Full Text Available Background: Population aging proceeds with other socioeconomic developments, including educational expansion. Improvements in educational attainment lead to changes in demographic behaviors such as assortative mating, fertility, and the intergenerational transmission of education, which change the health of the elderly and the education of their offspring generation. Objective: We examine such a jointly-changing process in South Korea. Methods: We apply a recursive demographic model (Mare and Maralani 2006 by using the Korean Longitudinal Study of Ageing (KLoSA. Results: First, improvements in education lead to improvements in health among the elderly. Intermediate demographic factors make positive contributions to this improvement. Second, improvements in education lead to a decline in the ratios of offspring to the elderly because better-educated people have fewer children. However, this decrease is not substantial. Third, improvements in education increase the ratio of college-educated offspring to the unhealthy elderly because of improvements in both offspring's education and elderly health. Conclusions: The results suggest that improvements in education change configurations of the elderly and their offspring's generations, mitigating the negative consequences of population aging, such as increasing burdens of elderly support.
Calero, Juan del Rey
Since our Constitution declaration in 1978 and General Law for Health in 1986, to date, the Spanish society has undergorne marked social changes. Socio-economic and health indicators in Spain have also improved as to an increased life expectancy, important reduction in infant mortality, and favourable changes reported in the national Health Survey. Risk factors influence the main causes of death, thus it is said that "man does not die but it kills himself". Healthy health practices are specified, and there is empirical evidence of greater disability-adjusted life years, a better adherence to Mediterranean diet, no smoking, moderate consumption of alcohol, enough time of sleeping, weight control, avoiding obsity and overweight, and increased physical activity, all the above practices achieving a healthier life. At a global scale in the world we live, famine has no frontiers, and fighting against this plague can not await longer. Overall, health and poverty are correlated and it must be overcome for reasons of human dignity, universal rights (even in ius gentium), and ethical dimension as normative of new socio-economic structures. Present must be transformed to recover hope in ou global world, still hungry, and in need of justice, enlightenment and solidarity.
Alemayehu, Yibeltal Kiflie; Theall, Katherine; Lemma, Wuleta; Hajito, Kifle Woldemichael; Tushune, Kora
Socioeconomic status at national, sub-national, household, and individual levels explains a significant portion of variation in infant mortality. Women's education is among the major determinants of infant mortality. The mechanism through which a woman's own educational status, over her husband's as well as household characteristics, influences infant mortality has not been well studied in developing countries. The objective of this study was to explore the role of woman's empowerment and household wealth in the association between a woman's educational status and infant mortality. The association between a woman's educational status and infant death, and the role of woman's empowerment and household wealth in this relationship, were examined among married women in Ethiopia through a secondary, serial cross-sectional analysis utilizing data on birth history of married women from three rounds of the Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey. Univariate, bivariate, and multivariate analyses were conducted to examine the association between woman's education and infant death, and the possible mediation or moderation roles of woman empowerment and household wealth. Female education and empowerment were inversely associated with infant death. The results indicated mediation by empowerment in the education-infant death association, and effect modification by household wealth. Both empowerment and education had strongest inverse association with infant death among women from the richest households. The findings suggest an important role of female empowerment in the education-infant death relation, and the complexity of these factors according to household wealth. Woman empowerment programs may prove effective as a shorter term intervention in reducing infant mortality.
Maxson, Pamela; Miranda, Marie Lynn
We explore the psychosocial, demographic, and maternal characteristics across wanted, mistimed, and unwanted pregnancies. Data from 1321 women from a prospective cohort study of pregnant women in Durham, NC, are analyzed. Psychosocial correlates were obtained through prenatal surveys; electronic medical records were used to ascertain maternal health and pregnancy outcomes. Sixty-two percent of the women indicated an unintended pregnancy, with 44% (578) mistimed and 18% (245) unwanted. Only 38% of the pregnancies were characterized as wanted. Women with unwanted and with mistimed pregnancies were similar demographically, but they differed significantly on psychosocial profiles and maternal characteristics. Women with mistimed and with wanted pregnancies differed in demographics and psychosocial profiles. Wanted pregnancies had the healthiest, mistimed an intermediate, and unwanted the poorest psychosocial profile. Women with unwanted pregnancies had the highest depression, perceived stress, and negative paternal support scores (ppsychosocial profiles had higher odds of being in the unwanted category. Controlling for psychosocial and demographic variables, perceived stress and positive paternal support remained significant predictors of belonging to the unwanted and mistimed groups. Fully characterizing pregnancy intention and its relationship to psychosocial profiles may provide a basis for identifying women with highest risk during pregnancy and early motherhood. Women with unwanted and mistimed pregnancies may appear similar demographically but are different psychosocially. Women with unwanted pregnancies have multiple risk factors and would benefit from targeted interventions.
Ogbe, Joseph O.
The purpose of this study was to stimulate action to address and identify maternal, child and community needs towards the improvement in health of pregnant women, children and communities. Four null hypotheses were generated from the research questions while multiple regression analysis was used to analyse the data. The study found that household…
Cosier, Meghan E.; Causton-Theoharis, Julie
This study investigated economic and demographic predictors of levels of inclusion of students with disabilities in 129 school districts. Multiple regression analysis was utilized to address the following research questions: (a) Is there a relationship between economic factors and percentage of highly included students with disabilities in general…
Raissa de Oliveira Martins Cabacinha
Full Text Available This study aimed at characterizing social demographic aspects and health conditions of men attending a Primary Family Health Care unit in Montes Claros, MG, Brazil, correlating these variables with health self-perception and identifying men’s difficulty in using the health service. 115 adult men were interviewed who had attended the service in April and May, 2013. Most of them had completed high school, were married and adopted healthy practices, although they consumed alcoholic beverages. The main complaint regarding the health service was the long waiting time for attendance. The main factors that contributed for negative self-perception of health were: being married, suffering from chronic diseases and having low education; whereas those that contributed to the positive self-perception of health were: being young, being employed and not making regular use of medication (p<0.05. Those findings can subsidize policies to prevent diseases in promoting men’s health.
Waldman, H Barry; Perlman, Steven P; Cinotti, Debra A
The numbers of dental school graduates and students enrolled in post graduate programs have increased. Decreases are noted in the enrollment in Periodontics and Prosthodontics programs and a marked increase in the enrollment in Pediatric Dentistry programs. A review of these changes, by gender and race/ethnicity provides an overview of the future demographics of the profession. Some concerns regarding the future are considered.
Guthridge, Steven; Li, Lin; Silburn, Sven; Li, Shu Qin; McKenzie, John; Lynch, John
This study investigated the association between early-life risk factors and school education outcomes. This is an historical cohort study of 7601 children (61% were Indigenous) born in the Northern Territory between 1999 and 2004. Information was linked, for each child on: perinatal health, student enrolment and National Assessment Program - Literacy and Numeracy (NAPLAN) Year 3 results. Logistic regression was used to estimate the association between selected risk factors and a NAPLAN result 'below' the national minimum standard (NMS) in reading and numeracy. Indigenous children had much higher odds, than non-Indigenous children, of a result below the NMS for both reading (odds ratio (OR): 8.58, 95% confidence interval (CI): 7.55-9.74) ) and numeracy (OR: 11.52, 95% CI: 9.94-13.35). When adjusted for all other variables, the increased odds were attenuated for both reading (OR: 2.89, 95% CI: 2.46-3.40) and numeracy (OR: 3.19, 95% CI: 2.65-3.84). Common risk factors for Indigenous and non-Indigenous children included higher birth order, maternal smoking in pregnancy and being a boy. There were gradients of decreasing risk with increasing education level of primary care giver and increasing maternal age. Among Indigenous children only, risks increased when living in remote areas, with younger age (factors associated with poor education outcomes among Indigenous children are shared with the general population. The results inform a targeted, cross-agency response to address modifiable early-life risk factors for educational disadvantage. Data linkage, using existing administrative datasets, provides a useful addition to methods that identify priority areas for prevention and early intervention. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2015 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).
California Postsecondary Education Commission, 2004
This profile uniquely presents a variety of educational and socioeconomic information for Madera County, nearby counties, and the state. The profile highlights the relationship between various factors that affect the economic well-being of individuals and communities. This presentation of information provides a framework for enhanced…
California Postsecondary Education Commission, 2004
This profile uniquely presents a variety of educational and socioeconomic information for Napa County, nearby counties, and the state. The profile highlights the relationship between various factors that affect the economic well-being of individuals and communities. This presentation of information provides a framework for enhanced communication…
Full Text Available An important aspect is social learning involves acquisition of knowledge, skills, abilities, habits over from friends, colleagues, social group they belong to.Purpose and research hypothesisSmall school activities is more effective if concrete terms of reference that would bring back to memory certain knowledge that to suggest solutions to solve and give him the opportunity to correct by comparing statements reality, this is why the main method of conducting educational process is observation.Working methodResearch group consisted of children of school age (7-12 years. Demographic information about the subjects covered: health, family composition and housing.Research resultsThe vast majority of children had good health, with no differences between the control group and the experimental group (p = 0.428. Regarding housing conditions, over half (57.1% in the control group and 51.4% in control group live in two rooms, no child lives in a studio and two children in the experimental group live at home with yard. In both groups, two children did not provide information regarding their housing situation. Of children included in the study, a very high percentage (82.9% in the control group and 68.6% in the experimental group is single copies: only six children in the control group and 10 in the control group have brothers or sisters. Under these conditions, more than half of the children have their own room (65.7% in the control group and 57.1% in the experimental group, the rest sharing a room with a brother or sister, or parents (in the case of two children experimental group.ConclusionsWe conclude that in terms of demographic variables (health status, family composition, housing, there are no differences between children in the two groups. Optimal integration in a social environment is based not only on the correct development of intellectual faculties, namely, the possibility of natural evolution on the moral values, scientific and so on, but
Tran, Bich Huu; Nguyen, Ha Thanh; Ho, Hien Thi; Pham, Cuong Viet; Le, Vui Thi; Le, Anh Vu
The Chi Linh Health and Demographic Surveillance System (CHILILAB HDSS) is the only health and demographic surveillance system (HDSS) in an urbanizing area of the Chi Linh district of Hai Duong, a northern province of Vietnam. It is one of the few field laboratories in the world that links operational research and health interventions with field training. The CHILILAB HDSS provides longitudinal data on demographic and health indicators for the community of Chi Linh. In 2012, when the CHILILAB HDSS included 57,561 people from 17 993 households in 3 towns and 4 communes, it used structured questionnaires to collect information on population changes (birth, death, migration, marriage, and pregnancy) in the community. As of December 2012, 5 rounds of a baseline survey and 17 periodic update surveys or re-enumeration surveys had been conducted. In addition, several specialized public-health research projects, focused particularly on adolescent health, have been implemented by the CHILILAB HDSS. The information that the CHILILAB HDSS has gathered provides a picture of the health status of the population and socio-economic situation in Chi Linh district. The contact person for data sharing is the director of the CHILILAB (E-mail: email@example.com).
Extra, Guus, Ed.; Gorter, Durk, Ed.
This book focuses on the minority languages of Europe, those other than the national languages of European Union member states, by looking at the demographic, sociolinguistic, and educational aspects of both regional and immigrant languages. Empirical evidence for the status of these other languages of multicultural Europe is brought together in a…
Peker, Kadriye; Bermek, Gulcin
To determine oral health control beliefs of Istanbul adults using the Multidimensional Oral Health Locus of Control Scale (MOHLCS) after confirming its factorial validity and to examine the relationships between these beliefs, self-rated oral health, oral health behaviors and socio-demographic factors. The MOHLCS was administered to a sample of 1200 subjects aged ≥18 years in Istanbul chosen using a quota-sampling method (response 88%). The relationship between the MOHLCS and oral health behaviors, self-rated oral health and socio-demographic factors was assessed after confirming the factorial validity of the MOHLCS. The MOHLCS demonstrated satisfactory internal reliability. Factor analysis results showed a new four-factor solution, namely Internal, Dentist, Chance, and Socialization agents. Multivariate analysis showed that female gender, younger age, higher socioeconomic status, more frequent daily toothbrushing, and regular dental check-ups were associated with higher Internal beliefs, while older age, lower educational level, lower socioeconomic status, low toothbrushing frequency, and symptom-orientated dental attendance were associated with higher Chance beliefs. Being unmarried and low toothbrushing frequency were associated with lower Dentist beliefs. Males and older subjects had lower Socialization agents beliefs. Internal, Dentist and Chance beliefs were significantly associated with self-rated oral health. Compared with the original factor structure, the new factor structure had better goodness of fit for this sample. Self-rated oral health, socio-demographic factors, and oral health behaviors were significantly associated with oral health control beliefs. These beliefs may be useful for planning oral health promotion programs and for formulating advice given by oral health professionals about their patients' oral health behaviors.
Liu, Li-Fan; Tian, Wei-Hua; Yao, Hui-Ping
The health care needs of elderly people were influenced by their heterogeneity. This study aimed to identify the health latent classes of elderly people by using latent class analysis to deal with heterogeneity and examine their socio-demographic characteristics. Data came from the 2005 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) in Taiwan. In total, 2449 elderly individuals with available health indicators were examined in latent class analysis (LCA), and 2217 elderly community-dwellings with complete socio-demographic data were analyzed by multinomial logistic regression. Four health latent classes were identified which included 1066 (43.5%) people in the High Comorbidity (HC), 152 (6.2%) in the Functional Impairment (FI), 252 (10.3%) in the Frail (FR), and 979 (40.0%) in the Relatively Healthy (RH) group. Multinomial logistic regressions revealed socio-demographic characteristics among health classes. The variables associated with an increased likelihood of being in the FR group were age, female, and living with families. They were also correlated to ethnicity and educations. Apart from age and gender, the Functional Impairment group was less likely to be ethnicity of Hakka, more likely to live with others than were the RH group. The HC group tended to be younger, with higher educations, and more likely to live in urban area than the Functional Impairment group. The correlations between health classes and socio-demographic factors were discussed. The health status of elderly people includes a variety of health indicators. A person-centered approach is critical to identify the health heterogeneity of elderly people and manage their care needs by targeting differential aging.
Oct 2, 2014 ... Department of Physical and Health Education,. Emmanuel .... The nature of worship in Islam involves exercises such as bending, ... problems like high cholestrol, high blood sugar and high blood pressure that could make.
Green, Jamie A; Mor, Maria K; Shields, Anne Marie; Sevick, Mary Ann; Palevsky, Paul M; Fine, Michael J; Arnold, Robert M; Weisbord, Steven D
Although limited health literacy is estimated to affect over 90 million Americans and is recognized as an important public health concern, there have been few studies examining this issue in patients with chronic kidney disease. We sought to characterize the prevalence of and associations of demographic and clinical characteristics with limited health literacy in patients receiving maintenance hemodialysis. As part of a prospective clinical trial of symptom management strategies in 288 patients treated with chronic hemodialysis, we assessed health literacy using the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine (REALM). We defined limited health literacy as a REALM score ≤60 and evaluated independent associations of demographic and baseline clinical characteristics with limited health literacy using multivariable logistic regression. Of the 260 patients who completed the REALM, 41 demonstrated limited health literacy. African-American race, lower educational level, and veteran status were independently associated with limited health literacy. There was no association of limited health literacy with age, gender, serologic values, dialysis adequacy, overall symptom burden, quality of life, or depression. Limited health literacy is common among patients receiving chronic hemodialysis. African-American race and socioeconomic factors are strong independent predictors of limited health literacy. These findings can help inform the design and implementation of interventions to improve health literacy in the hemodialysis population.
This document presents the results of the Bolivia Demographic and Health Survey (DHS), or Encuesta Nacional de Demografia y Salud 1998, conducted by the Instituto Nacional de Estadistica, La Paz, Bolivia, within the framework of the DHS Program of Macro International. Data were collected from 12,109 households and complete interviews were conducted with 11,187 women aged 15-49. A male survey was also conducted, which collected data from 3780 men aged 15-64. The information collected include the following: 1) general characteristics of the population, 2) fertility, 3) fertility preferences, 4) current contraceptive use, 5) contraception, 6) marital and contraceptive status, 7) postpartum variables, 8) infant mortality, 9) health: disease prevention and treatment, and 10) nutritional status: anthropometric measures.
This article presents summary statistics gathered from the 1998 Nicaragua Demographic and Health Survey (Encuesta Nicaraguense de Demografia y Salud 1998, ENDESA-98). Data from the nationally representative ENDESA-98 were collected from 11,528 households. Interviews were conducted with 13,634 women aged 15-49 years and 2912 men aged 15-59 years between December 1, 1997, and May 31, 1998. The statistics presented were on fertility trends, fertility differentials, age-specific fertility, fertility preferences, current contraceptive use, contraception, marital and contraceptive status, differentials in median age at first birth, postpartum variables, and infant mortality. In addition, statistical data on the health and nutritional status of children were also presented.
Ivanov, L Louise; Paganpegara, Galina
The collapse of the Soviet Union in 1990 brought many changes to Russia, including changes in nursing education. However, the changes did not include content in public health nursing. Most health care in Russia is provided at the tertiary level in hospitals. Health promotion and health education are new concepts in Russia and are not well understood. When health education does occur, it is at the individual level, taught by physicians, and in response to new diagnoses. Health promotion at the primary level and with aggregates is not often practiced. Russia currently is in a demographic crisis where health indicators continue to decline. Russian nurses trained in public health principles, such as health promotion, health education, and providing primary and secondary prevention services at the population and aggregate level, can positively affect the current demographic crisis.
Shahbazi, Moloud; Wiley, Matthew T; Hristidis, Vagelis
Background An increasing number of patients from diverse demographic groups share and search for health-related information on Web-based social media. However, little is known about the content of the posted information with respect to the users’ demographics. Objective The aims of this study were to analyze the content of Web-based health-related social media based on users’ demographics to identify which health topics are discussed in which social media by which demographic groups and to help guide educational and research activities. Methods We analyze 3 different types of health-related social media: (1) general Web-based social networks Twitter and Google+; (2) drug review websites; and (3) health Web forums, with a total of about 6 million users and 20 million posts. We analyzed the content of these posts based on the demographic group of their authors, in terms of sentiment and emotion, top distinctive terms, and top medical concepts. Results The results of this study are: (1) Pregnancy is the dominant topic for female users in drug review websites and health Web forums, whereas for male users, it is cardiac problems, HIV, and back pain, but this is not the case for Twitter; (2) younger users (0-17 years) mainly talk about attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and depression-related drugs, users aged 35-44 years discuss about multiple sclerosis (MS) drugs, and middle-aged users (45-64 years) talk about alcohol and smoking; (3) users from the Northeast United States talk about physical disorders, whereas users from the West United States talk about mental disorders and addictive behaviors; (4) Users with higher writing level express less anger in their posts. Conclusion We studied the popular topics and the sentiment based on users' demographics in Web-based health-related social media. Our results provide valuable information, which can help create targeted and effective educational campaigns and guide experts to reach the right users on Web
Background An increasing number of patients from diverse demographic groups share and search for health-related information on Web-based social media. However, little is known about the content of the posted information with respect to the users’ demographics. Objective The aims of this study were to analyze the content of Web-based health-related social media based on users’ demographics to identify which health topics are discussed in which social media by which demographic groups and to he...
Estacio, Emee Vida; Whittle, Rebecca; Protheroe, Joanne
This article aims to examine the socio-demographic characteristics associated with access and use of Internet for health-related purposes and its relationship with health literacy. Data were drawn from a health literacy survey ( N = 1046) and analysed using logistic regression. Results show a strong association between health literacy, internet access and use. Socio-demographic characteristics particularly age, education, income, perceived health and social isolation also predict internet access. Thus, in addition to widening access, the movement towards digitisation of health information and services should also consider digital skills development to enable people to utilise digital technology more effectively, especially among traditionally hard-to-reach communities.
Koelen, M.A.; Ban, van den A.W.
This book is a comprehensive resource for theory, research and action in health education and health promotion. The authors describe strategies and actions for health education and health promotion based on theories for understanding, predicting and changing behavioural, social and environmental det
Wistoft, Karen; Nordentoft, Helle Merete
This article examines the impact of a value-reflected approach in health education by demonstrating the nature of professional competence development connected to this approach. It is based on findings from two three-year health educational development projects carried out by school health nurses...... develop pedagogical competences in health education improving school childrens’ health....
Radic-Sestic, Marina; Radovanovic, Vesna; Milanovic-Dobrota, Biljana; Slavkovic, Sanela; Langovic-Milicvic, Ana
The general objective of this study was to establish the relation between general and special education teachers within teamwork and to define socio-demographic factors that affect teamwork. The sample encompassed 223 general and special education teacher of both genders, age 25 to 60, who are employed in regular elementary schools in Serbia. The…
Full Text Available Background: The dearth of health and demographic data in sub-Saharan Africa from vital registration systems and its impact on effective planning for health and socio-economic development is widely documented. Health and Demographic Surveillance Systems have the capacity to address the dearth of quality data for policy making in resource-poor settings. Objective: This article demonstrates the utility of the Kintampo Health and Demographic Surveillance System (KHDSS by showing the patterns and trends of population change from 2005 to 2009 in the Kintampo North Municipality and Kintampo South districts of Ghana through data obtained from the KHDSS biannual update rounds. Design: Basic demographic rates for fertility, mortality, and migration were computed by year. School enrolment was computed as a percentage in school by age and sex for 6–18 year-olds. Socio-economic status was derived by use of Principal Components Analysis on household assets. Results: Over the period, an earlier fertility decline was reversed in 2009; mortality declined slightly for all age-groups, and a significant share of working-age population was lost through out-migration. Large minorities of children of school-going age are not in school. Socio-economic factors are shown to be important determinants of fertility and mortality. Conclusion : Strengthening the capacity of HDSSs could offer added value to evidence-driven policymaking at local level.
Morrison, Lynn A; Sievert, Lynnette L; Brown, Daniel E; Rahberg, Nichole; Reza, Angela
The objective of this study was to examine the relation of menstrual attitudes to menopausal attitudes and the demographic and health characteristics associated with each. This cross-sectional study consisted of a randomly selected sample of 1,824 respondents aged 16 to 100 years in multi-ethnic Hilo, Hawai'i. Women completed questionnaires for demographic and health information, such as age, ethnicity, education, residency in Hawai'i, menopausal status, exercise, and attitudes toward menstruation and menopause. Women more often chose positive terms, such as "natural," to describe menstruation (60.8%) and menopause (59.4%). In bivariate analyses, post-menopausal women were significantly more likely to have positive menstrual and menopausal attitudes than pre-menopausal women. Factor analyses were used to cluster attitudes followed by linear regression to identify demographic characteristics associated with factor scores. Asian-American ethnicity, higher education, reporting more exercise, and growing up outside of Hawai'i were associated with positive menstrual attitudes. Higher education, older age, post-menopausal status, growing up outside of Hawai'i and having hot flashes were associated with positive menopausal attitudes. Bivariate correlation analyses suggested significant associations between factor scores for menstrual and menopausal attitudes. Both negative and positive menstrual attitudes were positively correlated with the anticipation of menopause, although negative attitudes toward menstruation were negatively correlated with menopause as a positive, natural life event. Demographic variables, specifically education and where one grows up, influenced women's attitudes toward menstruation and menopause and should be considered for inclusion in subsequent multi-ethnic studies. Further research is also warranted in assessing the relationship between menstrual and menopausal attitudes.
Dr. Walter Bartl
.... These strategies are, however, not always (directly) attributable to demographic decline. Moreover, there is considerable variation in the demographic responsiveness of education demand and supply...
Khumalo, I. P.; Temane, Q. M.; Wissing, M. P.
Age, gender, marital status, education attainment, employment status, and environmental setting explain different amounts of variance in psychological well-being and mental health. Inconsistent findings are reported for the socio-demographic variables in psychological well-being depending amongst others on the definition and measurement of…
Homan, T.; Pasquale, di A.; Kiche, I.; Onoka, K.; Hiscox, A.F.; Mweresa, C.K.; Mukabana, W.R.; Takken, W.; Maire, N.
Background Health in low and middle income countries is on one hand characterized by a high burden associated with preventable communicable diseases and on the other hand considered to be under-documented due to improper basic health and demographic record-keeping. health and demographic surveillanc
Yehudai, Noam; Tzach, Naama; Shpak, Talma; Most, Tova; Luntz, Michal
To analyze educational placement settings of Israeli children with cochlear implants (CIs) and evaluate the prognostic influence of the following demographic variables on mainstreaming: age at implantation, experience with CI, socioeconomic status, ethnicity, and parents' educational level. Retrospective review. Tertiary referral center. The study population comprised 245 children with severe-to-profound hearing impairment and at least 1 year of experience with a unilateral CI. Mean age at implantation was 4.5 ± 3.9 years, and mean duration of CI use was 5.4 ± 2.8 years. Follow-up review and statistical analysis of available data on educational placement after cochlear implantation. Placement in mainstream education. Regular schools were attended by 89 children (36.3%) and special education schools by 156 (63.7%). Variables found to be significantly associated with mainstream educational placement were younger age at implantation, higher level of parental education, higher socioeconomic status, and ethnicity. Multivariate analysis using a logistic regression model revealed that the factor with the highest positive correlation with mainstreaming was parental education level. Our results show that parental education, a variable that the health system cannot control, significantly influences postimplantation results in term of educational placement and can thus limit the chances of implanted children to achieve mainstream placement even when identified and implanted at an early age.
Full Text Available Background: Mortality has been declining in Bangladesh since the mid- twentieth century, while fertility has been declining since the late 1970s, and the country is now passing through the third stage of demographic transition. This type of demographic transition has produced a huge youthful population with a growing number of older people. For assessing health among older people, this study examines self-rated health, health state, quality of life and disability level in persons aged 50 and over. Data and methods: This is a collaborative study between the World Health Organization Study on global AGEing and adult health and the International Network for the Demographic Evaluation of Populations and Their Health in developing countries which collected data from eight countries. Two sources of data from the Matlab study area were used: health indicator data collected as a part of the study, together with the ongoing Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS data. For the survey, a total of 4,000 randomly selected people aged 50 and over (HDSS database were interviewed. The four health indicators derived from these data are self-rated health (five categories, health state (eight domains, quality of life (eight items and disability level (12 items. Self-rated health was coded as dummy while scores were calculated for the rest of the three health indicators using WHO-tested instruments. Results: After controlling for all the variables in the regression model, all four indicators of health (self-rated health, health state, quality of life and disability level documented that health was better for males than females, and health deteriorates with increasing age. Those people who were in current partnerships had generally better health than those who were single, and better health was associated with higher levels of education and asset score. Conclusions: To improve the health of the population it is important to know health conditions in
Razzaque, Abdur; Nahar, Lutfun; Akter Khanam, Masuma; Kim Streatfield, Peter
Background Mortality has been declining in Bangladesh since the mid- twentieth century, while fertility has been declining since the late 1970s, and the country is now passing through the third stage of demographic transition. This type of demographic transition has produced a huge youthful population with a growing number of older people. For assessing health among older people, this study examines self-rated health, health state, quality of life and disability level in persons aged 50 and over. Data and methods This is a collaborative study between the World Health Organization Study on global AGEing and adult health and the International Network for the Demographic Evaluation of Populations and Their Health in developing countries which collected data from eight countries. Two sources of data from the Matlab study area were used: health indicator data collected as a part of the study, together with the ongoing Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) data. For the survey, a total of 4,000 randomly selected people aged 50 and over (HDSS database) were interviewed. The four health indicators derived from these data are self-rated health (five categories), health state (eight domains), quality of life (eight items) and disability level (12 items). Self-rated health was coded as dummy while scores were calculated for the rest of the three health indicators using WHO-tested instruments. Results After controlling for all the variables in the regression model, all four indicators of health (self-rated health, health state, quality of life and disability level) documented that health was better for males than females, and health deteriorates with increasing age. Those people who were in current partnerships had generally better health than those who were single, and better health was associated with higher levels of education and asset score. Conclusions To improve the health of the population it is important to know health conditions in advance rather than
Stepp, Ermel, Jr.
Demographic and marketing data was collected to justify the development of a television series for preschool children. The terms "demographic" and "marketing" have been constricted in meaning for pertinence to educational program development. Demographic points were made pertaining to population, family income, percent of families below poverty…
Rashidi Maybodi, Fahimeh; Haerian-Ardakani, Ahmad; Vaziri, Farzaneh; Khabbazian, Arezoo; Mohammadi-Asl, Salem
Background: There have been speculations about the effects of hormonal changes and socio-demographic factors on periodontal health during pregnancy. Objective: According to the lack of sufficient epidemiologic information about the periodontal status of pregnant women in Yazd, this study was accomplished to determine the changes of Community Periodontal Index for Treatment Needs (CPITN) during pregnancy and evaluating the possible relationship between this index and demographic characteristics of the mothers. Materials and Methods: This was a longitudinal descriptive study. The samples included 115 pregnant women who were referred to health centers of Yazd, Iran. The mothers’ data were obtained from a questionnaire consisted of 3 parts: consent paper, demographic data and CPITN records. Examination was performed with dental unit light, flat dental mirror and WHO’s scaled probe. Results: In the beginning of the study, 60.1% of checked sextants had healthy gingival status. 25.9% had code1 and 14% had code 2. Code 3 and 4 were not seen in any sextants. There was a significant relationship between lower CPITN and higher maternal education, occupation and more frequencies of tooth-brushing but there was not a relationship between CPITN and mother’s age and number of pregnancies. CPITN had a significant relationship with increasing of the gestational age. Conclusion: There might be a relationship between increasing the month of pregnancy and more periodontal treatment needs. CPITN Increasing during pregnancy shows the importance of periodontal cares during this period. PMID:26000000
Jin, Xuejing; Liu, Gordon Guoen; Luo, Nan; Li, Hongchao; Guan, Haijing; Xie, Feng
The aim of this study was to examine the impact of demographic and cultural factors on health preferences among Chinese general population. The Chinese EQ-5D-5L valuation study was conducted between December 2012 and January 2013. A total of 1296 participants were recruited from the general public at Beijing, Chengdu, Guiyang, Nanjing, and Shenyang. Each participant was interviewed to measure preferences for ten EQ-5D-5L health states using composite time trade-off and seven pairs of states using discrete choice experiment (data were not included in this study). At the end of the interview, each participant was also asked to provide their demographic information and answers to two questions about their attitudes towards whether bad living is better than good death (LBD) and whether they believe in an afterlife. Generalized linear model and random effects logistic models were used to examine the impact of demographic and cultural factors on health preferences. Participants who had serious illness experience received college or higher education, or agree with LBD were more likely to value health states positively and have a narrower score range. Participants at Beijing were more likely to be non-traders, value health states positively, less likely to reach the lowest possible score, and have narrower score range compared with all other four cities after controlling for all other demographic and culture factors. Health state preference is significantly affected by factors beyond demographics. These factors should be considered in achieving a representative sample in valuation studies in China.
Emmanuel D Jadhav
Full Text Available Background: During the 2008-10 economic recession, Kentucky local health department (LHD leaders utilized innovative strategies to maintain their programs. A characteristic of innovative strategy is leader openness to change. Leader demographical research in for-profit organizations has yielded valuable insight into leader openness to change. For LHD leaders the nature of the association between leader demographic and organizational characteristics on leader openness to change is unknown. The objectives of this study are to identify variation in openness to change by leaders’ demographic and organizational characteristics and to characterize the underlying relationships. Material and Methods: The study utilized Spearman rank correlations test to determine relationships between leader openness to change (ACQ and leader and LHD characteristics. To identify differences in the distribution of ACQ scores, Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney and Kruskal Wallis non-parametric tests were used, and to adjust for potential confounding linear regression analysis was performed.Data: LHD leaders in the Commonwealth of Kentucky were the unit of analysis. Expenditure and revenue data were available from the state health department. National census data was utilized for county level population estimates. A cross-sectional survey was performed of KY LHD leaders’ observable attributes relating to age, gender, race, educational background, leadership experience and openness to change. Results: Leaders had relatively high openness to change scores. Spearman correlations between leader ACQ and departmental 2012-13 revenue and expenditures were statistically significant, as were the differences observed in ACQ by gender and the educational level of the leader. Differences in ACQ score by education level and agency revenue were significant even after adjusting for potential confounders. The analyses imply there are underlying relationships between leader and LHD characteristics
Callen, John; And Others
The profile is a concise description of the demographic and economic characteristics, existing health manpower employed, and health education programs for the Sheridan County area of Wyoming, one of seven surveyed in the Mountain States region (Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, and Nevada). The first section of the profile provides general population…
Callen, John; And Others
The profile is a concise description of the demographic and economic characteristics, existing health manpower employed, and health education programs for the Clark County area of Nevada, one of seven surveyed in the Mountain States region (Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, and Nevada). The first section of the profile provides general population…
Callen, John; And Others
The profile is a concise description of the demographic and economic characteristics, existing health manpower employed, and health education programs for the Treasure Valley area of Idaho, one of seven surveyed in the Mountain States region (Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, and Nevada). The first section of the profile provides general population…
Callen, John; And Others
The profile is a concise description of the demographic and economic characteristics, existing health manpower employed, and health education programs for the Missoula County area of Montana, one of seven surveyed in the Mountain States region (Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, and Nevada). The first section of the profile provides general population…
Callen, John; And Others
The profile is a concise description of the demographic and economic characteristics, existing health manpower employed, and health education programs for the Yellowstone County area of Montana, one of seven surveyed in the Mountain States region (Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, and Nevada). The first section of the profile provides general population…
Williams, Allison M; Kitchen, Peter; Eby, Jeanette
An important but understudied component of Canada's health system is alternative care. The objective of this paper is to examine the geographic and socio-demographic characteristics of alternative care consultation in Ontario, Canada's largest province. Data is drawn from the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS Cycle 3.1, 2005) for people aged 18 or over (n = 32,598) who had a consultation with an alternative health care provider. Four groups of consultations are examined: (1) all consultations (2) massage therapy (3) acupuncture, and (4) homeopath/naturopath. Descriptive statistics, mapping and logistic regression modeling are employed to analyze the data and to compare modalities of alternative health care use. In 2005, more than 1.2 million adults aged 18 or over consulted an alternative health care provider, representing about 13% of the total population of Ontario. The analysis revealed a varied geographic pattern of consultations across the province. Consultations were fairly even across the urban to rural continuum and rural residents were just as likely to consult a provider as their urban counterparts. From a health perspective, people with a chronic condition, lower health status and self-perceived unmet health care needs were more likely to see an alternative health provider. Women with chronic conditions such as fibromyalgia, high blood pressure, chronic fatigue syndrome and chemical sensitivities were more likely to see an alternative provider if they felt their health care needs were not being met. The analysis revealed that geography is not a factor in determining alternative health care consultations in Ontario. By contrast, there is a strong association between these consultations and socio-demographic characteristics particularly age, sex, education, health and self-perceived unmet health care needs. The results underscore the importance of women's health needs as related to alternative care use. The paper concludes that there is a need for
Full Text Available Abstract Background An important but understudied component of Canada's health system is alternative care. The objective of this paper is to examine the geographic and socio-demographic characteristics of alternative care consultation in Ontario, Canada's largest province. Methods Data is drawn from the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS Cycle 3.1, 2005 for people aged 18 or over (n = 32,598 who had a consultation with an alternative health care provider. Four groups of consultations are examined: (1 all consultations (2 massage therapy (3 acupuncture, and (4 homeopath/naturopath. Descriptive statistics, mapping and logistic regression modeling are employed to analyze the data and to compare modalities of alternative health care use. Results In 2005, more than 1.2 million adults aged 18 or over consulted an alternative health care provider, representing about 13% of the total population of Ontario. The analysis revealed a varied geographic pattern of consultations across the province. Consultations were fairly even across the urban to rural continuum and rural residents were just as likely to consult a provider as their urban counterparts. From a health perspective, people with a chronic condition, lower health status and self-perceived unmet health care needs were more likely to see an alternative health provider. Women with chronic conditions such as fibromyalgia, high blood pressure, chronic fatigue syndrome and chemical sensitivities were more likely to see an alternative provider if they felt their health care needs were not being met. Conclusions The analysis revealed that geography is not a factor in determining alternative health care consultations in Ontario. By contrast, there is a strong association between these consultations and socio-demographic characteristics particularly age, sex, education, health and self-perceived unmet health care needs. The results underscore the importance of women's health needs as related to
Simpson, Steve; Clifford, Christine; Quinn, Michael G; Ross, Kaz; Sefton, Neil; Owen, Louise; Blizzard, Leigh; Turner, Richard
Background: It has previously been shown that there is a significant demographic variation in sexual health literacy (SHL) in university-level students in Tasmania, Australia. Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of statistical adjustment for sexuality-related attitudes on this demographic variation in SHL. Methods: Iterated principal-factor analysis was used to evaluate latent variable grouping of responses to 21 attitudinal questions regarding sexuality and sexual behaviour. Linear regression was used to evaluate the distribution and determinants of attitudinal patterns and thence the relationship of these patterns to SHL. Results: Three patterns - conservative, anti-persons-living-with-HIV and sexually responsible - were identified as explaining variation in sexual attitudes; the former two being associated with significantly lower SHL and the latter associated with significantly higher SHL. Adjustment for these patterns significantly attenuated much of the differences in SHL by birthplace/ethnicity and religion, including among South and South-East Asian and Protestant, Islamic and Hindu students. However, some differences in SHL persisted, suggesting they are partly or fully independent of the attitudinal questions. Conclusions: As hypothesised, differences in attitude significantly explained much of the demographic differences in SHL found previously. These results suggest that sexual education and orientation efforts need to bear cultural framing in mind to enhance uptake by students.
Kuate Defo, Barthélémy
Background Studies of trends in population changes and epidemiological profiles in the developing world have overwhelmingly relied upon the concepts of demographic, epidemiological, and health transitions, even though their usefulness in describing and understanding population and health trends in developing countries has been repeatedly called into question. The issue is particularly relevant for the study of population health patterns in Africa and sub-Saharan Africa, as the history and experience there differs substantially from that of Western Europe and North America, for which these concepts were originally developed. Objective The aim of this study is two-fold: to review and clarify any distinction between the concepts of demographic transition, epidemiological transition and health transition and to identify summary indicators of population health to test how well these concepts apply in Africa. Results Notwithstanding the characteristically diverse African context, Africa is a continent of uncertainties and emergencies where discontinuities and interruptions of health, disease, and mortality trends reflect the enduring fragility and instability of countries and the vulnerabilities of individuals and populations in the continent. Africa as a whole remains the furthest behind the world's regions in terms of health improvements and longevity, as do its sub-Saharan African regions and societies specifically. This study documents: 1) theoretically and empirically the similarities and differences between the demographic transition, epidemiological transition, and health transition; 2) simple summary indicators that can be used to evaluate their descriptive and predictive features; 3) marked disparities in the onset and pace of variations and divergent trends in health, disease, and mortality patterns as well as fertility and life expectancy trajectories among African countries and regions over the past 60 years; 4) the rapid decline in infant mortality and gains
Barthélémy Kuate Defo
Full Text Available Background: Studies of trends in population changes and epidemiological profiles in the developing world have overwhelmingly relied upon the concepts of demographic, epidemiological, and health transitions, even though their usefulness in describing and understanding population and health trends in developing countries has been repeatedly called into question. The issue is particularly relevant for the study of population health patterns in Africa and sub-Saharan Africa, as the history and experience there differs substantially from that of Western Europe and North America, for which these concepts were originally developed. Objective: The aim of this study is two-fold: to review and clarify any distinction between the concepts of demographic transition, epidemiological transition and health transition and to identify summary indicators of population health to test how well these concepts apply in Africa. Results: Notwithstanding the characteristically diverse African context, Africa is a continent of uncertainties and emergencies where discontinuities and interruptions of health, disease, and mortality trends reflect the enduring fragility and instability of countries and the vulnerabilities of individuals and populations in the continent. Africa as a whole remains the furthest behind the world's regions in terms of health improvements and longevity, as do its sub-Saharan African regions and societies specifically. This study documents: 1 theoretically and empirically the similarities and differences between the demographic transition, epidemiological transition, and health transition; 2 simple summary indicators that can be used to evaluate their descriptive and predictive features; 3 marked disparities in the onset and pace of variations and divergent trends in health, disease, and mortality patterns as well as fertility and life expectancy trajectories among African countries and regions over the past 60 years; 4 the rapid decline in infant
Full Text Available The intellectual leadership of educators or teachers represents a topic of a great interest for educational research and practice. Variety of variables or factors have been examined to find the most complete explanations for teachers’, professors’ and educators’ roles, for example, institutional, financial, gender, organizational, spiritual, and intellectual. No literature was found on the relationship between the demographic variables and researchers’ roles in higher education regarding intellectual leadership. But a lot of studies are focused on the relationship between demographic and other factors in education: job satisfaction, organizational justice, religion, gender, culture, personal and professional roles, stress, mental health, and mobility. The research issue in this study is related to researchers’/scientists’ work in higher education schools and is focused on intellectual leadership, which consists of different roles. It is worth to think about researchers as intellectual leaders and to discover how they recognize or identify their roles in higher education. In this study, findings answer the following research question: “What are the relationships between researchers’ roles and their gender, work experience, dissertation defence date, and research field?” The object of the research study is the researchers’ roles in higher education. The aim of the study was to reveal the relationship between demographic factors and researchers’ roles in higher education. Data were collected by performing a questioning survey and using a validated questionnaire with 116 statements in total. The sample consisted of 304 researchers working in higher education institutions. For data analysis, Cronbach’s alpha, Mean and ANOVA calculations were used. The research findings reported that the female-researchers’ evaluations were higher in all cases regarding their roles in higher education schools. The results of the study
Ogbo, Felix A; Agho, Kingsley E; Page, Andrew
In Nigeria, suboptimal breastfeeding practices are contributing to the burden of childhood diseases and mortality. This study identified the determinants of key suboptimal breastfeeding practices among children 0-23 months in Nigeria. Data on 10,225 children under-24 months were obtained from the 2008 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS). Socio-economic, health service and individual factors associated with key breastfeeding indicators (early initiation of breastfeeding, exclusive breastfeeding, predominant breastfeeding and bottle feeding) were investigated using multiple logistic regression analyses. Among infants 0-5 months of age, 14% [95% confidence Interval (CI): 13%, 15%] were exclusively breastfed and 48% [95% CI: 46, 50%] were predominantly breastfed. Among children aged 0-23 months, 38% [95% CI 36, 39%] were breastfed within the first hour of birth, and 15% [95% CI: 14, 17%] were bottle-fed. Early initiation of breastfeeding was associated with higher maternal education, frequent antenatal care (ANC) visits and birth interval but deliveries at a health facility with caesarean section was associated with delayed initiation of breastfeeding. Educated mothers, older mothers and mothers from wealthier households exclusively breastfeed their babies. The risk for bottle feeding was higher among educated mothers and fathers, and women from wealthier households including mothers who made frequent ANC visits. Socio-economic and health service factors were associated with suboptimal breastfeeding practices in Nigeria. To improve the current breastfeeding practices, breastfeeding initiatives should target all mothers - particularly low SES mothers - including, national and sub-national health policies that ensure improved access to maternal health services, and improvements to baby friendly hospital and community initiatives for mothers.
The paper discusses the implications of health promotion in education. The paper is based on my PhD project entitled “Health promotion education seen through a power/knowledge and subjectification perspective” (in prep). The PhD project explores how professional health promotion skills...... are conceived in a specific educational setting; namely the Danish social and health education programme. Here, health promotion is formally conceived as a qualification aimed at citizens and patients - and not at the students themselves. However, as the paper will demonstrate, conceptions of student...... health promotion workers should ideally act as health promotion role models. This claim leads to a series of educational and morally anchored dilemmas and challenges. Inspired by Foucault and others who have developed this line of thinking (eg. Signild Vallgårde) health promotion is viewed as a heartfelt...
Background The Government of Kenya is making plans to implement a social health insurance program by transforming the National Hospital Insurance Fund (NHIF) into a universal health coverage program. The objective of this study was to examine the determinants associated with health insurance ownership among women in Kenya. Methods Data came from the 2008–09 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey, a nationally representative survey. The sample comprised 8,435 women aged 15–49 years. Descriptive statistics and multivariable logistic regression analysis were used to describe the characteristics of the sample and to identify factors associated with health insurance ownership. Results Being employed in the formal sector, being married, exposure to the mass media, having secondary education or higher, residing in households in the middle or rich wealth index categories and residing in a female-headed household were associated with having health insurance. However, region of residence was associated with a lower likelihood of having insurance coverage. Women residing in Central (OR = 0.4; p insured compared to their counterparts in Nairobi province. Conclusions As the Kenyan government transforms the NHIF into a universal health program, it is important to implement a program that will increase equity and access to health care services among the poor and vulnerable groups. PMID:24678655
Full Text Available Health care systems face pressure to increase the quality of health care at the same time with pressure to reduce public spending. The attempt to overcome the gap between needs and opportunities can be resolved through the introduction of public-private partnerships. Goals of this study are to investigate variation of the number, form and efficiency of private providers of general/family medicine services in primary health care and the contribution of socioeconomic and demographic environment on those variations, among counties. Socioeconomic and demographic factors are identified as independent variables that influence the health care need and utilization and consequently the decision of private entities to engage in the provision of health care services. This study extended previous studies because it has introduced socioeconomic and demographic variables. This may shed same new lights on the relationship between private providers of health service and efficiency of providing health service in primary health care.
Gurmu, Eshetu; Dejene, Tariku
Adolescent childbearing has undesirable consequences. Dropping out of school, high rates of abortion, maternal mortality and morbidity are noted consequences of adolescent pregnancy and childbearing. The objective of this study, which is based on the 2005 Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey data, is to analyze the levels, trends and differentials of adolescent motherhood in Ethiopia. A multilevel logistic regression was fitted to analyze the determinants of adolescent childbearing. Adolescent motherhood in Ethiopia has shown a generally declining trend over time. The decline was more marked in the periods following the adoption of the national population policy in the country. Further, it was lower in urban areas and among women who have secondary and above level of education, but higher among women not working and those engaged in agricultural activities. Housewives and women working in the agricultural sector should be given attention to reduce the risks and consequences of adolescent motherhood.
