while the down-regulated proteins are related to regulation of complement activation and acute phase response. Conclusions Despite the low number of subjects included in the study, our findings demonstrate that ω-3 PUFAs supplementation modifies lipoprotein containing apoAI (LpAI proteome and suggest that these protein changes improve the functionality of the particle.

  10. Beneficial effects of schisandrin B on the cardiac function in mice model of myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pengsheng; Pang, Sisi; Yang, Naiquan; Meng, Haoyu; Liu, Jia; Zhou, Ningtian; Zhang, Min; Xu, Zhihui; Gao, Wei; Chen, Bo; Tao, Zhengxian; Wang, Liansheng; Yang, Zhijian

    2013-01-01

    The fruit of Schisandra chinensis has been used in the traditional Chinese medicine for thousands of years. Accumulating evidence suggests that Schisandrin B (Sch B) has cardioprotection effect on myocardial ischemia in vitro. However, it is unclear whether Sch B has beneficial effects on continuous myocardial ischemia in vivo. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether Sch B could improve cardiac function and attenuate myocardial remodeling after myocardial infarction (MI) in mice. Mice model of MI was established by permanent ligation of the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery. Then the MI mice were randomly treated with Sch B or vehicle alone. After treatment for 3 weeks, Sch B could increase survival rate, improve heart function and decrease infarct size compared with vehicle. Moreover, Sch B could down-regulate some inflammatory cytokines, activate eNOS pathway, inhibit cell apoptosis, and enhance cell proliferation. Further in vitro study on H9c2 cells showed similar effects of Sch B on prevention of hypoxia-induced inflammation and cell apoptosis. Taken together, our results demonstrate that Sch B can reduce inflammation, inhibit apoptosis, and improve cardiac function after ischemic injury. It represents a potential novel therapeutic approach for treatment of ischemic heart disease.

  11. Beneficial effects of schisandrin B on the cardiac function in mice model of myocardial infarction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengsheng Chen

    Full Text Available The fruit of Schisandra chinensis has been used in the traditional Chinese medicine for thousands of years. Accumulating evidence suggests that Schisandrin B (Sch B has cardioprotection effect on myocardial ischemia in vitro. However, it is unclear whether Sch B has beneficial effects on continuous myocardial ischemia in vivo. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether Sch B could improve cardiac function and attenuate myocardial remodeling after myocardial infarction (MI in mice. Mice model of MI was established by permanent ligation of the left anterior descending (LAD coronary artery. Then the MI mice were randomly treated with Sch B or vehicle alone. After treatment for 3 weeks, Sch B could increase survival rate, improve heart function and decrease infarct size compared with vehicle. Moreover, Sch B could down-regulate some inflammatory cytokines, activate eNOS pathway, inhibit cell apoptosis, and enhance cell proliferation. Further in vitro study on H9c2 cells showed similar effects of Sch B on prevention of hypoxia-induced inflammation and cell apoptosis. Taken together, our results demonstrate that Sch B can reduce inflammation, inhibit apoptosis, and improve cardiac function after ischemic injury. It represents a potential novel therapeutic approach for treatment of ischemic heart disease.

  12. Beneficial effects of banana leaves (Musa x paradisiaca on glucose homeostasis: multiple sites of action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia D. Kappel

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The acute effect of crude extract, n-butanol and aqueous residual fractions of Musa x paradisiaca L., Musaceae, leaves on glycemia, serum insulin secretion and glycogen content in an in vivo approach was evaluated. In addition, the in vitro effect on disaccharidases activity and albumin glycation was studied. The crude extract and fractions, n-butanol and aqueous residual, reduced glycemia and increased liver glycogen content in hyperglycemic rats, inhibited maltase activity and the formation of advanced glycation end-products in vitro. Also, a significant increase in insulin secretion and muscle glycogen content in hyperglycemic rats was observed with oral administration of the n-butanol fraction. Phytochemical analysis demonstrated the presence of rutin in crude extract and fractions of M. x paradisiaca leaves as the major compound. These beneficial effects on the regulation of glucose homeostasis observed for M. x paradisiaca leaves and the presence of rutin as the major compound indicate potential anti-diabetic properties, since previous studies have been reported that rutin can modulate glucose homeostasis.

  13. Sirtuins and resveratrol-derived compounds: a model for understanding the beneficial effects of the Mediterranean diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Matteo A; Sansone, Luigi; Polletta, Lucia; Runci, Alessandra; Rashid, Mohammad M; De Santis, Elena; Vernucci, Enza; Carnevale, Ilaria; Tafani, Marco

    2014-01-01

    The beneficial effects of the Mediterranean diet (MD) had been first observed about 50 years ago. Consumption of fresh vegetables and fruits, cereals, red wine, nuts, legumes, etc. has been regarded as the primary factor for protection from many human pathologies by the Mediterranean diet. Subsequently, this was attributed to the presence of polyphenols and their derivatives that, by exerting an anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effect, can be involved in the prevention of many diseases. Clinical trials, observational studies and meta-analysis have demonstrated an antiageing effect of MD accompanied by a reduced risk of age-related pathologies, such as cardiovascular, metabolic and neurodegenerative diseases, as well as cancer. The scientific explanation of such beneficial effects was limited to the reduction of the oxidative stress by compounds present in the MD. However, recently, this view is changing thanks to new studies aimed to uncover the molecular mechanism(s) activated by components of this diet. In particular, a new class of proteins called sirtuins have gained the attention of the scientific community because of their antiageing effects, their ability to protect from cardiovascular, metabolic, neurodegenerative diseases, cancer and to extend lifespan in lower organisms as well as in mammals. Interestingly, resveratrol a polyphenol present in grapes, nuts and berries has been shown to activate sirtuins and such activation is able to explain most of the beneficial effects of the MD. In this review, we will highlight the importance of MD with particular attention to the possible molecular pathways that have been shown to be influenced by it. We will describe the state of the art leading to demonstrate the important role of sirtuins as principal intracellular mediators of the beneficial effects of the MD. Finally, we will also introduce how Mediterranean diet may influence microbioma composition and stem cells function.

  14. When mental inflexibility facilitates executive control: beneficial side effects of ruminative tendencies on goal maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altamirano, Lee J; Miyake, Akira; Whitmer, Anson J

    2010-10-01

    Although previous research suggests that depressive ruminators tend to become stuck in a particular mind-set, this mental inflexibility may not always be disadvantageous; in some cases, it may facilitate active maintenance of a single task goal in the face of distraction. To evaluate this hypothesis, we tested 98 college students, who differed in ruminative tendencies and dysphoria levels, on two executive-control tasks. One task emphasized fast-paced shifting between goals (letter naming), and one emphasized active goal maintenance (modified Stroop). Higher ruminative tendencies predicted more errors on the goal-shifting task but fewer errors on the goal-maintenance task; these results demonstrated that ruminative tendencies have both detrimental and beneficial effects. Moreover, although ruminative tendencies and dysphoria levels were moderately correlated (r = .42), higher dysphoria levels predicted more errors on the goal-maintenance task; this finding indicates that rumination and dysphoria can have opposing effects on executive control. Overall, these results suggest that depressive rumination reflects a trait associated with more stability (goal maintenance) than flexibility (goal shifting).

  15. The effect of glyphosate on potential pathogens and beneficial members of poultry microbiota in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shehata, Awad A; Schrödl, Wieland; Aldin, Alaa A; Hafez, Hafez M; Krüger, Monika

    2013-04-01

    The use of glyphosate modifies the environment which stresses the living microorganisms. The aim of the present study was to determine the real impact of glyphosate on potential pathogens and beneficial members of poultry microbiota in vitro. The presented results evidence that the highly pathogenic bacteria as Salmonella Entritidis, Salmonella Gallinarum, Salmonella Typhimurium, Clostridium perfringens and Clostridium botulinum are highly resistant to glyphosate. However, most of beneficial bacteria as Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, Bacillus badius, Bifidobacterium adolescentis and Lactobacillus spp. were found to be moderate to highly susceptible. Also Campylobacter spp. were found to be susceptible to glyphosate. A reduction of beneficial bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract microbiota by ingestion of glyphosate could disturb the normal gut bacterial community. Also, the toxicity of glyphosate to the most prevalent Enterococcus spp. could be a significant predisposing factor that is associated with the increase in C. botulinum-mediated diseases by suppressing the antagonistic effect of these bacteria on clostridia.

  16. Ultrasound-enhanced Fibrinolysis Pro-fibrinolytic and Non-beneficial Effects Of Ultrasound Exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Madsen-Härdig, Bjarne

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to further clarify the pro-fibrinolytic effects, and to explore the possible non-beneficial effects in ischemic organs, during exposure to pulsed ultrasound. This was accomplished by studies of the effects of different intensities of pulsed ultrasound exposure on the fibrinolytic properties of streptokinase and reteplase. Measurements were performed both following pre-exposure of the drugs and clots to pulsed ultrasound, and following concomitant exposure of clots an...

  17. Temporal dependence of beneficial effects of coronary thrombolysis characterized by positron tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergmann, S.R.; Lerch, R.A.; Fox, K.A.; Ludbrook, P.A.; Welch, M.J.; Ter-Pogossian, M.M.; Sobel, B.E.

    1982-10-01

    To delineate beneficial effects of intracoronary thrombolysis on myocardial metabolism in vivo and their dependence on the interval after coronary occlusion prior to reperfusion, we studied 23 closed-chest dogs. Coronary occlusion was produced with a thrombogenic copper coil to performance of cardiac positron emission tomography with /sup 11/C-palmitate. Jeopardized zones were calculated by summation by myocardial regions exhibiting less than 50 percent of the peak left ventricular wall radioactivity, and residual metabolic activity within jeopardized zones quantified based on the average counts compared with average counts in normal myocardium. After tomography, streptokinase was infused into the coronary artery (4,000 units per minute), resulting in angiographically demonstrable restoration of patency. Repeat tomography performed 90 minutes after the initial study with a second injection of /sup 11/C-palmitate demonstrated reduction of jeopardized zones by 51 +/- 6.3 percent (SE) and by 21 +/- 1.8 (p less than 0.01 based on paired comparisons) when refusion was initiated 1 to 2 (in four dogs) or 2 to 4 (in six dogs) hours after occlusion. Metabolic activity in initially jeopardized regions increased by 111 +/- 24.3 percent and 61.8 +/- 12.6 (p less than 0.01 for each). When streptokinase was infused later after occlusion, significant salutary metabolic effects did not occur. These results indicate that positron tomography may be useful in the clinical delineation of the efficacy of thrombolytic therapy in restoring myocardial metabolism and underscore the marked dependence of such efficacy on the duration of the interval of ischemia prior to the onset of reperfusion.

  18. Beneficial effects of low dose radiation in response to the oncogenic KRAS induced cellular transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Rae-Kwon; Kim, Min-Jung; Seong, Ki Moon; Kaushik, Neha; Suh, Yongjoon; Yoo, Ki-Chun; Cui, Yan-Hong; Jin, Young Woo; Nam, Seon Young; Lee, Su-Jae

    2015-10-30

    Recently low dose irradiation has gained attention in the field of radiotherapy. For lack of understanding of the molecular consequences of low dose irradiation, there is much doubt concerning its risks on human beings. In this article, we report that low dose irradiation is capable of blocking the oncogenic KRAS-induced malignant transformation. To address this hypothesis, we showed that low dose irradiation, at doses of 0.1 Gray (Gy); predominantly provide defensive response against oncogenic KRAS -induced malignant transformation in human cells through the induction of antioxidants without causing cell death and acts as a critical regulator for the attenuation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Importantly, we elucidated that knockdown of antioxidants significantly enhanced ROS generation, invasive and migratory properties and abnormal acini formation in KRAS transformed normal as well as cancer cells. Taken together, this study demonstrates that low dose irradiation reduces the KRAS induced malignant cellular transformation through diminution of ROS. This interesting phenomenon illuminates the beneficial effects of low dose irradiation, suggesting one of contributory mechanisms for reducing the oncogene induced carcinogenesis that intensify the potential use of low dose irradiation as a standard regimen.

  19. Beneficial effects of silicon on hydroponically grown corn salad (Valerianella locusta (L.) Laterr) plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottardi, Stefano; Iacuzzo, Francesco; Tomasi, Nicola; Cortella, Giovanni; Manzocco, Lara; Pinton, Roberto; Römheld, Volker; Mimmo, Tanja; Scampicchio, Matteo; Dalla Costa, Luisa; Cesco, Stefano

    2012-07-01

    Soil-less cultivation of horticultural crops represents a fairly recent innovation to traditional agriculture which has several advantages including higher water-use efficiency. When plants are grown with this system, their roots come in contact with nutrients solely via the hydroponic solution. Although its beneficial effects have been widely demonstrated, silicon (Si) is mostly omitted from the composition of nutrient solutions. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess the beneficial effect of Si addition to hydroponic solution on quali-quantitative aspects of edible production of two cultivars of corn salad (Valerianella locusta (L.) Laterr.) grown in soil-less floating system. Impacts on shelf life of this food were also studied. Results show that the supply of Si increased the edible yield and the quality level reducing the nitrate concentration in edible tissues. This result might be attributed to changes either in the metabolism (such as the nitrate assimilation process) or to the functionality of root mechanisms involved in the nutrient acquisition from the outer medium. In fact, our results show for the first time the ability of Si to modulate the root activity of nitrate and Fe uptake through, at least in part, a regulation of gene expression levels of the proteins involved in this phenomenon. In addition, the presence of Si decreased the levels of polyphenoloxidase gene expression at harvest and, in post-harvest, slowed down the chlorophyll degradation delaying leaf senescence and thus prolonging the shelf life of these edible tissues. In conclusion, data showed that the addition of Si to the nutrient solution can be a useful tool for improving quali-quantitatively the yield of baby leaf vegetable corn salad as well as its shelf life. Since the amelioration due to the Si has been achieved only with one cultivar, the recommendation of its inclusion in the nutrient solution does not exclude the identification of cultivars suitable for this

  20. Potential Beneficial Effects of Probiotics on Human Migraine Headache: A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yu-Jie; Wang, Hai-Yan; Wang, Xi-Jian; Kaye, Alan D; Sun, Yong-Hai

    2017-02-01

    Recent studies have shown that migraine headache is often associated with concomitant gastrointestinal diseases. There is a higher prevalence of headaches in patients with gastrointestinal disorders. These associations between migraine and gastrointestinal disorders suggest a potential link to a bidirectional modulation of gut microbiota and brain function. The underlying working mechanistic links between migraine and gastrointestinal diseases may include increased intestinal epithelial permeability and inflammation. This review presents an overview of the relationship between gut microbiota and brain function, especially with regard to migraine headache. Literature review. Anesthesia and Operation Center, Department of Anesthesiology, Chinese PLA General Hospital. The present investigation included a PubMed search using the following terms: migraine headache, gut microbiota, brain function, and probiotics. In this literature review, we mainly discussed the relationship between gut microbiota and brain function, especially with regard to migraine headache. The potential effects of probiotics supplement on migraine headache were also included. There is limited evidence from clinical studies of the positive effects of probiotics in patients with migraine headache. Large-scale randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials are warranted to evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of probiotics in patients with migraine headache. Similar to migraine headache, disorders of the brain involving depression and anxiety have been demonstrated to be associated with increased gut permeability. An improvement in gut microbiota and reduction of inflammation can have positive effects on strengthening gut and brain function. Moreover, it can be inferred that probiotics may have a beneficial effect on the frequency and severity of migraine headache attacks. Large-scale randomized, placebo-controlled studies are warranted in the future to evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety

  1. Effects of persistent insecticides on beneficial soil arthropod in conventional fields compared to organic fields, puducherry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbarashan, Padmavathy; Gopalswamy, Poyyamoli

    2013-07-15

    The usage of synthetic fertilizers/insecticides in conventional farming has dramatically increased over the past decades. The aim of the study was to compare the effects of bio-pesticides and insecticides/pesticides on selected beneficial non targeted arthropods. Orders Collembola, Arachinida/Opiliones, Oribatida and Coleoptera were the main groups of arthropods found in the organic fields and Coleoptera, Oribatida, Gamasida and Collembola in conventional fields. Pesticides/insecticides had a significant effect on non-targeted arthropods order- Collembola, Arachinida/Opiliones, Hymenoptera and Thysonoptera were suppressed after pesticides/insecticides spraying. Bio-insecticides in organic fields had a non-significant effect on non targeted species and they started to increase in abundance after 7 days of spraying, whereas insecticide treatment in conventional fields had a significant long-term effect on non targeted arthropods and short term effect on pests/insects, it started to increase after 21 days of the spraying. These results indicate that insecticide treatment kept non targeted arthropods at low abundance. In conclusion, organic farming does not significantly affected the beneficial-non targeted arthropods biodiversity, whereas preventive insecticide application in conventional fields had significant negative effects on beneficial non targeted arthropods. Therefore, conventional farmers should restrict insecticide applications, unless pest densities reach the thresholds and more desirably can switch to organic farming practices.

  2. Beneficial effects of metformin on primary cardiomyocytes via activation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-fang; ZHANG Jin-ying; LI Ling; ZHAO Xiao-yan

    2011-01-01

    Background Metformin has become a cornerstone in the treatment of patients with type-2 diabetes. Accumulated evidence suggests that metformin supports direct cardiovascular effects. The present study aimed to investigate if metformin has beneficial effects on primary cardiomyocytes damaged by H2O2, and reveal the potential mechanism of action of metformin.Methods Cardiomyocytes were incubated in the presence of 100 umol/L. H2O2 for 12 hours. Cardiomyocytes were pretreated with metformin at different concentrations and time and with aminoimidazole carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR) (500 umol/L), an adenosine monophophate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) agonist for 60 minutes before the addition of H2O2. Other cells were preincubated with compound C (an AMPK antagonist, 20 umol/L) for 4 hours. The viability and apoptosis of cells were analyzed. AMPK, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 were analyzed using immunblotting.Results Metformin had antagonistic effects on the influences of H2O2 on cell viability and attenuated oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. Metformin also increased phosphorylation of AMPK and eNOS, and reduced the expression of TGF-β1, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α.Conclusions Metformin has beneficial effects on cardiomyocytes, and this effect involves activation of the AMPK-eNOS pathway. Metformin may be potentially beneficial for the treatment of heart disease.

  3. Studying the Greenhouse Effect: A Simple Demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papageorgiou, G.; Ouzounis, K.

    2000-01-01

    Studies the parameters involved in a presentation of the greenhouse effect and describes a simple demonstration of this effect. Required equipment includes a 100-120 watt lamp, a 250mL beaker, and a thermometer capable of recording 0-750 degrees Celsius together with a small amount of chloroform. (Author/SAH)

  4. [Beneficial effect of preferred music on cognitive functions in minimally conscious state patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verger, J; Ruiz, S; Tillmann, B; Ben Romdhane, M; De Quelen, M; Castro, M; Tell, L; Luauté, J; Perrin, F

    2014-11-01

    Several studies have shown that music can boost cognitive functions in normal and brain-damaged subjects. A few studies have suggested a beneficial effect of music in patients with a disorder of consciousness but it is difficult to conclude since they did not use quantified measures and a control condition/group. The aim of the present study was to compare the effect of music to that of a continuous sound on the relational behavior of patients in a minimally conscious state (MCS). Behavioral responses of six MCS patients were evaluated using items from the Coma Recovery Scale-Revised. Weekly evaluation sessions were carried out, over four weeks, under two conditions: following the presentation of either the patient's preferred music, or following a continuous sound (control condition). Qualitative and quantitative analyses showed that twelve of the eighteen sessions (66.6%) showed a better result for the music condition than for the control condition. This new protocol suggests that preferred music has a beneficial effect on the cognitive abilities of MCS patients. The results further suggest that cerebral plasticity may be enhanced in autobiographical (emotional and familiar) contexts. These findings should now be further extended with an increased number of patients to further validate the hypothesis of the beneficial effect of music on cognitive recovery. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Beneficial effects of chocolate on cardiovascular health | Efectos beneficiosos del chocolate en la salud cardiovascular

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Juaristi, Miren; L. González-Torres; Bravo, Laura; Vaquero, M. Pilar; Bastida, Sara; Sánchez-Muniz, F. J.

    2011-01-01

    Since ancient times, numerous health beneficial effects have been attributed to chocolate, closing up its consumption to a therapeutic use. The present study reviews some relevant studies about chocolate (and its bioactive compounds) on some cardiovascular risk factors and stresses the need of future studies. The consumption of cocoa/ chocolate (i) increases plasma antioxidant capacity, (ii) diminishes platelet function and inflammation, and (iii) decreases diastolic and systolic arterial pre...

  6. An overview of innovations in analysis and beneficial health effects of wine polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastija, V

    2011-12-01

    Polyphenols are natural compounds that show a wide spectrum of biological actions potentially beneficial for the human health. Wine is an alcoholic beverage that contains a large amount of polyphenols extracted from grapes during the processes of vinification. These molecules are associated with anticancerogenic, antidiabetic, neuroprotective, hormonal, antimicrobial, cardioprotective, and other health effects of wine. The present review provided an overview of well know and recent achievement in analytical methodology for the analysis of polyphenols in wine, and their biological activities.

  7. Revaccination with Live Attenuated Vaccines Confer Additional Beneficial Nonspecific Effects on Overall Survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Christine S; Fisker, Ane B; Whittle, Hilton C

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Live vaccines against measles (MV), tuberculosis (BCG), polio (OPV) and smallpox reduce mortality more than explained by target-disease prevention. The beneficial nonspecific effects (NSEs) of MV are strongest when MV is given in presence of maternal antibodies. We therefore hypothesi......BACKGROUND: Live vaccines against measles (MV), tuberculosis (BCG), polio (OPV) and smallpox reduce mortality more than explained by target-disease prevention. The beneficial nonspecific effects (NSEs) of MV are strongest when MV is given in presence of maternal antibodies. We therefore....... In a quasi-experimental study two doses before and after 9months compared with one dose of MV after 9months of age reduced mortality by 59% (25-81%). BCG-revaccination significantly enhanced BCG's effect against overall child mortality in two RCTs. In a natural experiment study of OPV campaigns over a 13......-year-period in Guinea-Bissau, each additional dose of OPV was associated with a 13% (4-21%) reduction in mortality rate. The beneficial NSEs of smallpox vaccination for survival increased significantly with the number of smallpox vaccination scars. INTERPRETATION: Revaccination with live vaccines led...

  8. SF-1 expression in the hypothalamus is required for beneficial metabolic effects of exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujikawa, Teppei; Castorena, Carlos M; Pearson, Mackenzie; Kusminski, Christine M; Ahmed, Newaz; Battiprolu, Pavan K; Kim, Ki Woo; Lee, Syann; Hill, Joseph A; Scherer, Philipp E; Holland, William L; Elmquist, Joel K

    2016-01-01

    Exercise has numerous beneficial metabolic effects. The central nervous system (CNS) is critical for regulating energy balance and coordinating whole body metabolism. However, a role for the CNS in the regulation of metabolism in the context of the exercise remains less clear. Here, using genetically engineered mice we assessed the requirement of steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1) expression in neurons of the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMH) in mediating the beneficial effects of exercise on metabolism. We found that VMH-specific deletion of SF-1 blunts (a) the reductions in fat mass, (b) improvements in glycemia, and (c) increases in energy expenditure that are associated with exercise training. Unexpectedly, we found that SF-1 deletion in the VMH attenuates metabolic responses of skeletal muscle to exercise, including induction of PGC-1α expression. Collectively, this evidence suggests that SF-1 expression in VMH neurons is required for the beneficial effects of exercise on metabolism. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18206.001 PMID:27874828

  9. Beneficial effects of multisensory and cognitive stimulation in institutionalized elderly: 12-months follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Macedo, Liliane Dias E Dias; De Oliveira, Thaís Cristina Galdino; Soares, Fernanda Cabral; Bento-Torres, João; Bento-Torres, Natáli Valim Oliver; Anthony, Daniel Clive; Picanço-Diniz, Cristovam Wanderley

    2015-01-01

    We previously demonstrated the beneficial effects of a multisensory and cognitive stimulation program, consisting of 48 sessions, twice a week, to improve the cognition of elderly subjects living either in long-term care institutions (institutionalized - I) or in communities with their families (noninstitutionalized - NI). In the present study, we evaluated these subjects after the end of the intervention and compared the rate of age-related cognitive decline of those living in an enriched community environment (NI group, n=15, 74.1±3.9 years old) with those living in the impoverished environment of long-term care institutions (I group, n=20, 75.1±6.8 years old). Both groups participated fully in our stimulation program. Over 1 year, we conducted revaluations at five time points (2 months, 4 months, 6 months, 8 months, and 12 months) after the completion of the intervention. Both elderly groups were evaluated with the mini-mental state examination and selected language tests. Progressive cognitive decline was observed in both groups over the period. Indeed, it took only 4-6 months after the end of the stimulation program for significant reductions in language test scores to become apparent. However, earlier reductions in test scores were mainly associated with I group, and linguistic prosody test scores were significantly affected by institutionalization and time, two variables that interacted and reduced these scores. Moreover, I group reduced the Montréal cognitive assessment battery language tests scores 4 months before NI group. It remains to be investigated what mechanisms may explain the earlier and more intense language losses in institutionalized elderly.

  10. Beneficial effects of intermittent suction and pressure treatment in intermittent claudication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlsen, J; Himmelstrup, H; Himmelstrup, Bodil

    1993-01-01

    The present study reports on the effects of a physical treatment modality in patients with intermittent claudication. During this treatment a major part of the skin surface is subjected to intermittent suction and pressure. In a previous, preliminary study the authors found a beneficial effect...... administration. The treatment caused significant increments in the ADP thresholds for platelet aggregation, while the effects on fibrinolysis were uncertain. It is concluded that intermittent suction and pressure treatment offers a new approach for conservative treatment of intermittent claudication....

  11. Pantoea agglomerans: a mysterious bacterium of evil and good. Part IV. Beneficial effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutkiewicz, Jacek; Mackiewicz, Barbara; Lemieszek, Marta Kinga; Golec, Marcin; Milanowski, Janusz

    2016-06-02

    Pantoea agglomerans, a gammaproteobacterium of plant origin, possesses many beneficial traits that could be used for the prevention and/or treatment of human and animal diseases, combating plant pathogens, promotion of plant growth and bioremediation of the environment. It produces a number of antibiotics (herbicolin, pantocins, microcin, agglomerins, andrimid, phenazine, among others) which could be used for combating plant, animal and human pathogens or for food preservation. Japanese researchers have demonstrated that the low-molecular-mass lipopolysaccharide of P. agglomerans isolated by them and described as 'Immunopotentiator from Pantoea agglomerans 1 (IP-PA1)' reveals the extremely wide spectrum of healing properties, mainly due to its ability for the maintenance of homeostasis by macrophage activation. IP-PA1 was proved to be effective in the prevention and treatment of a broad range of human and animal disorders, such as tumours, hyperlipidaemia, diabetes, ulcer, various infectious diseases, atopic allergy and stress-induced immunosuppression; it also showed a strong analgesic effect. It is important that most of these effects could be achieved by the safe oral administration of IP-PA1. Taking into account that P. agglomerans occurs commonly as a symbiont of many species of insects, including mosquitoes transmitting the Plasmodium parasites causing malaria, successful attempts were made to apply the strategy of paratransgenesis, in which bacterial symbionts are genetically engineered to express and secrete anti-Plasmodium effector proteins. This strategy shows prospects for a successful eradication of malaria, a deadly disease killing annually over one million people, as well as of other vector-borne diseases of humans, animals and plants. Pantoea agglomerans has been identified as an antagonist of many plant pathogens belonging to bacteria and fungi, as a result of antibiotic production, competition mechanisms or induction of plant resistance. Its use as

  12. Pantoea agglomerans: a mysterious bacterium of evil and good. Part IV. Beneficial effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Dutkiewicz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available [i][/i][i]Pantoea agglomerans[/i], a gammaproteobacterium of plant origin, possesses many beneficial traits that could be used for the prevention and/or treatment of human and animal diseases, combating plant pathogens, promotion of plant growth and bioremediation of the environment. It produces a number of antibiotics (herbicolin, pantocins, microcin, agglomerins, andrimid, phenazine, among others which could be used for combating plant, animal and human pathogens or for food preservation. Japanese researchers have demonstrated that the low-molecular-mass lipopolysaccharide of [i]P. agglomerans[/i] isolated by them and described as ‘Immunopotentiator from [i]Pantoea agglomerans[/i] 1 (IP-PA1’ reveals the extremely wide spectrum of healing properties, mainly due to its ability for the maintenance of homeostasis by macrophage activation. IP-PA1 was proved to be effective in the prevention and treatment of a broad range of human and animal disorders, such as tumours, hyperlipidaemia, diabetes, ulcer, various infectious diseases, atopic allergy and stress-induced immunosuppression; it also showed a strong analgesic effect. It is important that most of these effects could be achieved by the safe oral administration of IP-PA1. Taking into account that [i]P. agglomerans[/i] occurs commonly as a symbiont of many species of insects, including mosquitoes transmitting the [i]Plasmodium[/i] parasites causing malaria, successful attempts were made to apply the strategy of paratransgenesis, in which bacterial symbionts are genetically engineered to express and secrete anti-[i]Plasmodium[/i] effector proteins. This strategy shows prospects for a successful eradication of malaria, a deadly disease killing annually over one million people, as well as of other vector-borne diseases of humans, animals and plants. [i]Pantoea agglomerans[/i] has been identified as an antagonist of many plant pathogens belonging to bacteria and fungi, as a result of antibiotic

  13. Experiments to Demonstrate Piezoelectric and Pyroelectric Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhart, Jirí

    2013-01-01

    Piezoelectric and pyroelectric materials are used in many current applications. The purpose of this paper is to explain the basic properties of pyroelectric and piezoelectric effects and demonstrate them in simple experiments. Pyroelectricity is presented on lead zirconium titanate (PZT) ceramics as an electric charge generated by the temperature…

  14. Simple Demonstration of the Seebeck Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molki, Arman

    2010-01-01

    In this article we propose a simple and low-cost experimental set-up through which science educators can demonstrate the Seebeck effect using a thermocouple and an instrumentation amplifier. The experiment can be set up and conducted during a 1-hour laboratory session. (Contains 3 tables and 3 figures.)

  15. Beneficial effects of melatonin on in vitro bovine embryonic development are mediated by melatonin receptor 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Tian, XiuZhi; Zhang, Lu; Gao, Chao; He, ChangJiu; Fu, Yao; Ji, PengYun; Li, Yu; Li, Ning; Liu, GuoShi

    2014-04-01

    In the current study, a fundamental question, that is, the mechanisms related to the beneficial effects of melatonin on mammalian embryonic development, was addressed. To examine the potential beneficial effects of melatonin on bovine embryonic development, different concentrations of melatonin (10(-11), 10(-9), 10(-7), 10(-5), 10(-3) M) were incubated with fertilized embryos. Melatonin in the range of 10(-11) to 10(-5) M significantly promoted embryonic development both in early culture medium (CR1aa +3 mg/mL BSA) and in later culture medium (CR1aa + 6%FBS). The most effective concentrations applied in the current studies were 10(-9) and 10(-7) M. Using quantitative real-time PCR with immunofluorescence and Western blot assays, the expression of melatonin receptor MT1 and MT2 genes was identified in bovine embryos. Further studies indicate that the beneficial effects of melatonin on bovine embryo development were mediated by the MT1 receptor. This is based on the facts that luzindole, a nonselective MT1 and MT2 antagonist, blocked the effect on melatonin-induced embryo development, while 4-P-PDOT, a selective MT2 antagonist, had little effect. Mechanistic explorations uncovered that melatonin application during bovine embryonic development significantly up-regulated the expression of antioxidative (Gpx4, SOD1, bcl-2) and developmentally important genes (SLC2A1, DNMT1A, and DSC2) while down-regulating expression of pro-apoptotic genes (P53, BAX, and Caspase-3). The results obtained from the current studies provide new information regarding the mechanisms by which melatonin promotes bovine embryonic development under both in vitro and in vivo conditions.

  16. Effect of basicity on ferromanganese production from beneficiated low-grade manganese ore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suharno, Bambang; Noegroho, Adi; Ferdian, Deni; Nurjaman, Fajar

    2017-01-01

    Indonesia is known to have a large low-grade manganese ore reserve. Nevertheless, it could not be used optimally in producing ferromanganese due to their low Mn/Fe ratio. In this present study, the beneficiation process had been applied to the low-grade manganese ore. Reduction roasting was conducted to this manganese ore at 700°C for an hour and then continued with low-intensity magnetic separation. This process had improved the Mn/Fe ratio from 1.39 to 6.11. The effect of basicity on ferromanganese production from this beneficiated low-grade manganese ore had been investigated clearly in this experiment by using mini submerged arc furnace (SAF). Several basicities for 0.7 and 1.0, was used and it was controlled by the addition of limestone in this smelting process. From this experiment, the ferromanganese containing 60% Mn was obtained from smelting the beneficiated low-grade manganese ore with the optimum basicity 0.7.

  17. Beneficial effects of Monascus purpureus NTU 568-fermented products: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yeu-Ching; Pan, Tzu-Ming

    2011-05-01

    Monascus-fermented products have been used in food, medicine, and industry dating back over a thousand years in Asian countries. Monascus-fermented products contained several bioactive metabolites such as pigments, polyketide monacolins, dimerumic acid, and γ-aminobutyric acid. Scientific reports showed that Monascus-fermented products proved to be effective for the management of blood cholesterol, diabetes, blood pressure, obesity, Alzheimer's disease, and prevention of cancer development. This review article describes the beneficial effects about using Monascus-fermented products in human beings and animals.

  18. Distractor detection and suppression have a beneficial effect on attentional blink.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Attentional blink (AB is a phenomenon that describes the difficulty individuals have in reporting the second of two masked targets if the second target (T2 arrives 200-500 ms after the first target (T1. Recent studies explain the AB from cognitive resources limitation to distractors interference. For example, the temporary loss of control (TLC hypothesis suggests that the AB is conduced by distractors disrupting the input filter for target processing. The inhibition models suggest that the T1+1 distractor triggers a suppression mechanism which could be beneficial for T1 processing but would suppress T2 at short T1-T2 lags. These models consider that the AB is caused by the appearance of distractors. However, in the present study, two methods were taken to help individuals to detect the distractors more effectively. An attenuated AB deficit was found when the distractors could be excluded or suppressed in time. We consider that under an appropriate condition the distractors detection and suppression have a beneficial effect on attentional blink. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Two methods were employed to help individuals to detect the distractors more effectively: enlarging the low-level-physical characteristic difference between targets and distractors (Experiment 1 and restricting the sets of distractors (Experiment 2. Attenuated AB deficits were found as using the above manipulations. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The present study found when the distractors are detected or identified quickly, they could be effectively suppressed, in order to reduce the interference from the targets and result in a smaller AB deficit. We suggest that the suppression mechanism for distractors have a beneficial effect on AB.

  19. Beneficial effects of nicotine, cotinine and its metabolites as potential agents for Parkinson’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George E. eBarreto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson’s disease (PD is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, which is characterized by neuroinflammation, dopaminergic neuronal cell death and motor dysfunction, and for which there are no proven effective treatments. The negative correlation between tobacco consumption and PD suggests that tobacco-derived compounds can be beneficial against PD. Nicotine, the more studied alkaloid derived from tobacco, is considered to be responsible for the beneficial behavioral and neurological effects of tobacco use in PD. However, several metabolites of nicotine such as cotinine also increase in the brain after nicotine administration. The effect of nicotine and some of its derivatives on dopaminergic neurons viability, neuroinflammation, and motor and memory functions, have been investigated using cellular and rodent models of PD. Current evidence shows that nicotine, and some of its derivatives diminish oxidative stress and neuroinflammation in the brain and improve synaptic plasticity and neuronal survival of dopaminergic neurons. In vivo these effects resulted in improvements in mood, motor skills and memory in subjects suffering from PD pathology. In this review, we discuss the potential benefits of nicotine and its derivatives for treating PD.

  20. Adverse and beneficial effects of plant extracts on skin and skin disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantle, D; Gok, M A; Lennard, T W

    2001-06-01

    Plants are of relevance to dermatology for both their adverse and beneficial effects on skin and skin disorders respectively. Virtually all cultures worldwide have relied historically, or continue to rely on medicinal plants for primary health care. Approximately one-third of all traditional medicines are for treatment of wounds or skin disorders, compared to only 1-3% of modern drugs. The use of such medicinal plant extracts for the treatment of skin disorders arguably has been based largely on historical/anecdotal evidence, since there has been relatively little data available in the scientific literature, particularly with regard to the efficacy of plant extracts in controlled clinical trials. In this article therefore, adverse and beneficial aspects of medicinal plants relating to skin and skin disorders have been reviewed, based on recently available information from the peer-reviewed scientific literature. Beneficial aspects of medicinal plants on skin include: healing of wounds and burn injuries (especially Aloe vera); antifungal, antiviral, antibacterial and acaricidal activity against skin infections such as acne, herpes and scabies (especially tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) oil); activity against inflammatory/immune disorders affecting skin (e.g. psoriasis); and anti-tumour promoting activity against skin cancer (identified using chemically-induced two-stage carcinogenesis in mice). Adverse effects of plants on skin reviewed include: irritant contact dermatitis caused mechanically (spines, irritant hairs) or by irritant chemicals in plant sap (especially members of the Ranunculaceae, Euphorbiaceae and Compositae plant families); phytophotodermatitis resulting from skin contamination by plants containing furocoumarins, and subsequent exposure to UV light (notably members of the Umbelliferae and Rutaceae plant families); and immediate (type I) or delayed hypersensitivity contact reactions mediated by the immune system in individuals sensitized to plants

  1. Beneficial Effects of Dietary Nitrate on Endothelial Function and Blood Pressure Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenifer d’El-Rei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Poor eating habits may represent cardiovascular risk factors since high intake of fat and saturated fatty acids contributes to dyslipidemia, obesity, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension. Thus, nutritional interventions are recognized as important strategies for primary prevention of hypertension and as adjuvants to pharmacological therapies to reduce cardiovascular risk. The DASH (Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension plan is one of the most effective strategies for the prevention and nonpharmacological management of hypertension. The beneficial effects of DASH diet on blood pressure might be related to the high inorganic nitrate content of some food products included in this meal plan. The beetroot and other food plants considered as nitrate sources account for approximately 60–80% of the daily nitrate exposure in the western population. The increased levels of nitrite by nitrate intake seem to have beneficial effects in many of the physiological and clinical settings. Several clinical trials are being conducted to determine the broad therapeutic potential of increasing the bioavailability of nitrite in human health and disease, including studies related to vascular aging. In conclusion, the dietary inorganic nitrate seems to represent a promising complementary therapy to support hypertension treatment with benefits for cardiovascular health.

  2. Working memory capacity predicts the beneficial effect of selective memory retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlichting, Andreas; Aslan, Alp; Holterman, Christoph; Bäuml, Karl-Heinz T

    2015-01-01

    Selective retrieval of some studied items can both impair and improve recall of the other items. This study examined the role of working memory capacity (WMC) for the two effects of memory retrieval. Participants studied an item list consisting of predefined target and nontarget items. After study of the list, half of the participants performed an imagination task supposed to induce a change in mental context, whereas the other half performed a counting task which does not induce such context change. Following presentation of a second list, memory for the original list's target items was tested, either with or without preceding retrieval of the list's nontarget items. Consistent with previous work, preceding nontarget retrieval impaired target recall in the absence of the context change, but improved target recall in its presence. In particular, there was a positive relationship between WMC and the beneficial, but not the detrimental effect of memory retrieval. On the basis of the view that the beneficial effect of memory retrieval reflects context-reactivation processes, the results indicate that individuals with higher WMC are better able to capitalise on retrieval-induced context reactivation than individuals with lower WMC.

  3. Beneficial effects of multisensory and cognitive stimulation in institutionalized elderly: 12-months follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dias de Macedo LD

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Liliane Dias E Dias de Macedo,1 Thaís Cristina Galdino De Oliveira,1 Fernanda Cabral Soares,1 João Bento-Torres,1,2 Natáli Valim Oliver Bento-Torres,1,2 Daniel Clive Anthony,3 Cristovam Wanderley Picanço-Diniz1 1Laboratory of Investigations in Neurodegeneration and Infection, Institute of Biological Sciences, University Hospital João de Barros Barreto, Federal University of Pará, 2College of Physical Therapy and Occupational Therapy, Federal University of Para, Belem, Para, Brazil; 3Laboratory of Experimental Neuropathology, Department of Pharmacology, University of Oxford, Oxford, England, UKAbstract: We previously demonstrated the beneficial effects of a multisensory and cognitive stimulation program, consisting of 48 sessions, twice a week, to improve the cognition of elderly subjects living either in long-term care institutions (institutionalized – I or in communities with their families (noninstitutionalized – NI. In the present study, we evaluated these subjects after the end of the intervention and compared the rate of age-related cognitive decline of those living in an enriched community environment (NI group, n=15, 74.1±3.9 years old with those living in the impoverished environment of long-term care institutions (I group, n=20, 75.1±6.8 years old. Both groups participated fully in our stimulation program. Over 1 year, we conducted revaluations at five time points (2 months, 4 months, 6 months, 8 months, and 12 months after the completion of the intervention. Both elderly groups were evaluated with the mini-mental state examination and selected language tests. Progressive cognitive decline was observed in both groups over the period. Indeed, it took only 4–6 months after the end of the stimulation program for significant reductions in language test scores to become apparent. However, earlier reductions in test scores were mainly associated with I group, and linguistic prosody test scores were significantly

  4. A Review of Fermented Foods with Beneficial Effects on Brain and Cognitive Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Binna; Hong, Veronica Minsu; Yang, Jeongwon; Hyun, Heejung; Im, Jooyeon Jamie; Hwang, Jaeuk; Yoon, Sujung; Kim, Jieun E.

    2016-01-01

    Around the world, fermentation of foods has been adopted over many generations, primarily due to their commercial significance with enriched flavors and high-profile nutrients. The increasing application of fermented foods is further promoted by recent evidence on their health benefits, beyond the traditionally recognized effects on the digestive system. With recent advances in the understanding of gut-brain interactions, there have also been reports suggesting the fermented food’s efficacy, particularly for cognitive function improvements. These results are strengthened by the proposed biological effects of fermented foods, including neuroprotection against neurotoxicity and reactive oxygen species. This paper reviews the beneficial health effects of fermented foods with particular emphasis on cognitive enhancement and neuroprotective effects. With an extensive review of fermented foods and their potential cognitive benefits, this paper may promote commercially feasible applications of fermented foods as natural remedies to cognitive problems. PMID:28078251

  5. The Beneficial Effect of Praeruptorin C on Osteoporotic Bone in Ovariectomized Mice via Suppression of Osteoclast Formation and Bone Resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuqiang; Chin, Jie-Fen; Qu, Xinhua; Bi, Haidi; Liu, Yuan; Yu, Ziqiang; Zhai, Zanjing; Qin, An; Zhang, Bin; Dai, Min

    2017-01-01

    Being a highly prevalent disease, osteoporosis causes metabolism defects. Low bone density, compromised bone strength, and an increased danger of fragility fracture are its main characteristics. Natural compounds have been considered as potential alternative therapeutic agents for treating osteoporosis. In this study, we demonstrated that a natural compound, praeruptorin C (Pra-C), derived from the dried roots of Peucedanum praeruptorum, has beneficial effects in suppressing osteoclast formation and resorption function via attenuating the activation of nuclear factor kappa B as well as c-Jun N-terminal kinase/mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways. Moreover, Pra-C was tested in the ovariectomized (OVX) mice, a well-established model of post-menopausal bone loss, and the results indicated Pra-C exerted beneficial effects on inhibiting excessive osteoclast activity and increasing bone mass of OVX mice. Therefore, the protective effects of Pra-C on OVX mice bone are related to its inhibition of osteoclast formation and bone resorption, suggesting that Pra-C is a good potential candidate for osteoporosis treatment.

  6. Beneficial effects of non-alcoholic grape-derived products on human health: A literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Lorenzo Chiara

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vine is widely cultivated due to the economic value of wine and other grape derivatives. The grape berry is character- ized by the presence of a wide variety of flavonoids, which have been investigated for their health promoting properties. Several epidemiological studies have shown that a moderate consumption of wine is associated with a J-shaped effect on some risk fac- tors for chronic diseases. On the other hand, the wine market has shown a decreasing trend due to the frequent abuse of alcoholic beverages also by young people, as denounced by WHO. Accordingly, the scientific research in the field of non-alcoholic grape products has been further stimulated. The aim of this paper was a preliminary collection of data on human studies supporting the beneficial properties of unfermented grape products. The most convincing positive effects, observed in humans, consisted in the reduction of risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, such as hypertension and oxidative stress. Other human trials have been published in the area of: immune system, diabetes, cognitive functions, oral health, and cancer. Generally speaking, the findings listed in this review support the use of non-alcoholic grape derivatives, as a source of beneficial compounds for the human diet, even though further studies are necessary.

  7. Good morning creativity: task reactivation during sleep enhances beneficial effect of sleep on creative performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Simone M; Strick, Madelijn; Bos, Maarten W; van Baaren, Rick B; Dijksterhuis, Ap

    2012-12-01

    Both scientists and artists have suggested that sleep facilitates creativity, and this idea has received substantial empirical support. In the current study, we investigate whether one can actively enhance the beneficial effect of sleep on creativity by covertly reactivating the creativity task during sleep. Individuals' creative performance was compared after three different conditions: sleep-with-conditioned-odor; sleep-with-control-odor; or sleep-with-no-odor. In the evening prior to sleep, all participants were presented with a problem that required a creative solution. In the two odor conditions, a hidden scent-diffuser spread an odor while the problem was presented. In the sleep-with-conditioned-odor condition, task reactivation during sleep was induced by means of the odor that was also presented while participants were informed about the problem. In the sleep-with-control-odor condition, participants were exposed to a different odor during sleep than the one diffused during problem presentation. In the no odor condition, no odor was presented. After a night of sleep with the conditioned odor, participants were found to be: (i) more creative; and (ii) better able to select their most creative idea than participants who had been exposed to a control odor or no odor while sleeping. These findings suggest that we do not have to passively wait until we are hit by our creative muse while sleeping. Task reactivation during sleep can actively trigger creativity-related processes during sleep and thereby boost the beneficial effect of sleep on creativity.

  8. Unravelling the beneficial role of microbial contributors in reducing the allelopathic effects of weeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Sandhya; Upadhyay, Ram Sanmukh; Nautiyal, Chandra Shekhar

    2013-07-01

    The field of allelopathy is one of the most fascinating but controversial processes in plant ecology that offers an exciting, interdisciplinary, complex, and challenging study. In spite of the established role of soil microbes in plant health, their role has also been consolidated in studies of allelopathy. Moreover, allelopathy can be better understood by incorporating soil microbial ecology that determines the relevance of allelopathy phenomenon. Therefore, while discussing the role of allelochemicals in plant-plant interactions, the dynamic nature of soil microbes should not be overlooked. The occurrence and toxicity of allelochemicals in soil depend on various factors, but the type of microflora in the surroundings plays a crucial role because it can interfere with its allelopathic nature. Such microbes could be of prime importance for biological control management of weeds reducing the cost and ill effects of chemical herbicides. Among microbes, our main focus is on bacteria--as they are dominant among other microbes and are being used for enhancing crop production for decades--and fungi. Hence, to refer to both bacteria and fungi, we have used the term microbes. This review discusses the beneficial role of microbes in reducing the allelopathic effects of weeds. The review is mainly focused on various functions of bacteria in (1) reducing allelopathic inhibition caused by weeds to reduce crop yield loss, (2) building inherent defense capacity in plants against allelopathic weed, and (3) deciphering beneficial rhizospheric process such as chemotaxis/biofilm, degradation of toxic allelochemicals, and induced gene expression.

  9. Analyzing Beneficial Effects of Nutritional Supplements on Intestinal Epithelial Barrier Functions During Experimental Colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas Robles, Hilda; Castro Ochoa, Karla Fabiola; Nava, Porfirio; Silva Olivares, Angélica; Shibayama, Mineko; Schnoor, Michael

    2017-01-05

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, are chronic relapsing disorders of the intestines. They cause severe problems, such as abdominal cramping, bloody diarrhea, and weight loss, in affected individuals. Unfortunately, there is no cure yet, and treatments only aim to alleviate symptoms. Current treatments include anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive drugs that may cause severe side effects. This warrants the search for alternative treatment options, such as nutritional supplements, that do not cause side effects. Before their application in clinical studies, such compounds must be rigorously tested for effectiveness and security in animal models. A reliable experimental model is the dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) colitis model in mice, which reproduces many of the clinical signs of ulcerative colitis in humans. We recently applied this model to test the beneficial effects of a nutritional supplement containing vitamins C and E, L-arginine, and ω3-polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). We analyzed various disease parameters and found that this supplement was able to ameliorate edema formation, tissue damage, leukocyte infiltration, oxidative stress, and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, leading to an overall improvement in the disease activity index. In this article, we explain in detail the correct application of nutritional supplements using the DSS colitis model in C57Bl/6 mice, as well as how disease parameters such as histology, oxidative stress, and inflammation are assessed. Analyzing the beneficial effects of different diet supplements may then eventually open new avenues for the development of alternative treatment strategies that alleviate IBD symptoms and/or that prolong the phases of remission without causing severe side effects.

  10. Spirulina platensis Enhances the Beneficial Effect of Exercise on Oxidative Stress and the Lipid Profile in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiane Mazzola

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the effect of Spirulina platensis and moderate exercise on oxidative stress and lipid profiles in the rats. Forty male Wistar rats were allocated to the following 10-week treatments, three times a week: exercise (E, 30 min swimming,S. platensis (SP, 26 mg/Kg; exercise andSpirulina (ES; and control (C. Outcomes were Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS in serum and brain, and cholesterol and triglycerides (TG in serum. Rats treated with exercise showed lower brain TBARS than the controls, mostly in association withS. platensis. In the groups E and ES, serum TBARS decreased after intervention. Compared with the controls, both E and ES prevented an increase in cholesterol and reduced triglycerides. Results demonstrated thatS. platensis enhanced the beneficial effect of exercise on oxidative stress and lipid profiles in rats, which might be a promising approach for treating metabolic syndrome in humans.

  11. Volunteering as reciprocity: beneficial and harmful effects of social policies to encourage contribution in older age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Christine; Breheny, Mary; Mansvelt, Juliana

    2015-04-01

    Social policy applications of 'active ageing' ideals have recently focussed on volunteering as a beneficial and valuable contribution that older people can make to their communities. In this paper we draw attention to the positive and negative effects of a general imperative to contribute. Understanding the benefits of contribution in terms of the moral force of reciprocity recognises that older people do need and want to contribute to society and these contributions are beneficial for their sense of identity and wellbeing. However, older people vary greatly in their health, financial resources, and social networks and should not be seen as a homogenous group whose members must contribute in the same way. A policy focus on the imperative to contribute as a participating citizen can be oppressive and lead to withdrawal from social engagement by those who are the most in need of support to participate. Priorities for social and organisational policies must include support for the many ways older people are able to be involved in their communities and to provide structures necessary to support their preferences. A focus on individual responsibility for active engagement in society, which does not take account of individual circumstances or past contributions, can be harmful.

  12. The phenolic compounds of olive oil: structure, biological activity and beneficial effects on human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripoli, Elisa; Giammanco, Marco; Tabacchi, Garden; Di Majo, Danila; Giammanco, Santo; La Guardia, Maurizio

    2005-06-01

    The Mediterranean diet is rich in vegetables, cereals, fruit, fish, milk, wine and olive oil and has salutary biological functions. Epidemiological studies have shown a lower incidence of atherosclerosis, cardiovascular diseases and certain kinds of cancer in the Mediterranean area. Olive oil is the main source of fat, and the Mediterranean diet's healthy effects can in particular be attributed not only to the high relationship between unsaturated and saturated fatty acids in olive oil but also to the antioxidant property of its phenolic compounds. The main phenolic compounds, hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein, which give extra-virgin olive oil its bitter, pungent taste, have powerful antioxidant activity both in vivo and in vitro. The present review focuses on recent works analysing the relationship between the structure of olive oil polyphenolic compounds and their antioxidant activity. These compounds' possible beneficial effects are due to their antioxidant activity, which is related to the development of atherosclerosis and cancer, and to anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activity.

  13. Revealing the beneficial effect of protease supplementation to high gravity beer fermentations using "-omics" techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piddocke, Maya Petrova; Fazio, Alessandro; Vongsangnak, Wanwipa

    2011-01-01

    Background: Addition of sugar syrups to the basic wort is a popular technique to achieve higher gravity in beer fermentations, but it results in dilution of the free amino nitrogen (FAN) content in the medium. The multicomponent protease enzyme Flavourzyme has beneficial effect on the brewer......'s yeast fermentation performance during high gravity fermentations as it increases the initial FAN value and results in higher FAN uptake, higher specific growth rate, higher ethanol yield and improved flavour profile. Results: In the present study, transcriptome and metabolome analysis were used...... syrup to increase the gravity in the wort resulted in increased glucose repression that lead to inhibition of amino acid uptake and hereby inhibited the effect of the protease addition....

  14. Beneficial effects of low dose Musa paradisiaca on the semen quality of male Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A S Alabi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aimed at determining the effects of administration of mature green fruits of Musa paradisiaca on the semen quality of adult male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: The animals used for the study were grouped into three: the control group, given 2 ml of double distilled water, a low dose group given 500 mg/kg/day and a high dose group given 1000 mg/kg/day of the plantain fruits, which was made into flour, and dissolved in 2 ml of double distilled water for easy oral administration. Results: Significant increment in the semen parameters was noticed in animals that received a lower dose of the plantain flour, but those animals who received the high dose had marked and very significant reduction in sperm cell concentration and percentage of morphologically normal spermatozoa. Conclusion: Musa paradisiaca should be consumed in moderate quantities in order to derive its beneficial effects of enhancing male reproductive functions.

  15. Beneficial effects of ω-3 PUFA in children on cardiovascular risk factors during childhood and adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonafini, Sara; Antoniazzi, Franco; Maffeis, Claudio; Minuz, Pietro; Fava, Cristiano

    2015-07-01

    Omega-3 polyunsatured fatty acids (ω-3 PUFA) are essential nutrients mainly derived from fish and seafood but present also in vegetables such as nuts and seed-oils. Some epidemiological and clinical studies indicate a protection of ω-3 FA against cardiovascular disease and a favourable effect on cardiovascular risk factors control in adults. The evidences of their effects in children and adolescents are scanty but a possible beneficial role, especially for insulin sensitivity and blood pressure control, has been proposed. In this review we want to focus especially on the evidences, which could justify the assumption of ω-3 in children and adolescents, and to underline the aspects which need further investigation. Mechanisms through which ω-3 FA act are manifolds and still a matter of investigation: beside their interaction with ion channel and their influence on plasma membrane fluidity, probably the main effect is acting as competitor for cytochrome P-450 (CYP) with respect to ω-6 FA. Thus, they can modulate the biosynthesis of eicosanoids and other lipid mediators, which likely exert a protective action. Another suggestive hypothesis is that their beneficial effect is not dependent only on the intake of ω-3 FA, but also on the complex interaction between different nutrients including ω-3 and other FAs with polymorphisms in genes involved in ω-3 FA modulation. This complex interaction has seldom been explored in children and adolescents. Further studies are needed to investigate all these points in order to find a better collocation of ω-3 FA on the available armamentarium for preventive, possibly individualized, medicine.

  16. THE BENEFICIAL EFFECT OF ASIATICOSIDE ON EXPERIMENTAL NEUROPATHY IN DIABETIC RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chonlathip Thipkaew

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Though diabetic neuropathy produces high impact on quality of life, annual cost and morbidities, the therapeutic efficacy is still not in a satisfaction level. Based on the crucial role of oxidative stress on the pathophysiology of diabetic neuropathy and the improvement of this condition induced by antioxidant, we hypothesized that asiaticoside, a substance possessing antioxidant activity, could provide beneficial effect. Therefore, we aimed to determine the effect of asiaticoside on the recovery of sciatic nerve in experimental neuropathy in diabetic rats. Young adult male Wistar rats at 8 weeks old, weighing approximate 180-220 g, were orally given asiaticoside at doses of 0.1 and 1 mg kg-1 BW at a period of 5 days before and 3 weeks after sciatic nerve crush injury. Motor and sensory functions were observed every 3 day until the end of the experiment by using Deminacelli method, walking pattern, muscle power and foot reflex withdrawal test, respectively. Our results showed that both doses of asiaticoside could significantly reverse the enhanced withdrawal threshold intensity elicited by electrical stimuli. However, the rats received asiaticoside at dose of 1 mg kg-1 BW provided optimum benefit. However, no other significant effects were observed. Asiaticoside administration in an experimental model of neuropathy in diabetic rats mitigates some functional impairment of sciatic nerve. Though our data show only the beneficial effect of asiaticoside on the foot withdrawal reflex, it is very much important because it involve the protective mechanism against painful stimuli. Therefore, it is worth for further investigation in order to confirm the improvement of sensori-motor functions and determined the both therapeutic window and possible underlying mechanism."

  17. Beneficial effect of low ethanol intake on the cardiovascular system: possible biochemical mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudesh Vasdev

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Sudesh Vasdev1, Vicki Gill1, Pawan K Singal21Discipline of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John’s, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada; 2Institute of Cardiovascular Sciences, University of Manitoba, Faculty of Medicine, Winnipeg, Manitoba, CanadaAbstract: Low ethanol intake is known to have a beneficial effect on cardiovascular disease. In cardiovascular disease, insulin resistance leads to altered glucose and lipid metabolism resulting in an increased production of aldehydes, including methylglyoxal. Aldehydes react non-enzymatically with sulfhydryl and amino groups of proteins forming advanced glycation end products (AGEs, altering protein structure and function. These alterations cause endothelial dysfunction with increased cytosolic free calcium, peripheral vascular resistance, and blood pressure. AGEs produce atherogenic effects including oxidative stress, platelet adhesion, inflammation, smooth muscle cell proliferation and modification of lipoproteins. Low ethanol intake attenuates hypertension and atherosclerosis but the mechanism of this effect is not clear. Ethanol at low concentrations is metabolized by low Km alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase, both reactions resulting in the production of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH. This creates a reductive environment, decreasing oxidative stress and secondary production of aldehydes through lipid peroxidation. NADH may also increase the tissue levels of the antioxidants cysteine and glutathione, which bind aldehydes and stimulate methylglyoxal catabolism. Low ethanol improves insulin resistance, increases high-density lipoprotein and stimulates activity of the antioxidant enzyme, paraoxonase. In conclusion, we suggest that chronic low ethanol intake confers its beneficial effect mainly through its ability to increase antioxidant capacity and lower AGEs.Keywords: low ethanol, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, biochemical

  18. ASPRE trial: influence of compliance on beneficial effect of aspirin in prevention of preterm preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, David; Poon, Liona C; Rolnik, Daniel L; Syngelaki, Argyro; Delgado, Juan Luis; Vojtassakova, Denisa; de Alvarado, Mercedes; Kapeti, Evgenia; Rehal, Anoop; Pazos, Andrea; Carbone, Ilma Floriana; Dutemeyer, Vivien; Plasencia, Walter; Papantoniou, Nikos; Nicolaides, Kypros H

    2017-09-06

    To examine the influence of compliance on the beneficial effect of aspirin in prevention of preterm preeclampsia in the Combined Multimarker Screening and Randomized Patient Treatment with Aspirin for Evidence-Based Preeclampsia Prevention (ASPRE) trial. This was a secondary analysis of data from the ASPRE trial. In this multicenter-study women with singleton pregnancies had screening by means of an algorithm that combines maternal factors and biomarkers (mean arterial pressure, uterine-artery pulsatility index, and maternal serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein A and placental growth factor) at 11-13 weeks' gestation. Those with an estimated risk for preterm preeclampsia of >1 in 100 were invited to participate in a double-blind trial of aspirin (150 mg per day) vs. placebo from 11 to 14 until 36 weeks' gestation. Preterm preeclampsia with delivery at 90%, after adjustment for the estimated risk of preterm preeclampsia at screening and the participating center. The choice of cut-off of 90% was based on an exploratory analysis of the treatment effect. Logistic regression analysis was used to investigate predictors of compliance >90% among maternal characteristics and medical history. Preterm preeclampsia occurred in 5/555 (0.9%) participants in the aspirin group with compliance ≥90%, in 8/243 (3.3%) of participants in the aspirin group with compliance 90% and 0.59 (95% confidence interval, 0.23 to 1.53) for compliance <90%. Compliance was positively associated with family history of preeclampsia and negatively associated with smoking, maternal age <25 years, Afro-Caribbean and South Asian racial origin, and history of preeclampsia in a previous pregnancy. The beneficial effect of aspirin in the prevention of preterm preeclampsia appears to depend on compliance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Ecotoxicological standard tests confirm beneficial effects of nitrate capture in organically coated grapewood biochar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, Andreas; Kammann, Claudia; Löhnertz, Otmar

    2017-04-01

    Due to the rising use of mineral N fertilizers and legume use in agriculture, the input of reactive N into the global N cycle has dramatically increased. Therefore new agricultural techniques that increase N use efficiency and reduce the loss of soil mineral N to surface and ground waters are urgently required. Pyrogenic carbon (biochar) produced from biomass may be used as a beneficial soil amendment to sequester carbon (C) in soils, increase soil fertility in the long term, and reduce environmental pollution such as nitrate leaching or N2O emissions. However, reduced nitrate leaching is not a constant finding when using biochar as a soil amendment and the mechanisms are poorly understood. To investigate if biochar is able to reduce nitrate pollution and its subsequent effects on soil and aquatic fauna, we conducted a series of experiments using standard ecotoxicological test methods: (1) the collembolan reproduction test (ISO 11267 (1999)), (2) the earthworm reproduction test (ISO 11268-2 (1998)), (3) the aquatic Daphnia acute test (ISO 6341 (1996)) and (4) a seedling emergence and growth test (ISO 11269-2 (2006)) also involving leaching events. For the tests grapewood biochar produced with a Kon-Tiki kiln (600-700°C) was used which had previously demonstrated nitrate capture; terrestrial tests were carried out with loamy sand standard soil 2.2 (LUFA-Speyer, Germany). The tests included the factors: (A) nitrate addition (using critical values for the test organisms) or no nitrate addition, (B) control (no biochar), pure biochar and organically-coated biochar. In the aquatic test (3), a nitrate amount which caused 50% of the Daphnia-immobilizing toxic nitrate concentration in leachates was applied to the soil or soil-biochar mixtures. Subsequently, soils were incubated overnight and leached on the next day, producing (in the control) the calculated nitrate concentrations. Daphnids were incubated for 48 hours. Test results without nitrate confirmed that soil

  20. Trichurs suis ova theraphy in relapsing multiple sclerosis is safe but without signals of beneficial effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voldsgaard, A.; Bager, P.; Garde, E.;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An observational study has suggested that relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients with helminth infections have lower disease activity and progression than uninfected multiple sclerosis patients. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the safety and efficacy on MRI activity of treatment with ...... not change. CONCLUSIONS: In a small group of relapsing multiple sclerosis patients, Trichuris suis oral therapy was well tolerated but without beneficial effect.......BACKGROUND: An observational study has suggested that relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients with helminth infections have lower disease activity and progression than uninfected multiple sclerosis patients. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the safety and efficacy on MRI activity of treatment...... with TSO in relapsing MS. METHODS: The study was an open-label, magnetic resonance imaging assessor-blinded, baseline-to-treatment study including ten patients with relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis. Median (range) age was 41 (24-55) years, disease duration 9 (4-34) years, Expanded Disability Status...

  1. Breast milk cell components and its beneficial effects on neonates: need for breast milk cell banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Kaingade

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Universal breastfeeding has been a stated policy of the American Academy of Pediatrics, the World Health Organization as well as UNICEF. Human milk is considered as the gold standard for infants owing to its colossal nutritional values. However, the presence of various cellular components of breast milk have been gaining more attention in recent years since the first discovery of mammary stem cells in 2007, thereby providing a ray of hope not only for growth and immunity of the neonate but also an insight into its regenerative applicability. In this relation, this article summarizes the cell components of breast milk that have been identified to date. It highlights the beneficial effects of these cells for term and preterm delivered infants along with the need for breast milk and its cell banking.