Herbst, Kobus; Law, Matthew; Geldsetzer, Pascal; Tanser, Frank; Harling, Guy; Bärnighausen, Till
Purpose of Review Health and Demographic Surveillance Systems (HDSS), in conjunction with HIV treatment cohorts, have made important contributions to our understanding of the impact of HIV treatment and treatment-related interventions in sub-Saharan Africa. The purpose of this review is to describe and discuss innovations in data collection and data linkage that will create new opportunities to establish the impacts of HIV treatment, as well as policies affecting the treatment cascade, on population health, economic and social outcomes. Recent Findings Novel approaches to routine collection of (i) biomarkers, (ii) behavioural data, (iii) spatial data, (iv) social network information, (v) migration events and (vi) mobile phone records can significantly strengthen the potential of HDSS to generate exposure and outcome data for causal analysis of HIV treatment impact and policies affecting the HIV treatment cascade. Additionally, by linking HDSS data to health service administration, education, and welfare service records, researchers can substantial broaden opportunities to establish how HIV treatment affects health and economic outcomes, when delivered through public-sector health systems and at scale. Summary As the HIV treatment scale-up in sub-Saharan Africa enters its second decade, it is becoming increasingly important to understand the long-term causal impacts of large-scale HIV treatment and related policies on broader population health outcomes, such as non-communicable diseases, as well as on economic and social outcomes, such as family welfare and children’s educational attainment. By collecting novel data and linking existing data to public-sector records, HDSS can create near-unique opportunities to contribute to this research agenda. PMID:26371462
Boslaugh, Sarah E; Kreuter, Matthew W; Nicholson, Robert A; Naleid, Kimberly
.... This study compares the results of audience segmentation for physical activity that is based on either demographic, health status or psychosocial variables alone, or a combination of all three types of variables...
Hoekstra, Carlijn E L; Wesdorp, Francina M; van Zanten, Gijsbert A
Tinnitus is a highly prevalent symptom with potential severe morbidity. Fortunately, only a small proportion of the population experience problems due to their tinnitus in such a degree that it adversely affects their quality of life (clinically significant tinnitus). It is not known why these individuals develop more burden from tinnitus. It seems likely that the severity of tinnitus can be influenced by different factors, such as socio-demographic or tinnitus characteristics or additional health complaints. It remains unclear from the current literature as to what are the main independent variables that have a bearing on tinnitus severity. This study addresses this problem by investigating variables previously described in the literature as well as additional variables. The aim of this study is to identify socio-demographic, health, and tinnitus variables that independently relate to tinnitus severity the most. This is a retrospective cohort study performed at the Tinnitus Care Group of the University Medical Center, Utrecht, in 309 consecutively seen chronic tinnitus patients. At this care group, patients are examined according to a structured diagnostic protocol, including history-taking by an otorhinolaryngologist and audiologist, physical examination, and audiometry. Based on results from previous research and theoretical considerations, a subset of data acquired through this diagnostic protocol were selected and used in this study. Univariate and multivariate correlations with tinnitus severity were investigated for 28 socio-demographic, health, and tinnitus variables. Tinnitus severity was measured with the Tinnitus Questionnaire (TQ) and the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI). Eighteen variables related univariately with the TQ and 16 variables related univariately with the THI. Among these, 14 variables related univariately with both the TQ and the THI. Multivariate analyses showed three variables with an independent significant effect on both the TQ and
Esben Meulengracht Flachs
Full Text Available Objective. To explore how three different assumptions on demographics affect the health impact of Danish emitted air pollution in Denmark from 2005 to 2030, with health impact modeled from 2005 to 2050. Methods. Modeled air pollution from Danish sources was used as exposure in a newly developed health impact assessment model, which models four major diseases and mortality causes in addition to all-cause mortality. The modeling was at the municipal level, which divides the approximately 5.5 M residents in Denmark into 99 municipalities. Three sets of demographic assumptions were used: (1 a static year 2005 population, (2 morbidity and mortality fixed at the year 2005 level, or (3 an expected development. Results. The health impact of air pollution was estimated at 672,000, 290,000, and 280,000 lost life years depending on demographic assumptions and the corresponding social costs at 430.4 M€, 317.5 M€, and 261.6 M€ through the modeled years 2005–2050. Conclusion. The modeled health impact of air pollution differed widely with the demographic assumptions, and thus demographics and assumptions on demographics played a key role in making health impact assessments on air pollution.
Pereira, Ana Maria; Lourdes de Araújo, Maria de
This a report of an "Aids Sociodrama" presented during a round table about "Health Education". It starts with a brief explanation about the Sociodramatic theory and methods. It also embodies public health, education and Aids. Our objective is to establish the relationship among these areas and present sociodrama as an eficient way to solve the dificulties found in preventing diseases.
Hoorman, James J.
Soil health and cover crops are topics of interest to farmers, gardeners, and students. Three soil health and cover crop demonstrations provide educational resources. Demonstrations one outlines two educational cover crop seed displays, including the advantages and disadvantages. Demonstration two shows how to construct and grow a cover crop root…
Key note presentation from International konference "Health Education and Teacher Training in Kenya", 8. December 2010, Stanley Sarova Hotel, Nairobi, Kenya.......Key note presentation from International konference "Health Education and Teacher Training in Kenya", 8. December 2010, Stanley Sarova Hotel, Nairobi, Kenya....
Collins, Sandra K; Collins, Kevin S
Health care organizations continue to be plagued by labor shortage issues. Further complicating the already existing workforce challenges is an aging population poised to retire en masse within the next few years. With fewer cohorts in the age group of 25 to 44 years (Vital Speeches Day. 2004:71:23-27), a more mobile workforce (Grow Your Own Leaders: How to Identify, Develop, and Retain Leadership Talent, 2002), and an overall reduction in the number of individuals seeking employment in the health care field (J Healthc Manag. 2003:48:6-11), the industry could be faced with an unmanageable number of vacant positions throughout the organization. Bracing for the potential impact of these issues is crucial to the ongoing business continuity of health care organization. Many health care organizations have embraced succession planning to combat the potential labor famine. However, the health care industry as a whole seems to lag behind other industries in terms of succession planning efforts (Healthc Financ Manage. 2005;59:64-67). This article seeks to provide health care managers with a framework for improving the systematic preparation of the next generation of managers by analyzing the succession planning process. The proposition of these models is to initiate and simplify the gap reduction between theoretical concepts and future organizational application.
Tolonen, Hanna; Helakorpi, Satu; Talala, Kirsi; Helasoja, Ville; Martelin, Tuija; Prättälä, Ritva
When estimating population level changes in health indicators, the declining response rate, especially if also the characteristics of non-respondents are changing may bias the outcome. There is evidence that survey response rates are declining in many countries. It is also known that respondents and non-respondents differ in their socio-economic and demographic status as well as in their health and health behaviours. There is no information about the changes in the differences between respondents and non-respondents over time. Our purpose was to investigate the changes over time in the differences between respondents and non-respondents in respect to their sex, age, marital status and educational level. The data from the Finnish Adult Health Behaviour Survey (1978-2002) was used. The response rate declined over the past 25 years for both men and women in all age groups. The decline was faster among men than women, and also faster in younger age groups than older age groups. There is a marked difference in the response rate between married and non-married persons but it did not change over time. Also the response rate between different educational levels differed for both men and women, and this difference increased over the years. The declining response rate and at the same time occurring change in the non-respondent characteristics will decrease the representativeness of the results, limit the comparability of the results with other surveys, increase the bias of the trend estimates and limit the comparability of the results between population groups.
Muratbegović, Amra Arslanagić; Marković, Nina; Zukanović, Amila; Kobaslija, Sedin; Dragas, Mediha Selimović; Jurić, Hrvoje
The main aim of this paper is to present epidemiological indicators of oral health among six-year olds in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BH) and to analyze values of dmft index and dental treatment needs in order to identify differences in parts of the country. Another aim is to identify the needs from the public oral health care system in Bosnia and Herzegovina related to early permanent dentition by analyzing the condition of first permanent molars (FPM) as an indicator of oral health of permanent dentition. Survey was carried out in 2004 in 8 cantons of the Federation of BH (FBH) and in the Republic of Srpska (RS). Final sample included 560 participants aged six (mean 6.2, SD +/- 0.87). One dental team clinically examined all participants according to WHO methodology and criteria. The parameters used were: dmft index, DMFT index of first permanent molars (FPM), presence of sealants and treatment needs. A questionnaire about oral health habits had been administered. Dmft was 6.71 in that the d-component constituted the major part of the index. DMFT index of FPM was 0.61 (SD +/- 1.08). Percentage of caries free participants aged 6 was 6.8%. Average number of FPM with fissure sealants in BH was 0.25 (SD +/- 0.78). Significant demographic differences in dmft index, DMFT FPM and treatment needs were identified. Most participants (48.5%) had their first dental visit between the ages of five and seven. National oral health goal for Bosnia and Herzegovina should be to develop and implement disease prevention programs based on education of both parents and dental practitioners. It is necessary to improve access to dental care and shift focus from curative to preventive procedures. It is also necessary to set real goals for improvement of oral health which can be achieved within a desired time frame, as well as to precisely define measures to be taken.
Yi Huang, MD
Full Text Available IntroductionEmployers often lack data about their workers’ health risk behaviors. We analyzed state-level prevalence data among workers for 4 common health risk behaviors: obesity, physical inactivity, smoking, and missed influenza vaccination (among workers older than 50 years.MethodsWe analyzed 2007 and 2008 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data, restricting the sample to employed respondents aged 18 to 64 years. We stratified health risk behavior prevalence by annual household income, educational attainment, health insurance status, and race/ethnicity.ResultsFor all 4 health risk behaviors, we found significant differences across states and significant disparities related to social determinants of health — income, education, and race/ethnicity. Among uninsured workers, prevalence of smoking was high and influenza vaccinations were lacking.ConclusionIn this national survey study, we found that workers’ health risk behaviors vary substantially by state and by workers’ socioeconomic status, insurance status, and race/ethnicity. Employers and workplace health promotion practitioners can use the prevalence tables presented in this article to inform their workplace health promotion programs.
López González, M L; Cueto Espinar, A; Martínez Cuervo, F; Redondo Cornejo, M L; Suárez González, J R; Secall Mellén, L
Health education and advertising have a common aim: to modify human behaviour. Health education tries to induce healthy behaviours. In some occasions Publicity proposes risky behaviours. Ads appearing during a two-month period in magazines of the largest circulation in Spain are analyzed here. A total of 1,726 ads which could have a negative influence on health either because of the product or service offered or for the use of health as a persuasive argument in their text, are considered. The magazines Hola and Lecturas had the highest ratio ads/magazine. Spirits, food and drugs were the most frequently advertised products. And more than 50% of the ads used health and welfare as argument for better selling. Health educators should know and teach the critical analysis of publicity, and use advertisements as a teaching tool to enable people to see through misleading advertising.
Washington Office of the State Superintendent of Public Instruction, Olympia.
This curriculum guide for the elementary school portion of a K-12 health education program contains notes on eleven areas: Alcohol, Anatomy and Physiology, Community Health, Consumer Health, Dental Health, Disease Control, Family Health, Heredity and Environment, Mental Health, Nutrition, and Safety Education. The notes on each area contain a…
Gbadamosi, Belau Olatunde
The paper examines demographic information sources and utilization as determinants of educational policy making in South West Nigeria. Using validated and structured questionnaire, the study population of 398 officers in the ministries of education in the affected states were enumerated. The study establishes population census, vital registration,…
Gbadamosi, Belau Olatunde
The paper examines demographic information sources and utilization as determinants of educational policy making in South West Nigeria. Using validated and structured questionnaire, the study population of 398 officers in the ministries of education in the affected states were enumerated. The study establishes population census, vital registration,…
Balaji, Alexandra B.; Brener, Nancy D.; McManus, Tim
Background: To identify whether school health policies and programs vary by demographic characteristics of schools, using data from the School Health Policies and Programs Study (SHPPS) 2006. This study updates a similar study conducted with SHPPS 2000 data and assesses several additional policies and programs measured for the first time in SHPPS…
Prins, Esther; Kassab, Cathy
Transitions to postsecondary education for GED graduates are a growing concern for educators and policy makers. This article analyzes the educational, demographic, and financial characteristics of Pennsylvania postsecondary students with a GED credential compared with traditional high school graduates, and identifies rural-urban differences within…
Over the years, the United States has evolved a system of local, state, and national/federal educational decision-making that, according to the author, makes a smooth, well-integrated system of policy development and implementation unachievable. However, certain things can be accomplished only at the federal level, including consistent data…
Martinez Aleman, Ana M.
In an era of heightened teacher and school accountability, what are the implications of standards-based reform for individual Latino children and their democratic self-realization? The educational demography of the fastest-growing and largest ethnic group in the United States suggests that the future of Latino self-realization is in jeopardy.…
Massei, G; Fooks, A R; Horton, D L; Callaby, R; Sharma, K; Dhakal, I P; Dahal, U
In Nepal, most dogs are free to roam and may transmit diseases to humans and animals. These dogs often suffer from malnutrition and lack basic health care. Minimal information is available about their demographics and about public attitudes concerning dogs and diseases. We carried out a study in Chitwan District (central Nepal), to collect baseline data on free-roaming owned dog demographics, assess knowledge, attitudes and practices of dog owners concerning dogs and rabies, evaluate rabies vaccination coverage and anthelmintic treatment of dogs, measure dogs' response to rabies vaccination and assess dog health through body condition scores and parasites. We conducted household interviews with owners of free-roaming female dogs (n = 60) and administered dogs with rabies vaccination and anthelmintics. Dog owners regularly fed free-roaming dogs but provided minimal health care; 42% of respondents did not claim ownership of the dog for which they provided care. We collected skin, faecal and blood samples for parasite identification and for measuring rabies virus-specific antibodies. Ninety-two per cent of dog owners were aware of the routes of rabies virus transmission, but only 35% described the correct post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) following a dog bite. Twenty-seven per cent of the dogs had measurable rabies virus-specific antibody titres and 14% had received anthelmintics in the previous year. Following rabies vaccination, 97% of dogs maintained an adequate antibody titre for ≥6 months. Most dogs appeared healthy, although haemoprotozoans, endoparasites and ectoparasites were identified in 12%, 73% and 40% of the dogs, respectively. Poor skin condition and parasite load were associated. Seventy-four per cent of the females had litters in 1 year (mean litter size = 4.5). Births occurred between September and February; we estimated 60% mortality in puppies. We concluded that vaccination coverage, PEP awareness and anthelmintic treatment should be
Dickson Abanimi Amugsi
Full Text Available This study examined the association between maternal and child dietary diversity in a population-based national sample in Ghana.The data for this analysis are from the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey. We used data obtained from 1187 dyads comprised of mothers' ages 15-49 and their youngest child (ages 6-36 months. Maternal and child dietary diversity scores (DDS were created based on the mother's recall of her own and her child's consumption of 15 food groups, during the 24 hours prior to the in-home survey. The same food groups were used to compose both maternal and child DDS. Linear regression was used to assess the relationship between the predicted outcome--child DDS--and maternal DDS, taking into account child age and sex, maternal factors (age, education, occupation, literacy, empowerment, number of antenatal visits as an indicator of health care use, household Wealth Index, and urban/rural place of residence.There was a statistically significant positive association between child and maternal DDS, after adjusting for all other variables. A difference of one food group in mother's consumption was associated with a difference of 0.72 food groups in the child's food consumption (95% CI: 0.63, 0.82. Also, statistically significant positive associations were observed such that higher child DDS was associated with older child age, and with greater women's empowerment.The results show a significant positive association between child and maternal DD, after accounting for the influence of child, maternal and household level factors. Since the likely path of influence is that maternal DDS impacts child DDS, public health efforts to improve child health may be strengthened by promoting maternal DDS due to its potential for a widened effect on the entire family.
Raquel Rangel de Meireles Guimarães
Full Text Available In regard to the development and reform of higher education (HE, recent and projected evidence suggest that enrollment growth is likely to be slower than it is at present (or even negative as a result of ageing populations. The case of the BRIC countries is particularly interesting for the study of the impact of demographic changes on HE because these countries show considerable diversity regarding their demographic transition. This paper explores how demographic changes are likely to affect the demand for higher education in BRIC countries. I argue that these countries are now facing a great expansion of enrollment but, given declining fertility levels, diversification of the HE clientele will become a common strategy. But diversification of the student population will place a new and complex set of demands on HE institutions, and equity in higher education in the near future will depend on how HE systems are structured in these countries.
Full Text Available Abstract Background A health demographic surveillance system (HDSS provides longitudinal data regarding health and demography in countries with coverage error and poor quality data on vital registration systems due to lack of public awareness, inadequate legal basis and limited use of data in health planning. The health system in Nepal, a low-income country, does not focus primarily on health registration, and does not conduct regular health data collection. This study aimed to initiate and establish the first HDSS in Nepal. Results We conducted a baseline survey in Jhaukhel and Duwakot, two villages in Bhaktapur district. The study surveyed 2,712 households comprising a total population of 13,669. The sex ratio in the study area was 101 males per 100 females and the average household size was 5. The crude birth and death rates were 9.7 and 3.9/1,000 population/year, respectively. About 11% of births occurred at home, and we found no mortality in infants and children less than 5 years of age. Various health problems were found commonly and some of them include respiratory problems (41.9%; headache, vertigo and dizziness (16.7%; bone and joint pain (14.4%; gastrointestinal problems (13.9%; heart disease, including hypertension (8.8%; accidents and injuries (2.9%; and diabetes mellitus (2.6%. The prevalence of non-communicable disease (NCD was 4.3% (95% CI: 3.83; 4.86 among individuals older than 30 years. Age-adjusted odds ratios showed that risk factors, such as sex, ethnic group, occupation and education, associated with NCD. Conclusion Our baseline survey demonstrated that it is possible to collect accurate and reliable data in a village setting in Nepal, and this study successfully established an HDSS site. We determined that both maternal and child health are better in the surveillance site compared to the entire country. Risk factors associated with NCDs dominated morbidity and mortality patterns.
Accordingly the United States Census Bureau, the ethnic group adding the largest number of people to the national population is the Hispanic exceeding 12 percent of the population and growing by almost 60 percent between 1990 and 2000. The status of the nation's educational system with respect to Hispanic students is perhaps one of the most influential issues facing the largest economy of the world. The low income, lack of language skills, highest drop-out rate in the nation, are some of the reasons why Hispanics are less likely to receive a university degree than any other ethical group. In short, the government requires to implement compensatory programs and bilingual education to ensure global leadership. Because of ongoing immigration, Spanish persists longer among Hispanics than it did among other immigrant groups. Spanish is the fourth most spoken language in the world after Mandarin, Hindustani and English. Although not all U.S. Hispanics speak Spanish, almost all U.S. Spanish speakers are Hispanics. This paper is intended to outline the challenging implementation of a bilingual education project affiliated to NASA Johnson Space Center encouraging greater academic success of Hispanics in engineering, math and science. The prospective project covers the overall role of space activities in the development of science and technology, socioeconomic issues and international cooperation. An existent JSC project is the starting stage to keep on developing an interactive video teleconference and web-media technology and produce stimulating learning products in English and Spanish for students and teachers across the nation and around the world.
Koc, Mustafa; Gulyagci, Seval
This study explored Facebook addiction among Turkish college students and its behavioral, demographic, and psychological health predictors. The Facebook Addiction Scale (FAS) was developed and its construct validity was assessed through factor analyses. A total of 447 students reported their personal information and Facebook usage and completed the FAS and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28). The results revealed that weekly time commitment, social motives, severe depression, and anxiety and insomnia positively predicted Facebook addiction. Neither demographic variables nor the interactions of gender by usage characteristics were found to be significant predictors.
Clare R. Wall
Full Text Available Exploration of dietary pattern associations within a multi-ethnic society context has been limited. We aimed to describe dietary patterns of 5664 pregnant women from the Growing Up in New Zealand study, and investigate associations between these patterns and maternal socio-demographic, place of birth, health and lifestyle factors. Participants completed a food frequency questionnaire prior to the birth of their child. Principal components analysis was used to extract dietary patterns and multivariable analyses used to determine associations. Four dietary components were extracted. Higher scores on, ‘Junk’ and ‘Traditional/White bread’, were associated with decreasing age, lower educational levels, being of Pacific or Māori ethnicity and smoking. Higher scores on, ‘Health conscious’ and ‘Fusion/Protein’, were associated with increasing age, better self-rated health, lower pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI and not smoking. Higher scores on ‘Junk’ and ‘Health conscious’ were associated with being born in New Zealand (NZ, whereas higher scores on ‘Fusion/Protein’ was associated with being born outside NZ and being of non-European ethnicity, particularly Asian. High scores on the ‘Health conscious’ dietary pattern showed the highest odds of adherence to the pregnancy dietary guidelines. In this cohort of pregnant women different dietary patterns were associated with migration, ethnicity, socio-demographic characteristics, health behaviors and adherence to dietary guidelines.
Wall, Clare R; Gammon, Cheryl S; Bandara, Dinusha K; Grant, Cameron C; Atatoa Carr, Polly E; Morton, Susan M B
Exploration of dietary pattern associations within a multi-ethnic society context has been limited. We aimed to describe dietary patterns of 5664 pregnant women from the Growing Up in New Zealand study, and investigate associations between these patterns and maternal socio-demographic, place of birth, health and lifestyle factors. Participants completed a food frequency questionnaire prior to the birth of their child. Principal components analysis was used to extract dietary patterns and multivariable analyses used to determine associations. Four dietary components were extracted. Higher scores on, 'Junk' and 'Traditional/White bread', were associated with decreasing age, lower educational levels, being of Pacific or Māori ethnicity and smoking. Higher scores on, 'Health conscious' and 'Fusion/Protein', were associated with increasing age, better self-rated health, lower pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and not smoking. Higher scores on 'Junk' and 'Health conscious' were associated with being born in New Zealand (NZ), whereas higher scores on 'Fusion/Protein' was associated with being born outside NZ and being of non-European ethnicity, particularly Asian. High scores on the 'Health conscious' dietary pattern showed the highest odds of adherence to the pregnancy dietary guidelines. In this cohort of pregnant women different dietary patterns were associated with migration, ethnicity, socio-demographic characteristics, health behaviors and adherence to dietary guidelines.
Wall, Clare R.; Gammon, Cheryl S.; Bandara, Dinusha K.; Grant, Cameron C.; Atatoa Carr, Polly E.; Morton, Susan M. B.
Exploration of dietary pattern associations within a multi-ethnic society context has been limited. We aimed to describe dietary patterns of 5664 pregnant women from the Growing Up in New Zealand study, and investigate associations between these patterns and maternal socio-demographic, place of birth, health and lifestyle factors. Participants completed a food frequency questionnaire prior to the birth of their child. Principal components analysis was used to extract dietary patterns and multivariable analyses used to determine associations. Four dietary components were extracted. Higher scores on, ‘Junk’ and ‘Traditional/White bread’, were associated with decreasing age, lower educational levels, being of Pacific or Māori ethnicity and smoking. Higher scores on, ‘Health conscious’ and ‘Fusion/Protein’, were associated with increasing age, better self-rated health, lower pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and not smoking. Higher scores on ‘Junk’ and ‘Health conscious’ were associated with being born in New Zealand (NZ), whereas higher scores on ‘Fusion/Protein’ was associated with being born outside NZ and being of non-European ethnicity, particularly Asian. High scores on the ‘Health conscious’ dietary pattern showed the highest odds of adherence to the pregnancy dietary guidelines. In this cohort of pregnant women different dietary patterns were associated with migration, ethnicity, socio-demographic characteristics, health behaviors and adherence to dietary guidelines. PMID:27213438
Mocan, Naci; Altindag, Duha T
Using data from NLSY97, we analyze the impact of education on health behavior. Controlling for health knowledge does not influence the impact of education on health behavior, supporting the productive efficiency hypothesis. Accounting for cognitive ability does not significantly alter the relationship between education and health behavior. Similarly, the impact of education on health behavior is the same between those with and without a learning disability, suggesting that cognition is not likely to be a significant factor in explaining the impact of education on health behavior.
Hitokoto, Hidefumi; Tanaka-Matsumi, Junko
Today, countries around the world are caught in the tide of change toward Gesellshaft, or individualistic socio-demographic condition. Recent investigations in Japan have suggested negative impacts of change on emotional and motivational aspects of the Japanese self (Norasakkunkit et al., 2012; Ogihara and Uchida, 2014). Building on previous findings, in Study 1, we measured socio-demographic change toward individualistic societal condition during 1990–2010—two decades marked by great economic recession—at the levels of prefecture and city using archival data. In Study 2, we tested whether Japanese adults' general health, satisfaction with life, self-esteem, and perceived social support were negatively predicted by the change using social survey. Results of hierarchical linear modeling showed small but unique negative effects of the change on several health measures, suggesting that this change had an impact on health, above and beyond individual personality traits, and demographics. Additionally, interdependent happiness, the type of cultural happiness grounded in interdependence of the self (Hitokoto and Uchida, 2014), showed an independent positive relationship with all aspects of health examined. Implications for health studies in changing socio-demographic condition are discussed in the context of Japanese society after economic crisis. PMID:25400604
Full Text Available Today, countries around the world are caught in the tide of change towards Gesellshaft, or individualistic socio-demographic condition. Recent investigations in Japan have suggested negative impacts of change on emotional and motivational aspects of the Japanese self (Norasakkunkit, Uchida, and Toivonen, 2012; Ogihara and Uchida, 2014. Building on previous findings, in Study 1, we measured socio-demographic change towards individualistic societal condition during 1990 to 2010—two decades marked by great economic recession—at the levels of prefecture and city using archival data. In Study 2, we tested whether Japanese adults’ general health, satisfaction with life, self-esteem, and perceived social support were negatively predicted by the change using social survey. Results of hierarchical linear modeling showed small but unique negative effects of the change on several health measures, suggesting that this change had an impact on health, above and beyond individual personality traits and demographics. Additionally, interdependent happiness, the type of cultural happiness grounded in interdependence of the self (Hitokoto and Uchida, 2014, showed an independent positive relationship with all aspects of health examined. Implications for health studies in changing socio-demographic condition are discussed in the context of Japanese society after economic crisis.
Browne, Joyce L; Kayode, Gbenga A; Arhinful, Daniel; Fidder, Samuel A J; Grobbee, Diederick E; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate the effect of maternal health insurance status on the utilisation of antenatal, skilled delivery and postnatal care. DESIGN: A population-based cross-sectional study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: We utilised the 2008 Demographic and Health Survey data of Ghana, wh
Hoffmann, Falk; Koller, Daniela
Objectives: Analyses of health insurance claims data are getting more important in public health and health services research. Since there are several different health insurance funds in Germany, the specific characteristics of regional and socio-demographic population covered by a single fund has to be considered. The aim of this study is to evaluate the differences in socio-demographic and health-related variables between health insurance funds. Methods: This study is based on the GEDA-Study 2009 and 2010, 2 representative cross-sectional telephone surveys (n=42 534). We included socio-economic factors as well as information on area of residence and health-related variables to health status, health behavior and cardiovascular diseases. Results: There are fewer privately insured persons in the eastern regions of Germany. Insurants of the public health insurances have a lower socio-economic status and many have a migration background. Similar results can be found for smoking, obesity and cardiovascular factors. These differences between funds were found in many regional analyses. Conclusions: Especially differences in socio-economic factors are constant between insurance funds and regions. Therefore, the results show that analyses of one single health insurance fund cannot be generalized to the whole population. To ensure precise estimates on health services, morbidity or quality monitoring, we need data sets that integrate more funds. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Hoxha, F.; Tafaj, A.; Roshi, E.; Burazeri, G.
Demographic and Socioeconomic Characteristics Among Primary Health Care Users Diagnosed with Osteoarthritis in Albania. Hoxha F, Tafaj A, Roshi E, Burazeri G. Mater Sociomed. 2015 Jun;27(3):163-6. doi: 10.5455/msm.2015.27.163-166. Epub 2015 Jun 8. PMID: 26236161 [PubMed] Free PMC Article
Aslan, Cem Sinan
The aim of this study is to compare the multiple intelligence areas of a group of physical education and sports students according to their demographic features. In the study, "Multiple Intelligence Scale", consisting of 27 items, whose Turkish validity and reliability study have been done by Babacan (2012) and which is originally owned…
Mitchley-McAvoy, Joan A.
This study examined the influence that previously researched and affirmed persistence and early withdrawal factors such as student demographics, enrollment status factors, student characteristics, and student educational goals had on Iowa community college retention rates for the 2005, 2007, and 2009 academic years. It is the researcher's…
Holt, Cheryl L.; Shipp, Michele; Eloubeidi, Mohamad; Clay, Kimberly S.; Smith-Janas, Mary Ann; Janas, Michael John; Britt, Kristi; Norena, Maria; Fouad, Mona N.
Screening is available and effective in colorectal cancer (CRC) control, but underutilized. The purpose of this study was to use focus group data to develop recommendations for the development of educational interventions to increase CRC screening, using an audience segmentation strategy. Demographic segments were based on urban-rural residence,…
Chapa, Jorge; Valencia, Richard R.
Presents data on rapid growth of the Latino population during the 1980s. Outlines ethnic and racial differences in educational attainment, family income, language status, age distribution, and other demographic variables. Discusses the impact of school segregation, growth of youth population, and low socioeconomic status on Latino access to…
Cottledge, Michael Christopher
Objective of the Study: The objective of this research study was to investigate whether an association exists between teacher demographic factors (years of teaching experience and gender), 2 educational factors (certification type and certification pathway) and the percent passing rate of tenth grade African American male students on the 2010…
Becker, Sascha O.; Cinnirella, Francesco; Woessmann, Ludger
The trade-off between child quantity and education is a crucial ingredient of unified growth models that explain the transition from Malthusian stagnation to modern growth. We present first evidence that such a trade-off indeed existed before the demographic transition, exploiting a unique census-based dataset of 334 Prussian counties in 1849. Estimating two separate instrumental-variable models that instrument education by landownership inequality and distance to Wittenberg and fertility by ...
Mini, G K
Kerala State in India is the most advanced in terms of demographic and epidemiological transition and has the highest proportion of elderly population. The study examines the socio-demographic correlates of health status of elderly persons in Kerala in terms of three components: perceived health status, physical mobility and morbidity level. Overall health status was measured by combining the above three components of health status. Data from the 60th National Sample Survey Organization (NSSO) on Condition and Health Care of the Aged in Kerala in 2004 was used for the study. Significant socio-demographic differentials in health status were noted. While women report less morbidity, perceived well-being and physical mobility was better for men. This anomaly can be explained by variations in the components of socio-demographic factors. The findings call for urgent health care strategies for elderly persons in different socio-demographic groups in transitional Indian states like Kerala.
Browne, Joyce L.; Kayode, Gbenga A; Arhinful, Daniel; Fidder, Samuel A J; Grobbee, Diederick E; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate the effect of maternal health insurance status on the utilisation of antenatal, skilled delivery and postnatal care. DESIGN: A population-based cross-sectional study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: We utilised the 2008 Demographic and Health Survey data of Ghana, which included 2987 women who provided information on maternal health insurance status. PRIMARY OUTCOMES: Utilisation of antenatal, skilled delivery and postnatal care. STATISTICAL ANALYSES: Multivar...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Use of maternal health services is an effective means for reducing the risk of maternal morbidity and mortality, especially in places where the general health status of women is poor. This study was guided by the following objectives: 1 To determine the relationship between timing of first antenatal care (ANC visit and type of delivery assistance 2 To establish the determinants of timing of first ANC visit and type delivery assistance. Methods Data used were drawn from the 2003 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey, with a focus on young women aged 15-24. The dependent variables were: Timing of first ANC visit coded as "None"; "Late" and "Early", and type of delivery assistance coded as "None"; "Traditional Birth Attendant (TBA" and "Skilled professional". Control variables included: education, household wealth, urban-rural residence, ethnicity, parity, age at birth of the last child and marital status. Multivariate ordered logistic regression model was used. Results The study results show that place of residence, household wealth, education, ethnicity, parity, marital status and age at birth of the last child had strong influences on timing of first ANC visit and the type of delivery assistance received. The major finding is an association between early timing of the first ANC visit and use of skilled professionals at delivery. Conclusion This study confirms that timing of first antenatal care is indeed an important entry point for delivery care as young women who initiated antenatal care early were more likely to use skilled professional assistance at delivery than their counterparts who initiated ANC late. The results indicate that a large percentage of young pregnant women do not seek ANC during their first trimester as is recommended by the WHO, which may affect the type of assistance they receive during delivery. It is important that programs aimed at improving maternal health include targeting young women, especially
Chala, Mulugeta Bayisa; Mekonnen, Solomon; Andargie, Gashaw; Kebede, Yigzaw; Yitayal, Mezgebu; Alemu, Kassahun; Awoke, Tadesse; Wubeshet, Mamo; Azmeraw, Temesgen; Birku, Melkamu; Tariku, Amare; Gebeyehu, Abebaw; Shimeka, Alemayehu; Gizaw, Zemichael
Despite the high burden of disability in Ethiopia, little is known about it, particularly in the study area. Hence, this study aimed to investigate the prevalence and factors associated with disability at Dabat Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) site, northwest Ethiopia. A population-based study was conducted from October to December 2014 at Dabat HDSS site. A total of 67,395 people were included in the study. The multivariable binary logistic regression analysis was employed to identify factors associated with disability. The Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) with a 95% Confidence Interval (CI) was estimated to show the strength of association. A p-value of disability giving a prevalence rate of 1.82%, of which, about 39% was related to a vision disability. The high odds of disability were observed among the elderly (≥50 years) [AOR: 4.49; 95% CI: 1.95, 10.33], severely food in-secured [AOR: 2.11; 95% CI: 1.59, 2.80], and separated marital status [AOR: 7.52; 95% CI: 1.18, 47.84]. While having a paid job [AOR: 0.46; 95% CI: 0.28, 0.77], being in the richest quintile [AOR: 0.55; 95% CI: 0.41, 0.75], and high engagement in work-related physical activities [AOR: 0.36; 95% CI: 0.27, 0.49] were inversely associated with the disability. Disability is a major public health problem, and the burden is noticeable in the study area. Vision disability is the highest of all disabilities. Thus, efforts must be made on educating the public about disability and injury prevention. Measures that reduce disability should target the elderly, the poorer and the unemployed segment of the population.
Studies suggest that stress, emotions, personality, and cognition can affect the immune system's response to disease. This paper argues the need for psychoneuroimmunology to be taught in health education courses and provides a brief overview of research showing the link between the mind and the immune system. (GLR)
Khan, Sadaf; Zaheer, Sidra
to examine the socio-demographic profile of women experiencing signs of obstetric fistula and factors contributing to the development of this condition in Pakistan. secondary data analysis of Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey 2006-07, which for the first time measured signs of obstetric fistula, using a questionnaire at a population level. For the present study, questions directly related to obstetric fistula signs were used to construct a dependent variable. Data were analysed by descriptive and logistic regression analysis, to examine factors associated with development of fistula. among women of reproductive age (n = 9134, aged 15-49 years), some 277 (3.0%, 30 per 1000 women who ever gave birth) experienced obstetric fistula signs, whereas 103 (1.1% of all women) were still experiencing the condition at the time of survey. In a logistic regression model, women from the Punjab region (OR = 5.67, 95%CI = 2.10-15.31), women who delivered by caesarean section (OR = 1.91, 95% CI = 1.06-3.42) and reported having complications during pregnancy were more likely to develop obstetric fistula (OR = 1.96, 95%CI = 1.19-3.16). Obstetric fistula is one of the neglected public and reproductive health concerns in Pakistan. To eliminate this preventable tragedy, there is a need for better emergency obstetric care facilities and the availability of a fistula repair service throughout the country. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hajian-Tilaki, Karimollah; Heidari, Behzad; Hajian-Tilaki, Arefeh
Introduction: In the stage of demographic transition, the rate of elderly is increasing and their health condition is a matter of concern. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the health related quality of life (QoL) and the associated socio-demographic determinants among Iranian elderly people. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study with a representative samples of 750 elderly people whom community dwelling in urban area of Babol, in the north of Iran. In a household survey, the demographic data were collected and the health related QoL was assessed with a validated standard short form questionnaire (SF-36). The multiple linear regression analysis was performed to determine the demographic characteristics in predicting QoL using SPSS ver 13. Results: The overall mean (SD) scores of QoL was 62.4(17.2) for men and 51.2 (17.9) for women. The mean scores of QoL in all dimensions in men had significantly higher than women. The adjusted regression coefficient of gender, age, educational level, being couple were significant on overall scores of QoL. Aging is inversely associated while male gender and education at high school or higher and being couple are positively associated in prediction of overall scores of QoL. Conclusion: The findings indicate that the health related QoL is rather poor in old people particular in women, elderly with low education level and being single. Therefore, healthcare policy makers should consider an urgent health interventional program among elderly people at present stage of demographic transition with emphasis on high risk demographic profiles.
Full Text Available Introduction: In the stage of demographic transition, the rate of elderly is increasing and their health condition is a matter of concern. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the health related quality of life (QoL and the associated socio-demographic determinants among Iranian elderly people. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study with a representative samples of 750 elderly people whom community dwelling in urban area of Babol, in the north of Iran. In a household survey, the demographic data were collected and the health related QoL was assessed with a validated standard short form questionnaire (SF-36. The multiple linear regression analysis was performed to determine the demographic characteristics in predicting QoL using SPSS ver 13. Results: The overall mean (SD scores of QoL was 62.4(17.2 for men and 51.2 (17.9 for women. The mean scores of QoL in all dimensions in men had significantly higher than women. The adjusted regression coefficient of gender, age, educational level, being couple were significant on overall scores of QoL. Aging is inversely associated while male gender and education at high school or higher and being couple are positively associated in prediction of overall scores of QoL. Conclusion: The findings indicate that the health related QoL is rather poor in old people particular in women, elderly with low education level and being single. Therefore, healthcare policy makers should consider an urgent health interventional program among elderly people at present stage of demographic transition with emphasis on high risk demographic profiles.
Full Text Available Health education is an instrument of Health Promotion that seeks to influence the development of healthy lifestyles by eliminating risk factors and thus influencing in a positive way the health of the population. One of the objectives of the educational system is to educate for the development of the integral health of the students as well as to provide the appropriate formation so that they have a healthy vital development from a physical perspective like psychological. To this end, the Ministry of Education, Culture and Sport and in collaboration with the Ministry of Health, Social Services and Equality work on the development of actions and the implementation of stable programs of education and health promotion in the school environment With the purpose of fomenting and supporting an educational model directed to the development of the integral health of the whole educative community.
Torheim, Liv Elin; Birgisdottir, Bryndis Eva; Robertson, Aileen
Public Health Nutrition Education Liv Elin Torheim* 1, Bryndis Eva Birgisdottir2, 3, Inga Thorsdottir2, 3, Aileen Robertson4, Runa Midtvåge4, Chalida Mae Svastisalee4, Hanne Gillett4, Agneta Yngve5, Arja Erkkilä6 1Department of Nursing and Health Promotion, Oslo and Akershus University College......) and healthy aging. Unhealthy dietary patterns, high blood pressure and obesity are major risk factors for NCDs such as cancers, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. There exists enormous potential to promote health and prevent diseases through targeting unhealthy life style, and it is crucial......, educational, social, economic, structural, political and/or legislative. The knowledge, skills, competencies and cultural heritage of the broader community should form a basis for all analyses and actions. The competencies required to be an effective PHN practitioner has been described by several scholars...
Divelbiss, Daniel William; Boccelli, Dominic Louis; Succop, Paul Allan; Oerther, Daniel Barton
In rural health development practice, engineers and scientists must recognize the complex interactions that influence individuals' contact with disease-causing pathogens and understand how household habits may impact the adoption and long-term sustainability of new technology. The goal of this study was to measure the effect of various environmental health factors and household demographics on the operation and maintenance of the Biosand filter (Centre for Affordable Water and Sanitation Technology, Calgary, Alberta, Canada) and diarrhea health burden in the region. In July and August 2010, randomized household surveys (n = 286) were completed in rural Guatemala detailing water access, sanitation availability, hygiene practice, socio-economic status, education level, filter operation and maintenance, and diarrhea health burden of the home. A hypothesized structural equation model was developed based on a review of published research and tested using the surveyed data. Model-derived parameter estimates indicated that: (a) proper personal hygiene practices significantly promote proper filter operation and maintenance; and (b) higher household education level, proper filter operation and maintenance, and improved water supply significantly reduce diarrhea health burden. Additionally, a high level of unexplained variance in diarrhea indicated the filter, though protective of health, is not the only factor influencing diarrhea.
Dray, Julia; Bowman, Jenny; Freund, Megan; Campbell, Elizabeth; Hodder, Rebecca K; Lecathelinais, Christophe; Wiggers, John
Population level data regarding the general mental health status, and the socio-demographic factors associated with the mental health status of adolescents in Australia aged 12-16 years is limited. This study assessed prevalence of mental health problems in a regional population of Australian students in Grades 7-10, and investigated associations between mental health problems and socio-demographic factors. A web-based survey was conducted in 21 secondary schools located in disadvantaged local government areas in one regional local health district of NSW Australia. Mental health problems were measured using the youth self-report Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) total SDQ score and three subscale scores (internalising problems, externalising problems and prosocial behaviour). Associations between each SDQ outcome and student socio-demographic characteristics (age, gender, Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander Status, remoteness of residential location and socio-economic disadvantage) were investigated. Data are reported for 6793 students aged 12-16 years. Nineteen percent of participants scored in the 'very high' range for the total SDQ, 18.0 % for internalising problems, 11.3 % for externalising problems and 8.9 % for prosocial behaviour problems. Gender and Aboriginal status were associated with all four SDQ outcomes, while age was associated with two, excluding externalising problems and prosocial behaviour. Aboriginal adolescents scored higher for mental health problems than non-Aboriginal adolescents for all four SDQ outcomes. Females scored higher than males for total SDQ and internalising problems, with mean difference greatest at age 15. Males scored higher for externalising problems and lower for prosocial behaviour than females. The finding that mental health problems significantly varied by age, gender and Aboriginality may suggest a need for tailored interventions for groups of adolescents with highest levels of mental health
Bravo Santisteban, Ramiro D; Kim, Young L; Farooq, Umar; Kim, Tae-Seong; Youm, Sekyoung; Park, Seung-Hun
As the prevalence of overweight and obesity has been increasing in South Korea, it is critical to better understand possible associations between environmental surroundings and general health status. We characterize key health test readings and basic demographic information from 10,816 South Koreans, obtained from two Ubiquitous Healthcare (U-Healthcare) centers that have distinct surrounding neighborhood characteristics. One is located in a rural area in Busan, the other is located in an urban area in Daegu surrounded by a highly crowded residential and commercial business area. We analyze comprehensive health data sets, including blood pressure, body mass index, pulse rate, and body fat percentage from December 2013 to December 2014 to study differences in overall health test measurements between users of rural and urban U-Healthcare centers. We conduct multiple regression analyses to evaluate differences in general health status between the two centers, adjusting for confounding factors. We report statistical evidence of differences in blood pressure at the two locations. As local residents are major users, the result indicates that the environmental surroundings of the centers can influence the demographics of the users, the type of health tests in demand, and the users' health status. We further envision that U-Healthcare centers will provide public users with an opportunity for enhancing their current health, which could potentially be used to prevent them from developing chronic diseases, while providing surveillance healthcare data.
Agnes Rozsa Santha
Full Text Available This paper identifies the social, demographic and labour market related determinants of the state of health and assesses the magnitude of their impact within the European adult population. The research is based on a statistical analysis on the data of the European Social Survey (ESS, round 7, 2014/2015. Subjective socioeconomic situation and partnership status are being identified as the most influential social determinants of health. Results also illuminate how work-life-balance determines health. People suffering from work-life-imbalance are more likely to become ill than those with more free time and flexible working hours.
Dhaliwal, Jagjit Singh; Lehl, Gurvanit; Sodhi, Sachinjeet K.; Sachdeva, Sonia
Background: The literature is replete with reports that pregnant women have an increased level of periodontal disease as compared with non-pregnant women of the same age. There are many studies correlating the effect of periodontal disease on the adverse pregnancy outcomes. The development of periodontal diseases during pregnancy can be influenced by factors such as preexisting oral conditions, general health, and socio-cultural background. There is very little data studying the effect of socio-demographic factors on the periodontal health of pregnant women. This study evaluated the periodontal status of a sample of pregnant women of Chandigarh and adjoining areas. The study also investigated the relationship between these variables and a series of demographic and clinical variables. Materials and Methods: The participants were 190 pregnant women attending Gynecology and Obstetrics outpatient department of Government Medical College and Hospital, Chandigarh. The participants were examined for their periodontal health and various socio-demographic variables were recorded on performas designed for the purpose of study. Statistical analysis was done. Results: The results revealed that the mean bleeding index scores and probing depth increased with statistical significance when the socio-economic status was lower (P0.1). The plaque index was not significantly associated with the socio-economic status, profession, place of residence, and trimester of pregnancy (P>0.1). Conclusion: In the population of pregnant women investigated under this study, the clinical and socio-demographic characteristics showed non-significant correlation except socio-economic status which showed statistically significant correlation with bleeding on probing and pocket depth. Further studies may be required in Indian population to determine the association of periodontal diseases in pregnant women with socio-demographic variables. PMID:23633773
Govande, Vinayak; Ballard, Amy R; Koneru, Madhavi; Beeram, Madhava
To understand factors contributing to the neonatal mortality rate (NMR), we studied trends in the NMR during 2000 to 2009 with respect to demographic factors and health care resources. Birth- and death-linked mortality data for 14,168 neonatal deaths that occurred between 2000 and 2009 were obtained from the Texas Department of Health and Human Services. Demographic factors and health care resource data were analyzed using analysis of variance, chi-square tests, and linear regression analysis. The average NMR increased from 3.37 in 2000 to 3.77 in 2009. The NMR in blacks ranged from 6.57 to 8.97 during the study period. Among the babies who died, the mean birthweight decreased from 1505 to 1275 g (P < 0.001) and the mean gestational age decreased from 28.4 to 27.8 weeks (P < 0.001). Cesarean section deliveries increased from 32.7% to 44.9% (P < 0.001). The percentage of mothers receiving prenatal care increased from 81.4% to 86.6% (P < 0.001). Mothers with a college education increased from 8.8% to 20.5% (P < 0.001). The median household income increased from $41,047 to $49,189 (P < 0.001). The number of neonatal intensive care unit beds increased from 33.4 to 56 per 10,000 births, and the number of neonatologists increased from 0.27 to 0.40 per 10,000 women of 15 to 44 years of age. In conclusion, the NMR didn't improve despite improvements in demographic factors and health care resources. Racial disparities persist, with a high NMR in the black population. We speculate a possible genetic predisposition related to ethnicity, and a potentially higher rate of extreme prematurity might have contributed to a high NMR in the study population.