  2. Beneficial effect of multi-wall carbon nanotubes on the graphitization of polyacrylonitrile (PAN coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Darányi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Polyacrylonitrile (PAN solutions were deposited on quartz plates by spin coating to yield 2–3 µm thick PAN films. The films were decomposed at 1000°C in N2 atmosphere into electrically conducting carbonaceous coatings. When the precursor solution contained cobalt (0.2 g Co-acetate per 1 g PAN and/or multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs, 2 mg MWCNT per 1 g PAN the specific electrical resistance of the product film dropped from the original 492 Ω·cm-1 value down to 46 Ω·cm-1. By excluding all other possibilities we came to the conclusion that the beneficial effect of carbon nanotubes is related to their catalytic action in the final graphitization of condensed nitrogen-containing rings into graphitic nanocrystallites.

  3. The beneficial effect of plasmapheresis in mixed connective tissue disease with coexisting antiphospholipid syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szodoray, P; Hajas, A; Toth, L; Szakall, S; Nakken, B; Soltesz, P; Bodolay, E

    2014-09-01

    The authors report a rare case of a female patient with mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) with coexisting antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). Five years after the diagnosis of MCTD high concentrations of anticardiolipin (anti-CL) and anti-β2-glycoprotein (anti-β2GPI) autoantibodies were present in the patient's serum without thrombotic events. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) reactivation provoked APS, with the clinical manifestations of livedo reticularis, digital gangrene and leg ulcers. Skin biopsy from the necrotic area showed multiple fibrin microthrombi in the superficial vessels. Corticosteroid pulse therapy, and plasma exchange in combination with synchronized cyclophosphamide was administered, which led to improvement of the digital gangrenes, while no new lesions developed. The number of CD27high plasma cells decreased, and the previous high levels of autoantibodies also normalized in the peripheral blood. In the case of MCTD with coexisting APS combination therapy, including plasmapheresis has beneficial effects.

  4. Beneficial biofilms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara R Robertson

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Surface-adherent biofilm growth is a common trait of bacteria and other microorganisms in nature. Within biofilms, organisms are present in high density and are enmeshed in an organic matrix containing polysaccharides and other molecules. The close proximity of organisms within biofilms facilitates microbial interactions and signaling, including many metabolic processes in which consortia rather than individual organisms participate. Biofilm growth also enables microorganisms to withstand chemical and biological stresses. Here, we review some current literature and document representative beneficial aspects of biofilms using examples from wastewater treatment, microbial fuel cells, biological repair (biocementation of stonework, and biofilm protection against Candida albicans infections. Finally, we address a chemical ecology strategy whereby desired microbial succession and beneficial biofilm formation can be encouraged via manipulation of culture conditions and bacterial signaling.

  5. Colonization and beneficial effects on annual ryegrass by mixed inoculation with plant growth promoting bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castanheira, Nádia L; Dourado, Ana Catarina; Pais, Isabel; Semedo, José; Scotti-Campos, Paula; Borges, Nuno; Carvalho, Gilda; Barreto Crespo, Maria Teresa; Fareleira, Paula

    2017-05-01

    Multi-strain inoculants have increased potential to accomplish a diversity of plant needs, mainly attributed to its multi-functionality. This work evaluated the ability of a mixture of three bacteria to colonize and induce a beneficial response on the pasture crop annual ryegrass. Pseudomonas G1Dc10 and Paenibacillus G3Ac9 were previously isolated from annual ryegrass and were selected for their ability to perform multiple functions related to plant growth promotion. Sphingomonas azotifigens DSMZ 18530(T) was included due to nitrogen fixing ability. The effects of the bacterial mixture were assessed in gnotobiotic plant inoculation assays and compared with single and dual inoculation treatments. Triple inoculation with 3×10(8) bacteria significantly increased plant dry weight and leaf pigments, indicating improved photosynthetic performance. Plant lipid biosynthesis was enhanced by 65%, mainly due to the rise of linolenic acid, an omega-3 fatty acid with high dietary value. Electrolyte leakage, an indicator of plant membrane stability under stress, was decreased pointing to a beneficial effect by inoculation. Plants physiological condition was more favoured by triple inoculation than by single, although benefits on biomass were only evident relative to non-inoculated plants. The colonization behaviour and coexistence in plant tissues were assessed using FISH and GFP-labelling, combined with confocal microscopy and a cultivation-based approach for quantification. The three strains occupied the same sites, localizing preferentially along root hairs and in stem epidermis. Endophytic colonization was observed as bacteria entered root and stem inner tissues. This study reveals the potential of this mixture of strains for biofertilization, contributing to improve crop productivity and nutritional value. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. The Beneficial Effect of Testing: An Event-Related Potential Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Hua eBai

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The enhanced memory performance for items that are tested as compared to being restudied (the testing effect is a frequently reported memory phenomenon. According to the episodic context account of the testing effect, this beneficial effect of testing is related to a process which reinstates the previously learnt episodic information. Few studies have explored the neural correlates of this effect at the time point when testing takes place, however. In this study, we utilized the ERP correlates of successful memory encoding to address this issue, hypothesizing that if the benefit of testing is due to retrieval-related processes at test then subsequent memory effects should resemble the ERP correlates of retrieval-based processing in their temporal and spatial characteristics. Participants were asked to learn Swahili-German word pairs before items were presented in either a testing or a restudy condition. Memory performance was assessed immediately and one-day later with a cued recall task. Successfully recalling items at test increased the likelihood that items were remembered over time compared to items which were only restudied. An ERP subsequent memory contrast (later remembered vs. later forgotten tested items, which reflects the engagement of processes that ensure items are recallable the next day were topographically comparable

  7. Fitness effects of beneficial mutations: the mutational landscape model in experimental evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Betancourt, Andrea J.; Bollback, Jonathan Paul

    2006-01-01

    of beneficial mutations should be roughly exponentially distributed. The prediction appears to be borne out by most of these studies, at least qualitatively. Another study showed that a modified version of the model was able to predict, with reasonable accuracy, which of a ranked set of beneficial alleles...

  8. Revealing the beneficial effect of protease supplementation to high gravity beer fermentations using "-omics" techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Workman Chris

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Addition of sugar syrups to the basic wort is a popular technique to achieve higher gravity in beer fermentations, but it results in dilution of the free amino nitrogen (FAN content in the medium. The multicomponent protease enzyme Flavourzyme has beneficial effect on the brewer's yeast fermentation performance during high gravity fermentations as it increases the initial FAN value and results in higher FAN uptake, higher specific growth rate, higher ethanol yield and improved flavour profile. Results In the present study, transcriptome and metabolome analysis were used to elucidate the effect on the addition of the multicomponent protease enzyme Flavourzyme and its influence on the metabolism of the brewer's yeast strain Weihenstephan 34/70. The study underlines the importance of sufficient nitrogen availability during the course of beer fermentation. The applied metabolome and transcriptome analysis allowed mapping the effect of the wort sugar composition on the nitrogen uptake. Conclusion Both the transcriptome and the metabolome analysis revealed that there is a significantly higher impact of protease addition for maltose syrup supplemented fermentations, while addition of glucose syrup to increase the gravity in the wort resulted in increased glucose repression that lead to inhibition of amino acid uptake and hereby inhibited the effect of the protease addition.

  9. Live maternal speech and singing have beneficial effects on hospitalized preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippa, Manuela; Devouche, Emmanuel; Arioni, Cesare; Imberty, Michel; Gratier, Maya

    2013-10-01

    To study the effects of live maternal speaking and singing on physiological parameters of preterm infants in the NICU and to test the hypothesis that vocal stimulation can have differential effects on preterm infants at a behavioural level. Eighteen mothers spoke and sang to their medically stable preterm infants in their incubators over 6 days, between 1 and 2 pm. Heart rate (HR), oxygen saturation (OxSat), number of critical events (hypoxemia, bradycardia and apnoea) and change in behavioural state were measured. Comparisons of periods with and without maternal vocal stimulation revealed significantly greater oxygen saturation level and heart rate and significantly fewer negative critical events (p singing. Unexpected findings were the comparable effects of maternal talk and singing on infant physiological parameters and the differential ones on infant behavioural state. A renewed connection to the mother's voice can be an important and significant experience for preterm infants. Exposure to maternal speech and singing shows significant early beneficial effects on physiological state, such as oxygen saturation levels, number of critical events and prevalence of calm alert state. These findings have implications for NICU interventions, encouraging maternal interaction with their medically stable preterm infants. ©2013 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Sarcopenia: current theories and the potential beneficial effect of creatine application strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candow, Darren G

    2011-08-01

    Sarcopenia, defined as the age-related loss of muscle mass, subsequently has a negative effect on strength, metabolic rate and functionality leading to a reduced quality of life. With the projected increase in life expectancy, the incidence of muscle loss may rise and further drain the health care system, with greater need for hospitalization, treatment, and rehabilitation. Without effective strategies to counteract aging muscle loss, a global health care crisis may be inevitable. Resistance training is well established to increase aging muscle mass and strength. However, muscle and strength loss is still evident in older adults who have maintained resistance training for most of their life, suggesting that other factors such as nutrition may affect aging muscle biology. Supplementing with creatine, a high-energy compound found in red meat and seafood, during resistance training has a beneficial effect on aging muscle. Emerging evidence now suggests that the timing and dosage of creatine supplementation may be important factors for aging muscle accretion. Unfortunately, the long-term effects of different creatine application strategies on aging muscle are relatively unknown.

  11. Beneficial effects of exogenous iodine in lettuce plants subjected to salinity stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyva, Rocio; Sánchez-Rodríguez, Eva; Ríos, Juan J; Rubio-Wilhelmi, María M; Romero, Luis; Ruiz, Juan M; Blasco, Begoña

    2011-08-01

    Salinity inhibits plant growth due to ionic and osmotic effects on metabolic processes and nutritional balance, leading to impaired physiological functions. Selenium (Se) and silicon (Si) can be partially alleviated by the effects wrought by NaCl on the plant metabolism. Iodine (I), applied as iodate (IO(3)(-)) in biofortification programmes, has been confirmed to improve the antioxidant response in lettuce plants. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine whether the application of IO(3)(-) can improve the response to severe salinity stress in lettuce (Lactuca sativa cv. Philipus). In this work, the application of IO(3)(-) (20-80 μM) in lettuce plants under salinity stress (100mM of NaCl) exerted a significantly positive effect on biomass and raised the levels of soluble sugars while lowering the Na(+) and Cl(-) concentrations as well as boosting the activity of antioxidant enzymes such as SOD, APX, DHAR and GR. Therefore, IO(3)(-) could be considered a possibly beneficial element to counteract the harmful effects of salinity stress.

  12. Growth hormone abolishes beneficial effects of calorie restriction in long-lived Ames dwarf mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesing, Adam; Al-Regaiey, Khalid A; Bartke, Andrzej; Masternak, Michal M

    2014-10-01

    Disruption of the growth hormone (GH) axis promotes longevity and delays aging. In contrast, GH over-expression may lead to accelerated aging and shorter life. Calorie restriction (CR) improves insulin sensitivity and may extend lifespan. Long-lived Ames dwarf (df/df) mice have additional extension of longevity when subjected to 30% CR. The aim of the study was to assess effects of CR or GH replacement therapy separately and as a combined (CR+GH) treatment in GH-deficient df/df and normal mice, on selected metabolic parameters (e.g., insulin, glucose, cholesterol), insulin signaling components (e.g., insulin receptor [IR] β-subunit, phosphorylated form of IR [IR pY1158], protein kinase C ζ/λ [p-PKCζ/λ] and mTOR [p-mTOR]), transcription factor p-CREB, and components of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling (p-ERK1/2, p-p38), responsible for cell proliferation, differentiation and survival. CR decreased plasma levels of insulin, glucose, cholesterol and leptin, and increased hepatic IR β-subunit and IR pY1158 levels as well as IR, IRS-1 and GLUT-2 gene expression compared to ad libitum feeding, showing a significant beneficial diet intervention effect. Moreover, hepatic protein levels of p-PKCζ/λ, p-mTOR and p-p38 decreased, and p-CREB increased in CR mice. On the contrary, GH increased levels of glucose, cholesterol and leptin in plasma, and p-mTOR or p-p38 in livers, and decreased plasma adiponectin and hepatic IR β-subunit compared to saline treatment. There were no GH effects on adiponectin in N mice. Moreover, GH replacement therapy did not affect IR, IRS-1 and GLUT-2 gene expression. GH treatment abolishes the beneficial effects of CR; it may suggest an important role of GH-IGF1 axis in mediating the CR action. Suppressed somatotrophic signaling seems to predominate over GH replacement therapy in the context of the examined parameters and signaling pathways.

  13. The beneficial effects of honeybee-venom serum on facial wrinkles in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han SM

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Sang Mi Han,1 In Phyo Hong,1 Soon Ok Woo,1 Sung Nam Chun,2 Kwan Kyu Park,3 Young Mee Nicholls,4 Sok Cheon Pak5 1Department of Agricultural Biology, National Academy of Agricultural Science, Wanju, 2Dong Sung Pharmaceuticals Co Ltd, Seoul, 3Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Catholic University of Daegu, Daegu, South Korea; 4Manuka Doctor Ltd, Auckland, New Zealand; 5School of Biomedical Sciences, Charles Sturt University, Bathurst, NSW, Australia Abstract: Facial wrinkles are an undesirable outcome caused by extrinsic photodamage and intrinsic aging processes. Currently, no effective strategies are known to prevent facial wrinkles. We assessed the beneficial effects of bee-venom serum on the clinical signs of aging skin. Our results show that bee-venom serum treatment clinically improved facial wrinkles by decreasing total wrinkle area, total wrinkle count, and average wrinkle depth. Therefore, bee-venom serum may be effective for the improvement of skin wrinkles. Keywords: bee venom, wrinkle, area, count, depth

  14. Polyhydroxy fullerenes (fullerols or fullerenols: beneficial effects on growth and lifespan in diverse biological models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Gao

    Full Text Available Recent toxicological studies on carbon nanomaterials, including fullerenes, have led to concerns about their safety. Functionalized fullerenes, such as polyhydroxy fullerenes (PHF, fullerols, or fullerenols, have attracted particular attention due to their water solubility and toxicity. Here, we report surprisingly beneficial and/or specific effects of PHF on model organisms representing four kingdoms, including the green algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, the plant Arabidopsis thaliana, the fungus Aspergillus niger, and the invertebrate Ceriodaphnia dubia. The results showed that PHF had no acute or chronic negative effects on the freshwater organisms. Conversely, PHF could surprisingly increase the algal culture density over controls at higher concentrations (i.e., 72% increase by 1 and 5 mg/L of PHF and extend the lifespan and stimulate the reproduction of Daphnia (e.g. about 38% by 20 mg/L of PHF. We also show that at certain PHF concentrations fungal growth can be enhanced and Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings exhibit longer hypocotyls, while other complex physiological processes remain unaffected. These findings may open new research fields in the potential applications of PHF, e.g., in biofuel production and aquaculture. These results will form the basis of further research into the mechanisms of growth stimulation and life extension by PHF.

  15. Beneficial effects of caffeine in a transgenic model of Alzheimer's disease-like tau pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Cyril; Eddarkaoui, Sabiha; Derisbourg, Maxime; Leboucher, Antoine; Demeyer, Dominique; Carrier, Sébastien; Schneider, Marion; Hamdane, Malika; Müller, Christa E; Buée, Luc; Blum, David

    2014-09-01

    Tau pathology found in Alzheimer's disease (AD) is crucial in cognitive decline. Epidemiologic evidences support that habitual caffeine intake prevents memory decline during aging and reduces the risk to develop Alzheimer's disease. So far, experimental studies addressed the impact of caffeine in models mimicking the amyloid pathology of AD. However, in vivo effects of caffeine in a model of AD-like tauopathy remain unknown. Here, we evaluated effects of chronic caffeine intake (0.3 g/L through drinking water), given at an early pathologic stage, in the THY-Tau22 transgenic mouse model of progressive AD-like tau pathology. We found that chronic caffeine intake prevents from the development of spatial memory deficits in tau mice. Improved memory was associated with reduced hippocampal tau phosphorylation and proteolytic fragments. Moreover, caffeine treatment mitigated several proinflammatory and oxidative stress markers found upregulated in the hippocampus of THY-Tau22 animals. Together, our data support that moderate caffeine intake is beneficial in a model of AD-like tau pathology, paving the way for future clinical evaluation in AD patients.

  16. Bio-antioxidants - a chemical base of their antioxidant activity and beneficial effect on human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kancheva, V D; Kasaikina, O T

    2013-01-01

    The paradox of aerobic life is that higher eukaryotic organisms cannot exist without oxygen, yet oxygen is inherently dangerous to their existence. Autoxidation of organic substances frequently occurs via free radical mechanism which generates different active radicals and peroxides OH(•), O2 (•-), LO2 (•), HOOH, LOOH, so called reactive oxygen species (ROS), which appear to be responsible for oxygen toxicity. To survive in such an unfriendly oxygen environment, living organisms generate - or obtain from food - a variety of water- and lipid-soluble antioxidant compounds. Biologically active compounds with antioxidant potential, i.e. bio-antioxidants (natural and their synthetic analogues) have a wide range of applications. They are important drugs, antibiotics, agrochemical substitutes, and food preservatives. Many of the drugs today are synthetic modifications of naturally obtained substances. This review presents information about the chemical base of antioxidant activities and beneficial effects on human health of known and new bio-antioxidants. There is abundant literature on the phenolic antioxidants and tocopherols in particular. In this review the following bio-antioxidants are considered: A) Carotenoids, B) Cathecholamines, C) Phospholipids, D) Chalcones, E) Coumarins, F) Phenolic acids, G) Flavonoids, H) Lignans, and I) Tannins.

  17. Peripheral Signals Mediate the Beneficial Effects of Gastric Surgery in Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Barja-Fernández

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is nowadays a public health problem both in the industrialized world and developing countries. The different treatments to fight against obesity are not very successful with the exception of gastric surgery. The mechanism behind the achievement of this procedure remains unclear although the modifications in the pattern of gastrointestinal hormones production appear to be responsible for the beneficial effect. The gastrointestinal tract has emerged in the last time as an endocrine organ in charge of response to the different stimulus related to nutritional status by the modulation of more than 30 signals acting at central level to modulate food intake and body weight. The production of some of these gastric derived signals has been proved to be altered in obesity (ghrelin, CCK, and GLP-1. In fact, bariatric surgery modifies the production of both gastrointestinal and adipose tissue peripheral signals beyond the gut microbiota composition. Through this paper the main peripheral signals altered in obesity will be reviewed together with their modifications after bariatric surgery.

  18. Circadian-effect engineering of solid-state lighting spectra for beneficial and tunable lighting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Qi; Shan, Qifeng; Lam, Hien; Hao, Luoxi; Lin, Yi; Cui, Zhe

    2016-09-05

    Optimization of solid-state lighting spectra is performed to achieve beneficial and tunable circadian effects. First, the minimum spectral circadian action factor (CAF) of 2700 K white light-emitting diodes (LEDs) is studied for applications where biologically active illumination is undesirable. It is found that white-LEDs based on (i) RGB chips, (ii) blue & red chips plus green phosphor, and (iii) blue chip plus green & red phosphors are the corresponding minimum-CAF solutions at color-rendering index (CRI) requirements of 80, 90, and 95, respectively. Second, maximum CAF tunability of LED clusters is studied for dynamic daylighting applications. A dichromatic phosphor-converted blue-centered LED, a dichromatic phosphor-converted green-centered LED, and a monochromatic red LED are grouped to obtain white spectra between 2700 K and 6500 K. A maximum CAF tunability of 3.25 times is achieved with CRI above 90 and luminous efficacy of radiation of 313 - 373 lm/W. We show that our approaches have advantages over previously reported solutions on system simplicity, minimum achievable CAF value, CAF tunability range, and light source efficacy.

  19. The beneficial effects of meditation: contribution of the anterior cingulate and locus coeruleus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Alker Craigmyle

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract During fMRI studies of meditation the cortical salience detecting and executive networks become active during awareness of mind wandering, shifting and sustained attention. The anterior cingulate (AC is activated during awareness of mind wandering.The AC modulates both the peripheral sympathetic nervous system (SNS and the central locus coeruleus (LC norepinephrine systems, which form the principal neuromodulatory system, regulating in multiple ways both neuronal and non-neuronal cells to maximize adaptation in changing environments. The LC is the primary source of central norepinephrine (C-NE and nearly the exclusive source of cortical norepinephrine. Normally activated by novel or salient stimuli, the AC initially inhibits the SNS reflexively, lowering peripheral norepinephrine (P-NE and activates the LC, increasing C-NE.Moderate levels of C-NE enhance working memory through alpha 2 adrenergic receptors, while higher levels of C-NE, acting on alpha 1 and beta receptors, enhance other executive network functions such as the stopping of ongoing behavior, attentional set shifting and sustained attention. The actions of the AC on both the central and peripheral noradrenergic systems are implicated in the beneficial effects of meditation. This paper will explore some of the known functions and interrelationships of the AC, SNS and LC with respect to their possible relevance to meditation.

  20. Beneficial effect of cerebrolysin on moderate and severe head injury patients: result of a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, G K C; Zhu, X L; Poon, W S

    2005-01-01

    Cerebrolysin is used as a neurotrophic agent for the treatment of ischemic stroke and Alzheimer's Disease. Exploratory studies in patients with post-acute traumatic brain injury have shown that this treatment might help improve recovery. Aim of this study was to investigate whether addition of Cerebrolysin to the initial treatment regimen of moderate and severe head injury patients would improve their outcome. At 6 months, 67% of the patients (Cerebrolysin group) attained good outcome (GOS 3-5). The study group was compared with the historical cohort of patients from the hospital trauma data bank, with age, sex and admitting GCS matching. More patients tended to a good outcome in the Cerebrolysin group (P = 0.065). No significant side-effect requiring cessation of Cerebrolysin was noted. It can be concluded that the use of Cerebrolysin as part of the initial management of moderate and severe head injury is safe and well tolerated. The results suggest that Cerebrolysin is beneficial in regard to the outcome in these patients, especially in elderly patients.

  1. Beneficial effects of adiponectin on periodontal ligament cells under normal and regenerative conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nokhbehsaim, Marjan; Keser, Sema; Nogueira, Andressa Vilas Boas; Cirelli, Joni Augusto; Jepsen, Søren; Jäger, Andreas; Eick, Sigrun; Deschner, James

    2014-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes and obesity are increasing worldwide and linked to periodontitis, a chronic disease which is characterized by the irreversible destruction of the tooth-supporting tissues, that is, periodontium. The mechanisms underlying the association of diabetes mellitus and obesity with periodontal destruction and compromised periodontal healing are not well understood, but decreased plasma levels of adiponectin, as found in diabetic and obese individuals, might be a critical mechanistic link. The aim of this in vitro study was to examine the effects of adiponectin on periodontal ligament (PDL) cells under normal and regenerative conditions, and to study the regulation of adiponectin and its receptors in these cells. Adiponectin stimulated significantly the expression of growth factors and extracellular matrix, proliferation, and in vitro wound healing, reduced significantly the constitutive tumor necrosis factor-α expression, and caused a significant upregulation of its own expression. The beneficial actions of enamel matrix derivative on a number of PDL cell functions critical for periodontal regeneration were partially enhanced by adiponectin. The periodontopathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis inhibited the adiponectin expression and stimulated the expression of its receptors. In conclusion, reduced levels of adiponectin, as found in type 2 diabetes and obesity, may compromise periodontal health and healing.

  2. Aspects Regarding the Beneficial Effect of Reflexology in Low Back Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serban GLIGOR

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Reflexology is based on the digital pressure on certain reflex points situated on the sole of the foot, which represents a “map” of the entire body. The aim of this paper is to highlight the importance of reflexology in low back pain treatment. To accomplish the objectives of this paper, a lot of 12 patients, of both genders, with low back pain, was formed. Out of these patients, 66.67% were male and 33.33% were female, the majority coming from an urban area (75%. The average age ± the standard deviation of the patients was 43.58±13.02 years. The group of patients was subdivided into an experimental group, composed of 7 patients (58.33%, who, besides the classic drug treatment, also underwent reflexology, and a control group, composed of 5 patients (41.67%, who underwent only drug treatment. The treatment linked to reflexology was conducted by a single practitioner of reflexology, using the Morrell technique. Both in the case of the experimental group and in the control one there was a statistically significant reduction in finger to ground index (p < 0.01, respectively p< 0.05. Also, there was a highly statistically significant reduction of pain (p<0.01. Due to the small number of patients involved in the study, the data obtained cannot be generalised, as further studies are required to highlight the beneficial effect of reflexology in the case of low back pain.

  3. Beneficial Effects and Safety of Corticosteroids Combined with Traditional Chinese Medicine for Pemphigus: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the beneficial effects and safety of corticosteroids combined with traditional Chinese medicine (TCM for pemphigus. Methods. Seven electronic databases were searched to identify any potential randomized controlled trials (RCTs or clinical controlled trials (CCTs that compared corticosteroids with and without TCM for the treatment of pemphigus, published in any language. Remission of the mucocutaneous lesions, therapeutic duration, dosage of corticosteroids, and specific antibody titers were employed as the main outcome measures. The methodological quality of the included studies was assessed using the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Review of Interventions and Rev Man 5.1.0 software. Results. Four RCTs with a total of 199 patients were included in the present review. Management with corticosteroids combined with TCM seemed to benefit pemphigus patients in terms of healing of lesions, prevention of complications and relapse, and reduced interferon-gamma (IFN-γ level. The trials were not of high methodological quality. No study mentioned allocation concealment and blinding. Only one trial reported adverse events, and it indicated that the safety of corticosteroids combined with TCM was uncertain. Conclusion. There is some, albeit weak, evidence to show that combined treatment with corticosteroids with TCM could be of benefit for some patients with pemphigus. The efficacy and safety of this combined treatment should be evaluated further in better designed, fully powered, and confirmatory RCTs.

  4. Preoperative High-Dose Steroid Has Long-Term Beneficial Effects for Myasthenia Gravis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syuichi Tetsuka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies addressing preoperative steroid treatment have revealed that control of myasthenia gravis (MG with steroids prior to surgery appeared to stabilize postoperative status. The purpose of our study was to clarify the clinical benefits of the preoperative programmed high-dose steroid treatment on the long-term outcomes of MG patients. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 171 MG patients who were followed up after undergoing thymectomy in our hospital between 1988 and 2006. One hundred and thirteen patients in the programmed treatment group had received preoperative steroid treatment, while 58 patients received no steroid treatment during the preoperative period. Clinical remission, which was defined as the achievement of the modified pharmacologic remission (PR for at least 1 year, and clinical benefits were compared between the two groups. With regard to the remission after thymectomy, Kaplan-Meier life-table curves for patients in the preoperative steroid treatment group versus those for patients in the no steroid preoperative treatment group revealed a significantly higher probability of the PR in the preoperative steroid treatment group (log-rank test, P<0.01. This study might be the first, as per our knowledge, to indicate that preoperative programmed high-dose steroid treatment has long-term beneficial effects for MG patients.

  5. The beneficial effects of meditation: contribution of the anterior cingulate and locus coeruleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craigmyle, Nancy A

    2013-01-01

    During functional magnetic resonance imaging studies of meditation the cortical salience detecting and executive networks become active during "awareness of mind wandering," "shifting," and "sustained attention." The anterior cingulate (AC) is activated during "awareness of mind wandering." The AC modulates both the peripheral sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and the central locus coeruleus (LC) norepinephrine systems, which form the principal neuromodulatory system, regulating in multiple ways both neuronal and non-neuronal cells to maximize adaptation in changing environments. The LC is the primary source of central norepinephrine (C-NE) and nearly the exclusive source of cortical norepinephrine. Normally activated by novel or salient stimuli, the AC initially inhibits the SNS reflexively, lowering peripheral norepinephrine and activates the LC, increasing C-NE. Moderate levels of C-NE enhance working memory through alpha 2 adrenergic receptors, while higher levels of C-NE, acting on alpha 1 and beta receptors, enhance other executive network functions such as the stopping of ongoing behavior, attentional set-shifting, and sustained attention. The actions of the AC on both the central and peripheral noradrenergic systems are implicated in the beneficial effects of meditation. This paper will explore some of the known functions and interrelationships of the AC, SNS, and LC with respect to their possible relevance to meditation.

  6. Beneficial effects of noni (Morinda citrifolia L.) juice on livers of high-fat dietary hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi-Ling; Chang, Yuan-Yen; Yang, Deng-Jye; Tzang, Bor-Show; Chen, Yi-Chen

    2013-09-01

    Polyphenols in noni juice (NJ) are mainly composed of phenolic acids, mainly gentisic, p-hydroxybenoic, and chlorogenic acids. To investigate the beneficial effects of NJ on the liver, hamsters were fed with two diets, normal-fat and high-fat diets. Furthermore, high-fat dietary hamsters were received distilled water, and 3, 6, and 9 mL NJ/kg BW, respectively. After a 6-week feeding period, the increased (p<0.05) sizes of liver and visceral fat in high-fat dietary hamsters compared to the control hamsters were ameliorated (p<0.05) by NJ supplementation. NJ also decreased (p<0.05) serum/liver lipids but enhanced (p<0.05) daily faecal lipid/bile acid outputs in the high-fat dietary hamsters. High-fat dietary hamsters supplemented with NJ had higher (p<0.05) liver antioxidant capacities but lowered (p<0.05) liver iNOS, COX-2, TNF-α, and IL-1β expressions, gelatinolytic levels of MMP9, and serum ALT values compared to those without NJ. Hence, NJ protects liver against a high-fat dietary habit via regulations of antioxidative and anti-inflammatory responses.

  7. Peripheral Signals Mediate the Beneficial Effects of Gastric Surgery in Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barja-Fernández, Silvia; Folgueira, Cintia; Castelao, Cecilia; Leis, Rosaura; Casanueva, Felipe F.; Seoane, Luisa M.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is nowadays a public health problem both in the industrialized world and developing countries. The different treatments to fight against obesity are not very successful with the exception of gastric surgery. The mechanism behind the achievement of this procedure remains unclear although the modifications in the pattern of gastrointestinal hormones production appear to be responsible for the beneficial effect. The gastrointestinal tract has emerged in the last time as an endocrine organ in charge of response to the different stimulus related to nutritional status by the modulation of more than 30 signals acting at central level to modulate food intake and body weight. The production of some of these gastric derived signals has been proved to be altered in obesity (ghrelin, CCK, and GLP-1). In fact, bariatric surgery modifies the production of both gastrointestinal and adipose tissue peripheral signals beyond the gut microbiota composition. Through this paper the main peripheral signals altered in obesity will be reviewed together with their modifications after bariatric surgery. PMID:25960740

  8. Beneficial Effects of Adiponectin on Periodontal Ligament Cells under Normal and Regenerative Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Nokhbehsaim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes and obesity are increasing worldwide and linked to periodontitis, a chronic disease which is characterized by the irreversible destruction of the tooth-supporting tissues, that is, periodontium. The mechanisms underlying the association of diabetes mellitus and obesity with periodontal destruction and compromised periodontal healing are not well understood, but decreased plasma levels of adiponectin, as found in diabetic and obese individuals, might be a critical mechanistic link. The aim of this in vitro study was to examine the effects of adiponectin on periodontal ligament (PDL cells under normal and regenerative conditions, and to study the regulation of adiponectin and its receptors in these cells. Adiponectin stimulated significantly the expression of growth factors and extracellular matrix, proliferation, and in vitro wound healing, reduced significantly the constitutive tumor necrosis factor-α expression, and caused a significant upregulation of its own expression. The beneficial actions of enamel matrix derivative on a number of PDL cell functions critical for periodontal regeneration were partially enhanced by adiponectin. The periodontopathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis inhibited the adiponectin expression and stimulated the expression of its receptors. In conclusion, reduced levels of adiponectin, as found in type 2 diabetes and obesity, may compromise periodontal health and healing.

  9. Beneficial effects of physical activity on baroreflex control in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Rovere, Maria Teresa; Pinna, Gian Domenico

    2014-07-01

    The baroreflex mechanisms, by controlling autonomic outflow to the heart and circulation, contribute importantly to neural circulatory control. The main function of the baroreflex is to prevent wide fluctuations in arterial blood pressure and to maintain the physiological homeostasis under basal resting conditions and in response to acute stress. Baroreflex-mediated changes in autonomic outflow affect heart rate, myocardial contractility, and peripheral vascular resistance. The baroreflex control of heart rate is of particular interest in pathological conditions, since it has been associated with increased propensity for cardiac mortality and sudden death. Aging is associated with significant cardiovascular modifications. The changes in baroreflex function that occur with age have been systematically studied by several methodological approaches. The available evidence indicates a reduced arterial baroreflex control of heart rate favoring an increase in sympathetic and a decrease in parasympathetic drive to the heart as well as an impairment in the baroreceptor control of blood pressure. Both kinds of changes have resultant clinical implications. Exercise training can modulate the age-related decline in baroreflex function and the attending abnormalities in autonomic control, thus accounting for some of the beneficial effects of physical activity in reducing the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.

  10. ACTH has beneficial effects on stuttering in ADHD and ASD patients with ESES: A retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altunel, Attila; Sever, Ali; Altunel, Emine Özlem

    2017-02-01

    Etiology of stuttering remains unknown and no pharmacologic intervention has been approved for treatment. We aimed to evaluate EEG parameters and the effect of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) therapy in stuttering. In this retrospective study, 25 patients with attention deficit and hyperactivity (ADHD) or autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and comorbid stuttering were followed and treated with ACTH for electrical status epilepticus in sleep (ESES). Sleep EEGs were recorded at referral and follow-up visits and short courses of ACTH were administered when spike-wave index (SWI) was ⩾15%. The assessment of treatment effectiveness was based on reduction in SWI, and the clinician-reported improvement in stuttering, and ADHD or ASD. Statistical analyses were conducted in order to investigate the relationship between the clinical and EEG parameters. Following treatment with ACTH, a reduction in SWI in all the patients was accompanied by a 72% improvement in ADHD or ASD, and 83.8% improvement in stuttering. Twelve of the 25 patients with stuttering showed complete treatment response. Linear regressions established that SWI at final visit significantly predicted improvement in ADHD or ASD, and in stuttering. If symptoms had recurred, improvement was once again achieved with repeated ACTH therapies. Stuttering always improved prior to, and recurred following ADHD or ASD. The underlying etiology leading to ESES may play a significant role in the pathophysiology of stuttering and connect stuttering to other developmental disorders. ACTH therapy has beneficial effects on stuttering and improves EEG parameters. Copyright © 2016 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Beneficial Effects of an 8-Week, Very Low Carbohydrate Diet Intervention on Obese Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yunjuan; Yu, Haoyong; Li, Yuehua; Ma, Xiaojing; Lu, Junxi; Yu, Weihui; Xiao, Yunfeng; Bao, Yuqian; Jia, Weiping

    2013-01-01

    Aim. To investigate the effects of weight loss during an 8-week very low carbohydrate diet (VLCD) on improvement of metabolic parameters, adipose distribution and body composition, and insulin resistance and sensitivity in Chinese obese subjects. Methods. Fifty-three healthy obese volunteers were given an 8-week VLCD. The outcomes were changes in anthropometry, body composition, metabolic profile, abdominal fat distribution, liver fat percent (LFP), and insulin resistance and sensitivity. Results. A total of 46 (86.8%) obese subjects completed the study. The VLCD caused a weight loss of −8.7 ± 0.6 kg (mean ± standard error (SE), P < 0.0001) combined with a significant improvement of metabolic profile. In both male and female, nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) significantly decreased (−166.2 ± 47.6 μmol/L, P = 0.001) and β-hydroxybutyric acid (BHA) increased (0.15 ± 0.06 mmol/L, P = 0.004) after eight weeks of VLCD intervention. The significant reductions in subcutaneous fat area (SFA), visceral fat area (VFA), and LFP were −66.5 ± 7.9 cm2, −35.3 ± 3.9 cm2, and −16.4 ± 2.4%, respectively (all P values P < 0.0001). HOMA IR and HOMA β significantly decreased while whole body insulin sensitivity index (WBISI) increased (all P values P < 0.001). Conclusion. Eight weeks of VLCD was an effective intervention in obese subjects. These beneficial effects may be associated with enhanced hepatic and whole-body lipolysis and oxidation. PMID:23573151

  12. Beneficial Effects of an 8-Week, Very Low Carbohydrate Diet Intervention on Obese Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunjuan Gu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate the effects of weight loss during an 8-week very low carbohydrate diet (VLCD on improvement of metabolic parameters, adipose distribution and body composition, and insulin resistance and sensitivity in Chinese obese subjects. Methods. Fifty-three healthy obese volunteers were given an 8-week VLCD. The outcomes were changes in anthropometry, body composition, metabolic profile, abdominal fat distribution, liver fat percent (LFP, and insulin resistance and sensitivity. Results. A total of 46 (86.8% obese subjects completed the study. The VLCD caused a weight loss of −8.7±0.6 kg (mean ± standard error (SE, P<0.0001 combined with a significant improvement of metabolic profile. In both male and female, nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA significantly decreased (−166.2±47.6 μmol/L, P=0.001 and β-hydroxybutyric acid (BHA increased (0.15±0.06 mmol/L, P=0.004 after eight weeks of VLCD intervention. The significant reductions in subcutaneous fat area (SFA, visceral fat area (VFA, and LFP were −66.5±7.9 cm2, −35.3±3.9 cm2, and −16.4±2.4%, respectively (all P values P<0.0001. HOMA IR and HOMA β significantly decreased while whole body insulin sensitivity index (WBISI increased (all P values P<0.001. Conclusion. Eight weeks of VLCD was an effective intervention in obese subjects. These beneficial effects may be associated with enhanced hepatic and whole-body lipolysis and oxidation.

  13. Beneficial effects of hydrogen-rich saline on early burn-wound progression in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Xue Guo

    Full Text Available Deep burn wounds undergo a dynamic process known as wound progression that results in a deepening and extension of the initial burn area. The zone of stasis is more likely to develop more severe during wound progression in the presence of hypoperfusion. Hydrogen has been reported to alleviate injury triggered by ischaemia/reperfusion and burns in various organs by selectively quenching oxygen free radicals. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible protective effects of hydrogen against early burn-wound progression.Deep-burn models were established through contact with a boiled, rectangular, brass comb for 20 s. Fifty-six Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into sham, burn plus saline, and burn plus hydrogen-rich saline (HS groups with sacrifice and analysis at various time windows (6 h, 24 h, 48 h post burn. Indexes of oxidative stress, apoptosis and autophagy were measured in each group. The zone of stasis was evaluated using immunofluorescence staining, ELISA, and Western blot to explore the underlying effects and mechanisms post burn.The burn-induced increase in malondialdehyde was markedly reduced with HS, while the activities of endogenous antioxidant enzymes were significantly increased. Moreover, HS treatment attenuated increases in apoptosis and autophagy postburn in wounds, according to the TUNEL staining results and the expression analysis of Bax, Bcl-2, caspase-3, Beclin-1 and Atg-5 proteins. Additionally, HS lowered the level of myeloperoxidase and expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in the zone of stasis while augmenting IL-10. The elevated levels of Akt phosphorylation and NF-κB p65 expression post burn were also downregulated by HS management.Hydrogen can attenuate early wound progression following deep burn injury. The beneficial effect of hydrogen was mediated by attenuating oxidative stress, which inhibited apoptosis and inflammation, and the Akt/NF-κB signalling pathway may be involved in regulating the

  14. Beneficial effects of combined administration of sodium molybdate with atorvastatin in hyperlipidemic hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, A A

    2009-04-01

    This study aims to evaluate the benefit of combined administration of sodium molybdate with atorvastatin in management of hyperlipidemia. Hyperlipidemic male Serian golden hamsters were administered either atorvastatin (40 or 80 mg/kg, p.o.) sodium molybdate (100 mg/kg, p.o.) or combination of atorvastatin (40 mg/kg, p.o.) with sodium molybdate (100 mg/kg, p.o.) for 30 consecutive days. Blood lipids (total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, Non-HDL-cholesterol and anti-atherogenic index) in addition to the activities of liver transaminases (AST, ALT), as well as antioxidant status (lipid peroxidation, catalase, glutathione peroxidase) were estimated before and after 15 and 30 days of treatment. The results indicate that atorvastatin is effective in lowering the blood lipids with maximum effect achieved by the high dose (80 mg/kg, p.o.). However, this dose elevates the liver enzymes significantly after 15 and 30 days of treatment. Sodium molybdate lowers the blood lipids after 30 days from treatment without alteration in liver enzymes. Moreover, in this group, lipid peroxides were significantly reduced and activities of catalase as well as glutathione peroxidase were significantly elevated compared with the hyperlipidemic control group (saline). Combination of atorvastatin (40 mg/kg, p.o.) with sodium molybdate significantly reduced the elevated blood lipids in a similar degree as the high dose of atorvastatin. Meanwhile, in this group, the liver enzymes were not significantly elevated while, the antioxidants profile were significantly improved compared with that of control hyperlipidemic and atorvastatin groups. In conclusion, combination of sodium molybdate with atorvastatin is beneficial in management of hyperlipidemia as it allows maximum reduction in blood lipids, improves the antioxidant status with minimal disturbances in liver enzymes.

  15. Beneficial effect of epinephrine infusion on cerebral and myocardial blood flows during CPR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, R C; Michael, J R; Guerci, A D; Chandra, N; Schleien, C L; Dean, J M; Rogers, M C; Weisfeldt, M L; Traystman, R J

    1985-08-01

    It is hypothesized that epinephrine improves the ability to resuscitate the heart through a mechanism thought to be related to the increase in aortic pressure. Our results with epinephrine infusion during CPR are consistent with this hypothesis. Epinephrine selectively increased vascular resistance in noncerebral, noncoronary vascular beds, as indicated by a decrease in microsphere-determined blood flow in these areas. This increased vascular resistance raised aortic pressure during the chest compression phase and the relaxation phase of CPR. Because intracranial and right atrial pressures were only slightly higher with epinephrine, cerebral and myocardial perfusion pressures and blood flows were significantly improved. This beneficial effect (compared to no administration of a vasopressor) was more pronounced as CPR progressed beyond ten minutes. Enhanced cerebral and myocardial perfusion occurred with epinephrine when either the conventional or simultaneous compression and ventilation (SCV) mode of CPR was employed in dogs. Similar selective perfusion was sustained for 50 minutes of SCV-CPR with epinephrine, even when the onset of CPR was delayed five minutes. Regional brain blood flow differed in the delayed-CPR group in that cerebellum, brain stem, and thalamic regions initially had higher blood flows. In an infant animal model of CPR using conventional CPR in piglets, epinephrine also was found to increase cerebral and myocardial blood flows. These results show that administration of epinephrine benefits different age groups of different species with different modes of CPR; that benefits occur even with delayed onset of CPR which is associated with additional anoxia and acidosis; and that epinephrine administration is particularly effective in sustaining cerebral and coronary perfusion during prolonged CPR.

  16. Beneficial effects of thymoquinone and omega-3 on intestinal ischemia/reperfusion-induced renal dysfunction in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. Fayez

    2014-12-01

    Depending on the obtained results in the present study it could be concluded that thymoquinone and omega-3 have beneficial effects on II/R-induced renal dysfunction in rats. The protective potential could be attributed to the antioxidant, antiapoptotic and anti-inflammatory effects of test drugs.

  17. BENEFICIAL EFFECTS OF CAPTOPRIL ON PROGNOSIS IN ELDERLY PATIENTSWITH ACUTE MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡煦; 沈卫峰; 李明洲; 龚兰生

    1998-01-01

    This study sought to investigate the effects of early and long-term intervention with angiotensin-converting enzyme(ACE) inhibitor captopril on the elderly patients with acute myocardial infarction(AMI), and observe its in-hospitsl and post-hospital outcomes during serial follow-up of 54 months. Methods. 631 elderly patients(60~75 years old) with AMI and without cardioganie shock were hospitalized within 72 hours of symptoms and were randondy allocated to captopril (n= 361; treatment group) and conventional treatment (n=270,contro1 group), The survival and cardiac events(congestive heart failure, reinfarction, severe arthythmias and cardiac death)of each group were determined during hospitalization and follow-up. Results. During hospitalization, the survival was higher in treatment group than in control group(P<0. 0001). On the other hand, in treatment group lower mortality was true for patients with anterior myocardial infarction(P= 0. 001 ) or with anterior+inferior myocardial infarction(P= 0. 026), but not statistically significant in ones with inferior myocardial infarction(P= 0. 061). During follow-up, the occurrence of cardiae death, heart failure, reinfaretion and severe arrhythmiss were lower in treatment group(P=0.0001, P=0.05, P=0. 0004 and P=0.027). So higher survival(P= 0.005) and lower total cardiac events(P=0. 0008) could be seen in treatment group over this period. Conclusions. Early and long-term treatment with captopril in the elderly patients with AMI has beneficial outcomes in both in-hospital and follow-up periods,

  18. Combining reduced glutathione and ascorbic acid has supplementary beneficial effects on boar sperm cryotolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giaretta, Elisa; Estrada, Efrén; Bucci, Diego; Spinaci, Marcella; Rodríguez-Gil, Joan E; Yeste, Marc

    2015-02-01

    The main aim of this work was to evaluate how supplementing freezing and thawing media with reduced glutathione (GSH) and l-ascorbic acid (AA) affected the quality parameters of frozen-thawed boar spermatozoa. With this purpose, semen samples of 12 ejaculates coming from 12 boars were used. Each ejaculate was split into seven aliquots to which 5 mM of GSH and 100 μM of AA were added separately or together at two different steps of freeze-thawing. Various sperm parameters (levels of free cysteine residues in sperm nucleoproteins, sperm viability, acrosome membrane integrity, intracellular peroxide and superoxide levels [ROS], and total and progressive motility) were evaluated before freezing and at 30 and 240 minutes after thawing. Both GSH and AA significantly improved boar sperm cryotolerance when they were separately added to freezing and thawing media. However, the highest improvement was recorded when both freezing and thawing media were supplemented with 5 mM of GSH plus 100 μM of AA. This improvement was observed in sperm viability and acrosome integrity, sperm motility, and nucleoprotein structure. Although ROS levels were not much increased by freeze-thawing procedures, the addition of GSH and AA to both freezing and thawing extenders significantly decreased intracellular peroxide levels and had no impact on superoxide levels. According to our results, we can conclude that supplementation of freezing and thawing media with both GSH and AA has a combined, beneficial effect on frozen-thawed boar sperm, which is greater than that obtained with the separate addition of either GSH or AA.

  19. PEPFAR's support for orphans and vulnerable children: some beneficial effects, but too little data, and programs spread thin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Malcolm; Beard, Jennifer; Sabin, Lora; Brooks, Mohamad I; Scott, Nancy; Larson, Bruce A; Biemba, Godfrey; Miller, Candace; Simon, Jonathon

    2012-07-01

    Sixteen million children in developing and middle-income countries have been orphaned by HIV/AIDS, and at least another million children per year are rendered vulnerable by parental HIV/AIDS-related illness. Since 2003 the US government has provided approximately $1.6 billion to give four million of these children care and support through the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR). We conducted five studies to evaluate the effectiveness of PEPFAR's interventions for such children in East Africa and southern Africa. We found evidence of beneficial changes in school enrollment rates and on the psychosocial well-being of children. However, we could not demonstrate empirically the impact of most of the PEPFAR initiatives that we examined, primarily because of a lack of baseline data and clear outcome and impact indicators. We also found that many programs were spread so thin across a vulnerable population that little in the way of services actually reached beneficiaries, which raises questions about whether PEPFAR funds are sufficient, or if the program is attempting to do much with too few resources. We offer several recommendations, including better measuring the effect of programs for orphans and vulnerable children by collecting baseline data and conducting well-designed, rigorous outcome and impact evaluations.

  20. Beneficial effects of fenugreek glycoside supplementation in male subjects during resistance training:A randomized controlled pilot study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sachin Wankhede; Vishwaraman Mohan; Prasad Thakurdesai

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of the glycoside fraction of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) seeds (Fenu-FG) on physiologi-cal parameters related to muscle anabolism, androgenic hormones, and body fat in healthy male subjects during an 8-week resistance training program using a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled design. Methods: Sixty healthy male subjects were randomized to ingest capsules of Fenu-FG (1 capsule of 300 mg, twice per day) or the matching placebo at a 1:1 ratio. The subjects participated in a supervised 4-day per week resistance-training program for 8 weeks. The outcome measurements were recorded at recruitment (baseline) and at the end of the treatment (8 weeks). The efficacy outcome included serum testosterone (total and free) levels, muscle strength and repetitions to failure, metabolic markers for anabolic activity (serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen), and % body fat. The standard safety measurements such as adverse events monitoring, vital signs, hematology, biochemistry, and urinalysis were performed. Results: Fenu-FG supplementation demonstrated significant anabolic and androgenic activity as compared with the placebo. Fenu-FG treated subjects showed significant improvements in body fat without a reduction in muscle strength or repetitions to failure. The Fenu-FG supplemen-tation was found to be safe and well-tolerated. Conclusion: Fenu-FG supplementation showed beneficial effects in male subjects during resistance training without any clinical side effects.

  1. Beneficial effects of alternate dietary regimen on liver inflammation, atherosclerosis and renal activation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wielinga, P.Y.; Yakala, G.K.; Heeringa, P.; Kleemann, R.; Kooistra, T.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Alternate day calorie restriction (CR) has been shown to be almost as beneficial as daily CR. The question arises whether this concept is also applicable to alternating dietary composition. Objective: To seek evidence that alternating high cholesterol (HC) - cholesterol-free (CON)

  2. Beneficial Effects of Alternate Dietary Regimen on Liver Inflammation, Atherosclerosis and Renal Activation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wielinga, Peter Y.; Yakala, Gopala K.; Heeringa, Peter; Kleemann, Robert; Kooistra, Teake

    2011-01-01

    Background: Alternate day calorie restriction (CR) has been shown to be almost as beneficial as daily CR. The question arises whether this concept is also applicable to alternating dietary composition. Objective: To seek evidence that alternating high cholesterol (HC) - cholesterol-free (CON)

  3. Revaccination with Live Attenuated Vaccines Confer Additional Beneficial Nonspecific Effects on Overall Survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Christine S; Fisker, Ane B; Whittle, Hilton C;

    2016-01-01

    hypothesised that revaccination in presence of prior immunity enhances beneficial NSEs. METHODS: Literature search for studies of revaccination and mortality. FINDINGS: In two randomised trials (RCTs), two doses versus one dose of MV reduced all-cause mortality by 63% (95% CI: 23-83%) from 9 to 18months of age...

  4. Coffee: A Selected Overview of Beneficial or Harmful Effects on the Cardiovascular System?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whayne, Thomas F

    2015-01-01

    With a history that began in 800 A.D., coffee is the most popular drink known and as a result, the issues regarding its physiologic effects deserve attention. Maintaining alertness is a wellknown benefit and in addition, the cardiovascular (CV) effects of the active compounds, which include polyphenols and caffeine, must be considered. Genetics are relevant and where slow caffeine metabolism is inherent, the risk of nonfatal myocardial (MI) has been shown to be increased. Overall risk for coronary heart disease (CHD) is not supported and unless there is excessive intake, congestive heart failure (CHF) is not adversely affected; in moderation, there may be some benefit for CHF. There is no apparent increased risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD). Overall, there also appears to be a beneficial inverse association with all-cause mortality, although this is not absolute for extra heavy intake. Benefit in reducing stroke also has supportive evidence. Hypertension is not increased by coffee. Boiled and unfiltered coffee appears to increase plasma cholesterol and triglycerides but for the overall metabolic syndrome, there appears to be benefit. There is also some evidence that paper-filtered coffee results in an increase in some markers of inflammation. Association of coffee with arrhythmias has been a major concern though in moderation it is not a significant overall problem. Therefore, only if a patient were to associate major arrhythmic symptoms with coffee would cessation have to be advised. Where coffee clearly shines from a CV standpoint is in the established decrease in onset of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Any benefit or harm has always been attributed to caffeine as the apparent major component. However, coffee contains a myriad of compounds, including polyphenols. These other substances may be most relevant for potential benefit or harm and some of these may be partially removed or altered by coffee preparation methods such as paper filtration. Multiple studies

  5. Beneficial effects of an intradialytic cycling training program in patients with end-stage kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groussard, Carole; Rouchon-Isnard, Myriam; Coutard, Céline; Romain, Fanny; Malardé, Ludivine; Lemoine-Morel, Sophie; Martin, Brice; Pereira, Bruno; Boisseau, Nathalie

    2015-06-01

    In chronic kidney disease (CKD), oxidative stress (OS) plays a central role in the development of cardiovascular diseases. This pilot program aimed to determine whether an intradialytic aerobic cycling training protocol, by increasing physical fitness, could reduce OS and improve other CKD-related disorders such as altered body composition and lipid profile. Eighteen hemodialysis patients were randomly assigned to either an intradialytic training (cycling: 30 min, 55%-60% peak power, 3 days/week) group (EX; n = 8) or a control group (CON; n = 10) for 3 months. Body composition (from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), physical fitness (peak oxygen uptake and the 6-minute walk test (6MWT)), lipid profile (triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)), and pro/antioxidant status (15-F2α-isoprostanes (F2-IsoP) and oxidized LDL in plasma; superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and reduced/oxidized glutathione in erythrocytes) were determined at baseline and 3 months later. The intradialytic training protocol did not modify body composition but had significant effects on physical fitness, lipid profile, and pro/antioxidant status. Indeed, at 3 months: (i) performance on the 6MWT was increased in EX (+23.4%, p < 0.001) but did not change in CON, (ii) plasma TG were reduced in EX (-23%, p < 0.03) but were not modified in CON, and (iii) plasma F2-IsoP concentrations were lower in EX than in CON (-35.7%, p = 0.02). In conclusion, our results show that 30 min of intradialytic training, 3 times per week for 3 months, are enough to exert beneficial effects on the most sensitive and reliable marker of lipid peroxidation (IsoP) while improving CKD-associated disorders (lipid profile and physical fitness). Intradialytic aerobic cycling training represents a useful and easy strategy to reduce CKD-associated disorders. These results need to be confirmed with a larger randomized study.

  6. Beneficial Effects of Nitric Oxide Induced Mild Oxidative Stress on Post-Thawed Bull Semen Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Sharafi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cryopreservation of semen requires optimized conditions to minimize the harmful effects of various stresses. The main approach for protection of sperm against stress is based on the use of antioxidants and cryoprotectants, which are described as defensive methods. Recently, the application of controlled mild stressors has been described for activation of a temporary response in oocyte, embryo and somatic cells. In this study a sub-lethal oxidative stress induced by precise concentrations of nitric oxide (NO has been evaluated for sperm during cryopreservation. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, we used different concentrations of NO [0 μM (NO-0, 0.01 μM (NO-0.01, 0.1 μM (NO-0.1, 1 μM (NO-1, 10 μM (NO-10 and 100 μM (NO-100] during cryopreservation of bull semen. Their effects on post-thawed sperm quality that included motility and velocity parameters, plasma membrane functionality, acrosome integrity, apoptosis status, mitochondrial activity and lipid peroxidation after freezing-thawing were investigated. Results: Exposure of sperm before freezing to NO-1 significantly increased total motility (88.4 ± 2.8%, progressive motility (50.4 ± 3.2% and average path velocity (VAP, 53.8 ± 3.1 μm/s compared to other extenders. In addition, NO-1 significantly increased plasma membrane functionality (89.3 ± 2.9% compared to NO-0 (75.3 ± 2.9%, NO-0.01 (78.3 ± 2.9%, NO-0.1 (76.4 ± 2.9%, NO-10 (64 ± 2.9% and NO-100 (42 ± 2.9%. Sperm exposed to NO-1 produced the highest percentage of viable (85.6 ± 2.3% and the lowest percentage of apoptotic (10.8 ± 2.4% spermatozoa compared to the other extenders. Also, NO-100 resulted in a higher percentage of dead spermatozoa (27.1 ± 2.7% compared to the other extenders. In terms of mitochondrial activity, there was no significant difference among NO-0 (53.4 ± 3.2, NO-0.01 (52.1 ± 3.2, NO-0.1 (50.8 ± 3.2 and NO-1 (53.1 ± 3.2. For acrosome integrity, no significant different

  7. The Beneficial Effect of Hypnosis in Elective Cardiac Surgery: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akgul, Ahmet; Guner, Beyhan; Çırak, Musa; Çelik, Derya; Hergünsel, Oya; Bedirhan, Sevim

    2016-10-01

    Background Single-session hypnosis has never been evaluated as a premedication technique in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the beneficial effects of clinical hypnotherapy on perioperative anxiety, pain perception, sedation, and necessity for ventilator assistance in patients undergoing CABG. Methods Double-blind, randomized, clinical trial was performed. Forty-four patients undergoing CABG surgery were randomized into two groups. The patients in group A received preprocedural hypnosis by an anesthesiologist. Patients in group B (control) had only information on the surgical intervention by the same anesthesiologist. State-Trait-Anxiety Index-I (STAI-I) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were performed preoperatively in both groups. Visual analog scale (VAS) and Ramsay sedation scale (RSS) were evaluated on 0th, 1st, 2nd, 4th, 6th, 8th, 10th, 12th, and 24th hours, postoperatively. Postoperative anxiety level, analgesic drug consumption, and duration of ventilator assistance and intensive care unit (ICU) stay were also documented. Results When anxiety and depression levels were compared, significantly lower STA-I and BDI values were detected in group A after hypnotherapy (p = 0.001, p = 0.001, respectively). Significantly less total doses of remifentanil (34.4 ± 11.4 vs. 50.0 ± 13.6 mg) and morphine (4.9 ± 3.3 vs. 13.6 ± 2.7 mg) were administered in group A in the postoperative period. Ventilator assistance duration (6.8 ± 2.0 vs. 8.9 ± 2.7 hours) was also shorter in group A when compared with that in group B (p = 0.007). Conclusion Hypnosis session prior to surgery was an effective complementary method in decreasing presurgical anxiety, and it resulted in better pain control as well as reduced ventilator assistance following CABG surgery. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. The Two Faces of Selective Memory Retrieval: Recall Specificity of the Detrimental but Not the Beneficial Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäuml, Karl-Heinz T.; Dobler, Ina M.

    2015-01-01

    Depending on the degree to which the original study context is accessible, selective memory retrieval can be detrimental or beneficial for the recall of other memories (Bäuml & Samenieh, 2012). Prior work has shown that the detrimental effect of memory retrieval is typically recall specific and does not arise after restudy trials, whereas…

  9. The Two Faces of Selective Memory Retrieval: Recall Specificity of the Detrimental but Not the Beneficial Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäuml, Karl-Heinz T.; Dobler, Ina M.

    2015-01-01

    Depending on the degree to which the original study context is accessible, selective memory retrieval can be detrimental or beneficial for the recall of other memories (Bäuml & Samenieh, 2012). Prior work has shown that the detrimental effect of memory retrieval is typically recall specific and does not arise after restudy trials, whereas…

  10. Low doses of nanodiamonds and silica nanoparticles have beneficial hormetic effects in normal human skin fibroblasts in culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mytych, Jennifer; Wnuk, Maciej; Rattan, Suresh

    2016-01-01

    oxygenease HO-1), sirtuin (SIRT1), and DNA methyltransferase II (DNMT2). These results imply that ND and SiO2-NP at low doses are potential hormetins, which exert mild stress-induced beneficial hormetic effects through improved survival, longevity, maintenance, repair and function of human cells...

  11. The beneficial effect of transversus abdominis plane block after laparoscopic cholecystectomy in day-case surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Pernille Lykke; Stjernholm, Pia; Kristiansen, Viggo B;

    2012-01-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is associated with postoperative pain of moderate intensity in the early postoperative period. Recent randomized trials have demonstrated the efficacy of transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block in providing postoperative analgesia after abdominal surgery. We hypothesi...... hypothesized that a TAP block may reduce pain while coughing and at rest for the first 24 postoperative hours, opioid consumption, and opioid side effects in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy in day-case surgery....

  12. Sirt1 and Sirt6 mediate beneficial effects of rosiglitazone on hepatic lipid accumulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo Jin Yang

    Full Text Available Sirtuin (Sirt, a sensor of the cell metabolic state, regulates glucose and lipid metabolism. The aim of this study was to address whether rosiglitazone (RGZ alters hepatic Sirt1 and whether Sirt1 and/or Sirt6 have a regulatory role in the protective effects of RGZ on hepatocyte steatosis.To investigate the effect of RGZ on hepatic Sirt1, rats were administered with RGZ for 6 weeks. The involvement of Sirt1/6 in the RGZ-mediated effect against hepatic steatosis was evaluated by single or double knockdown of Sirt1 and Sirt6 in a hepatocyte steatosis model.RGZ in vivo increased Sirt1 expression and its activity in rat livers. In a hepatocyte steatosis model, RGZ significantly reduced lipid accumulation and activated the Sirt1/6-LKB1-AMPK pathway. Sirt1 knockdown abolished the effects of RGZ with regard to hepatocyte fat accumulation and the Sirt1/6-LKB1-AMPK pathway, suggesting that Sirt1 is a key regulator of RGZ-mediated metabolic processes. Sirt6 knockdown inhibited the protective effects of RGZ to a lesser extent than Sirt1, and double knockdown of Sirt1/6 showed no synergistic effects.Our results demonstrate that Sirt1/6 are involved in the RGZ-mediated effects on hepatocyte steatosis, and the regulatory effects of Sirt1 and Sirt6 are not synergistic but compensatory for improving hepatocyte steatosis.

  13. Efectos beneficiosos del chocolate en la salud cardiovascular Beneficial effects of chocolate on cardiovascular health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gómez-Juaristi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Desde la antigüedad se ha atribuido al chocolate propiedades saludables que lo han aproximado más hacia un uso terapéutico que alimentario. El presente trabajo revisa algunos estudios relevantes de los efectos del chocolate (y sus componentes activos sobre diferentes factores de riesgo cardiovascular y señala la necesidad de futuros estudios. El consumo de cacao/chocolate (i incrementa la actividad antioxidante, (ii modula la función plaquetaria e inflamación y (iii disminuye la presión arterial sistólica y diastólica. Aunque no existe consenso sobre la cantidad óptima a consumir, puede sugerirse que el consumo diario de chocolate rico en cacao (y polifenoles es una buena elección para reducir, al menos parcialmente, el riesgo cardiovascular. No obstante, son necesarios más estudios que profundicen sobre la biodisponibilidad y mecanismos de acción de los componentes activos del chocolate. El estudio de la interacción del chocolate y sus componentes con genes candidatos aportará información fundamental de los individuos "diana" que podrían beneficiarse del potencial efecto saludable del chocolate en el tratamiento cardiovascular.Since ancient times, numerous health beneficial effects have been attributed to chocolate, closing up its consumption to a therapeutic use. The present study reviews some relevant studies about chocolate (and its bioactive compounds on some cardiovascular risk factors and stresses the need of future studies. The consumption of cocoa/ chocolate (i increases plasma antioxidant capacity, (ii diminishes platelet function and inflammation, and (iii decreases diastolic and systolic arterial pressures. Data currently available indicate that daily consumption of cocoa-rich chocolate (rich in polyphenols may at least partially lower cardiovascular disease risk. Further studies are required in order to establish the bioavailability and mechanisms of action of bioactive compounds in chocolate. The study of the

  14. Long-lasting beneficial effects of central serotonin receptor 7 stimulation in female mice modeling Rett syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Filippis, Bianca; Chiodi, Valentina; Adriani, Walter; Lacivita, Enza; Mallozzi, Cinzia; Leopoldo, Marcello; Domenici, Maria Rosaria; Fuso, Andrea; Laviola, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is a rare neurodevelopmental disorder, characterized by severe behavioral and physiological symptoms. Mutations in the methyl CpG binding protein 2 gene (MECP2) cause more than 95% of classic cases, and currently there is no cure for this devastating disorder. Recently we have demonstrated that specific behavioral and brain molecular alterations can be rescued in MeCP2-308 male mice, a RTT mouse model, by pharmacological stimulation of the brain serotonin receptor 7 (5-HT7R). This member of the serotonin receptor family-crucially involved in the regulation of brain structural plasticity and cognitive processes-can be stimulated by systemic repeated treatment with LP-211, a brain-penetrant selective 5-HT7R agonist. The present study extends previous findings by demonstrating that the LP-211 treatment (0.25 mg/kg, once per day for 7 days) rescues RTT-related phenotypic alterations, motor coordination (Dowel test), spatial reference memory (Barnes maze test) and synaptic plasticity (hippocampal long-term-potentiation) in MeCP2-308 heterozygous female mice, the genetic and hormonal milieu that resembles that of RTT patients. LP-211 also restores the activation of the ribosomal protein (rp) S6, the downstream target of mTOR and S6 kinase, in the hippocampus of RTT female mice. Notably, the beneficial effects on neurobehavioral and molecular parameters of a seven-day long treatment with LP-211 were evident up to 2 months after the last injection, thus suggesting long-lasting effects on RTT-related impairments. Taken together with our previous study, these results provide compelling preclinical evidence of the potential therapeutic value for RTT of a pharmacological approach targeting the brain 5-HT7R.

  15. Long-lasting beneficial effects of central serotonin receptor 7 stimulation in female mice modeling Rett syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca eDe Filippis

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Rett syndrome (RTT is a rare neurodevelopmental disorder, characterized by severe behavioral and physiological symptoms. Mutations in the methyl CpG binding protein 2 gene (MECP2 cause more than 95% of classic cases, and currently there is no cure for this devastating disorder. Recently we have demonstrated that specific behavioral and brain molecular alterations can be rescued in MeCP2-308 male mice, a RTT mouse model, by pharmacological stimulation of the brain serotonin receptor 7 (5-HT7R. This member of the serotonin receptor family – crucially involved in the regulation of brain structural plasticity and cognitive processes – can be stimulated by systemic repeated treatment with LP-211, a brain-penetrant selective 5-HT7R agonist. The present study extends previous findings by demonstrating that the LP-211 treatment (0.25 mg/kg, once per day for 7 days rescues RTT-related phenotypic alterations, motor coordination (Dowel test, spatial reference memory (Barnes maze test and synaptic plasticity (hippocampal long-term-potentiation in MeCP2-308 heterozygous female mice, the genetic and hormonal milieu that resembles that of RTT patients. LP-211 also restores the activation of the ribosomal protein S6, the downstream target of mTOR and S6 kinase, in the hippocampus of RTT female mice. Notably, the beneficial effects on neurobehavioral and molecular parameters of a seven-day long treatment with LP-211 were evident up to two months after the last injection, thus suggesting long-lasting effects on RTT-related impairments. Taken together with our previous study, these results provide compelling preclinical evidence of the potential therapeutic value for RTT of a pharmacological approach targeting the brain 5-HT7R.

  16. Pantoea agglomerans: a mysterious bacterium of evil and good. Part IV. Beneficial effects

    OpenAIRE

    Jacek Dutkiewicz; Barbara Mackiewicz; Marta Kinga Lemieszek; Marcin Golec; Janusz Milanowski; Artur Mroczkowski; Tomasz Paszkowski; Sławomir Pancewicz; María del Rocío Reyes Montes; Katarzyna Sygit; Paweł Cieszczyk; Mwidimi Ndosi; Elżbieta Krajewska-Kułak

    2016-01-01

    [i][/i][i]Pantoea agglomerans[/i], a gammaproteobacterium of plant origin, possesses many beneficial traits that could be used for the prevention and/or treatment of human and animal diseases, combating plant pathogens, promotion of plant growth and bioremediation of the environment. It produces a number of antibiotics (herbicolin, pantocins, microcin, agglomerins, andrimid, phenazine, among others) which could be used for combating plant, animal and human pathogens or for food preservation. ...

  17. Dominance effects of deleterious and beneficial mutations in a single gene of the RNA virus ϕ6.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah B Joseph

    Full Text Available Most of our knowledge of dominance stems from studies of deleterious mutations. From these studies we know that most deleterious mutations are recessive, and that this recessivity arises from a hyperbolic relationship between protein function (i.e., protein concentration or activity and fitness. Here we investigate whether this knowledge can be used to make predictions about the dominance of beneficial and deleterious mutations in a single gene. We employed a model system--the bacteriophage φ6--that allowed us to generate a collection of mutations in haploid conditions so that it was not biased toward either dominant beneficial or recessive deleterious mutations. Screening for the ability to infect a bacterial host that does not permit infection by the wildtype φ6, we generated a collection of mutations in P3, a gene involved in attachment to the host and in phage particle assembly. The resulting collection contained mutations with both deleterious and beneficial effects on fitness. The deleterious mutations in our collection had additive effects on fitness and the beneficial mutations were recessive. Neither of these observations were predicted from previous studies of dominance. This pattern is not consistent with the hyperbolic (diminishing returns relationship between protein function and fitness that is characteristic of enzymatic genes, but could have resulted from a curve of increasing returns.

  18. Beneficial effect of prolonged heme oxygenase 1 activation in a rat model of chronic heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Collino

    2013-07-01

    We and others have previously demonstrated that heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1 induction by acute hemin administration exerts cardioprotective effects. Here, we developed a rat model of heart failure to investigate whether a long-term induction of HO-1 by chronic hemin administration exerted protective effects. Sprague Dawley rats that underwent permanent ligation of the left coronary artery were closely monitored for survival rate analysis and sacrificed on day 28 post-operation. Administration of hemin (4 mg/kg body weight every other day for 4 weeks induced a massive increase in HO-1 expression and activity, as shown by the increased levels of the two main metabolic products of heme degradation, bilirubin and carbon monoxide (CO. These effects were associated with significant improvement in survival and reduced the extension of myocardial damage. The ischemic hearts of the hemin-treated animals displayed reduced oxidative stress and apoptosis in comparison with the non-treated rats, as shown by the decreased levels of lipid peroxidation, free-radical-induced DNA damage, caspase-3 activity and Bax expression. Besides, chronic HO-1 activation suppressed the elevated levels of myeloperoxidase (MPO activity, interleukin 1β (IL-1β production and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα production that were evoked by the ischemic injury, and increased the plasma level of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Interestingly, HO-1 inhibitor zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP-IX; 1 mg/kg lowered bilirubin and CO concentrations to control values, thus abolishing all the cardioprotective effects of hemin. In conclusion, the results demonstrate that chronic HO-1 activation by prolonged administration of hemin improves survival and exerts protective effects in a rat model of myocardial ischemia by exerting a potent antioxidant activity and disrupting multiple levels of the apoptotic and inflammatory cascade.

  19. BENEFICIAL EFFECTS OF EXOGENOUS CROSSLINKING AGENTS ON SELF-ASSEMBLED TISSUE ENGINEERED CARTILAGE CONSTRUCT BIOMECHANICAL PROPERTIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, Benjamin D; Mohan, Arvind; Athanasiou, Kyriacos A

    2011-04-01

    As articular cartilage is unable to repair itself, there is a tremendous clinical need for a tissue engineered replacement tissue. Current tissue engineering efforts using the self-assembly process have demonstrated promising results, but the biomechanical properties remain at roughly 50% of native tissue. The objective of this study was to determine the feasibility of using exogenous crosslinking agents to enhance the biomechanical properties of a scaffoldless cartilage tissue engineering approach. Four crosslinking agents (glutaraldehyde, ribose, genipin, and methylglyoxal) were applied each at a single concentration and single application time. It was determined that ribose application resulted in a significant 69% increase in Young's modulus, a significant 47% increase in ultimate tensile strength, as well as a trend toward a significant increase in aggregate modulus. Additionally, methylglyoxal application resulted in a significant 58% increase in Young's modulus. No treatments altered the biochemical content of the tissue. To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine the use of exogenous crosslinking agents on any tissue formed using a scaffoldless tissue engineering approach. In particular, this study demonstrates that a one-time treatment with crosslinking agents can be employed effectively to enhance the biomechanical properties of tissue engineered articular cartilage. The results are exciting, as they demonstrate the feasibility of using exogenous crosslinking agents to enhance the biomechanical properties without the need for increased glycosaminoglycan (GAG) and collagen content.

  20. Coagulansin-A has beneficial effects on the development of bovine embryos in vitro via HSP70 induction

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Imran; Lee, Kyeong-Lim; Fakruzzaman, Md.; Song, Seok-Hwan; Ihsan-ul-Haq,; Mirza, Bushra; Yan, Chang Guo; Kong, Il-Keun

    2016-01-01

    Coagulansin-A (withanolide) is the steroidal lactone obtained from Withania coagulans which belong to Solanaceae family. The present study investigated the effects of coagulansin-A on bovine oocyte maturation and embryo development in vitro. All these oocytes were aspirated from the ovaries obtained from Korean Hanwoo cows at a local abattoir. To determine whether coagulansin-A has beneficial effects on bovine oocyte maturation in vitro, 355 oocytes per group (control and treated) in seven re...

  1. Impact of Solid Electrolyte Interphase lithium salts on cycling ability of Li-ion battery: Beneficial effect of glymes additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrétien, Fabien; Jones, Jennifer; Damas, Christine; Lemordant, Daniel; Willmann, Patrick; Anouti, Mérièm

    2014-02-01

    The Solid Electrolyte Interphase (SEI), formed during the first cycles of life in lithium-ion batteries, contains a variety of lithium salts, with direct effect on the aging performance of the battery. In this work, we investigate the impact of addition of SEI lithium salts (LiF, Li2CO3, LiOH, Li2O, LiOCH3 and LiOC2H5) in the electrolyte on the cycling ability of graphite and LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 (NMC) electrodes. Results show that NMC is more sensitive to salt addition than graphite material. Furthermore, results demonstrate that both LiOH and Li2O have a negative effect on the SEI formation. Conversely, Li2CO3, LiOCH3 and LiOC2H5 are beneficial and promote the formation of a polymeric coating on the SEI. Finally, the impact of the presence of LiF on the SEI depends mainly on its concentration. The effect of the presence of additives capable of complexing lithium salts such as the glyme series, CH3O[CH2CH2O]nCH3 (Gn, with n = 2, 3 or 4), is investigated by cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge tests and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Results show that the glymes chain length is a determining factor in their complexation mechanism, which depends on both the nature and the concentration of the lithium salt.

  2. Bio-beneficiation of kaolin and feldspar and its effect on fired characteristics of triaxial porcelain

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anandita Roy; Samarendra K Singh; P C Banerjee; Kausik Dana; Swapan Kumar Das

    2010-06-01

    Presence of iron compounds as impurities in kaolin and feldspar, impart reddish colour to ceramic products manufactured using these minerals. The quality of kaolin and feldspar was enriched mainly through iron removal by biological methods. Bacteria isolated from kaolin of Indian origin were used for bioleaching. Biotreatment of kaolin and feldspar using indigenous bacteria not only lowered the iron content of the minerals but also improved their whiteness. The porcelain prepared with these biobeneficiated minerals was compared to that prepared with non-beneficiated one. Physico-mechanical properties of porcelain were distinctly improved by using biobeneficiated kaolin and feldspar, without affecting the individual mineralogical compositions of kaolin and feldspar.

  3. The Beneficial Effects of Cardiac Rehabilitation on the Function and Levels of Endothelial Progenitor Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yuan; Ledesma, Robert Andre; Peng, Ran; Liu, Qiong; Xu, Danyan

    2017-01-01

    Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is a comprehensive program, which mainly focusses on exercise training, disease evaluation, cardiovascular risk factors control, medication therapy, psychosocial intervention, and patient education. Although the beneficial properties of CR have been widely evidenced, its mechanism is still not completely clarified. To date, endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) have been explored by emerging studies, and evidence has suggested that CR, especially exercise training, significantly increases the function and levels of EPCs, which is likely to elucidate the profiting mechanism of CR. Thus, this review summarises the potential relationship between CR and EPCs with an aim of providing novel directions for future CR research. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Beneficial effects of prolonged blood pressure control after carotid artery stenting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang A

    2017-01-01

    positive correlations between the mean or maximal SBP reductions 6 h post-CAS and SBP reductions 1 year post-CAS (β =0.20±0.07, P=0.0067 and β =0.47±0.10, P<0.0001, respectively. Conclusion: As compared to medical treatment alone, CAS may provide significant beneficial effect on long-term BP control 1 year post-CAS. Furthermore, SBP reductions 6 h post-CAS may predict the SBP reductions 1 year post-CAS. Keywords: carotid artery stenosis, hemodynamics, cerebral autoregulation, baroreflex, post-stenting hypotension, antihypertensive agents

  5. Regional Disparities in the Beneficial Effects of Rising CO2 Emissions on Crop Water Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deryng, Delphine; Elliott, Joshua; Folberth, Christian; Meuller, Christoph; Pugh, Thomas A. M.; Boote, Kenneth J.; Conway, Declan; Ruane, Alex C.; Gerten, Dieter; Jones, James W.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations are expected to enhance photosynthesis and reduce crop water use. However, there is high uncertainty about the global implications of these effects for future crop production and agricultural water requirements under climate change. Here we combine results from networks of field experiments and global crop models to present a spatially explicit global perspective on crop water productivity (CWP, the ratio of crop yield to evapotranspiration) for wheat, maize, rice and soybean under elevated carbon dioxide and associated climate change projected for a high-end greenhouse gas emissions scenario. We find carbon dioxide effects increase global CWP by 10[0;47]%-27[7;37]% (median[interquartile range] across the model ensemble) by the 2080s depending on crop types, with particularly large increases in arid regions (by up to 48[25;56]% for rain fed wheat). If realized in the fields, the effects of elevated carbon dioxide could considerably mitigate global yield losses whilst reducing agricultural consumptive water use (4-17%). We identify regional disparities driven by differences in growing conditions across agro-ecosystems that could have implications for increasing food production without compromising water security. Finally, our results demonstrate the need to expand field experiments and encourage greater consistency in modeling the effects of rising carbon dioxide across crop and hydrological modeling communities.

  6. Regional disparities in the beneficial effects of rising CO2 concentrations on crop water productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deryng, Delphine; Elliott, Joshua; Folberth, Christian; Müller, Christoph; Pugh, Thomas A. M.; Boote, Kenneth J.; Conway, Declan; Ruane, Alex C.; Gerten, Dieter; Jones, James W.; Khabarov, Nikolay; Olin, Stefan; Schaphoff, Sibyll; Schmid, Erwin; Yang, Hong; Rosenzweig, Cynthia

    2016-08-01

    Rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations ([CO2]) are expected to enhance photosynthesis and reduce crop water use. However, there is high uncertainty about the global implications of these effects for future crop production and agricultural water requirements under climate change. Here we combine results from networks of field experiments and global crop models to present a spatially explicit global perspective on crop water productivity (CWP, the ratio of crop yield to evapotranspiration) for wheat, maize, rice and soybean under elevated [CO2] and associated climate change projected for a high-end greenhouse gas emissions scenario. We find CO2 effects increase global CWP by 10[047]%-27[737]% (median[interquartile range] across the model ensemble) by the 2080s depending on crop types, with particularly large increases in arid regions (by up to 48[25;56]% for rainfed wheat). If realized in the fields, the effects of elevated [CO2] could considerably mitigate global yield losses whilst reducing agricultural consumptive water use (4-17%). We identify regional disparities driven by differences in growing conditions across agro-ecosystems that could have implications for increasing food production without compromising water security. Finally, our results demonstrate the need to expand field experiments and encourage greater consistency in modelling the effects of rising [CO2] across crop and hydrological modelling communities.

  7. Regional Disparities in the Beneficial Effects of Rising CO2 Emissions on Crop Water Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deryng, Delphine; Elliott, Joshua; Folberth, Christian; Meuller, Christoph; Pugh, Thomas A. M.; Boote, Kenneth J.; Conway, Declan; Ruane, Alex C.; Gerten, Dieter; Jones, James W.; Khabarov, Nikolay; Olin, Stefan; Schaphoff, Sibyll; Schmid, Erwin; Yang, Hong; Rosenzweig, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations are expected to enhance photosynthesis and reduce crop water use. However, there is high uncertainty about the global implications of these effects for future crop production and agricultural water requirements under climate change. Here we combine results from networks of field experiments and global crop models to present a spatially explicit global perspective on crop water productivity (CWP, the ratio of crop yield to evapotranspiration) for wheat, maize, rice and soybean under elevated carbon dioxide and associated climate change projected for a high-end greenhouse gas emissions scenario. We find carbon dioxide effects increase global CWP by 10[0;47]%-27[7;37]% (median[interquartile range] across the model ensemble) by the 2080s depending on crop types, with particularly large increases in arid regions (by up to 48[25;56]% for rain fed wheat). If realized in the fields, the effects of elevated carbon dioxide could considerably mitigate global yield losses whilst reducing agricultural consumptive water use (4-17%). We identify regional disparities driven by differences in growing conditions across agro-ecosystems that could have implications for increasing food production without compromising water security. Finally, our results demonstrate the need to expand field experiments and encourage greater consistency in modeling the effects of rising carbon dioxide across crop and hydrological modeling communities.

  8. Beneficial properties of maraviroc on neuropathic pain development and opioid effectiveness in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatkowski, Klaudia; Piotrowska, Anna; Rojewska, Ewelina; Makuch, Wioletta; Jurga, Agnieszka; Slusarczyk, Joanna; Trojan, Ewa; Basta-Kaim, Agnieszka; Mika, Joanna

    2016-01-04

    Targeting chemokine signaling pathways is crucial in neuropathy development. In this study, we investigated the influence of chronic administration of maraviroc (CCR5 antagonist) on nociception and opioid effectiveness during neuropathy, which develops as a result of chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve. To investigate the mechanism of action of maraviroc, we measured the expression of glial cell markers, CCR5 and certain CCR5 ligands (CCL3, CCL4, CCL5, CCL7, CCL11), in the spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia (DRG) of vehicle- and maraviroc-treated, CCI-exposed rats. Our results demonstrate that chronic intrathecal administration of maraviroc diminished neuropathic pain symptoms on day 7 post-CCI. Western blot analysis showed that maraviroc diminished protein level of Iba-1 and GFAP and reversed the up-regulated CCR5 expression observed in spinal cord and DRG after CCI. Additionally, using qRT-PCR, we demonstrated that CCR5 and some of its pronociceptive ligands (CCL3, CCL4, CCL5) increased in the spinal cord after nerve injury, and maraviroc effectively diminished those changes. However, CCL11 spinal expression was undetectable, even after injury. In vitro primary culture studies showed that CCL3, CCL4, CCL5 and CCL7 (but not CCL11) were of microglial and astroglial origin and were up-regulated after LPS stimulation. Our results indicate that maraviroc not only attenuated the development of neuropathic pain symptoms due to significant modulation of neuroimmune interactions but also intensified the analgesic properties of morphine and buprenorphine. In sum, our results suggest the pharmacological modulation of CCR5 by maraviroc as a novel therapeutic approach for co-treatment of patients receiving opioid therapy for neuropathy.

  9. From the stroke unit to the stroke competence center: corresponding beneficial clinical and financial effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzikonstantinou, A; Förster, A; Hennerici, M G; Bäzner, H

    2011-11-01

    The introduction of the diagnosis related groups (DRG) system in Germany has radically influenced the organization of in-hospital patient treatment. Case-mix-index and duration of treatment in a stroke unit (SU) play a central role. Our SU started in 1998 and was gradually extended to the current "Stroke Competence Center" (SCC), with a total capacity of 29 patients. The SCC combines acute treatment, work-up and post-stroke management by the same specialized team. We aimed primarily at demonstrating the financial effects of this concept. Data from stroke patients treated in our SU/SCC between 2004 and 2009 were analyzed. We analyzed the number of treated stroke patients, number of thrombolytic treatments, the number of cases coded with procedure codes OPS 8-981.x and the ratio of OPS 8-981.0 (24-72 h on SU) to the higher remunerated OPS 8-981.1 (>72 h on SU). The number of treated patients increased by 118.3% (from 469 in 2004 to 1024 in 2009). The number of thrombolyses per year has more than quadrupled (2004: 46, 2009: 253, i.e. 25% of SU patients). The introduction of the stroke center concept lead to a great increase in the ratio of the higher rewarded OPS 8-981.1 to OPS 8-981.0 (from 1.5 in 2005 to 5.21 in 2009). Our data demonstrates that the SCC concept leads to a greater financial potential, while offering considerable medical advantages concerning more effective stroke treatment and work-up as well as improved flow of information and enhanced individual patient-physician relationship.

  10. "Weighing" the effects of exercise and intrinsic aerobic capacity: are there beneficial effects independent of changes in weight?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyfault, John P; Wright, David C

    2016-09-01

    It has been known for centuries that regularly performed exercise has beneficial effects on metabolic health. Owing to its central role in locomotion and the fact that it accounts for a large majority of whole-body glucose disposal and fatty acid oxidation, the effects of exercise on skeletal muscle has been a central focus in exercise physiology research. With this being said it is becoming increasingly well recognized that both adipose tissue and liver metabolism are robustly modified by exercise, especially in conditions of obesity and insulin resistance. One of the difficult questions to address is if the effects of exercise are direct or occur secondary to exercise-induced weight loss. The purpose of this review is to highlight recent work that has attempted to tease out the protective effects of exercise, or intrinsic aerobic capacity, against metabolic and inflammatory challenges as it relates to the treatment and prevention of obesity and insulin resistance. Recent studies reporting improvements in liver and adipose tissue insulin action following a single bout of exercise will also be discussed. The research highlighted in this review sheds new insight into protective, anti-inflammatory effects of exercise that occur largely independent of changes in adiposity and body weight.

  11. Beneficial Effects of Prebiotic Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mannan on Allergic Asthma Mouse Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Betty Lew

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the unmet needs for asthma management is a new therapeutic agent with both anti-inflammatory and anti-smooth muscle (ASM remodeling effects. The mannose receptor (MR family plays an important role in allergen uptake and processing of major allergens Der p 1 and Fel d 1. We have previously reported that ASM cells express a mannose receptor (ASM-MR and that mannan derived from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SC-MN inhibits mannosyl-rich lysosomal hydrolase-induced bovine ASM cell proliferation. Using a humanized transgenic mouse strain (huASM-MRC2 expressing the human MRC2 receptor in a SM tissue-specific manner, we have demonstrated that ASM hyperplasia/hypertrophy can occur as early as 15 days after allergen challenge in this mouse model and this phenomenon is preventable with SC-MN treatment. This proof-of-concept study would facilitate future development of a potential asthma therapeutic agent with dual function of anti-inflammatory and anti-smooth muscle remodeling effects.

  12. Beneficial effects of argan oil on blood pressure, insulin resistance, and oxidative stress in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Midaoui, Adil; Haddad, Youssef; Couture, Réjean

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether a 5-wk treatment with argan oil, which is known for its antioxidant properties, can reduce arterial hypertension, hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and enhanced basal superoxide anion production and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase activity in the aorta of glucose-fed rats. Sprague-Dawley rats had free access to a drinking solution containing 10% d-glucose or tap water (control) for 5 wk. The effect of argan oil in glucose-fed rats was compared with that of corn oil given daily by gavage (5 mL/kg) over a 5-wk period. Oxidative stress was evaluated by measuring the superoxide anion production and the NADPH oxidase activity using the lucigenin method. The 5-wk treatment with glucose led to increases in systolic blood pressure, plasma glucose, and insulin levels as well as an increase in the insulin resistance index in association with a rise in superoxide anion production and NADPH oxidase activity (sensitive to diphenyleneiodonium) in the aorta. The simultaneous treatment with argan oil prevented or significantly reduced all of these effects, yet the same treatment with corn oil had a positive effect only on hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance. The findings from the present study demonstrated that argan oil treatment reduced elevation of blood pressure, hyperglycemia, and insulin resistance through its antioxidative properties in glucose-fed rats. Hence, argan oil, which is now available in the market as a consumable food, may be of potential therapeutic value in the treatment of arterial hypertension and insulin resistance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. (-)-Epicatechin mediates beneficial effects of flavanol-rich cocoa on vascular function in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeter, Hagen; Heiss, Christian; Balzer, Jan; Kleinbongard, Petra; Keen, Carl L; Hollenberg, Norman K; Sies, Helmut; Kwik-Uribe, Catherine; Schmitz, Harold H; Kelm, Malte

    2006-01-24

    Epidemiological and medical anthropological investigations suggest that flavanol-rich foods exert cardiovascular health benefits. Endothelial dysfunction, a prognostically relevant key event in atherosclerosis, is characterized by a decreased bioactivity of nitric oxide (NO) and impaired flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD). We show in healthy male adults that the ingestion of flavanol-rich cocoa was associated with acute elevations in levels of circulating NO species, an enhanced FMD response of conduit arteries, and an augmented microcirculation. In addition, the concentrations and the chemical profiles of circulating flavanol metabolites were determined, and multivariate regression analyses identified (-)-epicatechin and its metabolite, epicatechin-7-O-glucuronide, as independent predictors of the vascular effects after flavanol-rich cocoa ingestion. A mixture of flavanols/metabolites, resembling the profile and concentration of circulating flavanol compounds in plasma after cocoa ingestion, induced a relaxation in preconstricted rabbit aortic rings ex vivo, thus mimicking acetylcholine-induced relaxations. Ex vivo flavanol-induced relaxation, as well as the in vivo increases in FMD, were abolished by inhibition of NO synthase. Oral administration of chemically pure (-)-epicatechin to humans closely emulated acute vascular effects of flavanol-rich cocoa. Finally, the concept that a chronic intake of high-flavanol diets is associated with prolonged, augmented NO synthesis is supported by data that indicate a correlation between the chronic consumption of a cocoa flavanol-rich diet and the augmented urinary excretion of NO metabolites. Collectively, our data demonstrate that the human ingestion of the flavanol (-)-epicatechin is, at least in part, causally linked to the reported vascular effects observed after the consumption of flavanol-rich cocoa.

  14. Anthocyanins in Strawberry Polyphenolic Extract Enhance the Beneficial Effects of Diets with Fructooligosaccharides in the Rat Cecal Environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartosz Fotschki

    Full Text Available The administration of fructooligosaccharides (FOS beneficially modulates gastrointestinal functions and may enhance the metabolism of polyphenols. However, different polyphenolic components in the diet may have different influences on the activities of the digestive enzymes and microbiota in the gastrointestinal tract. Therefore, a 4-week study of forty-eight male Wistar rats was conducted to investigate the physiological response of the rat cecal environment to diets without and with FOS that contained two different strawberry polyphenolic extracts, specifically EP (polyphenolic profile 60, 35, 5, and 0% ellagitannins, proanthocyanidins, flavonols, anthocyanins, respectively and EPA (polyphenolic profile: 50, 35, 6, and 9%, respectively. When combined with FOS, both extracts beneficially enhanced the acidification of the cecal digesta (P≤0.05 vs the groups without extracts, but the dietary combination of EPA and FOS elicited the greatest reduction in putrefactive short-chain fatty acid production and the lowest fecal β-glucuronidase activity in the cecum (P≤0.05 vs group EP. Moreover, the addition of dietary FOS elevated the metabolism of the examined strawberry extracts in the cecum and thereby increased the concentrations of the metabolites in the cecal digesta and urine (P≤0.05 vs the group with cellulose. Overall, both strawberry extracts modulated the effects of FOS in the gastrointestinal tract; however, the combination with EPA extract that contained anthocyanins exhibited greater beneficial effects in the lower gut environment than the EP extract.

  15. Beneficial effects of microwave-assisted heating versus conventional heating in noble metal nanoparticle synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahal, Naween; García, Stephany; Zhou, Jiping; Humphrey, Simon M

    2012-11-27

    An extensive comparative study of the effects of microwave versus conventional heating on the nucleation and growth of near-monodisperse Rh, Pd, and Pt nanoparticles has revealed distinct and preferential effects of the microwave heating method. A one-pot synthetic method has been investigated, which combines nucleation and growth in a single reaction via precise control over the precursor addition rate. Using this method, microwave-assisted heating enables the convenient preparation of polymer-capped nanoparticles with improved monodispersity, morphological control, and higher crystallinity, compared with samples heated conventionally under otherwise identical conditions. Extensive studies of Rh nanoparticle formation reveal fundamental differences during the nucleation phase that is directly dependent on the heating method; microwave irradiation was found to provide more uniform seeds for the subsequent growth of larger nanostructures of desired size and surface structure. Nanoparticle growth kinetics are also markedly different under microwave heating. While conventional heating generally yields particles with mixed morphologies, microwave synthesis consistently provides a majority of tetrahedral particles at intermediate sizes (5-7 nm) or larger cubes (8+ nm) upon further growth. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy indicates that Rh seeds and larger nanoparticles obtained from microwave-assisted synthesis are more highly crystalline and faceted versus their conventionally prepared counterparts. Microwave-prepared Rh nanoparticles also show approximately twice the catalytic activity of similar-sized conventionally prepared particles, as demonstrated in the vapor-phase hydrogenation of cyclohexene. Ligand exchange reactions to replace polymer capping agents with molecular stabilizing agents are also easily facilitated under microwave heating, due to the excitation of polar organic moieties; the ligand exchange proceeds with excellent retention of

  16. Beneficial Effects of Applying Low-Level Laser Therapy to Surgical Wounds After Bariatric Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojea, Alecsander R; Madi, Otavio; Neto, Rafael Melillo L; Lima, Sizenando E; de Carvalho, Bruno T; Ojea, Maria Juliana M R; Marcos, Rodrigo L; da Silva, Fabricio S; Zamuner, Stella R; Chavantes, Maria Cristina

    2016-11-01

    Bariatric surgery is a successful method for weight loss in cases of morbid obesity; however, as an invasive procedure, surgical complications may occur. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been increasingly used due to its effectiveness in controlling the inflammatory response, accelerating tissue repair, and reducing pain. The objective of this study was to investigate photobiomodulation effects after bariatric surgery and determine the laser actions during the inflammatory process, wound healing (clinical observation), and analgesia. This study was a randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial in which 85 patients underwent Roux en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) by conventional techniques (i.e., open surgery). Patients were divided into two groups and were irradiated with LLLT at 10 different points through the surgical scar in three sessions of applications: the laser group (laser-on) consisted of 43 patients who received the CW diode laser (MMOptics), while the placebo group (laser-off) consisted of 42 patients who were treated by the same protocol but with a disabled laser. Temperature was measured by a digital thermometer in both groups, and pain was evaluated using the visual analogue scale for pain. Biochemical analysis and digital images were used to document and evaluate the inflammatory response as well as tissue repair process at the surgical wound site. Patients in the laser group demonstrated diminished wound temperature as erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) compared with the placebo group, indicating better inflammatory process control as well as improved wound healing and reduced pain. LLLT applied with the described protocol led to a decrease by biochemical markers and wound temperature compared with the placebo, which indicated that LLLT was able to control the inflammatory process; in addition, seroma and pain were reduced and cicatrization was improved by this preventive procedure.

  17. SIRT1 is required for AMPK activation and the beneficial effects of resveratrol on mitochondrial function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Nathan L.; Gomes, Ana P.; Ling, Alvin J.Y.; Duarte, Filipe V.; Martin-Montalvo, Alejandro; North, Brian J.; Agarwal, Beamon; Ye, Lan; Ramadori, Giorgio; Teodoro, Joao S.; Hubbard, Basil P.; Varela, Ana T.; Davis, James G.; Varamini, Behzad; Hafner, Angela; Moaddel, Ruin; Rolo, Anabela P.; Coppari, Roberto; Palmeira, Carlos M.; de Cabo, Rafael; Baur, Joseph A.; Sinclair, David A.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Resveratrol induces mitochondrial biogenesis and protects against metabolic decline but whether SIRT1 mediates these benefits is the subject of debate. To circumvent the developmental defects of germ-line SIRT1 knockouts, we have developed the first inducible system that permits whole-body deletion of SIRT1 in adult mice. Mice treated with a moderate dose of resveratrol showed increased mitochondrial biogenesis and function, AMPK activation and increased NAD+ levels in skeletal muscle, whereas SIRT1 knockouts displayed none of these benefits. A mouse overexpressing SIRT1 mimicked these effects. A high dose of resveratrol activated AMPK in a SIRT1-independent manner, demonstrating that resveratrol dosage is a critical factor. Importantly, at both doses of resveratrol no improvements in mitochondrial function were observed in animals lacking SIRT1. Together these data indicate that SIRT1 plays an essential role in the ability of moderate doses of resveratrol to stimulate AMPK and improve mitochondrial function both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:22560220

  18. Effect of coal beneficiation process on rheology/atomization of coal water slurries. Final report, October 1, 1992--July 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohene, F.

    1997-05-01

    To examine the factors that govern fine spray production during atomization of coal water slurries, an experimental study of the effect of coal beneficiation and their rheological properties on atomization of clean slurries was proposed. The objective of this study was to understand the effect of low shear, high shear rheology, and viscoelastic behavior on the atomization of beneficiated slurries.

  19. Differential hemodynamic effects of ethanol on rat heart: Beneficial vs. detrimental actions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, L.Y.; Alture, B.T.; Wu, F.; Barbour, R.L.; Altura, B.M. (State Univ. of New York, Brooklyn (United States))

    1991-03-11

    Epidemiologic studies suggest that daily ingestion of small amounts of alcohol may protect the heart, whereas higher intake may be detrimental. The authors therefore studied cardiac performance of isolated working rat hearts during perfusion with Krebs-Nenseleit medium containing three different concentrations (conc) of ethanol (ET). ET produced a biphasic hemodynamic change depending upon conc. 45 mM ET was stimulatory; higher ET were depressive. 45 mM ET increased coronary flow (CF) by 45%, cardiac output (CO) 29%, stroke volume (SV) 30%, oxygen consumption (MVO{sub 2}) 29% at 25 min, respectively. However, higher conc of ET, e.g. 90 mM, depressed most parameters. CF was reduced by 62%, CO 56%, SV 57%, peak systolic pressure (PSP) 80%, and MVO{sub 2} 77%, respectively. Lactic acid (LA) fended to increase with decline of CF. 135 mM ET decreased all cardiac parameters and MVO{sub 2} rapidly and significantly from the first 5 min. LA, LDH and CPK levels tended to be elevated, and pH tended to be reduced. These data indicate that a low conc of ET is beneficial on cardiac performance; higher concentrations of ET are detrimental. High conc of ET decrease CF leading to hypoxia, metabolic acidosis of myocardium, and cell membrane damage.

  20. Low doses of dextromethorphan have a beneficial effect in the treatment of neuropathic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morel, Véronique; Pickering, Gisèle; Etienne, Monique; Dupuis, Amandine; Privat, Anne-Marie; Chalus, Maryse; Eschalier, Alain; Daulhac, Laurence

    2014-12-01

    N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonists may be given in persistent neuropathic pain, but adverse events especially with ketamine may limit their clinical use. Less central and cognitive adverse events are described with dextromethorphan and memantine. These molecules have been explored in many preclinical and clinical studies, but data are conflicting as regards neuropathic pain alleviation. Dextromethorphan and memantine have been administered to animals after spinal nerve ligation (SNL) to evaluate their antinociceptive/cognitive effects and associated molecular events, including the phosphorylation of several tyrosine (pTyr(1336), pTyr(1472)) residues in the NR2B NMDAR subunit. Spinal nerve ligation and sham animals received dextromethorphan (10 mg/kg, i.p.), memantine (20 mg/kg, i.p.) or saline (1 mL/kg, i.p.). These drugs were administered once symptoms of allodynia and hyperalgesia had developed. Tests were carried out before and after surgery. Tactile allodynia, mechanical hyperalgesia and spatial memory were, respectively, evaluated by von Frey, Randall & Selitto and Y-maze tests and molecular events by Western blot analysis. Spinal nerve-ligated animals displayed nociception and impaired spatial memory. Dextromethorphan, but not memantine, reversed neuropathic pain (NP) symptoms, restored spatial memory integrity and decreased the expression of pTyr(1336)NR2B. Following postoperative administration of dextromethorphan, this study has demonstrated for the first time a concordance between behaviour, cognitive function and molecular events via pTyr(1336)NR2B for neuropathic pain alleviation. Confirmation of these findings in patients would constitute a major step forward in the treatment of neuropathic pain and in the improvement of cognitive function and quality of life.

  1. Evaluation of the Beneficial Effects of rooming-in care, in icteric hospitalized neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Kazemian

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rooming-in, motivated by World Health Organization (WHO strategies and baby-friendly hospital policies, is a practice followed in many maternity hospitals of Iran. Mother-infant dyad may easily be damaged by the separation caused by medical and surgical problems, which result in hospital stay. Regarding this, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the rooming-in practice in icteric newborns admitted to Mofid Children's Hospital of Tehran, Iran. Methods: This study was conducted on 220 neonates admitted to Mofid Children's Hospital with the complaint of jaundice. Out of the 220 newborns, 124 cases were assigned into the intervention group (the rooming-in care and 96 neonates were categorized into the control group (the routine-care. The two groups were compared in terms of the length of hospital stay, maternal satisfaction, nursing care time, and hospital stay complications. The data were collected by some trained mid-wives using a validated questionnaire. Data analysis was performed using paired sample t-test through SPSS version 16. Results: According to the results of the study, about 55% of the neonates were male. The neonatal mean ages of the intervention and control groups were 6.6 ±3.7 and 7 ± 3.8 days, respectively. Maternal satisfaction with neonatal care and maternal comfort during hospital stay were significantly higher in the intervention group (P=0.027. Furthermore, the two groups had no significant difference regarding the complications of hospital stay (P=0.655. Conclusion: As the findings of the present study demonstrated, in spite of the similarities of the health issues, nursery essentials, and hospital stay complications between the two groups, the rooming-in was more favorable according to the mothers’ viewpoints.

  2. Beneficial effects of asiaticoside on cognitive deficits in senescence-accelerated mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xing; Huang, Renbin; Zhang, Shijun; Wei, Ling; Zhuo, Lang; Wu, Xiaoyan; Tang, Aicun; Huang, Quanfang

    2013-06-01

    The effect of asiaticoside isolated from Hydrocotyle sibthorpioides (AHS) on the promotion of cognition in senescence-accelerated mice (SAMP) was evaluated. Six-month old male SAMP8 mice were orally administered 20, 40 or 80 mg/kg AHS daily for three months. SAMR1 mice were used as a "normal aging" control. The results showed that treatment with AHS significantly improved learning and memory abilities in behavioral tests. AHS-treated mice showed higher antioxidant enzyme activity and lower lipid oxidation in serum compared with untreated SAMP8 mice. Mechanistically, studies showed that AHS markedly reduced the content and deposition of β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) by inhibiting the expression of mRNA for amyloid protein precursor, β-site amyloid cleaving enzyme-1 and cathepsin B and promoting the expression of mRNA for neprilysin and insulin degrading enzyme. In addition, AHS significantly increased the expression of plasticity-related proteins including postsynaptic density-95, phosphor-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 1, phospho-calcium-calmodulin dependent kinase II, phospho-protein kinase A Catalyticβ subunit, protein kinase Cγ subunit, phospho-CREB and brain derived neurotrophic factor. Furthermore, AHS increased the levels of acetylcholine (Ach), but decreased cholinesterase (AchE) activity. These results demonstrated that AHS administration may prevent spatial learning and memory decline by scavenging free radicals, up-regulating the activity of antioxidant enzymes, decreasing the level of Aβ, ameliorating dysfunction in synaptic plasticity, and reversing abnormal changes in Ach level and AchE activity. Thus, AHS should be developed as a new drug to prevent age-related cognitive deficits.

  3. The sigma-1 receptor mediates the beneficial effects of pridopidine in a mouse model of Huntington disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryskamp, Daniel; Wu, Jun; Geva, Michal; Kusko, Rebecca; Grossman, Iris; Hayden, Michael; Bezprozvanny, Ilya

    2017-01-01

    The tri-nucleotide repeat expansion underlying Huntington disease (HD) results in corticostriatal synaptic dysfunction and subsequent neurodegeneration of striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs). HD is a devastating autosomal dominant disease with no disease-modifying treatments. Pridopidine, a postulated "dopamine stabilizer", has been shown to improve motor symptoms in clinical trials of HD. However, the target(s) and mechanism of action of pridopidine remain to be fully elucidated. As binding studies identified sigma-1 receptor (S1R) as a high-affinity receptor for pridopidine, we evaluated the relevance of S1R as a therapeutic target of pridopidine in HD. S1R is an endoplasmic reticulum - (ER) resident transmembrane protein and is regulated by ER calcium homeostasis, which is perturbed in HD. Consistent with ER calcium dysregulation, we observed striatal upregulation of S1R in aged YAC128 transgenic HD mice and HD patients. We previously demonstrated that dendritic MSN spines are lost in aged corticostriatal co-cultures from YAC128 mice. We report here that pridopidine and the chemically similar S1R agonist 3-PPP prevent MSN spine loss in aging YAC128 co-cultures. Spine protection was blocked by neuronal deletion of S1R. Pridopidine treatment suppressed supranormal ER Ca(2+) release, restored ER calcium levels and reduced excessive store-operated calcium (SOC) entry in spines, which may account for its synaptoprotective effects. Normalization of ER Ca(2+) levels by pridopidine was prevented by S1R deletion. To evaluate long-term effects of pridopidine, we analyzed expression profiles of calcium signaling genes. Pridopidine elevated striatal expression of calbindin and homer1a, whereas their striatal expression was reduced in aged Q175KI and YAC128 HD mouse models compared to WT. Pridopidine and 3-PPP are proposed to prevent calcium dysregulation and synaptic loss in a YAC128 corticostriatal co-culture model of HD. The actions of pridopidine were mediated by S1R

  4. Myocardial overexpression of TIMP3 after myocardial infarction exerts beneficial effects by promoting angiogenesis and suppressing early proteolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takawale, Abhijit; Zhang, Pu; Azad, Abul; Wang, Wang; Wang, Xiuhua; Murray, Allan G; Kassiri, Zamaneh

    2017-08-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) results in loss of cardiomyocytes, adverse extracellular matrix (ECM) and structural remodeling, and left ventricular (LV) dilation and dysfunction. Tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase (TIMPs) inhibit matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), the main regulators of ECM turnover. TIMPs also have MMP-independent functions. TIMP3 levels are reduced in the heart within 24 h of MI in mice. We investigated if overexpression of TIMP3 post-MI limits adverse remodeling and LV dilation and dysfunction. MI was induced by left anterior descending coronary artery ligation in 10- to 12-wk-old male C57BL/6J mice, and adenoviral constructs expressing human (h)TIMP3 (Ad-hTIMP3) or no TIMP (Ad-Null) were injected in the peri-infarct zone (5.4 × 10(7) plaque-forming units/heart, 5 injections/heart). Cardiac function assessed by echocardiography showed improved LV physiology and reduced LV dilation after TIMP3 overexpression compared with the Ad-Null-MI group. Post-MI adverse remodeling was attenuated in the Ad-hTIMP3-MI group, as assessed by greater cardiomyocyte density, less infarct expansion, and ECM disruption. TIMP3 overexpression blunted the early rise in proteolytic activities post-MI. A higher density of coronary arteries and a greater number of proliferating endothelial cells were detected in the infarct and peri-infarct regions in the Ad-hTIMP3-MI group compared with the Ad-Null-MI group. In vitro three-dimensional angiogenesis assay confirmed that recombinant TIMP3 promotes angiogenesis in human endothelial cells, although biphasically and in a dose-dependent manner. Intriguingly, overexpression of Ad-hTIMP3 at 10-fold higher concentration had no beneficial effects, consistent with antiangiogenic effects of TIMP3 at higher doses. In conclusion, optimal overexpression of TIMP3 can be a promising therapeutic approach to limit adverse post-MI remodeling by dually inhibiting early proteolysis and promoting angiogenesis.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Here, we report

  5. Calcium channel blocker enhances beneficial effects of an angiotensin II AT1 receptor blocker against cerebrovascular-renal injury in type 2 diabetic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazi Rafiq

    Full Text Available Recent clinical trials have demonstrated that combination therapy with renin-angiotensin system inhibitors plus calcium channel blockers (CCBs elicits beneficial effects on cardiovascular and renal events in hypertensive patients with high cardiovascular risks. In the present study, we hypothesized that CCB enhances the protective effects of an angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker (ARB against diabetic cerebrovascular-renal injury. Saline-drinking type 2 diabetic KK-A(y mice developed hypertension and exhibited impaired cognitive function, blood-brain barrier (BBB disruption, albuminuria, glomerular sclerosis and podocyte injury. These brain and renal injuries were associated with increased gene expression of NADPH oxidase components, NADPH oxidase activity and oxidative stress in brain and kidney tissues as well as systemic oxidative stress. Treatment with the ARB, olmesartan (10 mg/kg/day reduced blood pressure in saline-drinking KK-A(y mice and attenuated cognitive decline, BBB disruption, glomerular injury and albuminuria, which were associated with a reduction of NADPH oxidase activity and oxidative stress in brain and kidney tissues as well as systemic oxidative stress. Furthermore, a suppressive dose of azelnidipine (3 mg/kg/day exaggerated these beneficial effects of olmesartan. These data support the hypothesis that a CCB enhances ARB-associated cerebrovascular-renal protective effects through suppression of NADPH oxidase-dependent oxidative stress in type 2 diabetes.

  6. Beneficial effect of aqueous root extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra on learning and memory using different behavioral models: An experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Background: In the traditional system of medicine, the roots and rhizomes of Glycyrrhiza glabra (Gg) (family: Leguminosae) have been studied for their ability to improve a variety of health ailments. Aims: The present study was designed to investigate the beneficial effects of Gg root extract on learning and memory in 1-month-old male Wistar albino rats. Four doses (75, 150, 225, and 300 mg/kg) of aqueous extract of root of Gg was administered orally for six successive weeks. Materials and Me...

  7. Structural characteristics and plant-beneficial effects of bacteria colonizing the shoots of field grown conventional and genetically modified T4-lysozyme producing potatoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rasche, F.; Marco-Noales, E.; Velvis, H.; Overbeek, van L.S.; Lopez, M.M.; Elsas, van J.D.; Sessitsch, A.

    2006-01-01

    Genetically modified potatoes expressing antibacterial protein T4 lysozyme may offer effective control strategies for bacterial pathogens causing severe potato diseases. Apart from this beneficial effect, it is very important to investigate such engineered potatoes carefully for potential adverse ef

  8. Structural characteristics and plant-beneficial effects of bacteria colonizing the shoots of field grown conventional and genetically modified T4-lysozyme producing potatoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rasche, Frank; Marco-Noales, Ester; Velvis, Henk; van Overbeek, Leo S.; Lopez, Maria M.; van Elsas, Jan D.; Sessitsch, Angela

    2006-01-01

    Genetically modified potatoes expressing antibacterial protein T4 lysozyme may offer effective control strategies for bacterial pathogens causing severe potato diseases. Apart from this beneficial effect, it is very important to investigate such engineered potatoes carefully for potential adverse ef

  9. Beneficial effects of switching from β-blockers to nebivolol on the erectile function of hypertensive patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael Doumas; Alexandros Tsakiris; Stella Douma; Alkiviadis Grigorakis; Angelos Papadopoulos; Athina Hounta; Sotirios Tsiodras; Dimitrios Dimitriou; Helen Giamarellou

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effect of substituting β-blockers with nebivolol on the erectile function of patients suffering from essential hypertension. Methods: Forty-four young and middle-aged men (31-65 years) with essential hypertension visited our outpatient clinic and took β-blocker treatment (atenolol, metoprolol or bisoprolol) for more than 6months. All the patients completed a questionnaire regarding erectile function (International Index for Erectile Function).Patients were then switched to an equipotent dose of nebivolol for 3 months and, at the end of this time period, filled out the same questionnaire. Results: Twenty-nine out of the 44 (65.9%) patients who took β-blockers (atenolol,metoprolol or bisoprolol) had exhibited erectile dysfunction (ED). Their systolic and diastolic blood pressure did not change significantly with the treatment switch. In 20 out of these 29 (69%) patients, a significant improvement in the erectile function score was exhibited after 3 months of nebivolol administration, and in 11 of these 20 patients, erectile function was normalized. Conclusion: Nebivolol seems to have a beneficial effect on ED (possibly due to increased nitric oxide availability); however, further prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled studies are needed to confirm the beneficial effects of nebivolol.

  10. Beneficial effects of quercetin-iron complexes on serum and tissue lipids and redox status in obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imessaoudene, Asmahan; Merzouk, Hafida; Berroukeche, Farid; Mokhtari, Nassima; Bensenane, Bachir; Cherrak, Sabri; Merzouk, Sid Ahmed; Elhabiri, Mourad

    2016-03-01

    Obesity is characterized by iron deficiency, carbohydrate and fat alterations as well as oxidative stress. Iron status monitoring is recommended because of the conventional oral iron preparations that frequently exacerbate the already present oxidative stress. Iron complexation by natural antioxidants can be exploited. We herein investigated the metabolic effects of quercetin (25 mg/kg/day), iron (2.5 mg Fe/kg/day) or quercetin-iron complexes (molar ratio 5:1; 25 mg/2.5 mg/kg/day) in animal models of obesity. Our results emphasized that obese rats displayed metabolic alterations that were worsened by iron supplementation. In contrast, quercetin used alone or as iron complex clearly prevented adipose fat accumulation and alleviated the hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, liver steatosis and oxidative stress. In addition, it induced a modulation of lipase activities in obese rats. Interestingly, quercetin-iron complexes showed enhanced beneficial effects such as a corrected iron deficiency in obese rats when compared to quercetin alone. In conclusion, antianemic, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic and antioxidative effects of the quercetin-iron complexes shed a light on their beneficial use against obesity-related metabolic alterations.

  11. Prior knowledge is essential for the beneficial effect of targeted memory reactivation during sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groch, Sabine; Schreiner, Thomas; Rasch, Björn; Huber, Reto; Wilhelm, Ines

    2017-01-04

    Prior knowledge speeds up system consolidation and accelerates integration of newly acquired memories into existing neocortical knowledge networks. By using targeted memory reactivations, we demonstrate that prior knowledge is also essential for successful reactivation and consolidation of memories during sleep, both on the behavioral and oscillatory level (i.e., theta and fast spindle activity). Thus, prior knowledge is a prerequisite for new memories to enter processes of system consolidation during sleep.

  12. When is Concentration Beneficial?

    OpenAIRE

    Liron-Espana, Carmen; Lopez, Rigoberto A.

    2001-01-01

    This paper separates market power and efficiency effects of concentration in a sample of 255 U.S. manufacturing industries and computes welfare changes from rises in concentration. The empirical findings reveal that in nearly two-third of the cases, consumers lose as efficiency gains are generally pocketed by the industries. From an aggregate welfare standpoint, concentration is found to be beneficial in nearly 70% of the cases, mostly for low and moderate levels of concentration being partic...

  13. Low doses of nanodiamonds and silica nanoparticles have beneficial hormetic effects in normal human skin fibroblasts in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mytych, Jennifer; Wnuk, Maciej; Rattan, Suresh I S

    2016-04-01

    Nanodiamonds (ND) and silica nanoparticles (SiO2-NP) have been much investigated for their toxicity at high doses, little is known about their biological activity at low concentrations. Here we report the biphasic dose response of ND and SiO2-NP in modulating normal human facial skin fibroblasts (FSF1) in culture. ND and SiO2-NP at low concentration (up to 0.5 μg/ml) had beneficial effects on FSF1 in terms of increasing their proliferation and metabolic activity. Exposure of FSF1 cells to low levels of NP enhanced their wound healing ability in vitro and slowed down aging during serial passaging as measured by maintenance of youthful morphology, reduction in the rate of loss of telomeres, and the over all proliferative characteristics. Furthermore, NP treatment induced the activation of Nrf2- and FOXO3A-mediated cellular stress responses, including an increased expression of heme oxygenease (HO-1), sirtuin (SIRT1), and DNA methyltransferase II (DNMT2). These results imply that ND and SiO2-NP at low doses are potential hormetins, which exert mild stress-induced beneficial hormetic effects through improved survival, longevity, maintenance, repair and function of human cells.

  14. Sirt1 and Sirt6 Mediate Beneficial Effects of Rosiglitazone on Hepatic Lipid Accumulation

    OpenAIRE

    Soo Jin Yang; Jung Mook Choi; Eugene Chang; Sung Woo Park; Cheol-Young Park

    2014-01-01

    Background Sirtuin (Sirt), a sensor of the cell metabolic state, regulates glucose and lipid metabolism. The aim of this study was to address whether rosiglitazone (RGZ) alters hepatic Sirt1 and whether Sirt1 and/or Sirt6 have a regulatory role in the protective effects of RGZ on hepatocyte steatosis. Methods To investigate the effect of RGZ on hepatic Sirt1, rats were administered with RGZ for 6 weeks. The involvement of Sirt1/6 in the RGZ-mediated effect against hepatic steatosis was evalua...

  15. Beneficial Effects of Sodium or Ethyl Pyruvate after Traumatic Brain Injury in the Rat

    OpenAIRE

    Moro, Nobuhiro; Sutton, Richard L.

    2010-01-01

    Sodium pyruvate (SP) treatment initiated within 5 min post-injury is neuroprotective in a rat model of unilateral cortical contusion injury (CCI). The current studies examined: (1) effects of delayed SP treatments (1000 mg/kg, i.p., at 1, 12 and 24 h), (2) effects of single (1 h) or multiple (1, 12 and 24 h) ethyl pyruvate treatments (EP; at 20 or 40 mg/kg, i.p.), and (3) mechanisms of action for pyruvate effects after CCI. In Experiment 1, both SP and EP treatment(s) significantly reduced th...

  16. Effect of weed harrowing frequency on plants, beneficial arthropods and crop yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Navntoft, Søren; Kristensen, Kristian; Johnsen, Ib

    2016-01-01

    * Weed harrowing is an alternative to herbicides but it may have negative effects on epigaeic arthropods. We assessed the effects of frequent (four) versus two harrowings during the growing season on the density and diversity of generalist arthropods and the weed flora. Collection by flooding...... was used to estimate arthropod densities, after collection of weeds and crop for biomass estimation. * The predatory guild of spiders Tachyporus spp. carabids was reduced by frequent harrowing. Spiders and Tachyporus spp. were the most sensitive, with up to 38% higher density in plots harrowed only twice...... compared with four times. Furthermore, a marginally significant decrease in arthropod diversity was found after four harrowings. The negative effect of frequent harrowing on arthropods was probably caused by a combination of direct lethal effects and habitat disruption. Additional harrowings reduced weeds...

  17. Beneficial Effect of Ultra-Low-Dose Aspirin in Platelet Activity Alterations and Haemorrhage Observed in Experimental Portal Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. X. Eizayaga

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultra-low-dose aspirin has shown a prothrombotic effect in the laser-induced thrombosis model. Several studies of our laboratory have shown a positive effect in rats with two different experimental models of portal hypertension: portal vein ligation, a model with an almost normal liver, and 30 days of bile duct ligation, a model with cirrhosis and presence of ascitis. In both models of portal hypertensive rats, bleeding time was prolonged and thrombi formation, in a laser-induced model of thrombi production, decreased. The hypotheses of the presented studies were that ultra-low-dose aspirin could decrease the bleeding complications in these models and that the mechanism for these effects could act thorough the COX pathway. In different studies, ultra-low dose of aspirin normalized the induced hemorrhage time, thrombi production, and platelet-endothelial cell interaction. The possible beneficial role of these doses of aspirin and mechanism of COX 2 inhibition are discussed.

  18. The Beneficial Effect of Equisetum giganteum L. against Candida Biofilm Formation: New Approaches to Denture Stomatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavarce, Rafaela A S; Saldanha, Luiz L; Almeida, Nara Ligia M; Porto, Vinicius C; Dokkedal, Anne L; Lara, Vanessa S

    2015-01-01

    Equisetum giganteum L. (E. giganteum), Equisetaceae, commonly called "giant horsetail," is an endemic plant of Central and South America and is used in traditional medicine as diuretic and hemostatic in urinary disorders and in inflammatory conditions among other applications. The chemical composition of the extract EtOH 70% of E. giganteum has shown a clear presence of phenolic compounds derived from caffeic and ferulic acids and flavonoid heterosides derived from quercitin and kaempferol, in addition to styrylpyrones. E. giganteum, mainly at the highest concentrations, showed antimicrobial activity against the relevant microorganisms tested: Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans. It also demonstrated antiadherent activity on C. albicans biofilms in an experimental model that is similar to dentures. Moreover, all concentrations tested showed anti-inflammatory activity. The extract did not show cytotoxicity in contact with human cells. These properties might qualify E. giganteum extract to be a promising alternative for the topic treatment and prevention of oral candidiasis and denture stomatitis.

  19. Beneficial effects of recreational football on the cardiovascular risk profile in untrained premenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krustrup, Peter; Hansen, P R; Randers, M B;

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the cardiovascular health effects of 16 weeks of recreational football training in untrained premenopausal women in comparison with continuous running training. Fifty healthy women were matched and randomized to a football (FG, n=25) or a running (RG, n=25) group...... and compared with a control group with no physical training (CO, n=15). Training was performed for 1 h twice a week. After 16 weeks, systolic and diastolic blood pressure was reduced (P..., regular recreational football training has significant favorable effects on the cardiovascular risk profile in untrained premenopausal women and is at the least as efficient as continuous running....

  20. Beneficial effects of TCP on soman intoxication in guinea pigs : seizures, brain damage and learning behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, D.M.G. de; Bierman, E.P.B.; Bruijnzeel, P.L.B.; Carpentier, P.; Kulig, B.M.; Lallement, G.; Melchers, B.P.C.; Philippens, I.H.C.H.M.; Huygevoort, A.H.B.M. van

    2001-01-01

    Poisoning with the potent nerve agent soman produces a cascade of central nervous system (CNS) effects characterized by severe convulsions and eventually death. In animals that survive a soman intoxication, lesions in the amygdala, piriform cortex, hippocampus and thalamus can be observed. In order

  1. Experimental evidence for beneficial effects of projected climate change on hibernating amphibians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Üveges, Bálint; Mahr, Katharina; Szederkényi, Márk; Bókony, Veronika; Hoi, Herbert; Hettyey, Attila

    2016-01-01

    Amphibians are the most threatened vertebrates today, experiencing worldwide declines. In recent years considerable effort was invested in exposing the causes of these declines. Climate change has been identified as such a cause; however, the expectable effects of predicted milder, shorter winters on hibernation success of temperate-zone Amphibians have remained controversial, mainly due to a lack of controlled experimental studies. Here we present a laboratory experiment, testing the effects of simulated climate change on hibernating juvenile common toads (Bufo bufo). We simulated hibernation conditions by exposing toadlets to current (1.5 °C) or elevated (4.5 °C) hibernation temperatures in combination with current (91 days) or shortened (61 days) hibernation length. We found that a shorter winter and milder hibernation temperature increased survival of toads during hibernation. Furthermore, the increase in temperature and shortening of the cold period had a synergistic positive effect on body mass change during hibernation. Consequently, while climate change may pose severe challenges for amphibians of the temperate zone during their activity period, the negative effects may be dampened by shorter and milder winters experienced during hibernation. PMID:27229882

  2. Beneficial effects of Foeniculum vulgare on ethanol-induced acute gastric mucosal injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fatih Mehmet Birdane; Mustafa Cemek; Yavuz Osman Birdane; (I)lhami Gül(c)in; Mehmet Emin Büyükokuro(g)lu

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To examine the anti-ulcerogenic and antioxidant effects of aqueous extracts of Foeniculum vulgare (FVE) on ethanol-induced gastric lesions in rats.METHODS: FVE was administered by gavage at doses of 75, 150 and 300 mg/kg, and famotidine was used at the dose of 20 mg/kg. Following a 60 min period, all the rats were given 1 mL of ethanol (80%) by gavage. One hour after the administration of ethanol, all groups were sacrificed, and the gastric ulcer index was calculated;whole blood malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH), serum nitrate, nitrite, ascorbic acid,retinol and β-carotene levels were measured in all the groups.RESULTS: It was found that pretreatment with FVE significantly reduced ethanol-induced gastric damage.This effect of FVE was highest and statistically significant in 300 mg/kg group compared with the control (4.18 ± 2.81 vs 13.15 ± 4.08, P < 0.001). Also, pretreatment with FVE significantly reduced the MDA levels, while significantly increased GSH, nitrite, nitrate, ascorbic acid,retinol and β-carotene levels.CONCLUSION: FVE has clearly a protective effect against ethanol-induced gastric mucosal lesion, and this effect, at least in part, depends upon the reduction in lipid peroxidation and augmentation in the antioxidant activity.

  3. Experimental evidence for beneficial effects of projected climate change on hibernating amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Üveges, Bálint; Mahr, Katharina; Szederkényi, Márk; Bókony, Veronika; Hoi, Herbert; Hettyey, Attila

    2016-05-27

    Amphibians are the most threatened vertebrates today, experiencing worldwide declines. In recent years considerable effort was invested in exposing the causes of these declines. Climate change has been identified as such a cause; however, the expectable effects of predicted milder, shorter winters on hibernation success of temperate-zone Amphibians have remained controversial, mainly due to a lack of controlled experimental studies. Here we present a laboratory experiment, testing the effects of simulated climate change on hibernating juvenile common toads (Bufo bufo). We simulated hibernation conditions by exposing toadlets to current (1.5 °C) or elevated (4.5 °C) hibernation temperatures in combination with current (91 days) or shortened (61 days) hibernation length. We found that a shorter winter and milder hibernation temperature increased survival of toads during hibernation. Furthermore, the increase in temperature and shortening of the cold period had a synergistic positive effect on body mass change during hibernation. Consequently, while climate change may pose severe challenges for amphibians of the temperate zone during their activity period, the negative effects may be dampened by shorter and milder winters experienced during hibernation.

  4. The beneficial effects of berries on cognition, motor behavior, and neuronal function in aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previously, it has been shown that strawberry or blueberry supplementations, when fed to rats from 19-21 months of age, reverse age-related decrements in motor and cognitive performance. We have postulated that these effects may be the result of a number of positive benefits of the berry polyphenol...

  5. Beneficial effects of pet ownership on some aspects of human health and behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpell, J

    1991-12-01

    A 10-month prospective study was carried out which examined changes in behaviour and health status in 71 adult subjects following the acquisition of a new pet (either dogs or cats). A group of 26 subjects without pets served as a comparison over the same period. Both pet-owning groups reported a highly significant reduction in minor health problems during the first month following pet acquisition, and this effect was sustained in dog owners through to 10 months. The pet-acquiring groups also showed improvements in their scores on the 30-item General Health Questionnaire over the first 6 months and, in dog owners, this improvement was maintained until 10 months. In addition, dog owners took considerably more physical exercise while walking their dogs than the other two groups, and this effect continued throughout the period of study. The group without pets exhibited no statistically significant changes in health or behaviour, apart from a small increase in recreational walking. The results provide evidence that pet acquisition may have positive effects on human health and behaviour, and that in some cases these effects are relatively long term.

  6. Beneficial effects of Neotyphodium tembladerae and Neotyphodium pampeanum on a wild forage grass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asexual, vertically transmitted fungal endophytes of the genus Neotyphodium are considered to enhance growth, stress resistance and competitiveness of agronomic grasses, but have been suggested to have neutral or deleterious effects on wild grasses. We studied whether the associations between Bromus...

  7. Beneficial Effects of Isoproterenol and Quinidine in the Treatment of Ventricular Fibrillation in Brugada Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Dakkak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of an implantable cardiac defibrillator has been advocated as the only effective treatment for the management of ventricular fibrillation (VF in patients with Brugada Syndrome (BrS. However, this device is only useful for terminating VF. Intermittent and/or recalcitrant VF for which lifesaving cardioversion occurs is a problematic situation in this patient population. The immediate use of appropriate antiarrhythmics in the acute setting has proven to be lifesaving. Quinidine has been well established as an effective antiarrhythmic in BrS, while isoproterenol (ISP has had some recognition as well. The addition of drug therapy to prevent the induction of these arrhythmias has been shown to reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with BrS. It was proven to be especially effective in the presence of early repolarization, evidenced by the reduction or normalization of the early repolarization pattern on ECG. Thus, for the prophylactic management and long term suppression of VF in BrS, further prospective studies should be performed to determine the effectiveness of quinidine and ISP in this patient population.

  8. Beneficial effect of combined aspiration and interstitial laser therapy in patients with benign cystic thyroid nodules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Døssing, H; Bennedbaek, F N; Hegedüs, L

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of combined cyst aspiration and ultrasound-guided interstitial laser photocoagulation (ILP) on recurrence rate and the volume of benign cystic thyroid nodules. 10 euthyroid outpatients with a solitary and cytologically benign partially cystic thyroid...