Lu, Liming; Zeng, Jingchun; Zeng, Zhi
Inequalities in demographic, socio-economic and health status for China labor force place them at greater health risks, and marginalized them in the utilization of healthcare services. This paper identifies the inequalities which limit the utilization of health services among China labor force, and provides a reference point for health policy. Data were collected from 23,505 participants aged 15 to 65, from the 2014 China Labor Force Dynamic Survey (a nationwide cross-sectional survey covering 29 provinces with a multi-stage cluster, and stratified, probability sampling strategy) conducted by Sun Yat-sen University. Logistic regression models were used to study the effects of demographic (age, gender, marital status, type of hukou and migration status), socio-economic (education, social class and insurance) and health status (self-perceived general health and several chronic illnesses) variables on the utilization of health services (two-week visiting and hospitalization during the past 12 months). Goodness of fit was assessed using Hosmer-Lemeshow test. Discrimination ability was assessed based on the area under the receiver operating curve (AUC). Migrants with more than 1 (OR 2.80, 95% CI 1.01 ~ 7.82) or none chronic illnesses (OR 1.26, 95% CI 1.01 ~ 7.82) are more likely to be two week visiting to the clinic than non-migrants; migrants with none chronic illnesses (OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.45 ~ 0.82) are less likely to be in hospitalization during the past 12 months than non-migrants. Female, elder, hukou of non-agriculture, higher education level, higher social class, purchasing more insurance and poorer self-perceived health were predictors for more utilization of health service. More insurance benefited more two-week visiting (OR 1.12, 95% CI 1.06 ~ 1.17) and hospitalization during the past 12 months (OR 1.12, 95% CI 1.07 ~ 1.18) for individuals with none chronic illness but not ≥1 chronic illnesses. All models achieved good calibration
Squassi, A; Khaszki, C; Blanco, B; Schnaiderman, M; Scholnik, L; Bonazzi, M; Bordoni, N
The association between factors involved in health care and the health status of the people has been proven. The use of health care services, particularly in the case of patients who suffer from chronic pathologies, has been the object of many studies aimed at establishing factors which contribute to guarantee permanence in treatment and implementation of health care controls. The purpose of the present study was to identify the response of HIV infected or AIDS patients to the oral health care program and establish the association between permanence in treatment and the presence of risk factors, epidemiological or demographic conditions of the users. Ninety patients selected at random from the 300 who attended the Clinic for High Risk Patient Care, School of Dentistry, University of Buenos Aires (CLAPAR, Spanish acronym) during 1994-1995 were included in this study. The patients were assigned to one of seven groups, according to their permanence in treatment and commitment to the program during the phase of maintenance in health. Each of these categories was characterized in terms of age, sex, educational level, place of residence (CIRFS, 1990), type of job, type of health coverage and place where healthcare was received, risk behavior and date of positive serological diagnosis. The frequency of each variable was established. Contingency tables were employed to establish the statistical significance of the association between the different variables and the patient categories. The data revealed that 24.2% of the patients performed occasional or emergency consultation, 57.1% achieved discharge with or without the assistance of the social worker or are still in treatment and 18.7% abandoned the program. Significant association were found between the response to odontological treatment and the following variables: place of residence, date of positive serological diagnosis, and risk behavior. We may conclude that certain demographic, epidemiological or life
Callen, John; And Others
The profile is a concise description of the demographic and economic characteristics, existing health manpower employed, and health education programs for the Carson-Washoe County area of Nevada, one of seven surveyed in the Mountain States region (Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, and Nevada). The first section of the profile provides general population…
Callen, John; And Others
The profile is a concise description of the demographic and economic characteristics, existing health manpower employed, and health education programs for the Albany-Laramie Counties area of Wyoming, one of seven surveyed in the Mountain States region (Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, and Nevada). The first section of the profile provides general…
Full Text Available This article is basically a commentary on some sections on infant and maternalhealthcare of the 2008 demographic and health survey of Ghana. The attention of bothpolicy makers and academics are drawn to the need to ensure the expansion of thematernal and infant healthcare in Ghana. In same commentary, attention of readershave been drawn to the proclivity of the free maternal health policy to positively shapematernal and infant care in Ghana.
Colón-Ramos, Uriyoán; Pérez-Cardona, Cynthia M; Monge-Rojas, Rafael
To identify socio-demographic, behavioral, and health-related correlates of food preferences in Puerto Rico that will help determine Caribbean-region populations vulnerable to nutrition transition. Data from a cross-sectional study of a representative sample of 858 adults residing in the San Juan Metropolitan Area of Puerto Rico were analyzed. Multivariable ordinal logistic regressions were used to model the frequency of consumption of 1) fruits and vegetables, 2) tubers/starchy root vegetables, 3) fried foods, and 4) Western-style fast foods as a function of socio-demographic, behavioral, and health-related characteristics. Higher frequency of consumption of fruits and vegetables was associated with being physically active and older and having a medium to high level of education, whereas intake of tubers was associated with being older, having a low income, not using government insurance, and having elevated levels of triglycerides. Frequency of consumption of fast food was associated with younger age, higher income, 12-15 years of formal education, and a higher body mass index (BMI), whereas frequency of consumption of fried food was associated with being younger and male, not being a smoker, and having elevated levels of fasting blood glucose. The results indicate a nutrition transition in Puerto Rico with health consequences for the Caribbean region. The characteristics of this nutrition transition seem to be determined by income, education, and age, but may also be dictated by access to various food groups. These results set the stage for needed investigation of environmental and individual-level factors that could shape patterns in food consumption.
Vorona, A A; Syrkin, L D
The article is devoted to developing the principles and methods of resource assessment of mental health military contingent in terms of demographic decline and reform of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation. From the standpoint of the concept of the mutual influence of the value-semantic components and the level of psychological adaptation resources demonstrates the possibility of evaluating resource capabilities of the psyche of military contingent.
Prins, Esther; Kassab, Cathy; Campbell, Kimeka
This article paints a comprehensive portrait of the demographic, financial, and educational characteristics of Pennsylvania postsecondary students who are adult learners, and identifies rural-urban differences within this group. The study analyzed data from the 2010-11 Free Application for Federal Student Aid (n = 610,925), supplemented by…
Nasrullah, Muazzam; Muazzam, Sana; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Raj, Anita
Child marriage (before 18 years) is prevalent in Pakistan, which disproportionately affects young girls in rural, low income and low education households. Our study aims to determine the association between early marriage and high fertility and poor fertility health indicators among young women in Pakistan beyond those attributed to social vulnerabilities. Nationally representative data from Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey, 2006-2007, a cross-sectional observational survey, were limited to ever-married women aged 20-24 years (n = 1,560; 15% of 10,023) to identify differences in poor fertility outcomes [high fertility (three or more childbirths); rapid repeat childbirth (marriage. Associations between child marriage and fertility outcomes were assessed by calculating adjusted odds ratios (AORs) using logistic regression models after controlling for demographics, social equity indicators (education, wealth index, rural residence), contraception use, marriage duration and culture-specific factors (husband's desire for more children, son preference). Overall, 50% of ever-married women aged 20-24 years in Pakistan were married before the age of 18 years. Girl child marriage was significantly (p marriage was significantly associated with high fertility (AOR 6.62; 95% CI 3.53-12.43), rapid repeat childbirth (AOR 2.88; 95% CI 1.83-4.54), unwanted pregnancy (AOR 2.90; 95% CI 1.75-4.79), and pregnancy termination (AOR 1.75; 95% CI 1.10-2.78). Girl child marriage affects half of all ever-married women aged 20-24 years in Pakistan, and increases their risk for high fertility and poor fertility health indicators, highlighting the need of increasing the age of marriage among women in Pakistan. Efforts to eliminate girl child marriage by strict law enforcement, promoting civil, sexual and reproductive health rights for women can help eliminate girl child marriage in Pakistan.
Winter, Samantha C; Barchi, Francis
Violence against women (VAW) is a serious public health and human rights concern. Literature suggests sanitation conditions in developing countries may be potential neighborhood-level risk factors contributing to VAW, and that this association may be more important in highly socially disorganized neighborhoods. This study analyzed 2008 Kenya Demographic Health Survey's data and found women who primarily practice open defecation (OD), particularly in disorganized communities, had higher odds of experiencing recent non-partner violence. This study provides quantitative evidence of an association between sanitation and VAW that is attracting increasing attention in media and scholarly literature throughout Kenya and other developing countries.
Baron, Ruth; Manniën, Judith; te Velde, Saskia J; Klomp, Trudy; Hutton, Eileen K; Brug, Johannes
Suboptimal maternal health conditions (such as obesity, underweight, depression and stress) and health behaviours (such as smoking, alcohol consumption and unhealthy nutrition) during pregnancy have been associated with negative pregnancy outcomes. Our first aim was to give an overview of the self-reported health status and health behaviours of pregnant women under midwife-led primary care in the Netherlands. Our second aim was to identify potential differences in these health status indicators and behaviours according to educational level (as a proxy for socio-economic status) and ethnicity (as a proxy for immigration status). Our cross-sectional study (data obtained from the DELIVER multicentre prospective cohort study conducted from September 2009 to March 2011) was based on questionnaires about maternal health and prenatal care, which were completed by 6711 pregnant women. The relationships of education and ethnicity with 13 health status indicators and 10 health behaviours during pregnancy were examined using multilevel multiple logistic regression analyses, adjusted for age, parity, number of weeks pregnant and either education or ethnicity. Lower educated women were especially more likely to smoke (Odds Ratio (OR) 11.3; 95% confidence interval (CI) 7.6- 16.8); have passive smoking exposure (OR 6.9; 95% CI 4.4-11.0); have low health control beliefs (OR 10.4; 95% CI 8.5-12.8); not attend antenatal classes (OR 4.5; 95% CI 3.5-5.8) and not take folic acid supplementation (OR 3.4; 95% CI 2.7-4.4). They were also somewhat more likely to skip breakfast daily, be obese, underweight and depressed or anxious. Non-western women were especially more likely not to take folic acid supplementation (OR 4.5; 95% CI 3.5-5.7); have low health control beliefs (OR 4.1; 95% CI 3.1-5.2) and not to attend antenatal classes (OR 3.3; 95% CI 2.0-5.4). They were also somewhat more likely to have nausea, back pains and passive smoking exposure. Substantial socio-demographic inequalities
Velvin, Gry; Bathen, Trine; Rand-Hendriksen, Svend; Geirdal, Amy Østertun
Marfan syndrome (MFS) is a severe autosomal dominant connective tissue disorder that might influence peoples work ability. This cross sectional study aims to investigate work participation in adults with verified MFS diagnosis and to explore how the health related consequences of MFS and other factors might influence work participation. The prevalence of health problems in young adults compared to older adults with MFS was examined in association to work participation. A postal questionnaire including questions about work participation, demographic characteristics, MFS related health problems, chronic pain, and fatigue was sent to 117 adults with verified MFS (Ghent 1), and 62% answered. Fifty-nine percent were employed or students, significantly lower work participation than the General Norwegian Population (GNP), but higher than the Norwegian population of people with disability. Most young adults worked full-time despite extensive health problems, but the average age for leaving work was low. Few had received any work adaptations prior to retiring from work. In multiple logistic regression analysis, only age, lower educational level and severe fatigue were significantly associated with low work participation; not MFS related health problems or chronic pain. Fatigue appears to be the most challenging health problem to deal with in work, but the covariance is complex. Focus on vocational guidance early in life, more appropriate work adaptations, and psychosocial support might improve the possibility for sustaining in work for adults with MFS. More research about work challenges in adults with MFS is needed.
Kraja, Fatjona; Kraja, Bledar; Cakerri, Luljeta; Burazeri, Genc
Self-perceived health is considered a suitable health indicator, based on a single item asking individuals to rate their health. It has been recommended as a reliable factor to assess the population health. Several socio-demographic and lifestyle determinants of self-perceived health status have been documented in different population. The aim of our study was to assess the socio-demographic and lifestyle correlates of self-perceived health status in a population-based sample of Albanian adult men and women. Data from 12,554 individuals aged ≥35 years collected by the Albania Living Standard Measurement Survey (LSMS) 2012, which is a national population-based cross-sectional study, were analyzed. The study participants rated their health in five categories: very good, good, average, poor and very poor, which in the analyses were dichotomized into "not poor" and "poor health". Other variables included demographic characteristics, economic level, employment status, smoking and alcohol intake. Binary logistic regression was used to assess the association of self-perceived health with demographic and lifestyle factors. Upon multivariate adjustment for all covariates in a backward stepwise elimination procedure, strong and significant "predictors" of poor self-perceived health status were older age (OR=3.0, 95%CI=2.4-3.7), unemployment (OR=5.6, 95%CI=4.0-7.8), male gender (OR=1.2, 95%CI=1.0-1.5), low education (OR=2.0, OR=1.3-3.0), current smoking (OR=1.7, 95%CI=1.2-2.4) and alcohol abstinence (OR=1.4, 95%CI=1.1-1.7). Our findings indicate that the low socioeconomic groups in Albania have a significantly lower self-perceived health status. Furthermore, smoking was a significant "determinant" of poor self-perceived health in this study population, which is compatible with previous reports from other countries.
Telarolli Junior Rodolpho
Full Text Available Some specific characteristics of the aging of the Brazilian population in different areas, states and communities all over the country, have shown significant variations. Historical series of demographic and health indicators for the population in their sixties and over in Brazil, state of S. Paulo and in the municipal district of Araraquara are listed as follows: level of education and urban population growth rate, income distribution, mortality rates and main causes of death. In 1991 the aged constituled were 7,8% of the Brazilian population and 9,7% in Araraquara community. The elderly population (of 70 years of aged and above as a proportion of the whole, has increased and already stands for 40%. The same trend holds good for both the proportion of aged within the urban population and their level of education wich increased to 90% in 1991. The main causes of death are chronic degenerative diseases which have replaced the infectious illness: firts, the diseases of the circulatory sistem (which account for more than 40% of all deaths and the neoplasms (which let to 15% of the deaths. On the basis of these health and demographic data relating to people of 60 years of age and over, this study suggests some procedures for the improvement of the quality of the assistance given to the target population: a the assistance give to the aged should be improved by providing gerontological training for general physicians and nurses, both of public and private clinics; b the already exixting educational activities for the aged, for health workers and for teachers of secundary education should be further developed; c the number of day-hospitals should be increased for the purpose of avoiding unnecessary confinement so as maintain the low rate of institutionalization in homes for the elderly (0,7% in Araraquara. It is reported that at least 35% of the aged population in this area is entitled to private health assistance, wich brings out the importance of
Daniel, Mark; Kestens, Yan; Paquet, Catherine
This study sought to extend previous analyses of food insecurity in Montreal by examining the relationship between neighbourhood sociodemographic and urban form variables and sources of food both unhealthful (fast-food outlets, FFO) and healthful (stores selling fruits and vegetables, FVS). Densities of FFO and FVS were computed for 862 Census tract areas (CTA) (defined as census tract with a 1-km buffer around its limits) for the Montréal Census Metropolitan Area (CMA). Predictor variables included CTA socio-demographic characteristics reflecting income, household structure, language, and education, and urban form measures, specifically, densities of local roads, main roads, expressways and highways. Food source densities were regressed on CTA characteristics using stepwise regression. Socio-demographic and urban form measures explained 60% and 73% of the variance in densities of FFO and FVS, respectively. FFO were more prevalent in CTA with higher proportions of full-time students and households speaking neither French nor English; lower proportions of married individuals, children and older adults; and more high-traffic roads. FVS were more prevalent in CTA with higher proportions of single residents, university-educated residents and households speaking neither French nor English; lower proportion of French-speakers; and more local roads. Median household income was not related to the density of FFO or FVS. The availability of healthful and unhealthful food varies across the Montréal CMA. Areas with lower education and more French-speaking households have a lesser availability of FVS. The association of FFO with high-traffic roadways and areas with high school attendance suggests a point for intervention via commercial zoning changes.
Dante R. Culqui
Full Text Available Abstract We present the case of the Nahua population of Santa Rosa de Serjali, Peruvian Amazon's population, considered of initial contact. This population consists of human groups that for a long time decided to live in isolation, but lately have begun living a more sedentary lifestyle and in contact with Western populations. There are two fully identified initial contact groups in Peru: the Nahua and the Nanti. The health statistics of the Nahua are scarce. This study offers an interpretation of demographic and epidemiological indicators of the Nahua people, trying to identify if a certain degree of health vulnerability exists. We performed a cross sectional study, and after analyzing their health indicators, as well as the supplemental qualitative analysis of the population, brought us to conclude that in 2006, the Nahua, remained in a state of health vulnerability.
Bocquier, Philippe; Ginsburg, Carren; Herbst, Kobus; Sankoh, Osman; Collinson, Mark A
The objective of this research note is to introduce a training manual for event history data management. The manual provides a first comprehensive guide to longitudinal Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) data management that allows for a step-by-step description of the process of structuring and preparing a dataset for the calculation of demographic rates and event history analysis. The research note provides some background information on the INDEPTH Network, and the iShare data repository and describes the need for a manual to guide users as to how to correctly handle HDSS datasets. The approach outlined in the manual is flexible and can be applied to other longitudinal data sources. It facilitates the development of standardised longitudinal data management and harmonization of datasets to produce a comparative set of results.
Raut, Manoj Kumar
This paper examines the role of exposure to mass media and interpersonal communication in predicting the current use of contraception in Bangladesh. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were carried out using the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS), 2011 data to explore the association between communication and the current use of contraception. After adjusting the related socioeconomic and demographic factors, the mass media did not seem to have any role in predicting contraceptive use behavior while the findings revealed that interpersonal communication [prevalence ratio (PR): 1.0984, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.0801-1.1170] is a strong positive predictor of the current contraceptive use. It is a well-known fact that mass media performs only the knowledge function while interpersonal communication performs an additional function of persuasion. This analysis corroborates the statement that the role of interpersonal communication is quite important in predicting contraceptive use.
Full Text Available Despite of the existing intensive efforts to improve maternal health in Ethiopia, the proportion of birth delivered at home remains high and is still the top priority among the national health threats.The study aimed to examine effects of individual women and community-level factors of women's decision on place of delivery in Ethiopia.Data were obtained from the nationally representative 2011 Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS which used a two-stage cluster sampling design with rural-urban and regions as strata. The EDHS collected data from a big sample size but our study focused on a sample of 7,908 women whose most recent birth was within five years preceding 2011 and 576 communities in which the women were living in. The data were analyzed using a two-level mixed-effects logistic regression to determine fixed-effects of individual- and community-level factors and random-intercept of between-cluster characteristics.In the current study, 6980 out of 7908 deliveries (88.3% took place at home. Lower educational levels (OR=2.74, 95%CI:1.84,4.70; p<0.0001, making no or only a limited number of ANC visits (OR=3.72,95%CI:2.85, 4.83; p<0.0001, non-exposure to media (OR=1.51, 95%CI 1.13, 2.01; p=0.004, higher parity (OR=2.68, 95%CI:1.96,3.68; p<0.0001, and perceived distance problem to reach health facilities (OR=1.29, 95%CI:1.03,1.62; p=0.022 were positively associated with home delivery. About 75% of the total variance in the odds of giving birth at home was accounted for the between-community differences of characteristics (ICC=0.75, p<0.0001. With regard to community-level characteristics, rural communities (OR=4.67, 95%CI:3.06,7.11; p<0.0001, pastoralist communities (OR=4.53, 95%CI:2.81,7.28; p<0.0001, communities with higher poverty levels (OR=1.49 95%CI:1.08,2.22; p=0.048, with lower levels of ANC utilization (OR=2.01, 95%CI:1.42,2.85; p<0.0001 and problem of distance to a health facility (OR=1.29, 95%CI:1.03,1.62; p=0.004 had a
Paul D. Loprinzi
Full Text Available Background: Few population-based studies have examined the association between physical activity (PA and cardiovascular disease risk factors, demographic variables, and perceptions of health status, and we do not have a clear understanding of the dose-response relationship among these variables. Methods: Data from the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey was used to examine the dose-response relationship between objectively measured PA and metabolic syndrome (and its individual cardiovascular disease risk factors, demographic variables, and perceptions of health. After exclusions, 5,538 participants 18 years or older were included in the present study, with 2,538 participants providing fasting glucose and 2,527 providing fasting triglyceride data. PA was categorized into deciles. Results: Overall, the health benefits showed a general pattern of increase with each increasing levels of PA. Of the ten PA classifications examined, participants in the highest moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA category (at least 71 min/day had the lowest odds of developing metabolic syndrome. Conclusion: At a minimum, sedentary adults should strive to meet current PA guidelines (i.e., 150 min/week of MVPA, with additional positive benefits associated with engaging in three times this level of PA.
Mesganaw Fantahun Afework
Full Text Available Background: The benefits of Health and Demographic Surveillance sites for local populations have been the topic of discussion as countries such as Ethiopia take efforts to achieve their Millennium Development Goal targets, on which they lag behind. Ethiopia's maternal mortality ratio is very high, and in the 2011 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey (2011 EDHS it was estimated to be 676/100,000 live births. Recent Global Burden of Disease (GBD and estimates based on the United Nations model reported better, but still unacceptably high, figures of 497/100,000 and 420/100,000 live births for 2013. In the 2011 EDHS, antenatal care (ANC utilization was estimated at 34%, and delivery in health facilities was only 10%. Objectives: To compare maternal health service utilization among populations in a Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS to non-HDSS populations in Butajira district, south central Ethiopia. Design: A community-based comparative cross-sectional study was conducted in January and February 2012 among women who had delivered in the 2 years before the survey. Results: A total of 2,296 women were included in the study. One thousand eight hundred and sixty two (81.1% had attended ANC at least once, and 37% of the women had attended ANC at least four times. A quarter of the women delivered their last child in a health facility. Of the women living outside the HDSS areas, 715 (75.3% attended ANC at least once compared to 85.1% of women living in the HDSS areas [adjusted odds ratio (AOR 0.59; 95% CI 0.46, 0.74]. Of the women living outside the HDSS areas, only 170 (17.9% delivered in health facilities and were assisted by skilled attendants during delivery, whereas 30.0% of those living in HDSS areas delivered in health facilities (AOR 0.66; 95% CI 0.48, 0.91. Conclusion: This paper provides possible evidence that living in an HDSS site has a positive influence on maternal health. In addition, there may be a positive influence on
Porter, Russell; Broussard, Amelia; Duckett, Todd
It is imperative for divinity and health administration programs to improve their level of ethics education for their graduates who work as health administration chaplains. With an initial presentation of the variation of ethical dilemmas presented in health care facilities covering social, organizational, and patient levels, we indicate the need…
Objective: This review investigated how the three-phase model of critical pedagogy, based on the writings of Paulo Freire, can be put into practice in health education. Design: The study considers literature related to the fields of health education, health promotion and critical pedagogy. Setting: The study is a scholarly review completed as part…
Borkotoky, Kakoli; Unisa, Sayeed
Education is a crucial factor in influencing the pattern and timing of marriage for women, and the changes in levels of female literacy will also change the dynamics of family formation. India has experienced consistent improvement in levels of female literacy; therefore, this study examined the association of women's education with the changes in their demographic behaviour in the Indian context. The central idea of the paper is to examine the differences in age at marriage and first birth, choice of marriage partner and the number of children ever born based on educational attainment of women. In addition, the study examined incongruence in years of schooling and discontinuation from school, for children based on education of the mother. The study utilized data from the third round of District Level Household and Facility Survey. The sample constituted 344,164 ever-married women aged 35 years and above with surviving children aged 5-20 years. The results imply that women with higher education are more likely to marry late and have fewer children compared with less educated women. Accordingly, increase in education of women also increases the probability of marrying men with better education than themselves. The study further observed that education of wife has a greater association with the number of children ever born than the education of husband. At the same time, incongruence in years of schooling and drop-out from school are both high for children of uneducated women. The study also found that the children from urban areas are more likely to drop out than their rural counterparts. In addition to education of the mother, number and composition of children in the family and economic condition of the household are some other factors that influence the educational attainment of children.
Khan, Anwar; Yusoff, Rosman Bin Md; Isa, Khairunesa Binti
Scholarly work and research are globally known as stressful and challenging. Teachers may develop different psychological health problems once they are exposed to workplace stressors. Considering it as a serious issue of education sector, this study has examined the linkages between prevalent workplace stressors and psychological health problems…
Harada, Kazuhiro; Takaizumi, Kanae; Shibata, Ai; Oka, Koichiro; Nakamura, Yoshio
According to the interim report of Healthy Japan 21, promoting Exercise Guideline 2006 is one important issue in the fields of physical activity and exercise. However, a previous study indicated that Japanese people rarely were aware of Exercise Guideline 2006 (Higo & Nakamura, 2008). The purpose of the present study was to identify characteristics of those who were aware of the guideline. The subjects were 1,613 Japanese adults (40.2 +/- 12.2 years) recruited by a Japanese social research company. The study designwas cross-sectional, using an internet questionnaire. Regarding the research items, the dependent variable was awareness of Exercise Guideline 2006, and the independent variables included awareness of other health promotion policies such as Healthy Japan 21, the Japanese Nutrition Balance Guide, and the Japanese national policy for preventing metabolic syndrome, as well as demographic variables (e.g., gender, age, BMI, hours per day spent watching TV watching and hours per day with internet usage). Logistic regression analysis was used for this research. Of all subjects, 12.3% answered that they were aware of Exercise Guideline 2006. Those over 50 years old (OR = 2.17; 95% CI = 1.11-4.22), having over 10 million household income (OR = 1.94; 99% CI = 1.05-3.61), an exercise habit (OR = 1.75; 95% CI = 1.07-2.86), an awareness of Healthy Japan 21 (OR = 23.60; 95% CI = 15.26-36.52), the Japanese Nutrition Balance Guide (OR = 5.52; 95% GCI = 3.01-10.13), and the Japanese national policy for preventing metabolic syndrome (OR = 3.41; 95% CI = 2.12-5.48) were significantly more likely to be aware of the guideline. Major findings of this study were: 1) older people are more aware of Exercise Guideline 2006 than their younger counterparts, although level of awareness was generally low; 2) for promotion of Exercise Guideline 2006, targeting those with a low educational background might not be a critical issue; and 3) awareness levels for Exercise Guideline 2006 and
Obed Ernest A. Nettey
Full Text Available Background: Childhood mortality in Ghana has generally declined in the last four decades. However, estimates tend to conceal substantial variability among regions and districts. The lack of population-based data in Ghana, as in other less developed countries, has hindered the development of effective programmes targeted specifically at clusters where mortality levels are significantly higher. Objective: This paper seeks to test for the existence of statistically significant clusters of childhood mortality within the Kintampo Health and Demographic Surveillance System (KHDSS between 2005 and 2007. Design: In this study, mortality rates were generated using mortality data extracted from the health and demographic surveillance database of the KHDSS and exported into STATA. The spatial and spatio-temporal scan statistic by Kulldorff was used to identify significant clusters of childhood mortality within the KHDSS. Results: A significant cluster of villages with high under-five mortality in the south-eastern part of the KHDSS in 2006 was identified. This is a remote location where poverty levels are relatively higher, health facilities are more sparse and these are compounded by poor transport services in case of emergencies. Conclusion: This study highlights the potential of the surveillance platform to demonstrate the spatial dimensions of childhood mortality clustering. It is apparent, though, that further studies need to be carried out in order to explore the underlying risk factors for potential mortality clusters that could emerge later.
Full Text Available Background: Cancer specific survival and quality-of-life (QOL assessment are important in evaluating cancer treatment outcomes. Baseline demographic profiles have significant effects on follow-up health related QOL (HRQOL and affect the outcome of treatments. Materials and Methods: Post-operative gynaecological cancer patients required adjuvant pelvic radiation enrolled longitudinal assessment study. Patients had completed the short form-36 (SF-36 questionnaire before the adjuvant radiotherapy and functional assessments of cancer therapy-general module at 6 th month′s follow-up period to assess the HRQOL. Baseline variables were race, age, body mass index (BMI, education, marital status, type of surgery, physical composite scores (PCS and mental composite scores (MCS summary scores of the SF-36. Univariate and multivariate regression analysis used to determine the influence of these variables on post-radiotherapy HRQOL domains. Results: Baseline PCS, MCS, age, education and marital status had positively correlation with post-radiotherapy HRQOL while higher BMI had a negative impact in univariate analysis. In multivariate regression analysis, education and MCS had a positive correlation while higher BMI had a negative correlation with HRQOL domains. Conclusion: Enhance our ability to detect demographic variables and modify those factors and develops new treatment aimed at improving all aspect of gynaecological cancer including good QOL.
Munthali, Alister C.
The purpose of this paper is to identify groups of children in Malawi who are less or not reached by vaccination services by using data from the Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in Malawi in 1992, 1996, 2000 and 2004. These surveys have shown that the proportion of children aged 12–23 months who were fully vaccinated by 12 months of age has been decreasing: it was 67% in 1992, then 55%, 54% and 51% in 1996, 2000 and 2004, respectively. The review has also shown that birth order of the...
Viswan, Saritha P; Ravindran, T K Sundari; Kandala, Ngianga-Bakwin; Petzold, Max G; Fonn, Sharon
The persistent low contraceptive use and high fertility in Nigeria despite improvements in educational achievements calls for an examination of the role of factors, which may moderate the use of modern contraception. This article explores the influence of sexual autonomy on the use of modern contraceptive methods among women and its relative importance compared with other, more traditional, indicators of women's autonomy such as education and occupation. Data from two Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS), 2008 and 2013, were used in this study. An index of sexual autonomy was constructed by combining related DHS variables, and its association with current use of modern contraception was examined at each time point as well as over time using multivariate regression analysis. The observed prevalence for use of modern contraception was 2.8 and 2.6 times higher among women who had high sexual autonomy in 2008 and 2013, respectively. The corresponding figures for women with secondary or higher education were 8.2 and 11.8 times higher, respectively, compared with women with no education. But after controlling for wealth index, religion, place of residence, autonomy and experience of intimate partner violence (IPV), the likelihood of use of modern contraception was lowered to about 2.5 (from 8.2) and 2.8 (from 11.8) times during 2008 and 2013, respectively, among women with secondary or higher education. The likelihood of use of modern contraception lowered only to 1.6 (from 2.8) and 1.8 (from 2.6) times among women with high sexual autonomy after controlling for other covariates, respectively, during the same period. Sexual autonomy seems to play an important role in women's use of modern contraceptive methods independent of education and a number of other factors related to women's status. Sexual autonomy needs to be simultaneously promoted alongside increasing educational opportunities to enhance women's ability to use modern contraception.
Arthur, Samuelina S.; Bongiwe Nyide; Abdramane Bassiahi Soura; Kathleen Kahn; Mark Weston; Osman Sankoh
Background: Nutrition is the intake of food in relation to the body's dietary needs. Malnutrition results from the intake of inadequate or excess food. This can lead to reduced immunity, increased susceptibility to disease, impaired physical and mental development, and reduced productivity. Objective: To perform a systematic review to assess research conducted by the International Network for the Demographic Evaluation of Populations and their Health (INDEPTH) of health and demographic survei...
Syn, Sue Yeon; Kim, Sung Un
College students tend to lack access to health information. Because social networking sites (SNSs) are popularly adopted by college students, SNSs are considered to be good media channels for college students to obtain health-related information. This study examines the factors that influence college students' health information-seeking and -sharing activities on Facebook. An online survey was distributed to college students between the ages of 18 and 29 to determine intentions pertaining to health information activities according to the factors identified for the study. The factors included both contextual factors (such as health topic sensitivity and health information sources) as well as user factors (such as demographics). Our findings showed that college students are willing to read and post health-related information on Facebook when the health topic is not sensitive. In addition, there are clear differences in preferences between professional sources and personal sources as health information sources. It was found that most user factors, except gender, have no influence on health information activities. The impacts of SNS contexts, awareness of information sources, types of interlocutors, and privacy concerns are further discussed.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Millennium Development Goal 1 encourages local initiatives for the eradication of extreme poverty. However, monitoring is indispensable to insure that actions performed at higher policy levels attain success. Poverty in rural areas in low- and middle-income countries remains chronic. Nevertheless, a rural area (Cuatro Santos in northern Nicaragua has made substantial progress toward poverty eradication by 2015. We examined the level of poverty there and described interventions aimed at reducing it. Methods Household data collected from a Health and Demographic Surveillance System was used to analyze poverty and the transition out of it, as well as background information on family members. In the follow-up, information about specific interventions (i.e., installation of piped drinking water, latrines, access to microcredit, home gardening, and technical education linked them to the demographic data. A propensity score was used to measure the association between the interventions and the resulting transition from poverty. Results Between 2004 and 2009, poverty was reduced as a number of interventions increased. Although microcredit was inequitably distributed across the population, combined with home gardening and technical training, it resulted in significant poverty reduction in this rural area. Conclusions Sustainable interventions reduced poverty in the rural areas studied by about one- third.
Pérez, Wilton; Blandón, Elmer Zelaya; Persson, Lars-Åke; Peña, Rodolfo; Källestål, Carina
Millennium Development Goal 1 encourages local initiatives for the eradication of extreme poverty. However, monitoring is indispensable to insure that actions performed at higher policy levels attain success. Poverty in rural areas in low- and middle-income countries remains chronic. Nevertheless, a rural area (Cuatro Santos) in northern Nicaragua has made substantial progress toward poverty eradication by 2015. We examined the level of poverty there and described interventions aimed at reducing it. Household data collected from a Health and Demographic Surveillance System was used to analyze poverty and the transition out of it, as well as background information on family members. In the follow-up, information about specific interventions (i.e., installation of piped drinking water, latrines, access to microcredit, home gardening, and technical education) linked them to the demographic data. A propensity score was used to measure the association between the interventions and the resulting transition from poverty. Between 2004 and 2009, poverty was reduced as a number of interventions increased. Although microcredit was inequitably distributed across the population, combined with home gardening and technical training, it resulted in significant poverty reduction in this rural area. Sustainable interventions reduced poverty in the rural areas studied by about one-third.
Newhouse, Nikki; Lupiáñez-Villanueva, Francisco; Codagnone, Cristiano; Atherton, Helen
The use of the Internet for health purposes is growing steadily, yet the use of asynchronous communication tools for health care purposes remains undeveloped. The introduction of email as a method of communication in health care has the potential to impact on both patients and health care professionals. This study aims to describe the characteristics of people who have sent or received an email to or from their doctor, nurse, or health care organization, by country and in relation to demographics, health care resource use, and health status factors. We conducted a secondary analysis of data (N=14,000) collected from the online Citizens and Information Communication Technology for Health survey, a project undertaken in 2011 by the Institute for Prospective Technology Studies of the European Commission's Joint Research Centre. The survey was developed to understand and characterize European citizens' use of information communication technologies for health. Descriptive and statistical analyses of association were used to interpret the data. Denmark reported the highest level of emails sent/received (507/1000, 50.70%). The lowest level reported was by participants in France (187/1000, 18.70%). Men used email communication for health care more than women, as did respondents in the 16-24 age group and those educated to tertiary level or still within the education system. As self-reported health state worsens, the proportion of people reporting having sent or received an email within the context of health care increases. Email use, poor health, multimorbidity, and number of visits to a physician are positively correlated. The use of email communication within the context of European health care is extremely varied. The relationship between high email use, poor health, doctor visits, and multimorbidity is especially pertinent: provision of asynchronous communication for such groups is favored by policymakers. Low reported email use by country may not necessarily reflect
Wilson, Christina K; West, Lindsey; Stepleman, Lara; Villarosa, Margo; Ange, Brittany; Decker, Matthew; Waller, Jennifer L
Health providers' personal and professional experiences may predict attitudes toward lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals and can therefore serve as key targets for health professions training aimed at decreasing barriers to high-quality patient care. This study explored the relationship between professional, demographic, and training characteristics and health professions student attitudes toward LGBT patients. Students from a health sciences university and applied mental health programs in Georgia (N=475) completed a survey that included a modified version of the Attitudes Toward LGBT Patients Scale (ATLPS). Profession, sexual orientation, current financial status, religion, religiosity, spirituality, and self-reported familiarity with various religious perspectives on sex were associated with ATLPS scores. However, religiosity and self-reported familiarity with various religious perspectives on sex were the only significant predictors of ATLPS scores when these variables were included in one general linear model. Health professions students with higher levels of religiosity and lower levels of self-reported familiarity with various religious perspectives on sex reported less positive attitudes toward LGBT individuals. Results suggest that personal factors may be important to address in interprofessional curriculum related to LGBT patient care. Self-report biases and other factors may limit the accuracy and generalizability of the findings.
Willis, Anna; Oxenham, Marc F
The purpose of this article is to present new oral health data from Neolithic An Son, southern Vietnam, in the context of (1) a reassessment of published data on other Neolithic, Bronze, and Iron Age Southeast Asian dental series, and (2) predictions of the Neolithic Demographic Transition (NDT). To this end, frequencies for three oral conditions (caries, antemortem tooth loss, and alveolar lesions) were investigated for seven Southeast Asian adult dental series from Thailand and Vietnam with respect to time period, age-at-death and sex. A clear pattern of elevated rates for oral disease in the Neolithic followed by a marked improvement in oral health during the Bronze and Iron Ages was observed. Moreover, rates of caries and antemortem tooth loss for females were almost without exception higher than that for males in all samples. The consensus view among Southeast Asian bioarchaeologists that oral health did not decline with the adoption/intensification of agriculture in Southeast Asia, can no longer be supported. In light of evidence for (1) the low cariogenicity of rice; (2) the physiological predisposition of females (particularly when pregnant) to poorer oral health; and (3) health predictions of the NDT model with respect to elevated levels of fertility, the most plausible chief explanation for the observed patterns in oral health in Southeast Asia is increased levels of fertility during the Neolithic, followed by a decline in fertility during the subsequent Bronze and Iron Ages.
Myrick, Jessica Gall; Willoughby, Jessica Fitts
This study combined conceptual frameworks from health information seeking, appraisal theory of emotions, and social determinants of health literatures to examine how emotional states and education predict online health information seeking. Nationally representative data from the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS 4, Cycle 3) were used to test the roles of education, anxiety, anger, sadness, hope, happiness, and an education by anxiety interaction in predicting online health information seeking. Results suggest that women, tablet owners, smartphone owners, the college educated, those who are sad some or all of the time, and those who are anxious most of the time were significantly more likely to seek online health information. Conversely, being angry all of the time decreased the likelihood of seeking. Furthermore, two significant interactions emerged between anxiety and education levels. Discrete psychological states and demographic factors (gender and education) individually and jointly impact information seeking tendencies.
Conceicao, Simone C. O.; Colby, Holly; Juhlmann, Anne; Johaningsmeir, Sarah
While health care providers are knowledgeable of health conditions and of the information patients need to make appropriate health decisions and follow health providers' recommendations, they lack information about adult teaching and learning and appropriate curriculum design. Adult educators can contribute more sophisticated skills in program…
Ikeoluwapo O. Ajayi
Full Text Available A cross sectional study was conducted in Primary Health Centers among pregnant women to elucidate adequacy of antenatal care across different socio demographic variables. Four hundred respondents were proportionately selected from 18 primary health centers using simple random sampling. Exit interviews were conducted using the adapted antenatal care exit interview form of the Safe Motherhood Needs Assessment package. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and Chi square test. Adequacy of antenatal care in this study was measured by the single adequacy indicators which are duration of pregnancy at entry into antenatal care and number of antenatal visits; which are particularly suitable for developing countries. Age of respondents, means of transportation to the PHCs, occupation, location and level of education of the respondents were found to be determinants of whether the pregnant women attended their first antenatal visit in the first trimester, similarly, age of the respondents was a predictor of whether the women made up to four antenatal visits by their third trimester. Occupation and level of education were determinants of whether or not the pregnant women made their first antenatal visits at the first trimester. More respondents who were not working and those who were unskilled workers made their first antenatal visit at the first trimester compared to those who were skilled workers; work place policies and the fact that antenatal booking are made on weekdays and at work hours may hinder or be discouraging to the working class mothers.
Green, Mark A; Little, Emma; Cooper, Richard; Relton, Clare; Strong, Mark
Objectives Prescribed and over-the-counter (non-prescribed) medicine usage has increased in recent years; however, there has been less investigation of the socioeconomic predictors of use. This has been due to a lack of data, especially for over-the-counter medicines. Our study aims to understand how prescribed and over-the-counter medicine patterns vary by demographic, social and health characteristics within a large population cohort. Design Cross-sectional data analysis. Setting South Yorkshire, UK. Participants 27 806 individuals from wave 1 of the Yorkshire Health Study (2010–2012). Measures Individuals self-reported each medicine they were taking and whether each was prescribed or not. The medicines were grouped into 14 categories (eg, cardiovascular system, infection, contraception). Negative binomial regression models were used to analyse the count of medicine usage. We included demographic (age, gender, ethnicity), social (education), health-related (body mass index, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity) factors and chronic health conditions (eg, stroke, anxiety and heart disease) in our analyses. Results 49% of men and 62% of women were taking medicine with the majority of this prescribed (88% and 83%, respectively). Health conditions were found to be positively associated with prescribed medicine usage, but mixed in their associated with over-the-counter medicines. Educational attainment was negatively associated with prescribed and positively associated with over-the-counter usage. Conclusions Our study addresses a dearth of evidence to provide new insights into how behaviours in medicine usage vary by demographic, social and health-related factors. Differences in over-the-counter medicine usage by educational attainment may help our understanding of the determinants of health inequalities. PMID:27683515
Reuter, Tyson R; Newcomb, Michael E; Whitton, Sarah W; Mustanski, Brian
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is an important public health problem with high prevalence and serious costs. Although literature has largely focused on IPV among heterosexuals, studies have recently begun examining IPV in LGBT samples, with mounting evidence suggesting IPV may be more common among LGBT individuals than heterosexuals. Less research has examined the specific health consequences of IPV in this population, particularly across time and among young people, and it remains unclear whether experiences of IPV differ between subgroups within the LGBT population (e.g. race, gender identity, and sexual orientation). An ethnically diverse sample of 172 LGBT young adults completed self-report measures of IPV, sexual behavior, mental health, and substance abuse at two time points (4- and 5-year follow-up) of an ongoing longitudinal study of LGBT youth. IPV was experienced non-uniformly across demographic groups. Specifically, female, male-to-female transgender, and Black/African-American young adults were at higher risk compared to those who identified as male, female-to-male transgender, and other races. Being a victim of IPV was associated with concurrent sexual risk taking and prospective mental health outcomes but was not associated with substance abuse. Demographic differences in IPV found in heterosexuals were replicated in this LGBT sample, though additional research is needed to clarify why traditional risk factors found in heterosexual young people may not translate to LGBT individuals. Studies examining the impact of IPV on negative outcomes and revictimization over time may guide our understanding of the immediate and delayed consequences of IPV for LGBT young people.
The UK's Minister for Health has again raised the debate about the role of health educators, and in particular that of the Health Education Council, in what is termed public policy work. 1 possible definition of public policy work as regards health education is that aspect that seeks to establish certain health promoting principles as part of the conscious factors always to be considered by individuals, by opinion leaders, by manufacturers, by employers and trade unions, by service providers, by local authorities, and by central government in their plans and decisions. The Health Education Council (HEC) has no power to make or impose public policy; the Department of Health and Social Security (DHSS) has that task. The world of health education providers includes the Health Education Officers working for the Health Authorities and with the Education Authorities, an increasing number of important academic workers in the field, the HEC, the Scottish Health Education Group (SHEG), the DHSS, and some of the members of various professions who provide health education to the public as part of their daily work. Most of the HEC's work consists of providing these people with health educational tools. If the HEC begins to do more in the public policy field, it will not be at the cost of providing health educational tools. At the HEC a staff of 4 liaison workers is responsible for keeping field workers informed about future and imminent HEC work programs. They also assess needs and ideas by holding periodic meetings with Health Education Officers and others in various parts of the country. HEC's efforts have contributed substantially to increasing attention to preventive health measures on the part of the DHSS, parliamentary committees, the Royal Colleges, other professional bodies, and the media. In regard to the future, several paths deserve exploration as part of the HEC's education of decision-makers and opinion-formers. These include: local authorities, relevant
Xu Chen; Berry, Damon; Stephens, Gaye
Computerised identity management is in general encountered as a low-level mechanism that enables users in a particular system or region to securely access resources. In the Electronic Health Record (EHR), the identifying information of both the healthcare professionals who access the EHR and the patients whose EHR is accessed, are subject to change. Demographics services have been developed to manage federated patient and healthcare professional identities and to support challenging healthcare-specific use cases in the presence of diverse and sometimes conflicting demographic identities. Demographics services are not the only use for identities in healthcare. Nevertheless, contemporary EHR specifications limit the types of entities that can be the actor or subject of a record to health professionals and patients, thus limiting the use of two level models in other healthcare information systems. Demographics are ubiquitous in healthcare, so for a general identity model to be usable, it should be capable of managing demographic information. In this paper, we introduce a generalised identity reference model (GIRM) based on key characteristics of five surveyed demographic models. We evaluate the GIRM by using it to express the EN13606 demographics model in an extensible way at the metadata level and show how two-level modelling can support the exchange of instances of demographic identities. This use of the GIRM to express demographics information shows its application for standards-compliant two-level modelling alongside heterogeneous demographics models. We advocate this approach to facilitate the interoperability of identities between two-level model-based EHR systems and show the validity and the extensibility of using GIRM for the expression of other health-related identities.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the socio-demographic characteristics of the eligible population of users of public oral health care services in the Australian state of Victoria, aged 17 years or younger. The study was conducted as a secondary analysis of data collected from July 2008 to June 2009 for 45,728 young clients of public oral health care. The sample mean age was 8.9 (SD: 3.5 years. The majority (82.7% was between 6 and 17 years of age, and 50.3% were males. The majority (76.6% was Australian-born and spoke English at home (89.1%. The overall mean DMFT was 1.0 (SD: 2.1 teeth, with a mean dmft of 3.16 (SD: 5.79 teeth. Data indicate that, among six year olds in the Significant Caries Index (SiC category, the mean dmft was 6.82 teeth. Findings corroborate social inequalities in oral health outcome and provide suggestions for oral health services to develop strategies and priorities to reduce inequalities in health and well-being, and better coordinate and target services to local needs.