  9. Beneficial effect of Lactococcus lactis NCC 2287 in a murine model of eosinophilic esophagitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holvoet, S; Doucet-Ladevèze, R; Perrot, M; Barretto, C; Nutten, S; Blanchard, C

    2016-12-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a severe inflammatory disease of the esophagus which is characterized histologically by an eosinophilic infiltration into the esophageal tissue. The efficacy of probiotics in the context of atopic diseases has been well investigated but, to date, there has been no study which has evaluated probiotic effects on EoE inflammation. This study sought to identify a probiotic which improves esophageal inflammation in experimental EoE. Two candidate probiotics, Lactococcus lactis NCC 2287 and Bifidobacterium lactis NCC 2818, were tested in a murine model of EoE elicited by epicutaneous sensitization with Aspergillus fumigatus protein extract. Administration of bacterial strains in drinking water was used, respectively, as a preventive or treatment measure, or continuously throughout the study. Inflammatory parameters were assessed in the esophagus, skin, and lungs after allergen challenge. In this EoE model, supplementation with L. lactis NCC 2287 significantly decreased esophageal and bronchoalveolar eosinophilia but only when given as a therapeutic treatment. No significant effect on eosinophilia was observed when NCC 2287 was given as a preventive or a continuous intervention. NCC 2287 supplementation had no significant effect on immunoglobulin levels, skin symptom scores, or on transepidermal water loss. Supplementation with another probiotic, B. lactis NCC 2818, had no significant effect on esophageal eosinophilia. We identified a L. lactis strain, able to attenuate esophageal eosinophilic inflammation in a preclinical model of EoE. This effect is strain specific and depends on the timing and duration of bacterial supplementation. Confirmation of these observations in human clinical trials is warranted. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Beneficial effect of extracts of Premna integrifolia root on human leucocytes and erythrocytes against hydrogen peroxide induced oxidative damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Y Mali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oxidative damage as a result of an increase in the free radical load and/or decrease in the efficiency of the antioxidant systems has been implicated in many human diseases. Premna integrifolia (Verbenaceae is an important woody, medicinal plant and has a prominent place in Ayurvedha, Siddha and Unani system of medicines. Traditionally, it has been used for various antioxidant related disorders. Objective: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the beneficial effect of extracts of P. integrifolia root on human leucocytes and erythrocytes against hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 induced oxidative damage. Materials and Methods: Chloroform:methanol (1:1 extract of P. integrifolia (CMEPI and aqueous extract of P. integrifolia roots were used to accessed catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, glutathione (GSH and lipid peroxidation (LPO levels in H 2 O 2 induced oxidative damage. Results: Results of the present study revealed that, there was an increase in the CAT, SOD, GPx and reduction of the GSH and LPO levels in H 2 O 2 group compared with the control. P. integrifolia root extract treated groups showed the reduction of CAT, SOD, GPx and increased in the GSH and LPO levels as compared with H 2 O 2 group. CMEPI was found to be more effective than aqueous. Conclusion: The present study suggests that, extracts of P. integrifolia root possess beneficial effect on human leucocytes and erythrocytes against H 2 O 2 induced oxidative damage which has substantiated their use in ethnomedicine as an antioxidant. Observed effect can be attributed due to the flavonoid and phenol contents in the plant. Furthermore, in-vitro and in-vivo studies are needed to explore its effects on antioxidant system of the body for proving its clinical safety, reliability and efficacy.

  11. The Beneficial Effect of Equisetum giganteum L. against Candida Biofilm Formation: New Approaches to Denture Stomatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela A. S. Alavarce

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Equisetum giganteum L. (E. giganteum, Equisetaceae, commonly called “giant horsetail,” is an endemic plant of Central and South America and is used in traditional medicine as diuretic and hemostatic in urinary disorders and in inflammatory conditions among other applications. The chemical composition of the extract EtOH 70% of E. giganteum has shown a clear presence of phenolic compounds derived from caffeic and ferulic acids and flavonoid heterosides derived from quercitin and kaempferol, in addition to styrylpyrones. E. giganteum, mainly at the highest concentrations, showed antimicrobial activity against the relevant microorganisms tested: Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans. It also demonstrated antiadherent activity on C. albicans biofilms in an experimental model that is similar to dentures. Moreover, all concentrations tested showed anti-inflammatory activity. The extract did not show cytotoxicity in contact with human cells. These properties might qualify E. giganteum extract to be a promising alternative for the topic treatment and prevention of oral candidiasis and denture stomatitis.

  12. Beneficial effects of word final stress in segmenting a new language: evidence from ERPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomila Antoni

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background How do listeners manage to recognize words in an unfamiliar language? The physical continuity of the signal, in which real silent pauses between words are lacking, makes it a difficult task. However, there are multiple cues that can be exploited to localize word boundaries and to segment the acoustic signal. In the present study, word-stress was manipulated with statistical information and placed in different syllables within trisyllabic nonsense words to explore the result of the combination of the cues in an online word segmentation task. Results The behavioral results showed that words were segmented better when stress was placed on the final syllables than when it was placed on the middle or first syllable. The electrophysiological results showed an increase in the amplitude of the P2 component, which seemed to be sensitive to word-stress and its location within words. Conclusion The results demonstrated that listeners can integrate specific prosodic and distributional cues when segmenting speech. An ERP component related to word-stress cues was identified: stressed syllables elicited larger amplitudes in the P2 component than unstressed ones.

  13. Phytochemicals in quinoa and amaranth grains and their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and potential health beneficial effects: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yao; Tsao, Rong

    2017-02-26

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) and amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus L.) are pseudocereal grains rich in both macronutrients and micronutrients including vitamins and minerals. The proteins are particularly of high nutritional quality due to the outstanding balance of essential amino acids. However, recent research strongly suggests that the essential nutrients such as phytochemicals of quinoa and amaranth may also with potential health beneficial effects. This review focuses on the phytochemical composition of quinoa and amaranth seeds, the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of hydrophilic (e.g. phenolics, betacyanins) and lipophilic (e.g. fatty acids, tocopherols, and carotenoids) nutrients, and how these contribute to the potential health benefits, especially in lowering the risk of the oxidative stress related diseases e.g. cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes and obesity. The gap between current knowledge and future research needs to be identified. Summary Quinoa and amaranth are pseudocereal grains rich in nutrients and phytochemicals. This paper reviews recent advances in research related to phytochemical composition of the two grains, the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of the bioactives and their role in lowering the risk of the oxidative stress related diseases. Bioactives in these two grains are indeed beneficial. Future research needs were identified. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  14. Beneficial Effects of Lithium and Radioiodine Therapy in the Treatment of Hyperthyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Barud

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Intravenous contrast media used for coronary angiography are iodine-based and could induce thyroid gland dysfunction. We present the case of a 58-year-old woman with coronary artery disease who developed hyperthyroidism after percutaneus coronary intervention. Treatment with thiamazole induced agranulocytosis, complicated with severe tonsillitis. During recurrence of hyperthyroidism, after careful assessment of available methods of treatment, she was recommended to undergo radioiodine therapy (131I. The patient received lithium carbonate as pre-treatment. After 13 days of pre-treatment, patient received the therapeutic dose of 131I. Neither thyrotoxicosis progression nor acute coronary syndrome occurred. After 3 weeks, her thyroid hormones were found to be within normal ranges. Lithium therapy could be used as an effective treatment in patients who developed serious side-effects due to previous treatment with thionamides. Turk Jem 2014; 18: 92-94

  15. A blessing, not a curse: experimental evidence for beneficial effects of visual aesthetics on performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshagen, Morten; Musch, Jochen; Göritz, Anja S

    2009-10-01

    The present experiment investigated the effect of visual aesthetics on performance. A total of 257 volunteers completed a series of search tasks on a website providing health-related information. Four versions of the website were created by manipulating visual aesthetics (high vs. low) and usability (good vs. poor) in a 2 x 2 between-subjects design. Task completion times and error rates were used as performance measures. A main effect of usability on both error rates and completion time was observed. Additionally, a significant interaction of visual aesthetics and usability revealed that high aesthetics enhanced performance under conditions of poor usability. Thus, in contrast to the notion that visual aesthetics may worsen performance, visual aesthetics even compensated for poor usability by speeding up task completion. The practical and theoretical implications of this finding are discussed.

  16. Beneficial effects of Bifidobacteria in a gastroresistant seamless capsule on hyperhomocysteinemia in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taki, Kentaro; Takayama, Fumio; Niwa, Toshimitsu

    2005-01-01

    Intestinal microflora is deranged in hemodialysis (HD) patients as an increase in aerobic bacteria such as Escherichia coli and a decrease in anaerobic bacteria such as Bifidobacterium . Bifidobacteria ferment carbohydrates to produce acetic acid and lactic acid, which inhibit the intestinal putrefaction. Thus, intake of Bifidobacteria effectively restores the disturbed microflora to normal. However, Bifidobacteria in most medical products and healthy foods cannot usually survive because of exposure to gastric juices before it reaches the intestines. A gastroresistant seamless capsule prevents Bifidobacteria from inactivation by acidic gastric juice and allows it to be active in the intestines. We showed that the oral administration of Bifidobacterium longum in a gastroresistant seamless capsule to HD patients is effective in decreasing the pre-HD serum levels of homocysteine, indoxyl sulfate, and triglyceride. The reduction in the serum level of homocysteine is mainly attributable to the supply of folate produced by Bifidobacterium longum in the human intestines.

  17. Beneficial effects of carnosic acid on dieldrin-induced dopaminergic neuronal cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeong Ae; Kim, Seung; Lee, Sook-Young; Kim, Chun-Sung; Kim, Do Kyung; Kim, Sung-Jun; Chun, Hong Sung

    2008-08-27

    Carnosic acid (CA) is one of the bioactive polyphenols present in extracts of the herb rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis). In this study, we examined possible protective effects of CA on neurotoxicity induced by dieldrin, an organochlorine pesticide implicated in sporadic Parkinson's disease, in cultured dopaminergic cells (SN4741). CA (5-10 muM) pretreatment showed potent protective effects in a concentration-related manner and prevented dieldrin (10 muM)-induced caspase-3 activation, Jun N-terminal kinase phosphorylation, and caspase-12 activation. Furthermore, dieldrin-induced downregulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor production was significantly attenuated by CA. These results suggest that CA may safeguard dopaminergic neuronal cells from environmental neurotoxins by enhancing brain-derived neurotrophic factor and repressing apoptotic molecules.

  18. Experimental demonstration of illusion optics with ``external cloaking'' effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Liu, Xiao; Liu, Guochang; Li, Fang; Fang, Guangyou

    2011-08-01

    A metamaterial "illusion optics" with "complementary medium" and "restoring medium" is designed by using inductor-capacitor (L-C) network medium. The unprecedented effects of "external cloaking" and "transforming one object to appear as another" are demonstrated experimentally. We also demonstrate that the non-resonant nature of the L-C network decreases the sensitivity of the "external cloaking" effect to the variation of the frequency and results in an acceptable bandwidth of the whole device.

  19. The beneficial effects of massage therapy for insomnia in postmenopausal women

    OpenAIRE

    Hachul,H.; Oliveira, D. S.; L.R.A. Bittencourt; Andersen, M. L.; Tufik, S.

    2014-01-01

    With increases life expectancy, the incidence of undesirable manifestations of menopause has increased as well. The effects of lost ovarian function include progressive decrease in estradiol secretion, trophic changes in the breast, vasomotor symptoms, anxiety, depression, and sleep disorders. Insomnia, which has physiological consequences and can result in a loss of quality of life, is prevalent in women after menopause. Hormone therapy has been widely used to reduce menopausal symptoms, but...

  20. Beneficial effects of a Cannabis sativa extract treatment on diabetes-induced neuropathy and oxidative stress

    OpenAIRE

    Comelli, Francesca; Bettoni, Isabella; Colleoni, Mariapia; Giagnoni, Gabriella; Costa, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Neuropathy is the most common complication of diabetes and it is still considered to be relatively refractory to most of the analgesics. The aim of the present study was to explore the antinociceptive effect of a controlled cannabis extract (eCBD) in attenuating diabetic neuropathic pain. Repeated treatment with cannabis extract significantly relieved mechanical allodynia and restored the physiological thermal pain perception in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats w...

  1. Anabolic androgenic steroids reverse the beneficial effect of exercise on tendon biomechanics: An experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background\\ud The effect of anabolic androgenic steroids on tendons has not yet been fully elucidated. Aim of the present study was the evaluation of the impact of anabolic androgenic steroids on the biomechanical and histological characteristics of Achilles tendons.\\ud Methods\\ud Twenty-four male Wistar rats were randomized into four groups with exercise and anabolic steroids (nandrolone decanoate) serving as variables. Protocol duration was 12 weeks. Following euthanasia, tendons’ biomechan...

  2. Beneficial Effects of Hesperidin against Cisplatin-Induced Nephrotoxicity and Oxidative Stress in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Wafaa R Mohamed; Arafa, El-Shaimaa A.; Basim A. Shehata; Gamal A. El Sherbiny; Abdel Nasser A.M. Elgendy

    2015-01-01

    Cisplatin has been frequently used for treatment of wide variety of tumors. The use of cisplatin is associated with severe cytotoxicity such as nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity and spermiotoxicity which radically limits its clinical use. The present study aimed to investigate the possible protective effects of multiple doses of hesperidin against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity induced by single i.p injection of cisplatin (7.5 mg/kg). Hesperidin was given to rats at two different doses (100 an...

  3. The relevance of theobromine for the beneficial effects of cocoa consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Eva eMartínez-Pinilla; Ainhoa eOñatibia-Astibia; Rafael eFranco

    2015-01-01

    Cocoa consumption began in America and in the mid sixteenth Century it quickly spread to Europe. Beyond being considered a pleasant habit due to its rich sweet lingering taste, chocolate was considered a good nutrient and even a medicine. Traditionally, health benefits of cocoa have been related with the high content of antioxidants of Theobroma cocoa beans. However, the direct psychoactive effect due to methylxanthines in cocoa is notable. Theobromine and caffeine, in the proportions found i...

  4. Beneficial effect of isradipine on the development of left ventricular hypertrophy in mild hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlsen, J; Fornitz, Gitte Gleerup; Haedersdal, C

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the long-term hemodynamic effects of the calcium antagonist isradipine in mild hypertension compared with those of the beta 1-selective adrenoceptor antagonist atenolol, focusing in particular on the development of cardiac hypertrophy. Ten male patients...... with isradipine (254 +/- 55 g). The results indicate that antihypertensive treatment with isradipine as monotherapy may prevent the development of left ventricular hypertrophy whereas treatment with atenolol as monotherapy does not appear to offer this possibility....

  5. [Beneficial effect of swimming in thermal waters on muscle glycogen depletion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amelio, G; Boninsegna, A; Calzavara, M; Bertolini, M

    1991-05-01

    The effect of swimming in the termal water on muscle glycogen stores was studied. After 30 min the muscle glycogen results in a diminution, but it is not depleted. On the contrary, 30 min of swimming in normal water results in a depletion of muscle glycogene stores. The glycemic homeostasis is well maintained in thermal water, and hypoglicemia occurs only after swimming in normal water.

  6. Proteins and Carbohydrates from Red Seaweeds: Evidence for Beneficial Effects on Gut Function and Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cian, Raúl E; Drago, Silvina R; de Medina, Fermín Sánchez; Martínez-Augustin, Olga

    2015-08-20

    Based on their composition, marine algae, and namely red seaweeds, are good potential functional foods. Intestinal mucosal barrier function refers to the capacity of the intestine to provide adequate containment of luminal microorganisms and molecules. Here, we will first outline the component of seaweeds and will summarize the effects of these on the regulation of mucosal barrier function. Special attention will be paid to unique components of red seaweeds: proteins and derived peptides (e.g., phycobiliproteins, glycoproteins that contain "cellulose binding domains", phycolectins and the related mycosporine-like amino acids) together with polysaccharides (e.g., floridean starch and sulfated galactans, such as carrageenans, agarans and "dl-hybrid") and minerals. These compounds have been shown to exert prebiotic effects, to regulate intestinal epithelial cell, macrophage and lymphocyte proliferation and differentiation and to modulate the immune response. Molecular mechanisms of action of peptides and polysaccharides are starting to be elucidated, and evidence indicating the involvement of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGFR), Toll-like receptors (TLR) and signal transduction pathways mediated by protein kinase B (PKB or AKT), nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPK) will also be summarized. The need for further research is clear, but in vivo experiments point to an overall antiinflammatory effect of these algae, indicating that they can reinforce membrane barrier function.

  7. Beneficial Effects of Ischemic Preconditioning in Resistance Exercise Fade Over Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marocolo, M; Marocolo, I C; da Mota, G R; Simão, R; Maior, A S; Coriolano, H-J Appell

    2016-09-01

    This study evaluated the effect of ischemic preconditioning (IPC) on resistance exercise performance in upper limbs. After 12-RM load determination, 21 men attended 4 trials separated by 3 days in a randomized crossover design: IPC (4×5-min occlusion 220 mmHg/reperfusion 0 mmHg) in arms and in thighs, and SHAM (equal to the IPC protocol but "occlusion" at 20 mmHg) in arms and in thighs. 8 min following the respective interventions, the subjects performed one set of resistance exercise in elbow flexion with the 12-RM load until concentric failure. The number of repetitions increased for both protocols in arm (IPC=14.1±2.5 and SHAM=14.4±3.0) and in thigh (IPC=14.3±2.2 and SHAM=13.4±1.7). However, the number of repetitions tended to decrease over the 4 trials and no more effect was found in the fourth trial. Therefore, IPC or SHAM may enhance performance in resistance exercise for upper limbs, but this effect apparently fades over time.

  8. Proteins and Carbohydrates from Red Seaweeds: Evidence for Beneficial Effects on Gut Function and Microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl E. Cian

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Based on their composition, marine algae, and namely red seaweeds, are good potential functional foods. Intestinal mucosal barrier function refers to the capacity of the intestine to provide adequate containment of luminal microorganisms and molecules. Here, we will first outline the component of seaweeds and will summarize the effects of these on the regulation of mucosal barrier function. Special attention will be paid to unique components of red seaweeds: proteins and derived peptides (e.g., phycobiliproteins, glycoproteins that contain “cellulose binding domains”, phycolectins and the related mycosporine-like amino acids together with polysaccharides (e.g., floridean starch and sulfated galactans, such as carrageenans, agarans and “dl-hybrid” and minerals. These compounds have been shown to exert prebiotic effects, to regulate intestinal epithelial cell, macrophage and lymphocyte proliferation and differentiation and to modulate the immune response. Molecular mechanisms of action of peptides and polysaccharides are starting to be elucidated, and evidence indicating the involvement of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGFR, Toll-like receptors (TLR and signal transduction pathways mediated by protein kinase B (PKB or AKT, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB and mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPK will also be summarized. The need for further research is clear, but in vivo experiments point to an overall antiinflammatory effect of these algae, indicating that they can reinforce membrane barrier function.

  9. Beneficial effects of ginger (Zingiber officinale) on carbohydrate metabolism in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulrazaq, Nafiu Bidemi; Cho, Maung Maung; Win, Ni Ni; Zaman, Rahela; Rahman, Mohammad Tariqur

    2012-10-01

    Zingiber officinale (ZO), commonly known as ginger, has been traditionally used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Several studies have reported the hypoglycaemic properties of ginger in animal models. The present study evaluated the antihyperglycaemic effect of its aqueous extract administered orally (daily) in three different doses (100, 300, 500 mg/kg body weight) for a period of 30 d to streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. A dose-dependent antihyperglycaemic effect revealed a decrease of plasma glucose levels by 38 and 68 % on the 15th and 30th day, respectively, after the rats were given 500 mg/kg. The 500 mg/kg ZO significantly (Pdiabetic rats v. control rats, although the decrease in liver weight (% body weight) was not statistically significant. Kidney glycogen content increased significantly (Pdiabetic controls v. normal controls. ZO (500 mg/kg) also significantly decreased kidney glycogen (Pdiabetic rats when compared to diabetic controls. Activities of glucokinase, phosphofructokinase and pyruvate kinase in diabetic controls were decreased by 94, 53 and 61 %, respectively, when compared to normal controls; and ZO significantly increased (Pdiabetic rats. Therefore, the present study showed that ginger is a potential phytomedicine for the treatment of diabetes through its effects on the activities of glycolytic enzymes.

  10. Beneficial Effects of Fractions of Nardostachys jatamansi on Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gi-Sang Bae

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been previously shown that Nardostachys jatamansi (NJ exhibits anti-inflammatory properties against lipopolysaccharide (LPS challenges. However, the potency of NJ constituents against LPS-induced inflammatory responses has not been examined. In this present study, we determined which NJ extract fractions exhibit inhibitory effects against LPS-induced inflammatory responses. Among the NJ fractions, NJ-1, NJ-3, NJ-4, and NJ-6 inhibited LPS-induced production of NO. The NJ-3, NJ-4, and NJ-6 fractions also inhibited the production of cytokines, such as IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α. However, NJ-1, NJ-3, NJ-4, and NJ-6 showed differential inhibitory mechanisms against LPS-induced inflammatory responses. NJ-1, NJ-3, and NJ-4 inhibited LPS-induced activation of c-jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK and p38 but did not affect activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK or NF-κB. On the other hand, NJ-6 inhibited activation of MAPKs and NF-κB. In addition, in vivo experiments revealed that administration of NJ-1, NJ-3, NJ-4, and NJ-6 reduced LPS-induced endotoxin shock, with NJ-6 especially showing a marked protective effect. Taken together, these results provide the evidence for the potential of selective NJ fractions against LPS-induced inflammation. Thus, it will be advantageous to further isolate and determine single effective compounds from these potent fractions.

  11. The relevance of theobromine for the beneficial effects of cocoa consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Pinilla, Eva; Oñatibia-Astibia, Ainhoa; Franco, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Cocoa consumption began in America and in the mid sixteenth Century it quickly spread to Europe. Beyond being considered a pleasant habit due to its rich sweet lingering taste, chocolate was considered a good nutrient and even a medicine. Traditionally, health benefits of cocoa have been related with the high content of antioxidants of Theobroma cocoa beans. However, the direct psychoactive effect due to methylxanthines in cocoa is notable. Theobromine and caffeine, in the proportions found in cocoa, are responsible for the liking of the food/beverage. These compounds influence in a positive way our moods and our state of alertness. Theobromine, which is found in higher amounts than caffeine, seems to be behind several effects attributed to cocoa intake. The main mechanisms of action are inhibition of phosphodiesterases and blockade of adenosine receptors. Further mechanisms are being explored to better understand the health benefits associated to theobromine consumption. Unlike what happens in other mammals -pets- included, theobromine is safe for humans and has fewer unwanted effects than caffeine. Therefore, theobromine deserves attention as one of the most attractive molecules in cocoa.

  12. Beneficial effects of Chrysin against Methotrexate-induced hepatotoxicity via attenuation of oxidative stress and apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Nemat; Rashid, Summya; Nafees, Sana; Hasan, Syed Kazim; Sultana, Sarwat

    2014-01-01

    Methotrexate (MTX), a folic acid antagonist, an effective chemotherapeutic agent is used in the treatment of a wide range of tumors and autoimmune diseases. Moreover, hepatotoxicity limits its clinical use. Several studies have already confirmed that the oxidative stress plays a major role in the pathogenesis of MTX-induced damage in the various organs especially in liver. The aim of this study was to determine the protective effect of Chrysin against MTX-induced hepatic oxidative stress and apoptosis in rats. In the present study, efficacy of Chrysin was investigated against hepatotoxicity caused by MTX in terms of biochemical investigations of antioxidant enzymes, apoptosis, and histopathological alteration in rat liver. In the MTX-treated group there was a significant increase in alanine transaminase, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase activity and malondialdehyde content as well as decreased glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase, catalase activities and reduced glutathione content were also observed compared to the control group as a marker of oxidative stress. Histopathological alterations and apoptosis through the immunopositive staining of p53, cleaved caspases-3 and Bcl-2-associated X protein in rat liver were observed. Pretreatment of Chrysin at both doses prevents the hepatotoxicity by ameliorating oxidative stress, histopathological alterations, and apoptosis and thus our results suggest that Chrysin has a protective effect against hepatotoxicity induced by MTX and it may, therefore, improve the therapeutic index of MTX if co-administration is done.

  13. The relevance of theobromine for the beneficial effects of cocoa consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva eMartínez-Pinilla

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Cocoa consumption began in America and in the mid 16th Century it quickly spread to Europe. Beyond being considered a pleasant habit due to its rich sweet lingering taste, chocolate was considered a good nutrient and even a medicine. Traditionally, health benefits of cocoa have been related with the high content of antioxidants of Theobroma cocoa beans. However, the direct psychoactive effect due to methylxanthines in cocoa is notable. Theobromine and caffeine in the proportions found in cocoa are responsible for the liking of the food/beverage. These compounds influence in a positive way our moods and our state of alertness. Theobromine, which is found in higher amounts than caffeine, seems to be behind several effects attributed to cocoa intake. The main mechanisms of action are inhibition of phosphodiesterases and blockade of adenosine receptors. Further mechanisms are being explored to better understand the health benefits associated to theobromine consumption. Unlike what happens in other mammals –pets included-, theobromine is safe for humans and has fewer unwanted effects than caffeine. Therefore, theobromine deserves attention as one of the most attractive molecules in cocoa.

  14. Beneficial effect of bilingualism on Alzheimer's disease CSF biomarkers and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estanga, Ainara; Ecay-Torres, Mirian; Ibañez, Almudena; Izagirre, Andrea; Villanua, Jorge; Garcia-Sebastian, Maite; Iglesias Gaspar, M Teresa; Otaegui-Arrazola, Ane; Iriondo, Ane; Clerigue, Monserrat; Martinez-Lage, Pablo

    2017-02-01

    Bilingualism as a component of cognitive reserve has been claimed to delay the onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, its effect on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) AD-biomarkers has not been investigated. We assessed cognitive performance and CSF AD-biomarkers, and potential moderation effect of bilingualism on the association between age, CSF AD-biomarkers, and cognition. Cognitively healthy middle-aged participants classified as monolinguals (n = 100, nCSF = 59), early (n = 81, nCSF = 55) and late bilinguals (n = 97, nCSF = 52) were evaluated. Models adjusted for confounders showed that bilinguals performed better than monolinguals on digits backwards (early-bilinguals p = 0.003), Judgment of Line Orientation (JLO) (early-bilinguals p = 0.018; late-bilinguals p = 0.004), and Trail Making Test-B (late-bilinguals p = 0.047). Early bilingualism was associated with lower CSF total-tau (p = 0.019) and lower prevalence of preclinical AD (NIA-AA classification) (p = 0.02). Bilingualism showed a moderation effect on the relationship between age and CSF AD-biomarkers and the relationship between age and executive function. We conclude that bilingualism contributes to cognitive reserve enhancing executive and visual-spatial functions. For the first time, this study reveals that early bilingualism is associated with more favorable CSF AD-biomarker profile.

  15. MILK IN CHILDREN’S AND ADULTS’ DIET: BENEFICIAL EFFECTS AND POTENTIAL RISK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye.F. Lukushkina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cow’s milk is used for the nutrition of children and adults since ancient times; its favorable effects are described in medical and popular literature. During the last years, some unfavorable effects of extensive use of milk in nutrition of infants were revealed. First of all, cow’s milk is strong risk factor of iron-deficient anemia in infants. Besides, the study of big group of children who received big volumes of milk during first 6–24 months of life showed that that type of diet increase the risk of obesity and related pathological states in older age. Comparison of compound and effects of cow’s and breast milk is presented. Authors reviewed literature data on influence of cow’s milk on the risk of acne. The question of the use of cow’s milk in adults’ diet is still under discussion.Key words: children, milk, diet, safety, efficacy.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2011; 10 (4: 140–144

  16. Beneficial synergetic effect on gas production during co-pyrolysis of sewage sludge and biomass in a vacuum reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weijiang; Yuan, Chengyong; Xu, Jiao; Yang, Xiao

    2015-05-01

    A vacuum fixed bed reactor was used to pyrolyze sewage sludge, biomass (rice husk) and their blend under high temperature (900°C). Pyrolytic products were kept in the vacuum reactor during the whole pyrolysis process, guaranteeing a long contact time (more than 2h) for their interactions. Remarkable synergetic effect on gas production was observed. Gas yield of blend fuel was evidently higher than that of both parent fuels. The syngas (CO and H2) content and gas lower heating value (LHV) were obviously improved as well. It was highly possible that sewage sludge provided more CO2 and H2O during co-pyrolysis, promoting intense CO2-char and H2O-char gasification, which benefited the increase of gas yield and lower heating value. The beneficial synergetic effect, as a result, made this method a feasible one for gas production.

  17. Beneficial effect of acupuncture in the management of anxiety related to dental treatment: a set of case series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosted, P; Bundgaard, M; Gordon, S

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Anxiety related to dental treatment is a common phenomenon that has a significant impact on the provision of appropriate dental care. The aim of this case series was to examine the effect of acupuncture given prior to dental treatment on the level of anxiety. METHODS: Eight dentists...... a median BAI score of 26.5 at baseline. The BAI score was assessed before and after the acupuncture treatment. All patients received acupuncture treatment for 5 min prior to the planned dental treatment using the points GV20 and EX6. RESULTS: There was a significant reduction in median value of BAI scores...... after treatment with acupuncture (26.5 reduced to 11.5; pacupuncture treatment. Previously this had only been possible in six cases. CONCLUSION: Acupuncture prior to dental treatment has a beneficial effect...

  18. Beneficial effect of acupuncture in the management of anxiety related to dental treatment: a set of case series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosted, P; Bundgaard, M; Gordon, S

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Anxiety related to dental treatment is a common phenomenon that has a significant impact on the provision of appropriate dental care. The aim of this case series was to examine the effect of acupuncture given prior to dental treatment on the level of anxiety. METHODS: Eight dentists...... a median BAI score of 26.5 at baseline. The BAI score was assessed before and after the acupuncture treatment. All patients received acupuncture treatment for 5 min prior to the planned dental treatment using the points GV20 and EX6. RESULTS: There was a significant reduction in median value of BAI scores...... after treatment with acupuncture (26.5 reduced to 11.5; pacupuncture treatment. Previously this had only been possible in six cases. CONCLUSION: Acupuncture prior to dental treatment has a beneficial effect...

  19. Beneficial cardiovascular effects of reducing exposure to particulate air pollution with a simple facemask

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jing

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to air pollution is an important risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and is associated with increased blood pressure, reduced heart rate variability, endothelial dysfunction and myocardial ischaemia. Our objectives were to assess the cardiovascular effects of reducing air pollution exposure by wearing a facemask. Methods In an open-label cross-over randomised controlled trial, 15 healthy volunteers (median age 28 years walked on a predefined city centre route in Beijing in the presence and absence of a highly efficient facemask. Personal exposure to ambient air pollution and exercise was assessed continuously using portable real-time monitors and global positional system tracking respectively. Cardiovascular effects were assessed by continuous 12-lead electrocardiographic and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Results Ambient exposure (PM2.5 86 ± 61 vs 140 ± 113 μg/m3; particle number 2.4 ± 0.4 vs 2.3 ± 0.4 × 104 particles/cm3, temperature (29 ± 1 vs 28 ± 3°C and relative humidity (63 ± 10 vs 64 ± 19% were similar (P > 0.05 for all on both study days. During the 2-hour city walk, systolic blood pressure was lower (114 ± 10 vs 121 ± 11 mmHg, P vs 88 ± 11/min; P > 0.05. Over the 24-hour period heart rate variability increased (SDNN 65.6 ± 11.5 vs 61.2 ± 11.4 ms, P vs 816 ± 340 ms2, P Conclusion Wearing a facemask appears to abrogate the adverse effects of air pollution on blood pressure and heart rate variability. This simple intervention has the potential to protect susceptible individuals and prevent cardiovascular events in cities with high concentrations of ambient air pollution.

  20. Beneficial effect of TRAIL on HIV burden, without detectable immune consequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett D Shepard

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: During uncontrolled HIV disease, both TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL and TRAIL receptor expression are increased. Enhanced TRAIL sensitivity is due to TRAIL receptor up-regulation induced by gp120. As a result of successful antiretroviral therapy TRAIL is down-regulated, and there are fewer TRAIL-sensitive cells. In this setting, we hypothesized that all cells that contain virus, including those productively- and latently-infected, have necessarily been "primed" by gp120 and remain TRAIL-sensitive, whereas uninfected cells remain relatively TRAIL-resistant. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We evaluated the immunologic and antiviral effects of TRAIL in peripheral blood lymphocytes collected from HIV-infected patients with suppressed viral replication. The peripheral blood lymphocytes were treated with recombinant TRAIL or an equivalent amount of bovine serum albumin as a negative control. Treated cells were then analyzed by quantitative flow cytometry, ELISPOT for CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell function, and limiting dilution microculture for viral burden. Alterations in the cytokine milieu of treated cells were assessed with a multiplex cytokine assay. Treatment with recombinant TRAIL in vitro reduced viral burden in lymphocytes collected from HIV-infected patients with suppressed viral load. TRAIL treatment did not alter the cytokine milieu of treated cells. Moreover, treatment with recombinant TRAIL had no adverse effect on either the quantity or function of immune cells from HIV-infected patients with suppressed viral replication. CONCLUSIONS: TRAIL treatment may be an important adjunct to antiretroviral therapy, even in patients with suppressed viral replication, perhaps by inducing apoptosis in cells with latent HIV reservoirs. The absence of adverse effect on the quantity or function of immune cells from HIV-infected patients suggests that there is not a significant level of "bystander death" in uninfected cells.

  1. Beneficial effects of pioglitazone on retardation of persistent atrial fibrillation progression in diabetes mellitus patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bing; Wang, Jiancheng; Wang, Guoxing

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the effects of pioglitazone treatment on progression from persistent atrial fibrillation (AF) to permanent atrial fibrillation in diabetes mellitus (DM) patients and to investigate the possible mechanisms involved in those effects.A total of 146 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients with firstly identified persistent AF were selected. Seventy patients were randomized into the pioglitazone (30 mg/day) group and 76 into the placebo group. Pro-collagen type I carboxyterminal peptide (PICP), advanced glycation end products (AGEs), and angiotensin II were assayed and left atrial diameter (LA diameter) was measured at the first presence of persistent AF, and at 6 and 14 months of follow-up. The time point of identification of permanent AF and the incidence of permanent AF in the patients were all recorded.Thirty-seven (49%) of the 76 patients in the placebo group and 21 (30%) of the 70 patients in the pioglitazone group progressed to permanent AF (P = 0.028). No significant differences existed in the follow-up time (20.5 ± 3.97 months for pioglitazone group versus 20.9 ± 4.14 months for placebo group) between the two groups (P = 0.535). In the pioglitazone group, no significant change was found in angiotensin II level. The PICP level did not change significantly at 6-months of follow-up, but decreased significantly at 14-months of follow-up (P = 0.032). The AGE (P = 0.037 at 6-month follow-up, P pioglitazone treatment may decrease the incidence of permanent AF in DM patients with persistent AF, which may be associated with the suppressing effect of pioglitazone on AGEs.

  2. Beneficial effects of melatonin on cardiological alterations in a murine model of accelerated aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Katherine; Vara, Elena; García, Cruz; Kireev, Roman; Cuesta, Sara; Acuña-Castroviejo, Darío; Tresguerres, J A F

    2010-10-01

    This study investigated the effect of aging-related parameters such as inflammation, oxidative stress and cell death in the heart in an animal model of accelerated senescence and analyzed the effects of chronic administration of melatonin on these markers. Thirty male mice of senescence-accelerated prone (SAMP8) and 30 senescence-accelerated-resistant mice (SAMR1) at 2 and 10 months of age were used. Animals were divided into eight experimental groups, four from each strain: two young control groups, two old untreated control groups, and four melatonin-treated groups. Melatonin was provided at two different dosages (1 and 10 mg/kg/day) in the drinking water. After 30 days of treatment, the expression of inflammatory mediators (tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin 1 and 10, NFkBp50 and NFkBp52), apoptosis markers (BAD, BAX and Bcl2) and parameters related to oxidative stress (heme oxygenases 1 and 2, endothelial and inducible nitric oxide synthases) were determined in the heart by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Inflammation, as well as, oxidative stress and apoptosis markers was increased in old SAMP8 males, when compared to its young controls. SAMR1 mice showed significantly lower basal levels of the measured parameters and smaller increases with age or no increases at all. After treatment with melatonin, these age-altered parameters were partially reversed, especially in SAMP8 mice. The results suggest that oxidative stress and inflammation increase with aging and that chronic treatment with melatonin, a potent antioxidant, reduces these parameters. The effects were more marked in the SAMP8 animals. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Pineal Research © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  3. Beneficial effects of Lagenaria siceraria (Mol.) Standley fruit epicarp in animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, J R; Choudhari, A A; Mishra, M R; Meghre, V S; Wadodkar, S G; Dorle, A K

    2008-04-01

    Lagenaria siceraria (Mol.) Standley fruit (bottle gourd), a commonly used vegetable in India is described as cardiotonic and as a general tonic in Ayurveda. Keeping in view the presence of free radical scavenging activity in L. siceraria and involvement of free radicals in the development of various disorders, present studies were designed to evaluate the ethanolic extract of L. siceraria fruit against the disorders where free radicals play a major role in pathogenesis. The extract was found effective as hepatoprotective, antioxidant, antihyperglycemic, immunomodulatory, antihyperlipidemic and cardiotonic agent. The results showed that the radical scavenging capacity of L. siceraria fruit may be responsible for various biological activities studied.

  4. Beneficial effect of cilostazol-mediated neuronal repair following trimethyltin-induced neuronal loss in the dentate gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneyama, Masanori; Tanaka, Masayuki; Hasebe, Shigeru; Yamaguchi, Taro; Shiba, Tatsuo; Ogita, Kiyokazu

    2015-01-01

    Cilostazol acts as an antiplatelet agent and has other pleiotropic effects based on phosphodiesterase-3-dependent mechanisms. We evaluated whether cilostazol would have a beneficial effect on neuronal repair following hippocampal neuronal damage by using a mouse model of trimethyltin (TMT)-induced neuronal loss/self-repair in the hippocampal dentate gyrus [Ogita et al. (2005) J Neurosci Res 82:609-621]; these mice will hereafter be referred to as impaired animals. A single treatment with cilostazol (10 mg/kg, i.p.) produced no significant change in the number of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU)-incorporating cells in the dentate granule cell layer (GCL) or subgranular zone on day 3 after TMT treatment. However, chronic treatment with cilostazol on days 3-15 posttreatment resulted in an increase in the number of BrdU-incorporating cells in the dentate GCL of the impaired animals, and these cells were positive for neuronal nuclear antigen or doublecortin. Cilostazol was effective in elevating the level of phosphorylated cyclic adrenosine monophosphate response element-binding protein (pCREB) in the dentate gyrus of impaired animals. The results of a forced swimming test revealed that the chronic treatment with cilostazol improved the depression-like behavior seen in the impaired animals. In the cultures of hippocampal neural stem/progenitor cells, exposure to cilostazol produced not only enhancement of proliferation activity but also elevation of pCREB levels. Taken together, our data suggest that cilostazol has a beneficial effect on neuronal repair following neuronal loss in the dentate gyrus through promotion of proliferation and/or neuronal differentiation of neural progenitor cells in the subgranular zone. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Beneficial effects of nonpharmacological interventions in the management of essential hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vamvakis, Anastasios; Triantafyllou, Areti; Gavriilaki, Eleni; Douma, Stella

    2017-01-01

    Essential hypertension is a major health problem causing excess cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Management of essential hypertension consists of pharmacological and nonpharmacological interventions. In order to prevent and/or treat hypertension, parameters like nutrition, body weight, and physical exercise should be evaluated and taken under consideration for improvement. A large body of evidence clearly support that the role of salt, alcohol, fruits, and vegetables is important for high blood pressure. Furthermore, maintaining a normal body weight should be succeeded along with physical activity few times per week if not daily. Nonpharmacological intervention is rather a dynamic procedure that takes a multilevel approach with repeated training of the hypertensives by a team of expert physicians, rather than a single based guidance. Additionally, it should be based on a profile customization and personalized approach. Intensive interventions aiming at lifestyle changes through educational meetings are considered more effective in lowering high blood pressure. This consists of a lifestyle modification with a permanent basis for patient’s daily schedule and eventually should become a philosophy for a better quality of life through improvement of nutritional and exercise behavior. Further studies are needed so intervention guideline models can be even more effective for patients with essential hypertension.

  6. Beneficial effects of fucoidan in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Naoki Mori; Kazunori Nakasone; Koh Tomimori; Chie Ishikawa

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To evaluate the effects of fucoidan,a complex sulfated polysaccharide extract from marine seaweed,on hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA load both in vitro and in vivo.METHODS:HCV-1b replicon-expressing cells were cultured in the presence of fucoidan obtained from Cladosiphon okamuranus Tokida cultivated in Okinawa,Japan,and quantified the level of HCV replication.In an open-label uncontrolled study,15 patients with chronic hepatitis C,and HCV-related cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma were treated with fucoidan (0.83 g/d) for 12 mo.The clinical symptoms,biochemical tests,and HCV RNA levels were assessed before,during,and after treatment.RESULTS:Fucoidan dose-dependently inhibited the expression of HCV replicon.At 8-10 mo of treatment with fucoidan,HCV RNA levels were significantly lower relative to the baseline.The same treatment also tended to lower serum alanine aminotransferase levels,and the latter correlated with HCV RNA levels.However,the improved laboratory tests did not translate into significant clinical improvement.Fucoidan had no serious adverse effects.CONCLUSION:Our findings suggest that fucoidan is safe and useful in the treatment of patients with HCV-related chronic liver diseases.Further controlled clinical trials are needed to confirm the present findings.

  7. Beneficial effects of nonpharmacological interventions in the management of essential hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasios Vamvakis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential hypertension is a major health problem causing excess cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Management of essential hypertension consists of pharmacological and nonpharmacological interventions. In order to prevent and/or treat hypertension, parameters like nutrition, body weight, and physical exercise should be evaluated and taken under consideration for improvement. A large body of evidence clearly support that the role of salt, alcohol, fruits, and vegetables is important for high blood pressure. Furthermore, maintaining a normal body weight should be succeeded along with physical activity few times per week if not daily. Nonpharmacological intervention is rather a dynamic procedure that takes a multilevel approach with repeated training of the hypertensives by a team of expert physicians, rather than a single based guidance. Additionally, it should be based on a profile customization and personalized approach. Intensive interventions aiming at lifestyle changes through educational meetings are considered more effective in lowering high blood pressure. This consists of a lifestyle modification with a permanent basis for patient’s daily schedule and eventually should become a philosophy for a better quality of life through improvement of nutritional and exercise behavior. Further studies are needed so intervention guideline models can be even more effective for patients with essential hypertension.

  8. Beneficial Effect of Preferential Music on Exercise Induced Changes in Heart Rate Variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archana, R; Mukilan, R

    2016-05-01

    Music is known to reduce pain, anxiety and fear in several stressful conditions in both males and females. Further, listening to preferred music enhances the endurance during running performance of women rather than listening to non-preferred music. In recent years Heart Rate Variability (HRV) has been used as an indicator of autonomic nervous activity. This study was aimed to assess the effectiveness of preferential music on HRV after moderate exercise. This was an experimental study done in 30 healthy students aged between 20-25 years, of either sex. HRV was measured at rest, 15 minutes of exercise only and 15 minutes of exercise with listening preferential music in same participants. Data was analysed by One-Way ANOVA and Tukey HSD Post-hoc Test. Statistical significance was taken to be a p-value of less than 0.05. Low frequency and high frequency component was significantly increased followed by only exercise. Music minimized increase in both high and low frequency component followed by exercise. However, only high frequency change was statistically significant. LF/HF ratio was significantly increased followed by only exercise. Music significantly minimized increase in LF/HF ratio. This study provides the preliminary evidence that listening to preferential music could be an effective method of relaxation, as indicated by a shift of the autonomic balance towards the parasympathetic activity among medical students.

  9. Swimming training beneficial effects in a mice model of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Alini; Mendonca, Leonardo S; Aguila, Marcia B; Mandarim-de-Lacerda, Carlos A

    2012-05-01

    The study aimed to investigate the effect of swimming training in reducing the nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and associated comorbidities, including the hepatic expression of fatty acid synthesis and peroxisome proliferator receptor activity-alpha. Male C57BL/6 mice were separated into two major groups according to their nutrition and studied during 22 weeks: standard chow (10% fat, SC) or high-fat chow (60% fat, HF), characterizing the sedentary groups SC-Sed and HF-Sed. In the last 10 weeks of the experiment, half of the sedentary groups were submitted to a swimming training with a progressive increase in duration, characterizing the exercised groups: SC-Ex and HF-Ex. At the end of the experiment, considering the findings in the SC-Sed group, HF-Sed group had significantly higher body mass, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia with insulin resistance, hypertrophy of the adipocytes (with inflammatory infiltrate), hypertrophy of the pancreatic islets, dyslipidemia, altered liver enzymes and inflammatory cytokines, and NAFLD with changes in gene expression of hepatic lipogenic and oxidative proteins. The swimming program, even concomitant with the high-fat diet, reduced overweight and all the other worst findings, especially NAFLD. In conclusion, the swimming training can attenuate the morbid effects of a high-fat diet combined with sedentary lifestyle in mice. These data reinforce the notion that swimming exercise can be considered an efficient nonpharmacologic therapy in the treatment of NAFLD, obesity and insulin resistance.

  10. Beneficial effect of erdosteine on methotrexate-induced testicular toxicity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oktar, Süleyman; Gökçe, Ahmet; Aydin, Mehmet; Davarci, Mürsel; Meydan, Sedat; Oztürk, Oktay Hasan; Koç, Ahmet

    2010-08-01

    Methotrexate is used to treat certain types of cancer of the breast, skin, head and neck, or lung. Methotrexate can cause serious or life-threatening side effects on liver, lungs, kidneys, and immune system. Methotrexate chemotherapy causes testicular damage in humans. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible protective role of erdosteine on testicular toxicity of methotrexate in mice. Twenty-six male mice were divided into four groups as follows: group 1, control; group 2, erdosteine-treated; group 3, methotrexate-treated; and group 4, methotrexate + erdosteine treated. On the first day of experiment, a single dose of methotrexate was intraperitoneally administered to groups 3 and 4, although a daily single dose of erdosteine was orally administered to group 2 and 4 for 7 days. At the end of the experiment, the testes of the animals were removed and weighed. The levels of total antioxidant capacity and total oxidative stress, and myeloperoxidase activity in the methotrexate group were higher than the control group (perdosteine could effectively protect the testes in methotrexate-induced toxicity.

  11. Beneficial effects of nonpharmacological interventions in the management of essential hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasios Vamvakis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential hypertension is a major health problem causing excess cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Management of essential hypertension consists of pharmacological and nonpharmacological interventions. In order to prevent and/or treat hypertension, parameters like nutrition, body weight, and physical exercise should be evaluated and taken under consideration for improvement. A large body of evidence clearly support that the role of salt, alcohol, fruits, and vegetables is important for high blood pressure. Furthermore, maintaining a normal body weight should be succeeded along with physical activity few times per week if not daily. Nonpharmacological intervention is rather a dynamic procedure that takes a multilevel approach with repeated training of the hypertensives by a team of expert physicians, rather than a single based guidance. Additionally, it should be based on a profile customization and personalized approach. Intensive interventions aiming at lifestyle changes through educational meetings are considered more effective in lowering high blood pressure. This consists of a lifestyle modification with a permanent basis for patient’s daily schedule and eventually should become a philosophy for a better quality of life through improvement of nutritional and exercise behavior. Further studies are needed so intervention guideline models can be even more effective for patients with essential hypertension.

  12. Beneficial effects of curcumin on hyperlipidemia and insulin resistance in high-fat-fed hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Eun-Mi; Choi, Myung-Sook; Jung, Un Ju; Kim, Myung-Joo; Kim, Hye-Jin; Jeon, Seon-Min; Shin, Su-Kyung; Seong, Chi-Nam; Lee, Mi-Kyung

    2008-11-01

    This study investigated the effect of curcumin (0.05-g/100-g diet) supplementation on a high-fat diet (10% coconut oil, 0.2% cholesterol, wt/wt) fed to hamsters, one of the rodent species that are most closely related to humans in lipid metabolism. Curcumin significantly lowered the levels of free fatty acid, total cholesterol, triglyceride, and leptin and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index, whereas it elevated the levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and apolipoprotein (apo) A-I and paraoxonase activity in plasma, compared with the control group. The levels of hepatic cholesterol and triglyceride were also lower in the curcumin group than in the control group. In the liver, fatty acid beta-oxidation activity was significantly higher in the curcumin group than in the control group, whereas fatty acid synthase, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase, and acyl coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase activities were significantly lower. Curcumin significantly lowered the lipid peroxide levels in the erythrocyte and liver compared with the control group. These results indicate that curcumin exhibits an obvious hypolipidemic effect by increasing plasma paraoxonase activity, ratios of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol to total cholesterol and of apo A-I to apo B, and hepatic fatty acid oxidation activity with simultaneous inhibition of hepatic fatty acid and cholesterol biosynthesis in high-fat-fed hamsters.

  13. The Beneficial Effect of Direct Peritoneal Resuscitation on Septic Shock in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingjun Luo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The high mortality associated with conventionally resuscitated septic shock and the subsequent multiple-organ failure remain a very significant and costly clinical problem. Conventional simple intravenous resuscitation (CR from septic shock often fails to restore the progressive splanchnic vasoconstriction and hypoperfusion, and fails to reverse gut-derived systemic inflammatory response and fluid sequestration. Numerous interventions have been used to protect organ systems and cellular viability from the lethal injury accompanying hypoperfusion and ischemia but none of these efforts have been sufficient to halt or reverse the main course of the pathophysiology noted with conventional resuscitated shock. Recently, some studies have found that in hemorrhagic shock, direct peritoneal resuscitation (DPR not only produces sustained hyperperfusion in viscera but also has immunomodulatory and anti-fluid sequestration effects. Although the etiology and pathogenesis of septic shock and hemorrhagic shock differ, both kinds of shock result in hypoperfusion of the intestines and other internal organs. In this paper, we seek to determine whether DPR has a similar therapeutic effect on septic shock/resuscitation.

  14. Airway Smooth Muscle as a Target in Asthma and the Beneficial Effects of Bronchial Thermoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke J. Janssen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Airflow within the airways is determined directly by the lumenal area of that airway. In this paper, we consider several factors which can reduce airway lumenal area, including thickening and/or active constriction of the airway smooth muscle (ASM. The latter cell type can also contribute in part to inflammation, another feature of asthma, through its ability to take on a synthetic/secretory phenotype. The ASM therefore becomes a strategically important target in the treatment of asthma, given these key contributions to the pathophysiology of that disease. Pharmacological approaches have been developed to elicit relaxation of the ASM, but these are not always effective in all patients, nor do they address the long-term structural changes which impinge on the airway lumen. The recent discovery that thermal energy can be used to ablate smooth muscle has led to the development of a novel physical intervention—bronchial thermoplasty—in the treatment of asthma. Here, we review the evolution of this novel approach, consider some of the possible mechanisms that account for its salutary effects, and pose new questions which may lead to even better therapies for asthma.

  15. Low concentrations of silver nanoparticles have a beneficial effect on wound healing in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrožová, Nikola; Zálešák, Bohumil; Ulrichová, Jitka; Čížková, Kateřina; Galandáková, Adéla

    2017-03-01

    Silver has been used in medical application for its antibacterial, antifungal, and anti-inflammatory effects. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are currently in the spotlight. It was shown that their application can be useful in the management of wounds. Our study was conducted to determine whether AgNPs (average size 10.43 ± 4.74 nm) and ionic silver (Ag-I) could affect the wound healing in the in vitro model of normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDF). We evaluated their effect on reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and the expression of key transcription factors that coordinate the cellular response to oxidative stress [nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2)] and inflammation [nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB)], expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) level. Isolated primary NHDF were scratched, heated (1 h; 42 °C), and cultured with AgNPs (0.25, 2.5, and 25 μg/ml) and Ag-I (0.025, 0.1, and 0.25 μg/ml) for 8 or 24 h. The ROS generation, Nrf2, NF-κB, and HO-1 protein expression and IL-6 protein level were then evaluated by standard methods. Non-cytotoxic concentrations of AgNPs (0.25 and 2.5 μg/ml) did not affect the ROS generation but activated the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway and decreased the NF-κB expression and IL-6 level in the in vitro wound healing model. AgNPs at concentrations of 0.25 and 2.5 μg/ml seem to be suitable for the intended application as a topical agent for wound healing, although the gene silencing technique, chemical inhibitors, and detailed time- and concentration-dependent experiments are needed for a comprehensive study of signaling pathway regulation. Further investigation is also necessary to exclude any possible adverse effects.

  16. Isosteviol has beneficial effects on palmitate-induced α-cell dysfunction and gene expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoping Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Long-term exposure to high levels of fatty acids impairs insulin secretion and exaggerates glucagon secretion. The aim of this study was to explore if the antihyperglycemic agent, Isosteviol (ISV, is able to counteract palmitate-induced α-cell dysfunction and to influence α-cell gene expression. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Long-term incubation studies with clonal α-TC1-6 cells were performed in the presence of 0.5 mM palmitate with or without ISV. We investigated effects on glucagon secretion, glucagon content, cellular triglyceride (TG content, cell proliferation, and expression of genes involved in controlling glucagon synthesis, fatty acid metabolism, and insulin signal transduction. Furthermore, we studied effects of ISV on palmitate-induced glucagon secretion from isolated mouse islets. Culturing α-cells for 72-h with 0.5 mM palmitate in the presence of 18 mM glucose resulted in a 56% (p<0.01 increase in glucagon secretion. Concomitantly, the TG content of α-cells increased by 78% (p<0.01 and cell proliferation decreased by 19% (p<0.05. At 18 mM glucose, ISV (10(-8 and 10(-6 M reduced palmitate-stimulated glucagon release by 27% (p<0.05 and 27% (p<0.05, respectively. ISV (10(-6 M also counteracted the palmitate-induced hypersecretion of glucagon in mouse islets. ISV (10(-6 M reduced α-TC1-6 cell proliferation rate by 25% (p<0.05, but ISV (10(-8 and 10(-6 M had no effect on TG content in the presence of palmitate. Palmitate (0.5 mM increased Pcsk2 (p<0.001, Irs2 (p<0.001, Fasn (p<0.001, Srebf2 (p<0.001, Acaca (p<0.01, Pax6 (p<0.05 and Gcg mRNA expression (p<0.05. ISV significantly (p<0.05 up-regulated Insr, Irs1, Irs2, Pik3r1 and Akt1 gene expression in the presence of palmitate. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: ISV counteracts α-cell hypersecretion and apparently contributes to changes in expression of key genes resulting from long-term exposure to palmitate. ISV apparently acts as a glucagonostatic drug with potential as a

  17. Beneficial effects of mood stabilizers lithium,valproate and lamotrigine in experimental stroke models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-fei WANG; Emily Bame FESSLER; De-Maw CHUANG

    2011-01-01

    The mood stabilizers lithium,valproate and lamotrigine are traditionally used to treat bipolar disorder.However,accumulating evidence suggests that these drugs have broad neuroprotective properties and may therefore be promising therapeutic agents for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases,including stroke.Lithium,valproate and lamotrigine exert protective effects in diverse experimental stroke models by acting on their respective primary targets,ie,glycogen synthase kinase-3,histone deacetytases and voltage-gated sodium channels,respectively.This article reviews the most recent findings regarding the underlying mechanisms of these phenomena,which will pave the way for clinical investigations that use mood stabilizers to treat stroke.We also propose several future research avenues that may extend our understanding of the benefits of lithium,valproate and lamotrigine in improving stroke outcomes.

  18. Reflection enhances creativity: Beneficial effects of idea evaluation on idea generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Ning; Ku, Yixuan; Liu, Meigui; Hu, Yi; Bodner, Mark; Grabner, Roland H; Fink, Andreas

    2016-03-01

    The present study aimed to explore the neural correlates underlying the effects of idea evaluation on idea generation in creative thinking. Participants were required to generate original uses of conventional objects (alternative uses task) during EEG recording. A reflection task (mentally evaluating the generated ideas) or a distraction task (object characteristics task) was inserted into the course of idea generation. Behavioral results revealed that participants generated ideas with higher originality after evaluating the generated ideas than after performing the distraction task. The EEG results revealed that idea evaluation was accompanied with upper alpha (10-13 Hz) synchronization, most prominent at frontal cortical sites. Moreover, upper alpha activity in frontal cortices during idea generation was enhanced after idea evaluation. These findings indicate that idea evaluation may elicit a state of heightened internal attention or top-down activity that facilitates efficient retrieval and integration of internal memory representations.

  19. Beneficial effect of isradipine on the development of left ventricular hypertrophy in mild hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlsen, J; Fornitz, Gitte Gleerup; Haedersdal, C;

    1993-01-01

    with mild essential hypertension were entered into a double-blind crossover study. Examinations were carried out after 2 weeks of placebo run-in, and after 6 and 12 months of active treatment. Mean resting blood pressure was reduced from 115 +/- 12 mm Hg to 106 +/- 12 mm Hg with atenolol, and to 107 +/- 8...... mm Hg with isradipine. The increase in the product of heart rate times blood pressure was significantly greater during isradipine treatment, as was the maximum exercise capacity. Left ventricular mass was increased from 228 +/- 36 g to 305 +/- 68 g with atenolol whereas it remained unchanged......The objective of this study was to analyze the long-term hemodynamic effects of the calcium antagonist isradipine in mild hypertension compared with those of the beta 1-selective adrenoceptor antagonist atenolol, focusing in particular on the development of cardiac hypertrophy. Ten male patients...

  20. Mechanisms involved in the beneficial effects of spironolactone after myocardial infarction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos F Minicucci

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Our objective was to analyze the effect of spironolactone on cardiac remodeling after experimental myocardial infarction (MI, assessed by matricellular proteins levels, cardiac collagen amount and distribution, myocardial tissue metalloproteinase inhibitor-1 (TIMP-1 concentration, myocyte hypertrophy, left ventricular architecture, and in vitro and in vivo cardiac function. METHODS: Wistar rats were assigned to 4 groups: control group, in which animals were submitted to simulated surgery (SHAM group; n=9; group that received spironolactone and in which animals were submitted to simulated surgery (SHAM-S group, n=9; myocardial infarction group, in which animals were submitted to coronary artery ligation (MI group, n=15; and myocardial infarction group with spironolactone supplementation (MI-S group, n=15. The rats were observed for 3 months. RESULTS: The MI group had higher values of left cardiac chambers and mass index and lower relative wall thicknesses compared with the SHAM group. In addition, diastolic and systolic functions were worse in the MI groups. However, spironolactone did not influence any of these variables. The MI-S group had a lower myocardial hydroxyproline concentration and myocyte cross-sectional area compared with the MI group. Myocardial periostin and collagen type III were lower in the MI-S group compared with the MI-group. In addition, TIMP-1 concentration in myocardium was higher in the MI-S group compared with the MI group. CONCLUSIONS: The predominant consequence of spironolactone supplementation after MI is related to reductions in collagens, with discrete attenuation of other remodeling variables. Importantly, this effect may be modulated by periostin and TIMP-1 levels.

  1. Beneficial effects of calcium oral coadministration in gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojiljkovic, Nenad; Stoiljkovic, Milan; Mihailovic, Dragan; Randjelovic, Pavle; Ilic, Sonja; Gocmanac-Ignjatovic, Marija; Veljkovic, Milica

    2012-01-01

    Frequent therapeutical use of an aminoglycoside antibiotic gentamicin (GM) is limited by its nephrotoxic effects often characterized by both morphological and functional alterations of kidney leading to acute renal failure. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of dietary calcium supplementation on GM-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Experiments were performed on 30 adult male Wistar rats divided into three groups of 10 animals each. G-group received GM intraperitoneally at a dose of 100 mg/kg; GCa-group received the same dose of GM concomitantly with 1 g/kg calcium carbonate given orally; and C-group, serving as control, received 1 mL/day of normal saline. All groups were treated during 8 consecutive days. Quantitative evaluation of GM-induced structural and functional changes of kidney was performed by histopathological, morphometrical, and biochemical analyses. Compared with control, G-group of rats were found to have diffusely and unequally thickened glomerular basement membrane with neutrophil cells infiltration. In addition, vacuolization of cytoplasm of proximal tubule cells with coagulation-type necrosis was observed. These GM-induced pathological lesions were significantly reduced in the rats of GCa-group. Morphometric analysis revealed statistically significant differences in the size of glomeruli (area, major and minor axes, perimeter), optical density, and roundness of glomeruli (p Biochemical analysis showed significant elevation in blood urea and serum creatinine concentrations, whereas potassium concentration was lowered in G-group compared with the other groups (p < 0.01). It is concluded that oral supplementation of calcium during treatment with GM resulted in significant reduction of morphological and functional kidney alterations.

  2. Beneficial Effects of Oolong Tea Consumption on Diet-induced Overweight and Obese Subjects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Rong-rong; CHEN Ling; LIN Bing-hui; MATSUI Yokichi; YAO Xin-sheng; KURIHARA Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To determine the anti-obesity effects of oolong tea on diet-induced overweight or obesity. Methods: A total of 8 g of oolong tea a day for 6 weeks was ingested by 102 diet-induced overweight or obese subjects. The body fat level of the subjects was determined at the same time by taking body weight, height and waist measurements. The thickness of the subcutaneous fat layer was also determined on the abdomen 3 cm to the right of the navel by the ultrasonic echo method. On the other hand, effects of oolong tea ingestion on plasma triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol (TC) were determined. Inhibitions of pancreatic lipase by oolong tea extract and catechins in vitro were also determined. Results: A total of 70% of the severely obese subjects did show a decrease of more than 1 kg in body weight, including 22% who lost more than 3 kg. Similarly, 64% of the obese subjects and 66% of the overweight subjects lost more than 1 kg during the experiment, and the subcutaneous fat content decreased in 12% of the subjects. The correlation between weight loss and subcutaneous fat decrease in men (r=0.055) was obviously lower than that in women (r=0.440, P0.05). Moreover, the plasma levels of TG and TC of the subjects with hyperlipidemia were remarkably decreased after ingesting oolong tea for 6 weeks. In vitro assays for the inhibition of pancreatic lipase by oolong tea extract and catechins suggest that the mechanism for oolong tea to prevent hyperlipidemia may be related to the regulative action of oolong tea catechins in lipoprotein activity. Conclusions: Oolong tea could decrease body fat content and reduce body weight through improving lipid metabolism. Chronic consumption of oolong tea may prevent against obesity.

  3. The beneficial effects of Momordica charantia (bitter gourd) on wound healing of rabbit skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pişkin, Ahmet; Altunkaynak, Berrin Zuhal; Tümentemur, Gamze; Kaplan, Süleyman; Yazıcı, Ozgür Bülent; Hökelek, Murat

    2014-08-01

    Momordica charantia (MC; bitter gourd) is a traditional herbal commonly used for its antidiabetic, antioxidant, contraceptive and antibacterial properties. In the current study, the authors aim to observe the topical effect of MC cream on the wound-healing process in rabbits. Moreover, they compare the healing potential with conventional creams used therapeutically. Towards this aim, 28 New Zealand rabbits were divided into four groups and excision wounds (7 cm²) were made on their backs. Open wound dressing was carried out daily for 28 days among the experimental groups with the application of dekspanthenol (Bepanthen®; BP group, n = 7), nitrofurazon (Furacin®; FR group, n = 7) and olive oil extract of MC (MC group, n = 7). No application was made to the control group. At the end of day 28, areas of the skin with initial wound area were en bloc dissected and prepared for histopathological and stereological analysis. Inflammatory cells were abundant in the control group and cream application led to a decrease in the number of these cells, especially in the MC group. The highest number of fibroblasts was detected in the MC group. Furthermore, the MC group displayed the highest fractions of epidermis to papillary dermis, fibroblasts to reticular dermis and collagen fibres to reticular dermis. The MC group also presented a high density of blood vessels, moderate density of collagen fibres and mature fibroblasts. The BP group showed better epithelialisation compared with the FR group, but the latter provided more effective reorganisation of the dermis. Different cream supplements caused healthy and fast wound healing according to untreated controls and the results show that administration of the MC extract improves and accelerates the process of wound healing in rabbits in comparison with the BP and FR extracts.

  4. Beneficial Effects of Fecal Microbiota Transplantation on Ulcerative Colitis in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zhihui; Liu, Jie; Liao, Mengyu; Li, Wenjuan; Zou, Jiaqi; Han, Xinxin; Kuang, Mingjie; Shen, Wanqiu; Li, Haidong

    2016-08-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic condition and the most common form of inflammatory bowel disease. The goal of standard treatment is mainly to induce and maintain remission with anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive agents, and/or colectomy. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has been used successfully to treat relapsing or refractory Clostridium difficile infection. The alteration of microbiota in mouse models of UC as well as in patients suggested the possibility of treating UC with FMT. To study the effects of FMT on dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced UC model in mice. Littermates of BALB/c and C57BL/6J were randomized into four groups: normal control , treatment with DSS for 7 days (DSS - FMT), treatment with DSS followed by FMT for another 8 days (DSS + FMT), and treatment with DSS and FMT followed by another 5 days for recovery (remission). Body weight, survival rate, and DAI scores of mice in each group were recorded. Changes in distal colon were studied by histopathology. Alterations of spleen and lamina propria regulatory lymphocytes, major bacterial species in feces and inflammatory cytokines in colon were also studied. C57BL/6J mice experienced more significant weight loss than BALB/c mice after DSS treatment, regardless of whether the two strains of mice were co-housed or not. FMT caused reversal of DAI scores in BALB/c but not in C57BL/6J mice. In BALB/c mice, FMT also reduced colon inflammation that was paralleled by decreased inflammatory cytokine levels, altered bacterial microbiota, and regulatory lymphocyte proportions. FMT is effective in a mouse model of UC through its modulation on gut microbiota and the host immune system.

  5. Beneficial effects of lycopene against haloperidol induced orofacial dyskinesia in rats: Possible neurotransmitters and neuroinflammation modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Swati; Jamwal, Sumit; Deshmukh, Rahul; Kumar, Puneet

    2016-01-15

    Tardive Dyskinesia is a severe side effect of chronic neuroleptic treatment consisting of abnormal involuntary movements, characterized by orofacial dyskinesia. The study was designed to investigate the protective effect of lycopene against haloperidol induced orofacial dyskinesia possibly by neurochemical and neuroinflammatory modulation in rats. Rats were administered with haloperidol (1mg/kg, i.p for 21 days) to induce orofacial dyskinesia. Lycopene (5 and 10mg/kg, p.o) was given daily 1hour before haloperidol treatment for 21 days. Behavioral observations (vacuous chewing movements, tongue protrusions, facial jerking, rotarod activity, grip strength, narrow beam walking) were assessed on 0th, 7th(,) 14th(,) 21st day after haloperidol treatment. On 22nd day, animals were killed and striatum was excised for estimation of biochemical parameters (malondialdehyde, nitrite and endogenous enzyme (GSH), pro-inflammatory cytokines [Tumor necrosis factor, Interleukin 1β, Interleukin 6] and neurotransmitters level (dopamine, serotonin, nor epinephrine, 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA), Homovanillic acid, 3,4- dihydroxyphenylacetic acid. Haloperidol treatment for 21 days impaired muscle co-ordination, motor activity and grip strength with an increased in orofacial dyskinetic movements. Further free radical generation increases MDA and nitrite levels, decreasing GSH levels in striatum. Neuroinflammatory markers were significantly increased with decrease in neurotransmitters levels. Lycopene (5 and 10mg/kg, p.o) treatment along with haloperidol significantly attenuated impairment in behavioral, biochemical, neurochemical and neuroinflammatory markers. Results of the present study attributed the therapeutic potential of lycopene in the treatment (prevented or delayed) of typical antipsychotic induced orofacial dyskinesia.

  6. Beneficial effect of feeding a ketogenic diet to mothers on brain development in their progeny with a murine model of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lioudmila Pliss

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: The findings provide for the first time experimental support for beneficial effects of a ketogenic diet during the prenatal and early postnatal periods on the brain development of PDC-deficient mammalian progeny.

  7. Beneficial effect of sulphate-bicarbonate-calcium water on gallstone risk and weight control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stefano Ginanni Corradini; Edoardo Poli; Adriano De Santis; Aldo Roda; Carolina Colliva; Patrizia Simoni; Adolfo Francesco Attili; Flaminia Ferri; Michela Mordenti; Luigi Iuliano; Maria Siciliano; Maria Antonella Burza; Bruno Sordi; Barbara Caciotti; Maria Pacini

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the effect of drinking sulphate-bicarbonate-calcium thermal water (TW) on risk factors for atherosclerosis and cholesterol gallstone disease.METHODS:Postmenopausal women with functional dyspepsia and/or constipation underwent a 12 d cycle of thermal (n =20) or tap (n =20) water controlled drinking.Gallbladder fasting volume at ultrasound,blood vitamin E,oxysterols (7-β-hydroxycholesterol.and 7-ketocholesterol),bile acid (BA),triglycerides,total/low density lipoprotein and high density lipoprotein cholesterol were measured at baseline and at the end of the study.Food consumption,stool frequency and body weight were recorded daily.RESULTS:Blood lipids,oxysterols and vitamin E were not affected by either thermal or tap water consumption.Fasting gallbladder volume was significantly (P <0.005) smaller at the end of the study than at baseline in the TW (15.7 ± 1.1 mL vs 20.1 ± 1.7 mL) but not in the tap water group (19.0 ± 1.4 mL vs 19.4 ± 1.5 mL).Total serum BA concentration was significantly (P <0.05) higher at the end of the study than at baseline in the TW (5.83-1.24 μmol vs 4.25 ± 1.00 μmol) but not in the tap water group (3.41 ± 0.46 μmol vs 2.91 ± 0.56 μmol).The increased BA concentration after TW consumption was mainly accounted for by glycochenodeoxycholic acid.The number of pasta (P < 0.001),meat (P < 0.001) and vegetable (P < 0.005) portions consumed during the study and of bowel movements per day (P < 0.05) were significantly higher in the TW than in the tap water group.Body weight did not change at the end of the study as compared to baseline in both groups.CONCLUSION:Sulphate-bicarbonate-calcium water consumption has a positive effect on lithogenic risk and intestinal transit and allows maintenance of a stable body weight despite a high food intake.

  8. Beneficial effect of sulphate-bicarbonate-calcium water on gallstone risk and weight control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradini, Stefano Ginanni; Ferri, Flaminia; Mordenti, Michela; Iuliano, Luigi; Siciliano, Maria; Burza, Maria Antonella; Sordi, Bruno; Caciotti, Barbara; Pacini, Maria; Poli, Edoardo; Santis, Adriano De; Roda, Aldo; Colliva, Carolina; Simoni, Patrizia; Attili, Adolfo Francesco

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of drinking sulphate-bicarbonate-calcium thermal water (TW) on risk factors for atherosclerosis and cholesterol gallstone disease. METHODS: Postmenopausal women with functional dyspepsia and/or constipation underwent a 12 d cycle of thermal (n = 20) or tap (n = 20) water controlled drinking. Gallbladder fasting volume at ultrasound, blood vitamin E, oxysterols (7-β-hydroxycholesterol and 7-ketocholesterol), bile acid (BA), triglycerides, total/low density lipoprotein and high density lipoprotein cholesterol were measured at baseline and at the end of the study. Food consumption, stool frequency and body weight were recorded daily. RESULTS: Blood lipids, oxysterols and vitamin E were not affected by either thermal or tap water consumption. Fasting gallbladder volume was significantly (P < 0.005) smaller at the end of the study than at baseline in the TW (15.7 ± 1.1 mL vs 20.1 ± 1.7 mL) but not in the tap water group (19.0 ± 1.4 mL vs 19.4 ± 1.5 mL). Total serum BA concentration was significantly (P < 0.05) higher at the end of the study than at baseline in the TW (5.83 ± 1.24 μmol vs 4.25 ± 1.00 μmol) but not in the tap water group (3.41 ± 0.46 μmol vs 2.91 ± 0.56 μmol). The increased BA concentration after TW consumption was mainly accounted for by glycochenodeoxycholic acid. The number of pasta (P < 0.001), meat (P < 0.001) and vegetable (P < 0.005) portions consumed during the study and of bowel movements per day (P < 0.05) were significantly higher in the TW than in the tap water group. Body weight did not change at the end of the study as compared to baseline in both groups. CONCLUSION: Sulphate-bicarbonate-calcium water consumption has a positive effect on lithogenic risk and intestinal transit and allows maintenance of a stable body weight despite a high food intake. PMID:22408352

  9. Beneficial effects of icodextrin on plasma level of adipocytokines in peritoneal dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuya, Ryuichi; Odamaki, Mari; Kumagai, Hiromichi; Hishida, Akira

    2006-02-01

    Leptin and adiponectin, well-recognized adipocytokines, are reported to contribute to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effects of icodextrin-based dialysis solution on adipocytokine metabolism. In 12 non-diabetic anuric patients on peritoneal dialysis, dialysis solution was changed from glucose-based dialysis solution to icodextrin-based dialysis solution for 6 months. Plasma levels of leptin, adiponectin, lipids (total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and triglyceride), insulin, blood glucose and insulin sensitivity index by the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR) were compared before and after the use of the icodextrin solution. Plasma leptin level was decreased from 15.6 (2.5-69.0) to 7.3 (2.9-45.9) ng/ml (P = 0.018) and plasma adiponectin level increased from 11.6 (6.2-19.6) to 17.6 (7.8-33.0) microg/ml (P = 0.002). A reduction in plasma insulin level from 33.1 (13.8-54.1) to 19.1 (5.8-37.3) muU/ml (P = 0.009) and HOMA-IR from 8.22 (3.68-15.09) to 5.15 (1.40-13.78) (P = 0.015) was observed. While plasma total cholesterol level remained similar, HDL-cholesterol level increased, from 36.0 (22-45) to 43.5 (30-69) mg/dl (P = 0.008) and the triglyceride level decreased, from 174.0 (140-250) to 116.5 (81-207) mg/dl (P = 0.012). Icodextrin-based dialysis solution improves abnormal adipocytokine metabolism, dyslipidaemia and insulin resistance, which are known to be associated with atherosclerosis. These results suggest that the use of icodextrin-based dialysis solution might be useful in preventing atherosclerosis in PD patients. Long-term effects of icodextrin-based dialysis solution on the atherosclerosis in peritoneal dialysis patients should be tested.

  10. Dual beneficial effects of (--epigallocatechin-3-gallate on levodopa methylation and hippocampal neurodegeneration: in vitro and in vivo studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki Sung Kang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A combination of levodopa (L-DOPA and carbidopa is the most commonly-used treatment for symptom management in Parkinson's disease. Studies have shown that concomitant use of a COMT inhibitor is highly beneficial in controlling the wearing-off phenomenon by improving L-DOPA bioavailability as well as brain entry. The present study sought to determine whether (--epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG, a common tea polyphenol, can serve as a naturally-occurring COMT inhibitor that also possesses neuroprotective actions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using both in vitro and in vivo models, we investigated the modulating effects of EGCG on L-DOPA methylation as well as on chemically induced oxidative neuronal damage and degeneration. EGCG strongly inhibited human liver COMT-mediated O-methylation of L-DOPA in a concentration-dependent manner in vitro, with an average IC50 of 0.36 microM. Oral administration of EGCG moderately lowered the accumulation of 3-O-methyldopa in the plasma and striatum of rats treated with L-DOPA+carbidopa. In addition, EGCG also reduced glutamate-induced oxidative cytotoxicity in cultured HT22 mouse hippocampal neuronal cells through inactivation of the nuclear factor kappaB-signaling pathway. Under in vivo conditions, administration of EGCG exerted a strong protective effect against kainic acid-induced oxidative neuronal death in the hippocampus of rats. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These observations suggest that oral administration of EGCG may have significant beneficial effects in Parkinson's patients treated with L-DOPA and carbidopa by exerting a modest inhibition of L-DOPA methylation plus a strong neuroprotection against oxidative damage and degeneration.

  11. The Smn-independent beneficial effects of trichostatin A on an intermediate mouse model of spinal muscular atrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Liu

    Full Text Available Spinal muscular atrophy is an autosomal recessive neuromuscular disease characterized by the progressive loss of alpha motor neurons in the spinal cord. Trichostatin A (TSA is a histone deacetylase inhibitor with beneficial effects in spinal muscular atrophy mouse models that carry the human SMN2 transgene. It is currently unclear whether TSA specifically targets the SMN2 gene or whether other genes respond to TSA and in turn provide neuroprotection in SMA mice. We have taken advantage of the Smn2B/- mouse model that does not harbor the human SMN2 transgene, to test the hypothesis that TSA has its beneficial effects through a non-SMN mediated pathway. TSA increased the median lifespan of Smn2B/- mice from twenty days to eight weeks. As well, there was a significant attenuation of weight loss and improved motor behavior. Pen test and righting reflex both showed significant improvement, and motor neurons in the spinal cord of Smn2B/- mice were protected from degeneration. Both the size and maturity of neuromuscular junctions were significantly improved in TSA treated Smn2B/- mice. Of interest, TSA treatment did not increase the levels of Smn protein in mouse embryonic fibroblasts or myoblasts obtained from the Smn2B/- mice. In addition, no change in the level of Smn transcripts or protein in the brain or spinal cord of TSA-treated SMA model mice was observed. Furthermore, TSA did not increase Smn protein levels in the hind limb muscle, heart, or liver of Smn2B/- mice. We therefore conclude that TSA likely exerts its effects independent of the endogenous mouse Smn gene. As such, identification of the pathways regulated by TSA in the Smn2B/- mice could lead to the development of novel therapeutics for treating SMA.

  12. The Beneficial Effect of Hydrogen on CO Oxidation over Au Catalysts. A Computational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. W. Niemantsverdriet

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Density functional theory calculations have been carried out to explore the effect of hydrogen on the oxidation of CO in relation to the preferential oxidation of CO in the presence of excess hydrogen (PROX. A range of gold surfaces have been selected including the (100, stepped (310 surfaces and diatomic rows on the (100 surface. These diatomic rows on Au(100 are very efficient in H-H bond scission. O2 hydrogenation strongly enhances the surface-oxygen interaction and assists in scission of the O–O bond. The activation energy required to make the reaction intermediate hydroperoxy (OOH from O2 and H is small. However, we postulate its presence on our Au models as the result of diffusion from oxide supports to the gold surfaces. The OOH on Au in turn opens many low energy cost channels to produce H2O and CO2. CO is selectively oxidized in a H2 atmosphere due to the more favorable reaction barriers while the formation of adsorbed hydroperoxy enhances the reaction rate.

  13. Beneficial Effects of Aminoguanidine on Skin Flap Survival in Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse Ozturk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Random flaps in DM patients have poor reliability for wound coverage, and flap loss remains a complex challenge. The protective effects of aminoguanidine (AG administration on the survival of dorsal random flaps and oxidative stress were studied in diabetic rats. Two months after the onset of DM, dorsal McFarlane flaps were raised. Forty rats were divided into four groups: (1 control, (2 AG, (3 DM, and (4 DM + AG groups. Flap viability, determined with the planimetric method, and free-radical measurements were investigated. In addition, HbA1c and blood glucose levels, body weight measurements, and histopathological examinations were evaluated. The mean flap necrotic areas (% in Groups I to IV were 50.9 ± 13.0, 32.9 ± 12.5, 65.2 ± 11.5, and 43.5 ± 14.7, respectively. The malondialdehyde (MDA and nitric oxide (NO levels were higher in the DM group than in the nondiabetic group, while the reduced glutathione (GSH levels and superoxide dismutase (SOD activity were reduced as a result of flap injury. In the diabetic and nondiabetic groups, AG administration significantly reduced the MDA and NO levels and significantly increased GSH content and SOD enzyme activity. We concluded that AG plays an important role in preventing random pattern flap necrosis.

  14. Modification in the diet can induce beneficial effects against breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragón, Felix; Perdigón, Gabriela; de Moreno de LeBlanc, Alejandra

    2014-08-10

    The population tends to consume foods that in addition to their nutritional values can offer some benefits to their health. There are many epidemiological evidences and research studies in animal models suggesting that diet plays an important role in breast cancer prevention or progression. This review summarized some of the relevant researches about nutrition and cancer during the last years, especially in breast cancer. The analysis of probiotics and fermented products containing lactic acid bacteria in cancer prevention and/or treatment was especially discussed. It was observed that a balance of fatty acids similar to those of traditional Mediterranean diet, the consumption of fruits and vegetables, dietary fiber intake, vitamin supplementation are, along with the intake of probiotic products, the most extensively studied by the negative association to breast cancer risk. The consumption of probiotics and fermented products containing lactic acid bacteria was associated to reduce breast cancer risk in some epidemiological studies. The use of animal models showed the modulation of the host's immune response as one of the important effects associated to the benefices observed with most probiotics. However; future assays in human are very important before the medical community can accept the addition of probiotic or fermented milks containing lactic acid bacteria as supplements for cancer patients.

  15. "Beneficial effects of vitamin C and vitamin E on blood pressure in Hyperandrogenic women "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotoudeh G

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Hyperandrogenism affects 2-6% of all women. Hypertension is one of disturbances which is related to androgen excess. Higher intakes of vitamin C and vitamin E have been associated with lower blood pressure. Tho investigate the effect of these vitamin supplementation on blood pressure in hyperandrogenic women, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was designed on 56 women 18-54 years old. Women were randomly allocated to one of four treatment groups: spironolactone plus vitamain C and viamin E (SCE, spironolactone plus vitamins placebo (SP, vitamin C plus vitamin E (CE, vitamins placebo (P. The treatment consisted of oral administration of 100 mg spironolactone, 1000 mg vitamin C and 900 mg vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol acetate daily for about 3 months. Results indicated that compared to pretreatment, vitamins supplementation significantly lowered systolic (119.1±12.6 vs. 112.6±15.4 mmHg and mean blood pressure (97.4±11.5 vs. 92. ±12.1 mmHg SCE group (P<0.05, diastolic (87.3±12.7 vs. 80±12 mmHg and mean group (P<0.05. Blood levels of vitamin C and alpha-tocopherol increased in all SCE and CE subjects. In conclusion, vitamin C and vitamin E supplementation reduced blood pressure in hperandrogenic women who are at risk of hypertension.

  16. Diet modification and metformin have a beneficial effect in a fly model of obesity and mucormycosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirazi, Fazal; Farmakiotis, Dimitrios; Yan, Yuanqing; Albert, Nathaniel; Do, Kim-Anh; Kim-Anh, Do; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P

    2014-01-01

    In an experimental model of obesity and hyperglycemia in Drosophila melanogaster we studied the effect of diet modification and administration of metformin on systemic infection with Rhizopus, a common cause of mucormycosis in diabetic patients. Female Wt-type Drosophila flies were fed regular (RF) or high-fat diet (HFD; 30% coconut oil) food with or without metformin for 48 h and then injected with R. oryzae. Survival rates, glucose and triglyceride levels were compared between 1) normal-weight flies (RF), 2) obese flies (HFD), 3) obese flies fed with RF, 4) flies continuously fed on HFD + metformin, 5) flies fed on HFD + metformin, then transferred to RF, and 6) obese flies administered metformin after infection [corrected].Glucose levels were compared across groups of non-infected flies and across groups of infected flies. Survival was significantly decreased (P = 0.003) in obese flies, while post-infection glucose levels were significantly increased (P = 0.0001), compared to normal-weight flies. Diet and administration of metformin led to weight loss, normalized glucose levels during infection, and were associated with decreased mortality and tissue fungal burden. In conclusion, diet and metformin help control infection-associated hyperglycemia and improve survival in Drosophila flies with mucormycosis. Fly models of obesity bear intriguing similarities to the pathophysiology of insulin resistance and diabetes in humans, and can provide new insights into the pathogenesis and treatment of infections in obese and diabetic patients.

  17. Mechanisms of interleukin-22's beneficial effects in acutepancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a disorder characterizedby parenchymal injury of the pancreas controlled byimmune cell-mediated inflammation. AP remains asignificant challenge in the clinic due to a lack of specificand effective treatment. Knowledge of the complexmechanisms that regulate the inflammatory response inAP is needed for the development of new approachesto treatment, since immune cell-derived inflammatorycytokines have been recognized to play critical roles inthe pathogenesis of the disease. Recent studies haveshown that interleukin (IL)-22, a cytokine secreted byleukocytes, when applied in the severe animal modelsof AP, protects against the inflammation-mediatedacinar injury. In contrast, in a mild AP model, endogenousIL-22 has been found to be a predominantly antiinflammatorymediator that inhibits inflammatory cellinfiltration via the induction of Reg3 proteins in acinarcells, but does not protect against acinar injury in theearly stage of AP. However, constitutively over-expressedIL-22 can prevent the initial acinar injury caused byexcessive autophagy through the induction of the antiautophagicproteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL. Thus IL-22 playsdifferent roles in AP depending on the severity of the APmodel. This review focuses on these recently reportedfindings for the purpose of better understanding IL-22'sregulatory roles in AP which could help to develop anovel therapeutic strategy.

  18. Diet modification and metformin have a beneficial effect in a fly model of obesity and mucormycosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazal Shirazi

    Full Text Available In an experimental model of obesity and hyperglycemia in Drosophila melanogaster we studied the effect of diet modification and administration of metformin on systemic infection with Rhizopus, a common cause of mucormycosis in diabetic patients. Female Wt-type Drosophila flies were fed regular (RF or high-fat diet (HFD; 30% coconut oil food with or without metformin for 48 h and then injected with R. oryzae. Survival rates, glucose and triglyceride levels were compared between 1 normal-weight flies (RF, 2 obese flies (HFD, 3 obese flies fed with RF, 4 flies continuously fed on HFD + metformin, 5 flies fed on HFD + metformin, then transferred to RF, and 6 obese flies administered metformin after infection [corrected].Glucose levels were compared across groups of non-infected flies and across groups of infected flies. Survival was significantly decreased (P = 0.003 in obese flies, while post-infection glucose levels were significantly increased (P = 0.0001, compared to normal-weight flies. Diet and administration of metformin led to weight loss, normalized glucose levels during infection, and were associated with decreased mortality and tissue fungal burden. In conclusion, diet and metformin help control infection-associated hyperglycemia and improve survival in Drosophila flies with mucormycosis. Fly models of obesity bear intriguing similarities to the pathophysiology of insulin resistance and diabetes in humans, and can provide new insights into the pathogenesis and treatment of infections in obese and diabetic patients.

  19. Beneficial effects of melatonin on obesity and lipid profile in young Zucker diabetic fatty rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agil, Ahmad; Navarro-Alarcón, Miguel; Ruiz, Rosario; Abuhamadah, Sawsan; El-Mir, Mohamad-Yehia; Vázquez, Gumersindo Fernández

    2011-03-01

    The study objective was to investigate the effects of melatonin on obesity and obesity-associated systolic hypertension and dyslipidemia in young male Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats, an experimental model of the metabolic syndrome. ZDF rats (n=30) and lean littermates (ZL) (n=30) were used. At 6wk of age, both lean and fatty animals were subdivided into three groups (n=10): naive (N), vehicle-treated (V), and melatonin-treated (M) (10mg/kg/day) for 6wk. Vehicle and melatonin were added to the drinking water. Melatonin reduced mean weight gain (51±2/100g BW) versus N-ZDF group (58±3, Phypertriglyceridemia from 580±40 to 420.6±40.9mg/dL (PMelatonin raised high-density-lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol in ZDF (from 81.6±4.9 to 103.1±4.5mg/dL, Pmelatonin on overweight and lipid pattern of obese Zucker diabetic rats, supporting the proposition that melatonin administration may ameliorate overweight and lipid metabolism in humans. Because these benefits occurred in youth, before advanced metabolic and vascular complications, melatonin might help to prevent cardiovascular disease associated with obesity and dyslipidemia.

  20. Beneficial aerodynamic effect of wing scales on the climbing flight of butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slegers, Nathan; Heilman, Michael; Cranford, Jacob; Lang, Amy; Yoder, John; Habegger, Maria Laura

    2017-01-30

    It is hypothesized that butterfly wing scale geometry and surface patterning may function to improve aerodynamic efficiency. In order to investigate this hypothesis, a method to measure butterfly flapping kinematics optically over long uninhibited flapping sequences was developed. Statistical results for the climbing flight flapping kinematics of 11 butterflies, based on a total of 236 individual flights, both with and without their wing scales, are presented. Results show, that for each of the 11 butterflies, the mean climbing efficiency decreased after scales were removed. Data was reduced to a single set of differences of climbing efficiency using are paired t-test. Results show a mean decrease in climbing efficiency of 32.2% occurred with a 95% confidence interval of 45.6%-18.8%. Similar analysis showed that the flapping amplitude decreased by 7% while the flapping frequency did not show a significant difference. Results provide strong evidence that butterfly wing scale geometry and surface patterning improve butterfly climbing efficiency. The authors hypothesize that the wing scale's effect in measured climbing efficiency may be due to an improved aerodynamic efficiency of the butterfly and could similarly be used on flapping wing micro air vehicles to potentially achieve similar gains in efficiency.

  1. Beneficial health effects of lupeol triterpene: a review of preclinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddique, Hifzur Rahman; Saleem, Mohammad

    2011-02-14

    Since ancient times, natural products have been used as remedies to treat human diseases. Lupeol, a phytosterol and triterpene, is widely found in edible fruits, and vegetables. Extensive research over the last three decades has revealed several important pharmacological activities of lupeol. Various in vitro and preclinical animal studies suggest that lupeol has a potential to act as an anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, anti-protozoal, anti-proliferative, anti-invasive, anti-angiogenic and cholesterol lowering agent. Employing various in vitro and in vivo models, lupeol has also been tested for its therapeutic efficiency against conditions including wound healing, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, kidney disease, and arthritis. Lupeol has been found to be pharmacologically effective in treating various diseases under preclinical settings (in animal models) irrespective of varying routes of administration viz; topical, oral, intra-peritoneal and intravenous. It is noteworthy that lupeol has been reported to selectively target diseased and unhealthy human cells, while sparing normal and healthy cells. Published studies provide evidence that lupeol modulates the expression or activity of several molecules such as cytokines IL-2, IL4, IL5, ILβ, proteases, α-glucosidase, cFLIP, Bcl-2 and NFκB. This minireview discusses in detail the preclinical studies conducted with lupeol and provides an insight into its mechanisms of action.

  2. Beneficial effect of gamma irradiation on the N-deacetylation of chitin to form chitosan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahtat, Djamel; Uzun, Cengiz; Mahlous, Mohamed; Güven, Olgun

    2007-12-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation on the N-deacetylation of chitin to form chitosan was studied. Chitin from crab shells was irradiated up to 20 kGy and N-deacetylated in aqueous NaOH solution (40% and 60% w/w) at 60 and 100 °C for 60 min. The degree of N-deacetylation (DD) of non-irradiated and irradiated samples was determined by IR-band ratio method. It was found that higher extent of N-deacetylation was achieved for the chitin samples irradiated up to 20 kGy doses as compared to non-irradiated chitin. The DD values of chitin, prepared from non-irradiated and 20 kGy irradiated chitins by N-deacetylation at 60 °C with 40% NaOH for 60 min, were found to be 38% and 60%, respectively. The increase in DD by irradiation was interpreted as a result of reduction in molecular weight of chitin. Low dose irradiation of chitin has provided the possibility of its N-deacetylation into chitosan at much milder reaction conditions.

  3. Beneficial effect of gamma irradiation on the N-deacetylation of chitin to form chitosan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tahtat, Djamel [Algiers Nuclear Research Center, 2 Bd, Frantz Fanon BP 399 Alger-Gare, Algiers (Algeria); Uzun, Cengiz [Hacettepe University, Department of Chemistry, Beytepe, 06532 Ankara (Turkey)], E-mail: uzun@hacettepe.edu.tr; Mahlous, Mohamed [Algiers Nuclear Research Center, 2 Bd, Frantz Fanon BP 399 Alger-Gare, Algiers (Algeria); Gueven, Olgun [Hacettepe University, Department of Chemistry, Beytepe, 06532 Ankara (Turkey)

    2007-12-15

    The effect of gamma irradiation on the N-deacetylation of chitin to form chitosan was studied. Chitin from crab shells was irradiated up to 20 kGy and N-deacetylated in aqueous NaOH solution (40% and 60% w/w) at 60 and 100 deg. C for 60 min. The degree of N-deacetylation (DD) of non-irradiated and irradiated samples was determined by IR-band ratio method. It was found that higher extent of N-deacetylation was achieved for the chitin samples irradiated up to 20 kGy doses as compared to non-irradiated chitin. The DD values of chitin, prepared from non-irradiated and 20 kGy irradiated chitins by N-deacetylation at 60 deg. C with 40% NaOH for 60 min, were found to be 38% and 60%, respectively. The increase in DD by irradiation was interpreted as a result of reduction in molecular weight of chitin. Low dose irradiation of chitin has provided the possibility of its N-deacetylation into chitosan at much milder reaction conditions.

  4. Plant-Based and Plant-Rich Diet Patterns during Gestation: Beneficial Effects and Possible Shortcomings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistollato, Francesca; Sumalla Cano, Sandra; Elio, Iñaki; Masias Vergara, Manuel; Giampieri, Francesca; Battino, Maurizio

    2015-09-01

    Environmental and lifestyle factors are known to play an important role during gestation, determining newborns' health status and influencing their risk of being subject to certain noncommunicable diseases later in life. In particular, maternal nutritional patterns characterized by a low intake of plant-derived foods could increase the risk of gestation-related issues, such as preeclampsia and pregravid obesity, increase genotoxicant susceptibility, and contribute to the onset of pediatric diseases. In particular, the risk of pediatric wheeze, diabetes, neural tube defects, orofacial clefts, and some pediatric tumors seems to be reduced by maternal intake of adequate amounts of vegetables, fruits, and selected antioxidants. Nevertheless, plant-based diets, like any other diet, if improperly balanced, could be deficient in some specific nutrients that are particularly relevant during gestation, such as n-3 (ω-3) fatty acids, vitamin B-12, iron, zinc, and iodine, possibly affecting the offspring's health state. Here we review the scientific literature in this field, focusing specifically on observational studies in humans, and highlight protective effects elicited by maternal diets enriched in plant-derived foods and possible issues related to maternal plant-based diets. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  5. Metabolic remodeling agents show beneficial effects in the dystrophin-deficient mdx mouse model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahnke Vanessa E

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Duchenne muscular dystrophy is a genetic disease involving a severe muscle wasting that is characterized by cycles of muscle degeneration/regeneration and culminates in early death in affected boys. Mitochondria are presumed to be involved in the regulation of myoblast proliferation/differentiation; enhancing mitochondrial activity with exercise mimetics (AMPK and PPAR-delta agonists increases muscle function and inhibits muscle wasting in healthy mice. We therefore asked whether metabolic remodeling agents that increase mitochondrial activity would improve muscle function in mdx mice. Methods Twelve-week-old mdx mice were treated with two different metabolic remodeling agents (GW501516 and AICAR, separately or in combination, for 4 weeks. Extensive systematic behavioral, functional, histological, biochemical, and molecular tests were conducted to assess the drug(s' effects. Results We found a gain in body and muscle weight in all treated mice. Histologic examination showed a decrease in muscle inflammation and in the number of fibers with central nuclei and an increase in fibers with peripheral nuclei, with significantly fewer activated satellite cells and regenerating fibers. Together with an inhibition of FoXO1 signaling, these results indicated that the treatments reduced ongoing muscle damage. Conclusions The three treatments produced significant improvements in disease phenotype, including an increase in overall behavioral activity and significant gains in forelimb and hind limb strength. Our findings suggest that triggering mitochondrial activity with exercise mimetics improves muscle function in dystrophin-deficient mdx mice.

  6. The beneficial effect of repaglinide on in vitro maturation and development ability of immature mouse oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalehoei, Eshrat; Azadbakht, Mehri

    2017-08-01

    Repaglinide is a hypoglycemic drug, causing depolarization of the cell membrane, opening the voltage-gated calcium channels, and then increasing intracellular calcium in the pancreatic B cells by inhibition of the K-ATP-sensitive channels. Oocyte in vitro maturation (IVM) is influenced by different factors such as calcium signaling. In this study, we examined the effects of repaglinide on in vitro maturation and fertilization ability of mouse oocyte. Immature oocytes were isolated from female Naval Medical Research Institute mice which are 6-8 wk old mechanically and then cultured in 30 μl droplets of T6 medium with different concentrations of repaglinide. The control group did not receive repaglinide (R0). Treatment groups received different concentrations (5, 10, and 100 nM and 1 and 10 μM) of repaglinide (R1, R2, R3, R4, and R5, respectively). Oocyte in vitro maturation rate was assessed after 24 h. In vitro fertilization was performed using metaphase II oocytes obtained from R0 and R4 treatments. Embryo cleavage rate was calculated at 48 h post-IVF. Chi-square test was used for evaluating difference between control and treatment groups (p vitro oocyte maturation and embryo cleavage.

  7. Beneficial effect of pine honey on trichlorfon induced some biochemical alterations in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eraslan, Gökhan; Kanbur, Murat; Silici, Sibel; Karabacak, Mürsel

    2010-07-01

    Forty-eight male BALB/c mice, weighing 30-35 g, were used in the study, and were divided into groups of 12 each. The four groups established in the study included one control group and three experimental groups. The first group served as the control group, while Groups 2, 3 and 4 were administered 1g/kg bw/day pine honey, 180 mg/kg bw/day trichlorfon ( approximately 1/5LD(50)) and 1g/kg bw/day pine honey plus 180 mg/kg bw/day trichlorfon, respectively, by the oral route using a catheter for 21 days. At the end of 21 days post-administration, blood and tissue (liver, kidney, brain and heart) samples were collected. Serum levels/activities of total protein, albumin, glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, BUN, creatine, uric acid, magnesium, sodium, potassium, chloride, total bilirubin, GGT, LDH, AST, ALT and ALP were determined. Furthermore, tissue MDA levels and CAT, SOD and GSH-Px activities were analyzed. According to the data obtained, when administered at the indicated dose and for the indicated time period, trichlorfon was determined to lead to negative alterations in most of the biochemical parameters investigated. The administration of pine honey was determined to alleviate this effect.

  8. Beneficial effects of phytoestrogens and their metabolites produced by intestinal microflora on bone health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Shen-Shih; Pan, Tzu-Ming

    2013-02-01

    Phytoestrogens are a class of bioactive compounds derived from plants and exert various estrogenic and antiestrogenic effects. Estrogen deficiency osteoporosis has become a serious problem in elderly women. The use of ovariectomized (OVX) rat or mice models to simulate the postmenopausal condition is well established. This review aimed to clarify the sources, biochemistry, absorption, metabolism, and mode of action of phytoestrogens on bone health in intervention studies. In vitro, phytoestrogens promote protein synthesis, osteoprotegerin/receptor activation of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand ratio, and mineralization by osteoblast-like cells (MC3T3-E1). In the OVX murine model, administration of phytoestrogens can inhibit differentiation and activation of osteoclasts, expression of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, and secretion of pyridinoline compound. Phytoestrogens also enhance bone formation and increase bone mineral density and levels of alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, osteopontin, and α1(I) collagen. Results of mechanistic studies have indicated that phytoestrogens suppress the rate of bone resorption and enhance the rate of bone formation.

  9. Multiple Beneficial Health Effects of Natural Alkylglycerols from Shark Liver Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain B. Legrand

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Alkylglycerols (alkyl-Gro are ether lipids abundant in the liver of some elasmobranch fish species such as ratfishes and some sharks. Shark liver oil from Centrophorus squamosus (SLO, or alkyl-Gro mix from this source, have several in vivo biological activities including stimulation of hematopoiesis and immunological defences, sperm quality improvement, or anti-tumor and anti-metastasis activities. Several mechanisms are suggested for these multiple activities, resulting from incorporation of alkyl-Gro into membrane phospholipids, and lipid signaling interactions. Natural alkyl-Gro mix from SLO contains several alkyl-Gro, varying by chain length and unsaturation. Six prominent constituents of natural alkyl-Gro mix, namely 12:0, 14:0, 16:0, 18:0, 16:1 n-7, and 18:1 n-9 alkyl-Gro, were synthesized and tested for anti-tumor and anti-metastatic activities on a model of grafted tumor in mice (3LL cells. 16:1 and 18:1 alkyl-Gro showed strong activity in reducing lung metastasis number, while saturated alkyl-Gro had weaker (16:0 or no (12:0, 14:0, 18:0 effect. Multiple compounds and mechanisms are probably involved in the multiple activities of natural alkyl-Gro.

  10. The beneficial effects of rehabilitation on hand function in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Księżopolska-Orłowska, Krystyna; Kasprzak, Katarzyna; Gaszewska, Ewa; Rodkiewicz-Bogusławska, Agnieszka; Sokołowska, Beata

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The hand is one of the main elements of the rehabilitation of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) due to deformities, which occur in approximately 90% of patients. It is a serious problem, both in the psychological and functional aspect, connected with muscle strength reduction, a limited range of motion and non-acceptance of the changes in the shape of the limb. The study aimed to assess the effect of rehabilitation on the function of the hand in rheumatoid arthritis. Material and methods The study group consisted of 40 women with RA. The patients had been previously treated at the Rehabilitation Department of the National Institute of Geriatrics, Rheumatology and Rehabilitation in Warsaw. The study group underwent 3 weeks of rehabilitation involving individual therapy, exercises with equipment, patient education and physical therapy. The control group included women without a diagnosis of RA, hands pain-free and fully mobile. In both groups the hand was assessed for grip value, grip quality and manipulative ability. In the study group the basis of pain intensity was noted. The measurements were performed twice – prior to the rehabilitation and after 3 weeks of rehabilitation in women with RA and once in women without hand problems. Results The results obtained revealed marked limitation of hand function in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. The treatment resulted in an improvement of all assessed parameters except cylindrical grip, in which only a part of the findings was statistically significant. Conclusions The analysis of the study material showed that appropriately adjusted and conducted hand physiotherapy in women with rheumatoid arthritis contributed to the improvement of its function by pain reduction, improved value and quality of grip, and also increased manipulative ability. PMID:28115778

  11. The beneficial effects of dapagliflozin on the course of experimental urate nephrolithiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Yu. Perfil’ev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study. Rate dapagliflozin effective in the prevention and treatment of experimental urate nephropathy.Мaterials and methods. The study was conducted on 30 male rats Wistar stock weighing 220–310 g. For the formation of urate nephropathy in rats using reproduced earlier classic model inhibiting uricase, causing the development of hyperuricemia in rodents. The animal was determined daily urine content MC, total proteins, creatinine, and enzyme activity of renal dysfunction markers LDH, gamma-glutamyl and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase. After the experiment the rat blood obtained after decapitation determined content MC, creatinine, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, reduced glutathione, thiobarbiturate-reactive products, total antioxidant activity and a common pro-oxidant activity. In the kidneys of rats was determined by the same parameters of free radical oxidation.Results. It was found that prolonged use of dapagliflozin in the prophylactic and therapeutic regimes, despite a decline in urinary pH, significantly improves the condition of animals with experimental urate nephrolithiasis, as evidenced by a significant decrease in the level of uric acid in blood plasma and urine of rats, a decrease in LDH activity in urine and inhibition process is free -radical oxidation.Сonclusion. Prolonged use of dapagliflozin in the prophylactic and therapeutic regimes, despite a decline urine pH, improved the urate nephrolithiasis, as evidenced by a significant decrease in the level of uric acid in blood plasma and urine of rats, decreased activity of LDH in urine and inhibition of the process of free-radical oxidation. 

  12. The beneficial effects of rehabilitation on hand function in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Księżopolska-Orłowska

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The hand is one of the main elements of the rehabilitation of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA due to deformities, which occur in approximately 90% of patients. It is a serious problem, both in the psychological and functional aspect, connected with muscle strength reduction, a limited range of motion and non-acceptance of the changes in the shape of the limb. The study aimed to assess the effect of rehabilitation on the function of the hand in rheumatoid arthritis. Material and methods: The study group consisted of 40 women with RA. The patients had been previously treated at the Rehabilitation Department of the National Institute of Geriatrics, Rheumatology and Rehabilitation in Warsaw. The study group underwent 3 weeks of rehabilitation involving individual therapy, exercises with equipment, patient education and physical therapy. The control group included women without a diagnosis of RA, hands pain-free and fully mobile. In both groups the hand was assessed for grip value, grip quality and manipulative ability. In the study group the basis of pain intensity was noted. The measurements were performed twice – prior to the rehabilitation and after 3 weeks of rehabilitation in women with RA and once in women without hand problems. Results : The results obtained revealed marked limitation of hand function in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. The treatment resulted in an improvement of all assessed parameters except cylindrical grip, in which only a part of the findings was statistically significant. Conclusions : The analysis of the study material showed that appropriately adjusted and conducted hand physiotherapy in women with rheumatoid arthritis contributed to the improvement of its function by pain reduction, improved value and quality of grip, and also increased manipulative ability.

  13. The beneficial effect of suramin on monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Izikki

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pulmonary hypertension (PH is a progressive disorder characterized by an increase in pulmonary artery pressure and structural changes in the pulmonary vasculature. Several observations indicate that growth factors play a key role in PH by modulating pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell (PA-SMC function. In rats, established monocrotaline-induced PH (MCT-PH can be reversed by blocking platelet-derived growth factor receptors (PDGF-R, epidermal growth factor receptors (EGF-R, or fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGF-R. All these receptors belong to the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK family. METHODS AND RESULTS: We evaluated whether RTK blockade by the nonspecific growth factor inhibitor, suramin, reversed advanced MCT-PH in rats via its effects on growth-factor signaling pathways. We found that suramin inhibited RTK and ERK1/2 phosphorylation in cultured human PA-SMCs. Suramin inhibited PA-SMC proliferation induced by serum, PDGF, FGF2, or EGF in vitro and ex vivo. Treatment with suramin from day 1 to day 21 after monocrotaline injection attenuated PH development, as shown by lower values for pulmonary artery pressure, right ventricular hypertrophy, and distal vessel muscularization on day 21 compared to control rats. Treatment with suramin from day 21 to day 42 after monocrotaline injection reversed established PH, thereby normalizing the pulmonary artery pressure values and vessel structure. Suramin treatment suppressed PA-SMC proliferation and attenuated both the inflammatory response and the deposition of collagen. CONCLUSIONS: RTK blockade by suramin can prevent MCT-PH and reverse established MCT-PH in rats. This study suggests that an anti-RTK strategy that targets multiple RTKs could be useful in the treatment of pulmonary hypertension.

  14. Beneficial effects of previous exercise training on renal changes in streptozotocin-induced diabetic female rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Liliany S de Brito; Silva, Fernanda A; Correia, Vicente B; Andrade, Clara EF; Dutra, Bárbara A; Oliveira, Márcio V; de Magalhães, Amélia CM; Volpini, Rildo A; Seguro, Antonio C; Coimbra, Terezila M

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of aerobic exercise performed both previously and after the induction of diabetes mellitus on changes of renal function and structure in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Female wistar rats were divided into five groups: sedentary control (C + Se); trained control (C + Ex); sedentary diabetic (D + Se); trained diabetic (D + Ex) and previously trained diabetic (D + PEx). The previous exercise consisted of treadmill running for four weeks before the induction of diabetes mellitus. After induction of diabetes mellitus with streptozotocin, the D + PEx, D + Ex and C + Ex groups were submitted to eight weeks of aerobic exercise. At the end of the training protocol, we evaluate the serum glucose, insulin and 17β-estradiol levels, renal function and structure, proteinuria, and fibronectin, collagen IV and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) renal expressions. Induction of diabetes mellitus reduced the insulin and did not alter 17β-estradiol levels, and exercise did not affect any of these parameters. Previous exercise training attenuated the loss of body weight, the blood glucose, the increase of glomerular filtration rate and prevented the proteinuria in the D + PEx group compared to D + Se group. Previous exercise also reduced glomerular hypertrophy, tubular and glomerular injury, as well as the expressions of fibronectin and collagen IV. These expressions were associated with reduced expression of TGF-β1. In conclusion, our study shows that regular aerobic exercise especially performed previously to induction of diabetes mellitus improved metabolic control and has renoprotective action on the diabetic kidney. PMID:26490345

  15. Beneficial effects of acute inhibition of the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway in the failing heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vimercati, Claudio; Qanud, Khaled; Mitacchione, Gianfranco; Sosnowska, Danuta; Ungvari, Zoltan; Sarnari, Roberto; Mania, Daniella; Patel, Neel; Hintze, Thomas H; Gupte, Sachin A; Stanley, William C; Recchia, Fabio A

    2014-03-01

    In vitro studies suggested that glucose metabolism through the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway (oxPPP) can paradoxically feed superoxide-generating enzymes in failing hearts. We therefore tested the hypothesis that acute inhibition of the oxPPP reduces oxidative stress and enhances function and metabolism of the failing heart, in vivo. In 10 chronically instrumented dogs, congestive heart failure (HF) was induced by high-frequency cardiac pacing. Myocardial glucose consumption was enhanced by raising arterial glycemia to levels mimicking postprandial peaks, before and after intravenous administration of the oxPPP inhibitor 6-aminonicotinamide (80 mg/kg). Myocardial energy substrate metabolism was measured with radiolabeled glucose and oleic acid, and cardiac 8-isoprostane output was used as an index of oxidative stress. A group of five chronically instrumented, normal dogs served as control. In HF, raising glycemic levels from ∼ 80 to ∼ 170 mg/dL increased cardiac isoprostane output by approximately twofold, whereas oxPPP inhibition normalized oxidative stress and enhanced cardiac oxygen consumption, glucose oxidation, and stroke work. In normal hearts glucose infusion did not induce significant changes in cardiac oxidative stress. Myocardial tissue concentration of 6P-gluconate, an intermediate metabolite of the oxPPP, was significantly reduced by ∼ 50% in treated versus nontreated failing hearts, supporting the inhibitory effect of 6-aminonicotinamide. Our study indicates an important contribution of the oxPPP activity to cardiac oxidative stress in HF, which is particularly pronounced during common physiological changes such as postprandial glycemic peaks.

  16. Beneficial effect of chromium-rich yeast on glucose tolerance and blood lipids in elderly subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offenbacher, E G; Pi-Sunyer, F X

    1980-11-01

    Twenty-four volunteers, mean age 78, including eight mildly non-insulin-dependent diabetics, were randomly allocated to one of two groups and were fed (daily for 8 wk) 9 g of either chromium-rich brewers' yeast (experimental) or chromium-poor torula yeast (control). Before and after yeast supplementation, the serum glucose and insulin response to 100 g oral glucose was measured at 30 min intervals for 2 h. Fasting serum cholesterol, total lipids, and triglycerides were also determined. In the total experimental group (normals + diabetics) and in both the diabetic and nondiabetic experimental subgroups, glucose tolerance improved significantly and insulin output decreased after supplementation. Cholesterol and total lipids fell significantly after supplementation in the total experimental group. The cholesterol decrease was particularly marked in hypercholesterolemic subjects (cholesterol > 300 mg/dl). In the control group, no significant change in glucose tolerance, insulin, triglycerides, or total lipids was found. Cholesterol was significantly lowered in the nondiabetic but not in the diabetic group. Thus, chromium-rich brewers' yeast improved glucose tolerance and total lipids in elderly subjects, while chromium-poor torula yeast did not. An improvement in insulin sensitivity also occurred with brewers' yeast supplementation. This supports the thesis that elderly people may have a low level of chromium and that an effective source for chromium repletion, such as brewers' yeast, may improve their carbohydrate tolerance and total lipids. The improvement in serum cholesterol in some control subjects, as well as in the total experimental group, also suggests the presence of a hypocholesterolemic factor other than chromium in both brewers' and torula yeast.

  17. Chronic treatment with atrial natriuretic peptide in spontaneously hypertensive rats: beneficial renal effects and sex differences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Romero

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of chronic treatment with atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP on renal function, nitric oxide (NO system, oxidative stress, collagen content and apoptosis in kidneys of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR, as well as sex-related differences in the response to the treatment. METHODS: 10 week-old male and female SHR were infused with ANP (100 ng/h/rat or saline (NaCl 0.9% for 14 days (subcutaneous osmotic pumps. Systolic blood pressure (SBP was recorded and diuresis and natriuresis were determined. After treatment, renal NO synthase (NOS activity and eNOS expression were evaluated. Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS, glutathione concentration and glutathione peroxidase (GPx and superoxide dismutase (SOD activities were determined in the kidney. Collagen was identified in renal slices by Sirius red staining and apoptosis by Tunel assay. RESULTS: Female SHR showed lower SBP, oxidative stress, collagen content and apoptosis in kidney, and higher renal NOS activity and eNOS protein content, than males. ANP lowered SBP, increased diuresis, natriuresis, renal NOS activity and eNOS expression in both sexes. Renal response to ANP was more marked in females than in males. In kidney, ANP reduced TBARS, renal collagen content and apoptosis, and increased glutathione concentration and activity of GPx and SOD enzymes in both sexes. CONCLUSIONS: Female SHR exhibited less organ damage than males. Chronic ANP treatment would ameliorate hypertension and end-organ damage in the kidney by reducing oxidative stress, increasing NO-system activity, and diminishing collagen content and apoptosis, in both sexes.

  18. Beneficial effects of Plantago albicans on high-fat diet-induced obesity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samout, Noura; Ettaya, Amani; Bouzenna, Hafsia; Ncib, Sana; Elfeki, Abdelfattah; Hfaiedh, Najla

    2016-12-01

    Obesity is a one of the main global public health problems associated with chronic diseases such as coronary heart disease, diabetes and cancer. As a solution to obesity, we suggest Plantago albicans, which is a medicinal plant with several biological effects. This study assesses the possible anti-obesity protective properties of Plantago albicans in high fat diet-fed rats. 28 male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups; a group which received normal diet (C), the second group was fed HDF diet (HDF), the third group was given normal diet supplemented with Plantago albicans (P.AL), and the fourth group received HDF supplemented with Plantago albicans (HDF+P.AL) (30mg/kg/day) for 7 weeks. Our results showed an increase in body weight of HDF rats by ∼16% as compared to the control group with an increase in the levels of total cholesterol (TC) as well as LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides (TG) in serum. Also, the concentration of TBARS increased in the liver and heart of HDF-fed rats as compared to the control group. The oral gavage of Plantago albicans extract to obese rats induced a reduction in their body weight, lipid accumulation in liver and heart tissue, compared to the high-fat diet control rats. The obtained results proved that the antioxidant potency of Plantago albicans extracts was correlated with their phenolic and flavonoid contents. The antioxidant capacity of the extract was evaluated by DPPH test (as EC50=250±2.12μg/mL) and FRAP tests (as EC50=27.77±0.14μg/mL). These results confirm the phytochemical and antioxidant impact of Plantago albicans extracts. Plantago albicans content was determined using validated HPLC methodology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. The Beneficial Effect of Suramin on Monocrotaline-Induced Pulmonary Hypertension in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izikki, Mohamed; Mercier, Olaf; Lecerf, Florence; Lubert Guin, Lauriane; Hoang, Eric; Dorfmüller, Peter; Perros, Frédéric; Humbert, Marc; Simonneau, Gerald; Dartevelle, Philippe; Fadel, Elie; Eddahibi, Saadia

    2013-01-01

    Background Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a progressive disorder characterized by an increase in pulmonary artery pressure and structural changes in the pulmonary vasculature. Several observations indicate that growth factors play a key role in PH by modulating pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell (PA-SMC) function. In rats, established monocrotaline-induced PH (MCT-PH) can be reversed by blocking platelet-derived growth factor receptors (PDGF-R), epidermal growth factor receptors (EGF-R), or fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGF-R). All these receptors belong to the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) family. Methods and Results We evaluated whether RTK blockade by the nonspecific growth factor inhibitor, suramin, reversed advanced MCT-PH in rats via its effects on growth-factor signaling pathways. We found that suramin inhibited RTK and ERK1/2 phosphorylation in cultured human PA-SMCs. Suramin inhibited PA-SMC proliferation induced by serum, PDGF, FGF2, or EGF in vitro and ex vivo. Treatment with suramin from day 1 to day 21 after monocrotaline injection attenuated PH development, as shown by lower values for pulmonary artery pressure, right ventricular hypertrophy, and distal vessel muscularization on day 21 compared to control rats. Treatment with suramin from day 21 to day 42 after monocrotaline injection reversed established PH, thereby normalizing the pulmonary artery pressure values and vessel structure. Suramin treatment suppressed PA-SMC proliferation and attenuated both the inflammatory response and the deposition of collagen. Conclusions RTK blockade by suramin can prevent MCT-PH and reverse established MCT-PH in rats. This study suggests that an anti-RTK strategy that targets multiple RTKs could be useful in the treatment of pulmonary hypertension. PMID:24143201

  20. Beneficial Effect of Moderate Exercise in Kidney of Rat after Chronic Consumption of Cola Drinks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Cao

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of moderate intensity exercise on kidney in an animal model of high consumption of cola soft drinks.Forty-eight Wistar Kyoto rats (age: 16 weeks; weight: 350-400 g were assigned to the following groups: WR (water runners drank water and submitted to aerobic exercise; CR (cola runners drank cola and submitted to aerobic exercise; WS (water sedentary and CS (cola sedentary, not exercised groups. The aerobic exercise was performed for 5 days per week throughout the study (24 weeks and the exercise intensity was gradually increased during the first 8 weeks until it reached 20 meters / minute for 30 minutes. Body weight, lipid profile, glycemia, plasma creatinine levels, atherogenic index of plasma (AIP and systolic blood pressure (SBP were determined. After 6 months all rats were sacrificed. A kidney histopathological score was obtained using a semiquantitative scale. Glomerular size and glomerulosclerosis were estimated by point-counting. The oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory status were explored by immunohistochemistry. A one way analysis of variance (ANOVA with Tukey-Kramer post-hoc test or the Kruskal-Wallis test with Dunn's post-hoc test was used for statistics. A value of p < 0.05 was considered significant.At 6 months, an increased consumption of cola soft drink was shown in CS and CR compared with water consumers (p<0.0001. Chronic cola consumption was associated with increased plasma triglycerides, AIP, heart rate, histopathological score, glomerulosclerosis, oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory status. On the other hand, moderate exercise prevented these findings. No difference was observed in the body weight, SBP, glycemia, cholesterol and plasma creatinine levels across experimental groups.This study warns about the consequences of chronic consumption of cola drinks on lipid metabolism, especially regarding renal health. Additionally, these findings emphasize the protective

  1. Beneficial Effects on Pregnancy Outcomes of Thyroid Hormone Replacement for Subclinical Hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman J. Blumenthal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hypothyroidism and raised thyroid antibody levels have been associated with adverse obstetrical outcomes. Several studies have investigated causal associations, but results have been inconsistent and few studies have reported the effects of thyroxine replacement therapy on pregnancy outcomes in hypothyroid patients. Objective. The primary study objective was to determine the outcome of pregnancies in women diagnosed with overt and subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH (serum TSH > 2.5 mIU/L and those with elevated circulating thyroid autoantibody levels in the first trimester of pregnancy and after the institution of appropriate thyroxine replacement therapy to maintain the serum TSH ≤ 2.5 mIU/L. Study Design. This prospective observational study was undertaken between 2013 and 2016. Blood samples were taken from 1025 women at presentation for thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH, anti-thyroglobulin antibodies (TGAb, and thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAb. Those with a TSH > 2.5 mIU/L were treated with thyroxine and managed appropriately to ensure that the TSH was maintained ≤2.5 mIU/L. Outcomes in these patients were compared to those in euthyroid patients. Maternal antenatal complications and perinatal outcomes were recorded. Results. There were a total of 1025 patients of whom 382 (37.5% were nulliparous. 10.1% had a TSH level > 2.5 mIU/L and 18.2% had at least one raised thyroid antibody level. No differences in adverse outcomes of pregnancy were evident in women treated for SCH or overt hypothyroidism compared to the euthyroid group. There was also no association between raised thyroid antibodies and adverse pregnancy outcomes in either group. Conclusion. There were no adverse outcomes of pregnancy found in pregnant women who had been diagnosed and treated with thyroxine for SCH at the time of presentation when compared to euthyroid patients. There was also no relationship with thyroid antibodies and adverse pregnancy

  2. Beneficial Effects on Pregnancy Outcomes of Thyroid Hormone Replacement for Subclinical Hypothyroidism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastman, Creswell J.

    2017-01-01

    Background. Hypothyroidism and raised thyroid antibody levels have been associated with adverse obstetrical outcomes. Several studies have investigated causal associations, but results have been inconsistent and few studies have reported the effects of thyroxine replacement therapy on pregnancy outcomes in hypothyroid patients. Objective. The primary study objective was to determine the outcome of pregnancies in women diagnosed with overt and subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) (serum TSH > 2.5 mIU/L) and those with elevated circulating thyroid autoantibody levels in the first trimester of pregnancy and after the institution of appropriate thyroxine replacement therapy to maintain the serum TSH ≤ 2.5 mIU/L. Study Design. This prospective observational study was undertaken between 2013 and 2016. Blood samples were taken from 1025 women at presentation for thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), anti-thyroglobulin antibodies (TGAb), and thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAb). Those with a TSH > 2.5 mIU/L were treated with thyroxine and managed appropriately to ensure that the TSH was maintained ≤2.5 mIU/L. Outcomes in these patients were compared to those in euthyroid patients. Maternal antenatal complications and perinatal outcomes were recorded. Results. There were a total of 1025 patients of whom 382 (37.5%) were nulliparous. 10.1% had a TSH level > 2.5 mIU/L and 18.2% had at least one raised thyroid antibody level. No differences in adverse outcomes of pregnancy were evident in women treated for SCH or overt hypothyroidism compared to the euthyroid group. There was also no association between raised thyroid antibodies and adverse pregnancy outcomes in either group. Conclusion. There were no adverse outcomes of pregnancy found in pregnant women who had been diagnosed and treated with thyroxine for SCH at the time of presentation when compared to euthyroid patients. There was also no relationship with thyroid antibodies and adverse pregnancy outcomes in the

  3. Beneficial effect of Citrus limon peel aqueous methanol extract on experimentally induced urolithic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridharan, Badrinathan; Michael, Shiju T; Arya, Ramachandran; Mohana Roopan, Selvaraj; Ganesh, Rajesh N; Viswanathan, Pragasam

    2016-01-01

    Citrus limon (L.) Burm.f. (Rutaceace) is a commonly available fruit variety with high medicinal and industrial values. Lemon peel (LP) extract was studied as a potent preventive and curative agent for experimentally induced hyperoxaluric rats. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses and toxicity study were performed for aqueous methanol LP extract. Twenty-four Wistar rats were segregated into four groups. Group 1: Control; Group 2: Urolithic (ethylene glycol (EG) - 0.75%); Group 3: Preventive study (EG + LP extract administration from 0th to 7th week); Group 4: Curative study (EG + LP extract administration from 4th to 7th week). Animals received LP extract daily by oral administration (100 mg/kg body weight) for 7 weeks. GC-MS analyses revealed that compound 6 was abundant in the LP extract (32%) followed by compound 1 (∼21%). The LD50 value of LP extract was found to be >5000 mg/kg of body weight. Urolithic rats showed significantly higher urinary calcium and oxalate (4.47 ± 0.44 and 18.86 ± 0.55 mg/24 h, respectively) excretion compared with control and experimental rats. Renal function parameters like urea (84 ± 8.5 and 96.1 ± 3.6 mg/dL), creatinine (1.92 ± 0.27 and 1.52 ± 0.22 mg/dL), and urinary protein (2.03 ± 0.02 and 2.13 ± 0.16 mg/24 h) were also reduced by LP extract (p < 0.001) and corroborated with tissue analyses (SOD, catalase, and MDA levels) and histological studies in normal and experimental animals. Immunohistochemical staining of THP and NF-κB in urolithic animals showed elevated expression than the control, while LP extract suppressed the expression of these proteins. In conclusion, lemon peel is effective in curing kidney stone disease and also can be used to prevent the disease and its recurrence.

  4. The Beneficial Effects of Renal Transplantation on Altered Oxidative Status of ESRD Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerrillos-Gutiérrez, José Ignacio; Preciado-Rojas, Priscila; Gómez-Navarro, Benjamín; Sifuentes-Franco, Sonia; Carrillo-Ibarra, Sandra; Andrade-Sierra, Jorge; Rojas-Campos, Enrique; Cueto-Manzano, Alfonso Martín

    2016-01-01

    Renal transplantation (RT), has been considered the best therapeutic option for end stage renal disease (ESRD). Objective. To determine the effect of RT on the evolution of oxidative DNA status. Methods. Prospective cohort (N = 50 receptors of RT); genotoxic damage, 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), and DNA repair enzyme, human 8-oxoguanine-DNA-N- glycosylase-1 (hOGG1); and antioxidants, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), were evaluated. Results. Before RT, 8-OHdG were significantly elevated (11.04 ± 0.90 versus 4.73 ± 0.34 ng/mL) compared to healthy controls (p = 0.001), with normalization after 6 months of 4.78 ± 0.34 ng/mL (p < 0.001). The same phenomenon was observed with hOGG1 enzyme before RT with 2.14 ± 0.36 ng/mL (p = 0.01) and decreased significantly at the end of the study to 1.20 ng/mL (p < 0.001) but was higher than controls, 0.51 ± 0.07 ng/mL (p < 0.03). Antioxidant SOD was elevated at 24.09 ± 1.6 IU/mL versus healthy controls (p = 0.001) before RT; however, 6 months after RT it decreased significantly to 16.9 ± 1.6 IU/mL (p = 0.002), without achieving the levels of healthy controls (p = 0.01). The GPx, before RT, was significantly diminished with 24.09 ± 1.6 IU/mL versus healthy controls (39.0 ± 1.58) (p = 0.01), while, in the final results, levels increased significantly to 30.38 ± 3.16 IU/mL (p = 0.001). Discussion. Patients with ESRD have important oxidative damage before RT. The RT significantly reduces oxidative damage and partially regulates the antioxidant enzymes (SOD and GPx). PMID:27547292

  5. A Simple Apparatus to Demonstrate the Peltier Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougal, R. C.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the Peltier, or thermoelectric effect, which provides a way of cooling a system by coupling it thermally to the junction of two materials suitably chosen, shaped, and connected to a d.c. current. Describes an apparatus which simply and inexpensively demonstrates this effect. (MLH)

  6. Nutritional Proteomics: Investigating molecular mechanisms underlying the health beneficial effect of functional foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Kawashima

    2013-07-01

    illustrate that the dietary influence of omega-3 and omega-6 on protein expression is eminent with the proteins directly responsible for catalytic activity in the “Molecular Function” category, totaling 192 proteins, of Gene Ontology designation. In a similar analysis with regard to the “Cellular Localization” category, protein expression changed the most in the sub-categories of “Cytoplasm”, “Membrane”, “Nucleus”, and “Mitochondrion”, totaling 221 proteins. The same analysis with regard to “Biological Process”considering the top four categories, i.e., “Metabolic process”, “Regulation of biological (process”, “Response to stimulus”, and “Transport” also indicated significant alteration of 182 proteins. These results illustrate a robust influence of dietary elements, omega-3 or omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, on the protein expression in mouse liver.Conclusions: Application of nutritional proteomics to the dietary effect of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids compared to that of omega-6 on mouse liver revealed; 1 significant number of proteins are altered between the two diets dependent on the classes of polyunsaturated fatty acids, omega-3 or omega-6, in the diet. The change of protein expression is likely to carry the molecular information that we could possibly decipher, leading to a better understanding of the role of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in inflammatory/anti-inflammatory process. The results corroborate the concept and utility of nutritional proteomics that should be developed as a part of functional food studies with regard to other dietary types.Keywords: Nutritional proteomics, functional foods, mass spectrometry, genome database, cellular signaling, omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids

  7. The Mechanism of the Beneficial Effect of Botulinum Toxin Type a Used in the Treatment of Temporomandibular Joints Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malgorzata, Pihut; Piotr, Ceranowicz; Edward, Kijak

    2017-01-01

    In the course of temporomandibular joint, dysfunctions very often occur to the excessive increase in tension of masticatory muscles, so the main aim of the treatment is reduction of this hypertension of muscles. For this reason, we use botulinum toxin type A, which is produced by Grampositive Clostridium bacteria. There are six serotypes of the toxin: A, B, C, D, E, F, and G. The botulinum toxin type A was first isolated in 1920s. Today, botulinum toxin type A is used increasingly more often as an efficient and patient-friendly therapy in neurology, ophthalmology, neurology, urology and laryngology. The aim of the article was to review the literature and description of the current knowledge concerned with mechanism of action of botulinum toxin type A, clinical applications and metabolic determinants of muscle contraction and the beneficial effect of this drug on the state of muscle tension. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  8. Non-digestible oligosaccharides used as prebiotic agents: mode of production and beneficial effects on animal and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grizard, D; Barthomeuf, C

    1999-01-01

    Prebiotic agents are food ingredients that are potentially beneficial to the health of consumers. The main commercial prebiotic agents consist of oligosaccharides and dietary fibres (mainly inulin). They are essentially obtained by one of three processes: 1) the direct extraction of natural polysaccharides from plants; 2) the controlled hydrolysis of such natural polysaccharides; 3) enzymatic synthesis, using hydrolases and/or glycosyl transferases. Both of these enzyme types catalyse transglycosylation reactions, allowing synthesis of small molecular weight synthetic oligosaccharides from mono- and disaccharides. Presently, in Europe, inulin-type fructans, characterised by the presence of fructosyl units bound to the beta-2,1 position of sucrose, are considered as one of the carbohydrate prebiotic references. Prebiotics escape enzymatic digestion in the upper gastrointestinal tract and enter the caecum without change to their structure. None are excreted in the stools, indicating that they are fermented by colonic flora so as to give a mixture of short-chain fatty acids (acetate, propionate and butyrate), L-lactate, carbon dioxide and hydrogen. By stimulating bifidobacteria, they may have the following implications for health: 1) potential protective effects against colorectal cancer and infectious bowel diseases by inhibiting putrefactive bacteria (Clostridium perfringens ) and pathogen bacteria (Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Listeria and Shigella ), respectively; 2) improvement of glucid and lipid metabolisms; 3) fibre-like properties by decreasing the renal nitrogen excretion; 4) improvement in the bioavailability of essential minerals; and 5) low cariogenic factor. These potential beneficial effects have been largely studied in animals but have not really been proven in humans. The development of a second generation of oligosaccharides and the putative implication of a complex bacterial trophic chain in the intestinal prebiotic fermentation process are also

  9. Decreased levels of repulsive guidance molecule A in association with beneficial effects of repeated intrathecal triamcinolone acetonide application in progressive multiple sclerosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Thomas; Barghorn, Stefan; Lütge, Sven; Haas, Thomas; Mueller, Reinhold; Gerlach, Bjoern; Öhm, Gabi; Eilert, Katrin; Trommer, Isabel; Mueller, Bernhard K

    2015-06-01

    Repeated intrathecal application of the sustained release steroid triamcinolone acetonide is beneficial in progressive multiple sclerosis patients. Its putative regenerative effect may involve regulation of the repulsive guidance molecule A synthesis. This protein inhibits axonal regeneration and functional recovery. Objectives were to demonstrate the efficacy of four triamcinolone applications every other day in association with repulsive guidance molecule A levels in cerebrospinal fluid. Clinical evaluation was performed at baseline and on each day after a triamcinolone administration in 25 progressive multiple sclerosis patients. Repulsive guidance molecule A concentrations were determined before each triamcinolone application by western blot analysis with quantification. Clinical scores for multiple sclerosis improved, and the maximum walking distance and speed ameliorated in 17 patients. Repulsive guidance molecule A levels declined in these responders. The remaining patients showed no prompt clinical benefit and no decrease of repulsive guidance molecule A concentrations. Decline of repulsive guidance molecule A may reflect regeneration and functional recovery by triamcinolone in progressive multiple sclerosis patients.