Spittlehouse, Janet K; Vierck, Esther; Pearson, John F; Joyce, Peter R
We describe the Temperament and Character Inventory personality traits, demographic features, physical and mental health variables associated with hoarding behaviour in a random community sample of midlife participants in New Zealand. A sample of 404 midlife participants was recruited to a study of ageing. To assess hoarding behaviours participants completed the Savings Inventory-Revised (SI-R), personality was assessed by the Temperament and Character Inventory and self-reported health was measured by the Short Form-36v2 (SF-36v2). Other measures were used to assess socio-demographic variables and current mental disorders. Participants were split into four groups by SI-R total score (scores: 0-4, 5-30, 31-41 and >41). Those who scored >41 on the SI-R were classified as having pathological hoarding. Trend tests were calculated across the four hoarding groups for socio-demographic, personality, mental and physical health variables. SI-R scores ranged from 0 to 58. The prevalence of pathological hoarding was 2.5% and a further 4% reported sub-clinical symptoms of hoarding. Higher hoarding behaviour scores were related to higher Temperament and Character Inventory scores for Harm Avoidance and lower scores for Self-directedness. Persistence and Cooperativeness scores were lower too but to a lesser extent. Trend analysis revealed that those with higher hoarding behaviour scores were more likely to be single, female, unemployed, receive income support, have a lower socio-economic status, lower household income and have poorer self-reported mental health scores. Current depression rates were considerably higher in the pathological hoarding group. Increasing SI-R hoarding behaviour scores were associated with higher scores of negative affect (Harm Avoidance) and lower scores of autonomy (Self-directedness). Those with pathological hoarding or sub-clinical symptoms of hoarding also reported widespread mental and socio-economic problems. In this study it is clear to see the
Janet K. Spittlehouse
Full Text Available We describe the Temperament and Character Inventory personality traits, demographic features, physical and mental health variables associated with hoarding behaviour in a random community sample of midlife participants in New Zealand. A sample of 404 midlife participants was recruited to a study of ageing. To assess hoarding behaviours participants completed the Savings Inventory-Revised (SI-R, personality was assessed by the Temperament and Character Inventory and self-reported health was measured by the Short Form-36v2 (SF-36v2. Other measures were used to assess socio-demographic variables and current mental disorders. Participants were split into four groups by SI-R total score (scores: 0–4, 5–30, 31–41 and >41. Those who scored >41 on the SI-R were classified as having pathological hoarding. Trend tests were calculated across the four hoarding groups for socio-demographic, personality, mental and physical health variables. SI-R scores ranged from 0 to 58. The prevalence of pathological hoarding was 2.5% and a further 4% reported sub-clinical symptoms of hoarding. Higher hoarding behaviour scores were related to higher Temperament and Character Inventory scores for Harm Avoidance and lower scores for Self-directedness. Persistence and Cooperativeness scores were lower too but to a lesser extent. Trend analysis revealed that those with higher hoarding behaviour scores were more likely to be single, female, unemployed, receive income support, have a lower socio-economic status, lower household income and have poorer self-reported mental health scores. Current depression rates were considerably higher in the pathological hoarding group. Increasing SI-R hoarding behaviour scores were associated with higher scores of negative affect (Harm Avoidance and lower scores of autonomy (Self-directedness. Those with pathological hoarding or sub-clinical symptoms of hoarding also reported widespread mental and socio-economic problems. In this study
House ownership, frequency of illness, fathers' education: the most significant socio-demographic determinants of poor nutritional status in adolescent girls from low income households of Lahore, Pakistan.
Hassan, Fatima; Asim, Muhammad; Salim, Shafya; Humayun, Ayesha
Socio demographic factors besides dietary factors play important role in determining the health status of an individual. Health and nutritional Intervention programs stand a greater chance of success if planned, keeping the socio demographic characteristics of a certain population in focus. The present study was conducted to identify those socio demographic determinants which have a significant association with poor nutritional status in adolescent girls belonging to economically deprived households of Lahore. A cross-sectional analytical study of 140 adolescent girls living in the peri urban communities of Lahore was conducted. Socioeconomic and demographic data of the participants was recorded through a pretested questionnaire. Body mass index (BMI), a commonly used anthropometric measurement was taken as an indicator of nutritional status. Below normal (socio demographic variables were calculated and Fisher Exact test was used to find out the association of nutritional status with socio-demographic predictors. Stepwise backward logistic regression analysis was then run to identify the most significant determinants associated with poor nutritional status in the adolescents. P food insecure (AOR = 0.431; 95% CI = 0.164 to 1.133) had lesser odds of having poor nutritional status than those who lived in nuclear families and were food secure. Frequency of illness, house ownership and fathers' education are the determinants positively associated with poor nutritional status of adolescent girls. Food insecurity and joint family structure were negatively associated with poor nutritional status. The study will help in planning interventions for improving nutritional status of adolescent girls by targeting the significant socio demographic determinants of poor nutritional status among this group.
Lorence, Daniel P; Park, Heeyoung; Fox, Susannah
The growing diversity of the online health information community is increasingly cited as a limiting factor related to the potential of the Internet as an effective health communication channel and information resource. Public-access Internet portals and decreasing costs of personal computers have created a consensus that unequal access to information, or a "Digital Divide," presents a like problem specific to health care consumers. Access to information, however, is an essential part of the consumer-centric framework outlined in the recently proposed U.S. National Health Information Infrastructure (NHII) and Health Architecture initiatives. To date little research has been done to differentiate the types of health information sought on the Web by different subgroups, linking user characteristics and health-seeking behaviors. Data from a study of consumer Web search activity in a post-intervention era serves as a natural experiment, and can identify whether a "digitally underserved group" persists in the United States. Such an environment would serve to exclude traditionally underserved groups from the benefits of the planned national heath information infrastructure. This exploratory technology assessment study seeks to differentiate and delineate specific behaviors, or lack of desired behaviors, across targeted health care subgroups. Doing so allows the design of more effective strategies to promote the use of the Web as a health education and health promotion tool, under the envisioned shared decision-making, consumer-centric health information model.
Parro Moreno, Ana; Serrano Gallardo, Pilar; Ferrer Arnedo, Carmen; Serrano Molina, Lucía; de la Puerta Calatayud, M Luisa; Barberá Martín, Aurora; Morales Asencio, José Miguel; de Pedro Gómez, Joan
To analyze the perception of nursing professionals of the Madrid Primary Health Care environment in which they practice, as well as its relationship with socio-demographic, work-related and professional factors. Cross-sectional, analytical, observational study. Questionnaire sent to a total of 475 nurses in Primary Health Care in Madrid (former Health Care Areas 6 and 9), in 2010. Perception of the practice environment using the Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index (PES-NWI) questionnaire, as well as; age; sex; years of professional experience; professional category; Health Care Area; employment status and education level. There was a response rate of 69.7% (331). The raw score for the PES-NWI was: 81.04 [95%CI: 79.18-82.91]. The factor with the highest score was "Support from Managers" (2.9 [95%CI: 2.8-3]) and the lowest "Workforce adequacy" (2.3 [95%CI: 2.2-2.4]). In the regression model (dependent variable: raw score in PES-NWI), adjusted by age, sex, employment status, professional category (coefficient B=6.586), and years worked at the centre (coefficient B=2.139, for a time of 0-2 years; coefficient B=7.482, for 3-10 years; coefficient B=7.867, for over 20 years) remained at p≤0.05. The support provided by nurse managers is the most highly valued factor in this practice environment, while workforce adequacy is perceived as the lowest. Nurses in posts of responsibility and those possessing a higher degree of training perceive their practice environment more favourably. Knowledge of the factors in the practice environment is a key element for health care organizations to optimize provision of care and to improve health care results. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.
Clonan, Angie; Roberts, Katharine E; Holdsworth, Michelle
Red and processed meat (RPM) intake varies widely globally. In some high-income countries (HIC) the last decade has witnessed an overall decline or stabilisation in the consumption of RPM, in contrast to emerging economies where its consumption continues to increase with rising income and rapid urbanisation. The production and consumption of RPM have become major concerns regarding the environmental impacts of livestock in particular, but also because of associations between high RPM consumption and diet-related non-communicable disease. Therefore, it is important to identify socioeconomic and demographic drivers of the consumption of RPM. This paper explores how consumption of RPM differs with age, gender, socioeconomic status and in different global contexts. There are some key socioeconomic and demographic patterns in RPM consumption. Men tend to consume RPM more often and in higher quantities, and there is evidence of a social gradient in HIC, with lower socioeconomic groups consuming RPM more often and in larger quantities. Patterns for consumption with age are less clear cut. It is apparent that consumers in HIC are still consuming high levels of RPM, although the downward shifts in some socioeconomic and demographic groups is encouraging and suggests that strategies could be developed to engage those consumers identified as high RPM consumers. In low- and middle-income countries, RPM consumption is rising, especially in China and Brazil, and in urban areas. Ways of encouraging populations to maintain their traditional healthy eating patterns need to be found in low- and middle-income countries, which will have health, environmental and economic co-benefits.
Weiler-Timmins, Rebecca A.
This qualitative study used narrative inquiry to explore how lesbian health educators navigate authenticity in a heteronormative higher education setting. The study was grounded in a lesbian standpoint pedagogical viewpoint, which provided a lens with which to view the nine participants' experiences. Of particular interest was how the educators in…
Yiengprugsawan, Vasoontara; Somboonsook, Boonchai; Seubsman, Sam-Ang; Sleigh, Adrian C
Research on happiness has been of interest in many parts of the world. Here we provide evidence from developing countries; this is the first analysis of happiness among a cohort of Thai distance learning adults residing throughout the country (n = 60,569 in 2009). To measure happiness, we tested use of the short format Thai Mental Health Indicators (TMHI), correlating each domain with two direct measures of happiness and life satisfaction. Several TMHI domains correlated strongly with happiness. We found the mental state and the social support domains moderately or strongly correlated with happiness by either measure (correlation coefficients 0.24-0.56). The other two TMHI domains (mental capacity and mental quality) were not correlated with happiness. Analysis of socio-demographic attributes and happiness revealed little effect of age and sex but marital status (divorced or widowed), low household income, and no paid work all had strong adverse effects. Our findings provide Thai benchmarks for measuring happiness and associated socio-demographic attributes. We also provide evidence that the TMHI can measure happiness in the Thai population. Furthermore, the results among Thai cohort members can be monitored over time and could be useful for comparison with other Southeast Asian countries.
Bentley, Melissa A; Shoben, Abigail; Levine, Roger
The objectives of this study were to assess longitudinal and cross-sectional changes in Emergency Medical Technician (EMT)-Basics and Paramedics: (1) demographics, (2) employment characteristics, and (3) initial Emergency Medical Services (EMS) education. These data were collected between 1999 and 2008 employing survey techniques aimed at collecting valid data. A random, stratified sample was utilized to allow results to be generalizable to the nationally certified EMS population. Survey weights that were adjusted for each stratum's response were estimated. Weighted percentages, averages for continuous variables, and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Significant changes over time were noted when the CIs did not overlap. In all 10 years of data collection, the proportion of EMT-Paramedics who were male was greater than the proportion of EMT-Basics who were male. A substantial proportion of respondents performed EMS services for more than one agency: between 39.8% and 43.5% of EMT-Paramedics and 18.4% and 22.4% of EMT-Basic respondents reported this. The most common type of employer for both EMT-Basics and EMT-Paramedics was fire-based organizations. About one-third of EMT-Basics (32.3%-40.1%) and almost one-half of EMT-Paramedics (43.1%-45.3%) reported that these organizations were their main EMS employer. Rural areas (education changes over time. Bentley MA , Shoben A , Levine R . The demographics and education of Emergency Medical Services (EMS) professionals: a national longitudinal investigation. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2016;31(Suppl. 1):s18-s29.
Behar-Horenstein, Linda S.; Hudson-Vassell, Michael; Hudson-Vassell, Charisse N.; Garvan, Cynthia W.
Using critical lenses, this study examined the predictive value added of curriculum-based assessment (CBA), with socio-demographic and educational variables on the mathematics portion of Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT). Gender, race, socio-economic status, and exceptional student education (ESE) were compared in a de-identified post…
National Indian Child Abuse and Neglect Resource Center, Tulsa, OK.
The second in a series on parenting education for American Indians, the booklet offers information on health and hygiene for the mother-to-be and the newborn baby. Chapters include care during pregnancy, mother's weight, mother's health, feeding newborns, washing the baby, baby's early diet, and baby's health care. (ERB)
Full Text Available Background: There are more than 40 Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS sites in 19 different countries. The running costs of HDSS sites are high. The financing of HDSS activities is of major importance, and adding external health surveys to the HDSS is challenging. To investigate the ways of improving data quality and collection efficiency in the Nouna HDSS in Burkina Faso, the stand-alone data collection activities of the HDSS and the Household Morbidity Survey (HMS were integrated, and the paper-based questionnaires were consolidated into a single tablet-based questionnaire, the Comprehensive Disease Assessment (CDA. Objective: The aims of this study are to estimate and compare the implementation costs of the two different survey approaches for measuring population health. Design: All financial costs of stand-alone (HDSS and HMS and integrated (CDA surveys were estimated from the perspective of the implementing agency. Fixed and variable costs of survey implementation and key cost drivers were identified. The costs per household visit were calculated for both survey approaches. Results: While fixed costs of survey implementation were similar for the two survey approaches, there were considerable variations in variable costs, resulting in an estimated annual cost saving of about US$45,000 under the integrated survey approach. This was primarily because the costs of data management for the tablet-based CDA survey were considerably lower than for the paper-based stand-alone surveys. The cost per household visit from the integrated survey approach was US$21 compared with US$25 from the stand-alone surveys for collecting the same amount of information from 10,000 HDSS households. Conclusions: The CDA tablet-based survey method appears to be feasible and efficient for collecting health and demographic data in the Nouna HDSS in rural Burkina Faso. The possibility of using the tablet-based data collection platform to improve the quality
Burkhart, B.R.; Merrill, D.W. (eds.)
Spatial data files covering energy, environmental, socio-economic, health, and demographic themes are described. Descriptions provide data dates, abstracts, geographic coverage, documentation, original data source, availability limitations, and contact person. A current version of this document is maintained as part of the Socio-Economic-Environmental-Demographic Information System (SEEDIS) within the Computer Science and Applied Mathematics Department, and is available for on-line retrieval using the Virginia Sventek, (415) 486-5216 or (FTS) 451-5216 for further information.
Tunçbilek, E; Unalan, T; Coşkun, T
The Turkish Demographic and Health Survey (TDHS), conducted in 1993, provided data on the magnitude of malnutrition in a sample of 3152 preschool children from five geographical regions, and on its causal and conditioning factors. Stunting was found to be the dominant form of malnutrition (21 per cent). Altogether 10 per cent of children were underweight and 3 per cent were wasted. There were urban-rural (16 v. 27 per cent, P rank of children, birth spacing, number of children in an individual family, family size, and mother's welfare and hygiene indices. The need for an intersectoral approach for the development of remedial programs to reduce the effect of these factors and for periodic assessment of nutritional status of preschool children is stressed.
In the United States parents in the typical home-schooling family are well educated, live in small towns or rural areas, and are in professional or skilled occupations. They are motivated by religion, quality of socialization, quality of education, or an alternative life-style. (JOW)
Since 1976 health education has been incorporated in most school programmes at various levels, from the kindergarten (3 years) to the end of high school (16 years). In kindergarten and at primary level health education belongs to a series of activities called d'éveil meant to sharpen the interest of the child in the social, cultural and artistic fields. At secondary level, health education, though not an autonomous discipline, is usually incorporated in courses of natural sciences or biology. There are also specific health education activities when an entire form spends a month by the sea shore or in the mountains. To help teachers in their task the French Committee for Health Education produces every year teaching material specially conceived for different age groups. The main subjects dealt with concern oral health, the prevention of home accidents, nutrition, smoking control and the promotion of health. The various activities of the French Committee for Health Education have revealed new needs which concern the training of teachers, change in mentality and improved coordination.
Khan, M Asaduzzaman
To assess the knowledge on acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) among female adolescents in Bangladesh, this study used data extracted from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS) 1996-1997. Of 1,446 ever-married women included in the study, most were currently married (96%), Muslims (92%) and from rural areas (91%). Only one in six adolescents had ever heard of AIDS. Of them, 57% reported AIDS as a fatal disease almost always, while only 22% believed that AIDS could be avoided. Multivariate analysis revealed that knowledge on AIDS was strongly and positively associated with education of female adolescents and their husbands and varied significantly across different parts of the country. Knowledge on AIDS was higher among relatively older and urban residents who had access to television or radio and whose husbands were using condom. Strong efforts are needed to improve awareness and to clarify misconceptions about AIDS. Improved access to education, mass-media, and promotion of condom use could prevent AIDS among female adolescents in Bangladesh.
Parwej, Saroj; Kumar, Rajesh; Walia, Indarjeet; Aggarwal, Arun K
To measure the effectiveness of a reproductive health education package in improving the knowledge of adolescent girls aged 15-19 years in Chandigarh (India). A reproductive health education package, developed in consultation with parents, teachers and adolescents, was delivered to randomly sampled classes of two senior secondary schools and one school was selected as control. In one school, a nurse conducted 15 sessions for 94 students in three batches using conventional education approach. In another school she conducted sessions for a selected group of 20 adolescents who later disseminated the messages informally to their 84 classmates (peer education). Using a 70-item structured questionnaire the knowledge of 95 adolescents from conventional, 84 from peer, and 94 from control school were assessed before and one month after the last session. Change in the score in intervention and control groups was tested by ANOVA taking age and socio-economic status as covariates. Teachers, parents and students overwhelmingly (88%, 95.5% and 93% respectively) favoured reproductive health education program. Five percent of the respondents reported that someone in their class is having sexual relations, and 13% of the girls approved of pre-marital sexual relations. Reproductive health knowledge scores improved significantly after intervention in conventional education (27.28) and peer education group (20.77) in comparison to the controls (3.64). Post-test scores were not significantly different between peer education group and conventional education group (43.65 and 40.52 respectively) though the time consumed in delivering the peer education intervention was almost one third of the time taken to implement conventional education. Peer education and conventional education strategies were effective in improving the reproductive health knowledge of adolescent girls but peer strategy was less time consuming.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Cognitive impairment is an age-related condition as the rate of cognitive decline rapidly increases with aging. It is especially important to better understand factors involving in cognitive decline for the countries where the older population is growing rapidly. The aim of this study was to examine the association between socio-demographic and health-related factors and cognitive impairment in the elderly in Taiwan. Methods We analysed data from 2119 persons aged 65 years and over who participated in the 2005 National Health Interview Survey. Cognitive impairment was defined as having the score of the Mini Mental State Examination lower than 24. The χ2 test and multiple logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association between cognitive impairment and variables of socio-demography, chronic diseases, geriatric conditions, lifestyle, and dietary factors. Results The prevalence of cognitive impairment was 22.2%. Results of multivariate analysis indicated that low education, being single, low social support, lower lipid level, history of stroke, physical inactivity, non-coffee drinking and poor physical function were associated with a higher risk of cognitive impairment. Conclusion Most of the characteristics in relation to cognitive impairment identified in our analysis are potentially modifiable. These results suggest that improving lifestyle behaviours such as regular exercise and increased social participation could help prevent or decrease the risk of cognitive impairment. Further investigations using longitudinal data are needed to clarify our findings.
Full Text Available Saritha P Viswan,1 T K Sundari Ravindran,1,2 Ngianga-Bakwin Kandala,1,3,4 Max G Petzold,1,5 Sharon Fonn1 1School of Public Health, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; 2Achutha Menon Centre for Health Science Studies, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Trivandrum, Kerala, India; 3Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; 4Department of Mathematics, Physics and Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Environment, Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK; 5Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden Context: The persistent low contraceptive use and high fertility in Nigeria despite improvements in educational achievements calls for an examination of the role of factors, which may moderate the use of modern contraception. This article explores the influence of sexual autonomy on the use of modern contraceptive methods among women and its relative importance compared with other, more traditional, indicators of women’s autonomy such as education and occupation.Data and methods: Data from two Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS, 2008 and 2013, were used in this study. An index of sexual autonomy was constructed by combining related DHS variables, and its association with current use of modern contraception was examined at each time point as well as over time using multivariate regression analysis.Results: The observed prevalence for use of modern contraception was 2.8 and 2.6 times higher among women who had high sexual autonomy in 2008 and 2013, respectively. The corresponding figures for women with secondary or higher education were 8.2 and 11.8 times higher, respectively, compared with women with no education. But after controlling for wealth index, religion, place of residence, autonomy and experience of intimate partner violence (IPV
Full Text Available Background: Uterine prolapse (UP is a reproductive health problem and public health issue in low-income countries including Nepal. Objective: We aimed to identify the contributing factors and stages of UP and its impact on quality of life in the Jhaukhel–Duwakot Health Demographic Surveillance Site of Bhaktapur, Nepal. Design: Our three-phase study used descriptive cross-sectional analysis to assess quality of life and stages of UP and case–control analysis to identify contributing factors. First, a household survey explored the prevalence of self-reported UP (Phase 1. Second, we used a standardized tool in a 5-day screening camp to determine quality of life among UP-affected women (Phase 2. Finally, a 1-month community survey traced self-reported cases from Phase 1 (Phase 3. To validate UP diagnoses, we reviewed participants’ clinical records, and we used screening camp records to trace women without UP. Results: Among 48 affected women in Phase 1, 32 had Stage II UP and 16 had either Stage I or Stage III UP. Compared with Stage I women (4.62%, almost all women with Stage III UP reported reduced quality of life. Decreased quality of life correlated significantly with Stages I–III. Self-reported UP prevalence (8.7% included all treated and non-treated cases. In Phase 3, 277 of 402 respondents reported being affected by UP and 125 were unaffected. The odds of having UP were threefold higher among illiterate women compared with literate women (OR=3.02, 95% CI 1.76–5.17, 50% lower among women from nuclear families compared with extended families (OR=0.56, 95% CI 0.35–0.90 and lower among women with 1–2 parity compared to >5 parity (OR=0.33, 95% CI 0.14–0.75. Conclusions: The stages of UP correlated with quality of life resulting from varied perceptions regarding physical health, emotional stress, and social limitation. Parity, education, age, and family type associated with UP. Our results suggest the importance of developing
Shrestha, Binjwala; Onta, Sharad; Choulagai, Bishnu; Paudel, Rajan; Petzold, Max; Krettek, Alexandra
Background Uterine prolapse (UP) is a reproductive health problem and public health issue in low-income countries including Nepal. Objective We aimed to identify the contributing factors and stages of UP and its impact on quality of life in the Jhaukhel–Duwakot Health Demographic Surveillance Site of Bhaktapur, Nepal. Design Our three-phase study used descriptive cross-sectional analysis to assess quality of life and stages of UP and case–control analysis to identify contributing factors. First, a household survey explored the prevalence of self-reported UP (Phase 1). Second, we used a standardized tool in a 5-day screening camp to determine quality of life among UP-affected women (Phase 2). Finally, a 1-month community survey traced self-reported cases from Phase 1 (Phase 3). To validate UP diagnoses, we reviewed participants’ clinical records, and we used screening camp records to trace women without UP. Results Among 48 affected women in Phase 1, 32 had Stage II UP and 16 had either Stage I or Stage III UP. Compared with Stage I women (4.62%), almost all women with Stage III UP reported reduced quality of life. Decreased quality of life correlated significantly with Stages I–III. Self-reported UP prevalence (8.7%) included all treated and non-treated cases. In Phase 3, 277 of 402 respondents reported being affected by UP and 125 were unaffected. The odds of having UP were threefold higher among illiterate women compared with literate women (OR=3.02, 95% CI 1.76–5.17), 50% lower among women from nuclear families compared with extended families (OR=0.56, 95% CI 0.35–0.90) and lower among women with 1–2 parity compared to >5 parity (OR=0.33, 95% CI 0.14–0.75). Conclusions The stages of UP correlated with quality of life resulting from varied perceptions regarding physical health, emotional stress, and social limitation. Parity, education, age, and family type associated with UP. Our results suggest the importance of developing policies and programs
Shrestha, Binjwala; Onta, Sharad; Choulagai, Bishnu; Paudel, Rajan; Petzold, Max; Krettek, Alexandra
Uterine prolapse (UP) is a reproductive health problem and public health issue in low-income countries including Nepal. We aimed to identify the contributing factors and stages of UP and its impact on quality of life in the Jhaukhel-Duwakot Health Demographic Surveillance Site of Bhaktapur, Nepal. Our three-phase study used descriptive cross-sectional analysis to assess quality of life and stages of UP and case-control analysis to identify contributing factors. First, a household survey explored the prevalence of self-reported UP (Phase 1). Second, we used a standardized tool in a 5-day screening camp to determine quality of life among UP-affected women (Phase 2). Finally, a 1-month community survey traced self-reported cases from Phase 1 (Phase 3). To validate UP diagnoses, we reviewed participants' clinical records, and we used screening camp records to trace women without UP. Among 48 affected women in Phase 1, 32 had Stage II UP and 16 had either Stage I or Stage III UP. Compared with Stage I women (4.62%), almost all women with Stage III UP reported reduced quality of life. Decreased quality of life correlated significantly with Stages I-III. Self-reported UP prevalence (8.7%) included all treated and non-treated cases. In Phase 3, 277 of 402 respondents reported being affected by UP and 125 were unaffected. The odds of having UP were threefold higher among illiterate women compared with literate women (OR=3.02, 95% CI 1.76-5.17), 50% lower among women from nuclear families compared with extended families (OR=0.56, 95% CI 0.35-0.90) and lower among women with 1-2 parity compared to >5 parity (OR=0.33, 95% CI 0.14-0.75). The stages of UP correlated with quality of life resulting from varied perceptions regarding physical health, emotional stress, and social limitation. Parity, education, age, and family type associated with UP. Our results suggest the importance of developing policies and programs that are focused on early health care for UP. Through family
... Babysitting courses for teens Exercise classes like yoga, tai chi, qigong, Zumba, Pilates, dance, or strength training Weight- ... blood pressure and other health screenings Giveaways like stress balls Health risk surveys Your hospital may sponsor ...
Poster presented at International Conference "Communicating for Social Change: Lessons learnt from public health", Glocal NOMAD, Aidsnet (The Danish NGO Network on AIDS and Development), ADRA Denmark and Enreca Health. Copenhagen: Copenhagen University, May 4., 2010,Denmark....
Wilunda, Calistus; Massawe, Siriel; Jackson, Caroline
To identify determinants of moderate-to-severe anaemia among women of reproductive age in Tanzania. We included participants from the 2010 Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey, which collected data on socio-demographic and maternal health and determined haemoglobin levels from blood samples. We performed logistic regression to calculate adjusted odds ratios for associations between socio-demographic, contextual, reproductive and lifestyle factors, and moderate-to-severe anaemia and investigated interactions between certain risk factors. Of 9477 women, 20.1% were anaemic. Pregnancy was significantly associated with anaemia (adjusted OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.43-2.15), but the effect varied significantly by urban/rural residence, wealth and education. The effect of pregnancy was stronger in women without education and those who were in lower wealth groups, with significant interactions observed for each of these factors. Education was associated with a lower anaemia risk, particularly in the poorest group (OR 0.58, 95% CI 0.43-0.80), and in pregnant women. The risk of anaemia fell with rising iron supplementation coverage. Lack of toilet facilities increased anaemia risk (OR 1.26, 95% CI 1.00-1.60), whereas using hormonal contraception reduced it. There was no association with age, urban/rural residence, wealth or type of cooking fuel in adjusted analysis. Pregnant women in Tanzania are particularly at risk of moderate-to-severe anaemia, with the effect modified by urban/rural residence, education and wealth. Prevention interventions should target women with lower education or without proper sanitation facilities, and women who are pregnant, particularly if they are uneducated or in lower wealth groups. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Kismul, Hallgeir; Acharya, Pawan; Mapatano, Mala Ali; Hatløy, Anne
Prevalence of child stunting in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) is among the highest in the world. There is a need to systematically investigate how stunting operates at different levels of determination and identify major factors contributing to the development of stunting. The aim of this study was to look for key determinants of stunting in the DRC. This study used data from the DRC Demographic Health Survey 2013-14 which included anthropometric measurement for 9030 under 5 year children. Height-for-Age Z score was calculated and classified according to the WHO guideline. The association between stunting and bio-demographic characteristics was assessed using logistic regression. Prevalence of stunting was much higher in boys than girls. There was a significant rural urban gap in the prevalence of stunting with rural areas having a larger proportion of children living with stunting than urban. Male children, older than 6 months, preceding birth interval less than 24 months, being from lower wealth quintiles had the highest odds of stunting. Several provinces had in particular high odds of stunting. Early initiation of breastfeeding, mother's age more than 20 years at the time of delivery had lower odds of stunting. The taller the mother the less likely the child was to be stunted. Similarly, mother's BMI, access to safe water, access to hygienic toilet, mother's education were found negatively correlated with child stunting in the bivariate logistic regression, but they lost statistical significance in multivariate analysis together with numbers of children in the family and place of residence. Child stunting is widespread in the DRC and increasing prevalence is worrisome. This study has identified modifiable factors determining high prevalence of stunting in the DRC. Policy implementation should in particular target provinces with high prevalence of stunting and address modifiable determinants such as reducing socioeconomic disparity. Nutrition
Júlia Lamese Amaral
Full Text Available Objective: to describe socio-demographic and economic characteristics, lifestyle, clinical manifestations, use of medications and monitoring of adults with sickle-cell disease. Methods: a descriptive study with quantitative approach, made with 20 adults, registered in a Hematology and Hemotherapy Center, using, for data collection, interviews in the participant’s home and medical records. In order to have the database, the EpiDatae analysis software through statistical program was used. Results: most of the population consisted of women, married, with complete high school, which used exclusively the Unified Health System. The average age was 30.6 years, and 90.0% (95% CI 68.3-98.8 were black. All of them reported painful crises and fatigue. They used folic acid daily 35.0% (95% CI 15.4-59.2. Conclusion: the implications of sickle-cell disease could be mitigated through primary, secondary and tertiary health care, according to the needs of those adults.
Full Text Available Background/Objective India observe double burden of fertility – childlessness along with high fertility, which brings it close to a developed country. Childlessness has serious demographic, social and health implications. We explored spatial variation of childlessness women in India along with several socio-economic and demographic correlates. Further we examined maternal and reproductive health problems among childless women and linkages between marital breakdown (divorce and childlessness, in comparison to fertile women. Methods Cross-sectional data from 27,505 currently married women, aged 21-49 years, who were interviewed in 1998-99 National Family Health Survey (NFHS-2. These women had been filtered out from all India samples (90,303 based on criteria such as, age more than 20 years, currently not using any family planning methods, marital duration more than 3 years and staying with their husband. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the prevalence odds ratios for childlessness, adjusting for various covariates. Results Overall, 7% of currently married women in India were childless. Southern (10.9 and Western (10.7 region shows highest percentage of childless women while central region exhibits lowest (4.7% percentage of childlessness. Andhra Pradesh state shows highest percent of childless women (13.3% followed by Goa (11.8%. Women with high school complete and above education (OR:1.16;p=0.053, women belonging to other religion (OR:1.51;p=0.004, women belonging to other (general caste (OR:1.20;p=0.007, women belonging to higher standard of living households (OR:1.30;p<0.0001, currently not working women (OR:1.42;p<0.0001, spousal age gap of 15 years and above (OR:1.55;p<0.0001 were more likely to be childless whereas women in rural area (OR:0.53;p<0.0001 and Muslims women (OR:0.53;p<0.0001 were almost half likely to be childless than their counterparts. Maternal health problems, self reported reproductive health
Full Text Available This study describes the content of entrepreneurship education in health care education and the kinds of teaching methods that are used when teaching about entrepreneurship. Health care entrepreneurship has increased in many countries in recent decades and there is evidence that entrepreneurs have also a role in public health care. Therefore the health care professionals need to be educated to have the entrepreneurial skills. Education in the field of health care is still based on traditional forms of teaching and does not give enough attention to the issue of becoming an entrepreneur. The data was collected from teachers (n=111 via e-mail from six Finnish polytechnics. The data were analysed statistically and the open-ended questions were analysed via content analysis. Approximately 23% of the teachers had taught about entrepreneurship. The most popular teaching methods were company visits and cases, lecturing, and project work. The courses dealt with establishing a company, entrepreneurship in general, and marketing. Nearly all of the teachers had cooperated with the entrepreneurs or with the companies in question. Approximately 33% of the teachers took entrepreneurship into consideration often in other courses related to entrepreneurship.
Baker, Vicki D.; Cohen, Nicki
The purpose of this study was to describe the university vocal training and vocal health of music educators and music therapists. The participants (N = 426), music educators (n = 351) and music therapists (n = 75), completed a survey addressing demographics, vocal training, voice usage, and vocal health. Both groups reported singing at least 50%…
M Den Uyl; M Dijkstra; NK De Vries; Jolien van der Geugten; prof Berno van Meijel
There have been few assessments of sexual and reproductive health (SRH) education programmes in sub-Saharan Africa from the students’ and educators’ perspective. This study examined students’ opinions on an SRH programme in northern Ghana and explored the facilitators and barriers for educators
Heidkamp, Rebecca A; Ayoya, Mohamed Ag; Teta, Ismael Ngnie; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J; Marhone, Joseline Pierre
The Haitian National Nutrition Policy identifies the promotion of optimal complementary feeding (CF) practices as a priority action to prevent childhood malnutrition. We analysed data from the nationally representative 2005-2006 Haiti Demographic Health Survey using the World Health Organization 2008 infant and young child feeding indicators to describe feeding practices among children aged 6-23 months and thus inform policy and programme planning. Multivariate regression analyses were used to identify the determinants of CF practices and to examine their association with child growth outcomes. Overall, 87.3% of 6-8-month-olds received soft, solid or semi-solid foods in the previous 24 h. Minimum dietary diversity (MDD), minimum meal frequency (MMF) and minimum acceptable diet (MAD) were achieved in 29.2%, 45.3% and 17.1% of children aged 6-23 months, respectively. Non-breastfed children were more likely to achieve MDD than breastfed children of the same age (37.3% vs. 25.8%; P < 0.001). The proportion of children achieving MMF varied significantly by age (P < 0.001). Children with overweight mothers were more likely to achieve MDD, MMF and MAD [odds ratio (OR) 2.08, P = 0.012; OR 1.81, P = 0.02; and OR 2.4, P = 0.01, respectively] than children of normal weight mothers. Odds of achieving MDD and MMF increased with household wealth. Among mothers with secondary or more education, achieving MDD or MAD was significantly associated with lower mean weight-for-age z-score and height-for-age z-score (P-value <0.05 for infants and young child feeding indicator × maternal education interaction). CF practices were mostly inadequate and contributed to growth faltering among Haitian children 6-23 months old.
Sue C. Grady
Full Text Available Under-five child mortality declined 47% since 2000 following the implementation of the United Nation’s (UN Millennium Development Goals. To further reduce under-five child mortality, the UN’s Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs will focus on interventions to address neonatal mortality, a major contributor of under-five mortality. The African region has the highest neonatal mortality rate (28.0 per 1000 live births, followed by that of the Eastern Mediterranean (26.6 and South-East Asia (24.3. This study used the Demographic and Health Survey Birth Recode data (http://dhsprogram.com/data/File-Types-and-Names.cfm to identify high-risk districts and countries for neonatal mortality in two sub-regions of Africa – East Africa and West Africa. Geographically weighted Poisson regression models were estimated to capture the spatially varying relationships between neonatal mortality and dimensions of potential need i care around the time of delivery, ii maternal education, and iii women’s empowerment. In East Africa, neonatal mortality was significantly associated with home births, mothers without an education and mothers whose husbands decided on contraceptive practices, controlling for rural residency. In West Africa, neonatal mortality was also significantly associated with home births, mothers with a primary education and mothers who did not want or plan their last child. Importantly, neonatal mortality associated with home deliveries were explained by maternal exposure to unprotected water sources in East Africa and older maternal age and female sex of infants in West Africa. Future SDG-interventions may target these dimensions of need in priority high-risk districts and countries, to further reduce the burden of neonatal mortality in Africa.
Distance Education: Growth in Distance Education Programs and Implications for Federal Education Policy. Testimony before the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions, U.S. Senate. Statement of Cornelia M. Ashby, Director, Education, Workforce, and Income Security Issues.
General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.
Data from the National Postsecondary Student Aid Study (NPSAS) supported testimony given before the Senate Committee on Health, Education, Labor and Pensions. The testimony focused on four factors: (1) demographic characteristics of distance education students and institutional characteristics of postsecondary schools offering distance education;…
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction For nearly three decades, the two neighboring countries of Iran and Pakistan hosted millions of Afghans. Today, Afghans still represent the largest group of refugees in the world. This feature has greatly influenced provision of health care for this population. Due to a paucity of research on the health status of Afghan refugees in Iran, this study aim to make a vista on the pattern of different common diseases among Afghan refugees in Iran and use it as an index for performance evaluation of future health services to them. Methods This is a retrospective cross sectional study, in which we collected the demographic and medical data between 2005 and 2010 from referrals to the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR offices in Iran. We also considered a comparative review of the burden of disease estimates by the World Health Organization (WHO for Afghanistan and Iran. Results Total numbers of referrals were 23,152 with 52.6% Female and 47.66% male. 29% were 0–14 years of age, 54% were 15–59, and 17% were 60+. The most common health referral for females and males (0–14 was perinatal diseases (15.16%, 15.2%, respectively. In the females (15–59 it was ophthalmic diseases (13.65%, and for males it was nephropathies (21.4%, and in both sexes (60+ age range it was ophthalmic diseases (21.3%, 19.9%, respectively. The largest ethnic group of afghan refugees in this study was Hazara (55% followed by Tajik (14%, Fars (12%, Sadat (9%, and 10% others. Ophthalmic diseases were the major cause of referrals by Hazara, Tajik, Fars, and Sadat groups with 26%, 20%, 26%, and 27% respectively. Referrals by pashtun group were mostly for neoplasms (17%, among Uzbek group it was nephropathies (26%, and in Baluch group Hematopoietic disorders (25%. Conclusion These data indicate higher referral rate for women 15–59 years of old and people in 60+ with ophthalmic diseases, neoplasms, and nephropathies. Even given certain
Wariri, Oghenebrume; D'Ambruoso, Lucia; Twine, Rhian; Ngobeni, Sizzy; van der Merwe, Maria; Spies, Barry; Kahn, Kathleen; Tollman, Stephen; Wagner, Ryan G; Byass, Peter
Despite progressive health policy, disease burdens in South Africa remain patterned by deeply entrenched social inequalities. Accounting for the relationships between context, health and risk can provide important information for equitable service delivery. The aims of the research were to initiate a participatory research process with communities in a low income setting and produce evidence of practical relevance. We initiated a participatory action research (PAR) process in the Agincourt health and socio-demographic surveillance site (HDSS) in rural north-east South Africa. Three village-based discussion groups were convened and consulted about conditions to examine, one of which was under-5 mortality. A series of discussions followed in which routine HDSS data were presented and participants' subjective perspectives were elicited and systematized into collective forms of knowledge using ranking, diagramming and participatory photography. The process concluded with a priority setting exercise. Visual and narrative data were thematically analyzed to complement the participants' analysis. A range of social and structural root causes of under-5 mortality were identified: poverty, unemployment, inadequate housing, unsafe environments and shortages of clean water. Despite these constraints, single mothers were often viewed as negligent. A series of mid-level contributory factors in clinics were also identified: overcrowding, poor staffing, delays in treatment and shortages of medications. In a similar sense, pronounced blame and negativity were directed toward clinic nurses in spite of the systems constraints identified. Actions to address these issues were prioritized as: expanding clinics, improving accountability and responsiveness of health workers, improving employment, providing clean water, and expanding community engagement for health promotion. We initiated a PAR process to gain local knowledge and prioritize actions. The process was acceptable to those
Magnussen, Rikke; Aagaard-Hansen, Jens
The field of health promotion technology has been in an exponential growth in recent years and smart phone applications, exer-games and self-monitoring devices has become part of fitness activities and health education. In this work-in-progress-paper theoretical perspectives for categorising...
Sontrop, Jessica M; Campbell, M Karen; Evers, Susan E; Speechley, Kathy N; Avison, William R
Intake of fish and omega-3 fatty acids is inversely related to adverse health outcomes; however, these relationships may be confounded by socio-economic status and health behaviours. This study's purpose was to describe the socio-demographic, health and lifestyle correlates of fish consumption among pregnant women. Pregnant women (n=2394) completed a telephone interview between 10-22 weeks' gestation (London, Ontario, 2002-5) containing questions on socio-demographic, health and lifestyle variables; dietary intake was measured using a 106-item validated food-frequency questionnaire. Unadjusted and adjusted risk ratios were obtained using a modified Poisson regression model. Infrequent fish consumption, socio-economic status and variables indicative of a less healthy lifestyle; these variables may act as confounders in studies evaluating fish consumption and health outcomes.
Johnson, Kiersten B.; Jacob, Anila; Brown, Molly Elizabeth
Healthy forests provide human communities with a host of important ecosystem services, including the provision of food, clean water, fuel, and natural medicines. Yet globally, about 13 million hectares of forests are lost every year, with the biggest losses in Africa and South America. As biodiversity loss and ecosystem degradation due to deforestation continue at unprecedented rates, with concomitant loss of ecosystem services, impacts on human health remain poorly understood. Here, we use data from the 2010 Malawi Demographic and Health Survey, linked with satellite remote sensing data on forest cover, to explore and better understand this relationship. Our analysis finds that forest cover is associated with improved health and nutrition outcomes among children in Malawi. Children living in areas with net forest cover loss between 2000 and 2010 were 19% less likely to have a diverse diet and 29% less likely to consume vitamin A-rich foods than children living in areas with no net change in forest cover. Conversely, children living in communities with higher percentages of forest cover were more likely to consume vitamin A-rich foods and less likely to experience diarrhea. Net gain in forest cover over the 10-year period was associated with a 34% decrease in the odds of children experiencing diarrhea (P5.002). Given that our analysis relied on observational data and that there were potential unknown factors for which we could not account, these preliminary findings demonstrate only associations, not causal relationships, between forest cover and child health and nutrition outcomes. However, the findings raise concerns about the potential short- and long-term impacts of ongoing deforestation and ecosystem degradation on community health in Malawi, and they suggest that preventing forest loss and maintaining the ecosystems services of forests are important factors in improving human health and nutrition outcomes.
Melikyan, Elina; Guekht, Alla; Milchakova, Larisa; Lebedeva, Anna; Bondareva, Irina; Gusev, Eugeny
The aim of this study was to evaluate socio-demographic and clinical factors influencing the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of adult patients with epilepsy in a naturalistic treatment setting in Russia. The QOLIE-31 questionnaire and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were completed by 208 patients with a broad clinical spectrum of epilepsy (the mean age was 31.49±13.20 years and ranged from 18 to 74 years). In Russian adult patients with epilepsy, lower mean QOLIE-31 scores were obtained compared with previously published international data for overall HRQOL, emotional well-being, and cognitive functioning and social functioning subscales (pfactor associated with all HRQOL domains, except for medication effects and emotional well-being, whereas gender, education, family status, seizure type, employment, lateralization of epileptic foci, number of antiepileptic drugs, and the reported adverse events did not significantly affect HRQOL. The present study has revealed that longer duration of epilepsy, older age, higher seizure frequency, and depression are the potential predictors of worse HRQOL in adult Russian patients with epilepsy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kayaoglu, Semra; Kivanc-Altunay, Ilknur; Sarikaya, Sezgi
To determine infant diaper dermatitis (DD) at pediatrics health center; its relation to socio-demographic factors and infant care. The study included 113 infants aged 0-24 mo. Data on infants' age, sex, weight, mothers' education, nutrition, diaper change frequency, cleaning methods and prophylactic cream use were recorded. Infants with minimum one time rash, were accepted to have DD. Seventy six (67.3 %) infants had DD [32 girls (42.1 %), 44 boys (57 %), mean age: 6.5 mo]. Infants with DD had significantly higher age than those without (p 0.001). DD frequency in infants ≥4.5 mo-old was 5.8(2.4-13.7) times more than in infants ≤4.5 mo. Cleaning material types did not affect DD frequency. No significant difference was observed in DD with diaper change of ≤3 times and ≥4 times. Significant difference in DD increase was observed with supplementary food intake vs. without it (p 0.000). DD frequency in infants with supplementary food intake was 6.4 times (2.4-17.1) more than in those without it. Human milk intake was statistically significant in causing less occurrence of DD as shown in univariate model (p food intake and lack of cream use seem to be accountable for DD whereas human milk intake lessened the occurrence of DD. Mothers should be informed on dermatitis care and encouraged for breastfeeding.
Morris, S.C.; Novak, K.M.; Calef, C.E. (eds.)
This document is an edited record of the conversation, dialogues, and topical discussions of the participants of a computer conference sponsored by the Biomedical and Environmental Assessment Division of Brookhaven National Laboratory during the period March 4-28, 1977. The main objective of the conference was to bring together a number of individual specialists from a wide and diverse range of both academic and professional disciplines to address the usage of county level data in health, energy, demographic, environmental, and economic analysis. A secondary aim of the conference was to test the feasibility and viability of using a computer conference as a means of accomplishing our primary objective. A preface, a list of participants, and the transcript of the main conference and subsession proceedings are included. Also included are information provided by participants on the identification of intercensal county equivalent areas and additional reports and documents relevant to the conference topic. The overall aims and objectives of the conference were successfully accomplished; some of the problems encountered using the computer as a conference vehicle were noted; recommendations were made to continue both formal and informal lines of communication on the subject of county level data.
Al Saif, Amer; Al Senany, Samira
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the validity, demographic features of the newly developed Amer Dizziness Diagnostic Scale (ADDS), provide differential diagnosis of the vestibular disorders, assist in the clinical research and practice activities of health workers as well as to understand the probability of the utilization of the ADDS as a first-line evaluation tool in general clinical practice. [Subjects and Methods] Two hundred subjects of various ages including both male and female patients with a history of vertigo and/or dizziness were included in the study and evaluated once using the ADDS. [Results] There were more female (59.5%) than male (49.5) patients in this study. Additionally, we found that most patients (64.4%) had a central mediated problem. In addition, the Amer Dizziness Diagnostic Scale has been found to have both a sensitivity and specificity of 96% that can adequately determine the possible diagnosis of vestibular disorders. [Conclusion] This study has demonstrated the validity of the ADDS scale, the predominance of female involvement related to supplementary medication, vitamin D deficiency, general lifestyle factors, and fluid retention, high sensitivity and specificity, provide differential diagnosis of vestibular disorders that could be used as a first-line evaluation tool in general clinics. PMID:26644673
Full Text Available The role of proximate determinants in influencing fertility has been well documented worldwide. Bongaarts’ aggregate model of the proximate determinants (which focuses on marriage, contraception, abortion, and sterility has been widely used to analyse the influence of proximate determinants on fertility. In Zambia, however, there is limited understanding of their effects. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the effect of proximate determinants of fertility in Zambia using Bongaarts’ model. This was a cross-sectional analysis of women’s data from the 2007 Zambia Demographic and Health Survey (ZDHS. A total of 7,146 women aged 15 to 49 years participated in the ZDHS. Bongaarts’ model was employed in the data analysis. Results showed that, overall, mean age was 27.8 years and rural-urban distribution was 56% and 44%, respectively. Marriage (40% and postpartum infecundity (22% accounted for the largest inhibiting effect on natural fertility from its biological maximum of 19.10. Contraception use accounted for only 3%. Therefore, in order to manage fertility in Zambia, policies and programmes should consider the effects of marriage, postpartum infecundity, and contraception on fertility. Without such targeted interventions, managing and maintaining population growth will remain a challenge in Zambia.
Harris, Dale B.; Roberts, Jean
Data on the intellectual maturity of children 6-11 years of age in the noninstitutionalized population of the U. S. is analyzed in relation to their demographic and socioeconomic background. This is the second report on the Goodenough-Harris Drawing Test, administered in the Health Examination Survey of 1963-65, and deals with the results in…
Asaolu, Ibitola O; Okafor, Chioma T; Ehiri, Jennifer C; Dreifuss, Heather M; Ehiri, John E
Women's empowerment is hypothesized as a predictor of reproductive health outcomes. It is believed that empowered girls and women are more likely to delay marriage, plan their pregnancies, receive prenatal care, and have their childbirth attended by a skilled health provider. The objective of this study was to assess the association between women's empowerment and use of modern contraception among a representative sample of Nigerian women. This study used the 2003, 2008, and 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey data. The analytic sample was restricted to 35,633 women who expressed no desire to have children within 2 years following each survey, were undecided about timing for children, and who reported no desire for more children. Measures of women's empowerment included their ability to partake in decisions pertaining to their healthcare, large household purchases, and visit to their family or relatives. Multivariable regression models adjusting for respondent's age at first birth, religion, education, wealth status, number of children, and geopolitical region were used to measure the association between empowerment and use of modern contraceptives. The proportion of women who participated in decisions to visit their relatives increased from 42.5% in 2003 to 50.6% in 2013. The prevalence of women involved in decision-making related to large household purchases increased from 24.3% in 2003 to 41.1% in 2013, while the proportion of those who partook in decision related to their health care increased from 28.4% in 2003 to 41.9% in 2013. Use of modern contraception was positively associated with women's participation in decisions related to large household purchases [2008: adjusted OR (aOR) = 1.15; 95% CI = 1.01-1.31] and (2013; aOR = 1.60; 1.40-1.83), health care [2008: (aOR = 1.20; 1.04-1.39) and (2013; aOR = 1.39; 1.22-1.59)], and visiting family or relatives [2013; aOR = 1.58; 1.36-1.83]. The prevalence of modern contraceptive use
Nguhiu, Peter K; Barasa, Edwine W; Chuma, Jane
Effective coverage (EC) is a measure of health systems' performance that combines need, use and quality indicators. This study aimed to assess the extent to which the Kenyan health system provides effective and equitable maternal and child health services, as a means of tracking the country's progress towards universal health coverage. The Demographic Health Surveys (2003, 2008-2009 and 2014) and Service Provision Assessment surveys (2004, 2010) were the main sources of data. Indicators of need, use and quality for eight maternal and child health interventions were aggregated across interventions and economic quintiles to compute EC. EC has increased from 26.7% in 2003 to 50.9% in 2014, but remains low for the majority of interventions. There is a reduction in economic inequalities in EC with the highest to lowest wealth quintile ratio decreasing from 2.41 in 2003 to 1.65 in 2014, but maternal health services remain highly inequitable. Effective coverage of key maternal and child health services remains low, indicating that individuals are not receiving the maximum possible health gain from existing health services. There is an urgent need to focus on the quality and reach of maternal and child health services in Kenya to achieve the goals of universal health coverage. © 2017 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Mascarenhas, Maya N; Cheung, Hoiwan; Mathers, Colin D; Stevens, Gretchen A
Infertility is a significant disability, yet there are no reliable estimates of its global prevalence. Studies on infertility prevalence define the condition inconsistently, rendering the comparison of studies or quantitative summaries of the literature difficult. This study analyzed key components of infertility to develop a definition that can be consistently applied to globally available household survey data. We proposed a standard definition of infertility and used it to generate prevalence estimates using 53 Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS). The analysis was restricted to the subset of DHS that contained detailed fertility information collected through the reproductive health calendar. We performed sensitivity analyses for key components of the definition and used these to inform our recommendations for each element of the definition. Exposure type (couple status, contraceptive use, and intent), exposure time, and outcomes were key elements of the definition that we proposed. Our definition produced estimates that ranged from 0.6% to 3.4% for primary infertility and 8.7% to 32.6% for secondary infertility. Our sensitivity analyses showed that using an exposure measure of five years is less likely to misclassify fertile unions as infertile. Additionally, using a current, rather than continuous, measure of contraceptive use over five years resulted in a median relative error in secondary infertility of 20.7% (interquartile range of relative error [IQR]: 12.6%-26.9%), while not incorporating intent produced a corresponding error in secondary infertility of 58.2% (IQR: 44.3%-67.9%). In order to estimate the global burden of infertility, prevalence estimates using a consistent definition need to be generated. Our analysis provided a recommended definition that could be applied to widely available global household data. We also summarized potential biases that should be considered when making estimates of infertility prevalence using household survey data.
Zhu, Daqiau; Norman, Ian J; While, Alison E
To assess the agreement between self-perceived weight status and BMI status, calculated from self-reported height and weight, in nurses and to evaluate the relationship between weight status misperceptions and personal body weight, demographics and health status. Cross-sectional questionnaire survey. A large university in London, UK. Four hundred and fifty-six student nurses and 588 qualified nurses attending university were surveyed; 355 student nurses and 409 qualified nurses completed questionnaires representing a response rate of 78 % and 70 %, respectively. The respondents were mainly female (90·0 %), 66·5 % were white and their mean age was 31 years. Sixty-eight per cent of qualified nurses and 77 % of student nurses correctly perceived their weight status. In logistic regression, (mixed) black ethnicity (OR = 2·53, 95 % CI 1·01, 6·32), overweight by BMI (OR = 3·10, 95 % CI 1·31, 7·33) and ≥3 family histories of obesity co-morbidities (OR = 2·51, 95 % CI 1·04, 6·08) were significantly associated with misperceptions in the sample of student nurses, whereas overweight by BMI (OR = 5·32, 95 % CI 2·66, 10·67) was the only significant variable in the sample of qualified nurses. A substantial proportion of nurses misclassified their weight status. Nurses' misperception of weight status was related to their own BMI status, ethnic background and obesity-related family histories. Being aware of this may help nurses not only promote their own healthy weight, but also fulfil their public health role to practise weight management successfully with both patients and the public. While limitations of the sample mean that the study findings cannot be generalized, they do provide grounds for future larger-scale research.
Koua Etien L
Full Text Available Abstract Background Survey data are increasingly abundant from many international projects and national statistics. They are generally comprehensive and cover local, regional as well as national levels census in many domains including health, demography, human development, and economy. These surveys result in several hundred indicators. Geographical analysis of such large amount of data is often a difficult task and searching for patterns is particularly a difficult challenge. Geovisualization research is increasingly dealing with the exploration of patterns and relationships in such large datasets for understanding underlying geographical processes. One of the attempts has been to use Artificial Neural Networks as a technology especially useful in situations where the numbers are vast and the relationships are often unclear or even hidden. Results We investigate ways to integrate computational analysis based on a Self-Organizing Map neural network, with visual representations of derived structures and patterns in a framework for exploratory visualization to support visual data mining and knowledge discovery. The framework suggests ways to explore the general structure of the dataset in its multidimensional space in order to provide clues for further exploration of correlations and relationships. Conclusion In this paper, the proposed framework is used to explore a demographic and health survey data. Several graphical representations (information spaces are used to depict the general structure and clustering of the data and get insight about the relationships among the different variables. Detail exploration of correlations and relationships among the attributes is provided. Results of the analysis are also presented in maps and other graphics.
Alazzam, Abu-Obaideh; Bakar, Ab Rahim; Hamzah, Ramlah; Asimiran, S.
The aim of this study was to examine ICT readiness and the effects of demographic characteristics, educational background, and support factors on the ICT readiness of technical and vocational teachers in Malaysia. The questionnaire was administered to 329 technical and vocational teachers who are teaching engineering subjects in Malaysian…
Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T; Ramakrishnareddy, N
Food insecurity is a very common problem in developing countries particularly among the poorer households. Very few studies have tested the association between adult smoking and food insecurity. We analysed the data from a nationally representative sample of 10,826 households in which women and men (in a sub sample of 4121 households) aged 15-49 years were interviewed in Nepal Demographic and Health Survey 2011. Data from households in which both men and women were interviewed were analysed for association of household food insecurity access score (HFIAS), with tobacco use among men and women, socio-demographic and spatial factors. Univariate comparisons followed by zero-inflated negative binomial regression analyses were done to determine the association between HFIAS and individual, household and spatial factors. Mean HFIAS score was 3.5 (SD, 4.6) whereas the median was 0 (IQR 0-6). Prevalence of tobacco use among men and women was 50.2% (95% CIs 47.9, 52.6), and 17.3% (95% CIs 15.7, 18.9). HFIAS scores were significantly higher among households where men used tobacco (4.96), and men either smoked or use SLT (3.82) as compared to those without tobacco users (2.79). HFIAS scores were not significantly different by tobacco use status of women. HFIAS score was highest in the poorest households and vice versa. After adjusting for covariates association between HFIAS score and male tobacco use remained significant but effect size decreased when covariates were included into regression models (adjusted OR 1.11). HFIAS score was also associated wealth index (adjusted OR 0.86-0.62) and ecological region (adjusted OR 1.33) and development regions (adjusted OR 1.10-1.21). Tobacco users in poor(er) households should be encouraged to 'quit' their habit. Less affluent sectors of the population also need to be educated about the non-health benefits of quitting, such as improved economic status and reduced food insecurity.
(97% were interested in considering alternative prescriptive medication that is proven more effective.Conclusion: Chronic constipation symptoms in women are often severe and bothersome, and many patients are dissatisfied with available treatment options primarily because of lack of efficacy.Keywords: chronic constipation, demographics, health-care, laxatives
This article presents an interview with Thuy Vu, Research Coordinator at the University of Washington and Project Director at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington. In this interview, Vu talks about what she does, how she got these jobs, how her education ties in, and her first job out of college. The interview concludes…
Deliens, Tom; Clarys, Peter; De De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Deforche, Benedicte
Background: This study aimed to examine differences in socio-demographics and health behaviour between Belgian first year university students who attended all final course exams and those who did not. Secondly, this study aimed to identify weight and health behaviour related correlates of academic performance in those students who attended all course exams. Methods: Anthropometrics of 101 first year university students were measured at both the beginning of the first (T1) and second (T2) s...
Suggestions for facilitating dental health education programs in public schools include: (1) determining who will be responsible for dental health education; (2) involving parents; (3) using community health resources; and (4) assessing the results of programs. (JN)
Cuff, Patricia A
"Assessing health professional education is the summary of a workshop hosted by the Institute of Medicine's Global Forum on Innovation in Health Professional Education to explore assessment of health...
Full Text Available Acute respiratory infection is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality among children under five years of age in Ethiopia. While facilities have been implemented to address this problem they are underused due to a lack in help-seeking behavior. This study investigates factors related to the help-seeking behavior of mothers for children with acute respiratory infection using data from the 2011 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey.Data on 11,030 children aged 0-59 months obtained through interviewing women aged 15-49 years throughout Ethiopia was available. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analyses were performed to determine which factors are related to help-seeking behavior for acute respiratory infection.In the two weeks prior to the survey, 773(7% of the children were reported to have symptoms of acute respiratory infection while treatment was sought for only 209 (27.2%. The odds ratio for acute respiratory infection was 1.6 (95% CI: 1.2-2.0 for rural residence with only 25.2% of these mothers seeking help compared to 46.4% for mothers with an urban residence. Smaller family size, younger mothers' age and having had prenatal care had a statistically significant odds ratio greater than 1 for both urban and rural residences. Highest wealth index had a statistically significant odds ratio greater than 1 for rural residence only, whereas primary education or higher had a statistically significant odds ratio greater than 1 for urban residence.Children from rural areas are more at risk for acute respiratory infection while their mothers are less likely to seek help. Nevertheless, there is also underuse of available services in urban areas. Interventions should target mothers with less education and wealth and older mothers. Expanding prenatal care among these groups would encourage a better use of available facilities and subsequently better care for their children.
Astale, Tigist; Chenault, Michelene
Acute respiratory infection is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality among children under five years of age in Ethiopia. While facilities have been implemented to address this problem they are underused due to a lack in help-seeking behavior. This study investigates factors related to the help-seeking behavior of mothers for children with acute respiratory infection using data from the 2011 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey. Data on 11,030 children aged 0-59 months obtained through interviewing women aged 15-49 years throughout Ethiopia was available. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analyses were performed to determine which factors are related to help-seeking behavior for acute respiratory infection. In the two weeks prior to the survey, 773(7%) of the children were reported to have symptoms of acute respiratory infection while treatment was sought for only 209 (27.2%). The odds ratio for acute respiratory infection was 1.6 (95% CI: 1.2-2.0) for rural residence with only 25.2% of these mothers seeking help compared to 46.4% for mothers with an urban residence. Smaller family size, younger mothers' age and having had prenatal care had a statistically significant odds ratio greater than 1 for both urban and rural residences. Highest wealth index had a statistically significant odds ratio greater than 1 for rural residence only, whereas primary education or higher had a statistically significant odds ratio greater than 1 for urban residence. Children from rural areas are more at risk for acute respiratory infection while their mothers are less likely to seek help. Nevertheless, there is also underuse of available services in urban areas. Interventions should target mothers with less education and wealth and older mothers. Expanding prenatal care among these groups would encourage a better use of available facilities and subsequently better care for their children.
Full Text Available Introduction: Over the centuries both the medical and wider health sectors have developed and many new inventions and discoveries have been made; however, the health sector has never stopped to be a current issue. Every time a possible cure of a disease was found, another disease appeared and affected humans. Therefore, the requirement of our time focuses mainly on early diagnosis, immediate intervention and prevention. Objective: By using the structures and services of the Greek Public Health, this study aims to explore the ways through which models on nutrition can be developed so that human illnesses will be avoided. Methods: The material of this review is based on the printed Greek and international literature and in electronic databases. In parallel, a cheirodialogi books, articles and studies from libraries with the help of keywords. Results: The need of a system managing the huge amount of information and the different interrelated Public Health sectors is now more pressing than ever before. The Public Health interferes collectively with perpetual efforts in improving population health. As a result, its main objective is to focus on prevention and primary care. In addition, the dissemination of healthy eating habits is of primary importance for the Public Health. Conclusions: The radical change to modern lifestyle, along with the reduction in leisure time, the transformation of family structure and the subsequent adoption of new dietary habits leading to the consumption of ready and standardized food, is one of the most serious challenges for Public Health in today's era. The issue of nutrition policy is not only confined to its hygiene aspect, but it has many other important components. At first, this policy accounts for a large amount of the total economic activity of a country, concerning the primary, secondary and tertiary sector, while at the same time it absorbs a large proportion of idividual consumption. Furthermore, it is linked
Collinson, Mark A; Tollman, Stephen M; Kahn, Kathleen
World population growth will be increasingly concentrated in the urban areas of the developing world; however, some scholars caution against the oversimplification of African urbanization noting that there may be "counter-urbanization" and a prevailing pattern of circular rural-urban migration. The aim of the paper is to examine the ongoing urban transition in South Africa in the post-apartheid period, and to consider the health and social policy implications of prevailing migration patterns. Two data sets were analysed, namely the South African national census of 2001 and the Agincourt health and demographic surveillance system. A settlement-type transition matrix was constructed on the national data to show how patterns of settlement have changed in a five-year period. Using the sub-district data, permanent and temporary migration was characterized, providing migration rates by age and sex, and showing the distribution of origins and destinations. The comparison of national and sub-district data highlight the following features: urban population growth, particularly in metropolitan areas, resulting from permanent and temporary migration; prevailing patterns of temporary, circular migration, and a changing gender balance in this form of migration; stepwise urbanization; and return migration from urban to rural areas. Policy concerns include: rural poverty exacerbated by labour migration; explosive conditions for the transmission of HIV; labour migrants returning to die in rural areas; and the challenges for health information created by chronically ill migrants returning to rural areas to convalesce. Lastly, suggestions are made on how to address the dearth of relevant population information for policy-making in the fields of migration, settlement change and health.
Anoke, Sarah C; Mwai, Paul; Jeffery, Caroline; Valadez, Joseph J; Pagano, Marcello
Two common methods used to measure indicators for health programme monitoring and evaluation are the demographic and health surveys (DHS) and lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS); each one has different strengths. We report on both methods when utilised in comparable situations. We compared 24 indicators in south-west Uganda, where data for prevalence estimations were collected independently for the two methods in 2011 (LQAS: n = 8876; DHS: n = 1200). Data were stratified (e.g. gender and age) resulting in 37 comparisons. We used a two-sample two-sided Z-test of proportions to compare both methods. The average difference between LQAS and DHS for 37 estimates was 0.062 (SD = 0.093; median = 0.039). The average difference among the 21 failures to reject equality of proportions was 0.010 (SD = 0.041; median = 0.009); among the 16 rejections, it was 0.130 (SD = 0.010, median = 0.118). Seven of the 16 rejections exhibited absolute differences of 0.10 and 0.20 (mean = 0.261, SD = 0.083). There is 75.7% agreement across the two surveys. Both methods yield regional results, but only LQAS provides information at less granular levels (e.g. the district level) where managerial action is taken. The cost advantage and localisation make LQAS feasible to conduct more frequently, and provides the possibility for real-time health outcomes monitoring. © 2015 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
The purpose of this paper is to help public health actors with an interest in health promotion and health care professionals involved in therapeutic education to develop and implement an educational strategy consistent with their vision of health and health care. First, we show that the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion and the French Charter for Popular Education share common values. Second, an examination of the career and work of Paulo Freire, of Ira Shor's pedagogical model and of the person-centered approach of Carl Rogers shows how the work of educational practitioners, researchers and theorists can help health professionals to implement a truly "health-promoting" or "therapeutic" educational strategy. The paper identifies a number of problems facing health care professionals who become involved in education without reflecting on the values underlying the pedagogical models they use.
Full Text Available Background: Low birth weight (LBW continues to be the primary cause of infant morbidity and mortality. Objective: This study was undertaken to identify the predictors of LBW in Nigeria. Design: The data for this study was extracted from the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey conducted by the National Population Commission. Several questionnaires were used in the survey, some covering questions on pregnancy characteristics. The inclusion criteria include mothers who gave birth to a child 5 years before the interview and aged 15–49 years who were either permanent residents or visitors present in the household on the night before the survey conducted. The birth weight of the infants was recorded from written records from the hospital cards or the mothers’ recall. Results: The prevalence of LBW in this study was 7.3%. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed an adjusted significant odds ratio for mothers from North West region (aOR 10.67; 95% CI [5.83–19.5], twin pregnancy (aOR 5.11; 95% CI [3.11–8.39], primiparous mother (aOR 2.08; 95% CI [1.15–3.77], maternal weight of less than 70 kg (aOR 1.92; 95% CI [1.32–2.78], and manual paternal employment (aOR 1.91; 95% CI [1.08–3.37]. Conclusions: The risk factors for LBW identified in this study are modifiable. In order to reduce this menace in Nigeria, holistic approaches such as health education, maternal nutrition, improvement in socio-economic indices, and increasing the quality and quantity of the antenatal care services are of paramount importance.
Palamuleni, M E; Adebowale, A S
Both contraceptive use and fertility rates are high fertility in Malawi. Status of women remains low and is believed to affect reproductive health decisions including use of Long Acting and Permanent Contraceptives Method (LAPCM). This study seeks to examine the relationship between women empowerment and LAPCM. A measure of women's empowerment is derived from the women's responses to questions on the number of household decisions in which the respondent participates, employment status, type of earnings, women's control over cash earnings and level of education. The study is based on a sub sample of 5,948 married women from the 2010 Malawi Demographic and Health Survey. Data was analysed using descriptive statistics, Chi-square and multinomial logistic regression models (α=5%). The prevalence of current use of LAPCM was 20.0% and increases with increasing empowerment level (pempowerment score of women who are currently using LAPCM were 38.53±6.2 years and 6.80±2.9 respectively. Urban women (22.2%) were more currently using LAPCM than rural women (19.4%) pWomen who belong to Seven Day Adventists/Baptist were 1.51(C.I=1.058-2.153; p=0.023) more likely and Muslims were 0.58(C.I=0.410-0.809; p=0.001) less likely to currently use LAPCM than Catholic women. Being in the richest wealth quintile (OR=1.91; C.I=1.362-2.665; pwomen who have access to FP programmes on media and increases consistently with increasing women empowerment level even when other potential confounding variables were used as control. In Malawi, LAPCM is still underutilized and more than half of the women are not adequately empowered. Women empowerment, wealth quintile and access to FP programmes are key factors influencing the use of LAPCM. Programmes that address these determinants are urgently needed in Malawi.
Hahn, Robert A.; Truman, Benedict I.
This article describes a framework and empirical evidence to support the argument that educational programs and policies are crucial public health interventions. Concepts of education and health are developed and linked, and we review a wide range of empirical studies to clarify pathways of linkage and explore implications. Basic educational expertise and skills, including fundamental knowledge, reasoning ability, emotional self-regulation, and interactional abilities, are critical components of health. Moreover, education is a fundamental social determinant of health – an upstream cause of health. Programs that close gaps in educational outcomes between low-income or racial and ethnic minority populations and higher-income or majority populations are needed to promote health equity. Public health policy makers, health practitioners and educators, and departments of health and education can collaborate to implement educational programs and policies for which systematic evidence indicates clear public health benefits. PMID:25995305
Amer, Mona M; Hovey, Joseph D
This study examined socio-demographic differences in acculturation patterns among early immigrant and second-generation Arab Americans, using data from 120 participants who completed a Web-based study. Although sex, age, education, and income did not significantly relate to the acculturation process, respondents who were female and those who were married reported greater Arab ethnic identity and religiosity. Striking differences were found based on religious affiliation. Christian patterns of acculturation and mental health were consistent with acculturation theory. For Muslims, however, integration was not associated with better mental health, and religiosity was predictive of better family functioning and less depression. The results of this study suggest unique acculturation patterns for Christian and Muslim subgroups that can better inform future research and mental health service.
Anshari, Muhammad; Almunawar, Mohammad Nabil
Mobile technology enables health-care organizations to extend health-care services by providing a suitable environment to achieve mobile health (mHealth) goals, making some health-care services accessible anywhere and anytime. Introducing mHealth could change the business processes in delivering services to patients. mHealth could empower patients as it becomes necessary for them to become involved in the health-care processes related to them. This includes the ability for patients to manage their personal information and interact with health-care staff as well as among patients themselves. The study proposes a new position to supervise mHealth services: the online health educator (OHE). The OHE should be occupied by special health-care staffs who are trained in managing online services. A survey was conducted in Brunei and Indonesia to discover the roles of OHE in managing mHealth services, followed by a focus group discussion with participants who interacted with OHE in a real online health scenario. Data analysis showed that OHE could improve patients' confidence and satisfaction in health-care services.
Lindgren, Kurt; Sølling, Ina Koldkjær; Carøe, Per
Abstract The purpose of this study is to develop an interdisciplinary learning environment between education in technology, business, and nursing. This collaboration contributes to the creation of a natural interest and motivation for welfare technology. The aim of establishing an interaction...... as a theoretical and practical learning center. The mission of the Student Academy is to support and facilitate education in order to maintain and upgrade knowledge and skills in information technology and information management in relation to e-health and Health Literacy. The Student Academy inspires students...
Groups of 15-20 women in Dacca, Bangladesh received a 2-week training program in basic health and nutrition in addition to advice on contraceptive methods and use. Contraceptives were also supplied. There were 18 field teams at work, operating in 24 union councils around Dacca city. The basic health training included 1 week of theoretical classes on sore eyes, scabies and parasites. The 2nd week was devoted to practical application and demonstration. At this time the mothers were given the formula to prepare saline water -- oral rehydration fluid. The mothers then prepared the saline and used it for the children in case of any diarrheal incidence in the community. It was the experience of the fieldworkers of the Concerned Women for Family Planning (CWFP) that the communities under their program live under unsanitary conditions.
Full Text Available There is a pressing need for baseline demographic and health-related data to plan, implement and evaluate health interventions in developing countries, and to monitor progress towards international development goals. However, mobile pastoralists, i.e. people who depend on a livestock production system and follow their herds as they move, remain marginalized from rural development plans and interventions. The fact that mobile people are hard to reach and stay in contact with is a plausible reason why they are underrepresented in national censuses and/or alternative sequential sample survey systems. We present a proof-of-concept of monitoring highly mobile, pastoral people by recording demographic and health-related data from 933 women and 2020 children and establishing a biometric identification system (BIS based on the registration and identification of digital fingerprints. Although only 22 women, representing 2.4% of the total registered women, were encountered twice in the four survey rounds, the approach implemented is shown to be feasible. The BIS described here is linked to a geographical information system to facilitate the creation of the first health and demographic surveillance system in a mobile, pastoralist setting. Our ultimate goal is to implement and monitor interventions with the “one health” concept, thus integrating and improving human, animal and ecosystem health.
Long, Rachel N; Renne, Elisha P; Basu, Niladri
This descriptive paper describes factors related to demographics and health in an artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) community in Ghana's Upper East Region. Participants (n = 114) were surveyed in 2010 and 2011, adapting questions from the established national Demographic Health Survey (DHS) on factors such as population characteristics, infrastructure, amenities, education, employment, maternal and child health, and diet. In the study community, some indicators of household wealth (e.g., radios, mobile phones, refrigerators) are more common than elsewhere in Ghana, yet basic infrastructure (e.g., cement flooring, sanitation systems) and access to safe water supplies are lacking. Risk factors for poor respiratory health, such as cooking with biomass fuel smoke and smoking tobacco, are common. Certain metrics of maternal and child health are comparable to other areas of Ghana (e.g., frequency of antenatal care), whereas others (e.g., antenatal care from a skilled provider) show deficiencies. Residents surveyed do not appear to lack key micronutrients, but report lower fruit and vegetable consumption than other rural areas. The results enable a better understanding of community demographics, health, and nutrition, and underscore the need for better demographic and health surveillance and data collection across ASGM communities to inform effective policies and programs for improving miner and community health.
Rachel N. Long
Full Text Available This descriptive paper describes factors related to demographics and health in an artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM community in Ghana’s Upper East Region. Participants (n = 114 were surveyed in 2010 and 2011, adapting questions from the established national Demographic Health Survey (DHS on factors such as population characteristics, infrastructure, amenities, education, employment, maternal and child health, and diet. In the study community, some indicators of household wealth (e.g., radios, mobile phones, refrigerators are more common than elsewhere in Ghana, yet basic infrastructure (e.g., cement flooring, sanitation systems and access to safe water supplies are lacking. Risk factors for poor respiratory health, such as cooking with biomass fuel smoke and smoking tobacco, are common. Certain metrics of maternal and child health are comparable to other areas of Ghana (e.g., frequency of antenatal care, whereas others (e.g., antenatal care from a skilled provider show deficiencies. Residents surveyed do not appear to lack key micronutrients, but report lower fruit and vegetable consumption than other rural areas. The results enable a better understanding of community demographics, health, and nutrition, and underscore the need for better demographic and health surveillance and data collection across ASGM communities to inform effective policies and programs for improving miner and community health.
Cuff, Patricia A.
"Assessing Health Professional Education" is the summary of a workshop hosted by the Institute of Medicine's Global Forum on Innovation in Health Professional Education to explore assessment of health professional education. At the event, Forum members shared personal experiences and learned from patients, students, educators, and…
Luksiene, Dalia Ieva; Baceviciene, Migle; Tamosiunas, Abdonas; Daugeliene, Evelina; Kranciukaite, Daina
The purpose of this study was to identify the main dietary patterns in the Lithuanian urban population and to determine their association with socio-demographic factors. Data from the survey performed in the framework of the HAPIEE (Health, Alcohol, Psychosocial factors In Eastern Europe) study were presented. A random sample of 7,087 individuals aged 45-72 years was screened in 2006-2008. Factor analysis of the main dietary patterns revealed a five-factor solution, which accounted for 47.8% of the variance: "fresh vegetables and fruit"; "sweets"; "porridge and cereals"; "potatoes, meat, boiled vegetables and eggs"; "chicken and fish". "Fresh vegetables and fruits" factor and "sweets" factor were inversely associated with age both in men and women: older people consumed less frequent than average of the particular food groups. Dietary patterns of people with good self-rated health and university education were healthier than among people with lower education and poorer health. Nutrition education efforts should focus on improving food diversity, with particular targeting of lower educated, single and older people.
Abbasalizad Farhangi, Mahdieh
The current study was aimed to evaluate gestational weight gain and its socio-demographic determinants among pregnant women in north-west of Iran. In the current cross-sectional study, four hundred eighty one pregnant women aged 26.12 ± 7.45 years were enrolled. Data on pre-pregnancy weight, height, age, educational attainment, parity, household size, hemoglobin status and total pregnancy weight gain were extracted from routine health center records. The pregnant women were categorized based on their pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) as underweight, normal weight and overweight or obese according to the 2009 Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendations. Participants were also classified according to their educational level into three 'some school', 'high school' and 'college' groups. Gestational weight gain in 27.6% of pregnant women was in normal IOM recommended range; while, weight gain in 49% and 23.2% of pregnant women was below and above recommended range respectively. Women with high educational attainment (≥12 years) have significantly higher weight gain compared with low-educated women (nutritional status and health care programs in current health care services in Iran.
Abir, Tanvir; Agho, Kingsley Emwinyore; Page, Andrew Nicolas; Milton, Abul Hasnat; Dibley, Michael John
The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with mortality in children under 5 years of age using a nationally representative sample of singleton births for the period of 2004-2011. Pooled 2004, 2007 and 2011 cross-sectional data sets of the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Surveys were analysed. The surveys used a stratified two-stage cluster sample of 16,722 singleton live-born infants of the most recent birth of a mother within a 3-year period. Outcome measures were neonatal mortality (0-30 days), postneonatal mortality (1-11 months), infant mortality (0-11 months), child mortality (1-4 years) and under-5 mortality (0-4 years). Survival information for 16,722 singleton live-born infants and 522 deaths of children child deaths and 522 under-5 deaths. Multiple variable analysis showed that, over a 7-year period, mortality reduced significantly by 48% for postneonatal deaths, 33% for infant deaths and 29% for under-5 deaths, but there was no significant reduction in neonatal deaths (adjusted OR (AOR) = 0.79, 95% CI 0.59 to 1.06) or child deaths (AOR = 1.00, 95% CI 0.51 to 1.94). The odds of neonatal, postneonatal, infant, child and under-5 deaths decreased significantly among mothers who used contraceptive and mothers who had other children aged 3 years or older. The risk of neonatal, postneonatal, infant, child and under-5 deaths was significantly higher in mothers who reported a previous death of a sibling. Our study suggests that family planning is needed to further reduce the overall rate of under-5 deaths in Bangladesh. To reduce childhood mortality, public health interventions that focus on child spacing and contraceptive use by mothers may be most effective. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Edler, A A
Over the last decade, development aid has increasingly used a more collaborative model, with donors and recipients both contributing ideas, methods and goals. Though many examples of collateral aid projects exist in agriculture, business administration and banking, few have found their way into health care and health education, a typically donor-dominated model. The following case report describes a collateral project in health care education. This case report analyzes data-inducing project proposals, personal interviews and project reports obtained through standard archival research methods. The setting for this joint project was the collaboration between international nongovernmental (NGO) aid foundations and the faculty of a major sub-Saharan African Medical School's Department of Anesthesia. The initial goal of this project was to improve record keeping for all anesthetic records, both in the operating theatres and outside. Analysis of the data was performed using ethnographic methods of constant comparative analysis. The purpose of the analysis was to critically evaluate both the goals and their results in the Department of Anesthesiology. The findings of this analysis suggested that results included not only quality assurance and improvement programs in the department but also advances in the use of critical incidents as teaching tools, hospital-wide drug and equipment utilization information and the initiation of an outreach program to district hospitals throughout the country for similar projects.
Edler, A. A.
Over the last decade, development aid has increasingly used a more collaborative model, with donors and recipients both contributing ideas, methods and goals. Though many examples of collateral aid projects exist in agriculture, business administration and banking, few have found their way into health care and health education, a typically donor-dominated model. The following case report describes a collateral project in health care education. This case report analyzes data-inducing project proposals, personal interviews and project reports obtained through standard archival research methods. The setting for this joint project was the collaboration between international nongovernmental (NGO) aid foundations and the faculty of a major sub-Saharan African Medical School's Department of Anesthesia. The initial goal of this project was to improve record keeping for all anesthetic records, both in the operating theatres and outside. Analysis of the data was performed using ethnographic methods of constant comparative analysis. The purpose of the analysis was to critically evaluate both the goals and their results in the Department of Anesthesiology. The findings of this analysis suggested that results included not only quality assurance and improvement programs in the department but also advances in the use of critical incidents as teaching tools, hospital-wide drug and equipment utilization information and the initiation of an outreach program to district hospitals throughout the country for similar projects. PMID:10604789
Sallis, James F.; McKenzie, Thomas L.
Analyzes contributions physical education makes to child and adult health. Topics discussed are current levels of U.S. children's physical activity; status of elementary physical education programs; health-related physical activity interventions; public health analysis of elementary physical education; and public health role and goal for physical…
Pinzon-Perez, Helda; Kotkin-Jaszi, Suzanne; Perez, Miguel A.
Health policy has a direct impact on health education initiatives, health care delivery, resource allocation, and quality of life. Increasing rates in the epidemics of obesity and obesity-dependent diabetes mellitus (aka diabesity) suggest that health policy changes should be included in health education and disease prevention strategies. Health…
Arkansas Univ., Fayetteville, Cooperative Extension Service.
This short booklet is designed to be used by health educators when teaching women about breast cancer and its early detection and the procedure for breast self-examination. It includes the following: (1) A one-page teaching plan consisting of objectives, subject matter, methods (including titles of films and printed materials), target audience,…
Adebowale, Stephen Ayo; Morakinyo, Oyewale Mayowa; Ana, Godson Rowland
Nigeria is among countries with high Under-Five Mortality (U5M) rates worldwide. Both maternal and childhood factors have been linked to U5M in the country. However, despite the growing global recognition of the association between housing and quality of life, the role of housing materials as predictors of U5M remain largely unexplored in Nigeria. This study, therefore, investigated the relationship between housing materials and U5M in Nigeria. The study utilised the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey data. A representative sample of 40,680 households was selected for the survey. The sample included 18,516 women of reproductive age who had given birth in the past 5 years prior the survey; with attention on the survival status of the index child (the most recent delivery). Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, Chi-square, Cox-proportional hazard and Brass 2-parameter models (α = 0.05). The hazard ratio of U5M was 1.46 (C.I = 1.02-1.47, p materials respectively than those in good housing materials. Under-five deaths show a downward trend (slope = -0.4871) relative to the housing materials assessment score. The refined U5M rate was 143.5, 127.0 and 90.8 per 1000 live birth among women who live in houses built with inadequate, moderate and adequate housing materials respectively. Other predictors of U5M were; the size of the child at birth, preceding birth interval, prenatal care provider, residence and education. Under-five death reduces with increasing maternal level of; education, wealth quintile, media exposure and housing material type and mostly experienced by Muslim women (6.0%), rural women (6.5%) and women residence in the North-West geopolitical zones (6.9%). Living in houses built with poor housing materials promoted U5M in Nigeria. Provision of sustainable housing by the government and the maintenance of existing housing stock to healthful conditions will play a significant role in reducing the burden of U5M in Nigeria.
Ergin, Isil; Mandiracioglu, Aliye
To define the socioeconomic and demographic determinants for self-rated health and happiness for Turkish elderly (≥60) using the World Values Survey (WVS) database. WVS data for Turkey covering 23 years (1990-2013) with five separate cross-sections (1990, 1996, 2001, 2007, 2013) were pooled for analysis (n=870). Dependent variables were self-rated health (SRH) and perception of happiness.Their relation with age, sex, number of children, marital status, income, education, employment status and class perception were evaluated. Chi-square and logistic regression analysis were used. Regression coefficients and their standard errors were derived to calculate odds ratios. Mean age was 66.96±5.78 (60-91), 58.16% were male and 76.32% were married. The majority (61.10%) was at lowest income level and 80.60% had education attainment at primary level or below. Very happy/quite happy were 81.77% while only 46.59% perceived their health as very good/good. The crisis year (2001) increased the risk of bad self-rated health 4.4 times, being a women 2.0 times, while being a widow had a 2.3-fold, low-income 3.0-fold effect. The odds for unhappy status was increased 4.3 times at low-income levels and 8.4 times for the divorced/separate living partners. Happiness state improved after crisis period. SRH and happiness of Turkish elderly bare demographic and socioeconomic inequalities. The inexistence of a partner, being a women, low-income level and major threats for it, like economic crisis, are important drivers for elderly health and happiness. To improve well-being of elderly, better social policies for income is essential and at economic crisis times, support policies should be prioritized for vulnerable groups, including elderly. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Barnes, Michael D.; Wykoff, Randy; King, Laura Rasar; Petersen, Donna J.
The article provides an overview of efforts to improve public health and health education training and on the potential use of Critical Component Elements (CCEs) for undergraduate health education programs toward more consistent quality assurance across programs. Considered in the context of the Galway Consensus Conference, the authors discuss the…
Ioannou, Soula; Kouta, Christiana; Charalambous, Neofytos
Purpose: This paper seeks to discuss the rationale of the newly reformed health education curriculum in Cyprus, which aspires to enable not only teachers, but also all the school personnel, to work from the perspective of health promotion. It is a curriculum which moves from the traditional approach of health education focusing on individual…
Wear, R F; Hawley, R C; James, M
Some common diseases or accidents that kill or disable persons prematurely are preventable, delayable or sometimes curable if detected early. Prevention, delay or cure requires that individuals be informed of the risks and of the ways they can avoid them, and that those with habits that increase their risks change their behavior. The authors decided to attempt health education of employees and their families by using a carnival setting to make it attractive and memorable. Active participation and demonstrations were used to stimulate interest and involvement to promote learning. Attendance was satisfactory and post-carnival conversations and questionnaires suggest that this might be a useful method of promoting health and safety with employees and their families.
Ndahindwa, Vedaste; Kamanzi, Collins; Semakula, Muhammed; Abalikumwe, François; Hedt-Gauthier, Bethany; Thomson, Dana R
Major improvements to Rwanda's health system, infrastructure, and social programs over the last decade have led to a rapid fertility transition unique from other African countries. The total fertility rate fell from 6.1 in 2005 to 4.6 in 2010, with a 3-fold increase in contraceptive usage. Despite this rapid national decline, many women still have large numbers of children. This study investigates predictors of fertility during this fertility transition to inform policies that improve individuals' reproductive health and guide national development. We used Poisson regression to separately model number of children born to ever married/cohabitated women (n = 8,309) and never married women (n = 1,220) age 15 to 49 based on 2010 Rwanda Demographic and Health Survey data. We used backward stepwise regression with a time offset to identify individual and household factors associated with woman's fertility level, accounting for sampling weights, clustering, and stratification. In ever married/cohabitating women, high fertility was significantly associated (p fertility in ever married/cohabitating women was associated with women's education (higher versus no education: IRR = 0.66), household wealth (highest versus lowest quintile: IRR = 0.93), and delayed sexual debut (25+ versus 8-18 years: IRR = 0.49). In never married women, low fertility was associated with education (higher versus no education: IRR = 0.22), household wealth (highest versus lowest quintile: IRR = 0.58), delayed sexual debut (25-49 versus 8-18 years: IRR = 0.43), and having an unmet need for contraception (IRR = 0.69). Although the study design does not allow causal conclusions, these results suggest several strategies to further reduce Rwanda's national fertility rate and support families to achieve their desired fertility. Strategies include policies and programs that promote delayed sexual debut via educational and economic opportunities for women, improved access to reproductive health information
Lindgren, Kurt; Sølling, Ina Koldkjær; Carøe, Per;
The purpose of this study is to develop an interdisciplinary learning environment between education in technology, business, and nursing. This collaboration contributes to the creation of a natural interest and motivation for welfare technology. The aim of establishing an interaction between the 3...... as a theoretical and practical learning center. The mission of the Student Academy is to support and facilitate education in order to maintain and upgrade knowledge and skills in information technology and information management in relation to e-health and Health Literacy. The Student Academy inspires students...... areas of expertise is to create an understanding for each other's skills and cultural differences. Futhermore enabling future talents to gain knowledge and skills to improve Health Literacy among senior citizens. Based on a holistic view on welfare technology a Student Academy was created...
Neupane, Subas; Prakash, K C; Doku, David Teye
Overweight and obesity are risk factors for many chronic diseases globally. However, the extent of the problem in low-income countries like Sub-Saharan Africa is unclear. We assessed the magnitude and disparity of both phenomena by place of residence, level of education and wealth quintile using cross-sectional data from 32 countries. Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data collected in 32 Sub-Saharan African countries between January 2005 and December 2013 were used. A total of 250651 women (aged 15-49 years) were analyzed. Trained personnel using a standardized procedure measured body weight and height. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated by dividing body weight by height squared. Prevalence of overweight (25.0-29.9 kg/m(2)) and obesity (≥ 30.0 kg/m(2)) were estimated for each country. Analysis of the relationships of overweight and obesity with place of residence, education and wealth index were carried out using logistic regression. The pooled prevalence of overweight for the region was 15.9% (95% CI, 15.7-16.0) with the lowest in Madagascar 5.6% (95% CI, 5.1-6.1) and the highest in Swaziland 27.7% (95% CI, 26.4-29.0). Similarly, the prevalence of obesity was also lowest in Madagascar 1.1% (95% CI, 0.9-1.4) and highest in Swaziland 23.0 (95% CI, 21.8-24.2). The women in urban residence and those who were classified as rich, with respect to the quintile of the wealth index, had higher likelihood of overweight and obesity. In the pooled results, high education was significantly associated with overweight and obesity. The prevalence of overweight and obesity varied highly between the countries and wealth index (rich vs. poor) was found to be the strongest predictor in most of the countries. Interventions that will address the socio-cultural barriers to maintaining healthy body size can contribute to curbing the overweight and obesity epidemic in Africa.
Hatch Stephani L
Full Text Available Abstract Background Responses to public health need require information on the distribution of mental and physical ill health by demographic and socioeconomic factors at the local community level. Methods The South East London Community Health (SELCoH study is a community psychiatric and physical morbidity survey. Trained interviewers conducted face-to-face computer assisted interviews with 1698 adults aged 16 years and over, from 1076 randomly selected private households in two south London boroughs. We compared the prevalence of common mental disorders, hazardous alcohol use, long standing illness and general physical health by demographic and socioeconomic indicators. Unadjusted and models adjusted for demographic and socioeconomic indicators are presented for all logistic regression models. Results Of those in the sample, 24.2% reported common mental disorder and 44.9% reported having a long standing illness, with 15.7% reporting hazardous alcohol consumption and 19.2% rating their health as fair or poor. The pattern of indicators identifying health inequalities for common mental disorder, poor general health and having a long term illness is similar; individuals who are socioeconomically disadvantaged have poorer health and physical health worsens as age increases for all groups. The prevalence of poor health outcomes by ethnic group suggests that there are important differences between groups, particularly for common mental disorder and poor general health. Higher socioeconomic status was protective for common mental disorder, fair or poor health and long standing illness, but those with higher socioeconomic status reported higher levels of hazardous alcohol use. The proportion of participants who met the criteria for common mental disorder with co-occurring functional limitations was similar or greater to those with poor physical health. Conclusions Health service providers and policy makers should prioritise high risk, socially defined
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Hypothermia is a major factor associated with neonatal mortality in low and middle income countries. Thermal care protection of newborn through a series of measures taken at birth and during the initial days of life is recommended to reduce the hypothermia and associated neonatal mortality. This study aimed to identify the prevalence of and the factors associated with receiving 'optimum thermal care' among home born newborns of Nepal. METHODS: Data from the Nepal Demographic and Health Surveys (NDHS 2011 were used for this study. Women who reported a home birth for their most recent childbirth was included in the study. Factors associated with optimum thermal care were examined using Chi-square test followed by logistic regression. RESULTS: A total of 2464 newborns were included in the study. A total of 57.6 % were dried before the placenta was delivered; 60.3% were wrapped; 24.5% had not bathing during the first 24 hours, and 63.9% were breastfed within one hour of birth. Overall, only 248 (10.7%; 95% CI (8.8 %, 12.9% newborns received optimum thermal care. Newborns whose mothers had achieved higher education (OR 2.810; 95% CI (1.132, 6.976, attended four or more antenatal care visits (OR 2.563; 95% CI (1.309, 5.017, and those whose birth were attended by skilled attendants (OR 2.178; 95% CI (1.428, 3.323 were likely to receive optimum thermal care. CONCLUSION: The current study showed that only one in ten newborns in Nepal received optimum thermal care. Future newborn survival programs should focus on those mothers who are uneducated; who do not attend the recommended four or more attend antenatal care visits; and those who deliver without the assistance of skilled birth attendants to reduce the risk of neonatal hypothermia in Nepal.
Dahlui, Maznah; Azahar, Nazar; Oche, Oche Mansur; Aziz, Norlaili Abdul
Background Low birth weight (LBW) continues to be the primary cause of infant morbidity and mortality. Objective This study was undertaken to identify the predictors of LBW in Nigeria. Design The data for this study was extracted from the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey conducted by the National Population Commission. Several questionnaires were used in the survey, some covering questions on pregnancy characteristics. The inclusion criteria include mothers who gave birth to a child...
Dahlui, Maznah; Azahar, Nazar; Oche, Oche Mansur; Abdul Aziz, Norlaili
Background: Low birth weight (LBW) continues to be the primary cause of infant morbidity and mortality.Objective: This study was undertaken to identify the predictors of LBW in Nigeria.Design: The data for this study was extracted from the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey conducted by the National Population Commission. Several questionnaires were used in the survey, some covering questions on pregnancy characteristics. The inclusion criteria include mothers who gave birth to a chil...
Maznah Dahlui; Nazar Azahar; Oche Mansur Oche; Norlaili Abdul Aziz
Background: Low birth weight (LBW) continues to be the primary cause of infant morbidity and mortality. Objective: This study was undertaken to identify the predictors of LBW in Nigeria. Design: The data for this study was extracted from the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey conducted by the National Population Commission. Several questionnaires were used in the survey, some covering questions on pregnancy characteristics. The inclusion criteria include mothers who gave birth to a ch...
Soura, Abdramane Bassiahi; Mberu, Blessing; Elungata, Patricia; Lankoande, Bruno; Millogo, Roch; Beguy, Donatien; Compaore, Yacouba
Studies on informal settlements in sub-Saharan Africa have questioned the health benefits of urban residence, but this should not suggest that informal settlements (within cities and across cities and/or countries) are homogeneous. They vary in terms of poverty, pollution, overcrowding, criminality, and social exclusion. Moreover, while some informal settlements completely lack public services, others have access to health facilities, sewers, running water, and electricity. There are few comparative studies that have looked at informal settlements across countries accounting for these contextual nuances. In this paper, we comparatively examine the differences in child vaccination rates between Nairobi and Ouagadougou's informal settlements. We further investigate whether the identified differences are related to the differences in demographic and socioeconomic composition between the two settings. We use data from the Ouagadougou and Nairobi Urban Health and Demographic Surveillance Systems (HDSSs), which are the only two urban-based HDSSs in Africa. The results show that children in the slums of Nairobi are less vaccinated than children in the informal settlements in Ouagadougou. The difference in child vaccination rates between Nairobi and Ouagadougou informal settlements are not related to the differences in their demographic and socioeconomic composition but to the inequalities in access to immunization services.