  10. The effectiveness of habitat modification schemes for enhancing beneficial insects: Assessing the importance of trap cropping management approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trisnawati, Indah; Azis, Abdul

    2017-06-01

    Many farms in regions of intensive crop production lack the habitats that historically provided resources to beneficial insects, and this lack has compromised the ability of farmers to rely on natural enemies for pest control. One of the strategies to boost populations of existing or naturally occurring beneficial insects is to supply them with appropriate habitat and alternative food sources, such as diversifying trap crop systems and plant populations in or around fields include perennials and flowering plants. Trap cropping using insectary plant that attracts beneficial insects as natural enemies, especially flowering plants, made for provision of habitat for predators or parasitoids that are useful for biological control. Perimeter trap cropping (PTC) is a method of integrated pest management in which the main crop is surrounded with a perimeter trap crop that is more attractive to pests. We observed PTC habitat modification and conventionaly-managed tobacco farms in Purwosari Village, Pasuruan (East Java) to evaluate the effectiveness of habitat modification management prescription (perimeter trap crop using flowering plant Crotalaria juncea) on agroecosystem natural enemies. Field tests were conducted in natural enemies (predator and parasitoid) abundance dynamic and diversity on tobacco field in Purwoasri, Pasuruan. Yellow pan trap, sweep net and hand collecting methods were applied in each 10 days during tobacco growth stage (vegetative, generative until reproductive/harvesting. The results showed that application perimeter trap crop with C. juncea in tobacco fields able to help arthropod conservation of natural enemies on all tobacco growth stages. These results were evidenced the increase in abundance of predators and parasitoids and the increased value of the Diversity Index (H') and Evenness Index (EH) in all tobacco growth phases. Composition of predator and parasitoid in the habitat modification field were more diverse than in the conventional field

  11. A low level of dietary selenium has both beneficial and toxic effects and is protective against Cd-toxicity in the least killifish Heterandria formosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Lingtian; Wu, Xing; Chen, Hongxing; Dong, Wu; Cazan, Alfy Morales; Klerks, Paul L

    2016-10-01

    As an essential element, selenium (Se) is beneficial at low levels yet toxic at high levels. The present study assessed the effects of dietary exposure to Se in the least killifish Heterandria formosa, and investigated how this exposure influences the effects of a subsequent exposure to cadmium (Cd). The fish were pre-exposed to an environmentally relevant concentration (2 μg g(-1) dry wt) of dietary selenite (Se(4+)) or seleno-l-methionine (Se-Met) for 10 d. The same fish were then exposed to 0.5 mg L(-1) of Cd for 5 d. Both Se(IV) and Se-Met rapidly accumulated in H. formosa. Results for the two Se species were generally similar in this study. Fish exposed to Se had lower levels of lipid peroxidation (measured as levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances or TBARS) and a higher catalase (CAT) activity. In contrast, their Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity was reduced. The Cd exposure resulted in an increase in lipid peroxidation and decreases in the activities of catalase and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase. The Cd-exposed H. formosa that were pre-exposed to Se had lower Cd body burdens, less lipid peroxidation, and higher catalase activity, than did fish not pre-exposed to Se. The Se exposure did not have a protective effect on the Cd-induced reduction in Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity. These results clearly demonstrate that a Se-enriched diet reduces some (but not all) forms of Cd-toxicity and that Se can simultaneously have beneficial and detrimental effects, making it difficult to predict the net outcome of changes in dietary Se levels for fish.

  12. Antiatherogenic activity of extracts of Argania spinosa L. pericarp: beneficial effects on lipid peroxidation and cholesterol homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrougui, Hicham; Cherki, Mounia; Koumbadinga, Geremy Abdull; Isabelle, Maxim; Douville, Jasmin; Spino, Claude; Khalil, Abdelouahed

    2007-09-01

    Prevention of lipoprotein oxidation by natural compounds may prevent atherosclerosis via reducing early atherogenesis. In this study, we investigated for the first time the beneficial properties of methanolic extract of argania pericarp (MEAP) towards atherogenesis by protecting human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) against oxidation while promoting high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-mediated cholesterol efflux. By measuring the formation of malondialdehyde (MDA) and conjugated diene as well as the lag phase and the progression rate of lipid peroxidation, the MEAP was found to possess an inhibitory effect. In addition, MEAP reduced the rate of disappearance of alpha-tocopherol as well as the apoB electrophoretic mobility in a dose-dependent manner. These effects are related to the free radical scavenging and copper-chelating effects of MEAP. In terms of cell viability, MEAP has shown a cytotoxic effect (0-40 microg/mL). Incubation of 3H-cholesterol-loaded J774 macrophages with HDL in the presence of increasing concentrations of MEAP enhanced HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux independently of ABCA1 receptor pathways. Our findings suggest that argania seed pericarp provides a source of natural antioxidants that inhibit LDL oxidation and enhance cholesterol efflux and thus can prevent development of cardiovascular diseases.

  13. Heme Oxygenase-1 Induction and Organic Nitrate Therapy: Beneficial Effects on Endothelial Dysfunction, Nitrate Tolerance, and Vascular Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Daiber

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic nitrates are a group of very effective anti-ischemic drugs. They are used for the treatment of patients with stable angina, acute myocardial infarction, and chronic congestive heart failure. A major therapeutic limitation inherent to organic nitrates is the development of tolerance, which occurs during chronic treatment with these agents, and this phenomenon is largely based on induction of oxidative stress with subsequent endothelial dysfunction. We therefore speculated that induction of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 could be an efficient strategy to overcome nitrate tolerance and the associated side effects. Indeed, we found that hemin cotreatment prevented the development of nitrate tolerance and vascular oxidative stress in response to chronic nitroglycerin therapy. Vice versa, pentaerithrityl tetranitrate (PETN, a nitrate that was previously reported to be devoid of adverse side effects, displayed tolerance and oxidative stress when the HO-1 pathway was blocked pharmacologically or genetically by using HO-1+/– mice. Recently, we identified activation of Nrf2 and HuR as a principle mechanism of HO-1 induction by PETN. With the present paper, we present and discuss our recent and previous findings on the role of HO-1 for the prevention of nitroglycerin-induced nitrate tolerance and for the beneficial effects of PETN therapy.

  14. Atorvastatin Improves Microenvironment to Enhance the Beneficial Effects of BMSCs Therapy in a Rabbit Model of Acute Myocardial Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Qu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: To investigate the beneficial effects of atorvastatin added to the cell therapy with bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs in a rabbit model of acute myocardial infarction (AMI. Methods: Rabbits were randomly divided into control group (n=10, bone marrow stem cells transplantation group (n=10, and BMSCs + atorvastatin group (n=10. AMI was established by ligating the left descending coronary artery. The left ventricular (LV function was evaluated by echocardiography. H&E staining and Masson's Trichrome staining were performed to evaluate inflammatory cell infiltration and cardiac fibrosis. Immunohistochemistry and TUNEL were conducted to assess survival, differentiation, and apoptosis of transplanted cells and cardiomyocytes. Results: BMSCs decreased LV systolic and diastolic diameters and increased LV ejection fractions, LV fractional shortening, LV systolic pressure and LV end-diastolic pressure. Atorvastatin synergistically enhanced the BMSCs-induced improvements of ischemic cardiac dysfunction. Atorvastatin reduced inflammatory cell infiltration, cardiac fibrosis, and derangement of myocardial morphology/structure. Atorvastatin added a protective effect to cardiomyocytes against apoptotic cell death in infarct and peri-infarct areas, and also increased the survival rate of implanted BMSCs in acute myocardial ischemia. Atorvastatin also promoted cardiac differentiation of implanted BMSCs in infarct myocardium. Conclusion: Atorvastatin acts to improve the microenvironment both by synergistically enhancing the existing effects of BMSCs and by adding new therapeutic effects to BMSCs transplantation, and this combinational therapy is a superior cell/pharmacological therapeutic approach that merits future preclinical and clinical studies.

  15. Beneficial effects of legumes on parameters of the metabolic syndrome: a systematic review of trials in animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Rosario; López-Jurado, María; Wanden-Berghe, Carmina; Sanz-Valero, Javier; Porres, Jesús María; Kapravelou, Garyfallia

    2016-08-01

    Legume consumption plays a pivotal role in the prevention and treatment of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). This systematic review aimed to highlight the beneficial effects of legume interventions for the prevention and/or improvement of parameters related to the MetS and the implicated metabolic pathways so far reported. The methodology involved a search in four electronic databases (Medline, Web of Science, Scopus, Cochrane Library) from January 2007 to December 2014, considering as descriptors 'Metabolic Syndrome' and 'Fabaceae' and adequately adjusting the equation in each one of them. In total, forty-one studies were finally included. The majority of the studies described a regulating effect on glucose and lipid metabolism due to legume administration, whereas effects on blood pressure and renal parameters are not fully described. Regarding the metabolic pathways involved, they include the up-regulation of genes related to β-oxidation and acetyl-CoA degradation and the down-regulation of glycolytic and lipogenesis genes, as well as those associated with the acetyl-CoA synthesis. The ameliorating effects of legume consumption on the alterations associated with the MetS are clearly reported and coincide with changes in the expression of protein and genes involved in lipid and glucose metabolism. More research needs to be conducted including more legume species that are highly consumed as part of a healthy dietary pattern.

  16. The Physics behind a Simple Demonstration of the Greenhouse Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxton, Gavin A.

    2014-01-01

    A simple, and popular, demonstration of the greenhouse effect involves a higher temperature being observed in a container with an elevated concentration of CO[subscript 2] inside than in a container with just air enclosed, when subject to direct light. The CO[subscript 2] absorbs outgoing thermal radiation and causes the air inside the container…

  17. The Mercury-Drag Effect, a Demonstration of Transport Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, D. H.; Teese, R. B

    1969-01-01

    The mercury-drag effect is demonstrated when mercury vapor diffuses through nitrogen gas at low pressure, passing through tubes of different radii to liquid nitrogen-cooled cold traps. The pressure changes of the nitrogen gas on the mercury-deficient side of the cold traps are observed and compared with theoretical and experimental valves from the…

  18. Beneficial effects of Resveratrol, present in grapes in the prevention and treatment of heart disease and failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Movahed

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Resveratrol (3, 5, 4- trihydroxystilbene is one of the natural polyphenolic bioactive compounds synthesized by plants to serve many functions, especially defense against fungal infections, environmental stresses and UV radiation. It is found mainly in grapes, green tea, peanuts and berries. This compound has recently received increased attention in medical research, due to its effects on prevention and treatment of many diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and metabolic syndrome. Over the past two decades, researchers from all over the world studied the beneficial effects of resveratrol against cardiovascular diseases and heart failure in different animal models. Importantly, the results of these studies have been promising and recently this knowledge has been translated into examining the efficacy of resveratrol in humans with heart failure. Since heart failure continues to be a significant cause of cardiovascular mortality in the developed and also developing countries, and despite different medicines available for the treatment of such common chronic systemic diseases, preventive measures to be necessary to combat the incidence of heart problems. In this review article the protective effects of resveratrol and its mechanisms of action on different metabolic pathways with respect to heart disease and failure will be discussed.

  19. Lethal and sublethal effects of seven insecticides on three beneficial insects in laboratory assays and field trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Maria E S; Alves, Flávia M; Pereira, Renata C; Aquino, Leonardo A; Fernandes, Flávio L; Zanuncio, José C

    2016-08-01

    Lethal and sublethal effects of insecticides on target and non-target arthropods are a concern of pest management programs. Cycloneda sanguinea, Orius insidiosus and Chauliognathus flavipes are important biological control agents for aphids, whitefly, lepidopterus eggs, thrips and mites. All three test species were subjected to a toxicity study using the insecticides acephate, bifenthrin, chlorantraniliprole, chlorpyrifos, deltamethrin, imidacloprid, and thiamethoxam. Experiments were done in the lab and field. In the laboratory we evaluated the mortality and sublethal effects of the concentration that killed 20% of the population (LC20) on feeding, repellence and reproduction of the species tested. The lethal effects of these insecticides at the recommended doses was evaluated in the field. Concentration-response bioassays indicated chlorantraniliprole had the lowest toxicity, while chlorpyrifos and acephate were the most toxic. Test species exposed to filter paper surfaces treated with pyrethroids, neonicotinoids and organophosphates were repelled. On the other hand, test species were not repelled from surfaces treated with chlorantraniliprole. Chlorantraniliprole therefore seemed to be the least dangerous insecticide for these three beneficial arthropod test species.

  20. Evaluation of Beneficial Metabolic Effects of Berries in High-Fat Fed C57BL/6J Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lovisa Heyman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of the study was to screen eight species of berries for their ability to prevent obesity and metabolic abnormalities associated with type 2 diabetes. Methods. C57BL/6J mice were assigned the following diets for 13 weeks: low-fat diet, high-fat diet or high-fat diet supplemented (20% with lingonberry, blackcurrant, bilberry, raspberry, açai, crowberry, prune or blackberry. Results. The groups receiving a high-fat diet supplemented with lingonberries, blackcurrants, raspberries or bilberries gained less weight and had lower fasting insulin levels than the control group receiving high-fat diet without berries. Lingonberries, and also blackcurrants and bilberries, significantly decreased body fat content, hepatic lipid accumulation, and plasma levels of the inflammatory marker PAI-1, as well as mediated positive effects on glucose homeostasis. The group receiving açai displayed increased weight gain and developed large, steatotic livers. Quercetin glycosides were detected in the lingonberry and the blackcurrant diets. Conclusion. Lingonberries were shown to fully or partially prevent the detrimental metabolic effects induced by high-fat diet. Blackcurrants and bilberries had similar properties, but to a lower degree. We propose that the beneficial metabolic effects of lingonberries could be useful in preventing obesity and related disorders.

  1. Beneficial effects of combined exercise training on early recovery cardiopulmonary exercise testing indices in patients with chronic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgantas, Andreas; Dimopoulos, Stavros; Tasoulis, Athanasios; Karatzanos, Eleftherios; Pantsios, Chris; Agapitou, Varvara; Ntalianis, Argyrios; Roditis, Petros; Terrovitis, John; Nanas, Serafim

    2014-01-01

    Exercise training induces several beneficial effects in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). This study investigated the effects of high-intensity aerobic interval training (AIT) compared with combined AIT and strength training (COM) on early ventilatory and metabolic recovery pattern after symptom-limited cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) in CHF patients. Stable CHF patients (N = 42; 54 ± 10 years [mean ± SD], 35 males) participated in an exercise training program for 12 weeks, 3 times per week. Participants were randomly assigned to either AIT (n = 20) or COM group (n = 22). Cardiopulmonary exercise testing was performed before and after completion of the program. Primary measurements included absolute and percentage difference of oxygen uptake, carbon dioxide output, minute ventilation ((Equation is included in full-text article.)E), tidal volume (VT), respiratory rate, and the first-degree slope of oxygen uptake ((Equation is included in full-text article.)O2/t slope) and carbon dioxide output ((Equation is included in full-text article.)CO2/t slope) during the first minute of recovery after maximal exercise. The COM group had a greater improvement in the absolute and the percentage difference of (Equation is included in full-text article.)E (P = .03 and P = .04, respectively) and respiratory rate (P = .02 and P = .01, respectively) during the first minute of recovery period after exercise compared with the AIT group alone. No significant changes were noted for VT measurements. A significant increase in (Equation is included in full-text article.)CO2/t slope was observed in COM compared with the AIT group (P = .01). There was a trend for a greater increase in (Equation is included in full-text article.)O2/t slope in the COM group (P = .07). The addition of strength training to AIT induces significant beneficial effects in terms of ventilatory and metabolic recovery kinetics than AIT alone in CHF patients, possibly indicating greater ventilatory

  2. Genome survey and characterization of endophytic bacteria exhibiting a beneficial effect on growth and development of poplar trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghavi, Safiyh; Garafola, Craig; Monchy, Sébastien; Newman, Lee; Hoffman, Adam; Weyens, Nele; Barac, Tanja; Vangronsveld, Jaco; van der Lelie, Daniel

    2009-02-01

    The association of endophytic bacteria with their plant hosts has a beneficial effect for many different plant species. Our goal is to identify endophytic bacteria that improve the biomass production and the carbon sequestration potential of poplar trees (Populus spp.) when grown in marginal soil and to gain an insight in the mechanisms underlying plant growth promotion. Members of the Gammaproteobacteria dominated a collection of 78 bacterial endophytes isolated from poplar and willow trees. As representatives for the dominant genera of endophytic gammaproteobacteria, we selected Enterobacter sp. strain 638, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia R551-3, Pseudomonas putida W619, and Serratia proteamaculans 568 for genome sequencing and analysis of their plant growth-promoting effects, including root development. Derivatives of these endophytes, labeled with gfp, were also used to study the colonization of their poplar hosts. In greenhouse studies, poplar cuttings (Populus deltoides x Populus nigra DN-34) inoculated with Enterobacter sp. strain 638 repeatedly showed the highest increase in biomass production compared to cuttings of noninoculated control plants. Sequence data combined with the analysis of their metabolic properties resulted in the identification of many putative mechanisms, including carbon source utilization, that help these endophytes to thrive within a plant environment and to potentially affect the growth and development of their plant hosts. Understanding the interactions between endophytic bacteria and their host plants should ultimately result in the design of strategies for improved poplar biomass production on marginal soils as a feedstock for biofuels.

  3. Potential beneficial effects of a gluten-free diet in newly diagnosed children with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Jannet; Sildorf, Stine Møller; Pipper, Christian B.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Gluten-free diet has shown promising effects in preventing type 1 diabetes (T1D) in animals as well as beneficial effects on the immune system. Gluten-free diet at diabetes onset may alter the natural course and outcome of autoimmune diseases such as T1D. Methods: In a 12-month study, 15...... children newly diagnosed with T1D were instructed to follow a gluten-free diet. Questionnaires were used to evaluate adherence to the gluten-free diet. Partial remission (PR) was defined by insulin dose-adjusted A1c (IDAA1c) ≤9 or stimulated C-peptide (SCP) >300 pmol/L measured 90 min after a liquid mixed...... meal at the inclusion, six and 12 months after onset. The intervention group was compared with two previous cohorts. Linear mixed models were used to estimate differences between cohorts. Results: After 6 months, more children on a gluten-free diet tended to have SCP values above 300 pmol/L compared...

  4. Beneficial Effects of Teucrium polium and Metformin on Diabetes-Induced Memory Impairments and Brain Tissue Oxidative Damage in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mojtaba Mousavi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Teucrium polium and metformin on diabetes-induced memory impairment and brain tissues oxidative damage were investigated. Methods. The rats were divided into: (1 Control, (2 Diabetic, (3 Diabetic-Extract 100 (Dia-Ext 100, (4 Diabetic-Extract 200 (Dia-Ext 200, (5 Diabetic-Extract 400 (Dia-Ext 400, and (6 Diabetic-Metformin (Dia-Met. Groups 3–6 were treated by 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg of the extract or metformin, respectively, for 6 weeks (orally. Results. In passive avoidance test, the latency to enter the dark compartment in Diabetic group was lower than that of Control group (P<0.01. In Dia-Ext 100, Dia-Ext 200, and Dia-Ext 400 and Metformin groups, the latencies were higher than those of Diabetic group (P<0.01. Lipid peroxides levels (reported as malondialdehyde, MDA, concentration in the brain of Diabetic group were higher than Control (P<0.001. Treatment by all doses of the extract and metformin decreased the MDA concentration (P<0.01. Conclusions. The results of present study showed that metformin and the hydroalcoholic extract of Teucrium polium prevent diabetes-induced memory deficits in rats. Protection against brain tissues oxidative damage might have a role in the beneficial effects of the extract and metformin.

  5. Beneficial effects of exercise on offspring obesity and insulin resistance are reduced by maternal high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasch, Juliane; Schumann, Sara; Schreiber, Saskia; Klaus, Susanne; Kanzleiter, Isabel

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the long-term effects of maternal high-fat consumption and post-weaning exercise on offspring obesity susceptibility and insulin resistance. C57BL/6J dams were fed either a high-fat (HFD, 40% kcal fat) or low-fat (LFD, 10% kcal fat) semi-synthetic diet during pregnancy and lactation. After weaning, male offspring of both maternal diet groups (mLFD; mHFD) received a LFD. At week 7, half of the mice got access to a running wheel (+RW) as voluntary exercise training. To induce obesity, all offspring groups (mLFD +/-RW and mHFD +/-RW) received HFD from week 15 until week 25. Compared to mLFD, mHFD offspring were more prone to HFD-induced body fat gain and exhibited an increased liver mass which was not due to increased hepatic triglyceride levels. RW improved the endurance capacity in mLFD, but not in mHFD offspring. Additionally, mHFD offspring +RW exhibited higher plasma insulin levels during glucose tolerance test and an elevated basal pancreatic insulin production compared to mLFD offspring. Taken together, maternal HFD reduced offspring responsiveness to the beneficial effects of voluntary exercise training regarding the improvement of endurance capacity, reduction of fat mass gain, and amelioration of HFD-induced insulin resistance.

  6. Beneficial Effect of Metformin on Nerve Regeneration and Functional Recovery After Sciatic Nerve Crush Injury in Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Junxiong; Liu, Jun; Yu, Hailong; Chen, Yu; Wang, Qi; Xiang, Liangbi

    2016-05-01

    Neuroprotective effects of metformin have been increasingly recognized in both diabetic and non-diabetic conditions. Thus far, no information has been available on the potential beneficial effects of metformin on peripheral nerve regeneration in diabetes mellitus. The present study was designed to investigate such a possibility. Diabetes was established by a single injection of streptozotocin at 50 mg/kg in rats. After sciatic nerve crush injury, the diabetic rats were intraperitoneally administrated daily for 4 weeks with metformin (30, 200 and 500 mg/kg), or normal saline, respectively. The axonal regeneration was investigated by morphometric analysis and retrograde labeling. The functional recovery was evaluated by electrophysiological studies and behavioral analysis. It was found that metformin significantly enhanced axonal regeneration and functional recovery compared to saline after sciatic nerve injury in diabetic rats. In addition, metformin at 200 and 500 mg/kg showed better performance than that at 30 mg/kg. Taken together, metformin is capable of promoting nerve regeneration after sciatic nerve injuries in diabetes mellitus, highlighting its therapeutic values for peripheral nerve injury repair in diabetes mellitus.

  7. No beneficial effects evident for Enterococcus faecium NCIMB 10415 in weaned pigs infected with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium DT104.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreuzer, Susanne; Janczyk, Pawel; Assmus, Jens; Schmidt, Michael F G; Brockmann, Gudrun A; Nöckler, Karsten

    2012-07-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium DT 104 is the major pathogen for salmonellosis outbreaks in Europe. We tested if the probiotic bacterium Enterococcus faecium NCIMB 10415 can prevent or alleviate salmonellosis. Therefore, piglets of the German Landrace breed that were treated with E. faecium (n = 16) as a feed additive and untreated controls (n = 16) were challenged with S. Typhimurium 10 days after weaning. The presence of salmonellae in feces and selected organs, as well as the immune response, were investigated. Piglets treated with E. faecium gained less weight than control piglets (P = 0.05). The feeding of E. faecium had no effect on the fecal shedding of salmonellae and resulted in a higher abundance of the pathogen in tonsils of all challenged animals. The specific (anti-Salmonella IgG) and nonspecific (haptoglobin) humoral immune responses as well as the cellular immune response (T helper cells, cytotoxic T cells, regulatory T cells, γδ T cells, and B cells) in the lymph nodes, Peyer's patches of different segments of the intestine (jejunal and ileocecal), the ileal papilla, and in the blood were affected in the course of time after infection (P < 0.05) but not by the E. faecium treatment. These results led to the conclusion that E. faecium may not have beneficial effects on the performance of weaned piglets in the case of S. Typhimurium infection. Therefore, we suggest a critical discussion and reconsideration of E. faecium NCIMB 10415 administration as a probiotic for pigs.

  8. Activation of the AMP activated protein kinase by short-chain fatty acids is the main mechanism underlying the beneficial effect of a high fiber diet on the metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Guo-Xin; Chen, Guo-Rong; Xu, Hui; Ge, Ren-Shan; Lin, Jing

    2010-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome, a cluster of conditions including abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and elevated blood pressure, is a natural consequence of over nutrition and a sedentary lifestyle. The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome has increased to epidemic proportions in the world. The exact pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome remains unclear, but it is known to be a complex interaction between genetic, metabolic, and environmental factors. Promotion of physical activity and dietary management are still the main methods for the prevention and management of the metabolic syndrome. Numerous experimental and clinical studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of high fiber diet on the metabolic syndrome. The principal beneficial effects of a fiber-rich diet in these patients are: prevention of obesity, improved glucose levels, and control of the profile of blood lipids. Dietary fiber may also favor the control of arterial blood pressure. How dietary fiber exerts its beneficial effects on the metabolic syndrome is not well understood. AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK) functions as a major cellular fuel gauge and a master regulator of metabolic homeostasis. Several lines of evidence suggest that AMPK can be activated by short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) either directly or indirectly. It is our hypothesis that the main mechanism underlying the beneficial effect of a high fiber diet on the metabolic syndrome is the increased SCFA production in the colon leading to a higher concentration of SCFA in the portal vein, which activates the AMPK in the liver.

  9. Beneficial effects of sitostanol on the attenuated immune function in asthma patients: results of an in vitro approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence Brüll

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In vitro and animal studies have suggested that plant sterols and stanols increase cytokine production by T-helper-1 cells. This may be beneficial for patient groups characterized by a T-helper-2 dominant immune response, e.g. asthma patients. (1 to evaluate whether sitostanol induces a T-helper-1 shift in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs from asthma patients, and (2 to unravel the role of regulatory T-cells in this respect. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: PBMCs from 10 asthma patients and 10 healthy subjects were isolated and incubated with 1.2 µM sitostanol, while stimulated with 5 µg/ml PHA. Similar amounts of cholesterol were used to determine whether effects were specific for plant stanols or for sterols in general. Changes in cytokine production were measured using antibody arrays and ELISAs. Changes in regulatory T-cell population size were measured by flow cytometry, using intracellular Foxp3 staining. Sitostanol increased production of IFNγ by 6.5% and IL-2 by 6.0% compared to cholesterol (p<0.01. No changes in IL-4 and IL-13 were found. Interestingly, this effect was only present in PBMCs from asthma patients. The number of Foxp3+ cells tended to increase and their activity, measured by IL-10 production, increased after sitostanol treatment in PBMCs from asthma patients compared to controls by 32.3% (p = 0.077 and 13.3% (p<0.05, respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Altogether, the sitostanol-induced Thelper-1 shift in PBMCs from asthma patients and the stimulating effects of sitostanol on Treg cell numbers and activity indicate a possible novel approach for plant stanol ester enriched functional foods in the amelioration of asthmatic symptoms. Functional effects, however, require further evaluation.

  10. Beneficial Effects of Melatonin Combined with Exercise on Endogenous Neural Stem/Progenitor Cells Proliferation after Spinal Cord Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngjeon Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Endogenous neural stem/progenitor cells (eNSPCs proliferate and differentiate into neurons and glial cells after spinal cord injury (SCI. We have previously shown that melatonin (MT plus exercise (Ex had a synergistic effect on functional recovery after SCI. Thus, we hypothesized that combined therapy including melatonin and exercise might exert a beneficial effect on eNSPCs after SCI. Melatonin was administered twice a day and exercise was performed on a treadmill for 15 min, six days per week for 3 weeks after SCI. Immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR analysis were used to determine cell population for late response, in conjunction with histological examination and motor function test. There was marked improvement in hindlimb function in SCI+MT+Ex group at day 14 and 21 after injury, as documented by the reduced size of the spinal lesion and a higher density of dendritic spines and axons; such functional improvements were associated with increased numbers of BrdU-positive cells. Furthermore, MAP2 was increased in the injured thoracic segment, while GFAP was increased in the cervical segment, along with elevated numbers of BrdU-positive nestin-expressing eNSPCs in the SCI+MT+Ex group. The dendritic spine density was augmented markedly in SCI+MT and SCI+MT+Ex groups.These results suggest a synergistic effect of SCI+MT+Ex might create a microenvironment to facilitate proliferation of eNSPCs to effectively replace injured cells and to improve regeneration in SCI.

  11. Effects of maternal hypothyroidism during pregnancy on learning, memory and hippocampal BDNF in rat pups: Beneficial effects of exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiee, Seyed Morteza; Vafaei, Abbas Ali; Rashidy-Pour, Ali

    2016-08-01

    Hypothyroidism during early development leads to numerous morphological, biochemical and functional changes in developing brain. In this study, we investigated the effects of voluntary and treadmill exercise on learning, memory and hippocampal BDNF levels in both hypothyroid male and female rat pups. To induce hypothyroidism in the mothers, 6-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU) was added to their drinking water (100mg/L) from their embryonic day 6 to their postnatal day (PND) 21. For 14days, from PNDs 31 to 44, the rat pups were trained with one of the two different exercise protocols, namely the mild treadmill exercise and the voluntary wheel exercise. On PNDs 45-52, a water maze was used for testing their learning and memory ability. The rats were sacrificed one day later and their BDNF levels were then measured in the hippocampus. The findings of the present study indicate that hypothyroidism during the fetal period and the early postnatal period is associated with the impairment of spatial learning and memory and reduced hippocampal BDNF levels in both male and female rat offspring. Both the short-term treadmill exercise and the voluntary wheel exercise performed during the postnatal period reverse the behavioral and neurochemical deficits induced by developmental thyroid hormone insufficiency in both male and female rat offspring. The findings of this study thus demonstrate a marked reversibility of both behavioral and neurochemical disorders induced by developmental thyroid hormone insufficiency through the performance of exercise.

  12. Beneficial effect of food supplementation with the nutriceutical Improve® for the treatment of infertile couple

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Frank H Comhaire; Wim Decleer

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To assess the possible benefit of food supplementation with the nutriceuticalImprove® for the treatment of the infertile couple.Methods:The treatment of diseases causing male or female infertility should be completed by the prescription of a judiciously formulated composite nutriceutical(Improve®NutriphytInc,Oostkamp,Belgium) which counteracts the pathogenic mechanisms involved in sperm and oocyte dysfunction, enhances cellular energy production, corrects oxidation-induced damage to the cell membrane and toDNA, and repairs mitochondrial insufficiency.The efficiency of this nutraceutical was tested in controlled trials and in assisted reproduction, including1888 infertile couples.Results:Complementary food supplementation with the nutriceuticalImprove® plus linseed oil improved the quantity and functional quality of spermatozoa, significantly increasing their fertilizing potential.This supplement with added fish oil enhanced female fertility with higher probablity of natural conception and ongoing pregnancy using techniques of assisted reproduction.Conclusions:Complementary food supplementation with the nutriceuticalImprove® has significant beneficial effects for the treatment of the infertile couple and reduces the cost per delivery.

  13. Insulin-sensitizing and beneficial lipid-metabolic effects of the water-soluble melanin complex extracted from Inonotus obliquus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Han; Hyun, Chang-Kee

    2014-09-01

    Inonotus obliquus has been traditionally used for treatment of metabolic diseases; however, the mechanism remains to be elucidated. In this study, we found that the water-soluble melanin complex extracted from I. obliquus improved insulin sensitivity and reduced adiposity in high fat (HF)-fed obese mice. When the melanin complex was treated to 3T3-L1 adipocytes, insulin-stimulated glucose uptake was increased significantly, and its phosphoinositide 3-kinase-dependent action was proven with wortmannin treatment. Additionally, dose-dependent increases in Akt phosphorylation and glucose transporter 4 translocation into the plasma membrane were observed in melanin complex-treated cells. Adiponectin gene expression in 3T3-L1 cells incubated with melanin complex increased which was corroborated by increased AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylation in HepG2 and C2C12 cells treated with conditioned media from the 3T3-L1 culture. Melanin complex-treated 3T3-L1 cells showed no significant change in expression of several lipogenic genes, whereas enhanced expressions of fatty acid oxidative genes were observed. Similarly, the epididymal adipose tissue of melanin complex-treated HF-fed mice had higher expression of fatty acid oxidative genes without significant change in lipogenic gene expression. Together, these results suggest that the water-soluble melanin complex of I. obliquus exerts antihyperglycemic and beneficial lipid-metabolic effects, making it a candidate for promising antidiabetic agent.

  14. Beneficial Effect of Bidens pilosa on Body Weight Gain, Food Conversion Ratio, Gut Bacteria and Coccidiosis in Chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Cicero L T; Chung, Chih-Yao; Kuo, Chih-Horng; Kuo, Tien-Fen; Yang, Chu-Wen; Yang, Wen-Chin

    2016-01-01

    In the interests of food safety and public health, plants and their compounds are now re-emerging as an alternative approach to treat gastrointestinal diseases in chickens. Here, we studied the impact of the edible medicinal plant, B. pilosa, on growth performance, gut bacteria and coccidiosis in chickens. First, we found that B. pilosa significantly elevated body weight gain and lowered feed conversion ratio in chickens. Next, we showed that B. pilosa reduced cecal damage as evidenced by increased hemorrhage, villus destruction and decreased villus-to-crypt ratio in chicken ceca. We also performed pyrosequencing of the PCR ampilcons based on the 16S rRNA genes of gut bacteria in chickens. Metagenomic analysis indicated that the chicken gut bacteria belonged to 6 phyla, 6 classes, 6 orders, 9 families, and 8 genera. More importantly, we found that B. pilosa affected the composition of bacteria. This change in bacteria composition was correlated with body weight gain, feed conversion ratio and gut pathology in chickens. Collectively, this work suggests that B. pilosa has beneficial effects on growth performance and protozoan infection in chickens probably via modulation of gut bacteria.

  15. Beneficial effect of an antibody against interleukin-2 receptor(daclizumab) in an experimental model of hepatocyte xenotransplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dimitrios Papagoras; Apostolos Papalois; Alexandra Tsaroucha; Dimitrios Lytras; John Kyriazanos; Nikoletta Giannakou; Prodromos Laftsidis; Constantine Simopoulos

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the use of Daclizumab (Dmab) as an immunosuppressive agent in an experimental model of hepatocyte xenotransplantation (XenoTx) in rats with fulminant hepatic failure (FHF).METHODS: Two white male New Zealand rabbits were used as donors and 68 Wistar rats as recipients.FHF was induced by intravenous application of dimethylnitrosamine (DMNA). The isolated hepatocytes of the rabbits were xenotransplanted into the spleen of the rats 24 h after FHF induction. Group A (n = 13): no treatment; Group B (n = 14): FHF and XenoTx; Group C (n = 14): FHF and XenoTx and cyclosporin (CsA); Group D (n = 14): FHF and XenoTx and Dmab; Group E (n =13): FHF and XenoTx and CsA and Dmab. The rats were followed for 15 d.RESULTS: Statistical analysis showed better survival among groups D (92.86%) and E (76.92%) compared to group A (all rats died after 72 h), group B (28.57%)or group C (71.43%), although the differences were not statistically significant. Biochemical evaluation of the liver enzymes and histology confirmed satisfactory function and engraftment, respectively.CONCLUSION: This experimental model has shown the safe, effective and beneficial use of Dmab in a xenotransplantation model of rabbit hepatocytes in rats.

  16. Simulations to demonstrate reduction of the Gordon-Haus effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcuse, D

    1992-01-01

    The superposition of spontaneous emission noise on a train of soliton pulses produces a random change of the center frequency of the soliton spectrum that causes a change of the group velocity of individual solitons, which in long-light-wave systems translates into a random jitter of the position of the pulses at the receiver. This phenomenon is known as the Gordon-Haus effect. If uncontrolled, the Gordon-Haus effect sets a definite limit on the permissible data rate or on the length of soliton-based light-wave systems. Recently Kodama and Hasegawa [Opt. Lett. 17, 31 (1992)] have shown that the Gordon-Haus effect can be suppressed by placing filters along the fiber that reduce the frequency jitter and the concomitant group-velocity changes. We demonstrate the reduction of the Gordon-Haus effect by computer simulations.

  17. The beneficial effects of exercise in rodents are preserved after detraining: a phenomenon unrelated to GLUT4 expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Angelis Kátia

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although exercise training has well-known cardiorespiratory and metabolic benefits, low compliance with exercise training programs is a fact, and the harmful effects of physical detraining regarding these adaptations usually go unnoticed. We investigated the effects of exercise detraining on blood pressure, insulin sensitivity, and GLUT4 expression in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR and normotensive Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY. Methods Studied animals were randomized into sedentary, trained (treadmill running/5 days a week, 60 min/day for 10 weeks, 1 week of detraining, and 2 weeks of detraining. Blood pressure (tail-cuff system, insulin sensitivity (kITT, and GLUT4 (Western blot in heart, gastrocnemius and white fat tissue were measured. Results Exercise training reduced blood pressure (19%, improved insulin sensitivity (24%, and increased GLUT4 in the heart (+34%; gastrocnemius (+36% and fat (+22% in SHR. In WKY no change in either blood pressure or insulin sensitivity were observed, but there was an increase in GLUT4 in the heart (+25%, gastrocnemius (+45% and fat (+36% induced by training. Both periods of detraining did not induce any change in neither blood pressure nor insulin sensitivity in SHR and WKY. One-week detraining reduced GLUT4 in SHR (heart: -28%; fat: -23% and WKY (heart: -19%; fat: -22%; GLUT4 in the gastrocnemius was reduced after a 2-week detraining (SHR: -35%; WKY: -25%. There was a positive correlation between GLUT4 (gastrocnemius and the maximal velocity in the exercise test (r = 0.60, p = 0.004. Conclusions The study findings show that in detraining, despite reversion of the enhanced GLUT4 expression, cardiorespiratory and metabolic beneficial effects of exercise are preserved.

  18. Are the beneficial cardiovascular effects of simvastatin and metformin also associated with a hormone-dependent mechanism improving insulin sensitivity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Bulcão

    Full Text Available In addition to lipid-lowering and cardiovascular protective actions, statins may have beneficial effects on insulin sensitivity. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of simvastatin therapy on insulin resistance and on leptin, adiponectin, and C-reactive protein (CRP levels, as compared to metformin, in overweight pre-diabetic subjects. Forty-one subjects with BMI >25 kg/m² and impaired fasting glucose or impaired glucose tolerance were randomized to take simvastatin, 20 mg/day (N = 20 or metformin, 1.7 g/day (N = 21 for 16 weeks. Blood samples for the determination of metabolic, hormonal, and inflammatory parameters were obtained at baseline and after each treatment. After metformin therapy, significant reductions in mean BMI and waist circumference were observed, and after simvastatin treatment LDL and triglyceride levels were significantly reduced. Insulin resistance determined by the homeostasis model assessment decreased only with metformin. Independently of the type of medication, a significant decrease in CRP levels was detected from baseline to the end of the study. CRP showed a mean reduction of 0.12 ± 0.04 mg/dL (P = 0.002 over time. No change in leptin or adiponectin levels was induced by any therapy. The data suggest that a low dose of simvastatin does not affect insulin resistance in overweight pre-diabetic subjects and has no effect on leptin or adiponectin levels. Further studies including a larger sample size, higher doses of statins, and a placebo control group are necessary to confirm the present data.

  19. Royal Jelly Prevents Osteoporosis in Rats: Beneficial Effects in Ovariectomy Model and in Bone Tissue Culture Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saburo Hidaka

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Royal jelly (RJ has been used worldwide for many years as medical products, health foods and cosmetics. Since RJ contains testosterone and has steroid hormone-type activities, we hypothesized that it may have beneficial effects on osteoporosis. We used both an ovariectomized rat model and a tissue culture model. Rats were divided into eight groups as follows: sham-operated (Sham, ovariectomized (OVX, OVX given 0.5% (w/w raw RJ, OVX given 2.0% (w/w RJ, OVX given 0.5% (w/w protease-treated RJ (pRJ, OVX given 2.0% (w/w pRJ, OVX given 17β-estradiol and OVX given its vehicle, respectively. The Ovariectomy decreased tibial bone mineral density (BMD by 24%. Administration of 17β-estradiol to OVX rats recovered the tibial BMD decrease by 100%. Administration of 2.0% (w/w RJ and 0.5–2.0% (w/w pRJ to OVX rats recovered it by 85% or more. These results indicate that both RJ and pRJ are almost as effective as 17β-estradiol in preventing the development of bone loss induced by ovariectomy in rats. In tissue culture models, both RJ and pRJ increased calcium contents in femoral-diaphyseal and femoral-metaphyseal tissue cultures obtained from normal male rats. However, in a mouse marrow culture model, they neither inhibited the parathyroid hormone (PTH-induced calcium loss nor affected the formation of osteoclast-like cells induced by PTH in mouse marrow culture system. Therefore, our results suggest that both RJ and pRJ may prevent osteoporosis by enhancing intestinal calcium absorption, but not by directly antagonizing the action of PTH.

  20. Beneficial effects of co-administration of PPAR-γ agonist with melatonin on cardiovascular complications associated with diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogesh Suresh Ahire

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Effect of PPAR-g agonists, Thiazolidinediones, in combination with melatonin was studied for cardiovascular complications associated with diabetes. Materials and Methods: Diabetic rats were treated with combination of pioglitazone (10 mg/kg/day p.o. or rosiglitazone (5 mg/kg/day p.o. with melatonin (10 mg/kg/day p.o. for 7 weeks. The biochemical parameters, serum glucose, triglyceride, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, AST, LDH and LDL-cholesterol levels were evaluated at the end of 7 weeks. Also cardiovascular parameters like atherogenic index, blood pressure, hisotology of heart were done. Results and Conclusions: The combination treated groups, pioglitazone plus melatonin (PM and rosiglitazone plus melatonin (RM, showed significant decrease in the blood pressure when compared with diabetic control group. The level of cell injury markers AST and LDH was normalized in the combination groups PM and RM along with significant decrease in the atherogenic index. In the biochemical parameters, the serum glucose, triglyceride, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, and LDL-cholesterol levels were significantly lowered in the combination groups. There was significant inhibition of the myonecrosis, reduction in the infiltration and inflammatory cells, and vacuolar changes when compared with diabetic control. The combination treated groups also proved to be effective in normalizing the levels of SOD, GSH, catalase, and LPO in heart homogenates when compared with diabetic control as well as pioglitazone, rosiglitazone, and melatonin-alone-treated groups. Hence, it may be concluded that the combination of PPAR-g agonists, thiazolidinediones, with melatonin may be beneficial in the treatment of diabetes-induced cardiovascular complications.

  1. Effectiveness of beneficial plant-microbe interactions under hypobaric and hypoxic conditions in an advanced life support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacIntyre, Olathe; Stasiak, Michael; Cottenie, Karl; Trevors, Jack; Dixon, Mike

    An assembled microbial community in the hydroponics solution of an advanced life support system may improve plant performance and productivity in three ways: (1) exclusion of plant pathogens from the initial community, (2) resistance to infection, and (3) plant-growth promotion. However, the plant production area is likely to have a hypobaric (low pressure) and hypoxic (low oxygen) atmosphere to reduce structural mass and atmosphere leakage, and these conditions may alter plant-microbe interactions. Plant performance and productivity of radish (Raphanus sativus L. cv. Cherry Bomb II) grown under hypobaric and hypoxic conditions were investigated at the University of Guelph's Controlled Environment Systems Research Facility. Changes in the microbial communities that routinely colonized the re-circulated nutrient solution, roots, and leaves of radishes in these experiments were quantified in terms of similarity in community composition, abundance of bacteria, and community diversity before and after exposure to hypobaric and hypoxic conditions relative to communities maintained at ambient growth conditions. The microbial succession was affected by extreme hypoxia (2 kPa oxygen partial pressure) while hypobaria as low as 10 kPa total pressure had little effect on microbial ecology. There were no correlations found between the physiological profile of these unintentional microbial communities and radish growth. The effects of hypobaric and hypoxic conditions on specific plant-microbe interactions need to be determined before beneficial gnotobiotic communities can be developed for use in space. The bacterial strains Tal 629 of Bradyrhizobium japonicum and WCS417 of Pseudomonas fluorescens, and the plant pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. raphani will be used in future experiments. B. japonicum Tal 629 promotes radish growth in hydroponics systems and P. fluorescens WCS417 induces systemic resistance to fusarium wilt (F. oxysporum f. sp. raphani) in radish under ambient

  2. No beneficial effect of general and specific anti-inflammatory therapies on aortic dilatation in Marfan mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romy Franken

    Full Text Available AIMS: Patients with Marfan syndrome have an increased risk of life-threatening aortic complications, mostly preceded by aortic dilatation. In the FBN1(C1039G/+ Marfan mouse model, losartan decreases aortic root dilatation. We recently confirmed this beneficial effect of losartan in adult patients with Marfan syndrome. The straightforward translation of this mouse model to man is reassuring to test novel treatment strategies. A number of studies have shown signs of inflammation in aortic tissue of Marfan patients. This study examined the efficacy of anti-inflammatory therapies in attenuating aortic root dilation in Marfan syndrome and compared effects to the main preventative agent, losartan. METHODS AND RESULTS: To inhibit inflammation in FBN1(C1039G/+ Marfan mice, we treated the mice with losartan (angiotensin II receptor type 1 inhibitor, methylprednisolone (corticosteroid or abatacept (T-cell-specific inhibitor. Treatment was initiated in adult Marfan mice with already existing aortic root dilatation, and applied for eight weeks. Methylprednisolone- or abatacept-treated mice did not reveal a reduction in aortic root dilatation. In this short time frame, losartan was the only treatment that significantly reduced aorta inflammation, transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β signaling and aortic root dilatation rate in these adult Marfan mice. Moreover, the methylprednisolone-treated mice had significantly more aortic alcian blue staining as a marker for aortic damage. CONCLUSION: Anti-inflammatory agents do not reduce the aortic dilatation rate in Marfan mice, but possibly increase aortic damage. Currently, the most promising therapeutic drug in Marfan syndrome is losartan, by blocking the angiotensin II receptor type 1 and thereby inhibiting pSmad2 signaling.

  3. Beneficial metabolic effects of dietary epigallocatechin gallate alone and in combination with exendin-4 in high fat diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Nupur M; Millar, Paul J B; Pathak, Varun; Flatt, Peter R; Gault, Victor A

    2017-07-25

    Significant attempts are being made to generate multifunctional, hybrid or peptide combinations as novel therapeutic strategies for type 2 diabetes, however this presents key challenges including design and pharmaceutical development. In this study, we evaluated metabolic properties of oral nutritional supplement epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) in combination with GLP-1 agonist exendin-4 in a mouse model of dietary-induced diabetes and obesity. EGCG, exendin-4 or combination of both were administered twice-daily over 28 days to high fat (HF) mice on background of low-dose streptozotocin. Energy intake, body weight, fat mass, glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, lipid profile, biochemical and hormone markers, and islet histology were examined. All treatment groups exhibited significantly reduced body weight, fat mass, circulating glucose and insulin concentrations, and HbA1c levels which were independent of changes in energy intake. Similarly, there was marked improvement in glycaemic control, glucose-stimulated insulin release, insulin sensitivity, total cholesterol and triglycerides, with most prominent effects observed following combination therapy. Circulating corticosterone concentrations and 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type1 (11β-HSD1) staining (in pancreas) were beneficially decreased without changes in circulating interleukin 6 (IL-6), alanine transaminase (ALT) and glutathione reductase. Combination therapy resulted in increased islet area and number, beta cell area, and pancreatic insulin content. Generally, metabolic effects were much more pronounced in mice which received combination therapy. EGCG alone and particularly in combination with exendin-4 exerts positive metabolic properties in HF mice. EGCG may be useful dietary adjunct alongside GLP-1 mimetics in treatment of diabetes and related disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Beneficial Effects of Delayed Opening the Infarct -related Artery on Late Phase Left Ventricular Function in Acute Anterior Myocardial Infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Likun; Yu Hua; Huang Xiangyang; Chu Jun; Feng Kefu; Ding Xiaomei; Yan Ji; Gu Tongyuan

    2004-01-01

    Objectives To assess the effect of delayed opening the infarct - related artery(IRA) by percutanous coronary intervention (PCI) on the late phase left ventricular function after acute anterior myocardial infarction. Methods 64 patients with initial Q -wave anterior myocardial infarction and the infarct- related arteries were total occluded conformed by angiogram at 2 to 14 days after onset were divided into successful PCI group and control group (not receiving PCI or the IRA not re - opened). 2 - DE was performed at early phase ( about 3 weeks) , 2 and 6months after onset of AMI respectively to detect the left ventricular function and left ventricular wall motion abnormality (VWMA). The total congestive heart failure events were recorded during 6 months follow-up. Results VWMA scores, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), left ventricular end - diastolic and end-systolic volume indices (LVEDVI and LVDSVI)were similar in 2 groups at early phase and 2 months.There were no differences between early phase and 2months in each group too. VWMA scores and LVEF did not changed at 6 months in each group compared with the early phase and 2 months (P > 0.05 ). But LVEDVI and LVESVI were significantly smaller in the successful PCI group than in the control group (P <0.01,P < 0. 05 ). The congestive heart failure events were taken place in 19% of patients in control group compared with 2% in successful PCI group ( P > 0.05 ).Conclusions Although the infarct size does not changed, delayed opening the IRA has beneficial effect to the late phase left ventricular dilatation after acute anterior myocardial infarction.

  5. Coagulansin-A has beneficial effects on the development of bovine embryos in vitro via HSP70 induction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Imran; Lee, Kyeong-Lim; Fakruzzaman, Md.; Song, Seok-Hwan; Ihsan-ul-Haq; Mirza, Bushra; Yan, Chang Guo; Kong, Il-Keun

    2016-01-01

    Coagulansin-A (withanolide) is the steroidal lactone obtained from Withania coagulans which belong to Solanaceae family. The present study investigated the effects of coagulansin-A on bovine oocyte maturation and embryo development in vitro. All these oocytes were aspirated from the ovaries obtained from Korean Hanwoo cows at a local abattoir. To determine whether coagulansin-A has beneficial effects on bovine oocyte maturation in vitro, 355 oocytes per group (control and treated) in seven replicates were subjected with different concentrations (1, 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 μM) of coagulansin-A. The coagulansin-A was added in the in vitro maturation (IVM) media followed by in vitro fertilization (IVF) and then in vitro culture (IVC). Only treatment with 5 μM coagulansin-A remarkably (P<0.05) improved embryos development (Day 8 blastocyst) having 27.30 and 40.01% for control and coagulansin-A treated groups respectively. Treatment with 5 μM coagulansin-A significantly induced activation of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) (P<0.05). Immunofluorescence analysis revealed that 5 μM coagulansin-A treatment also significantly inhibited oxidative stress and inflammation during bovine embryo development in vitro by decreasing 8-oxoguanosine (8-OxoG) (P<0.05) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) (P<0.05). The expressions of HSP70 and NF-κB were also conformed through real-time PCR (RT-PCR). Additionally, the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labelling (TUNEL) assay confirmed that coagulansin-A treatment significantly improved the embryo quality and reduced bovine embryo DNA damage (P<0.05). The present study provides new information regarding the mechanisms by which coagulansin-A promotes bovine embryo development in vitro. PMID:26831738

  6. Dietary β-galactomannans have beneficial effects on the intestinal morphology of chickens challenged with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brufau, M T; Martín-Venegas, R; Guerrero-Zamora, A M; Pérez-Vendrell, A M; Vilà, B; Brufau, J; Ferrer, R

    2015-01-01

    show greater (P = 0.001 and P = 0.016, respectively) villus length compared with the animals in the positive control, thus indicating the capacity of these products to increase epithelial surface area. However, no effect (P > 0.05) on microvillus dimensions was detected. In conclusion, the results obtained indicating the beneficial effects of these βGM on intestinal morphology give more evidence of the positive effects of these supplements in poultry nutrition.

  7. Experimental demonstration of topological effects in bianisotropic metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slobozhanyuk, Alexey P; Khanikaev, Alexander B; Filonov, Dmitry S; Smirnova, Daria A; Miroshnichenko, Andrey E; Kivshar, Yuri S

    2016-03-03

    Existence of robust edge states at interfaces of topologically dissimilar systems is one of the most fascinating manifestations of a novel nontrivial state of matter, a topological insulator. Such nontrivial states were originally predicted and discovered in condensed matter physics, but they find their counterparts in other fields of physics, including the physics of classical waves and electromagnetism. Here, we present the first experimental realization of a topological insulator for electromagnetic waves based on engineered bianisotropic metamaterials. By employing the near-field scanning technique, we demonstrate experimentally the topologically robust propagation of electromagnetic waves around sharp corners without backscattering effects.

  8. The leaves of Diospyros kaki exert beneficial effects on a benzalkonium chloride–induced murine dry eye model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung-A; Hyun, Lee Chung; Jung, Sang Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Purpose In this study, the beneficial effects of the oral administration of ethanol extract of Diospyros kaki (EEDK) were tested on a mouse dry eye model induced by benzalkonium chloride (BAC). Methods A solution of 0.2% BAC was administered topically to mouse eyes for 14 days, twice daily, to induce dry eye. Various concentrations of EEDK were administrated daily by oral gavage for 14 days after BAC treatment. Preservative-free eye drops were instilled in the positive-control group. The tear secretion volume (Schirmer’s test), tear break-up time (BUT), and fluorescein score were measured on the ocular surface. BAC-induced corneal damage was tested with hematoxylin-eosin staining. Moreover, apoptotic cell death in the corneal epithelial layer was investigated with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) staining. The protein expression level of interleukin-1alpha (IL-1α), IL-1β, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor- alpha (TNF-α), and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) was determined with western blot analysis. Furthermore, squamous metaplasia in the corneal epithelial layer was detected with immunofluorescent staining for cytokeratine-10. The cellular proliferation in the cornea was examined with immunohistochemical staining for Ki-67. Results EEDK treatment resulted in prolonged BUT, decreased fluorescein score, increased tear volume, and smoother epithelial cells compared with BAC treatment alone in the cornea. Moreover, EEDK treatment inhibited the inflammatory response and corneal epithelial cell death in a BAC-induced murine dry eye model, and changes in squamous cells were inhibited. Proliferative activity in the corneal epithelium cells was improved with EEDK. Conclusions EEDK could be a potential therapeutic agent in the clinical treatment of dry eye. PMID:27110091

  9. The Usefulness of Impedance Cardiography for Predicting Beneficial Effects of Cardiac Rehabilitation in Patients with Heart Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Gielerak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Cardiac rehabilitation (CR is an important part of heart failure (HF treatment. The aim of this paper was to evaluate if thoracic fluid content (TFC measured by impedance cardiography (ICG is a useful parameter for predicting the outcome of CR. Methods. Fifty HF patients underwent clinical and noninvasive haemodynamic (TFC assessments before and after 8-week CR. Results. As a result of CR, the patients’ exercise tolerance improved, especially in terms of peak VO2 (18.7 versus 20.8 mL × kg−1 × min−1; P=0.025. TFC was found to identify patients with significantly improved peak VO2 after CR. “High TFC” patients (TFC > 27.0 kOhm−1, compared to those of “low TFC” (TFC < 27.0 kOhm−1, were found to have more pronounced increase in peak VO2 (1.3 versus 3.1 mL × kg−1 × min−1; P=0.011 and decrease in TFC (4.0 versus 0.7 kOhm−1; P<0.00001. On the other hand, the patients with improved peak VO2 (n=32 differed from those with no peak VO2 improvement in terms of higher baseline TFC values (28.4 versus 25.3 kOhm−1; P=0.039 and its significant decrease after CR (2.7 versus 0.2 kOhm−1; P=0.012. Conclusions. TFC can be a useful parameter for predicting beneficial effects of CR worth including in the process of patients’ qualification for CR.

  10. Estrogen Receptor α Participates to the Beneficial Effect of Red Wine Polyphenols in a Mouse Model of Obesity-Related Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonetti, Daniela; Soleti, Raffaella; Clere, Nicolas; Vergori, Luisa; Jacques, Caroline; Duluc, Lucie; Dourguia, Catherine; Martínez, Maria C.; Andriantsitohaina, Ramaroson

    2017-01-01

    Red wine polyphenol extracts (polyphenols) ameliorate cardiovascular and metabolic disorders associated with obesity. Previously, we demonstrated that the alpha isoform of estrogen receptor (ERα) triggers the vascular protection of polyphenols. Here, we investigated the contribution of ERα on the effects of polyphenols on cardiovascular and metabolic alterations associated with obesity. We used ovariectomized wild type or ERα-deficient mice receiving standard (SD) or western (WD) diets, or SD and WD containing polyphenols (SD+polyphenols and WD+polyphenols, respectively) over a 12-week period. Body weight was measured during treatment. Echocardiography examination was performed before sacrifice. Blood and tissues were sampled for biochemical and functional analysis with respect to nitric oxide (NO•) and oxidative stress. Vascular reactivity and liver mitochondrial complexes were analyzed. In WD-fed mice, polyphenols reduced adiposity, plasma triglycerides and oxidative stress in aorta, heart, adipose and liver tissues and enhanced NO• production in aorta and liver. ERα deletion prevented or reduced the beneficial effects of polyphenols, especially visceral adiposity, aortic and liver oxidative stresses and NO• bioavailability. ERα deletion, however, had no effect on polyphenol’s ability to decrease the fat accumulation and oxidative stress of subcutaneous adipose tissue. Also, ERα deletion did not modify the decrease of ROS levels induced by polyphenols treatment in the visceral adipose tissue and heart from WD-fed mice. Dietary supplementation of polyphenols remarkably attenuates features of metabolic syndrome; these effects are partially mediated by ERα-dependent mechanisms. This study demonstrates the therapeutic potential of this extract in metabolic and cardiovascular alterations linked to excessive energy intake. PMID:28119607

  11. Beneficial effects of metformin on energy metabolism and visceral fat volume through a possible mechanism of fatty acid oxidation in human subjects and rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokubuchi, Ichiro; Tajiri, Yuji; Iwata, Shimpei; Hara, Kento; Wada, Nobuhiko; Hashinaga, Toshihiko; Nakayama, Hitomi; Mifune, Hiroharu; Yamada, Kentaro

    2017-01-01

    Metformin is known to have a beneficial effect on body weight and body composition, although the precise mechanism has not been elucidated yet. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of metformin on energy metabolism and anthropometric factors in both human subjects and rats. In human studies, metformin (1500mg/day) was administered to 23 healthy subjects and 18 patients with type 2 diabetes for 2 weeks. Metabolic parameters and energy metabolism were measured during a meal tolerance test in the morning before and after the treatment of metformin. In animal studies, 13 weeks old SD rats were fed 25-26 g of standard chow only during 12-hours dark phase with either treated by metformin (2.5mg/ml in drinking water) or not for 2 weeks, and metabolic parameters, anthropometric factors and energy metabolism together with expressions related to fat oxidation and adaptive thermogenesis were measured either in fasting or post-prandial state at 15 weeks old. Post-prandial plasma lactate concentration was significantly increased after the metformin treatment in both healthy subjects and diabetic patients. Although energy expenditure (EE) did not change, baseline respiratory quotient (RQ) was significantly decreased and post-prandial RQ was significantly increased vice versa following the metformin treatment in both groups. By the administration of metformin to SD rats for 2 weeks, plasma levels of lactate and pyruvate were significantly increased in both fasting and post-prandial states. RQ during a fasting state was significantly decreased in metformin-treated rats compared to controls with no effect on EE. Metformin treatment brought about a significant reduction of visceral fat mass compared to controls accompanied by an up-regulation of fat oxidation-related enzyme in the liver, UCP-1 in the brown adipose tissue and UCP-3 in the skeletal muscle. From the results obtained, beneficial effects of metformin on visceral fat reduction has been demonstrated probably

  12. Beneficial effects of metformin on energy metabolism and visceral fat volume through a possible mechanism of fatty acid oxidation in human subjects and rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokubuchi, Ichiro; Tajiri, Yuji; Iwata, Shimpei; Hara, Kento; Wada, Nobuhiko; Hashinaga, Toshihiko; Nakayama, Hitomi; Mifune, Hiroharu; Yamada, Kentaro

    2017-01-01

    Objective Metformin is known to have a beneficial effect on body weight and body composition, although the precise mechanism has not been elucidated yet. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of metformin on energy metabolism and anthropometric factors in both human subjects and rats. Methods In human studies, metformin (1500mg/day) was administered to 23 healthy subjects and 18 patients with type 2 diabetes for 2 weeks. Metabolic parameters and energy metabolism were measured during a meal tolerance test in the morning before and after the treatment of metformin. In animal studies, 13 weeks old SD rats were fed 25–26 g of standard chow only during 12-hours dark phase with either treated by metformin (2.5mg/ml in drinking water) or not for 2 weeks, and metabolic parameters, anthropometric factors and energy metabolism together with expressions related to fat oxidation and adaptive thermogenesis were measured either in fasting or post-prandial state at 15 weeks old. Results Post-prandial plasma lactate concentration was significantly increased after the metformin treatment in both healthy subjects and diabetic patients. Although energy expenditure (EE) did not change, baseline respiratory quotient (RQ) was significantly decreased and post-prandial RQ was significantly increased vice versa following the metformin treatment in both groups. By the administration of metformin to SD rats for 2 weeks, plasma levels of lactate and pyruvate were significantly increased in both fasting and post-prandial states. RQ during a fasting state was significantly decreased in metformin-treated rats compared to controls with no effect on EE. Metformin treatment brought about a significant reduction of visceral fat mass compared to controls accompanied by an up-regulation of fat oxidation-related enzyme in the liver, UCP-1 in the brown adipose tissue and UCP-3 in the skeletal muscle. Conclusion From the results obtained, beneficial effects of metformin on visceral fat

  13. The beneficial effects of ranolazine on cardiac function after myocardial infarction are greater in diabetic than in nondiabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourouzis, Iordanis; Mantzouratou, Polixeni; Galanopoulos, Georgios; Kostakou, Erietta; Dhalla, Arvinder K; Belardinelli, Luiz; Pantos, Constantinos

    2014-09-01

    Ranolazine (RAN) is known to exert both anti-ischemic and antidiabetic actions. Thus, this study has explored the hypothesis that RAN would have greater effect on the recovery of cardiac function in diabetic mellitus (DM) rat hearts following myocardial infarction (MI). Myocardial infarction was induced in nondiabetic (MI, n = 14) and diabetic (streptozotocin induced; DM-MI, n = 13) Wistar rats by permanent ligation of the left coronary artery. Cardiac function was evaluated using echocardiography (left ventricular ejection fraction %) and in isolated heart preparations by measuring left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP), and the positive and negative first derivative of LVDP (± dp/dt). Ranolazine (20 mg/kg, ip once a day) was administered 24 hours after surgical procedure for 4 weeks to nondiabetic (MI + RAN, n = 17) and diabetic rats (DM-MI + RAN, n = 15). The RAN improved the recovery of function in both the nondiabetic and the diabetic postinfarcted hearts but this effect was greater and achieved statistical significance only in the diabetic group. The RAN resulted in increased levels of phosphorylated protein kinase B (Akt) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR, a component of Akt signaling) in both nondiabetic and diabetic infarcted hearts without changes in the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs; p38 MAPK, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase). In addition, in diabetic hearts, RAN resulted in a significant increase in the ratio of sarcoplasmic Ca(2+)-ATPase/phospholamban (a target of Akt signaling, 2.0-fold increase) and increased levels of phosphorylated calcium-regulated adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK; 2.0-fold increase). In diabetic animals, RAN increased insulin and lowered glucose levels in serum. In conclusion, the beneficial effect of RAN on the recovery of cardiac function after MI was greater in DM rats. This response was associated with activation of Akt/mTOR and AMPK

  14. The Mozart effect may only be demonstrable in nonmusicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twomey, A; Esgate, A

    2002-12-01

    The "Mozart effect" is the tendency to score higher on spatiotemporal IQ subscales following exposure to complex music such as Mozart's Sonata K.448. This phenomenon was investigated in 20 musicians and 20 nonmusicians. The trion model predicts increased synchrony between musical and spatiotemporal centres in the right cerebral hemisphere. Since increased left-hemispheric involvement in music processing occurs as a result of music training, predictions deriving from the possibility of increased synchrony with left-hemispheric areas in musicians were tested. These included improved performance on language as well as spatiotemporal tasks. Spatiotemporal, synonym generation, and rhyming word generation tasks were employed as was the Mozart Sonata K.448. A Mozart effect was demonstrated on the spatiotemporal task, and the facilitatory effect of exposure to Mozart was greater for the nonmusician group. This finding adds to the robustness of the Mozart effect since novel tasks were used. No Mozart effect was found for either group on the verbal tasks, although the musicians scored higher on rhyming word generation. This new finding adds to the number of nonmusical tasks apparently showing long-term benefits from music training. However, no systematic link was found between performance on any task and number of years spent in music training. The failure to induce a Mozart effect in the musician group on verbal tasks, as well as that group's limited facilitation on spatiotemporal tasks, may be associated with either a ceiling effect due to the long-term effects of music training or from methodological factors. Both possibilities are discussed.