Tahereh Kamalikhah; Fatemeh Rahmati-Najarkolaei; Masoud Karimi
Background: The aim of this study is to explore the barriers on reproductive health education and prospects among teachers and students in the Zahedan city related to reproductive health education at schools...
Public speculation about bioterrorism and the increasing obesity epidemic are examples of current public health issues that continue to be illuminated in the spotlight. Major public health threats continue to drive the health job market and impact higher education health curricula (e.g., public health, health promotion, community health). Also,…
Welk, Gregory J.; Meredith, Marilu D.; Ihmels, Michelle; Seeger, Chris
This study examined demographic and geographic variability in aggregated school-level data on the percentage of students achieving the FITNESSGRAM[R] Healthy Fitness Zones[TM] (HFZ). Three-way analyses of variance were used to examine differences in fitness achievement rates among schools that had distinct diversity and socioeconomic status…
Full Text Available Background: In developing countries, Health and Demographic Surveillance Systems (HDSSs provide a framework for tracking demographic and health dynamics over time in a defined geographical area. Many HDSSs co-exist with facility-based data sources in the form of Health Management Information Systems (HMIS. Integrating both data sources through reliable record linkage could provide both numerator and denominator populations to estimate disease prevalence and incidence rates in the population and enable determination of accurate health service coverage. Objective: To measure the acceptability and performance of fingerprint biometrics to identify individuals in demographic surveillance populations and those attending health care facilities serving the surveillance populations. Methodology: Two HDSS sites used fingerprint biometrics for patient and/or surveillance population participant identification. The proportion of individuals for whom a fingerprint could be successfully enrolled were characterised in terms of age and sex. Results: Adult (18–65 years fingerprint enrolment rates varied between 94.1% (95% CI 93.6–94.5 for facility-based fingerprint data collection at the Africa Centre site to 96.7% (95% CI 95.9–97.6 for population-based fingerprint data collection at the Agincourt site. Fingerprint enrolment rates in children under 1 year old (Africa Centre site were only 55.1% (95% CI 52.7–57.4. By age 5, child fingerprint enrolment rates were comparable to those of adults. Conclusion: This work demonstrates the feasibility of fingerprint-based individual identification for population-based research in developing countries. Record linkage between demographic surveillance population databases and health care facility data based on biometric identification systems would allow for a more comprehensive evaluation of population health, including the ability to study health service utilisation from a population perspective, rather than the
Mielke, Danny R.
Increasingly, limited financial resources have resulted in program reductions in undergraduate physical education and health education at several higher education institutions. As traditional methods of program delivery are phased out, physical and health educators need to consider alternative forms of training and servicing future professionals.…
Wallerstein, Nina; Bernstein, Edward
This article contains three sections: (1) a literature review demonstrating that powerlessness is linked to disease and empowerment to health; (2) an exposition of Brazilian educator Paulo Freire's empowering education theory with a comparison to traditional health education; and (3) a case study of an empowering education substance abuse…
Candler, Chris S.; Uijtdehaage, Sebastian H. J.; Dennis, Sharon E.
Describes the development of a new Health Education Assets Library (HEAL), a freely accessible, national library of high-quality digital multimedia to support all levels of health sciences education. HEAL's primary mission is to provide educators with high-quality and free multimedia materials (such as images and videos) to augment health science…
Horowitz, Stephen M.; Laflin, Molly T.; Nims, Julia K.
Investigated how health educators could improve literature searches and increase the accessibility of their research to others. A frequency count of databases indexed 84 health education journals and analyzed the 16 top indexes for journal coverage. Results indicated that selecting the appropriate indexes can help health educators more effectively…
Laflin, Molly T.; Horowitz, Stephen M.; Nims, Julia K.
Developed a tool to help health-education researchers match manuscript submissions with the most appropriate journals. The Delphi method was used to elicit information from health-education leaders/scholars on primary content areas in health education, preeminent journals, and information about the journals. The results include nine categories and…
This paper discusses the importance of maternal and infant health for children's educational achievement. Education, health, and nutrition are so closely related that changes in one causes changes in the others. Improvement of maternal and preschooler health and nutrition is a precondition for improved educational achievement. Although parental…
Full Text Available Introduction: Education is a powerful tool in reducing dental diseases. It is known as an essential part of oral health services. This study evaluated the impact of education on oral health behavior of students based on health belief model. Methods: This educational intervention study was carried out on secondary school girls of Paveh, Iran in 2011. A standard questionnaire was used to collect the data, including demographic characteristics, dimensions of health belief model and performance of students before and after intervention. The educational intervention was conducted over three sessions. To examine differences between groups in terms of demographic factors, dimensions of health belief model and performance status before and after the intervention, Chi-square test and logistic regression were used. P0.05. Conclusion: The importance of education caused promoting dental health behaviors of students. It also emphasized adopting more appropriate methods for oral health training.
Di Pasquale, Aurelio; McCann, Robert S; Maire, Nicolas
Remotely sensed data can serve as an independent source of information about the location of residential structures in areas under demographic and health surveillance. We report on results obtained combining satellite imagery, imported from Bing, with location data routinely collected using the built-in GPS sensors of tablet computers, to assess completeness of population coverage in a Health and Demographic Surveillance System in Malawi. The Majete Malaria Project Health and Demographic Surveillance System, in Malawi, started in 2014 to support a project with the aim of studying the reduction of malaria using an integrated control approach by rolling out insecticide treated nets and improved case management supplemented with house improvement and larval source management. In order to support the monitoring of the trial a Health and Demographic Surveillance System was established in the area that surrounds the Majete Wildlife Reserve (1600 km2), using the OpenHDS data system. We compared house locations obtained using GPS recordings on mobile devices during the demographic surveillance census round with those acquired from satellite imagery. Volunteers were recruited through the crowdcrafting.org platform to identify building structures on the images, which enabled the compilation of a database with coordinates of potential residences. For every building identified on these satellite images by the volunteers (11,046 buildings identified of which 3424 (ca. 30%) were part of the censused area), we calculated the distance to the nearest house enumerated on the ground by fieldworkers during the census round of the HDSS. A random sample of buildings (85 structures) identified on satellite images without a nearby location enrolled in the census were visited by a fieldworker to determine how many were missed during the baseline census survey, if any were missed. The findings from this ground-truthing effort suggest that a high population coverage was achieved in the
Full Text Available Dental caries is one of the common diseases that are attributed by many factors. Many from the adult population are afflicted with dental caries. This study aimed to determine the predictors of developing dental caries among adults. Three hundred and thirty four adults participated in this study. Information gathered includes their socio-demographic backgrounds, oral health behaviour, physical activity level, body mass index, body fat percentages, visceral fat level, and dental missing filled extracted teeth (DMFX index. All standard protocols were observed and DMFX was examined using the World Health Organization (WHO criteria. Prevalence of dental caries was 87.4%, inclusive of 61.3% of female respondents with caries experience. Most of the study participants were overweight. Only the consumption of high sugar food (p=0.03 was found to be connected between dental caries and oral health behaviours. Regression analysis (p<0.001 showed that older age (p<0.001, regular visits to dental clinic per year (p=0.012, lower education level (p=0.025, and lower physical activity (p=0.008 were significant factors in developing dental caries among this study population. Older aged adults, frequent appointment with the dentist, lower education in oral health, and lower physical activity were possible factors for dental caries presence.
There have been significant developments in health education over recent years. Focusing on France, the purpose of this paper is to examine the role of health education in reducing social inequalities based on the example of the Atelier santé ville de Cahors (Cahors Health Workshop). The paper addresses the following questions: What are the results and outcomes of the workshop? What kind of health education issues are at stake in the territorial approach to policy-making in an urban context? We examined the methods underlying the health education measures taken in the Cahors Health Workshop, which involve project-based approaches and the promotion of community health. Health education aimed at improving health is central to issues such as listening and speaking, the development of autonomy and the responsibilization of urban actors. Based on a rigorous methodology and the underlying values, health education in the Cahors Health Workshop places local residents, elected representatives and health professionals at the heart of the health care process (from the diagnostic process to the assessment process) and contributes to the reduction of social inequalities in health while facilitating access to information and health care. The goal of health education is to encourage individuals to be responsible for their own health in order to empower them to make informed choices adapted to the demands of their environment.
Collins, J.J.; Lundy, R.T.; Grahn, D.; Ginevan, M.E.
The Simulation Package for the Analysis of Health Risk (SPAHR) is a computer software package based upon a demographic model for health risk projections. The model extends several health risk projection models by making realistic assumptions about the population at risk, and thus represents a distinct improvement over previous models. Complete documentation for use of SPAHR is contained in this five-volume publication. The demographic model in SPAHR estimates population response to environmental toxic exposures. Latency of response, changing dose level over time, competing risks from other causes of death, and population structure can be incorporated into SPAHR to project health risks. Risks are measured by morbid years, number of deaths, and loss of life expectancy. Comparisons of estimates of excess deaths demonstrate that previous health risk projection models may have underestimated excess deaths by a factor of from 2 to 10, depending on the pollutant and the exposure scenario. The software supporting the use of the demographic model is designed to be user oriented. Complex risk projections are made by responding to a series of prompts generated by the package. The flexibility and ease of use of SPAHR make it an important contribution to existing models and software packages. The first volume presents the theory behind the SPAHR health risk projection model and several applications of the model to actual pollution episodes. The elements required for an effective health risk projection model are specified, and the models that have been used to date in health risk projections are outlined. These are compared with the demographic model, whose formulation is described in detail. Examples of the application of air pollution and radiation dose-response functions are included in order to demonstrate the estimation of future mortality and morbidity levels and the range of variation in excess deaths that occurs when populations structure is changed.
Khanal, Vishnu; Adhikari, Mandira; Sauer, Kay; Zhao, Yun
A prelacteal feed is any food except mother's milk provided to a newborn before initiating breastfeeding. Prelacteal feeding is a major barrier to exclusive breastfeeding. It is a prevalent practice in Nepal. Little is known about the factors associated with providing prelacteal feeds to the Nepalese newborn. This study explored the factors associated with providing prelacteal feeds to children under three years in Nepal using the Nepal Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) 2011. This study utilised the NDHS 2011 child dataset which is a nationally representative study. The rates of providing prelacteal feeds were reported as a proportion. Complex Sample Analysis method was used to account for the cluster design and sample weight of the study. Chi-square tests and multiple logistic regression were used to analyse the factors associated with providing prelacteal feeds. A sample of 3948 mothers were included in the study. A total of 841 [26.5% (95% CI: 23.1%-30.3%)] weighted proportion) of mothers reported of providing prelacteal feeds to their newborn infants. Plain water (n = 75), sugar/glucose (n = 35), gripe water (n = 3), sugar/salt solution (n = 3), fruit juice (n = 3), infant formula (n = 96), tea (n = 3) and other milk other than breast milk (n = 556) were some of the types of prelacteal feeds reported. The multiple regression analysis showed that the mothers who had no education, were not working, were from the middle wealth quintile, who had not attended four antenatal care visits, were first time mothers and who were from the Terai/Plain region were more likely to provide prelacteal feeds. Given that one in four infants were provided with prelacteal feeds, there is a need to implement breastfeeding promotion programs to increase the practice of exclusive breastfeeding and reduce prelacteal feeding practices. Breastfeeding counseling at antenatal clinics and peer support for exclusive breastfeeding should be included as part
Bouba Djourdebbé, Franklin; Dos Santos, Stéphanie; Legrand, Thomas K; Soura, Abdramane Bassiahi
Using data on 825 under-5 children from the Ouagadougou Health and Demographic Surveillance System collected in 2010, this article examines the effects of aspects of the immediate environment on childhood fever. Logit regression models were estimated to assess the effects of the quality of the local environment on the probability that a child is reported to have had a fever in the two weeks preceding the survey, after controlling for various demographic and socioeconomic variables. While the estimated impact of some environmental factors persisted in the full models, the effects of variables such as access to water and type of household waste management decreased in the presence of demographic, socioeconomic and neighbourhood factors. The management of waste water was found to significantly affect the occurrence of childhood fever. Overall, the results of the study call for more efforts to promote access to tap water to households at prices that are affordable for the local population, where the threats to child health appears to be greatest.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal mortality in Kenya increased from 380/100000 live births to 530/100000 live births between 1990 and 2008. Skilled assistance during childbirth is central to reducing maternal mortality yet the proportion of deliveries taking place in health facilities where such assistance can reliably be provided has remained below 50% since the early 1990s. We use the 2008/2009 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey data to describe the factors that determine where women deliver in Kenya and to explore reasons given for home delivery. Methods Data on place of delivery, reasons for home delivery, and a range of potential explanatory factors were collected by interviewer-led questionnaire on 3977 women and augmented with distance from the nearest health facility estimated using health facility Global Positioning System (GPS co-ordinates. Predictors of whether the woman’s most recent delivery was in a health facility were explored in an exploratory risk factor analysis using multiple logistic regression. The main reasons given by the woman for home delivery were also examined. Results Living in urban areas, being wealthy, more educated, using antenatal care services optimally and lower parity strongly predicted where women delivered, and so did region, ethnicity, and type of facilities used. Wealth and rural/urban residence were independently related. The effect of distance from a health facility was not significant after controlling for other variables. Women most commonly cited distance and/or lack of transport as reasons for not delivering in a health facility but over 60% gave other reasons including 20.5% who considered health facility delivery unnecessary, 18% who cited abrupt delivery as the main reason and 11% who cited high cost. Conclusion Physical access to health facilities through distance and/or lack of transport, and economic considerations are important barriers for women to delivering in a health facility in Kenya
Hanchate, Amresh D; Ash, Arlene S; Gazmararian, Julie A; Wolf, Michael S; Paasche-Orlow, Michael K
To impute limited health literacy from commonly measured socio-demographic data and to compare it to the Short-Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (S-TOFHLA) for estimating the influence of limited health literacy on health status in the elderly. The Prudential Medicare Study assesses the S-TOFHLA score, leading to a "reference standard" classification of 25% of people with inadequate literacy; the National Health Interview Survey has no such assessment. We estimated a regression of S-TOFHLA on sex, age, years of schooling, and race/ethnicity in The Prudential Medicare Study data to derive a Demographic Assessment for Health Literacy (DAHL) score, and imputed inadequate literacy to the 25% with the lowest DAHL scores. Using regression, we then examined associations between several health status measures (including hypertension, diabetes, physical and mental SF-12) and inadequate literacy (imputed or test-based). Estimates of association using imputed inadequate literacy closely approximate those obtained using S-TOFHLA-based inadequate literacy for most outcomes examined. As few population surveys measure health literacy, the DAHL, a readily calculated health literacy proxy score, may be useful for expanding the scope of health literacy research in national survey data.
Jill R. Williams
Full Text Available Background: Research training for public health professionals is key to the future of public health and policy in Africa. A growing number of schools of public health are connected to health and socio-demographic surveillance system field sites in developing countries, in Africa and Asia in particular. Linking training programs with these sites provides important opportunities to improve training, build local research capacity, foreground local health priorities, and increase the relevance of research to local health policy. Objective: To increase research training capacity in public health programs by providing targeted training to students and increasing the accessibility of existing data. Design: This report is a case study of an approach to linking public health research and training at the University of the Witwatersrand. We discuss the development of a sample training database from the Agincourt Health and Socio-demographic Surveillance System in South Africa and outline a concordant transnational intensive short course on longitudinal data analysis offered by the University of the Witwatersrand and the University of Colorado-Boulder. This case study highlights ways common barriers to linking research and training can be overcome. Results and Conclusions: This collaborative effort demonstrates that linking training to ongoing data collection can improve student research, accelerate student training, and connect students to an international network of scholars. Importantly, the approach can be adapted to other partnerships between schools of public health and longitudinal research sites.
The Global Health Education Consortium (GHEC) is a group of universities and institutions committed to improving the health and human rights of underserved populations worldwide through improved education and training of the global health workforce. In the early 1990s, GHEC brought together many of the global health programs in North America to improve competencies and curricula in global health as well as to involve member institutions in health policy, development issues, and delivery of care in the inner cities, marginalized areas, and abroad.
Meningaud, J P; Moutel, G; Hervé, C
In Europe, the piercing mode has naturally been associated with specific complications raising an important public health problem. The debate on the role physicians should play requires a careful analysis of the ethical issues involved. Specifically, should the piercing be done in a medical setting? This question is raised because, when performed under ideal conditions, the act of piercing requires a certain degree of medical competency: history taking, asepsia, technical procedure (hemostasis), anesthesia.... However, mandatory medicalization would not, in our opinion, appear to be desirable since we are dealing with a social rite which lies outside the domain of specific medical care. Nevertheless, although we do not advocate systematic medicalization, we do believe that medicine should play a role, in terms of public health, in this emerging practice. We discuss the modalities of a health education dialogue which could be established with professional practicing piercing.
Vamos, Sandra; Hayos, Julia
The health education profession has developed over recent years garnering national and international attention. Canada's evolving health education perspective emphasizing the concept of health literacy within the broader public health system reflects the need for trained, competent and skilled health educators designing, implementing and…
The Cancer Classroom Series is a collection of webinars that highlights topics that provide the educational content, tools, and resources necessary for health professionals, especially those working in public health, to address cancer as a public health problem.
In this article, Genevieve Siegel-Hawley illuminates the challenges and opportunities posed by demographic change in suburban school systems. As expanding student populations stretch the enrollment capacities of existing schools in suburban communities, new schools are built and attendance lines are redrawn. This redistricting process can be used…
Marques, Carla S.; Ferreira, Joao J.; Gomes, Daniela N.; Rodrigues, Ricardo Gouveia
Purpose: Based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), the purpose of this paper is to approach entrepreneurial intention (EI) and the factors preceding the founding of EI among secondary students, both studying general academic and specific professional programs, and thereby establish causal relationships between psychological, demographic and…
Ogunlesi, Tinuade A; Ogunlesi, Funmilayo B
Poor care-seeking behaviour of families may be responsible for the high prevalence of complications of newborn jaundice in the developing world. To examine the influence of family socio-demographic characteristics and maternal obstetric factors on health care-seeking behaviours for newborn jaundice and the inter-relationship between this behavior and severity of newborn jaundice. Mothers whose babies were referred to a Nigerian tertiary hospital with jaundice were studied in a cross-sectional survey for appropriate health-care seeking behaviours as well as the need for exchange transfusion and the occurrence of kernicterus in their babies. Out of 182 mother-baby pairs, 127 (69.8%) mothers recognized jaundice in their infants, 34.1% delayed care for ≥48 h, 40.6% sought medical care in orthodox health facilities while 20.9% did not seek care outside the home. In all, 61.5% mothers administered various medications to jaundiced babies. Appropriate health care-seeking behaviours were recorded among 28.6% mothers. Low maternal education had a significant relationship with delayed health care-seeking and the use of home remedies for newborn jaundice. A significantly higher proportion of babies who had home remedies had delayed care. Delayed care for ≥48 h was also significantly associated with high Total Serum Bilirubin on admission, higher requirement for exchange transfusion and higher occurrence of kernicterus. Intensive health education of families may help improve their health care-seeking behaviours for neonatal jaundice.
Lluch-Canut, Teresa; Puig-Llobet, Montserrat; Sánchez-Ortega, Aurelia; Roldán-Merino, Juan; Ferré-Grau, Carmen
A holistic perspective on health implies giving careful consideration to the relationship between physical and mental health. In this regard the present study sought to determine the level of Positive Mental Health (PMH) among people with chronic physical health problems, and to examine the relationship between the observed levels of PMH and both physical health status and socio-demographic variables. The study was based on the Multifactor Model of Positive Mental Health (Lluch, 1999), which comprises six factors: Personal Satisfaction (F1), Prosocial Attitude (F2), Self-control (F3), Autonomy (F4), Problem-solving and Self-actualization (F5), and Interpersonal Relationship Skills (F6). The sample comprised 259 adults with chronic physical health problems who were recruited through a primary care center in the province of Barcelona (Spain). Positive mental health was assessed by means of the Positive Mental Health Questionnaire (Lluch, 1999). Levels of PMH differed, either on the global scale or on specific factors, in relation to the following variables: age: global PMH scores decreased with age (r=-0.129; p=0.038); b) gender: men scored higher on F1 (t=2.203; p=0.028) and F4 (t=3.182; p=0.002), while women scored higher on F2 (t -3.086; p=0.002) and F6 (t=-2.744; p=0.007); c) number of health conditions: the fewer the number of health problems the higher the PMH score on F5 (r=-0.146; p=0.019); d) daily medication: polymedication patients had lower PMH scores, both globally and on various factors; e) use of analgesics: occasional use of painkillers was associated with higher PMH scores on F1 (t=-2.811; p=0.006). There were no significant differences in global PMH scores according to the type of chronic health condition. The only significant difference in the analysis by factors was that patients with hypertension obtained lower PMH scores on the factor Autonomy (t=2.165; p=0.032). Most people with chronic physical health problems have medium or high levels of PMH
Titaley Christiana R
Full Text Available Abstract Background Antenatal care aims to prevent maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity. In Indonesia, at least four antenatal visits are recommended during pregnancy. However, this service has been underutilized. This study aimed to examine factors associated with underutilization of antenatal care services in Indonesia. Methods We used data from Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey (IDHS 2002/2003 and 2007. Information of 26,591 singleton live-born infants of the mothers' most recent birth within five years preceding each survey was examined. Twenty-three potential risk factors were identified and categorized into four main groups, external environment, predisposing, enabling, and need factors. Logistic regression models were used to examine the association between all potential risk factors and underutilization of antenatal services. The Population Attributable Risk (PAR was calculated for selected significant factors associated with the outcome. Results Factors strongly associated with underutilization of antenatal care services were infants from rural areas and from outer Java-Bali region, infants from low household wealth index and with low maternal education level, and high birth rank infants with short birth interval of less than two years. Other associated factors identified included mothers reporting distance to health facilities as a major problem, mothers less exposed to mass media, and mothers reporting no obstetric complications during pregnancy. The PAR showed that 55% of the total risks for underutilization of antenatal care services were attributable to the combined low household wealth index and low maternal education level. Conclusions Strategies to increase the accessibility and availability of health care services are important particularly for communities in rural areas. Financial support that enables mothers from poor households to use health services will be beneficial. Health promotion programs targeting
Full Text Available Under nutrition is a direct consequence of poverty with its characteristics of low socio-economic status poor living conditions poor maternal education large family size inadequate access to quality food safe water and health services. Recently there have been significant improvements in the overall health of the Maldivian population with an increase in life expectancy and a decline in maternal and infant mortality rates. However infant under nutrition is still a concern. Field testing of WHO growth standards in 2006 in Maldives indicated that more than one third of children under five years were stunted and that children classified as tall hardly reach the WHO standard for mean height. Examining maternal characteristics that may contribute to under nutrition in Maldivian children will assist in designingimplementing population based public health interventions aimed at improving infant and childhood nutrition. This study is based on secondary analysis of data from the Maldives Demographic Health Survey MDHS 2009. The study results showed that height for age z-score was lowest from ages 6 to 29 months. Factors significantly associated with the rate of stunting included size of child at birth height of the mother duration of breastfeeding difficulties in obtaining money needed for medical help for mother absence of a health service provider when obtaining medical help for mother after adjusting for socio-economic factors.
Böcking, W; Tidelski, O; Skuras, B; Bäumler, A; Kitzmann, F
Health Insurance costs in Germany have grown constantly over the last years. This increase of costs is not only observable in the total consideration but also in all single items. An outstanding growth rate exists in the field of pharmaceutical expenses. Detailed analyses of distribution and development of these costs, separated by age and indication groups, are currently only sporadically available and mostly focusing on the Statutory Health Insurance system in Germany. This research article is based on an initial data analysis and focuses on the question how pharmaceutical expenses in a German private health insurance company will develop until the year 2050, if the observed trend of the past years continues in the same way. This analysis focuses on different age groups. The objective is the demonstration of several scenarios, which illustrate the level of influence of different parameters (demographic changes, developments of prices for pharmaceuticals). Based on the cognition of certain effects measures for handling the growing challenge of financing the health system can be deduced. As a result, both demographic changes and price effects have an significant impact on the future development of per capita pharmaceutical expenses. Whereas older age groups will still cause the highest costs, the middle-aged people will show the highest growth rates. This strong cost increase is not sustainable for the German health insurance system. In addition to previous measures of a regulatory health policy (especially improved cost-benefit-assessments) the article shows new approaches for an intensified prevention and health promotion. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
The health promotion and health education literature has references to health counselling. Yet, beyond the field of health, coaching has become a popular method to enhance and facilitate individual and group performance in business, sports, and personal areas of life. This paper focuses on the recent development of health coaching by practitioners…
The health promotion and health education literature has references to health counselling. Yet, beyond the field of health, coaching has become a popular method to enhance and facilitate individual and group performance in business, sports, and personal areas of life. This paper focuses on the recent development of health coaching by practitioners…
Full Text Available During the past, Health Education has been taking place in a variety of ways: prevention, monitoring and control of potentially epidemic diseases. New trends have been arising (such as 'health corners', interdisciplinary activities, exhibit, 'mini-university' for children, etc.. But it is important to discuss what 'Health Education' means, and define 'health' and rethink educational strategies. Several evaluations have highlighted the limited impact that communication activities, or one-off awareness campaigns, may have.
Miccas, Fernanda Luppino; Batista, Sylvia Helena Souza da Silva
To undertake a meta-synthesis of the literature on the main concepts and practices related to permanent education in health. A bibliographical search was conducted for original articles in the PubMed, Web of Science, LILACS, IBECS and SciELO databases, using the following search terms: "public health professional education", "permanent education", "continuing education", "permanent education health". Of the 590 articles identified, after applying inclusion and exclusion criteria, 48 were selected for further analysis, grouped according to the criteria of key elements, and then underwent meta-synthesis. The 48 original publications were classified according to four thematic units of key elements: 1) concepts, 2) strategies and difficulties, 3) public policies and 4) educational institutions. Three main conceptions of permanent education in health were found: problem-focused and team work, directly related to continuing education and education that takes place throughout life. The main strategies for executing permanent education in health are discussion, maintaining an open space for permanent education , and permanent education clusters. The most limiting factor is mainly related to directly or indirect management. Another highlight is the requirement for implementation and maintenance of public policies, and the availability of financial and human resources. The educational institutions need to combine education and service aiming to form critical-reflexive graduates. The coordination between health and education is based as much on the actions of health services as on management and educational institutions. Thus, it becomes a challenge to implement the teaching-learning processes that are supported by critical-reflexive actions. It is necessary to carry out proposals for permanent education in health involving the participation of health professionals, teachers and educational institutions. To undertake a meta-synthesis of the literature on the main concepts and
Full Text Available Hideo Uno, Kenneth ZakariasenDepartment of Public Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, CanadaAbstract: Public health leadership is one of the priority disciplines public health professionals need to learn well if they are to deal with demanding public health issues effectively and efficiently. This article looks at the trends in public health leadership education by reviewing the literature and using the Internet to explore the public health leadership programs offered in various parts of the world, and suggests several principles to be taken into account for the development of public health leadership education in the future. A variety of educational programs in public health leadership are classified into several types in terms of their formats: degree programs offered by schools of public health or other programs of public health, those offered in partnership with public health agencies, and so on. All of these programs have important implications for the overall effectiveness of public health leadership education. For public health leadership education to be effective, the partnership between academia and public health agencies is vitally important. Programs should provide opportunities to learn on the basis of practical public health experience, a commitment to life-long learning, flexibility in design, and recognition of the diverse needs of individuals and communities. The application of distance learning methods is one of the options to make this possible.Keywords: public health leadership, public health professionals, school of public health
Heidkamp, Rebecca; Ayoya, Mohamed Ag; Teta, Ismael Ngnie; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J; Marhone, Joseline Pierre
Haiti's national nutrition policy prioritises breastfeeding, but limited data are available to inform strategy. We examined national trends in early initiation of breastfeeding (ErIBF) and exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) over a 10-year period using data from three Haitian Demographic and Health Surveys (1994-1995, 2000 and 2005-2006). We used multivariate regression methods to identify determinants of ErIBF and EBF in the 2005-2006 data set and to examine relationships to growth. There was no change in ErIBF across surveys [1994-1995: 36.6%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 29.9-43.9; 2000: 49.4%, 95% CI 44.1-54.8; 2005-2006: 43.8%, 95% CI 40.5-47.1]. EBF among 0-5-month-olds increased sharply (1994-18995: 1.1%, 95% CI 0.4-3.2; 2000: 22.4%, 95% CI 16.5-29.5; 2005-2006: 41.2%, 95% CI 35.4-47.2). The proportion of breastfeeding children 0-5 months who received soft, solid or semi-solid foods decreased (1994-1995: 68.5%, 95% CI 57.3-77.9; 2000: 46.3%, 95% CI 39.3-53.4; 2005-2006: 30.9%, 95% CI 25.9-36.5). Child age at time of survey [odds ratio (OR) 1.73; P = 0.027], lower maternal education (OR = 2.14, P = 0.004) and residence in the Artibonite Department (OR 0.31; P = 0.001) were associated with ErIBF among children 0-23 months. Age group and department were significant predictors of EBF among children 0-5 months. ErIBF was associated with higher weight-for-age z-scores [effect size (ES) 0.22; P = 0.033] and height-for-age z-scores (ES 0.20; P = 0.044). There was no statistically significant relationship between EBF and growth. The 10-year ErIBF and EBF trends in Haiti echo global and regional trends. ErIBF and EBF are related practices but with different determinants in the Haitian context. These differences have implications for intervention delivery.
Syeda Kanwal Aslam
Full Text Available Violence against women is regarded as a major violation of human rights, and several socio-behavioral aspects among victims have been identified as important determinants of spousal violence experience. Pakistani nationally representative contextual evidence is scarce in this regard. We aimed to estimate prevalence of spousal violence, and explore its association with intergenerational transfer, and attitudinal acceptance of violence, among Pakistani ever-married women.Data of 3,687 ever-married women from Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey, 2012-13 was used to perform secondary analysis. Logistic regression analyses were conducted. Association between the different forms of spousal violence and the independent variables: intergenerational transfer of spousal violence (mother also beaten up by father; and attitudinal acceptance of spousal violence (beating is justifies if wife argues with husband were reported as Odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals (CI.Overall, more than a third (n=1344, 37.9%of ever-married women reported that they experienced spousal violence. Almost 68% (n=539 of the women who reported that their mothers were also beaten up by their fathers, were victims of spousal violence; and almost 47% (n=603 of the women who agreed that beating was justified if the wife argues with her husband, also suffered spousal violence. Intergenerational transfer (OR =5.71, 95%CI 4.40-7.41, p-value <0.01, and attitudinal acceptance (OR =1.66, 95%CI 1.27-2.15, p-value <0.01 were significantly associated with experience of physical violence even after adjusting for respondents' age at marriage, education level, wealth index, parity, employment status, and empowerment status.Spousal violence continues to haunt the lives of women in Pakistan, and is being transmitted as a learned behavior from mothers to daughters who tend to accept such violation of human rights. Girl children from such unfortunate homes may continue to transmit such
Perrier, Marie-Josée; Shirazipour, Celina H; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E
Despite numerous physical, social, and mental health benefits of engaging in moderate and vigorous intensity physical activities (e.g., sport), few individuals with acquired physical disabilities currently participate in adapted sport. Theory-based sport promotion interventions are one possible way to increase the amount of individuals who engage in sport. The primary objective of this study was to examine the profiles of three different sport participation groups with respect to demographic, injury, and Health Action Process Approach (HAPA) constructs. ANOVAs and Chi-square tests were used to determine group differences on demographic and disability-related constructs. A MANCOVA was conducted to determine differences between three sport participation groups (non-intenders, intenders, and actors) with age, years post-injury, mode of mobility, and sex included as covariates. A cohort of 201 individuals was recruited; 56 (27.9%) were non-intenders, 21 (10.4%) were intenders, and 124 (61.7%) were actors. The MANCOVA revealed significant differences between groups on the HAPA constructs, F(22,370) = 9.02, p health behavior constructs differently based on their sport intentions. These results provide an important framework that adapted sport organizations can use to tailor their sport promotion programs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Akl, Elie A; Kairouz, Victor F; Sackett, Kay M; Erdley, William S; Mustafa, Reem A; Fiander, Michelle; Gabriel, Carolynne; Schünemann, Holger
The use of games as an educational strategy has the potential to improve health professionals' performance (e.g. adherence to standards of care) through improving their knowledge, skills and attitudes. The objective was to assess the effect of educational games on health professionals' performance, knowledge, skills, attitude and satisfaction, and on patient outcomes. We searched the following databases in January 2012: MEDLINE, AMED, CINAHL, Cochrane Central Database of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, EPOC Register, ERIC, Proquest Dissertations & Theses Database, and PsycINFO. Related reviews were sought in DARE and the above named databases. Database searches identified 1546 citations. We also screened the reference lists of included studies in relevant reviews, contacted authors of relevant papers and reviews, and searched ISI Web of Science for papers citing studies included in the review. These search methods identified an additional 62 unique citations for a total of 1608 for this update. We included randomized controlled trials (RCT), controlled clinical trials (CCT), controlled before and after (CBA) and interrupted time-series analysis (ITS). Study participants were qualified health professionals or in postgraduate training. The intervention was an educational game with "a form of competitive activity or sport played according to rules". Using a standardized data form we extracted data on methodological quality, participants, interventions and outcomes of interest that included patient outcomes, professional behavior (process of care outcomes), and professional's knowledge, skills, attitude and satisfaction. The search strategy identified a total of 2079 unique citations. Out of 84 potentially eligible citations, we included two RCTs. The game evaluated in the first study used as a reinforcement technique, was based on the television game show "Family Feud" and focused on infection control. The study did not assess any patient or process of care outcomes. The
Bracke, Piet; van de Straat, Vera; Missinne, Sarah
Higher-educated people experience enhanced mental health. We ponder whether the mental health benefits of educational attainment are limitless. At the individual level, we look at the impact of job-education mismatch. At the societal level, we hypothesize that diminishing economic returns on education limit its mental health benefits. Using a subsample of individuals aged 20 to 65 years (N = 28,288) from 21 countries in the European Social Survey (ESS 2006), we estimate the impact on depressive symptoms of characteristics at both the employee level (years of education and job-education mismatch) and the labor market/country level (the gap between the nontertiary and tertiary educated in terms of unemployment risks and earnings). The results show that educational attainment produces mental health benefits in most European countries. However, in some of the countries, these benefits are limited or even completely eliminated by education-labor market misfit. © American Sociological Association 2014.
Hill, Lilian H.
This chapter examines multiple convergent forces affecting health, relates these to social determinants of health and critical adult health learning, and closes with discussion of opportunities for adult educators to contribute to human health at the individual, community, health provider, policy/regulatory agency, and international levels.
Friis, Karina; Lyng, Jeppe I; Lasgaard, Mathias; Larsen, Finn B
The objective of this study is to estimate the prevalence of energy drink consumption and examine the associations of socio-demographic factors and health behaviour with energy drink consumption among young adults in Denmark. The study is based on a public health survey from 2010 (n = 3923). Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to analyse the association between weekly consumption of energy drink and the potential explanatory factors of interest. In total, 15.8 % of the young adults drink energy drinks on a weekly basis. Men have higher odds of weekly energy drink consumption than women. The study also shows that young age, being employed and having a low educational level are associated with weekly energy drink consumption. According to health behaviour, daily smoking, high amounts of alcohol consumption, alcoholic binge drinking and being overweight are associated with weekly energy drink consumption. Compared with other European countries the prevalence of energy drink consumption is relatively low in Denmark. In Denmark energy drink consumption is typically a male phenomenon and there is a clear social gradient in the prevalence of energy drink consumption where the intake is far more common among people with low levels of education than among people with higher levels of education. This study also shows that there is some kind of 'add on' effect of energy drinks, meaning that people who also use other stimulants-such as alcohol and cigarettes-are more inclined to consume energy drinks. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.
Dudley, Dean; Goodyear, Victoria; Baxter, David
Background: The United Nations Educational, Cultural and Scientific Organization (UNESCO) recognizes quality physical education (QPE) must, along with physical, social and affective educative goals, seek to improve the health status of youth (UNESCO, 2015). Health-Optimizing Physical Education (HOPE) is a model of physical education (PE) that…
Dudley, Dean; Goodyear, Victoria; Baxter, David
Background: The United Nations Educational, Cultural and Scientific Organization (UNESCO) recognizes quality physical education (QPE) must, along with physical, social and affective educative goals, seek to improve the health status of youth (UNESCO, 2015). Health-Optimizing Physical Education (HOPE) is a model of physical education (PE) that…
Lynn, Richard; Vanhanen, Tatu
This paper summarizes the results of 244 correlates of national IQs that have been published from 2002 through 2012 and include educational attainment, cognitive output, educational input, per capita income, economic growth, other economic variables, crime, political institutions, health, fertility, sociological variables, and geographic and…
Lynn, Richard; Vanhanen, Tatu
This paper summarizes the results of 244 correlates of national IQs that have been published from 2002 through 2012 and include educational attainment, cognitive output, educational input, per capita income, economic growth, other economic variables, crime, political institutions, health, fertility, sociological variables, and geographic and…
Bishnu P. Choulagai
Full Text Available Background: Estimates of disease burden in Nepal are based on cross-sectional studies that provide inadequate epidemiological information to support public health decisions. This study compares the health and demographic indicators at the end of 2012 in the Jhaukhel-Duwakot Health Demographic Surveillance Site (JD-HDSS with the baseline conducted at the end of 2010. We also report on the use of skilled birth attendants (SBAs and associated factors in the JD-HDSS at the follow-up point. Design: We used a structured questionnaire to survey 3,505 households in the JD-HDSS, Bhaktapur, Nepal. To investigate the use of SBAs, we interviewed 434 women who had delivered a baby within the prior 2 years. We compared demographic and health indicators at baseline and follow-up and assessed the association of SBA services with background variables. Results: Due to rising in-migration, the total population and number of households in the JD-HDSS increased (13,669 and 2,712 in 2010 vs. 16,918 and 3,505 in 2012. Self-reported morbidity decreased (11.1% vs. 7.1%, respectively, whereas accidents and injuries increased (2.9% vs. 6.5% of overall morbidity, respectively. At follow-up, the proportion of institutional delivery (93.1% exceeded the national average (36%. Women who accessed antenatal care and used transport (e.g. bus, taxi, motorcycle to reach a health facility were more likely to access institutional delivery. Conclusions: High in-migration increased the total population and number of households in the JD-HDSS, a peri-urban area where most health indicators exceed the national average. Major morbidity conditions (respiratory diseases, fever, gastrointestinal problems, and bone and joint problems remain unchanged. Further investigation of reasons for increased proportion of accidents and injuries are recommended for their timely prevention. More than 90% of our respondents received adequate antenatal care and used institutional delivery, but only 13
Beauchamp, Alison; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Dodson, Sarity
Background: Recent advances in the measurement of health literacy allow description of a broad range of personal and social dimensions of the concept. Identifying differences in patterns of health literacy between population sub-groups will increase understanding of how health literacy contributes...... providers' (ES -1.00 [95 % CI -1.24, -0.75]), and 'Navigating the healthcare system' (ES -0.72 [95 % CI -0.97, -0.48]). Similar patterns and ES were seen for participants born overseas compared with those born in Australia. Smaller ES were seen for sex, age group, private health insurance status, number...
Full Text Available Is education the best contraceptive? Using the multistate human capital projection model, our analysis shows that the projected changes in India population vary depending on investments in education and helping women reduce unwanted fertility rates, that investments in both education and helping women in each education category—but particularly less educated women—meet their wanted fertility will have the largest impacts on India’s population projections, and that the impact from investment in reducing unwanted fertility will be much more immediate and significant than only investments in education. Our analysis also reveals that an increasing education transition rate in India will not only help to achieve a population age structure that is favorable for economic growth, but also result in a larger share of skilled labor force that help to achieve higher economic growth rate. More importantly, investment in girls’ education and achieving gender equality in education will be the most effective measure to increase India’s population education level and improve its overall values of human capital.
Verropoulou, Georgia; Tsimbos, Cleon
Depression in later life is one of the most prevalent conditions forecasted to rise to the second most burdensome health condition worldwide by 2020. Using data from the 2004 Study of Health Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE: release 1) on 857 Greek males and 1,032 females aged 50 or higher this study explores, firstly, associations of socio-demographic and health related indicators with depressive symptoms (EURO-D) and, secondly, attempts to identify patterns and structures among them. To achieve the first objective, the 12-item summated EURO-D scale is used in binary form with a cut-off point clinically validated by the EURODEP. Use of logistic regression pinpoints strong associations with gender, years of education, co-morbidity, disability, cognitive function and past depression. Women, less educated persons, those with poor physical health, declining cognitive function and a history of depression are significantly more at risk of scoring higher than three at the EURO-D scale. The role of age is not as clear. To achieve the second objective, multiple correspondence analysis is used in the first instance and factor analysis for binary data subsequently; two components are identified within EURO-D and continuous factor scores are produced. These factors are called "affective suffering" and "motivation". Linear regression models reveal that the first component is responsible for the gender while the second for the age differentials in EURO-D; additionally we find that, apart from physical health indicators which are strongly related to both factors, other associations differ. Further exploration of this differentiation seems of interest, particularly as there is an indication that "motivation" may be an affectively neutral condition.
Full Text Available Education and health care policies in Ghana since independence have been universalist in approach providing free universal health care and free basic and tertiary education until the early 1980s. Precipitated primarily by a severe drought, stagnant economic growth, mismanagement, and political instability, Ghana undertook major economic reforms with prodding from the World Bank and International Monetary Fund in a bid to salvage the economy. These economic measures included cost recovery and cutback spending in education and health sectors. However, in recent years, purposive targeted interventions have been pursued to address inequalities in education and health care. These new programs include the Education Capitation Grant, school feeding program, and the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS, which are propelling Ghana toward the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals. The prospects of these programs in addressing disparities in access to education and health care in the country and recommendations for improved delivery are discussed.
Full Text Available ... Criteria Annual Career Conference Work Life Resources More Education and Training CME and Events Calendar Residency Fellowships ... and your family about a healthful celiac lifestyle. Education is key in making parents feel more at ...
Full Text Available ... Criteria Annual Career Conference Work Life Resources More Education and Training CME and Events Calendar Residency Fellowships ... and your family about a healthful celiac lifestyle. Education is key in making parents feel more at ...
Atteraya, Madhu Sudhan; Kimm, Heejin; Song, In Han
Women with greater autonomy have higher HIV-related knowledge and condom use. Inability to negotiate safer sex in high-risk situations might increase HIV infection. This study examined the relationship between women's autonomy and ability to negotiate safer sex practices among married women. The 2011 Nepal Demographic and Health Survey data were used. The data were collected by two-stage stratified cluster sampling and face-to-face interviews. Autonomy was measured in Decision-Making Participation and Assets Ownership, while ability to negotiate safer sex consists of Refusal of Sex and Ask for Condom Use. Among 12,674 women of 15-49 years, married women were analyzed (n = 8,896). Women with greater autonomy in decision-making participation were more likely to negotiate safer sex. After controlling for socio-demographic factors, odds ratios (OR) for refusal of sex was 2.70 (95% CI [2.14, 3.40]) in women with the highest decision-making participation. These women showed higher OR for 'ask for condom use' in high risk situations (2.10, 95% CI [1.81, 2.44]). Assets ownership also demonstrated a positive statistical relationship with asking for a condom use (OR 1.31, 95% CI [1.10, 1.56]). The results point to the importance of women's autonomy on sexual health. It emphasizes women's empowerment-based approach to curbing HIV/AIDS in developing countries.
Allotey, Pascale A; Diniz, Simone; Dejong, Jocelyn; Delvaux, Thérèse; Gruskin, Sofia; Fonn, Sharon
This paper addresses the challenges faced in mainstreaming the teaching of sexual and reproductive health and rights into public health education. For this paper, we define sexual and reproductive health and rights education as including not only its biomedical aspects but also an understanding of its history, values and politics, grounded in gender politics and social justice, addressing sexuality, and placed within a broader context of health systems and global health. Using a case study approach with an opportunistically selected sample of schools of public health within our regional contexts, we examine the status of sexual and reproductive health and rights education and some of the drivers and obstacles to the development and delivery of sexual and reproductive health and rights curricula. Despite diverse national and institutional contexts, there are many commonalities. Teaching of sexual and reproductive health and rights is not fully integrated into core curricula. Existing initiatives rely on personal faculty interest or short-term courses, neither of which are truly sustainable or replicable. We call for a multidisciplinary and more comprehensive integration of sexual and reproductive health and rights in public health education. The education of tomorrow's public health leaders is critical, and a strategy is needed to ensure that they understand and are prepared to engage with the range of sexual and reproductive health and rights issues within their historical and political contexts. Copyright © 2011 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Alber, Julia M; Paige, Samantha; Stellefson, Michael; Bernhardt, Jay M
A growing number of public health organizations are applying the power of social media (SM) for health promotion and behavior change. This cross-sectional study of health education specialists (n = 353) examined which demographic and occupational factors were associated with SM self-efficacy, and evaluated SM self-efficacy related to each of the Seven Areas of Responsibility. A series of one-way analyses of variance were conducted to determine whether differences in SM self-efficacy existed by sex, age, years of work experience, and SM access at work. A multiple linear regression examined the relationship between SM self-efficacy and SM experience when controlling for demographic and occupational factors. Statistically significant differences in SM self-efficacy existed by age, F(2, 289) = 6.54, p = .002. SM experience (β = 1.43, t = 11.35, p education research and practice. © 2016 Society for Public Health Education.
Full Text Available A wealth of mobile applications are designed to support users in their drug intake. When developing software for patients, it is important to understand the differences between individuals who have, who will or who might never adopt mobile interventions. This study analyzes demographic and health-related factors associated with real-life "longer usage" and the "usage-intensity per day" of the mobile application "Medication Plan".Between 2010-2012, the mobile application "Medication Plan" could be downloaded free of charge from the Apple-App-Store. It was aimed at supporting the regular and correct intake of medication. Demographic and health-related data were collected via an online questionnaire. This study analyzed captured data.App-related activities of 1799 users (1708 complete data sets were recorded. 69% (1183/1708 applied "Medication Plan" for more than a day. 74% were male (872/1183, the median age 45 years. Variance analysis showed a significant effect of the users' age with respect to duration of usage (p = 0.025. While the mean duration of use was only 23.3 days for users younger than 21 years, for older users, there was a substantial increase over all age cohorts up to users of 60 years and above (103.9 days. Sex and educational status had no effect. "Daily usage intensity" was directly associated with an increasing number of prescribed medications and increased from an average of 1.87 uses per day and 1 drug per day to on average 3.71 uses per day for users stating to be taking more than 7 different drugs a day (p<0.001. Demographic predictors (sex, age and educational attainment did not affect usage intensity.Users aged 60+ as well as those with complicated therapeutic drug regimens relied on the service we provided for more than three months on average. Mobile applications may be a promising approach to support the treatment of patients with chronic conditions.
Background There is a lack of studies considering social disparity in oral health emanating from adolescents in low-income countries. This study aimed to assess socio-demographic disparities in clinical- and self reported oral health status and a number of oral health behaviors. The extent to which oral health related behaviors might account for socio-demographic disparities in oral health status was also examined. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in Kilwa district in 2008. One thousand seven hundred and forty five schoolchildren completed an interview and a full mouth clinical examination. Caries experience was recorded using WHO criteria, whilst type of treatment need was categorized using the ART approach. Results The majority of students were caries free (79.8%) and presented with a low need for dental treatment (89.3%). Compared to their counterparts in opposite groups, rural residents and those from less poor households presented more frequently with caries experience (DMT>0), high need for dental treatment and poor oral hygiene behavior, but were less likely to report poor oral health status. Stepwise logistic regressions revealed that social and behavioral variables varied systematically with caries experience, high need for dental treatment and poor self reported oral health. Socio-demographic disparities in oral health outcomes persisted after adjusting for oral health behaviors. Conclusions Socio-demographic disparities in oral health outcomes and oral health behaviors do exist. Socio-demographic disparities in oral health outcomes were marginally accounted for by oral health behaviors. Developing policies and programs targeting both social and individual determinants of oral health should be an urgent public health strategy in Tanzania. PMID:20406452
Astrom Anne N
Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a lack of studies considering social disparity in oral health emanating from adolescents in low-income countries. This study aimed to assess socio-demographic disparities in clinical- and self reported oral health status and a number of oral health behaviors. The extent to which oral health related behaviors might account for socio-demographic disparities in oral health status was also examined. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in Kilwa district in 2008. One thousand seven hundred and forty five schoolchildren completed an interview and a full mouth clinical examination. Caries experience was recorded using WHO criteria, whilst type of treatment need was categorized using the ART approach. Results The majority of students were caries free (79.8% and presented with a low need for dental treatment (89.3%. Compared to their counterparts in opposite groups, rural residents and those from less poor households presented more frequently with caries experience (DMT>0, high need for dental treatment and poor oral hygiene behavior, but were less likely to report poor oral health status. Stepwise logistic regressions revealed that social and behavioral variables varied systematically with caries experience, high need for dental treatment and poor self reported oral health. Socio-demographic disparities in oral health outcomes persisted after adjusting for oral health behaviors. Conclusions Socio-demographic disparities in oral health outcomes and oral health behaviors do exist. Socio-demographic disparities in oral health outcomes were marginally accounted for by oral health behaviors. Developing policies and programs targeting both social and individual determinants of oral health should be an urgent public health strategy in Tanzania.
Aitken, Zoe; Simpson, Julie Anne; Bentley, Rebecca; Kavanagh, Anne Marie
There is evidence of a causal relationship between disability acquisition and poor mental health, but the substantial heterogeneity in the magnitude of the effect is poorly understood and may be aetiologically informative. This study aimed to identify demographic and socioeconomic factors that modify the effect of disability acquisition on mental health. The Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia Survey is a nationally representative longitudinal survey of Australian households that has been conducted annually since 2001. Four waves of data were included in this analysis, from 2011 to 2014. Individuals who acquired a disability (n=387) were compared with those who remained disability-free in all four waves (n=7936). Mental health was measured using the mental health subscale of the Short Form 36 (SF-36) general health questionnaire, which measures symptoms of depression, anxiety and psychological well-being. Linear regression models were fitted to estimate the effect of disability acquisition on mental health, testing for effect modification by key demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. To maximise causal inference, we used a propensity score approach with inverse probability of treatment weighting to control for confounding and multiple imputation using chained equations to assess the impact of missing data. On average, disability acquisition was associated with a 5-point decline in mental health score (estimated mean difference: -5.1, 95% CI -7.2 to -3.0). There was strong evidence that income and relationship status modified the effect, with more detrimental effects in the lowest (-12.5, 95% CI -18.5 to -6.5) compared with highest income quintile (-1.1, 95% CI -4.9 to 2.7) and for people not in a relationship (-8.8, 95% CI -12.9 to -4.8) compared with those who were (-3.7, 95% CI -6.1 to -1.4). Our results suggest that the detrimental effect of disability acquisition on mental health is substantially greater for socioeconomic
Health Professionals Education in Zambia. Sekelani S. Banda ... teaching health professionals is now being confronted. .... (medical school, general nursing schools and schools ... dental, and radiography training) (Figure 2). Figure 2: ...
Chapa, Jorge; De La Rosa, Belinda
Data from the U.S. Census Bureau and the National Center for Education Statistics indicate that Latinos lag behind non-Latinos in education and in other socioeconomic characteristics. Although there are some positive indications such as the decrease of individuals and children living in poverty and an increase in the number of individuals working…
Smith, M. Cecil; Smith, Thomas J.
This study investigated informal learning activities among low-education adults, using data from the 2005 National Household Education Survey. Survey respondents were asked about their participation in six types of informal learning activities, from reading books to using computers to attending conventions. Respondents with the lowest educational…
Diem, Günter; Dorner, Thomas Ernst
The future challenges for the Austrian health care system require an increasing number of public health experts of different professions in all fields of public health. In this article the offer of public health education in Austrian universities and universities for applied sciences was searched based on the predominantly online available information on web platforms of the schools. Currently (2013), there are three postgraduate public health university courses and two public health doctoral programs in Austria. Additionally, 34 degree programmes could be identified, in which parts of public health are covered. But also in medical curricula at Austrian medical schools, public health contents have found their place. In Austria, there is already a multifaceted offer for public health education. However, to build an appropriate public health work force, capable to manage the public health challenges in all its dimensions in terms of health in all policies, this offer should still be intensified.
Urke, Helga Bjørnøy; Mittelmark, Maurice B
Child health is significantly poorer in homes with intimate partner violence (IPV). However, a possible link to parental provision of childcare has been neglected. Utilizing data from Demographic and Health Surveys, this study examined the association between IPV and illness signs in children 0-59 months in Bolivia (n = 3586), Colombia (n = 9955) and Peru (n = 6260), taking into account socio-demographic factors, childcare and severe child physical punishment. Data were collected in the years 2008, 2010 and 2012 for Bolivia, Colombia and Peru respectively. The study found weak but persistent effects of IPV on illness signs in Bolivia (OR 1.37, 95% CI 1.14-1.63) and Peru (OR 1.49, 95% CI 1.26-1.77), after adjusting for the effects of childcare. These effects were not observed in Colombia. The results call for a mix of qualitative and quantitative research that can map direct, mediating and moderating patterns of relationships between IPV, childcare practices and child health. Can good childcare mitigate the negative effects of IPV? Can poor childcare exacerbate the negative effects of IPV? Such interactions were not observed in the present study, but should be the focus of much more intensive investigation, to help inform child health promotion. Answers could lead to better interventions to improve child health, and perhaps to tackle IPV.
Full Text Available Abstract Background In the developed world, information on vital events is routinely collected nationally to inform population and health policies. However, in many low-and middle-income countries, especially those in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA, there is a lack of effective and comprehensive national civil registration and vital statistics system. In the past decades, the number of Health and Demographic Surveillance Systems (HDSSs has increased throughout SSA. An HDSS monitors births, deaths, causes of death, migration, and other health and socio-economic indicators within a defined population over time. Currently, the International Network for the Continuous Demographic Evaluation of Populations and Their Health (INDEPTH brings together 38 member research centers which run 44 HDSS sites from 20 countries in Africa, Asia and Oceana. Thirty two of these HDSS sites are in SSA. Discussion This paper argues that, in the absence of an adequate national CRVS, HDSSs should be more effectively utilised to generate relevant public health data, and also to create local capacity for longitudinal data collection and management systems in SSA. If HDSSs get strategically located to cover different geographical regions in a country, data from these sites could be used to provide a more complete national picture of the health of the population. They provide useful data that can be extrapolated for national estimates if their regional coverage is well planned. HDSSs are however resource-intensive. Efforts are being put towards getting them linked to local or national policy contexts and to reduce their dependence on external funding. Increasing their number in SSA to cover a critical proportion of the population, especially urban populations, must be carefully planned. Strategic planning is needed at national levels to geographically locate HDSS sites and to support these through national funding mechanisms. Summary The paper does not suggest that HDSSs should be
Chatters, L M; Levin, J S; Ellison, C G
This special issue of Health Education & Behavior is devoted to broadly examining the interconnections among public health, health education, and faith-based communities. In addition to a focus on questions related to the practice of public health and health education within religious settings (e.g., program development, implementation, and evaluation), the articles in this issue examine a broad range of both substantive and methodological questions and concerns. These articles include contributions that address (1) various theoretical and conceptual issues and frameworks explaining the relationships between religious involvement and health; (2) substantive reviews of current research in the area; (3) individual empirical studies exploring the associations between religious involvement and health attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors; (4) evaluations of health education programs in faith communities; and (5) religious institutions and their contributions to the development of health policy. The articles comprising the issue are selective in their coverage of the field and provide different and complementary perspectives on the connections between religious involvement and health. It is hoped that this approach will appeal to a broad audience of researchers, practitioners, policy makers, and others from health education, public health, and related social and behavioral science disciplines.
Salinero-Fort, Miguel Ángel; Gómez-Campelo, Paloma; Bragado-Alvárez, Carmen; Abánades-Herranz, Juan Carlos; Jiménez-García, Rodrigo; de Burgos-Lunar, Carmen
Background This study compares the health-related quality of life of Spanish-born and Latin American-born individuals settled in Spain. Socio-demographic and psychosocial factors associated with health-related quality of life are analyzed. Methods A cross-sectional Primary Health Care multi center-based study of Latin American-born (n = 691) and Spanish-born (n = 903) outpatients from 15 Primary Health Care Centers (Madrid, Spain). The Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) was used to assess health-related quality of life. Socio-demographic, psychosocial, and specific migration data were also collected. Results Compared to Spanish-born participants, Latin American-born participants reported higher health-related quality of life in the physical functioning and vitality dimensions. Across the entire sample, Latin American-born participants, younger participants, men and those with high social support reported significantly higher levels of physical health. Men with higher social support and a higher income reported significantly higher mental health. When stratified by gender, data show that for men physical health was only positively associated with younger age. For women, in addition to age, social support and marital status were significantly related. Both men and women with higher social support and income had significantly better mental health. Finally, for immigrants, the physical and mental health components of health-related quality of life were not found to be significantly associated with any of the pre-migration factors or conditions of migration. Only the variable “exposure to political violence” was significantly associated with the mental health component (p = 0.014). Conclusions The key factors to understanding HRQoL among Latin American-born immigrants settled in Spain are age, sex and social support. Therefore, strategies to maintain optimal health outcomes in these immigrant communities should include public policies on
Full Text Available Introduction Teachers are one of the groups that in addition to teaching the students can have a role in control and identification of child abuse and violence in schools. Certainly, before doing any action and choose an approach to reduce misbehavior, we should be aware of situation, how and prevalence of child abuse in schools. The present study aims to investigate the prevalence and types of child abuse among teachers and its relationship with demographic characteristics and general health in teachers whom teaching in primary schools. Materials and Methods This was a cross-sectional study on 350 female and male students and 82 teachers that performed with a multi-stage sampling method. The tools for data gathering included: questionnaire of teachers' personal and job characteristics (12 questions, General Health Questionnaire (GHQ (28 questions, and standard questionnaire of Conflict Tactics Scale. Data were analyzed by the statistical tests of independent t-test, Mann–Whitney, chi-square, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA, with SPSS version 16. Results Results of statistical analysis revealed that there wasn’t a significant association between general health and physical abuse. But there was a significant association between general health, emotional abuse and neglect. So that their general health score was higher (more score was not associated with better general health, the emotional abuse and neglect were also higher. Conclusions According to the results, it is suggested to design and implement some programs for prevention and reduction of violence in schools of our country and education of violence prevention methods should be part of school curriculum.
Titaley, Christiana Rialine; Dibley, Michael John
This analysis examined factors associated with non-use of antenatal iron/folic acid supplements in Indonesia. Data from the 2002/2003 and 2007 Indonesia Demographic and Health Surveys (IDHS) were used, providing survival information for 26,591 most recent deliveries over the five-year period prior to each survey. The main outcome variable was non-use of iron/folic acid supplements. Using logistic regression, we examined the role of external environment, predisposing, enabling, need factors, and previous utilization of other maternal care services in non-use of antenatal iron/folic acid supplements. Mothers from outer Java- Bali Region and rural areas (OR=1.73, 95% CI: 1.48-2.03) had increased odds for not using antenatal iron/folic acid supplements. The likelihood for not using the supplements increased with the reduction of household wealth index and parental education. The odds increased amongst mothers with low autonomy on her own health care (OR=1.24, 95% CI: 1.04-1.49), high birth-rank infants, mothers with low knowledge of obstetric complications and low exposure to mass media. Enabling factors associated with increased odds for non-use of iron/folic acid supplements included mothers reporting money to pay health services (OR=1.28, 95% CI: 1.13- 1.44) and distance to health services (OR=1.20, 95% CI: 1.02-1.40) were major problems. Our study demonstrated the importance of antenatal care as a distribution channel of the supplements. Increasing community awareness, coverage and access to health services along with strengthening counselling sessions during antenatal care and community participation in health programs are necessary to improve the uptake of iron/folic acid supplements, to increase infant survival in Indonesia.
Alvarez, Olga L.
The Migrant and Seasonal Farm Workers Project sought to determine the health education needs of this indigent population in Ohio using the help of lay outreach workers. A bilingual needs assessment survey was developed containing questions on demographics, place of permanent residence, points of travel after working in Ohio, and type of work and…
Full Text Available This paper contributes evidence documenting the continued decline in all-cause mortality and changes in the cause of death distribution over time in four developing country populations in Africa and Asia. We present levels and trends in age-specific mortality (all-cause and cause-specific from four demographic surveillance sites: Agincourt (South Africa, Navrongo (Ghana in Africa; Filabavi (Vietnam, Matlab (Bangladesh in Asia. We model mortality using discrete time event history analysis. This study illustrates how data from INDEPTH Network centers can provide a comparative, longitudinal examination of mortality patterns and the epidemiological transition. Health care systems need to be reconfigured to deal simultaneously with continuing challenges of communicable disease and increasing incidence of non-communicable diseases that require long-term care. In populations with endemic HIV, long-term care of HIV patients on ART will add to the chronic care needs of the community.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Behavioural and psychological symptoms are associated with dementia, but are also present in a significant number of the older population without dementia. Here we explore the distribution of behavioural and psychological symptoms in the population without dementia, and their relationship with domains and severity of health and cognitive impairment. Methods The Medical Research Council Cognitive Function and Ageing Study is a two-phase longitudinal study of ageing representative of the population aged 65 and over of England and Wales. A subsample of 1781 participants without a study diagnosis of dementia was included in this study. Information on symptoms including depression, apathy, anxiety, feelings of persecution, hallucination, agitated behaviour, elation, irritability, sleep problems, wandering, confabulation and misidentification, cognitive function, health related factors and socio-demographic information was extracted from interviews with participants and knowledgeable informants. Participants were classified according to the Mini-Mental State Examination and by criteria for subtypes of mild cognitive impairment (MCI. The prevalence of behavioural and psychological symptoms and associations with cognitive function, health and socio-demographics was examined. Co-occurrence of symptoms was tested using factor analysis. Results Most symptoms were reported more frequently in those with more severe cognitive impairment. Subjective memory complaints were the strongest independent predictor of reported symptoms, and most were reported more often in those classified as having MCI than in those with cognitive impairments that did not meet the MCI criteria. The pattern of co-occurrence of symptoms is similar to that seen in dementia. Conclusions Our results highlight that behavioural and psychological symptoms are prevalent in the cognitively impaired older population, and partly explain the variation observed in previous
Full Text Available : The mental health has a prominent role in psychosocial development in different periods of life, especially during adolescence. Mental disorders in adolescents can be related to different educational and non-educational factors. Therefore the aim of this study was to identify the educational and non-educational factors affecting the mental health of femal high school students in Bushehr. Materials and Methods: In this cross sectional study, 500 high school femal students evaluated with using multi-stage cluster random sampling. Information was collected by questionnaire with three-part including educational factors (suchas anxiety academic and educational motivation, non educational factors (suchas demographic characteristics and quality of life (SF-36 part. The data were analyzed with SPSS software by using appropriate statistical tests. In this study the mental health level was moderate (50.99±11, and mental health was associated with educational motivation, facilitator anxiety, the school years, educational branch, interest to educational branch, mother education, evaluation of educational counseling, and evaluation of non educational counseling. Maternal education, interest to educational branch, the evaluation of non-educational counseling, facilitating stress, the school year, and educational branch were predictors of mental health (R2= 0.107. According to the results, providing educational consulting for increasing interest to educational branch, also non educational consulting for reducing problems and designing stress management workshop are necessary to improve students' mental health.
Kutcher, Stan; Venn, David; Szumilas, Magdalena
Promoting student health and well-being in school has long been a component of education. Traditionally, sports and physical education programs have stressed the importance of staying physically healthy through exercise. More recently, school-based sexual education and nutrition programs have informed young people about the importance of sexual…
Ettienne-Gittens, Reynolette; Lisako, E.; McKyer, J.; Goodson, Patricia; Guidry, Jeffrey; Outley, Corliss
Background: Health educators are critical members of the health care team who may be called upon to provide nutrition education. However, are health educators prepared for this task? What have scholars concluded regarding this pertinent topic? Purpose: This study has three purposes: (1) to determine the definition of and criteria for nutrition…
Ettienne-Gittens, Reynolette; Lisako, E.; McKyer, J.; Goodson, Patricia; Guidry, Jeffrey; Outley, Corliss
Background: Health educators are critical members of the health care team who may be called upon to provide nutrition education. However, are health educators prepared for this task? What have scholars concluded regarding this pertinent topic? Purpose: This study has three purposes: (1) to determine the definition of and criteria for nutrition…
Turner, Lori W.; Knol, Linda; Meyer, Mary Kay
"What about Health Educators? Nutrition Education for Allied Health Professionals" describes an important issue in health care that is the provision of nutrition education. Obesity and chronic disease rates are rapidly increasing. Due to increase in the prevalence rates of obesity and nutrition-related chronic diseases, there is a growing need for…
Turner, Lori W.; Knol, Linda; Meyer, Mary Kay
"What about Health Educators? Nutrition Education for Allied Health Professionals" describes an important issue in health care that is the provision of nutrition education. Obesity and chronic disease rates are rapidly increasing. Due to increase in the prevalence rates of obesity and nutrition-related chronic diseases, there is a growing need for…
Zeng, Yi; Feng, Qiushi; Gu, Danan
-year-age-specific trajectories of physical and cognitive functions, self-reported health, and life satisfactions from ages 65-69 to 100+, concluding that good psychological resilience and optimism are keys to the exceptional longevity enjoyed by centenarians. We discuss recent findings of novel loci and pathways...
Goulet-Stock, Sybil; Rueda, Sergio; Vafaei, Afshin; Ialomiteanu, Anca; Manthey, Jakob; Rehm, Jürgen; Fischer, Benedikt
While recreational cannabis use is common, medical cannabis programs have proliferated across North America, including a federal program in Canada. Few comparisons of medical and recreational cannabis users (RCUs) exist; this study compared these groups on key characteristics. Data came from a community-recruited sample of formally approved medical cannabis users (MCUs; n = 53), and a sub-sample of recreational cannabis users (RCUs; n = 169) from a representative adult survey in Ontario (Canada). Samples were telephone-surveyed on identical measures, including select socio-demographic, substance and medication use, and health and disability measures. Based on initial bivariate comparisons, multivariate logistical regression with a progressive adjustment approach was performed to assess independent predictors of group status. In bivariate analyses, older age, lower household income, lower alcohol use, higher cocaine, prescription opioid, depression and anxiety medication use, and lower health and disability status were significantly associated with medical cannabis use. In the multivariate analysis, final model, household income, alcohol use, and disability levels were associated with medical cannabis use. Conclusions/Scientific Significance: Compared to RCUs, medical users appear to be mainly characterized by factors negatively influencing their overall health status. Future studies should investigate the actual impact and net benefits of medical cannabis use on these health problems. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Steele, Anita Louise; Young, Sylvester
The purpose of this study was to develop both personality and demographic profiles for students who are interested in majoring in music education or music therapy. Two primary questions were addressed in the study: (a) Are there similarities and differences in the personality types of music education and music therapy majors as measured by the Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI )? (b) Are there similarities and differences in demographic characteristics of music education and music therapy majors in regard to (i) principal instrument studied in college, (ii) grade point average, (iii) scholarship awards, (iv) high school participation in private study and (v) ensembles, (vi) church/community participation, and (vii) volunteerism in high school?
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This website provides demographic information about laboratories, including CLIA number, facility name and address, where the laboratory testing is performed, the...
Green, Lawrence W.; Gordon, Nancy P.
The problem of productivity in evaluative research is addressed from three perspectives in health education. Two perspectives are scientific, while the third is practical and deals with the implementation of evaluative research. This third perspective is illustrated through an example of a health education program about sexually transmitted…
Karlsen, Randi V; Larsen, Signe B; Christensen, Jane
associations between socio-demographic or clinical characteristics and PSA testing without clinical indication. Material and methods. In the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health Cohort, we identified 1051 men with PC diagnosed in 1993-2008. Diagnostic and clinical characteristics were obtained from medical records......, and socio-demographic information was retrieved from administrative registers. We used general logistic regression analysis to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations between socio-demographic or clinical characteristics and PSA testing without clinical indication. Cox...
Busch, Vincent; van Stel, Henk F; Schrijvers, Augustinus JP; de Leeuw, Johannes RJ
Background Recent studies show several health-related behaviors to cluster in adolescents. This has important implications for public health. Interrelated behaviors have been shown to be most effectively targeted by multimodal interventions addressing wider-ranging improvements in lifestyle instead of via separate interventions targeting individual behaviors. However, few previous studies have taken into account a broad, multi-disciplinary range of health-related behaviors and connected these...
The aim of this chapter is to argue that an approach to health education, consistent with critical education theory echoing Freire’s ideas, has the potential to play a significant role in addressing determinants of health by, first and foremost, providing children and young people...... with opportunities (as part of teaching and learning processes) to critically examine health issues, including social determinants of health, and to gain experience with initiating health-promoting changes within the everyday realms of their school or its adjacent community....
Chandrashekhar T Sreeramareddy
Full Text Available Article 20 of the World Health Organisation Framework Convention on Tobacco Control calls for a cross-country surveillance of tobacco use through population-based surveys. We aimed to provide country-level prevalence estimates for current smoking and current smokeless tobacco use and to assess social determinants of smoking.Data from Demographic and Health Surveys done between 2005 and 2012, among men and women from nine North African, Central and West Asian countries and six Latin American and Caribbean countries were analyzed. Weighted country-level prevalence rates were estimated for 'current smoking' and 'current use of smokeless tobacco (SLT products' among men and women. In each country, social determinants of smoking among men and women were assessed by binary logistic regression analyses by including men's and women's sampling weights to account for the complex survey design.Prevalence of smoking among men was higher than 40% in Armenia (63.1%, Moldova (51.1%, Ukraine (52%, Azerbaijan (49.8 %, Kyrgyz Republic (44.3 % and Albania (42.52% but the prevalence of smoking among women was less than 10% in most countries except Ukraine (14.81% and Jordan (17.96%. The prevalence of smokeless tobacco use among men and women was less than 5% in all countries except among men in the Kyrgyz Republic (10.6 %. Smoking was associated with older age, lower education and poverty among men and higher education and higher wealth among women. Smoking among both men and women was associated with unskilled work, living in urban areas and being single.Smoking among men was very high in Central and West Asian countries. Social pattern of smoking among women that was different from men in education and wealth should be considered while formulating tobacco control policies in some Central and West Asian countries.
Wistoft, Karen; Nordentoft, Helle Merete
Health educators face value complexity in their practices as well as their reflections on practice. Actions and decisions are no longer based on traditional norms, values and objective knowledge. The complexity of social and cultural changes in health care environments often leave professionals...... in situations in which educational action and choice of rationale are contingent and subject to discussion. We introduce and exemplify this thematic scope by taking our point of departure in experiences from a health educational development project in Denmark with public health nurses (PHN) working...
Wistoft, Karen; Nordentoft, Helle Merete
Health educators face value complexity in their practices as well as their reflections on practice. Actions and decisions are no longer based on traditional norms, values and objective knowledge. The complexity of social and cultural changes in health care environments often leave professionals...... in situations in which educational action and choice of rationale are contingent and subject to discussion. We introduce and exemplify this thematic scope by taking our point of departure in experiences from a health educational development project in Denmark with public health nurses (PHN) working...
Butler, J. Thomas
David Easton's model describing how political systems operate can help health educators initiate improvements and resist harmful changes. The Memphis (Tennessee) Board of Education's experience with the adoption of family life education is cited as an example of a constructive political strategy. (PP)
Fernando César de Oliveira Jr
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study the prevalence of potentially life-threatening maternal conditions and near miss in Brazil according to maternal age. METHODS: A secondary analysis of the 2006 Brazilian demographic health survey database using a validated questionnaire to evaluate maternal morbidity with a focus on age extremes. The study included 5,025 women with at least 1 live birth in the 5-year reference period preceding their interviews. Three age range periods were used: 15-19 years (younger age, 20-34 years (control, and 35-49 years (advanced maternal age. According to a pragmatic definition, any woman reporting eclampsia, hysterectomy, blood transfusion, or admission to the intensive care unit during her pregnancy/childbirth was considered a near-miss case. The associations between age and severe maternal morbidity were further assessed. RESULTS: For the 6,833 reported pregnancies, 73.7% of the women were 20-34 years old, 17.9% were of advanced maternal age, and only 8.4% were of younger age. More than 22% of the women had at least one of the complications appraised, and blood transfusion, which was more prevalent among the controls, was the only variable with a significant difference among the age groups. The overall rate of maternal near miss was 21.1 per 1000 live births. There was a trend of higher maternal near miss with increasing age. The only significant risk factor identified for maternal near miss was a lower literacy level among older women. CONCLUSIONS: There is a trend towards worse results with increasing age. The investigation of the determinants of maternal near miss at the community level using an innovative approach through a demographic health survey is an example suggested for under-resourced settings.
Arthur, Samuelina S; Nyide, Bongiwe; Soura, Abdramane Bassiahi; Kahn, Kathleen; Weston, Mark; Sankoh, Osman
Nutrition is the intake of food in relation to the body's dietary needs. Malnutrition results from the intake of inadequate or excess food. This can lead to reduced immunity, increased susceptibility to disease, impaired physical and mental development, and reduced productivity. To perform a systematic review to assess research conducted by the International Network for the Demographic Evaluation of Populations and their Health (INDEPTH) of health and demographic surveillance systems (HDSSs) over a 15-year period on malnutrition, its determinants, the effects of under and over nutrition, and intervention research on malnutrition in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Relevant publication titles were uploaded onto the Zotero research tool from different databases (60% from PubMed). Using the keywords 'nutrition', 'malnutrition', 'over and under nutrition', we selected publications that were based only on data generated through the longitudinal HDSS platform. All titles and abstracts were screened to determine inclusion eligibility and full articles were independently assessed according to inclusion/exclusion criteria. For inclusion in this study, papers had to cover research on at least one of the following topics: the problem of malnutrition, its determinants, its effects, and intervention research on malnutrition. One hundred and forty eight papers were identified and reviewed, and 67 were selected for this study. The INDEPTH research identified rising levels of overweight and obesity, sometimes in the same settings as under-nutrition. Urbanisation appears to be protective against under-nutrition, but it heightens the risk of obesity. Appropriately timed breastfeeding interventions were protective against malnutrition. Although INDEPTH has expanded the global knowledge base on nutrition, many questions remain unresolved. There is a need for more investment in nutrition research in LMICs in order to generate evidence to inform policies in these settings.
Samuelina S. Arthur
Full Text Available Background: Nutrition is the intake of food in relation to the body's dietary needs. Malnutrition results from the intake of inadequate or excess food. This can lead to reduced immunity, increased susceptibility to disease, impaired physical and mental development, and reduced productivity. Objective: To perform a systematic review to assess research conducted by the International Network for the Demographic Evaluation of Populations and their Health (INDEPTH of health and demographic surveillance systems (HDSSs over a 15-year period on malnutrition, its determinants, the effects of under and over nutrition, and intervention research on malnutrition in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs. Methods: Relevant publication titles were uploaded onto the Zotero research tool from different databases (60% from PubMed. Using the keywords ‘nutrition’, ‘malnutrition’, ‘over and under nutrition’, we selected publications that were based only on data generated through the longitudinal HDSS platform. All titles and abstracts were screened to determine inclusion eligibility and full articles were independently assessed according to inclusion/exclusion criteria. For inclusion in this study, papers had to cover research on at least one of the following topics: the problem of malnutrition, its determinants, its effects, and intervention research on malnutrition. One hundred and forty eight papers were identified and reviewed, and 67 were selected for this study. Results: The INDEPTH research identified rising levels of overweight and obesity, sometimes in the same settings as under-nutrition. Urbanisation appears to be protective against under-nutrition, but it heightens the risk of obesity. Appropriately timed breastfeeding interventions were protective against malnutrition. Conclusions: Although INDEPTH has expanded the global knowledge base on nutrition, many questions remain unresolved. There is a need for more investment in nutrition research
Forlin, Chris; Loreman, Tim; Sharma, Umesh; Earle, Chris
The preparation of teachers for regular schools has clearly needed to undergo quite significant change in recent years. One major adjustment has been the necessity to prepare teachers for progressively more diverse student populations as they will increasingly be required to teach in inclusive classrooms. Many teacher education institutions are,…
Full Text Available Analysis of preference of educational styles is highly relevant, since it points out both to the more general underlying value orientations and the expected or desired effects of socialization process. This paper deals with the level of acceptance and factors of valuing the autonomous and conformist educational styles among Serbian citizens, operationalised through estimation of importance of qualities that children should learn at home. Based on the three waves of World Values Survey, the analysis of data from Serbia was performed in longitudinal perspective in the period from 1996 to 2006 (total N=3700, as well as in comparative perspective, when the data obtained in Serbia were compared with the data collected in the European countries that participated in the last, fifth wave of World Values Survey (total N=23941. The results indicate that, in the observed period, on the average two thirds of citizens (64% are characterized by preference of autonomous educational style, while respondents' education and population size of settlement figure as the most important factors of preference. However, according to the level of acceptance of autonomy, Serbia is placed 16th out of 21 analyzed European countries, and therefore, in comparative perspective, valuing of autonomy in the country is on a relatively low level. The results imply that by a non-selective encouragement of autonomy in all students, by cooperation with parents or a more general promotion of knowledge, school may play an important role in this process.
Bradford, Angela B.; Adler-Baeder, Francesca; Ketring, Scott A.; Smith, Thomas A.
Offerings of couple and relationship education in recent years have included more diverse populations of participants, as well as more diverse facilitators in community-based program delivery. As a result, the opportunity has emerged to examine contextual factors that may impact program effects. This study examined the relationship between…
Hwang, Alvin; Bento, Regina; Arbaugh, J. B.
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine factors that predict industry-level career change among MBA graduates. Design/methodology/approach: The study analyzed longitudinal data from the Management Education Research Institute (MERI)'s Global MBA Graduate Survey Dataset and MBA Alumni Perspectives Survey Datasets, using principal component…
Kabagenyi, Allen; Habaasa, Gilbert; Rutaremwa, Gideon
Background Globally adolescent fertility has been associated with increased risk to maternal and child health morbidity and mortality. The low use of contraception has been associated with high fertility levels, which is remains a public health concern that efforts have been raised to avert this. We examine the influence history of a previous birth and age at first birth would have on young women’s use of contraception. Methods Using the 2011 Uganda Demographic and Health Survey data, we examine the predictors of contraceptive use on a sample of 3692 young females in Uganda. While controlling for education and age of respondents, logistic regression analyses were run to provide the net effect of the examined predictors on contraceptive use. The study variables included age of respondents, marital status, age at first birth, births in past five years, socioeconomic status, residence, region, education level, religion, occupation and whether the last child was wanted. Results The findings show that only 12% of the adolescents were using contraception at the time of the survey. The key predictors of contraceptive use among young women in Uganda were age at first birth, history of previous birth, current age, and place of residence, education and socioeconomic status. Respondents who had a birth in the 5 years prior to the survey had five times (OR = 5.0, 95% CI = 3.7-6.5) the odds of contraceptive use compared to those who had never had a birth. Further, adolescent females with at least a secondary education were more likely to use contraceptives (OR = 1.55, 95% CI = 1.2-2.0) than those with primary education. The odds of contraceptive use were least among adolescents from Northern region (OR = 0.39, 95% CI = 0.2-0.6) compared to those from central region of Uganda. Muslim adolescent females were more likely to use contraceptives compared to Catholics (OR = 1.59, 95% CI = 1.1-2.3). Conclusion There is great need to address issues that hinder young people from using
Kamugisha, Mathias L; Mmbando, Bruno P; Francis, Filbert; Ishengoma, Deus S; Challe, Daniel P; Lemnge, Martha M
In the Korogwe demographic surveillance system (DSS) site in north-eastern Tanzania, information on vital events such as births, deaths and migration has been collected since its establishment in 2005. The aim was to obthin demographic and epidemiological indices to be used in the evaluation of health related interventions which have been undertaken in the area. Period covered is up to December 2010. Baseline survey was conducted in 14 villages of Korogwe district in October 2005 and DSS was launched in January 2006 years. Demographic, social economic status, immunisation coverage and birth history data was collected during the follow-up and each household was visited every 4 months. Estimates of mortality levels were derived from deaths that were collected during household visits. Birth history data were used to estimate the lifetime and period fertility of women aged 15-49 years. Estimates of crude migration and age specific migration rates were derived from the number of people moving in or out of the DSS site and the person-years lived. The population at baseline survey was 25,264 individuals in 5,853 households. The percentage of deaths was higher among adult aged 15-60 years compared to other age groups. The probability of dying among males (376/1000) aged 15-60 years was higher than females (339/1000) in the same age group. The lifetime and period fertility estimates were 5.6 and 5.1 children per woman respectively. Women aged 30-34 years are expected to have 3-4 children at the end of their childbearing age. Migration were higher at the youngest ages, lower rates at the 10-14 years age groups, a peak at the 20-24 ages, and a gradual decline up to the oldest ages. Majority of households in rural areas 51.8% were 1 in low socioeconomic status compared to 40.3% in urban areas which were in high socio-economic status. About 74% and 55.5% of the children received BCG and measles vaccination, respectively. In conclusion, Korogwe DSS has provided useful data which
Bovolenta, Tânia M; Felicio, Andre C
Brazil is currently experiencing a significant demographic transition characterized by a decrease in fertility rates and an exponential increase in the number of elderly citizens, which presents a special challenge for the health care professionals. More than other portions of the population, the elderly are most commonly affected by chronic diseases such as Parkinson’s disease. Policymakers contend that Brazil is reasonably well-prepared regarding elderly health care, with policies that aim to ensure the quality of life and the well-being of this portion of the population. However, what happens in practice falls short of what the Brazilian Constitution sets forth. Specifically, there is a clear contradiction between what the law recognizes as being a citizen’s rights and the implementation of guidelines. Because health financing in Brazil remains relatively low, the civil society tries to fill in the gaps as much as possible in the treatment of elderly patients suffering from chronic diseases such as Parkinson’s disease. In this review, we outline the current legislation in Brazil regarding the elderly and in particular, patients with Parkinson’s disease, in the context of a rapidly aging population. PMID:28182156
Lavielle-Sotomayor, Pilar; Pineda-Aquino, Victoria; Jáuregui-Jiménez, Omar; Castillo-Trejo, Martha
Estimating whether adolescents' sedentary behaviour and their lack of physical activity is determined by family characteristics or socio-cultural aspects and their impact on health and adiposity level. 932 adolescents were surveyed. Information regarding physical activity, sedentary behaviour, anthropometric index and family characteristics (structure, dynamics and functioning) was estimated by adolescents answering a questionnaire. The sample's average age was 16.07±1.09 years old, 56.3 % were female, 66.3 % had a low level of physical activity and 51.9 % were sedentary. A lack of physical activity occurred more frequently in females (56.8 % cf 41.5 %: p=0.000); family characteristics did not influence such risk behaviour. A relationship between physical activity and sedentary lifestyle with BMI could not be demonstrated, whilst waist circumference was associated with risky behaviour patterns. Teenagers in good health were more active (36.1 % cf 27 %) and less sedentary (49.3 % cf 59.4 %) than those for whom an unhealthy state was reported. Sedentary behaviour and a lack of physical activity were more determined by socio-demographic factors than family aspects, such behaviour pattern having a direct influence on the adolescents' health.
Mas, Francisco G Soto; Plass, Jan; Kane, William M; Papenfuss, Richard L
When health education researchers began to investigate how individuals make decisions related to health and the factors that influence health behaviors, they referred to frameworks shared by educational and learning research. Health education adopted the basic principles of the cognitive revolution, which were instrumental in advancing the field. There is currently a new challenge to confront: the widespread use of new technologies for health education. To better overcome this challenge, educational psychology and instructional technology theory should be considered. Unfortunately, the passion to incorporate new technologies too often overshadows how people learn or, in particular, how people learn through computer technologies. This two-part article explains how educational theory contributed to the early development of health behavior theory, describes the most relevant multimedia learning theories and constructs, and provides recommendations for developing multimedia health education programs and connecting theory and practice.
Full Text Available Kelly R Murphy, John E McManigle, Benjamin M Wildman-Tobriner, Amy Little Jones, Travis J Dekker, Barrett A Little, Joseph P Doty, Dean C Taylor Duke Healthcare Leadership Program, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC, USA Abstract: The medical community has recognized the importance of leadership skills among its members. While numerous leadership assessment tools exist at present, few are specifically tailored to the unique health care environment. The study team designed a 24-item survey (Healthcare Evaluation & Assessment of Leadership [HEAL] to measure leadership competency based on the core competencies and core principles of the Duke Healthcare Leadership Model. A novel digital platform was created for use on handheld devices to facilitate its distribution and completion. This pilot phase involved 126 health care professionals self-assessing their leadership abilities. The study aimed to determine both the content validity of the survey and the feasibility of its implementation and use. The digital platform for survey implementation was easy to complete, and there were no technical problems with survey use or data collection. With regard to reliability, initial survey results revealed that each core leadership tenet met or exceeded the reliability cutoff of 0.7. In self-assessment of leadership, women scored themselves higher than men in questions related to patient centeredness (P=0.016. When stratified by age, younger providers rated themselves lower with regard to emotional intelligence and integrity. There were no differences in self-assessment when stratified by medical specialty. While only a pilot study, initial data suggest that HEAL is a reliable and easy-to-administer survey for health care leadership assessment. Differences in responses by sex and age with respect to patient centeredness, integrity, and emotional intelligence raise questions about how providers view themselves amid complex medical teams. As the
Maria Lilian Coelho de Oliveira
Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Client characterization is an important step in evaluating the services offered by campus counseling and mental health centers and in their further planning and development. The objectives here were to describe reported complaints and demographics among students who sought counseling/mental healthcare at a Brazilian campus mental health service over a 17-year period and to compare these characteristics with those of the general university student body. DESIGN AND SETTING: Retrospective study at the Psychological and Psychiatric Service for Students (SAPPE, Universidade Estadual de Campinas (Unicamp. METHODS: The participants were all of the 2,194 students who sought counseling/mental health care at SAPPE from 1987 to 2004. Information was obtained from clients’ clinical charts. Unicamp’s database was consulted for general information on its students. RESULTS: The findings indicated overrepresentation, among the clients, of undergraduates, female students, students from Brazilian states other than São Paulo, students living in the campus residence hall and those whose main source of income was a scholarship grant. We also found overrepresentation of Humanities and Arts students among the clients. The most frequently reported complaints were difficulties in interpersonal relationships, family conflicts and poor academic performance. CONCLUSION: Course level (undergraduate or postgraduate, study field, living in a university residential facility and reliance on a scholarship grant were found to influence the behavior of seeking mental health counseling among Brazilian university students in this study. Course level was found to influence the pattern of complaints reported at first contact with the mental health service.
Full Text Available Background: A growing body of evidence points to the emission of greenhouse gases from human activity as a key factor in climate change. This in turn affects human health and wellbeing through consequential changes in weather extremes. At present, little is known about the effects of weather on the health of sub-Saharan African populations, as well as the related anticipated effects of climate change partly due to scarcity of good quality data. We aimed to study the association between weather patterns and daily mortality in the Nouna Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS area during 1999–2009. Methods: Meteorological data were obtained from a nearby weather station in the Nouna HDSS area and linked to mortality data on a daily basis. Time series Poisson regression models were established to estimate the association between the lags of weather and daily population-level mortality, adjusting for time trends. The analyses were stratified by age and sex to study differential population susceptibility. Results: We found profound associations between higher temperature and daily mortality in the Nouna HDSS, Burkina Faso. The short-term direct heat effect was particularly strong on the under-five child mortality rate. We also found independent coherent effects and strong associations between rainfall events and daily mortality, particularly in elderly populations. Conclusion: Mortality patterns in the Nouna HDSS appear to be closely related to weather conditions. Further investigation on cause-specific mortality, as well as on vulnerability and susceptibility is required. Studies on local adaptation and mitigation measures to avoid health impacts from weather and climate change is also needed to reduce negative effects from weather and climate change on population health in rural areas of the sub-Saharan Africa.
Debra Duquette, MS, CGC
Full Text Available Introduction Family history of diabetes has been recognized as an important risk factor of the disease. Family medical history represents valuable genomic information because it characterizes the combined interactions between environmental, behavioral, and genetic factors. This study examined the strength and effect of having a family history of diabetes on the prevalence of self-reported, previously diagnosed diabetes among adult participants of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 19992002. Methods The study population included data from 10,283 participants aged 20 years and older. Gender, age, race/ethnicity, poverty income ratio, education level, body mass index, and family history of diabetes were examined in relation to diabetes status. Diabetes prevalence estimates and odds ratios of diabetes were calculated based on family history and other factors. Results The prevalence of diabetes among individuals who have a first-degree relative with diabetes (14.3% was significantly higher than that of individuals without a family history (3.2%, corresponding to a crude odds ratio of five. Both prevalence and odds ratio estimates significantly increased with the number of relatives affected with diabetes. Family history was also associated with several demographic and risk factors. Conclusion Family history of diabetes was shown to be a significant predictor of diabetes prevalence in the adult U.S. population. We advocate the inclusion of family history assessment in public health prevention and screening programs as an inexpensive and valuable source of genomic information and measure of diabetes risk.
Kelly, Caitlin K; Prichard, J Roxanne
Objective: The present study investigates risk behaviors, sleep habits, and mental health factors associated with caffeinated beverage use in young adults. Materials and Methods: Students from a midsize private university (n = 159) completed a 15-minute anonymous questionnaire, including questions on risk behaviors, sleep habits, alcohol, and caffeine consumption. We compared behaviors between the top ∼15% ("high end") of energy drink users (≥3/month) and coffee users (≥16/month) to those with less frequent or no caffeine consumption. Results: Caffeine consumption was frequent among young adults. In the last month, 36% of students had an energy drink, 69% had coffee or espresso, and 86% reported having any caffeine; however, the majority of students were unaware of the caffeine content in these beverages. High-end energy drink consumers reported more risk-taking behaviors (increased drug and alcohol use and less frequent seat belt use), sleep disturbances (later bedtimes, harder time falling asleep, and more all-nighters), and higher frequency of mental illness diagnoses than those who consumed fewer energy drinks. In contrast, the frequency of most risk behaviors, sleep disturbances, and mental illness diagnoses was not significantly different between the high-end and general population of coffee drinkers. Conclusion: Students with delayed sleep patterns, mental illness, and higher frequency of substance use and risk behaviors were more likely to be regular energy drink users but not regular coffee drinkers. It is unclear whether the psychoactive content in energy drinks results in different behavioral effects than just caffeine in coffee, and/or different personality/health populations are drawn to the two types of beverages.
Kelly, Caitlin K.
Objective: The present study investigates risk behaviors, sleep habits, and mental health factors associated with caffeinated beverage use in young adults. Materials and Methods: Students from a midsize private university (n = 159) completed a 15-minute anonymous questionnaire, including questions on risk behaviors, sleep habits, alcohol, and caffeine consumption. We compared behaviors between the top ∼15% (“high end”) of energy drink users (≥3/month) and coffee users (≥16/month) to those with less frequent or no caffeine consumption. Results: Caffeine consumption was frequent among young adults. In the last month, 36% of students had an energy drink, 69% had coffee or espresso, and 86% reported having any caffeine; however, the majority of students were unaware of the caffeine content in these beverages. High-end energy drink consumers reported more risk-taking behaviors (increased drug and alcohol use and less frequent seat belt use), sleep disturbances (later bedtimes, harder time falling asleep, and more all-nighters), and higher frequency of mental illness diagnoses than those who consumed fewer energy drinks. In contrast, the frequency of most risk behaviors, sleep disturbances, and mental illness diagnoses was not significantly different between the high-end and general population of coffee drinkers. Conclusion: Students with delayed sleep patterns, mental illness, and higher frequency of substance use and risk behaviors were more likely to be regular energy drink users but not regular coffee drinkers. It is unclear whether the psychoactive content in energy drinks results in different behavioral effects than just caffeine in coffee, and/or different personality/health populations are drawn to the two types of beverages. PMID:27274417
Informants were health policy makers, managers, healthcare providers and the ... The paper concludes that despite its importance health education seemed to enjoy .... by genetic counseling), the concerns of health promotion would in practice ..... Botswana, Mauritius, Malaysia, Singapore and Indonesia, where the mass ...