  15. Beneficiated coals' char morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Vargas

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluated the char morphology of beneficiated and original coal (without beneficiation from four Colombian coalmines: Cerrejón (La Guajira, La Jagua (Cesar, Guachinte (Valle del Cauca and Nechí (Antioquia. Column flotation was used to obtain beneficiated coal, whereas a drop tube reactor at 1,000°C, 104 °C/s heating rate and 100 ms residence time was used to obtain char. The chars were analysed by image analysis which determined their shape, size, porosity and wall thickness. It was found that char morphology depended on coal rank and maceral composition. Morphological characteristics like high porosity, thinner walls and network-like morphology which are beneficial in improving combustion were present in vitrinite- and liptinite-rich lowest-ranking coals. Beneficiated coals showed that their chars had better performance regarding their morphological characteristics than their original coal chars.

  16. Formulation of a medical food cocktail for Alzheimer's disease: beneficial effects on cognition and neuropathology in a mouse model of the disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Parachikova

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dietary supplements have been extensively studied for their beneficial effects on cognition and AD neuropathology. The current study examines the effect of a medical food cocktail consisting of the dietary supplements curcumin, piperine, epigallocatechin gallate, α-lipoic acid, N-acetylcysteine, B vitamins, vitamin C, and folate on cognitive functioning and the AD hallmark features and amyloid-beta (Aβ in the Tg2576 mouse model of the disease. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The study found that administering the medical food cocktail for 6 months improved cortical- and hippocampal- dependent learning in the transgenic mice, rendering their performance indistinguishable from non-transgenic controls. Coinciding with this improvement in learning and memory, we found that treatment resulted in decreased soluble Aβ, including Aβ oligomers, previously found to be linked to cognitive functioning. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, the current study demonstrates that combination diet consisting of natural dietary supplements improves cognitive functioning while decreasing AD neuropathology and may thus represent a safe, natural treatment for AD.

  17. Lack of evidence of a beneficial effect of azathioprine immune-mediated hemolytic anemia: a retrospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piek, C.J.; Spil, Van W.E.; Junius, G.; Dekker, A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Azathioprine is used as an immunosuppressant in canine immune-mediated hemolytic anemia (IMHA), but this potentially toxic and carcinogenic drug has not been proven to be beneficial. The aim of this study was to determine the difference in outcome and survival of dogs with idiopathic IMHA

  18. Beneficial Effects of an Alternating High- Fat Dietary Regimen on Systemic Insulin Resistance, Hepatic and Renal Inflammation and Renal Function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yakala, Gopala K.; van der Heijden, Roel; Molema, Grietje; Schipper, Martin; Wielinga, Peter Y.; Kleemann, Robert; Kooistra, Teake; Heeringa, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Background: An Alternating high-cholesterol dietary regimen has proven to be beneficial when compared to daily high-cholesterol feeding. In the current study we explored whether the same strategy is applicable to a high-fat dietary regimen. Objective: To investigate whether an alternating high-fat d

  19. Beneficial Effects of an Alternating High- Fat Dietary Regimen on Systemic Insulin Resistance, Hepatic and Renal Inflammation and Renal Function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yakala, G.K.; Heijden, R. van der; Molema, G.; Schipper, M.; Wielinga, P.Y.; Kleemann, R.; Kooistra, T.; Heeringa, P.

    2012-01-01

    Background: An Alternating high- cholesterol dietary regimen has proven to be beneficial when compared to daily high- cholesterol feeding. In the current study we explored whether the same strategy is applicable to a high- fat dietary regimen. Objective: To investigate whether an alternating high- f

  20. Beneficial Effects of an Alternating High- Fat Dietary Regimen on Systemic Insulin Resistance, Hepatic and Renal Inflammation and Renal Function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yakala, Gopala K.; van der Heijden, Roel; Molema, Grietje; Schipper, Martin; Wielinga, Peter Y.; Kleemann, Robert; Kooistra, Teake; Heeringa, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Background: An Alternating high-cholesterol dietary regimen has proven to be beneficial when compared to daily high-cholesterol feeding. In the current study we explored whether the same strategy is applicable to a high-fat dietary regimen. Objective: To investigate whether an alternating high-fat d

  1. Beneficial Effects of an Alternating High- Fat Dietary Regimen on Systemic Insulin Resistance, Hepatic and Renal Inflammation and Renal Function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yakala, G.K.; Heijden, R. van der; Molema, G.; Schipper, M.; Wielinga, P.Y.; Kleemann, R.; Kooistra, T.; Heeringa, P.

    2012-01-01

    Background: An Alternating high- cholesterol dietary regimen has proven to be beneficial when compared to daily high- cholesterol feeding. In the current study we explored whether the same strategy is applicable to a high- fat dietary regimen. Objective: To investigate whether an alternating high- f

  2. Beneficial Effects of an Alternating High- Fat Dietary Regimen on Systemic Insulin Resistance, Hepatic and Renal Inflammation and Renal Function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yakala, G.K.; Heijden, R. van der; Molema, G.; Schipper, M.; Wielinga, P.Y.; Kleemann, R.; Kooistra, T.; Heeringa, P.

    2012-01-01

    Background: An Alternating high- cholesterol dietary regimen has proven to be beneficial when compared to daily high- cholesterol feeding. In the current study we explored whether the same strategy is applicable to a high- fat dietary regimen. Objective: To investigate whether an alternating high-

  3. Beneficial Effects of an Alternating High- Fat Dietary Regimen on Systemic Insulin Resistance, Hepatic and Renal Inflammation and Renal Function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yakala, Gopala K.; van der Heijden, Roel; Molema, Grietje; Schipper, Martin; Wielinga, Peter Y.; Kleemann, Robert; Kooistra, Teake; Heeringa, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Background: An Alternating high-cholesterol dietary regimen has proven to be beneficial when compared to daily high-cholesterol feeding. In the current study we explored whether the same strategy is applicable to a high-fat dietary regimen. Objective: To investigate whether an alternating high-fat

  4. Using Computers in Early Years Education: What Are the Effects on Children's Development? Some Suggestions Concerning Beneficial Computer Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodotou, Evgenia

    2010-01-01

    Technology in education is considered in empirical and theoretical literature as both beneficial and harmful to children's development. In the field of the early years settings there is a dilemma whether or not early childhood teachers should use technology as a teaching and learning resource. This paper has a pedagogical focus, discussing the…

  5. Short- and long-term beneficial effects of a multidisciplinary therapy for the control of metabolic syndrome in obese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caranti, Danielle Arisa; de Mello, Marco Túlio; Prado, Wagner L; Tock, Lian; Siqueira, Kãli O; de Piano, Aline; Lofrano, Mara C; Cristofalo, Dejaldo M J; Lederman, Henrique; Tufik, Sérgio; Dâmaso, Ana R

    2007-09-01

    Visceral fat is highly correlated with metabolic syndrome in obese adolescents. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and to assess the effect of a long-term (1 year) intervention with multidisciplinary therapy in predicting metabolic syndrome among obese adolescents, as well as to compare short- with long-term therapy. Eighty-three postpuberty obese adolescents were recruited, including 37 boys (body mass index [BMI], 36.19 +/- 3.85 kg/m(2)) and 46 girls (BMI, 35.73 +/- 4.42 kg/m(2)). Body composition was measured by plethysmography using the BOD POD body composition system (version 1.69, Life Measurement Instruments, Concord, CA), and visceral fat was analyzed by ultrasound. Metabolic syndrome was determined according to the World Health Organization criteria. Patients were assigned to a weight loss multidisciplinary intervention consisting of nutritional, exercise, psychological, and clinical therapy. At the beginning of therapy, we found that 27.16% of the obese adolescents presented metabolic syndrome, whereas only 8.3% did so after intervention. Indeed, in boys, BMI (36.19 +/- 3.85 to 32.06 +/- 5.85 kg/m(2)), visceral fat (4.88 +/- 1.35 to 3.63 +/- 1.71 cm), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (4.77 +/- 3.41 to 3.18 +/- 2.33), and percentage of body fat (38.24% +/- 6.54% to 30.02% +/- 13.43%) presented a statistically significant reduction; and their fat-free mass percentage increased (62.14% +/- 5.78% to 69.17% +/- 12.37%). In girls, after long-term therapy, BMI (35.73 +/- 4.42 to 33.62 +/- 3.78 kg/m(2)), visceral fat (3.70 +/- 1.40 to 2.75 +/- 1.01 cm), and percentage of body fat (46.10% +/- 5.66% to 39.91% +/- 5.59%) showed a statistically significant reduction; and their fat-free mass increased (53.61% +/- 5.65% to 59.82% +/- 5.78%). In conclusion, long-term multidisciplinary therapy was effective in promoting beneficial changes in some predictors and decreasing the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in

  6. Beneficial effects of n-acetyl cysteine on pancreas and kidney following experimental pancreatic ischemia-reperfusion in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Ferreira Meirelles Junior

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the protective effects of N-acetyl cysteine on the pancreas and kidney after pancreatic ischemia reperfusion injury in a rat model. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Pancreatic ischemia reperfusion was performed in Wistar rats for 1 hour. Revascularization was achieved followed by 4 h of reperfusion. A total of 24 animals were divided into four groups: Group 1: sham; Group 2: pancreatic ischemia reperfusion without treatment; Group 3: pancreatic ischemia reperfusion plus N-acetyl cysteine intravenously; and Group 4: pancreatic ischemia reperfusion plus N-acetyl cysteine per os. Blood and tissue samples were collected after reperfusion. RESULTS: There were significant differences in amylase levels between Group 1 (6.11±0.55 and Group 2 (10.30±0.50 [p=0.0002] as well as between Group 2 (10.30±0.50 and Group 4 (7.82±0.38 [p=0.003]; creatinine levels between Group 1 (0.52 ± 0.07 and Group 2 (0.77±0.18 [p=0.035] as well as between Group 2 (0.77±0.18 and Group 3 (0.48±0.13 [p=0.012]; and pancreatic tissue thiobarbituric acid reactive substance levels between Group 1 (1.27±0.96 and Group 2 (2.60±3.01 [p=0.026] as well as between Group 2 (2.60±3.01 and Group 4 (0.52±0.56 [p=0.002]. A decrease in pancreatic tissue GST-α3 gene expression was observed in Group 2 in comparison to Group 1 (p =0.006, and an increase was observed in Groups 3 and 4 when compared to Group 2 (p= 0.025 and p=0.010, respectively. CONCLUSION: This study provides evidence that N-acetyl cysteine has a beneficial effect on pancreatic ischemia reperfusion injury and renal function in a rat model.

  7. Demonstration of Complementary Ternary Graphene Field-Effect Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yun Ji; Kim, So-Young; Noh, Jinwoo; Shim, Chang Hoo; Jung, Ukjin; Lee, Sang Kyung; Chang, Kyoung Eun; Cho, Chunhum; Lee, Byoung Hun

    2016-12-01

    Strong demand for power reduction in state-of-the-art semiconductor devices calls for novel devices and architectures. Since ternary logic architecture can perform the same function as binary logic architecture with a much lower device density and higher information density, a switch device suitable for the ternary logic has been pursued for several decades. However, a single device that satisfies all the requirements for ternary logic architecture has not been demonstrated. We demonstrated a ternary graphene field-effect transistor (TGFET), showing three discrete current states in one device. The ternary function was achieved by introducing a metal strip to the middle of graphene channel, which created an N-P-N or P-N-P doping pattern depending on the work function of the metal. In addition, a standard ternary inverter working at room temperature has been achieved by modulating the work function of the metal in a graphene channel. The feasibility of a ternary inverter indicates that a general ternary logic architecture can be realized using complementary TGFETs. This breakthrough will provide a key stepping-stone for an extreme-low-power computing technology.

  8. Experimental demonstration of the time reversal Aharonov-Casher effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergsten, Tobias; Kobayashi, Toshiyuki; Sekine, Yoshiaki; Nitta, Junsaku

    2006-11-10

    We demonstrate the time reversal Aharonov-Casher (AC) effect in small arrays of mesoscopic semiconductor rings. By using an electrostatic gate we can control the spin precession rate and follow the AC phase over several interference periods. We show that we control the precession rate in two different gate voltage ranges; in the lower range the gate voltage dependence is strong and linear and in the higher range the dependence in almost an order of magnitude weaker. We also see the second harmonic of the AC interference, oscillating with half the period. We finally map the AC phase to the spin-orbit interaction parameter alpha and find it is consistent with Shubnikov-de Haas analysis.

  9. Soil components mitigate the antimicrobial effects of silver nanoparticles towards a beneficial soil bacterium, Pseudomonas chlororaphis O6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calder, Alyssa J. [Department of Biological Engineering, Utah State University, Logan, UT 84322 (United States); Dimkpa, Christian O. [Department of Biological Engineering, Utah State University, Logan, UT 84322 (United States); Department of Biology, Utah State University, Logan, UT 84322 (United States); McLean, Joan E. [Utah Water Research Laboratory, Utah State University, Logan, UT 84322 (United States); Britt, David W. [Department of Biological Engineering, Utah State University, Logan, UT 84322 (United States); Johnson, William [Geology and Geophysics, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Anderson, Anne J., E-mail: anne.anderson@usu.edu [Department of Biology, Utah State University, Logan, UT 84322 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) are widely used for their antimicrobial activity and consequently the particles will become environmental contaminants. This study evaluated in sand and soil matrices the toxicity of 10 nm spherical Ag NPs (1 and 3 mg Ag/L) toward a beneficial soil bacterium, Pseudomonas chlororaphis O6. In sand, both NP doses resulted in loss in bacterial culturability whereas in a loam soil, no cell death was observed. Amendments of sand with clays (30% v/v kaolinite or bentonite) did not protect the bacterium when challenged with Ag NPs. However, culturability of the bacterium was maintained when the Ag NP-amended sand was mixed with soil pore water or humic acid. Imaging by atomic force microscopy revealed aggregation of single nanoparticles in water, and their embedding into background material when suspended in pore water and humic acids. Zeta potential measurements supported aggregation and surface charge modifications with pore water and humic acids. Measurement of soluble Ag in the microcosms and geochemical modeling to deduce the free ion concentration revealed bacterial culturability was governed by the predicted free Ag ion concentrations. Our study confirmed the importance of Ag NPs as a source of ions and illustrated that processes accounting for protection in soil against Ag NPs involved distinct NP- and ion-effects. Processes affecting NP bioactivity involved surface charge changes due to sorption of Ca{sup 2+} from the pore water leading to agglomeration and coating of the NPs with humic acid and other organic materials. Removal of bioactive ions included the formation of soluble Ag complexes with dissolved organic carbon and precipitation of Ag ions with chloride in pore water. We conclude that mitigation of toxicity of Ag NPs in soils towards a soil bacterium resides in several interactions that differentially involve protection from the Ag NPs or the ions they produce. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silver nanoparticles

  10. Role of eicosanoids and white blood cells in the beneficial effects of limited reperfusion after ischemia-reperfusion injury in skeletal muscle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, R.J.; Cambria, R.A.; Dikdan, G.; Lysz, T.W.; Hobson, R.W. II (UMDNJ-New Jersey Medical School, Newark (USA))

    1990-08-01

    Limiting the rate of reperfusion blood flow has been shown to be beneficial locally in models of ischemia-reperfusion injury. We investigated the effects of this on eicosanoids (thromboxane B2, 6-keto-PGF1 alpha, and leukotriene B4), white blood cell activation, and skeletal muscle injury as quantitated by triphenyltetrazolium chloride and technetium-99m pyrophosphate after ischemia-reperfusion injury in an isolated gracilis muscle model in 16 anesthetized dogs. One gracilis muscle in each dog was subjected to 6 hours of ischemia followed by 1 hour of limited reperfusion and then by a second hour of normal reperfusion. The other muscle was subjected to 6 hours of ischemia followed by 2 hours of normal reperfusion. Six dogs each were used as normal reperfusion controls (NR) and limited reperfusion controls (LR), with 5 dogs being treated with a thromboxane synthetase inhibitor (LR/TSI) and another five with a leukotriene inhibitor (LR/LI). LR in all three groups (LR, LR/TSI, and LR/LI) showed a benefit in skeletal muscle injury as measured by triphenyltetrazolim chloride and technetium-99m pyrophosphate when compared with NR. However, there was no significant difference between the groups with LR regarding eicosanoid levels and white blood cell activation when compared with NR. These results demonstrate that LR produces benefits by mechanisms other than those dependent upon thromboxane A2, prostacyclin, or white blood cell activation.

  11. Dynamics of beneficial epidemics

    CERN Document Server

    Berdahl, Andrew; De Bacco, Caterina; Dumas, Marion; Ferdinand, Vanessa; Grochow, Joshua A; Hébert-Dufresne, Laurent; Kallus, Yoav; Kempes, Christopher P; Kolchinsky, Artemy; Larremore, Daniel B; Libby, Eric; Power, Eleanor A; Stern, Caitlin A; Tracey, Brendan

    2016-01-01

    Pathogens can spread epidemically through populations. Beneficial contagions, such as viruses that enhance host survival or technological innovations that improve quality of life, also have the potential to spread epidemically. How do the dynamics of beneficial biological and social epidemics differ from those of detrimental epidemics? We investigate this question using three theoretical approaches as well as an empirical analysis of concept propagation. First, in evolutionary models, we show that a beneficial horizontally-transmissible element, such as viral DNA, spreads super-exponentially through a population, substantially more quickly than a beneficial mutation. Second, in an epidemiological social network approach, we show that infections that cause increased connectivity lead to faster-than-exponential fixation in the population. Third, in a sociological model with strategic rewiring, we find that preferences for increased global infection accelerate spread and produce super-exponential fixation rates,...

  12. Beneficial Insects: Beetles

    OpenAIRE

    Hodgson, Erin W.; Patterson, Ron

    2007-01-01

    There are many beneficial beetles in Utah besides lady beetles or ladybugs. Beetles can significantly reduce common insect and weed problems and in some cases eliminate the need for chemical control. Examples of beneficial beetles include: ground beetles, rove beetles, tiger beetles and tortoise beetles. Many of these beetles are native to Utah, while others have been purposely introduced to help control damage from exotic insect and weed pests.

  13. The role of epoxidation and electrophile-responsive element-regulated gene transcription in the potentially beneficial and harmful effects of the coffee components cafestol and kahweol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Cruchten, Saskia T J; de Haan, Laura H J; Mulder, Patrick P J; Kunne, Cindy; Boekschoten, Mark V; Katan, Martijn B; Aarts, Jac M M J G; Witkamp, Renger F

    2010-08-01

    Cafestol and kahweol are diterpene compounds present in unfiltered coffees. Cafestol is known as the most potent cholesterol-raising agent that may be present in the human diet. Remarkably, the mechanisms behind this effect have only been partly resolved so far. Even less is known about the metabolic fate of cafestol and kahweol. From the structure of cafestol, carrying a furan moiety, we hypothesized that epoxidation may not only be an important biotransformation route but that this also plays a role in its effects found. In bile duct-cannulated mice, dosed with cafestol, we were able to demonstrate the presence of epoxy-glutathione (GSH) conjugates, GSH conjugates and glucuronide conjugates. In addition, it was shown that cafestol was able to induce an electrophile-responsive element (EpRE). Using a murine hepatoma cell line with a luciferase reporter gene under control of an EpRE from the human NQO1 regulatory region, we also found that metabolic activation by CYP450 enzymes is needed for EpRE induction. Furthermore, raising intracellular GSH resulted in a decrease in EpRE-mediated gene induction, whereas lowering intracellular GSH levels increased EpRE-mediated gene induction. In conclusion, evidence suggests that cafestol induces EpRE, apparently via a bioactivation process that possibly involves epoxidation of the furan ring. The epoxides themselves appear subject to conjugation with GSH. The effects on EpRE can also explain the induction of GSH which seems to be involved in the reported beneficial effects of cafestol, for example, when administered with aflatoxin B1 or other toxic or carcinogenic compounds. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Beneficial Properties of Probiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lye Huey; Balakrishnan, Kunasundari; Thiagarajah, Kokila; Mohd Ismail, Nor Ismaliza; Yin, Ooi Shao

    2016-01-01

    Probiotics are live microorganisms that can be found in fermented foods and cultured milk, and are widely used for the preparation of infant food. They are well-known as “health friendly bacteria”, which exhibit various health beneficial properties such as prevention of bowel diseases, improving the immune system, for lactose intolerance and intestinal microbial balance, exhibiting antihypercholesterolemic and antihypertensive effects, alleviation of postmenopausal disorders, and reducing traveller’s diarrhoea. Recent studies have also been focused on their uses in treating skin and oral diseases. In addition to that, modulation of the gut-brain by probiotics has been suggested as a novel therapeutic solution for anxiety and depression. Thus, this review discusses on the current probiotics-based products in Malaysia, criteria for selection of probiotics, and evidences obtained from past studies on how probiotics have been used in preventing intestinal disorders via improving the immune system, acting as an antihypercholesterolemic factor, improving oral and dermal health, and performing as anti-anxiety and anti-depressive agents. PMID:27688852

  15. Demonstration of the greenhouse effect for elementary school students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radovanovic, Jelena

    2014-05-01

    The school where I work is part of the "Step by step towards the sustainable development school" project. Project activities are partly directed towards the popularization of science. As a physics teacher, I have had the opportunity to engage in designing interactive workshops, aiming to introduce younger students to simple experiments which illustrate different natural phenomena, and also in organization, preparation and implementation of school and city science festival (in 2012 and 2013). Numerous displays, workshops and experiments served to introduce a large number of visitors to different topics in the area of science and technology. One of the subjects of forthcoming science festival, planned for May of 2014, is the climate change. To that effect, eight grade students will hold a demonstration and explanation of the greenhouse effect. Although the terms greenhouse effect and global warming are widely used in media, most of the elementary school students in Serbia have poor understanding of the underlying scientific concepts. The experiment with analysis and discussion will first be implemented in one eight-grade class (14 years of age). After that, a group of students from this class will present their newly-acquired knowledge to their peers and younger students at the science fair. Activity objectives: • Explain how atmosphere affects the surface temperature of Earth • Conduct an experiment to demonstrate the greenhouse effect • Analyze the consequences of climate changes Experiment description: Take two empty, transparent containers and add a layer of garden soil. Use cardboard or similar material to make housings for the thermometers. Hang them in the containers, so that they don't touch the soil. Cover one container with a glass panel, and leave the other one open. Place identical incandescent light bulbs at the same distance above each container. Turn the light bulbs on. The students should mark the thermometer readings every 2 minutes, for 20

  16. Orally administered whole egg demonstrates antidepressant-like effects in the forced swimming test on rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasawa, Mao; Otsuka, Tsuyoshi; Ogino, Yumi; Yoshida, Junki; Tomonaga, Shozo; Yasuo, Shinobu; Furuse, Mitsuhiro

    2014-08-01

    Several studies have reported that vegetarian diets are associated with a higher prevalence of major depression. Therefore, we hypothesised that the consumption of animal products, especially eggs, may have positive effects on mental health, especially on major depression, because a previous study reported that egg consumption produces numerous beneficial effects in humans. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of chronic whole-egg treatment on depression-like behaviours in Wistar rats, a control strain, and Wistar Kyoto rats, an animal model of depression. In both the rats, either whole-egg solution (5 ml/kg) or distilled water (5 ml/kg) was orally administrated for 35 days. During these periods, the open-field test (OFT) was conducted on the 21st day, and a forced swimming test (FST) was enforced on the 27th and 28th days. On the 36th day, the plasma and brain were collected. Chronic whole-egg treatment did not affect line crossing in the OFT, whereas it reduced the total duration of immobility in the FST on both strains. Furthermore, interestingly, the results indicated the possibility that whole-egg treatment elevated the incorporation of tryptophan into the brain, and the tryptophan concentration in the prefrontal cortex was actually increased by the treatment. This study demonstrated that whole-egg treatment exerts an antidepressant-like effect in the FST. It is suggested that whole egg may be an excellent food for preventing and alleviating the conditions of major depression.

  17. Formulation of a Medical Food Cocktail for Alzheimer's Disease: Beneficial Effects on Cognition and Neuropathology in a Mouse Model of the Disease

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dietary supplements have been extensively studied for their beneficial effects on cognition and AD neuropathology. The current study examines the effect of a medical food cocktail consisting of the dietary supplements curcumin, piperine, epigallocatechin gallate, α-lipoic acid, N-acetylcysteine, B vitamins, vitamin C, and folate on cognitive functioning and the AD hallmark features and amyloid-beta (Aβ) in the Tg2576 mouse model of the disease. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The study found ...

  18. Beneficial effects of short-term combination exercise training on diverse cognitive functions in healthy older people: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nouchi Rui

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Results of previous studies have shown that exercise training can improve cognitive functions in healthy older people. Some studies have demonstrated that long-term combination exercise training can facilitate memory function improvement better than either aerobic or strength exercise training alone. Nevertheless, it remains unclear whether short-term combination exercise training can improve diverse cognitive functions in healthy older people or not. We investigate the effects of four weeks of short-term combination exercise training on various cognitive functions (executive functions, episodic memory, short-term memory, working memory, attention, reading ability, and processing speed of healthy older people. Methods A single-blinded intervention with two parallel groups (combination exercise training; waiting list control is used. Testers are blind to the study hypothesis and the participants’ group membership. Through an advertisement in a local newspaper, 64 healthy older adults are recruited and then assigned randomly to a combination exercise training group or a waiting list control group. Participants in the combination exercise training group must participate in the short-term combination exercise training (aerobic and strength exercise training three days per week during the four weeks (12 workouts in total. The waiting list group does not participate in the combination exercise training. The primary outcome measure is the Stroop test score: a measure of executive function. Secondary outcome measures are assessments including the Verbal Fluency Task, Logical Memory, First and Second Names, Digit Span Forward, Digit span backward, Japanese Reading Test, Digit Cancellation Task, Digit Symbol Coding, and Symbol Search. We assess these outcome measures before and after the intervention. Discussion This report is the first of a study that investigates the beneficial effects of short-term combination exercise training on

  19. Neurological and histological consequences induced by in vivo cerebral oxidative stress: evidence for beneficial effects of SRT1720, a sirtuin 1 activator, and sirtuin 1-mediated neuroprotective effects of poly(ADP-ribose polymerase inhibition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy Gueguen

    Full Text Available Poly(ADP-ribosepolymerase and sirtuin 1 are both NAD(+-dependent enzymes. In vitro oxidative stress activates poly(ADP-ribosepolymerase, decreases NAD(+ level, sirtuin 1 activity and finally leads to cell death. Poly(ADP-ribosepolymerase hyperactivation contributes to cell death. In addition, poly(ADP-ribosepolymerase inhibition restores NAD(+ level and sirtuin 1 activity in vitro. In vitro sirtuin 1 induction protects neurons from cell loss induced by oxidative stress. In this context, the role of sirtuin 1 and its involvement in beneficial effects of poly(ADP-ribosepolymerase inhibition were evaluated in vivo in a model of cerebral oxidative stress induced by intrastriatal infusion of malonate in rat. Malonate promoted a NAD(+ decrease that was not prevented by 3-aminobenzamide, a poly(ADP-ribosepolymerase inhibitor, at 4 and 24 hours. However, 3-aminobenzamide increased nuclear SIRT1 activity/expression ratio after oxidative stress. Malonate induced a neurological deficit associated with a striatal lesion. Both were reduced by 3-aminobenzamide and SRT1720, a sirtuin 1 activator, showing beneficial effects of poly(ADP-ribosepolymerase inhibition and sirtuin 1 activation on oxidative stress consequences. EX527, a sirtuin 1 inhibitor, given alone, modified neither the score nor the lesion, suggesting that endogenous sirtuin 1 was not activated during cerebral oxidative stress. However, its association with 3-aminobenzamide suppressed the neurological improvement and the lesion reduction induced by 3-aminobenzamide. The association of 3-aminobenzamide with SRT1720, the sirtuin 1 activator, did not lead to a better protection than 3-aminobenzamide alone. The present data represent the first demonstration that the sirtuin 1 activator SRT1720 is neuroprotective during in vivo cerebral oxidative stress. Furthermore sirtuin 1 activation is involved in the beneficial effects of poly(ADP-ribosepolymerase inhibition after in vivo cerebral oxidative

  20. The Unexpected Effects of Beneficial and Adverse Social Experiences during Adolescence on Anxiety and Aggression and Their Modulation by Genotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Neele; Richter, S. Helene; Schreiber, Rebecca S.; Kloke, Vanessa; Kaiser, Sylvia; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Sachser, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    Anxiety and aggression are part of the behavioral repertoire of humans and animals. However, in their exaggerated form both can become maladaptive and result in psychiatric disorders. On the one hand, genetic predisposition has been shown to play a crucial modulatory role in anxiety and aggression. On the other hand, social experiences have been implicated in the modulation of these traits. However, so far, mainly experiences in early life phases have been considered crucial for shaping anxiety-like and aggressive behavior, while the phase of adolescence has largely been neglected. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to elucidate how levels of anxiety-like and aggressive behavior are shaped by social experiences during adolescence and serotonin transporter (5-HTT) genotype. For this purpose, male mice of a 5-HTT knockout mouse model including all three genotypes (wildtype, heterozygous and homozygous 5-HTT knockout mice) were either exposed to an adverse social situation or a beneficial social environment during adolescence. This was accomplished in a custom-made cage system where mice experiencing the adverse environment were repeatedly introduced to the territory of a dominant opponent but had the possibility to escape to a refuge cage. Mice encountering beneficial social conditions had free access to a female mating partner. Afterwards, anxiety-like and aggressive behavior was assessed in a battery of tests. Surprisingly, unfavorable conditions during adolescence led to a decrease in anxiety-like behavior and an increase in exploratory locomotion. Additionally, aggressive behavior was augmented in animals that experienced social adversity. Concerning genotype, homozygous 5-HTT knockout mice were more anxious and less aggressive than heterozygous 5-HTT knockout and wildtype mice. In summary, adolescence is clearly an important phase in which anxiety-like and aggressive behavior can be shaped. Furthermore, it seems that having to cope with challenge during

  1. Beneficial health effects of Chios Gum Mastic and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors: indications of common mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiadis, Ioannis; Karatzas, Theodore; Korou, Laskarina-Maria; Katsilambros, Nikolaos; Perrea, Despina

    2015-01-01

    For thousands of years, Chios Gum Mastic (CGM), the resin produced by the trunk of Pistachia lentiscus var Chia, has been used for culinary and medicinal purposes and several therapeutic properties have been attributed to it. CGM has been used in traditional medicine of various nations in the eastern Mediterranean area. This survey was carried out to identify biological mechanisms that could explain traditional usage and recent pharmacological findings. We reviewed the related scientific literature available from the NCBI PUBMED database on CGM studies and on natural products showing peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) agonist effects. We investigated whether CGM qualifies as a PPAR modulator. A large number of studies demonstrate that CGM has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, hypolipidemic, and anticancer properties. Recently, the first evidence of CGM antidiabetic effect became known. CGM chemical composition has been extensively analyzed and the presence of several compounds, especially triterpenoids is well documented. Some of them, oleanonic acid, oleanolic acid, and gallic acid are considered to act as PPAR modulators. PPARs are nuclear receptors functioning as transcription factors and thereby controlling cellular functions at the level of gene expression. PPARs are involved in the pathways of significant diseases, such as metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, inflammation, atheromatosis, and neoplasias, constituting a key target for pharmacological interventions. This article proposes that the synergistic action of some constituents of CGM on PPARs and more precisely on both PPARs isotypes-α and -γ, may be one of the major biological mechanisms via which CGM exerts its multiple effects.

  2. Beneficial Effects of Long-Term Growth Hormone Treatment on Adaptive Functioning in Infants With Prader-Willi Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Sin T; Festen, Dederieke A M; Tummers-de Lind van Wijngaarden, Roderick F A; Collin, Philippe J L; Hokken-Koelega, Anita C S

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of growth hormone treatment on adaptive functioning in children with Prader-Willi syndrome. Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale (VABS) was assessed during a randomized controlled trial (RCT) and after 7 years of growth hormone treatment. In the RCT, 75 children (42 infants and 33 prepubertal children) with Prader-Willi syndrome were included. Subsequently, 53 children were treated with long-term growth hormone. Our study demonstrates a marked delay in adaptive functioning in infants and children with Prader-Willi syndrome, which was associated with older age and lower intelligence. Results of the repeated measurements show that the earlier growth hormone treatment was started during infancy, the better the adaptive skills were on the long-term.

  3. A novel buckwheat protein with a beneficial effect in atherosclerosis was purified from Fagopyrum tataricum (L. Gaertn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Xiaoli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Buckwheat seeds contain many kinds of functional compounds that are of benefit to patients with cardiovascular disease. In this research, a water-soluble buckwheat protein was isolated and purified through a DEAE-Sepharose anion exchange column and Sephadex G-75 gel chromatography. The isolated buckwheat protein fractions exhibited hypocholesterolemic activity in a HepG2 cell model and demonstrated prominent bile acid salt-binding activity in an in vitro assay. The antioxidative activity of protein fractions with hypolipidemic effects was detected in a free radical scavenging experiment. The buckwheat protein fraction with the most obvious hypolipidemic activity and free radical scavenging activity was named as WSBWP. Its molecular weight was estimated by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis to be 38 kDa. It could become a potential candidate in the treatment of atherosclerosis.

  4. Beneficial Effect of Paljeong-san Pharmacopuncture Treatment Combined with Peritoneal Injection on Glycerol-Induced Acute Renal Failure in Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Yeon Lim

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The present study was carried out to determine if Paljeong-san extract (PJS treatment exerts beneficial effect against the glycerol-induced acute renal failure in rabbits. Material and Method: PJS was selected in the basis of invigorating kidney which can eliminate pathogens. Rabbits were treated with PJS pharmacopuncture on Shin-shu (BL23 point for 5 days right after the injection of 50% concentration of glycerol (5㎖/㎏ body weight. Results and Conclusions: Glycerol injection caused an increase in serum creatinine and BUN level and urine glucose secretion, which were accompanied by a reduction in GFR. PJS Pharmacopuncture treatment combined with peritoneal injection showed beneficial effect on glycerol-induced acute renal failure by inhibition of serum creatinine increase and GFR decrease.

  5. Nontarget Effects of Aerial Mosquito Adulticiding With Water-Based Unsynergized Pyrethroids on Honey Bees and Other Beneficial Insects in an Agricultural Ecosystem of North Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    1977). Pesticides cause higher losses to bees when applied during day (Byrne and Waller 1990), but late evening spraying when the majority of bees are...Control Assoc. 20: 27Ð35. Erickson, B. J., and E. H. Erickson. 1983. Honey bees and pesticides past. 2. Facts and common sense. Am. Bee J. 123...SHORT COMMUNICATION Nontarget Effects of Aerial Mosquito Adulticiding With Water-Based Unsynergized Pyrethroids on Honey Bees and Other Beneficial

  6. Beneficial Effect of Higher Dietary Fiber Intake on Plasma HDL-C and TC/HDL-C Ratio among Chinese Rural-to-Urban Migrant Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan Zhou

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Research has shown that high-dose supplemental dietary fiber intake has beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk factors. To clarify such a relationship, we examined the association between daily dietary fiber intake and plasma lipids using a cross-sectional design including 1034 (M 502, F 532 rural-to-urban workers in China. We found a dose-response relationship between increased dietary fiber intakes and increase of HDL cholesterol in male workers. There was also a dose-response relationship between increased dietary fiber intake and decreased total cholesterol to HDL cholesterol (TC/HDL-C ratio in both male and female workers, after adjusting for potential confounders (p for trend, all p < 0.05. When the average dietary fiber intake increased from less than 18 g/day to over 30 g/day, the average HDL cholesterol level increased by 10.1%, and the TC/HDL-C ratio decreased by 14.4% for males (p = 0.020 and by 11.1% for females (p = 0.048. In conclusion, higher daily dietary fiber consumption is associated with beneficial effect on cholesterol for rural-to-urban workers in China, suggesting its potential beneficial effect on decreasing the risk of cardiovascular diseases.

  7. Beneficial Effect of Higher Dietary Fiber Intake on Plasma HDL-C and TC/HDL-C Ratio among Chinese Rural-to-Urban Migrant Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Quan; Wu, Jiang; Tang, Jie; Wang, Jia-Ji; Lu, Chu-Hong; Wang, Pei-Xi

    2015-04-29

    Research has shown that high-dose supplemental dietary fiber intake has beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk factors. To clarify such a relationship, we examined the association between daily dietary fiber intake and plasma lipids using a cross-sectional design including 1034 (M 502, F 532) rural-to-urban workers in China. We found a dose-response relationship between increased dietary fiber intakes and increase of HDL cholesterol in male workers. There was also a dose-response relationship between increased dietary fiber intake and decreased total cholesterol to HDL cholesterol (TC/HDL-C) ratio in both male and female workers, after adjusting for potential confounders (p for trend, all p dietary fiber intake increased from less than 18 g/day to over 30 g/day, the average HDL cholesterol level increased by 10.1%, and the TC/HDL-C ratio decreased by 14.4% for males (p = 0.020) and by 11.1% for females (p = 0.048). In conclusion, higher daily dietary fiber consumption is associated with beneficial effect on cholesterol for rural-to-urban workers in China, suggesting its potential beneficial effect on decreasing the risk of cardiovascular diseases.

  8. The Effect of Conservation Tillage and Cover Crop Residue on Beneficial Arthropods and Weed Seed Predation in Acorn Squash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, N F; Brainard, D C; Szendrei, Z

    2016-12-01

    Conservation tillage combined with cover crops or mulching may enhance natural enemy activity in agroecosystems by reducing soil disturbance and increasing habitat structural complexity. In particular, weed seed predation can increase with vegetation cover and reduced tillage, indicating that mulches may improve the quality of the habitat for weed seed foraging. The purpose of this study was to quantify the effects of tillage and mulching for conservation biological control in cucurbit fields. The effects of mulch and reduced tillage on arthropods and rates of weed seed loss from arenas were examined in field trials on sandy soils in 2014 and 2015. Experimental factors included tillage and cover crop, each with two levels: strip-tillage or full-tillage, and cover crop mulch (rye residue) or no cover crop mulch (unmulched). Arthropod abundance on the crop foliage was not affected by tillage or cover crops. Contrary to expectations, epigeal natural enemies of insects and rates of weed seed removal either did not respond to treatments or were greater in full-tilled plots and plots without mulch. Our study demonstrates the potential importance of weed seed predators in reducing weed seedbanks in vegetable agroecosystems, and suggests that early-season tillage may not be detrimental to epigeal predator assemblages. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. The beneficial effect of small toxic molecules on dormancy alleviation and germination of apple embryos is due to NO formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gniazdowska, Agnieszka; Krasuska, Urszula; Debska, Karolina; Andryka, Paulina; Bogatek, Renata

    2010-09-01

    Deep dormancy of apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) seeds is terminated by a 3-month-long cold stratification. It is expressed by rapid germination of seeds and undisturbed growth of seedlings. However, stimulation of germination of isolated apple embryos is also observed after applying inhibitors of cytochrome c oxidase: nitric oxide (NO) or hydrogen cyanide (HCN) during the first 3-6 h of imbibition of dormant embryos. The aim of this work was to compare the effect of yet another toxic gaseous molecule carbon monoxide (CO) with the effects of HCN and NO on germination of apple embryos and growth and development of young seedlings. We demonstrated that stimulation of germination after short-term pre-treatment with HCN, NO or CO was accompanied by enhanced NO emission from the embryo axes during their elongation. Moreover, similarly high NO production from non-dormant embryos, after cold stratification, was detected. Therefore, we propose that NO may act as signaling molecule in apple embryo dormancy break.

  10. Beneficial effects of the sigma1 receptor agonists igmesine and dehydroepiandrosterone against learning impairments in rats prenatally exposed to cocaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meunier, Johann; Maurice, Tangui

    2004-01-01

    In utero cocaine (IUC) exposure results in offspring rats in complex neurochemical and behavioral alterations, particularly affecting learning and memory processes. We examined here the impact of IUC exposure on memory functions in male and female offspring rats and report that selective sigma(1) (sigma(1)) receptor agonists are effective in reversing the deficits. Dams received a daily cocaine, 20 mg/kg ip, injection between gestational days E17 to E20. Learning was examined in offspring between day P30 and P41 using delayed alternation in the T-maze, water-maze learning and passive avoidance. Both male and female rats prenatally exposed to cocaine showed delayed alternation deficits and impairments of acquisition of a fixed platform position in the water maze, as shown by higher acquisition latencies and diminutions of time spent in the training quadrant during the probe test. The acquisition of a daily changing platform position also demonstrated impaired working memory. Finally, passive avoidance deficits were observed. Pretreatment with the synthetic sigma(1) agonist igmesine (0.1-1 mg/kg ip) or the neuroactive steroid dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA 10-40 mg/kg ip) reversed the prenatal cocaine-induced learning deficits in offspring rats for each test. The sigma(1) antagonist BD1063 (1 mg/kg ip) failed to affect performances alone but blocked the igmesine and DHEA effects, confirming the involvement of the sigma(1) receptor. IUC exposure thus results in marked memory deficits, affecting spatial and nonspatial short- and long-term memories in juvenile male and female offspring rats. The activation of the sigma(1) neuromodulatory receptor allows a complete behavioral recovery of the memory functions in prenatally cocaine-exposed rats.

  11. Resveratrol Based Oral Nutritional Supplement Produces Long-Term Beneficial Effects on Structure and Visual Function in Human Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Richer

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Longevinex® (L/RV is a low dose hormetic over-the-counter (OTC oral resveratrol (RV based matrix of red wine solids, vitamin D3 and inositol hexaphosphate (IP6 with established bioavailability, safety, and short-term efficacy against the earliest signs of human atherosclerosis, murine cardiac reperfusion injury, clinical retinal neovascularization, and stem cell survival. We previously reported our short-term findings for dry and wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD patients. Today we report long term (two to three year clinical efficacy. Methods: We treated three patients including a patient with an AMD treatment resistant variant (polypoidal retinal vasculature disease. We evaluated two clinical measures of ocular structure (fundus autofluorescent imaging and spectral domain optical coherence extended depth choroidal imaging and qualitatively appraised changes in macular pigment volume. We further evaluated three clinical measures of visual function (Snellen visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, and glare recovery to a cone photo-stress stimulus. Results: We observed broad bilateral improvements in ocular structure and function over a long time period, opposite to what might be expected due to aging and the natural progression of the patient’s pathophysiology. No side effects were observed. Conclusions: These three cases demonstrate that application of epigenetics has long-term efficacy against AMD retinal disease, when the retinal specialist has exhausted other therapeutic modalities.

  12. Alumina polymorphs affect the metal immobilization effect when beneficially using copper-bearing industrial sludge for ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yuanyuan; Lu, Xiuqing; Shih, Kaimin

    2014-12-01

    The feasibility of recycling copper-bearing industrial sludge as a part of ceramic raw materials was evaluated through thermal interaction of sludge with aluminum-rich precursors. To observe copper incorporation mechanism, mixtures of copper-bearing sludge with alumina polymorphs (γ-Al2O3 and α-Al2O3) were fired between 750 and 1250°C. Different copper-hosting phases were identified by X-ray diffraction, and CuAl2O4 was found to be the predominant phase throughout the reactions. The experimental results indicate different CuAl2O4 initiating temperatures for two alumina materials, and the optimal temperature for CuAl2O4 formation is around 1100°C. To monitor the stabilization effect, prolonged leaching tests were carried out to leach sintered products for up to 20d. The results clearly demonstrate a substantial decrease in copper leachability for products with higher CuAl2O4 content formed from both alumina precursors despite their different sintering behavior. Meanwhile, the leachability of aluminum was much lower than that of copper, and it decreased by more than fourfold through the formation of CuAl2O4 spinel in γ-Al2O3 system. This study clearly indicates spinel formation as the most crucial metal stabilization mechanism when sintering multiphase copper-bearing industrial sludge with aluminum-rich ceramic raw materials, and suggests a promising and reliable technique for reusing industrial sludge.

  13. Beneficiation of Iranian magnesite ores by reverse flotation process and its effects on shaped and unshaped refractories properties

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Aslani; H R Samim Bani Hashemi; F Arianpour

    2010-12-01

    The primary aim of this study is the beneficiation of magnesite ores from eastern part of Iran by reverse flotation process. For this purpose, the mineralogical and microstructural characteristics of the as-received and the processed ores from Iranian Afzal Abad mine were established. The liberation degree of ore was estimated at about 75 m. Then the as-received ore and the processed one were dead burnt to produce magnesia aggregates. These aggregates were used for production of shaped and unshaped refractories. Bricks and monolithic ramming mixes which were made from these aggregates were analysed and their mechanical and physical properties, studied. The results of this investigation showed that the application of reverse flotation process on the magnesite ore of eastern part of Iran causes an acceptable reduction on the amount of its siliceous inclusions, so that this type of the processed magnesia is suitable for utilization in the refractory industries. The magnesia produced from the original calcined ore was not suitable for this industry due to the presence of unacceptable amount of siliceous inclusions, which make its properties very poor.

  14. Oleocanthal, a Phenolic Derived from Virgin Olive Oil: A Review of the Beneficial Effects on Inflammatory Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Parkinson

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Virgin olive oil (VOO is credited as being one of many healthful components of the Mediterranean diet. Mediterranean populations experience reduced incidence of chronic inflammatory disease states and VOO is readily consumed as part of an everyday dietary pattern. A phenolic compound contained in VOO, named oleocanthal, shares unique perceptual and anti-inflammatory characteristics with Ibuprofen. Over recent years oleocanthal has become a compound of interest in the search for naturally occurring compounds with pharmacological qualities. Subsequent to its discovery and identification, oleocanthal has been reported to exhibit various modes of action in reducing inflammatory related disease, including joint-degenerative disease, neuro-degenerative disease and specific cancers. Therefore, it is postulated that long term consumption of VOO containing oleocanthal may contribute to the health benefits associated with the Mediterranean dietary pattern. The following paper summarizes the current literature on oleocanthal, in terms of its sensory and pharmacological properties, and also discusses the beneficial, health promoting activities of oleocanthal, in the context of the molecular mechanisms within various models of disease.

  15. Have complementary therapies demonstrated effectiveness in rheumatoid arthritis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Llanio Comella, Nagore; Fernández Matilla, Meritxell; Castellano Cuesta, Juan Antonio

    2016-01-01

    In recent decades the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has improved thanks to the use of highly effective drugs. However, patients usually require long term therapy, which is not free of side effects. Therefore RA patients often demand complementary medicine, they seek additional sources of relief and/or less side effects. In fact 30-60% of rheumatic patients use some form of complementary medicine. Therefore, from conventional medicine, if we want to optimally treat our patients facilitating communication with them we must know the most commonly used complementary medicines. The aim of this review is to assess, based on published scientific research, what complementary therapies commonly used by patients with RA are effective and safe. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  16. Arachidonic acid drives postnatal neurogenesis and elicits a beneficial effect on prepulse inhibition, a biological trait of psychiatric illnesses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motoko Maekawa

    Full Text Available Prepulse inhibition (PPI is a compelling endophenotype (biological markers for mental disorders including schizophrenia. In a previous study, we identified Fabp7, a fatty acid binding protein 7 as one of the genes controlling PPI in mice and showed that this gene was associated with schizophrenia. We also demonstrated that disrupting Fabp7 dampened hippocampal neurogenesis. In this study, we examined a link between neurogenesis and PPI using different animal models and exploring the possibility of postnatal manipulation of neurogenesis affecting PPI, since gene-deficient mice show biological disturbances from prenatal stages. In parallel, we tested the potential for dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, arachidonic acid (ARA and/or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, to promote neurogenesis and improve PPI. PUFAs are ligands for Fabp members and are abundantly expressed in neural stem/progenitor cells in the hippocampus. Our results are: (1 an independent model animal, Pax6 (+/- rats, exhibited PPI deficits along with impaired postnatal neurogenesis; (2 methylazoxymethanol acetate (an anti-proliferative drug elicited decreased neurogenesis even in postnatal period, and PPI defects in young adult rats (10 weeks when the drug was given at the juvenile stage (4-5 weeks; (3 administering ARA for 4 weeks after birth promoted neurogenesis in wild type rats; (4 raising Pax6 (+/- pups on an ARA-containing diet enhanced neurogenesis and partially improved PPI in adult animals. These results suggest the potential benefit of ARA in ameliorating PPI deficits relevant to psychiatric disorders and suggest that the effect may be correlated with augmented postnatal neurogenesis.

  17. Beneficial effects of Acer okamotoanum sap on L-NAME-induced hypertension-like symptoms in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hyun; Hwang, Inho; Koo, Tae-Hyoung; Ahn, Hyo-Jin; Kim, Sun; Park, Mi-Jin; Choi, Won-Sil; Kang, Ha-Young; Choi, In-Gyu; Choi, Kyung-Chul; Jeung, Eui-Bae

    2012-02-01

    The sap of Acer okamotoanum has been termed 'bone-benefit-water' in Korea owing to its mineral and sugar content. In particular, the calcium (Ca) and potassium (K) concentrations of the sap of Acer okamotoanum are 40- and 20-times higher, respectively, than commercial spring water. In the present study, we examined whether Acer okamotoanum sap improves or prevents hypertension-like symptoms in a rat model. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (8-weeks-old) were provided commercial spring water supplemented with 25, 50 or 100% Acer okamotoanum sap, 3% potassium ions (K+) or captopril, and treated daily for 2 weeks with NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 100 mg/kg/day) by subcutaneous injection, in order to induce hypertensive symptoms. Rats were euthanized 6 h following the final injection. To assess the effect of the sap on hypertension-like symptoms, we examined the mean blood pressure (BP), protein levels and localization of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in the descending aorta of the rats. BP levels were significantly lower in hypertensive rats received 25, 50 and 100% sap compared with rats who were administered only commercial spring water. Protein levels of eNOS were repressed in L-NAME-only-treated rats, but were elevated in the descending aorta of rats administered captopril, K+ water and Acer okamotoanum sap (25, 50 and 100%) up to the level of the sham group provided commercial spring water, and then injected with dimethyl sulfoxide for the same period of time. Localized eNOS protein was abundantly expressed in the perivascular descending aorta adipose tissue of the rats. Taken together, these results demonstrated that the sap of Acer okamotoanum ameliorated high BP induced by L-NAME treatment in a rat model.

  18. Seed-specific elevation of non-symbiotic hemoglobin AtHb1: beneficial effects and underlying molecular networks in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tschiersch Henning

    2011-03-01

    were able to keep low levels of endogenous NO and to maintain a high energy status, in contrast to wild type. Higher weight of mature transgenic seeds demonstrated the beneficial effects of seed-specific overexpression of AtHb1.

  19. Beneficial Effects of Ethanolic and Hexanic Rice Bran Extract on Mitochondrial Function in PC12 Cells and the Search for Bioactive Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Hagl

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria are involved in the aging processes that ultimately lead to neurodegeneration and the development of Alzheimer’s disease (AD. A healthy lifestyle, including a diet rich in antioxidants and polyphenols, represents one strategy to protect the brain and to prevent neurodegeneration. We recently reported that a stabilized hexanic rice bran extract (RBE rich in vitamin E and polyphenols (but unsuitable for human consumption has beneficial effects on mitochondrial function in vitro and in vivo (doi:10.1016/j.phrs.2013.06.008, 10.3233/JAD-132084. To enable the use of RBE as food additive, a stabilized ethanolic extract has been produced. Here, we compare the vitamin E profiles of both extracts and their effects on mitochondrial function (ATP concentrations, mitochondrial membrane potential, mitochondrial respiration and mitochondrial biogenesis in PC12 cells. We found that vitamin E contents and the effects of both RBE on mitochondrial function were similar. Furthermore, we aimed to identify components responsible for the mitochondria-protective effects of RBE, but could not achieve a conclusive result. α-Tocotrienol and possibly also γ-tocotrienol, α-tocopherol and δ-tocopherol might be involved, but hitherto unknown components of RBE or a synergistic effect of various components might also play a role in mediating RBE’s beneficial effects on mitochondrial function.

  20. Demonstrating Effectiveness of Antibiotics Against Known Bacteria Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, Lois M.

    1977-01-01

    Procedures are described for showing the effectiveness of antibiotics (penicillin, ampicillin, and tetracycline) against a nonpathogenic bacteria strain (Bacillus cereus). Methods are outlined for preparing nutrient agar, sterilizing tubes, pouring agar plates, preparing antibiotic discs, and transferring antibiotic discs to agar plates. (CS)

  1. Demonstrating Effectiveness of Antibiotics Against Known Bacteria Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, Lois M.

    1977-01-01

    Procedures are described for showing the effectiveness of antibiotics (penicillin, ampicillin, and tetracycline) against a nonpathogenic bacteria strain (Bacillus cereus). Methods are outlined for preparing nutrient agar, sterilizing tubes, pouring agar plates, preparing antibiotic discs, and transferring antibiotic discs to agar plates. (CS)

  2. Beneficial effects of a Q-ter based nutritional mixture on functional performance, mitochondrial function, and oxidative stress in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinze Xu

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress are central mechanisms underlying the aging process and the pathogenesis of many age-related diseases. Selected antioxidants and specific combinations of nutritional compounds could target many biochemical pathways that affect both oxidative stress and mitochondrial function and, thereby, preserve or enhance physical performance.In this study, we evaluated the potential anti-aging benefits of a Q-ter based nutritional mixture (commercially known as Eufortyn mainly containing the following compounds: terclatrated coenzyme Q(10 (Q-ter, creatine and a standardized ginseng extract. We found that Eufortyn supplementation significantly ameliorated the age-associated decreases in grip strength and gastrocnemius subsarcolemmal mitochondria Ca(2+ retention capacity when initiated in male Fischer344 x Brown Norway rats at 21 months, but not 29 months, of age. Moreover, the increases in muscle RNA oxidation and subsarcolemmal mitochondrial protein carbonyl levels, as well as the decline of total urine antioxidant power, which develop late in life, were mitigated by Eufortyn supplementation in rats at 29 months of age.These data imply that Eufortyn is efficacious in reducing oxidative damage, improving the age-related mitochondrial functional decline, and preserving physical performance when initiated in animals at early midlife (21 months. The efficacy varied, however, according to the age at which the supplementation was provided, as initiation in late middle age (29 months was incapable of restoring grip strength and mitochondrial function. Therefore, the Eufortyn supplementation may be particularly beneficial when initiated prior to major biological and functional declines that appear to occur with advancing age.

  3. Vitamin C may have similar beneficial effects to Gemfibrozil on serum high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol in type 2 diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siavash, Mansour; Amini, Masoud

    2014-07-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM-T2) is commonly associated with increased triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels. Fibrates like gemfibrozil are frequently used in diabetic patients to decrease TG and increase HDL-C levels. We compared the efficacy of Vitamin C, an antioxidant vitamin, with gemfibrozil on serum HDL-C in diabetic patients. Type 2 diabetic patients, referred to our out-patient clinic were randomly divided into three groups. After 1 month of lifestyle and diet modifications, groups A, B, and C were prescribed 1000 mg Vitamin C, 600 mg gemfibrozil and combination of both, respectively. Before the study initiation and after 6(th) week of drug prescription, the blood samples were taken and analyzed for total cholesterol (Total-C), HDL-C, TG, fasting blood sugar (FBS), and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels. Sixty-seven patients entered, and 50 patients (18 male, 32 female) finished the study. Overall, serum HDL-C increased significantly from 39.8 to 45.2 mg/dL in the participants (P = 0.001). HDL-C increased 6.3, 4.4 and 5.0 mg/dL in groups A, B and C, respectively (related significances were 0.017, 0.022 and 0.033, respectively). Significant decrease of serum TG and Total-C occurred in gemfibrozil and combination groups, but not in Vitamin C group. Changes in serum HDL-C between three groups were not significant (P = 0.963). We found a significant decrease in TG and Total-C in the groups B and C (P 0.05). The results demonstrated that Vitamin C may have beneficial effects on HDL-C in diabetic patients without significant effects on plasma glucose or other lipid parameters; however, its role for the treatment of low HDL-C patients should be evaluated in larger studies.

  4. The Ultimate Experiment Proving the Beneficial Effect of Low Level Radiation and Safety of Nuclear Power Plant: Serendipity of the Airborne Nuclear Weapons Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Peter

    1997-11-01

    The cancer deaths per 100,000 U.S. population plotted as a function of time (year) over the past 60 years can be represented by a smooth curve except the years 1952-1978 where the data points fall below the smooth curve indicating a reduction of cancer ceaths of a total of 418,000. This anormaly is traced, through the space-time correlation of the mortalities with the 48 States, to the airborne nuclear weapons tests (mostly in Nevada) during that period when 500 nuclear bombs were exploded in air, generating an extra amount of radiation of 30 mrem/year. From this serendipitous experiment we deduce the law of the beneficial effect of low level radiation that a doubling of the background radiation (as in Colorado) will reduce cancer death rate by 24.3%. The actual rate of reduction in Colorado is 25% lower than the national average. Thus the law is verified. In another aspect Kerala,India has a background radiation 20 times higher than normal and it has a life expectancy 10.7 years longer than average India, thus showing the great beneficial affect of low level radiation. Concerning the nuclear power plant safety, the 500 bombs exploded are equivalent to 50 Chernobyl type nuclear plant explosions, the results of which are the reduction of 418,000 cancer deaths. Thus the nuclear industry is absolutely safe under any catastrophic disasters that may befall on the 414 nuclear plant now operating on the earth. The beneficial effects of radiation have been taken advantage of in folklores and health practices in Brazil, Chekoslovakia, Germany and Colorado. These health practices can benefit from the radiation generated from nuclear power and the nuclear waste disposal problem can be solved by turning trashes into treasures.

  5. Combined Efficacy of Gallic Acid and MiADMSA with Limited Beneficial Effects Over MiADMSA Against Arsenic-induced Oxidative Stress in Mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachauri, Vidhu; Flora, Sjs

    2015-01-01

    Gallic acid is an organic acid known for its antioxidant and anticancer properties. The present study is focused on evaluating the role of gallic acid in providing better therapeutic outcomes against arsenic-induced toxicity. Animals pre-exposed to arsenic were treated with monoisoamyl meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (MiADMSA), a new chelating drug, alone and in combination with gallic acid, consecutively for 10 days. The study suggests that (1) gallic acid in presence of MiADMSA is only moderately beneficial against arsenic, (2) monotherapy with gallic acid is more effective than in combination with MiADMSA after arsenic exposure in reducing oxidative injury, and (3) MiADMSA monotherapy as reported previously provides significant therapeutic efficacy against arsenic. Thus, based on the present results, we conclude that gallic acid is effective against arsenic-induced oxidative stress but provides limited additional beneficial effects when administered in combination with MiADMSA. We still recommend that lower doses of gallic acid be evaluated both individually and in combination with MiADMSA, as it might not exhibit the shortcomings we observed with higher doses in this study.

  6. A PPARγ, NF-κB and AMPK-Dependent Mechanism May Be Involved in the Beneficial Effects of Curcumin in the Diabetic db/db Mice Liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizbeth M. Jiménez-Flores

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Turmeric (Curcuma longa is a rhizomatous herbaceous perennial plant of the ginger family which has been used to treat biliary disorders, anorexia, cough, rheumatism, cancer, sinusitis, hepatic disorders, hyperglycemia, obesity, and diabetes in both Ayurvedic and Traditional Chinese Medicine. Suggested mechanisms of action include the modulation of signal transduction cascades and effects on gene expression, however they remain to be elucidated. In this study, the expression of some proteins responsible for transcription factors, inflammation, and metabolic control were evaluated by western blot in 15-week-old db/db mice livers treated with curcumin 0.75% mixed in their diet for 8 weeks. In addition, nitrosative stress was evaluated. Curcumin increased the expression of AMPK and PPARγ, and diminished NF-κB protein in db/db mice. However, it did not modify the expression of PGC-1α or SIRT1. Nitrosative stress present in db/db mice livers was determined by a unique nitrotyrosylated protein band (75 kDa and was not reverted with curcumin. In conclusion, curcumin regulates the expression of AMPK, PPARγ, and NF-κB; suggesting a beneficial effect for treatment of T2DM complications. In order to observe best beneficial effects it is desirable to administer curcumin in the earlier states of T2DM.

  7. A PPARγ, NF-κB and AMPK-dependent mechanism may be involved in the beneficial effects of curcumin in the diabetic db/db mice liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Flores, Lizbeth M; López-Briones, Sergio; Macías-Cervantes, Maciste H; Ramírez-Emiliano, Joel; Pérez-Vázquez, Victoriano

    2014-06-18

    Turmeric (Curcuma longa) is a rhizomatous herbaceous perennial plant of the ginger family which has been used to treat biliary disorders, anorexia, cough, rheumatism, cancer, sinusitis, hepatic disorders, hyperglycemia, obesity, and diabetes in both Ayurvedic and Traditional Chinese Medicine. Suggested mechanisms of action include the modulation of signal transduction cascades and effects on gene expression, however they remain to be elucidated. In this study, the expression of some proteins responsible for transcription factors, inflammation, and metabolic control were evaluated by western blot in 15-week-old db/db mice livers treated with curcumin 0.75% mixed in their diet for 8 weeks. In addition, nitrosative stress was evaluated. Curcumin increased the expression of AMPK and PPARγ, and diminished NF-κB protein in db/db mice. However, it did not modify the expression of PGC-1α or SIRT1. Nitrosative stress present in db/db mice livers was determined by a unique nitrotyrosylated protein band (75 kDa) and was not reverted with curcumin. In conclusion, curcumin regulates the expression of AMPK, PPARγ, and NF-κB; suggesting a beneficial effect for treatment of T2DM complications. In order to observe best beneficial effects it is desirable to administer curcumin in the earlier states of T2DM.

  8. Transcriptomic responses of mixed cultures of ascomycete fungi to lignocellulose using dual RNA-seq reveal inter-species antagonism and limited beneficial effects on CAZyme expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Paul; van Munster, Jolanda M; Kokolski, Matthew; Sang, Fei; Blythe, Martin J; Malla, Sunir; Velasco de Castro Oliveira, Juliana; Goldman, Gustavo H; Archer, David B

    2016-05-02

    in the mixed cultures and whilst there were minor beneficial effects for CAZy transcripts and activities, the competitive interaction between T. reesei and the other fungi was the most prominent feature of this study.

  9. Detraining differentially preserved beneficial effects of exercise on hypertension: effects on blood pressure, cardiac function, brain inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepmala Agarwal

    Full Text Available AIMS: This study sought to investigate the effects of physical detraining on blood pressure (BP and cardiac morphology and function in hypertension, and on pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines (PICs and AIC and oxidative stress within the brain of hypertensive rats. METHODS AND RESULTS: Hypertension was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats by delivering AngiotensinII for 42 days using implanted osmotic minipumps. Rats were randomized into sedentary, trained, and detrained groups. Trained rats underwent moderate-intensity exercise (ExT for 42 days, whereas, detrained groups underwent 28 days of exercise followed by 14 days of detraining. BP and cardiac function were evaluated by radio-telemetry and echocardiography, respectively. At the end, the paraventricular nucleus (PVN was analyzed by Real-time RT-PCR and Western blot. ExT in AngII-infused rats caused delayed progression of hypertension, reduced cardiac hypertrophy, and improved diastolic function. These results were associated with significantly reduced PICs, increased AIC (interleukin (IL-10, and attenuated oxidative stress in the PVN. Detraining did not abolish the exercise-induced attenuation in MAP in hypertensive rats; however, detraining failed to completely preserve exercise-mediated improvement in cardiac hypertrophy and function. Additionally, detraining did not reverse exercise-induced improvement in PICs in the PVN of hypertensive rats; however, the improvements in IL-10 were abolished. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that although 2 weeks of detraining is not long enough to completely abolish the beneficial effects of regular exercise, continuing cessation of exercise may lead to detrimental effects.

  10. Beneficial effect of commercial Rhodiola extract in rats with scopolamine-induced memory impairment on active avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasileva, Liliya V; Getova, Damianka P; Doncheva, Nina D; Marchev, Andrey S; Georgiev, Milen I

    2016-12-04

    Rhodiola rosea L., family Crassulaceae also known as Golden Root or Arctic root is one of the most widely used medicinal plants with effect on cognitive dysfunction, psychological stress and depression. The aim of the study was to examine the effect of a standardized commercial Rhodiola extract on learning and memory processes in naive rats as well as its effects in rats with scopolamine-induced memory impairment.

  11. Use of Bt-resistant caterpillars to assess the effect of Cry proteins on beneficial natural enemies

    Science.gov (United States)

    A concern related to the use of insect-resistant Bt-transgenic plants is their potential to harm non-target organisms, especially natural enemies of important crop pests. A few studies purporting to show negative effects of Bt plants on non-target organisms had tremendous negative effects on the per...

  12. The Refugees: Threatening or Beneficial? Exploring the Effects of Positive and Negative Attitudes and Communication on Hostile Media Perceptions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dorothee Arlt; Jens Wolling

    2016-01-01

    .... Building up on previous research on the hostile media phenomenon and considering literature on pro- and anti-immigrant attitudes, this study explores the effect of positive and negative attitudes...

  13. When thinking is beneficial and when it is not : The effects of thin and round advertising models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hafner, Michael; Trampe, Debra

    2009-01-01

    This study addresses the advertising effectiveness of round and thin models. Integrating previous findings and theories, the authors predict and find that impulsive and reflective product evaluations as responses to thin and round advertisement models diverge. Specifically, four experiments indicate

  14. When thinking is beneficial and when it is not : The effects of thin and round advertising models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Häfner, M.; Trampe, D.

    2009-01-01

    This study addresses the advertising effectiveness of round and thin models. Integrating previous findings and theories, the authors predict and find that impulsive and reflective product evaluations as responses to thin and round advertisement models diverge. Specifically, four experiments indicate

  15. Beneficial effects of the Ca2+ sensitizer EMD 57033 in exercising pigs with infarction-induced chronic left ventricular dysfunction.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.J.G.M. Duncker (Dirk); D.B. Haitsma; D. Liem (Djien); N. Heins; R. Stubenitsky (René); P.D. Verdouw (Pieter)

    2001-01-01

    textabstract1. It is unknown how cardiac stimulation by Ca(2+) sensitization modulates the cardiovascular response to exercise when left ventricular (LV) function is chronically depressed following a myocardial infarction. We therefore investigated the effects of EMD 57033 at rest

  16. Beneficial Effects of Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Gestational Diabetes: Consequences in Macrosomia and Adulthood Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Akadiri Yessoufou; Nekoua, Magloire P.; Adam Gbankoto; Yohana Mashalla; Kabirou Moutairou

    2015-01-01

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are increasingly being used to prevent cardiovascular diseases, including diabetes and obesity. In this paper, we report data on the observed effects of omega-3 PUFA on major metabolic disorders and immune system disruption during gestational diabetes and their consequences on macrosomia. While controversies still exist about omega-3 PUFA effects on antioxidant status regarding the level of omega-3 PUFA in diet supplementation, their lipid-lowering ...

  17. Beneficial insulin-sensitizing and vascular effects of S15261 in the insulin-resistant JCR:LA-cp rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, J C; Ravel, D; Pégorier, J P; Delrat, P; Jochemsen, R; O'Brien, S F; Kelly, S E; Davidge, S T; Brindley, D N

    2000-11-01

    S15261, a compound developed for the oral treatment of type II diabetes, is cleaved by esterases to the fragments Y415 and S15511. The aim was to define the insulin-sensitizing effects of S15261, the cleavage products, and troglitazone and metformin in the JCR:LA-cp rat, an animal model of the obesity/insulin resistance syndrome that exhibits an associated vasculopathy and cardiovascular disease. Treatment of the animals from 8 to 12 weeks of age with S15261 or S15511 resulted in reductions in food intake and body weights, whereas Y415 had no effect. Troglitazone caused a small increase in food intake (P JCR:LA-cp rat. S15261 may thus offer effective treatment for the insulin resistance syndrome and its associated vascular complications.

  18. Electromagnetic fields act via activation of voltage-gated calcium channels to produce beneficial or adverse effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pall, Martin L

    2013-08-01

    The direct targets of extremely low and microwave frequency range electromagnetic fields (EMFs) in producing non-thermal effects have not been clearly established. However, studies in the literature, reviewed here, provide substantial support for such direct targets. Twenty-three studies have shown that voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) produce these and other EMF effects, such that the L-type or other VGCC blockers block or greatly lower diverse EMF effects. Furthermore, the voltage-gated properties of these channels may provide biophysically plausible mechanisms for EMF biological effects. Downstream responses of such EMF exposures may be mediated through Ca(2+) /calmodulin stimulation of nitric oxide synthesis. Potentially, physiological/therapeutic responses may be largely as a result of nitric oxide-cGMP-protein kinase G pathway stimulation. A well-studied example of such an apparent therapeutic response, EMF stimulation of bone growth, appears to work along this pathway. However, pathophysiological responses to EMFs may be as a result of nitric oxide-peroxynitrite-oxidative stress pathway of action. A single such well-documented example, EMF induction of DNA single-strand breaks in cells, as measured by alkaline comet assays, is reviewed here. Such single-strand breaks are known to be produced through the action of this pathway. Data on the mechanism of EMF induction of such breaks are limited; what data are available support this proposed mechanism. Other Ca(2+) -mediated regulatory changes, independent of nitric oxide, may also have roles. This article reviews, then, a substantially supported set of targets, VGCCs, whose stimulation produces non-thermal EMF responses by humans/higher animals with downstream effects involving Ca(2+) /calmodulin-dependent nitric oxide increases, which may explain therapeutic and pathophysiological effects.

  19. Prebiotic supplementation and adequate calcium intake have beneficial effects on body mass index changes during early adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prebiotics have been shown to enhance bone and gastrointestinal health. Recent data suggest a benefit to weight maintenance as well. However, few data are available in children or adolescents. The interactive effects of prebiotic intake and calcium intake on weight maintenance are unknown. Our objec...

  20. Effects of Some Beneficial Bacteria in Casing Soil on Growth and Yield of Cultivated Mushroom Agaricus bisporus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Çetin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This research was carried out to determine the interaction between some bacteria naturally existing in casing soil and Agaricus bisporus (Sylvan Hauser A15 hypha in laboratory (in vitro and cultivation (in vivo conditions, and to confirm its effects on mushroom yield. Totally 32 bacteria (3 Gram (+ and 29 Fluorescent Pseudomonads was isolated from casing soil and healthy sporophores. As a result of in vitro experiment carried out to determine the effects of bacteria on mycelium growth of A. bisporus, 24 bacterial isolates were found more effective at the rate of 2 to 115% than control treatment. To determine the effects of bacterium, chosen at the end of in vitro experiments, on mushroom yield in cultivation conditions, three experiments were established in March, May and July in 2008. At the end of experiments, bacterial isolates provided 8 – 40 % increase in total yield. Population density and change in population number related to time was observed during growing period, after the inoculation of bacterial isolates into casing soil. According to the results, Pseudomonas fluorescens (T 4/2 and Ş 8, P.putida (Ş 2/1 and Ş 10 and Bacillus mycoides (T 7/2 bacterial isolates were colonized successfully both in casing soil and sporophores.

  1. Beneficial effect of antibiotics on ciliary beat frequency of human nasal epithelial cells exposed to bacterial toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallants, Roel; Jorissen, Mark; Augustijns, Patrick

    2008-04-01

    In the present study, we explored whether the cilio-inhibitory effect induced by toxins derived from bacterial infections could be compensated for by a cilio-stimulatory effect of antibiotics. Human nasal epithelial cells (HNEC) expressing beating cilia were grown as monolayers. Ciliary beat frequency (CBF) was determined using an inverted microscope coupled with a high-speed digital camera. Clarithromycin and neomycin did not influence ciliary activity. Bacitracin, clindamycin, gramicidin and roxithromycin increased CBF significantly: by 50 +/- 12%, 54 +/- 16%, 31 +/- 16% and 31 +/- 18%, respectively. A 30 min exposure to Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin B (SEB) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa lipopolysaccharide (PAL) decreased CBF significantly, by 37 +/- 16 and 28 +/- 12%, respectively. In contrast with exposure to the toxin alone, co-incubation of the nasal monolayer cells with PAL and bacitracin or clindamycin did not result in a decrease in CBF after 30 and 60 min. The effect of SEB could be compensated for by bacitracin but not by clindamycin. After a 12 h preincubation period with SEB, co-incubation with either bacitracin or clindamycin resulted in the complete recovery of CBF. This study suggests that topical antibiotic treatment of nasal infections could result in a dual positive effect, namely treatment of the bacterial infection and recovery of ciliary activity.

  2. Transient Beneficial Effects of Excitatory Theta Burst Stimulation in a Patient with Phonological Agraphia after Left Supramarginal Gyrus Infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardone, Raffaele; De Blasi, Pierpaolo; Zuccoli, Giulio; Tezzon, Frediano; Golaszewski, Stefan; Trinka, Eugen

    2012-01-01

    We report a patient showing isolated phonological agraphia after an ischemic stroke involving the left supramarginal gyrus (SMG). In this patient, we investigated the effects of focal repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) given as theta burst stimulation (TBS) over the left SMG, corresponding to the Brodmann area (BA) 40. The patient…

  3. Interleukin 1 receptor antagonist mediates the beneficial effects of systemic interferon beta in mice: implications for rheumatoid arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corr, M.; Boyle, D.L.; Ronacher, L.M.; Lew, B.R.; van Baarsen, L.G.; Tak, P.P.; Firestein, G.S.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Interferon beta (IFN beta) therapy is effective in multiple sclerosis and murine models of arthritis. Surprisingly, systemic IFN beta treatment induces only minimal improvement in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). To explain this paradox, the authors evaluated the mechanism of IFN beta benefit

  4. Transient Beneficial Effects of Excitatory Theta Burst Stimulation in a Patient with Phonological Agraphia after Left Supramarginal Gyrus Infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardone, Raffaele; De Blasi, Pierpaolo; Zuccoli, Giulio; Tezzon, Frediano; Golaszewski, Stefan; Trinka, Eugen

    2012-01-01

    We report a patient showing isolated phonological agraphia after an ischemic stroke involving the left supramarginal gyrus (SMG). In this patient, we investigated the effects of focal repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) given as theta burst stimulation (TBS) over the left SMG, corresponding to the Brodmann area (BA) 40. The patient…

  5. 母乳中有益微生物的益生作用%Beneficial Effects of Probiotic Bacteria Isolated from Breast Milk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海燕; 张建伟

    2015-01-01

    Breast milk is the best food for the neonate because it provides a unique combination of proteins , carbohydrates, lipids, minerals and vitamins that ensures the correct growth and development of the infant. In addition, it also contains bioactive compounds responsible for a wide range of beneficial effects such as the promotion of immune system maturation and the protection against infections. Among these bioactive agents , probiotic bacteria have been recently isolated from human milk. The present work reviews the beneficial effects of these bacteria both in animal models and in clinical trials. The promotion of immune system maturation and defence against infections as well as the anti-inflammatory properties are among the main healthy effects of these bacteria. The isolation of probiotic bacteria with beneficial effects for the host provides scientific support for the supplementation of infant formula with these bacteria , in order to advance the pursuit of the main goal of formula:to mimic breast milk and its functional effects as closely as possible.%母乳是新生儿的最佳食品。母乳提供的蛋白质、碳水化合物、脂质、矿物质和维生素的含量和比例最为适宜,能够确保婴幼儿的正确成长和发育。此外,母乳中还含有生物活性物质,具有多种益生作用,例如促进免疫系统成熟,防止感染。最近研究表明,人乳中已经成功分离出益生菌。综述了这些益生菌在动物模型和临床试验中的有益效果。促进免疫系统成熟、抗感染以及抗炎是这些益生细菌的主要健康作用。这些益生菌的成功分离,为婴儿配方奶粉中补充此类有益菌提供了科学参考,可以使婴幼儿配方奶粉更好的模拟母乳的营养和功能效果。

  6. Beneficial effects of solar UV-B radiation on soybean yield mediated by reduced insect herbivory under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazza, Carlos A; Giménez, Patricia I; Kantolic, Adriana G; Ballaré, Carlos L

    2013-03-01

    Ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B: 280-315 nm) has damaging effects on cellular components and macromolecules. In plants, natural levels of UV-B can reduce leaf area expansion and growth, which can lead to reduced productivity and yield. UV-B can also have important effects on herbivorous insects. Owing to the successful implementation of the Montreal Protocol, current models predict that clear-sky levels of UV-B radiation will decline during this century in response to ozone recovery. However, because of climate change and changes in land use practices, future trends in UV doses are difficult to predict. In the experiments reported here, we used an exclusion approach to study the effects of solar UV-B radiation on soybean crops, which are extensively grown in many areas of the world that may be affected by future variations in UV-B radiation. In a first experiment, performed under normal management practices (which included chemical pest control), we found that natural levels of UV-B radiation reduced soybean yield. In a second experiment, where no pesticides were applied, we found that solar UV-B significantly reduced insect herbivory and, surprisingly, caused a concomitant increase in crop yield. Our data support the idea that UV-B effects on agroecosystems are the result of complex interactions involving multiple trophic levels. A better understanding of the mechanisms that mediate the anti-herbivore effect of UV-B radiation may be used to design crop varieties with improved adaptation to the cropping systems that are likely to prevail in the coming decades in response to agricultural intensification.

  7. Dietary Supplementation with Specific Collagen Peptides Has a Body Mass Index-Dependent Beneficial Effect on Cellulite Morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schunck, Michael; Zague, Vivian; Oesser, Steffen; Proksch, Ehrhardt

    2015-12-01

    In this double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study, we investigated the efficacy of specific bioactive collagen peptides (BCP) on the cellulite treatment of normal and overweight women. In total, 105 women aged 24-50 years with moderate cellulite were randomized to orally receive a daily dosage of 2.5 g BCP or a placebo over 6 months. The degree of cellulite was evaluated before starting the treatment and after 3 and 6 months of intake. In addition, skin waviness, dermal density, and the length of subcutaneous borderline were assessed. BCP treatment led to a statistically significant decrease in the degree of cellulite and a reduced skin waviness on thighs (P cellulite improvement, but the data failed to reach statistical significance compared to placebo. The efficacy of BCP treatment was also confirmed in overweight women, although the impact was less pronounced in comparison with women of normal body weight. The results of the study demonstrated that a regular ingestion of BCP over a period of 6 months led to a clear improvement of the skin appearance in women suffering from moderate cellulite. Based on the current data, it can be concluded that a long-term therapy with orally administered BCP leads to an improvement of cellulite and has a positive impact on skin health.

  8. The Synergistic Beneficial Effects of Ginkgo Flavonoid and Coriolus versicolor Polysaccharide for Memory Improvements in a Mouse Model of Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianying Fang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the combination of Ginkgo flavonoid (GF and Coriolus versicolor polysaccharide (CVP in the prevention and treatment of a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease (AD. GF is a traditional health product, and CVP is the main active ingredient of the medicinal fungus Coriolus versicolor. The Morris water maze test, the Y maze, and the step-through test showed that the combinational use of CVP and GF synergistically improved memory in a mouse model of AD. Based on H&E staining analysis, the combination of CVP and GF decreased the severity of the pathological findings in the brain. Given that the expression of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α was downregulated, the inflammation response in AD mice was considered to be inhibited. The downregulation of GFAP further demonstrated that inflammation was reduced in the brain of AD mice following treatment. Moreover, the expression levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT were elevated in the brains of treated mice, indicating that oxidation levels were reduced upon the combination treatment. Our results provide new insights into the efficient utilization of traditional medicine for preventing dementia.

  9. The Refugees: Threatening or Beneficial? Exploring the Effects of Positive and Negative Attitudes and Communication on Hostile Media Perceptions

    OpenAIRE

    Dorothee Arlt; Jens Wolling

    2016-01-01

    In the actual debate on refugees in Germany the media’s role was heavily disputed. To understand this controversy, this study examines hostile media perceptions from the audience perspective. Building up on previous research on the hostile media phenomenon and considering literature on pro- and anti-immigrant attitudes, this study explores the effect of positive and negative attitudes towards refugees as well as of mainstream media, social media and interpersonal communication on hostile medi...

  10. Beneficial effect of the Ca2+ antagonist, nimodipine, on existing diabetic neuropathy in the BB/Wor rat

    OpenAIRE

    Gispen, W.H.; Kappelle, A. C.; Biessels, G.J.; Bravenboer, B.; Buren, T. van; Traber, J.; de Wildt, D J

    1994-01-01

    1. Neuropathy is a frequently diagnosed complication of diabetes mellitus. Effective pharmacotherapy is not available. 2. The spontaneously diabetic BB/Wor rats develop secondary complications like neuropathy as do human diabetic patients. 3. BB/Wor rats treated with insulin via a subcutaneous implant show a significant impairment of sensory and motor nerve conduction velocity 6 weeks after the onset of diabetes mellitus. 4. Intraperitoneal treatment of diabetic BB/Wor rats with the Ca2+ anta...

  11. The role of muscarinic receptors in the beneficial effects of adenosine against myocardial reperfusion injury in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Sun

    Full Text Available Adenosine, a catabolite of ATP, displays a wide variety of effects in the heart including regulation of cardiac response to myocardial ischemia and reperfusion injury. Nonetheless, the precise mechanism of adenosine-induced cardioprotection is still elusive. Isolated Sprague-Dawley rat hearts underwent 30 min global ischemia and 120 min reperfusion using a Langendorff apparatus. Both adenosine and acetylcholine treatment recovered the post-reperfusion cardiac function associated with adenosine and muscarinic receptors activation. Simultaneous administration of adenosine and acetylcholine failed to exert any additive protective effect, suggesting a shared mechanism between the two. Our data further revealed a cross-talk between the adenosine and acetylcholine receptor signaling in reperfused rat hearts. Interestingly, the selective M(2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist methoctramine significantly attenuated the cardioprotective effect of adenosine. In addition, treatment with adenosine upregulated the expression and the maximal binding capacity of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor, which were inhibited by the selective A(1 adenosine receptor antagonist 8-Cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (DPCPX and the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N(ω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME. These data suggested a possible functional coupling between the adenosine and muscarinic receptors behind the observed cardioprotection. Furthermore, nitric oxide was found involved in triggering the response to each of the two receptor agonist. In summary, there may be a cross-talk between the adenosine and muscarinic receptors in ischemic/reperfused myocardium with nitric oxide synthase might serve as the distal converging point. In addition, adenosine contributes to the invigorating effect of adenosine on muscarinic receptor thereby prompting to regulation of cardiac function. These findings argue for a potentially novel mechanism behind the adenosine

  12. Beneficial effect of botulinum toxin A on Raynaud's phenomenon in Japanese patients with systemic sclerosis: A prospective, case series study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motegi, Sei-ichiro; Yamada, Kazuya; Toki, Sayaka; Uchiyama, Akihiko; Kubota, Yuka; Nakamura, Tetsuya; Ishikawa, Osamu

    2016-01-01

    Currently, there is no satisfactory treatment for Raynaud's phenomenon (RP) in systemic sclerosis (SSc). Recently, it has been reported that botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) injection was effective for the treatment of RP in SSc patients. The objective was to assess the efficacy and safety of BTX-A on RP in Japanese SSc patients. In the prospective, case series study, 10 Japanese SSc patients with RP received 10 U of BTX-A injections into the hand. The change in severity of RP, including the frequency of attacks/pain, color changes, duration time of RP and the severity of pain, was assessed by Raynaud's score and pain visual analog scale (VAS) at each visit during 16 weeks. The recovery of skin temperature 20 min after cold water stimulation was examined by thermography at baseline and 4 weeks after injection. The number of digital ulcers (DU) and adverse effects were assessed at each visit. BTX-A injection decreased Raynaud's score and pain VAS from 2 weeks after injection, and the suppressive effect was continued until 16 weeks after injection. Skin temperature recovery after cold water stimulation at 4 weeks after injection was significantly enhanced compared with that before injection. All DU in five patients were healed within 12 weeks after injection. Neither systemic nor local adverse effects were observed in all cases. We conclude that BTX-A injection significantly improved the activity of RP in SSc patients without any adverse events, suggesting that BTX-A may have possible long-term preventive and therapeutic potentials for RP in Japanese SSc patients.

  13. Beneficial effects of canagliflozin in combination with pioglitazone on insulin sensitivity in rodent models of obese type 2 diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshinori Watanabe

    Full Text Available Despite its insulin sensitizing effects, pioglitazone may induce weight gain leading to an increased risk of development of insulin resistance. A novel sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2 inhibitor, canagliflozin, provides not only glycemic control but also body weight reduction through an insulin-independent mechanism. The aim of this study was to investigate the combined effects of these agents on body weight control and insulin sensitivity.Effects of combination therapy with canagliflozin and pioglitazone were evaluated in established diabetic KK-Ay mice and prediabetic Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF rats.In the KK-Ay mice, the combination therapy further improved glycemic control compared with canagliflozin or pioglitazone monotherapy. Furthermore, the combination significantly attenuated body weight and fat gain induced by pioglitazone and improved hyperinsulinemia. In the ZDF rats, early intervention with pioglitazone monotherapy almost completely prevented the progressive development of hyperglycemia, and no further improvement was observed by add-on treatment with canagliflozin. However, the combination significantly reduced pioglitazone-induced weight gain and adiposity and improved the Matsuda index, suggesting improved whole-body insulin sensitivity.Our study indicates that combination therapy with canagliflozin and pioglitazone improves insulin sensitivity partly by preventing glucotoxicity and, at least partly, by attenuating pioglitazone-induced body weight gain in two different obese diabetic animal models. This combination therapy may prove to be a valuable option for the treatment and prevention of obese type 2 diabetes.

  14. Beneficial effects of canagliflozin in combination with pioglitazone on insulin sensitivity in rodent models of obese type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yoshinori; Nakayama, Keiko; Taniuchi, Nobuhiko; Horai, Yasushi; Kuriyama, Chiaki; Ueta, Kiichiro; Arakawa, Kenji; Senbonmatsu, Takaaki; Shiotani, Masaharu

    2015-01-01

    Despite its insulin sensitizing effects, pioglitazone may induce weight gain leading to an increased risk of development of insulin resistance. A novel sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor, canagliflozin, provides not only glycemic control but also body weight reduction through an insulin-independent mechanism. The aim of this study was to investigate the combined effects of these agents on body weight control and insulin sensitivity. Effects of combination therapy with canagliflozin and pioglitazone were evaluated in established diabetic KK-Ay mice and prediabetic Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats. In the KK-Ay mice, the combination therapy further improved glycemic control compared with canagliflozin or pioglitazone monotherapy. Furthermore, the combination significantly attenuated body weight and fat gain induced by pioglitazone and improved hyperinsulinemia. In the ZDF rats, early intervention with pioglitazone monotherapy almost completely prevented the progressive development of hyperglycemia, and no further improvement was observed by add-on treatment with canagliflozin. However, the combination significantly reduced pioglitazone-induced weight gain and adiposity and improved the Matsuda index, suggesting improved whole-body insulin sensitivity. Our study indicates that combination therapy with canagliflozin and pioglitazone improves insulin sensitivity partly by preventing glucotoxicity and, at least partly, by attenuating pioglitazone-induced body weight gain in two different obese diabetic animal models. This combination therapy may prove to be a valuable option for the treatment and prevention of obese type 2 diabetes.

  15. Snowdrop lectin (GNA) has no acute toxic effects on a beneficial insect predator, the 2-spot ladybird (Adalia bipunctata L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Down, R E.; Ford, L; Woodhouse, S D.; Raemaekers, R J.M.; Leitch, B; Gatehouse, J A.; Gatehouse, A M.R.

    2000-04-01

    Two-spot ladybird (Adalia bipunctata L.) larvae were fed on aphids (Myzus persicae (Sulz.)) which had been loaded with snowdrop lectin (Galanthus nivalis agglutinin; GNA) by feeding on artificial diet containing the protein. Treatment with GNA significantly decreased the growth of aphids. No acute toxicity of GNA-containing aphids towards the ladybird larvae was observed, although there were small effects on development. When fed a fixed number of aphids, larvae exposed to GNA spent longer in the 4th instar, taking 6 extra days to reach pupation; however, retardation of development was not observed in ladybird larvae fed equal weights of aphids. Ladybird larvae fed GNA-containing aphids were found to be 8-15% smaller than controls, but ate a significantly greater number of aphids (approx. 40% to pupation). GNA was shown to be present on the microvilli of the midgut brush border membrane and within gut epithelial cells in ladybird larvae fed on GNA-dosed aphids, although disruption of the brush border was not observed. It is hypothesised that GNA does not have significant direct toxic or adverse effects on developing ladybird larvae, but that the effects observed may be due to the fact that the aphids fed on GNA are compromised and are thus a suboptimal food.

  16. Beneficial effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated Fatty acids in gestational diabetes: consequences in macrosomia and adulthood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yessoufou, Akadiri; Nekoua, Magloire P; Gbankoto, Adam; Mashalla, Yohana; Moutairou, Kabirou

    2015-01-01

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are increasingly being used to prevent cardiovascular diseases, including diabetes and obesity. In this paper, we report data on the observed effects of omega-3 PUFA on major metabolic disorders and immune system disruption during gestational diabetes and their consequences on macrosomia. While controversies still exist about omega-3 PUFA effects on antioxidant status regarding the level of omega-3 PUFA in diet supplementation, their lipid-lowering effects are unanimously recognized by researchers. Animal studies have shown that omega-3 PUFA contributes to the maintenance of the immune defense system by promoting the differentiation of T helper (Th) cell to a Th2 phenotype in diabetic pregnancy and by shifting the Th1/Th2 ratio from a deleterious proinflammatory Th1 phenotype to a protective anti-inflammatory Th2 phenotype in macrosomia and in adulthood obesity that results from macrosomia at birth. Based on the available evidence, international nutritional and food agencies recommend administration of omega-3 PUFA as triglyceride-lowering agents, for the prevention of cardiovascular disease risk and during human pregnancy and lactation. Furthermore, studies targeting humans are still required to explore application of the fatty acids as supplement in the management of gestational diabetes and inflammatory and immune diseases.

  17. Environmental Beneficiation of Machining Wastes-Part III: Effects of Metal Working Fluids on the Spontaneous Heating of Machining Swarf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawatra, S Komar; Hess, Mathew J

    1999-05-01

    Machining swarf is a finely divided metal powder that is prone to spontaneous heating and, in some cases, spontaneous combustion. The fine particle size, large amount of particle surface area, and the presence of moisture all promote rapid oxidation. This hazard dramatically increases disposal costs for swarf and interferes with recycling efforts. A potential method for minimizing spontaneous heating and facilitating recycling of the swarf is to spray a fluid on the material that coats the particles and creates a barrier between the metal and oxygen. Surface coatings could be tested for their effects on the spontaneous heating potential of swarf by treating a sample of swarf with a fluid that would coat the particles, then monitoring its heating behavior. This paper describes the results of applying corrosion inhibitors and machining fluids to the swarf, and monitoring the spontaneous heating behavior using a testing method developed specifically for this purpose. The effects of different types of surfactants and the effects of surfactant concentration on the spontaneous heating of swarf are discussed.

  18. Beneficial Effects of Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Gestational Diabetes: Consequences in Macrosomia and Adulthood Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akadiri Yessoufou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs are increasingly being used to prevent cardiovascular diseases, including diabetes and obesity. In this paper, we report data on the observed effects of omega-3 PUFA on major metabolic disorders and immune system disruption during gestational diabetes and their consequences on macrosomia. While controversies still exist about omega-3 PUFA effects on antioxidant status regarding the level of omega-3 PUFA in diet supplementation, their lipid-lowering effects are unanimously recognized by researchers. Animal studies have shown that omega-3 PUFA contributes to the maintenance of the immune defense system by promoting the differentiation of T helper (Th cell to a Th2 phenotype in diabetic pregnancy and by shifting the Th1/Th2 ratio from a deleterious proinflammatory Th1 phenotype to a protective anti-inflammatory Th2 phenotype in macrosomia and in adulthood obesity that results from macrosomia at birth. Based on the available evidence, international nutritional and food agencies recommend administration of omega-3 PUFA as triglyceride-lowering agents, for the prevention of cardiovascular disease risk and during human pregnancy and lactation. Furthermore, studies targeting humans are still required to explore application of the fatty acids as supplement in the management of gestational diabetes and inflammatory and immune diseases.

  19. Beneficial Effects of Canagliflozin in Combination with Pioglitazone on Insulin Sensitivity in Rodent Models of Obese Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yoshinori; Nakayama, Keiko; Taniuchi, Nobuhiko; Horai, Yasushi; Kuriyama, Chiaki; Ueta, Kiichiro; Arakawa, Kenji; Senbonmatsu, Takaaki; Shiotani, Masaharu

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite its insulin sensitizing effects, pioglitazone may induce weight gain leading to an increased risk of development of insulin resistance. A novel sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor, canagliflozin, provides not only glycemic control but also body weight reduction through an insulin-independent mechanism. The aim of this study was to investigate the combined effects of these agents on body weight control and insulin sensitivity. Methods Effects of combination therapy with canagliflozin and pioglitazone were evaluated in established diabetic KK-Ay mice and prediabetic Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats. Results In the KK-Ay mice, the combination therapy further improved glycemic control compared with canagliflozin or pioglitazone monotherapy. Furthermore, the combination significantly attenuated body weight and fat gain induced by pioglitazone and improved hyperinsulinemia. In the ZDF rats, early intervention with pioglitazone monotherapy almost completely prevented the progressive development of hyperglycemia, and no further improvement was observed by add-on treatment with canagliflozin. However, the combination significantly reduced pioglitazone-induced weight gain and adiposity and improved the Matsuda index, suggesting improved whole-body insulin sensitivity. Conclusions Our study indicates that combination therapy with canagliflozin and pioglitazone improves insulin sensitivity partly by preventing glucotoxicity and, at least partly, by attenuating pioglitazone-induced body weight gain in two different obese diabetic animal models. This combination therapy may prove to be a valuable option for the treatment and prevention of obese type 2 diabetes. PMID:25615826

  20. Beneficial effects of l-leucine and l-valine on arrhythmias, hemodynamics and myocardial morphology in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitręga, Katarzyna; Zorniak, Michał; Varghese, Benoy; Lange, Dariusz; Nożynski, Jerzy; Porc, Maurycy; Białka, Szymon; Krzemiński, Tadeusz F

    2011-09-01

    Branched chain amino acids (BCAA) have been shown to have a general protective effect on the heart in different animal models as well as in humans. However, so far no attempt has been made to specifically elucidate their influence on arrhythmias. Our study was performed to evaluate whether an infusion of either l-leucine or l-valine in a dose of 1mgkg(-1)h(-1) 10min before a 7-min period of left anterior descending artery occlusion followed by 15min of reperfusion, had an effect on arrhythmias measured during the reperfusion phase in the ischemia- and reperfusion-induced arrhythmias model in rats in vivo. The effect of the infusion of these substances on mean arterial blood pressure was monitored throughout the experiment. Both of the tested amino acids exhibited significant antiarrhythmic properties. l-Leucine reduced the duration of ventricular fibrillation (Pvaline decreased the duration of ventricular fibrillation (PValine lowered blood pressure in all phases of the experiment (Pvaline in the dose that was used attenuates arrhythmias and are hypotensive in their influence. Our findings lend support to the many ongoing investigations into the benefit of the application of l-leucine and l-valine in cardiology like their addition to cardioplegic solutions.

  1. Beneficial Effects of Long-Term Administration of an Oral Formulation of Angiotensin-(1–7 in Infarcted Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fúlvia D. Marques

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study was evaluated the chronic cardiac effects of a formulation developed by including angiotensin(Ang-(1–7 in hydroxypropyl β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD, in infarcted rats. Myocardial infarction (MI was induced by left coronary artery occlusion. HPβCD/Ang-(1–7 was administered for 60 days (76 μg/Kg/once a day/gavage starting immediately before infarction. Echocardiography was utilized to evaluate usual cardiac parameters, and radial strain method was used to analyze the velocity and displacement of myocardial fibers at initial time and 15, 30, and 50 days after surgery. Real-time PCR was utilized to evaluate the fibrotic signaling involved in the remodeling process. Once-a-day oral HPβCD/Ang-(1–7 administration improved the cardiac function and reduced the deleterious effects induced by MI on TGF-β and collagen type I expression, as well as on the velocity and displacement of myocardial fibers. These findings confirm cardioprotective effects of Ang-(1–7 and indicate HPβCD/Ang-(1–7 as a feasible formulation for long-term oral administration of this heptapeptide.

  2. Short-term beneficial effect of aspirin in patient with chronic rhinosinusitis and tolerant to acetylsalicylic acid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Kutlu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that desensitization treatment with aspirin can significantly improve symptoms and quality of life in patient with aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease. However, its mechanism has not been clearly understood yet. In this case report, 41-year-old male patient was referred to our allergy and immunology department with complaints of chronic rhinosinusitis including postnasal discharge, sneezing, facial pain/pressure, waking up tired, nasal obstruction, smell loss for a long time. According to the patient, the complaints were controlled partially with nasal steroid and antihistamines, and single dose parenteral depot steroids were highly effective in controlling the symptoms and each time this effect lasted at least three weeks. The patient was told to use aspirin when needed analgesic and he started to use aspirin 500 mg bid. po for 10 days for his pain in the joints. The patient stressed the superiority of aspirin over other drugs including oral antihistamine and LTA and its equality to systemic steroid drugs in suppressing symptoms. It seemed that aspirin had positive effects in allergic inflammation at least in some subset of aspirin tolerant patients with chronic sinusitis.

  3. Beneficial Effects of Palmitoylethanolamide on Expressive Language, Cognition, and Behaviors in Autism: A Report of Two Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Antonucci

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Autism spectrum disorders are defined by behavioral and language atypias. Growing body of evidence indicates inflammatory mediators may contribute to the condition. Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA is naturally occurring and has been available as a nonprescription medical food supplement in Europe since 2008. PEA has been tested in thousands of human subjects without any noted significant side effects. Here we report the first cases of the administration of PEA to two children with autism. Case Presentations. The first 13-year-old male child (Subject 1 presented with a total IgE of 572 IU/mL (nl < 200 and with low mature CD57+ natural killer cell counts (32 cells/µL; nl = 60–300 cells/µL and with significant eczema and allergic stigmata. Expressive language, as measured by mean length of utterance, and overall autism severity as measured by the Childhood Autism Rating Scale, Second Edition, improved significantly. Atopic symptoms diminished. No side effects were reported. The second male child, age 15 (Subject 2, also displayed noticeable and rapid improvements in cognitive, behaviors, and sociability. Conclusion. Currently, there is no definitive treatment for autism condition. Palmitoylethanolamide could be an effective treatment for autism syndrome. We propose appropriate double-blind clinical trials to further explore palmitoylethanolamide efficacy and safety.

  4. Beneficial Effects of Ants and Spiders on the Reproductive Value of Eriotheca gracilipes (Malvaceae) in a Tropical Savanna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefani, Vanessa; Pires, Tayna Lopes; Torezan-Silingardi, Helena Maura; Del-Claro, Kleber

    2015-01-01

    Predators affect plant fitness when they forage on them and reduce the action of herbivores. Our study evaluates the complementary effects of spiders and ants that visit the extrafloral nectaries of Eriotheca gracilipes (Malvaceae) on the production of fruits and viable seeds of these savanna trees. Four experimental groups were established: control group - with free access of spiders and ants; exclusion group - spiders and ants excluded; ant group - absence of spiders; and spider group - absence of ants. The presence of ants reduced the spider richness; however, the presence of spiders did not affect the ant richness. A significantly higher number of fruits per buds were found in the presence of spiders alone or spiders and ants together (control group) compared with the absence of both predators (exclusion group). The number of seeds per fruits and seed viability were higher in the control group. This is the first study showing that spiders and ants may exert a positive and complementary effect on the reproductive value of an extrafloral nectaried plant. Mostly the impact of ants and/or spiders on herbivores is considered, whereas our study reinforces the importance of evaluating the effect of multiple predators simultaneously, exploring how the interactions among predators with distinct skills may affect the herbivores and the plants on which they forage.

  5. Beneficial effects of metformin and irbesartan on advanced glycation end products (AGEs)-RAGE-induced proximal tubular cell injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishibashi, Yuji; Matsui, Takanori; Takeuchi, Masayoshi; Yamagishi, Sho-ichi

    2012-03-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptor (RAGE) axis contributes to diabetic nephropathy. An oral hypoglycemic agent, metformin may have a potential effect on the inhibition of glycation reactions. Further, since a pathophysiological crosstalk between renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and AGEs-RAGE axis is involved in diabetic nephropathy, it is conceivable that metformin and irbesartan additively could protect against the AGEs-RAGE-induced tubular cell injury. In this study, we addressed the issues. Metformin dose-dependently inhibited the formation of AGEs modification of bovine serum albumin (BSA). Compared with AGEs-modified BSA prepared without metformin (AGEs-MF0), those prepared in the presence of 30 mM or 100 mM metformin (AGEs-MF30 or AGEs-MF100) significantly reduced RAGE mRNA level, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, apoptosis, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and transforming growth factor-β mRNA level in tubular cells. Irbesartan further inhibited the harmful effects of AGEs-MF0 or AGEs-MF30 on tubular cells. Our present study suggests that combination therapy with metformin and irbesartan may have therapeutic potential in diabetic nephropathy; it could play a protective role against tubular injury in diabetes not only by inhibiting AGEs formation, but also by attenuating the deleterious effects of AGEs via down-regulating RAGE expression and subsequently suppressing ROS generation.

  6. Beneficial effect of Berberis buxifolia Lam, Ziziphus mistol Griseb and Prosopis alba extracts on oxidative stress induced by chloramphenicol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Claudia; Pellarin, Gabriela; Rojas, María José; Albesa, Inés; Eraso, Alberto F

    2010-01-01

    The chemiluminescence of luminol, a measure of oxidative stress, increased immediately as a consequence of reactive oxygen species (ROS) stimulated by this antibiotic. The effect of Ch was dose dependent with maximum stimulus at 8 mg/ml (Vmax); above this concentration the cells began to reduce the production of ROS. The oxidative injury of Ch was counteracted by water extracts of Berberis buxifolia lam, Zizyphus mistol Griseb and Prosopis alba, indigenous fruits from Argentina. The relatively light units (RLU) emitted decreased immediately as a consequence of a protective effect exerted by the extracts of these fruit extracts on blood cells. The three indigenous fruit extracts reduced to a different extent the oxidative injury caused by Ch. B.buxifolia lam exhibited the highest antioxidant capacity followed by Z.mistol Griseb. Water extracts of both fruit extracts were the most effective against the oxidative stress, while P.alba presented better antioxidant capacity in the ethanolic fraction obtained. Hexane extracts showed low protective action on blood cells, with little reduction of area under curve (AUC) of RLU plotted versus time. Leukocytes remained viable in blood samples incubated for 3h with Ch and water extracts of B. buxifolia lam or Z. mistol Griseb (97.1% and 92.5% viability by Trypan blue exclusion, respectively); whereas with Ch only the cells were stressed and viability decreased to 30%. The three fruit extracts protected the viability of leukocytes in parallel with the decrease of ROS. Erythrocytes were not lysed in the presence of Ch.

  7. Beneficial effect of Verminephrobacter nephridial symbionts on the fitness of the earthworm Aporrectodea tuberculata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Marie Braad; Holmstrup, Martin; Lomstein, Bente Aagaard

    2010-01-01

    , the symbionts have been hypothesized to enhance nitrogen retention in the earthworms. The effect of Verminephrobacter on the life-history traits of the earthworm Aporrectodea tuberculata (Eisen) was investigated by comparing growth, development, and fecundity of worms with and without symbionts, given high...... (cowdung) and low (straw) nutrient diets. There were no difference in worm growth and number of cocoons produced by symbiotic and aposymbiotic worms. Worms with Verminephrobacter symbionts reached sexual maturity earlier and had higher cocoon hatching success than worms cured from their symbionts when...... grown on the low nutrient diet. Thus, the Verminephrobacter nephridial symbionts do have a beneficial effect on their earthworm host. Cocoons with and without symbionts did not significantly differ in total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN), or total hydrolysable amino acid (THAA) content, which...

  8. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation as a method to maximize the beneficial effects of muscle stem cells transplanted into dystrophic skeletal muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Distefano

    Full Text Available Cellular therapy is a potential approach to improve the regenerative capacity of damaged or diseased skeletal muscle. However, its clinical use has often been limited by impaired donor cell survival, proliferation and differentiation following transplantation. Additionally, functional improvements after transplantation are all-too-often negligible. Because the host microenvironment plays an important role in the fate of transplanted cells, methods to modulate the microenvironment and guide donor cell behavior are warranted. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the use of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES for 1 or 4 weeks following muscle-derived stem cell (MDSC transplantation into dystrophic skeletal muscle can modulate the fate of donor cells and enhance their contribution to muscle regeneration and functional improvements. Animals submitted to 4 weeks of NMES after transplantation demonstrated a 2-fold increase in the number of dystrophin+ myofibers as compared to control transplanted muscles. These findings were concomitant with an increased vascularity in the MDSC+NMES group when compared to non-stimulated counterparts. Additionally, animals subjected to NMES (with or without MDSC transplantation presented an increased maximal specific tetanic force when compared to controls. Although cell transplantation and/or the use of NMES resulted in no changes in fatigue resistance, the combination of both MDSC transplantation and NMES resulted in a faster recovery from fatigue, when compared to non-injected and non-stimulated counterparts. We conclude that NMES is a viable method to improve MDSC engraftment, enhance dystrophic muscle strength, and, in combination with MDSC transplantation, improve recovery from fatigue. These findings suggest that NMES may be a clinically-relevant adjunct approach for cell transplantation into skeletal muscle.

  9. The beneficial effect of ST-36 (Zusanli) acupressure on postoperative gastrointestinal function in patients with colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Hui-Lin; Miao, Shang-Jun; Liu, Pei-Fen; Lee, Henry Hsin-Chung; Chen, Ying-Miao; Yao, Chung-Tay; Chou, Hsiu-Ling

    2013-03-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of ST-36 (Zusanli) acupressure on recovery of postoperative gastrointestinal function in patients with colorectal cancer. A longitudinal, randomized, controlled trial design. An urban medical center in Taiwan. 60 patients with colorectal cancer who had undergone abdominal surgery. Patients were randomly assigned to two groups, the ST-36 acupressure group (n = 30) and a sham acupressure group (n = 30). Patients in the ST-36 group received an acupressure procedure in a three-minute cycle performed three times per day during the five days after surgery. Patients in the control group received routine postoperative care and sham acupressure. Generalized estimating equations (GEEs) were used to gauge longitudinal effects of the two groups of patients. Frequency of bowel sounds, the time to first flatus passage, first liquid intake, solid intake, and defecation. Patients who received acupressure had significantly earlier flatus passage and time to liquid intake as compared to patients in the control group. Other main variables, including the first time to solid intake and defecation, did not show significant difference between the two groups. The GEE method revealed that all patients had increasing bowel sounds over time, and the experimental group had greater improvement of bowel motility than the control group within the period of 2-3 days postoperatively. ST-36 acupressure was able to shorten the time to first flatus passage, oral liquid intake, and improve gastrointestinal function in patients after abdominal surgery. ST-36 acupressure can be integrated into postoperative adjunct nursing care to assist patients' postoperative gastrointestinal function. Few studies have explored the effectiveness of acupressure techniques on promoting bowel sounds. Evidence from this study suggests stimulation of the ST-36 acupressure point can increase bowel sound frequency for patients with colorectal cancer in the first three days after surgery

  10. Inhibition by soya isoflavones of human polymorphonuclear leukocyte function: possible relevance for the beneficial effects of soya intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotondo, Serenella; Krauze-Brzósko, Katarzyna; Manarini, Stefano; Martelli, Nicola; Pecce, Romina; Evangelista, Virgilio; Benedetta Donati, Maria; Cerletti, Chiara

    2008-02-01

    Lower CVD incidence is reported in Asian populations consuming soya-containing food. As polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) are involved in the risk of CVD, we investigated the modulatory effect of soya isoflavones on several PMN functions and their molecular mechanisms in vitro. PMN, isolated from blood from healthy subjects, were tested upon activation with 1 microm- n-formyl-methyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP) for superoxide anion production (ferric cytochrome c reduction) and released elastase (chromogenic test). PMN homotypic aggregates stimulated by fMLP or P-selectin in dynamic conditions were detected by optical microscopy. PMN, mixed with thrombin-activated, washed platelets, formed cell aggregates, measured by flow cytometry. Phosphorylation of Pyk2, a focal adhesion kinase, was studied by immunoprecipitation and immunoblotting with specific antibodies. Genistein, daidzein and equol inhibited superoxide anion production (IC50 0.25 (sem 0.1), 21.0 (sem 4.2) and 13.0 (sem 2.8) microm, respectively); the release of elastase was prevented by genistein (IC50 63 (sem 17) microm). PMN homotypic aggregates, stimulated by fMLP, were significantly reduced (24 (sem 12) and 51 (sem 14) % of control) by 100 microm genistein and equol. P-selectin-induced aggregates were reduced to 19 (sem 6), 44 (sem 10) and 28 (sem 9) % of control by 100 microm genistein, daidzein and equol, respectively. Genistein, daidzein and equol also significantly reduced mixed platelet-PMN aggregates (IC50 4.0 (sem 0.9), 57 (sem 6) and 66 (sem 23) microm, respectively). In PMN challenged by fMLP or P-selectin, activation of Pyk2 was prevented by isoflavones. The cardioprotective effect of soya-containing food might be linked to reduction of PMN activation and PMN-platelet interaction, novel targets for the biological effects of soya isoflavones.

  11. Chiglitazar, a novel PPARalpha/gamma dual agonists with beneficial effects on insulin resistance and lipid metabolism in MSG rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping-pingLI; Yue-tengCHEN; QuanLIU; Su-juanSUN; Zhu-fangSHEN

    2004-01-01

    AIM: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) alpha and PPAR gamma agonists lower lipid accumulation by different mechanisms. We investigated whether benefits could be achieved on insulin sensitivity and lipid metabolism by the dual PPARalpha/gamma agonist chiglitazar in MSG rats. METHODS: Chiglitazar was orally administered in 5, 10, 20 mg-kg-~.d~ dosages in MSG rats for 40 d. The drug therapeutic effect was evaluated by glucose tolerance tests, insulin tolerance tests, and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps technique. The level of

  12. Encapsulated glucagon-like peptide-1-producing mesenchymal stem cells have a beneficial effect on failing pig hearts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wright, Elizabeth J; Farrell, Kelly A; Malik, Nadim;

    2012-01-01

    -life in vivo. The effects of prolonged GLP-1 delivery from stromal cells post-MI were evaluated in a porcine model. Human mesenchymal stem cells immortalized and engineered to produce a GLP-1 fusion protein were encapsulated in alginate (bead-GLP-1 MSC) and delivered to coronary artery branches. Control groups...... and showed decreased infarction area compared with controls. Histological analysis showed reduced inflammation and a trend toward reduced apoptosis in the infarct zone. Increased collagen but fewer myofibroblasts were observed in infarcts of the bead-GLP-1 MSC and bead-MSC groups, and significantly more...

  13. The angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor captopril inhibits poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase activation and exerts beneficial effects in an ovine model of burn and smoke injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmussen, Sven; Bartha, Eva; Olah, Gabor; Sbrana, Elena; Rehberg, Sebastian W.; Yamamoto, Yusuke; Enkhbaatar, Perenlei; Hawkins, Hal K.; Ito, Hiroshi; Cox, Robert A.; Traber, Lillian D.; Traber, Daniel L.; Szabo, Csaba

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the effect of the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor captopril in a clinically relevant ovine model of smoke and burn injury, with special reference to oxidative stress, activation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase in the lung and in circulating leukocytes. Female, adult sheep (28–40 kg) were divided into 3 groups. After tracheostomy and under deep anesthesia both vehicle-control (n=5) and captopril (20 mg/kg/d, iv., starting 0.5 hour before the injury) treated (n=5) groups were subjected to 2×20%, third degree burn injury and were insufflated with 48 breaths of cotton smoke. A sham group not receiving burn/smoke was also studied (n=5). Animals were mechanically ventilated and fluid resuscitated for 24 h in the awake state. Burn and smoke injury resulted in an upregulation of ACE in the lung, evidenced by immunohistochemical determination and Western blotting. Burn and smoke injury resulted in pulmonary dysfunction, as well as systemic hemodynamic alterations. Captopril treatment of burn and smoke animals improved PaO2/FiO2 ratio and pulmonary shunt fraction and reduced the degree of lung edema. There was a marked increase in PAR levels in circulating leukocytes after burn/smoke injury, which was significantly decreased by captopril. The pulmonary level of ACE and the elevated pulmonary levels of TGF-β in response to burn and smoke injury were significantly decreased by captopril treatment. Our results suggest that the ACE inhibitor captopril exerts beneficial effects on the pulmonary function in burn/smoke injury. The effects of the ACE inhibitor may be related to the prevention of ROS-induced PARP over-activation. ACE inhibition may also exert additional beneficial effects by inhibiting the expression of the pro-fibrotic mediator TGF-β. PMID:21701415

  14. Los polifenoles, compuestos de origen natural con efectos saludables sobre el sistema cardiovascular The polyphenols, naturally occurring compounds with beneficial effects on cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Quiñones

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available En los últimos años numerosos estudios han avalado los efectos beneficiosos de la ingesta de polifenoles sobre la salud, especialmente sobre el sistema cardiovascular. Esto es importante, porque las enfermedades cardiovasculares son la principal causa de muerte en el mundo. Los efectos de los polifenoles son fundamentalmente consecuencia de sus propiedades antioxidantes. Estos compuestos presentan efectos vasodilatadores, son capaces además de mejorar el perfil lipídico y atenúan la oxidación de las lipoproteínas de baja densidad (LDL. Presentan claros efectos antiinflamatorios y estos compuestos son a su vez capaces de modular los procesos de apoptosis en el endotelio vascular. Esta revisión define desde el punto de vista estructural, los distintos grupos de polifenoles que pueden formarse en los vegetales y actualiza los conocimientos sobre su biodisponibilidad. En ella se recopilan asimismo algunos de los estudios recientes que establecen sus propiedades beneficiosas a nivel cardiovascular.In recent years, a number of studies have endorsed the beneficial effects of polyphenols intake on health, especially on the cardiovascular system. This is important since cardiovascular diseases are the main death cause worldwide. The effects of polyphenols are mainly due to their antioxidant properties. These compounds present vasodilating effects, and they can improve the lipid profile and lessen the oxidation of low-density lipoproteins (LDL. They show clear antiinflammatory effects and they can modulate the apoptotic pathways in the vascular endothelium. This review defines from the structural viewpoint the different groups of polyphenols that may occur in vegetables, and updates the knowledge on their bioavailability. Some of the recent studies establishing their beneficial properties at a cardiovascular level are also included.

  15. The presence of the NOS3 gene polymorphism for intron 4 mitigates the beneficial effects of exercise training on ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sponton, Carlos H; Esposti, Rodrigo; Rodovalho, Cynara M; Ferreira, Maycon J; Jarrete, Aline P; Anaruma, Chadi P; Bacci, Mauricio; Zanesco, Angelina

    2014-06-15

    The number of studies that have evaluated exercise training (ET) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS)3 gene polymorphisms is scarce. The present study was designed to evaluate the relationship between exercise training and NOS3 polymorphisms at -786T>C, 894G>T, and intron 4b/a on blood pressure (BP) using 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM), nitrate/nitrite levels (NOx), and redox state. Eighty-six volunteers (51 ± 0.6 yr old) were genotyped into nonpolymorphic and polymorphic groups for each of the three positions of NOS3 polymorphisms. Auscultatory BP, ABPM, SOD activity, catalase activity, NOx levels, and malondialdehyde levels were measured. DNA was extracted from leukocytes, and PCR followed by sequencing was applied for genotype analysis. Aerobic ET consisted of 24 sessions for 3 days/wk for 40 min at moderate intensity. This study was performed in a double-blind and crossover format. ET was effective in lowering office BP (systolic BP: 3.2% and diastolic BP: 3%) as well as ABPM (systolic BP: 2% and diastolic BP: 1.3%). Increased SOD and catalase activity (42.6% and 15.1%, respectively) were also observed. The NOS3 polymorphism for intron 4 mitigated the beneficial effect of ET for systolic BP (nonpolymorphic group: -3.0% and polymorphic group: -0.6%) and diastolic BP (nonpolymorphic group: -3.2% and polymorphic group: -0.5%), but it was not associated with NOx level and redox state. Paradoxical responses were found for positions T786-C and G894T for the NOS3 gene. Consistently, the presence of the polymorphism for intron 4 blunted the beneficial effects of ET in middle-aged adults. Possibly, this effect might be as consequence of intron 4 acting as a short intronic repeat RNA controlling endothelial NOS activity epigenetically. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Beneficial effects of vitamin E supplementation against the oxidative stress on Cylindrospermopsin-exposed tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán-Guillén, Remedios; Prieto Ortega, Ana I; Martín-Caméan, Ana; Cameán, Ana M

    2015-09-15

    Cylindrospermopsin (CYN) is known to produce changes in some oxidative stress biomarkers in fish acutely and subchronically exposed to the toxin. The present study investigated the effects of vitamin E supplementation against the oxidative stress induced by pure CYN in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Fish were pretreated with 700 mg vitamin E/kg fish body weight (bw)/day for 7 days by oral route, and on day seven, they received a single oral dose of 400 μg pure CYN/kg fish bw, and were killed after 24 h. The biomarkers evaluated included lipid peroxidation (LPO), protein and DNA oxidation, glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and γ-glutamyl-cysteine synthetase (γ-GCS) activities, and ratio of reduced glutathione-oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG). This is the first study showing that vitamin E supplementation is effective at reducing the toxicity induced by CYN, recovering the biomarkers assayed to basal levels. Therefore, vitamin E can be considered a useful chemoprotectant that reduces hepatic and renal oxidative stress and can be used in the prophylaxis and treatment of CYN-related intoxication in fish.

  17. C333H, a novel PPARα/γ dual agonist, has beneficial effects on insulin resistance and lipid metabolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng XU; Li-li WANG; Hong-ying LIU; Xing-bo ZHOU; Ying-lin CAO; Song LI

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To examine the effects of novel peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) α/γdual agonist C333H on insulin resistance and lipid metabolism.Methods: An established dual-luciferase reporter gene assay system was used in vitro to test the activity of C333H with respect to the transcription of human PPARα and PPARγ. A preadipocyte differentiation assay and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction were used to detect the functional activities of C333H. In db/db mice, the effects of C333H were investigated with respect to lowering of blood glucose and lipid levels. Results: C333H was determined to be a novel PPARα/γ dual agonist because it strongly induced luciferase activity on human PPARα and PPARγ, promoting the differentiation of preadipocytes to adipocytes, and functioning in upregulating the expression of some glucose and lipid metabolic target genes of the PPAR. In addition, C333H efficiently reduced blood lipid and glucose concentrations in db/db diabetic mice. Conclusion: C333H has dual action on both PPARα and PPARγ, and might be of interest for the amelioration of lipid metabolic disorders and insulin resistance associated with type 2 diabetes.

  18. Beneficial effects of bacteria-plant communication based on quorum sensing molecules of the N-acyl homoserine lactone group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schikora, Adam; Schenk, Sebastian T; Hartmann, Anton

    2016-04-01

    Bacterial quorum sensing (QS) mechanisms play a crucial role in the proper performance and ecological fitness of bacterial populations. Many key physiological processes are regulated in a QS-dependent manner by auto-inducers, like the N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs) in numerous Gram-negative bacteria. In addition, also the interaction between bacteria and eukaryotic hosts can be regulated by AHLs. Those mechanisms gained much attention, because of the positive effects of different AHL molecules on plants. This positive impact ranges from growth promotion to induced resistance and is quite contrasting to the rather negative effects observed in the interactions between bacterial AHL molecules and animals. Only very recently, we began to understand the molecular mechanisms underpinning plant responses to AHL molecules. In this review, we gathered the latest information in this research field. The first part gives an overview of the bacterial aspects of quorum sensing. Later we focus on the impact of AHLs on plant growth and AHL-priming, as one of the most understood phenomena in respect to the inter-kingdom interactions based on AHL-quorum sensing molecules. Finally, we discuss the potential benefits of the understanding of bacteria-plant interaction for the future agricultural applications.

  19. Beneficial effect of astragalosides on stroke condition using PC12 cells under oxygen glucose deprivation and reperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Bi-Ying; Chang, Ching-Ping; Lin, Jia-Wei; Yu, Jung-Sheng; Liu, Wen-Pin; Hsu, Yao-Chin; Lin, Mao-Tsun

    2014-08-01

    Astragalosides (AST) are reported to be neuroprotective in focal cerebral ischemic models in vivo. In this study, the direct effect of AST against oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) including neuronal injury and the underlying mechanisms in vitro were investigated. 5 h OGD followed by 24 h of reperfusion [adding back oxygen and glucose (OGD-R)] was used to induce in vitro ischemia reperfusion injury in differentiated rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells. AST (1, 100, and 200 µg/mL) were added to the culture after 5 h of the OGD ischemic insult and was present during the reoxygenation phases. A key finding was that OGD-R decreased cell viability, increased lactate dehydrogenase, increased reactive oxygen species, apoptosis, autophagy, functional impairment of mitochondria, and endoplasmic reticulum stress in PC12 cells, all of which AST treatment significantly reduced. In addition, AST attenuated OGD-R-induced cell loss through P38 MAPK activation a neuroprotective effect blunted by SB203580, a specific inhibitor of P38 MAPK. Our data suggest that both apoptosis and autophagy are important characteristics of OGD-R-induced PC12 death and that treating PC12 cells with AST blocked OGD-R-induced apoptosis and autophagy by suppressing intracellular oxidative stress, functional impairment of mitochondria, and endoplasmic reticulum stress. Our data provide identification of AST that can concomitantly inhibit multiple cells death pathways following OGD injuries in neural cells.

  20. Inflammation, oxidative stress and platelet activation in aspirin-treated critical limb ischaemia: beneficial effects of iloprost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessiani, Gianfranco; Vazzana, Natale; Cuccurullo, Chiara; Di Michele, Dario; Laurora, Giuseppe; Sgrò, Giuseppe; Di Ruscio, Paolo; Simeone, Emilio; Di Iorio, Pierangelo; Lattanzio, Stefano; Liani, Rossella; Ferrante, Elisabetta; Davì, Giovanni

    2011-02-01

    Platelets critically contribute to atherothrombosis and worsening ischaemia in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD), eventually leading to critical limb ischaemia (CLI). Furthermore, persistent platelet activation despite antiplatelet therapy has been reported in this setting. The prostacyclin analogue iloprost is currently recommended in CLI patients for its effects in relieving symptoms by promoting local perfusion. In this study, we investigated the effects of iloprost infusion on urinary 11-dehydro-TXB₂ and 8-iso-PGF(₂α) excretion rate, as in vivo indexes of thromboxane-dependent platelet activation and lipid peroxidation, respectively, and on platelet-derived proinflammatory sCD40L and nitric oxide bioavailability in 44 patients with CLI while on chronic treatment with low-dose aspirin. Daily iloprost infusion for one-week significantly decreased urinary 11-dehydro-TXB₂ [499 (277-807) vs. 380 (189-560) pg/mg creatinine, p iloprost treatment (Rho = 0.695, p iloprost is able to significantly reduce residual thromboxane biosynthesis, oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction and platelet-derived inflammation in low-dose aspirin treated patients with CLI.

  1. Beneficial Effects of Red Yeast Rice on High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity, Hyperlipidemia, and Fatty Liver in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ho Sung; Lee, Yu Jeung; Chung, Yoon Hee; Nam, Yunsung; Kim, Sung Tae; Park, Eon Sub; Hong, Suk Myung; Yang, Yeong Kuk; Kim, Hyoung-Chun; Jeong, Ji Hoon

    2015-10-01

    Obesity is a common cause of hyperlipidemia, which is a major coronary risk factor. Previous studies have shown red yeast rice (RYR) effectiveness in lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of RYR on obesity and hyperlipidemia. Mice were randomly separated into five groups: the control group with a normal diet, the high-fat diet (HFD) group fed a HFD without any treatment, and HFD-fed groups supplemented with RYR (1 g/kg/day for 8 weeks, 1 g