Twiest, Meghan Mahoney
Offers questions for parents to ask when determining whether their child's school health program is sufficient. Issues to examine include time allotted for health education, types of school services provided to help teachers with the subject, instructional methods, outside health services, and additional staff (e.g., nurses and counselors). (SM)
Health education is a major tool in the implementation of any dynamic health promotion policy. In the author's view, its conventional role, the improvement of health by bringing about behavioural changes is today subject to controversy. He identifies five key approaches in health education: the traditional approach, characterized by three features: the didactic provision of information, the use of fear as an educational technique, and the appeal to the individual's sense of responsibility for his own health. the media approach, which uses marketing methods to promote health, with a tendency to resort to positive humorous messages. the socio-political approach, which questions the very purpose of health education. According to those who hold this view, wide-scale educational campaigns would only increase social and health inequalities and would be quite ineffective in fighting the powerful economic interests that control most of our habits. The health educator's real role would be to raise the people's political awareness. the epidemiological approach, which aims at great soundness through precise planning by objectives. It is based on the so-called exact sciences such as epidemiology and its aim is to study needs and assess actions. It incorporates the classical concept according to which a change in knowledge leads to a change in behaviour and habits and thus induces health improvement. Its very elaborate character accounts for both its strength and its weakness. In fact, it takes little account of the complexity of the educational process. the community approach fills some of these gaps by stressing the participation of individuals and institutions at all programming levels. For this purpose, it uses techniques designed to ensure consensus. In conclusion, the author recommends that active research in health education be undertaken in order to clarify more adequately these approaches with a view to improving the effectiveness of preventive work.
Madsen, Katrine Dahl; Nordin, Lone Lindegaard; Simovska, Venka
This chapter addresses the relationship between international and national policies regarding sustainability and health promotion which have the potential to affect school-based health education/promotion and education for sustainable development in Denmark. Based on policy mapping and analysis......, the focus is on the transformation processes that occur during the transition from international policy frameworks to the national context. The chapter considers the consequences of these transformation processes for educational practices within schools in light of the current major reform of basic general...... education in Denmark with its aims of ensuring overall school improvement, increasing pupil wellbeing and improving academic outcomes. Analysis of international policy documents, as well as of research literature shows that school-based health education (HE) and education for sustainable development (ESD...
Health professionals working in the field of health promotion and education experience certain value conflicts: their professional and personal values, the values of their clients or of the health services clash with pedagogic values such as participation, involvement, learning and competence...... development. My educational research is concerned with the exploration and development of the knowledge about values and health education related to competence development among health professionals. The purpose is to contribute to systematic knowledge development with a view to support and diversify...... the significance that is founded in theory and relevant to the practice of working with values within various cultures and selected settings: schools, local communities, educational institutions and political organisations. The research moreover aims to diversify a number of more general concepts and connections...
Health professionals working in the field of health promotion and education experience certain value conflicts: their professional and personal values, the values of their clients or of the health services clash with pedagogic values such as participation, involvement, learning and competence...... development. My educational research is concerned with the exploration and development of the knowledge about values and health education related to competence development among health professionals. The purpose is to contribute to systematic knowledge development with a view to support and diversify...... the significance that is founded in theory and relevant to the practice of working with values within various cultures and selected settings: schools, local communities, educational institutions and political organisations. The research moreover aims to diversify a number of more general concepts and connections...
Competency-based education (CBE), broadly defined as a form of higher education in which credit is provided on the basis of student learning rather than credit or clock hours, has begun to catch the attention of federal and state policymakers, foundations, and colleges. Among the model's promising features are its potential to lower college costs…
... Contact & Help Economic Releases Latest Releases » Major Economic Indicators » Schedules for news Releases » By Month By News ... support groups or home health agencies. They lead hospital efforts in ... nutrition, or stress management. They develop materials to be used by other ...
Chandrashekhar T Sreeramareddy
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Inequalities in progress towards achievement of Millennium Development Goal four (MDG-4 reflect unequal access to child health services. OBJECTIVE: To examine the time trends, socio-economic and regional inequalities of under-five mortality rate (U5MR in Nepal. METHODS: We analyzed the data from complete birth histories of four Nepal Demographic and Health Surveys (NDHS done in the years 1996, 2001, 2006 and 2011. For each livebirth, we computed survival period from birth until either fifth birthday or the survey date. Using direct methods i.e. by constructing life tables, we calculated yearly U5MRs from 1991 to 2010. Projections were made for the years 2011 to 2015. For each NDHS, U5MRs were calculated according to child's sex, mother's education, household wealth index, rural/urban residence, development regions and ecological zones. Inequalities were calculated as rate difference, rate ratio, population attributable risk and hazard ratio. RESULTS: Yearly U5MR (per 1000 live births had decreased from 157.3 (95% CIs 178.0-138.9 in 1991 to 43.2 (95% CIs 59.1-31.5 in 2010 i.e. 114.1 reduction in absolute risk. Projected U5MR for the year 2015 was 54.33. U5MRs had decreased in absolute terms in all sub groups but relative inequalities had reduced for gender and rural/urban residence only. Wide inequalities existed by wealth and education and increased between 1996 and 2011. For lowest wealth quintile (as compared to highest quintile hazard ratio (HR increased from 1.37 (95% CIs 1.27, 1.49 to 2.54 ( 95% CIs 2.25, 2.86 and for mothers having no education (as compared to higher education HR increased from 2.55 (95% CIs 1.95, 3.33 to 3.75 (95% CIs 3.17, 4.44. Changes in regional inequities were marginal and irregular. CONCLUSIONS: Nepal is most likely to achieve MDG-4 but eductional and wealth inequalities may widen further. National health policies should address to reduce inequalities in U5MR through 'inclusive policies'.
Md Mosharaf Hossain
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The number of child deaths is a potential indicator to assess the health condition of a country, and represents a major health challenge in Bangladesh. Although the country has performed exceptionally well in decreasing the mortality rate among children under five over the last few decades, mortality still remains relatively high. The main objective of this study is to identify the prevalence and determinants of the risk factors of child mortality in Bangladesh. METHODS: The data were based on a cross-sectional study collected from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS, 2011. The women participants numbered 16,025 from seven divisions of Bangladesh - Rajshahi, Dhaka, Chittagong, Barisal, Khulna, Rangpur and Sylhet. The 2 test and logistic regression model were applied to determine the prevalence and factors associated with child deaths in Bangladesh. RESULTS: In 2011, the prevalence of child deaths in Bangladesh for boys and girls was 13.0% and 11.6%, respectively. The results showed that birth interval and birth order were the most important factors associated with child death risks; mothers' education and socioeconomic status were also significant (males and females. The results also indicated that a higher birth order (7 & more of child (OR=21.421 & 95%CI=16.879-27.186 with a short birth interval ≤ 2 years was more risky for child mortality, and lower birth order with longer birth interval >2 were significantly associated with child deaths. Other risk factors that affected child deaths in Bangladesh included young mothers of less than 25 years (mothers' median age (26-36 years: OR=0.670, 95%CI=0.551-0.815, women without education compared to those with secondary and higher education (OR =0 .711 & .628, 95%CI=0.606-0.833 & 0.437-0.903, mothers who perceived their child body size to be larger than average and small size (OR= 1.525 & 1.068, 95%CI=1.221-1.905 & 0.913-1.249, and mothers who delivered their child by non
Hossain, Md Mosharaf; Mani, Kulanthayan K C; Islam, Md Rafiqul
The number of child deaths is a potential indicator to assess the health condition of a country, and represents a major health challenge in Bangladesh. Although the country has performed exceptionally well in decreasing the mortality rate among children under five over the last few decades, mortality still remains relatively high. The main objective of this study is to identify the prevalence and determinants of the risk factors of child mortality in Bangladesh. The data were based on a cross-sectional study collected from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS), 2011. The women participants numbered 16,025 from seven divisions of Bangladesh - Rajshahi, Dhaka, Chittagong, Barisal, Khulna, Rangpur and Sylhet. The 2 test and logistic regression model were applied to determine the prevalence and factors associated with child deaths in Bangladesh. In 2011, the prevalence of child deaths in Bangladesh for boys and girls was 13.0% and 11.6%, respectively. The results showed that birth interval and birth order were the most important factors associated with child death risks; mothers' education and socioeconomic status were also significant (males and females). The results also indicated that a higher birth order (7 & more) of child (OR=21.421 & 95%CI=16.879-27.186) with a short birth interval ≤ 2 years was more risky for child mortality, and lower birth order with longer birth interval >2 were significantly associated with child deaths. Other risk factors that affected child deaths in Bangladesh included young mothers of less than 25 years (mothers' median age (26-36 years): OR=0.670, 95%CI=0.551-0.815), women without education compared to those with secondary and higher education (OR =0 .711 & .628, 95%CI=0.606-0.833 & 0.437-0.903), mothers who perceived their child body size to be larger than average and small size (OR= 1.525 & 1.068, 95%CI=1.221-1.905 & 0.913-1.249), and mothers who delivered their child by non-caesarean (OR= 1.687, 95%CI=1
Jephcote, Calvin; Chen, Haibo
The motor-vehicle is accountable for emitting a substantial concoction of air quality objective pollutants and carcinogenic hydrocarbons within close proximity to urbanised residential districts. The spatial extent of health impacts associated with road-transport pollutants have traditionally been explored through the examination of artificially created buffers, defined by subjective distances from specified major road links. Within this paper an alternative approach is presented using boundary statistics, which describe naturally occurring shifts of magnitude in socio-environmental and health outcomes across the wider urban area. In contrast, previous distance-threshold investigations have used arbitrarily sized buffers placed upon predetermined locations in response to environmental attributes, without considering the combined influence of additional social burdens. The demographically diverse City of Leicester, situated within the heart of the United Kingdom's major road-transport network, was selected to showcase such methods. Descriptive multilevel modelling strategies accommodating for generalised spatial structures across Leicester, globally associated issues of deprivation, road-transport emissions and ethnic minorities with increased respiratory risks. Getis-Ord Gi* spatial pattern recognition statistics identified the existence of localised variations, with inner city neighbourhoods tending to house children of ethnic minority groups whom experience disproportionately large environmental and respiratory health burdens. Crisp polygon wombling boundary detection across Leicester appeared to broadly complement the Gi* statistics, identifying naturally occurring boundaries in road-transport emissions to result in elevated children's respiratory admissions within a distance of 283 m (P < 0.05). The designated threshold was identified to reduce in relation to certain ethnic groups, thus suggesting environmental injustices likely prevail within the model
Ziaei, Shirin; Naved, Ruchira Tabassum; Ekström, Eva-Charlotte
Domestic violence, in particular intimate partner violence (IPV), has been recognized as a leading cause of mortality and morbidity among women of reproductive age. The effects of IPV against women on their children's health, especially their nutritional status has received less attention but needs to be evaluated to understand the comprehensive public health implications of IPV. The aim of current study was to investigate the association between women's exposure to IPV and their children's nutritional status, using data from the 2007 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS). Logistic regression models were used to estimate association between ever-married women's lifetime exposure to physical and sexual violence by their spouses and nutritional status of their children under 5 years. Of 2042 women in the BDHS survey with at least one child under 5 years of age, 49.4% reported lifetime experience of physical partner violence while 18.4% reported experience of sexual partner violence. The prevalence of stunting, wasting and underweight in their children under 5 years was 44.3%, 18.4% and 42.0%, respectively. Women were more likely to have a stunted child if they had lifetime experience of physical IPV [odds ratio n = 2027 (OR)adj, 1.48; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.23-1.79] or had been exposed to sexual IPV (n = 2027 OR(adj), 1.28; 95% CI, 1.02-1.61). The present findings contribute to growing body of evidence showing that IPV can also compromise children's growth, supporting the need to incorporate efforts to address IPV in child health and nutrition programmes and policies. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Grant, J P
In 1991, the Executive Director of UNICEF addressed the World Conference on Health Education in Helsinki, Finland which centered on international cooperation in improving health. Health educators should convince world leaders to apply the money available after reductions in military spending due to the end of the Cold War toward revitalizing health and education systems and alleviating poverty. Another opportunity that they should not let slip away is that more countries are choosing democracy. The international consensus is now leaning toward human centered development. At least 71 national leaders and representatives from 88 other countries have supported the World Summit Plan of Action which emphasizes health education efforts leading toward child survival. This global, political endorsement also presents a plan for social mobilization. Health educators have already contributed greatly to the success of achieving universal child immunization (80%) by the end of 1990. They communicated health education messages via the mass media and traditional channels to motivate individuals and society to immunize their children. UNICEF has 27 goals for the 1990s such as eradication of polio and guinea worm disease. In 1989, UNICEF, WHO, UNESCO, and about 100 other agencies began the Facts for Life initiative by 1st publishing a book. Lay and professional health educators have incorporated its messages into various media: street theater, radio, comics, soap operas, billboards, T-shirts, and bumper stickers. Medical research has shown that individual responsibility for one's own health adds years to life expectancy, e.g., individuals should not smoke. Health educators face the challenge of reaching adolescents, especially since most behavior patterns are established during adolescence. Other challenges include developing effective messages to curb the AIDS pandemic, to motivate hospitals to promote breast feeding, and to encourage world leaders to place children's needs at the
Schneider, C.; Balzer, C.; Buttstädt, M.; Eßer, K.; Ginski, S.; Hahmann, J.; Ketzler, G.; Klemme, M.; Kröpelin, A.; Merbitz, H.; Michael, S.; Sachsen, T.; Siuda, A.; Weishoff-Houben, M.; Brunk, M. F.; Dott, W.; Hofmeister, H.; Pfaffenbach, C.; Roll, C.; Selle, K.
The research initiative CITY 2020+ assesses the risks and opportunities for residents in urban built environments under projected demographic and climate change for the year 2020 and beyond, using the city of Aachen as a case study. CITY 2020+ develops strategies, options and tools for planning and developing sustainable future city structures. The investigation focuses on how urban environment, political structure and residential behaviour can best be adapted, with attention to the interactions among structural, political, and sociological configurations and their impacts on human health. The interdisciplinary research is organized in three clusters. Within the first cluster, strategies of older people exposed to heat stress, and their networks as well as environmental health risks according to atmospheric conditions are examined. The second cluster addresses governance questions, urban planning and building technologies as well as spatial patterns of the urban heat island. The third cluster includes studies on air quality related to particulate matter and a historical perspective of city development concerning environmental issues and climate variability. However, it turns out that research topics that require an interdisciplinary approach are best addressed not by pre-structuring the work into related sub-projects but through combining them according to shared methodological approaches. Examples illustrating this rather practical approach within ongoing research are presented in this paper.
Helleringer, Stéphane; Abdelwahab, Jalaa; Vandenent, Maya
Every year, large numbers of children are vaccinated against polio during supplementary immunization activities (SIAs). Such SIAs have contributed to the >99% decline in the incidence of poliovirus cases since the beginning of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative. It is not clear, however, how much they have also contributed to reducing poverty-related inequalities in access to oral polio vaccine (OPV). We investigated whether the gap in coverage with 3 doses of OPV between children in the poorest and wealthiest households was reduced by SIA participation. To do so, we used data from 25 demographic and health surveys (DHS) conducted in 20 countries since 2002. We found that, in several countries as well as in pooled analyses, poverty-related inequalities in 3-dose OPV coverage were significantly lower among children who had participated in SIAs over the 2 years before a DHS than among other children. SIAs are an important approach to ensuring equitable access to immunization services and possibly other health services. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Kedir N. Turi
Full Text Available While undernutrition and infectious diseases are still persistent in developing countries, overweight, obesity, and associated comorbidities have become more prevalent. Uganda, a developing sub-Saharan African country, is currently experiencing the public health paradox of undernutrition and overnutrition. We utilized the 2011 Uganda Demographic and Health Survey (DHS to examine risk factors and hot spots for underweight, overweight, and obesity among adult females (N = 2,420 and their children (N = 1,099 using ordinary least squares and multinomial logit regression and the ArcGIS Getis-Ord Gi* statistic. Overweight and obese women were significantly more likely to have overweight children, and overweight was correlated with being in the highest wealth class (OR = 2.94, 95% CI = 1.99–4.35, and residing in an urban (OR = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.34–2.29 but not a conflict prone (OR = 0.48, 95% CI = 0.29–0.78 area. Underweight clustered significantly in the Northern and Northeastern regions, while overweight females and children clustered in the Southeast. We demonstrate that the DHS can be used to assess geographic clustering and burden of disease, thereby allowing for targeted programs and policies. Further, we pinpoint specific regions and population groups in Uganda for targeted preventive measures and treatment to reduce the burden of overweight and chronic diseases in Uganda.
Amanda de Carvalho Mello
Full Text Available Frailty is a syndrome that leads to practical harm in the lives of elders, since it is related to increased risk of dependency, falls, hospitalization, institutionalization, and death. The objective of this systematic review was to identify the socio-demographic, psycho-behavioral, health-related, nutritional, and lifestyle factors associated with frailty in the elderly. A total of 4,183 studies published from 2001 to 2013 were detected in the databases, and 182 complete articles were selected. After a comprehensive reading and application of selection criteria, 35 eligible articles remained for analysis. The main factors associated with frailty were: age, female gender, black race/color, schooling, income, cardiovascular diseases, number of comorbidities/diseases, functional incapacity, poor self-rated health, depressive symptoms, cognitive function, body mass index, smoking, and alcohol use. Knowledge of the complexity of determinants of frailty can assist the formulation of measures for prevention and early intervention, thereby contributing to better quality of life for the elderly.
Koskinen, Liisa; Kelly, Hélène; Bergknut, Eva;
This article concerns the European Curriculum in Cultural Care Project (2005-2009), which aimed at developing a curriculum framework for the enhancement of cultural competence in European health care education. The project was initiated and supported by the Consortium of Institutes in Higher...... Education in Health and Rehabilitation, whose goal is to nurture educational development and networking among member institutions. The framework is the result of a collaborative endeavor by nine nurse educators from five different European countries. The production of the framework will be described...
Full Text Available Background. Most of the childhood illnesses can be proven with effective interventions. However, countless children die needlessly in developing countries due to the failure of their guardians to seek care timely. The aim of this study was to assess health care seeking behavior of caretakers of children under the age of five years for treatment of common childhood illnesses. Methods. Further analysis of the Ethiopian 2011 demographic and health survey was done. All children under the age of five reported to have been ill from the three common childhood illnesses and their caretakers were included in the analysis. A complex sample logistic regression model was employed to determine factors associated with the health care seeking behavior of caretakers. Result. A total of 2,842 caregivers who reported that their index child had at least one of the three common childhood illnesses in the two weeks preceding the survey were captured, of which 849 (29.87%; 95% CI: 28, 32% sought formal health care facilities. Conclusion and Recommendation. In Ethiopia health care seeking behavior of caretakers for common childhood illnesses is low. Increasing mass media exposure can possibly improve the health seeking behavior of caretakers.
General description An important feature of contemporary welfare state management is urban health education that includes alliances and partnerships for developing public health policies and practices that positively impact on the health of people. Health promotion in the traditional sense...... and Department of Management, Politics and Philosophy at the Copenhagen Business School (Wistoft et al., 2007). The research topic of the project is welfare management and health education. The general objective was to identify and compare different policies and strategies used by the Danish municipalities...... in the involvement of children and young people in health education activities. The study was a cross-municipality quantitative-qualitative study in five parts: I) Literature review, II) Pilot study: personal interviews and focus group interviews with managers and actors in 4 selected municipalities, III) Survey...
Full Text Available Purpose: To investigate the choice factors students consider when selecting a higher education institution, with a focus on the differences between gender and language groups. Problem investigated: The educational landscape has seen several changes, such as stronger competition between institutions for both student enrolments and government funding. These market challenges have led to an interest in students' institution selection processes as it has implications for the way higher education institutions (HEIs manage their marketing and recruitment strategies. The research objective of this study was to identify the most important choice factors of prospective South African students. It also aimed to determine if any gender and language differences exist with regard to students' institution selection processes. Methodology: A convenience sample of 1 241 respondents was drawn, representing six South African universities. A self-administrated questionnaire was used to collect the data. Questions from the ASQ (Admitted Student Questionnaire and CIRP (The Cooperative Institutional Research Programme were used and adapted to the South African context after pilot testing. Hypotheses were analysed using the multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA test with Wilks' lambda as the test statistic. Findings/Implications: Irrespective of gender or language, the most important choice factor for respondents was the quality of teaching at HEIs. The findings showed that males and females differ according to the selection of certain choice factors which suggest that HEIs can consider recruitment strategies for each gender group. Significant differences between the language groups were found for 17 of the 23 choice factors, signalling that different language groups make decisions based on different choice factors. African language-speaking students have, amongst other, indicated that the multiculturalism of the institution is a very important choice factor for
Willie-Tyndale, Douladel; Holder-Nevins, Desmalee; Mitchell-Fearon, Kathryn; James, Kenneth; Laws, Hazel; Waldron, Norman K; Eldemire-Shearer, Denise
Social participation is critical for maintaining independence and facilitating active ageing. The aim of this paper is to describe participation in social activities among older adults in Jamaica and to identify independently associated socio-demographic and health characteristics. We analysed data from a nationally representative, community-based survey of 2943 persons 60 years and older. Sixty-three percent of older adults attended religious services and 60 % were visited by friends at least once per month in the 12 months preceding the survey. Age was not independently associated with social participation. Persons with post-secondary level education were twice as likely as those with primary education or less, to be visited by friends and to attend meetings of formal organisations. Men, persons not in union, and those with less functional independence had reduced odds of attending meetings of formal organisations. These variables were however not independently associated with having visits with friends. Persons with a positive depression screen were between 42 % and 44 % less likely to be visited by friends. Persons who received an income through livestock/farming were more likely to visit or be visited by friends. The variables independently associated with social participation vary depending on the type of social activity considered. Where possible, health and social interventions should focus on prevention, delay and reversal of risk factors associated with reduced social participation. Social participation programmes should be prioritized and be informed by input from older adults. Future research should include other forms of social interactions and clarify older adults' perceptions of their quality.
Winder, A.E.; Stanitis, M.A.
Twenty-three public health schools and 492 university schools of nursing were surveyed to gather specific information on educational programs related to nuclear war. Twenty public health schools and 240 nursing schools responded. Nuclear war-related content was most likely to appear in disaster nursing and in environmental health courses. Three schools of public health report that they currently offer elective courses on nuclear war. Innovative curricula included political action projects for nuclear war prevention.
Shahhosseini, Zohreh; Hamzehgardeshi, Zeinab
One of the most important and basic needs of adolescent girls is reproductive health services and education, which is different from that required by adults. The aim of this study was to determine reproductive health education needs from the perspective of adolescent girls living in urban and rural areas, as well as to explore adolescents' understanding of reproductive health needs. The first phase was a cross-sectional study conducted on 1274 female adolescents. In the second phase, 77 girls in the form of 11 groups participated in focused group discussions. This sequential explanatory mixed methods study using follow-up variants was conducted in two phases. Questionnaires, including items on socio-demographic characteristics and reproductive health needs from adolescents' perspectives, were completed using the self-administered method. The quantitative results of the study revealed city and village girls' perspectives on reproductive health education needs. These results showed that village adolescents were nearly 1.5-2 times more in favor of a same sex counselor, reproductive health group education, and the need for sexual health education than city adolescents. A review of the transcripts of the qualitative phase led to the extraction of two themes including the characteristics of the reproductive health educator and priorities of reproductive health education, which explains the adolescent girls' understanding of reproductive health education needs. The findings of this study confirm the importance of determining reproductive health education needs from the perspective of adolescent girls. The present study shows how a sequential mixed design can be used for a better understanding of reproductive health needs of adolescent girls. The results of this study can be used in health research, education, policy making, and planning associated with adolescent health.
Armstrong, Elizabeth G; Barsion, Sylvia J
Serious deficits in health care education have been identified recently, yet proposed solutions call for faculty skill sets not typically developed in health professional schools or in continuing professional development (CPD) programs. The authors propose that addressing the oft-cited problems in health care education (e.g., it is not learner-centered and does not take advantage of insights gained from the learning sciences) requires faculty to develop "innovator's skills" including the ability to facilitate organizational change. Given increased social responsibilities and decreased financial resources, it is imperative that more health care educators and health care delivery system leaders not only become innovators themselves but also develop systems that support the next generation of innovators. Dyer et al conducted a comprehensive study of successful innovators and found five behavioral and cognitive "discovery" skill sets that constitute the "innovator's DNA": associating, questioning, observing, networking, and experimenting. This article uses the prism of innovator's DNA to examine a CPD program for health care educators, the Harvard Macy Institute (HMI), whose overarching purpose is to develop innovation skills in participants so that they can build their own educational models customized for implementing changes in their home institutions. A retrospective review of HMI alumni from 1995 to 2010 suggests that innovator skills can be taught and applied. The conceptual framework of the innovator's DNA provides a useful model for other CPD program leaders seeking to enable health care educators to develop the capacity for successfully examining problems and then customizing and implementing organizational change to solve them.
Khokher, Samina; Qureshi, Muhammad Usman; Fatima, Warda; Mahmood, Saqib; Saleem, Afaf
The developing countries have higher mortality rates for breast cancer. A reason for this is presentation at advanced stages due to low levels of public awareness. Activities are arranged by health authorities of developing countries to increase the knowledge of women but their effectiveness has not been evaluated in detail. A multiple choice questionnaire with questions about socio-demographic profile and questions about breast cancer knowledge was designed in local language Urdu, to evaluate the knowledge of the participants before and after an audio visual educational activity in Lahore, Pakistan. Scores of 0-2, 3-5 and 6-8 were ranked as poor, fair and good, respectively. Among 146 participants these scores were achieved by 1%, 55% and 45% before activity and 0%, 16% and 84% after the activity. Overall 66% of participants increased their knowledge score. Younger age, higher education, reliance on television as source of information and being a housewife were associated with better impact of the awareness activity. For the six knowledge related questions 3%, 5%, 11%, 23%, 33% and 44% more participants gave correct answers after the activity. However 6% and 7% fewer participants answered correctly for 2 questions related to the cause and the best prevention for breast cancer. The study indicated that awareness activities are effective to increase the knowledge of women and better impact is associated with higher education and younger age of women. The component analysis showed that the questions and related presentations using medical terms have a negative impact and should not therefore be used. Analysis of activity therefore leads to identification of deficiencies which can be remedied in future.
Veld, Diana Huis In 't; Pengpid, Supa; Colebunders, Robert; Skaal, Linda; Peltzer, Karl
Alcohol use may have a negative impact on the course of HIV disease and the effectiveness of its treatment. We studied patients with HIV who use alcohol and associated socio-demographic, health and psychosocial factors. Outcomes from this study may help in selecting patients from clinical practice with high-risk alcohol use and who are likely to benefit most from alcohol reduction interventions. In a cross sectional study in three primary health care clinics in Pretoria, South Africa, from January 2012 to June 2012, patients with HIV infection were interviewed and patients' medical files were reviewed to obtain data on levels of alcohol use (Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test), patients' socio-demographic characteristics, HIV-related information, health related quality of life (WHOQoL-HIVBref), internalized AIDS stigma, symptoms of depression and adherence to antiretroviral therapy. Analyses consisted of descriptive statistics, bi- and multivariate logistic regression models. A total of 2230 patients (1483 [66.5%] female) were included. The median age was 37 years (interquartile range 31-43), 99.5% were black Africans, 1975 (88.6%) had started ART and the median time on ART was 22 months (interquartile range 9-40). No alcohol was used by 64% of patients, 8.9% were low risk drinkers, 25.1% of patients were hazardous or harmful drinkers and 2.0% had possible alcohol dependence. In multivariate analysis high-risk drinking was positively associated with male gender, never being married, tobacco use, a higher score for the 'level of independence'-domain measured with the WHOQoL-HIVBref questionnaire, and with more depressive symptoms compared to low-risk drinking. This study shows a high prevalence of hazardous or harmful drinking in patients with HIV infection (especially men) attending primary health care clinics in South Africa. Routine screening for alcohol use should be introduced in these clinics and harm reduction interventions should be evaluated, taking
Paul Andrew Bourne
Full Text Available Objectives: The objectives of this study were to examine self-rated health status and health care-seeking behaviour of Jamaicans; and to ascertain the socio-economic determinants of health care-seeking behaviour as well as good health status. Methodology: A cross-sectional descriptive study of 1,006 respondents who answered the question on health-seeking behaviour was used, and this was extracted from a larger nationally representative probability sampling survey of 6,783 Jamaicans. Descriptive statistics were used to provide background information on the demographic characteristics of the sample, chi-square was used to examine correlation between two non-metric variables and logistic regressions were employed to establish the predictors of health care-seeking behaviour and good self-rated health status. Findings: Of the sample, 40.5% was men and 59.5% women, with a mean age of 41.8 years (SD=27.6 years. Forty-four percent of the sample reported at least good health, 97% claimed that they have had some form of dysfunction; 6% reported being injured due to accidents, and only 11% indicated that their illness was not diagnosed by a health practitioner. Of those who indicated being diagnosed with a recurring ailment, 5.6% had arthritis, 20.5% hypertension, 12.4% diabetes mellitus, 9.5% asthma and 14.9% cold. Only 65.4% of the sample sought health care. In the multivariate analyses, health-care seeking behaviour of Jamaicans can be explained by age of respondents (OR=1.031, 95%CI=1.014, 1.049; area of residence (other towns OR=0.5, 95%CI=0.278, 0.902; log consumption (OR=3.605 95%CI=1.814, 7.167; marital status (married OR=0.468 95%CI=0.260, 0.843; divorced, separated or widowed, OR=0.383, 95% CI 0.163, 0.903 and social class (Upper class OR=0.319, 95%CI=0.106, 0.958. The health status of those who seek health care can be predicted duration of the individuals to carry out their normal activities (OR=0.594, 95%CI=0.413, 0.855; age of respondents (OR
Full Text Available Abstract Background Latinos are a fast growing segment of the U.S. health care population. Acculturation factors, including English fluency, result in an ethnic group heterogeneous with regard to SES, health practices, and health education needs. This study examined how demographic and health-related characteristics of Spanish-dominant (SD, Bilingual (BIL, and English-dominant (ED Latino men and women aged 25–64 differed among members of a large Northern California health plan. Methods This observational study was based on data from cohorts of 171 SD (requiring an interpreter, 181 BIL, and 734 ED Latinos aged 25–64 who responded to random sample health plan member surveys conducted 2005–2006. Language groups were compared separately by gender on education, income, behavioral health risks (smoking, obesity, exercise frequency, dietary practices, health beliefs, health status (overall health and emotional health, diabetes, hypertension, high cholesterol, heartburn/acid reflux, back pain, depression, computer and Internet access, and health education modality preferences. Results Compared with ED Latinos, higher percentages of the SD and BIL groups had very low educational attainment and low income. While groups were similar in prevalence of diabetes, hypertension, and high cholesterol, SD were less likely than ED Latinos to rate overall health and emotional well-being as good, very good, or excellent and more likely to report heartburn and back pain (women only. The groups were similar with regard to smoking and obesity, but among women, SD were more likely to be physically inactive than ED, and BIL were less likely than SD and ED groups to eat Conclusion There are important differences among Latinos of different English language proficiency with regard to education, income, health status, health behaviors, IT access, and health education modality preferences that ought to be considered when planning and implementing health programs for this
Staveteig, Sarah; Aryeetey, Richmond; Anie-Ansah, Michael; Ahiadeke, Clement; Ortiz, Ladys
ABSTRACT Background: The intended meaning behind responses to standard questions posed in large-scale health surveys are not always well understood. Systematic follow-up studies, particularly those which pose a few repeated questions followed by open-ended discussions, are well positioned to gauge stability and consistency of data and to shed light on the intended meaning behind survey responses. Such follow-up studies require extensive coordination and face challenges in protecting respondent confidentiality during the process of recontacting and reinterviewing participants. Objectives: We describe practical field strategies for undertaking a mixed methods follow-up study during a large-scale health survey. Methods: The study was designed as a mixed methods follow-up study embedded within the 2014 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey (GDHS). The study was implemented in 13 clusters. Android tablets were used to import reference data from the parent survey and to administer the questionnaire, which asked a mixture of closed- and open-ended questions on reproductive intentions, decision-making, and family planning. Results: Despite a number of obstacles related to recontacting respondents and concern about respondent fatigue, over 92 percent of the selected sub-sample were successfully recontacted and reinterviewed; all consented to audio recording. A confidential linkage between GDHS data, follow-up tablet data, and audio transcripts was successfully created for the purpose of analysis. Conclusions: We summarize the challenges in follow-up study design, including ethical considerations, sample size, auditing, filtering, successful use of tablets, and share lessons learned for future such follow-up surveys. PMID:28145817
Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study is to explore the barriers on reproductive health education and prospects among teachers and students in the Zahedan city related to reproductive health education at schools. Materials and Method: In this qualitative content analysis study, eight qualitative focus group interview among teachers and students were conducted in 2009 (N=61.Results: The most important barriers of education were; not accepting the parents of students and cultural prejudice. The most informative resource for students was peers at school and the best educational method was gradual by getting benefit from mentioned prohibitions in Islam. Conclusion: Designing on analyzed and comprehensive reproductive health education by using cultural capacities and Islamic instruction are suggested
Dinkel, Shirley; Schmidt, Katie
This study identifies the healthcare education needs of incarcerated women in a state corrections facility. This was a naturalistic qualitative study. Focus groups included two groups of adult women incarcerated in a state corrections facility. One group consisted of women housed in maximum security, and one group consisted of women housed in medium security. Data were analyzed using a constant comparison approach. Three guiding questions provided the foundation for the identified themes. Themes included six healthcare education topics important to incarcerated women and three related to health education strategies best suited for incarcerated women. Trust, respect and empowerment are key concepts in educating incarcerated women about their personal health and health of their families. With over 200,000 women incarcerated in the United States today, creating policies and practices that focus on the healthcare education needs of women that are woman focused may enhance knowledge and skills and may ultimately lead to reduced recidivism. © 2014 Sigma Theta Tau International.
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Gazzinelli, Maria Flávia; Gazzinelli, Andréa; Reis, Dener Carlos dos; Penna, Cláudia Maria de Mattos
This article discusses the theory and practice of health and education, beginning with the notion of the hegemony (in health education practice) of strategies linked to the notion that to grasp established knowledge always leads to the acquisition of new behaviors and practices. Five different axioms have oriented education and health practices, either juxtaposed or at different moments: (1) the notion of overcoming the determination of knowledge over practices; (2) the determination of representations over practices; (3) the analysis of representations within the traditional framework of right and wrong; (4) reciprocity between representations and practices; and (5) the importance of considering practices amenable to re-elaboration through representations, thus situating experience in understanding subjects' illness processes, as well as the way subjects culturally construct illness. The article highlights the need for a link between social representations and illness-as-experience in health education practices.
Hudmon, Karen Suchanek; Addleton, Robert L.; Vitale, Frank M.; Christiansen, Bruce A.; Mejicano, George C.
This article describes how the CS2day (Cease Smoking Today) initiative positioned continuing education (CE) in the intersection between medicine and public health. The authors suggest that most CE activities address the medical challenges that clinicians confront, often to the neglect of the public health issues that are key risk factors for the…
Souza, Renyelle Schwantes de; Baumgarten, Alexandre; Toassi, Ramona Fernanda Ceriotti
A fundamental redesign of health education practices has been necessary but challenging with regard to improving the public’s competence and influencing their decision making. The aim of this study was to review the literature on oral health education and analyze its subjects, methodological strategies and forms of assessment. The following electronic databases were used to search the literature from 2000 to 2011: the Scientific Electronic Library Online (SCIELO), Brazilian Library of Dentist...
Intellectual and knowledge values on one side, and vital and physical values on the other, need to be balanced. A harmonious coexistence of these values requires synergy among the bodies that contribute to children education to avoid that the heath education activities cause overlapping, misunderstanding and conflicts between the two models that define children lifestyles: schools and families. Educational bodies understand that health education is key to enable people manage their bio-psychic, emotional, moral and mental resources. Lack of this ability means damage to the child and consequently a failure of the school and the society itself. In the latest decades, schools have been working in this direction, and they have redefined the national curricula integrating health education with specific references to food education and physical activity.
Gehle, Kimberly S; Crawford, Jewel L; Hatcher, Michael T
Although environmental factors contribute to more than 25% of all global disease, and toxic agents ranked fifth in underlying causes of U.S. deaths in 2000, environmental medicine education is largely omitted in the continuum of U.S. medical education. The paucity of specialists trained in environmental medicine (i.e., occupational medicine and other preventive medicine specialties and subspecialties), coupled with the lack of adequate general medical education on how to prevent, diagnose, refer, or treat patients exposed to hazardous substances in the environment, contributes to lost opportunities for primary prevention or early intervention to mitigate or minimize environmentally related disease burden. Survey findings of graduating medical students over the past few years have identified environmental health as a medical school topic area that can be improved. This article reflects a panel presentation on the challenge of including environmental health in general medical education. It was given at the 2010 "Patients and Populations: Public Health in Medical Education" conference cosponsored by the CDC and the American Association of Medical Colleges. A variety of educational strategies, models, and educational resources are presented that illustrate how recommended competency-based environmental health content can be integrated into medical education to better prepare medical students and physicians without specialized expertise in environmental medicine to provide or facilitate environmental preventive or curative patient care.
Provides research-based answers to questions commonly posed by educators, parents, and others about the philosophy, methods, and impact of school sexual health education, discussing such issues as: whether these school programs are needed, what values they teach, whether the programs should teach about sexual orientation and abstinence, and…
Dependents Schools (DOD), Washington, DC. European Area.
The curriculum guide is designed to provide students with realistic training in theory and practice within the secondary educational framework and prepare them for entry into an occupation or continuing postsecondary education. The learning modules are grouped into branches pertaining to the broad categories of health services and cosmetology.…
Lynch, Jamie L; von Hippel, Paul T
There is a positive gradient associating educational attainment with health, yet the explanation for this gradient is not clear. Does higher education improve health (causation)? Do the healthy become highly educated (selection)? Or do good health and high educational attainment both result from advantages established early in the life course (confounding)? This study evaluates these competing explanations by tracking changes in educational attainment and Self-rated Health (SRH) from age 15 to age 31 in the National Longitudinal Study of Youth, 1997 cohort. Ordinal logistic regression confirms that high-SRH adolescents are more likely to become highly educated. This is partly because adolescent SRH is associated with early advantages including adolescents' academic performance, college plans, and family background (confounding); however, net of these confounders adolescent SRH still predicts adult educational attainment (selection). Fixed-effects longitudinal regression shows that educational attainment has little causal effect on SRH at age 31. Completion of a high school diploma or associate's degree has no effect on SRH, while completion of a bachelor's or graduate degree have effects that, though significant, are quite small (less than 0.1 points on a 5-point scale). While it is possible that educational attainment would have greater effect on health at older ages, at age 31 what we see is a health gradient in education, shaped primarily by selection and confounding rather than by a causal effect of education on health.
Full Text Available Background & aim: Men’s sexual and reproductive health is one of the most important public health issues. However, less attention has been paid to this matter, compared to women’s health issues. The aim of this study was to evaluate the educational needs of men regarding sexual and reproductive health in Ahvaz, Iran. Methods:This descriptive study was performed on 1,068 adult men (aged 20-60 years, selected via random cluster sampling in Ahvaz city in 2014. In order to determine the educational needs of men regarding sexual and reproductive health, a questionnaire consisting of three major sections (i.e., demographic data, sexual and reproductive health needs, and men’s attitudes was designed. The validity of the questionnaire was determined by content and face validity. Its reliability was assessed by internal consistency (α=85% and test-retest. For data analysis, descriptive statistics, t-test and ANOVA were performed, using SPSS version 19. Results: The majority of men (75.1% had poor knowledge and a moderate attitude (67.3% towards sexual and reproductive health. The three most important educational needs of men regarding sexual and reproductive health were cancers of male reproductive system (83.8%, sexually transmitted diseases (STD/HIV (77.4% and religious attitudes toward sex (77%, respectively. Friends were the most important source of information in all aspects of sexual and reproductive health, while men preferred to receive information from a male physician or counselor. According to the results, men were dissatisfied with the amount of information they received about sexual and reproductive health. Conclusion: Based on the findings, men felt the need for sexual and reproductive health education; these needs were influenced by social and demographic factors, except marital status. If health policymakers pay attention to these educational needs, it is possible to implement suitable programs for improving men's sexual health and
Jack, Leonard; Hayes, Sandra C; Scharalda, Jeanfreau G; Stetson, Barbara; Jones-Jack, Nkenge H; Valliere, Matthew; Kirchain, William R; LeBlanc, Cris
Many practicing health educators do not feel they possess the skills necessary to critically appraise quantitative research. This publication is designed to help provide practicing health educators with basic tools helpful to facilitate a better understanding of quantitative research. This article describes the major components- title, introduction, methods, analyses, results, and discussion sections-of quantitative research. Readers will be introduced to information on the various types of study designs and seven key questions health educators can use to facilitate the appraisal process. On reading, health educators will be in a better position to determine whether research studies are well designed and executed.
Hayes, Sandra C.; Scharalda, Jeanfreau G.; Stetson, Barbara; Jones-Jack, Nkenge H.; Valliere, Matthew; Kirchain, William R.; Fagen, Michael; LeBlanc, Cris
Many practicing health educators do not feel they possess the skills necessary to critically appraise quantitative research. This publication is designed to help provide practicing health educators with basic tools helpful to facilitate a better understanding of quantitative research. This article describes the major components—title, introduction, methods, analyses, results and discussion sections—of quantitative research. Readers will be introduced to information on the various types of study designs and seven key questions health educators can use to facilitate the appraisal process. Upon reading, health educators will be in a better position to determine whether research studies are well designed and executed. PMID:20400654
Roka, Margarita; Goñi, Pilar; Rubio, Encarnación; Clavel, Antonio
Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in HIV-positive people and its association with clinical and socioeconomic factors has been investigated on the mainland of Equatorial Guinea, in order to define the precise measures for improvement of their quality of life. In August 2010, 273 HIV-positive and 60 HIV-negative were recruited. A sample of faeces, T-CD4+ cell counts, and clinical, socioeconomic and demographic data were collected from each patient. Stool samples were analysed by microscopy and immunochromatography. Data were analysed by Pearson's χ2 test and the risk of each factor was measured by odds ratio bivariate analysis. Two hundred and ten (76.9%) HIV-positive participants were infected by intestinal parasites and 16 parasite species were identified; 246 (48.9%) were pathogenic helminths, 159 (22.9%) pathogenic protozoa and 142 (28.2%) opportunistic protozoa. Trichuris trichiura, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar/moshkovskii, Ascaris lumbricoides and Giardia duodenalis were the most prevalent parasites; 52 (86.7%) of HIV-negative participants were parasitized. HIV was related to co-infection by Entamoeba spp., E. nana and Blastocystis hominis. The high rates of parasitic infections found highlights the urgent need of environmental sanitation, health education and water distribution actions, as well as early diagnosis and treatment of intestinal parasites.
Piyusha Mahashabde, Vinod K Arora, Shireen Sharma, Ahmed Shahjada, H M Dabhi
Full Text Available Background: Anaemia in pregnancy accounts for one fifth of maternal death worldwide. The association between anaemia and adverse pregnancy outcome, higher incidence of preterm & low birth weight deliveries has been demonstrated. However, nutritional anaemia in pregnancy remains one of the India’s major public health problems, despite of the fact that this problem is largely preventable. Objective: To determine the prevalence of anaemia in pregnant women and to determine association of anaemia and socio-demographic factors. Methodology: A descriptive cross sectional study was conducted among pregnant women who came to outpatient unit of obstetrics and gynecology department during March- May 2013 by using pre-designed, pretested structured schedule. Written consent was taken. Hemoglobin estimation was done by Sahli’s method and anaemia was graded according to WHO criteria. Statistical analysis was done using Microsoft Excel 2007 and SPSS Version 20. Result: - Overall prevalence of anaemia among the pregnant women was found to be 63%.It was seen that 23% of women were illiterate and 58.7% of them belong to upper lower class. Factors such as level of education of women, occupation, age at first pregnancy and consumption of Iron Folic Acid were found to be significantly associated with prevalence of anae-mia in pregnancy. Conclusion: - A very high prevalence of anaemia in pregnancy needs mandatory regular supply of IFA tablets to adolescent and pregnant women along with correction of other nutritional deficiencies and timely intervention for reducing the burden of related diseases.
McGovern, Mark E; Canning, David
Based on models with calibrated parameters for infection, case fatality rates, and vaccine efficacy, basic childhood vaccinations have been estimated to be highly cost effective. We estimated the association of vaccination with mortality directly from survey data. Using 149 cross-sectional Demographic and Health Surveys, we determined the relationship between vaccination coverage and the probability of dying between birth and 5 years of age at the survey cluster level. Our data included approximately 1 million children in 68,490 clusters from 62 countries. We considered the childhood measles, bacillus Calmette-Guérin, diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus, polio, and maternal tetanus vaccinations. Using modified Poisson regression to estimate the relative risk of child mortality in each cluster, we also adjusted for selection bias that resulted from the vaccination status of dead children not being reported. Childhood vaccination, and in particular measles and tetanus vaccination, is associated with substantial reductions in childhood mortality. We estimated that children in clusters with complete vaccination coverage have a relative risk of mortality that is 0.73 (95% confidence interval: 0.68, 0.77) times that of children in a cluster with no vaccinations. Although widely used, basic vaccines still have coverage rates well below 100% in many countries, and our results emphasize the effectiveness of increasing coverage rates in order to reduce child mortality.
Chavulak, Jacinta; Petrakis, Melissa
Restrictive interventions such as seclusion may occur during an acute mental health crisis. Such interventions are experienced by people as traumatic and counter to recovery. The current study aimed to investigate the use of seclusion and who was secluded amongst patients presenting with psychotic symptomology. All acute inpatient admissions were examined across a 12-month period January-December 2013. Electronic and paper records were accessed and audited for all 655 admissions. There were 91 admissions that included a seclusion and 200 seclusion events. There were 79 unique patients who experienced seclusion. For those experiencing seclusion: two-thirds were male, 49% were either homeless or had no fixed abode, 32% received case management in the community prior to their inpatient stay, and 56% were unemployed or not in the workforce. The median and mode duration of seclusion was 4 h. By understanding seclusion interventions better, changes can be made to enhance practice. This descriptive research into seclusion has clarified the demographics of who is most likely to experience seclusion, for how long, and the implications for reducing restrictive interventions. How the social work role could contribute to reforms to protect and enhance the rights and well-being of marginalized members of our communities, at their most vulnerable, is considered.
Full Text Available Objective. To determine forms of female genital mutilation (FGM, assess consistency between self-reported and observed FGM status, and assess the accuracy of Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS FGM questions in Sierra Leone. Methods. This cross-sectional study, conducted between October 2010 and April 2012, enrolled 558 females aged 12–47 from eleven antenatal clinics in northeast Sierra Leone. Data on demography, FGM status, and self-reported anatomical descriptions were collected. Genital inspection confirmed the occurrence and extent of cutting. Results. All participants reported FGM status; 4 refused genital inspection. Using the WHO classification of FGM, 31.7% had type Ib; 64.1% type IIb; and 4.2% type IIc. There was a high level of agreement between reported and observed FGM prevalence (81.2% and 81.4%, resp.. There was no correlation between DHS FGM responses and anatomic extent of cutting, as 2.7% reported pricking; 87.1% flesh removal; and 1.1% that genitalia was sewn closed. Conclusion. Types I and II are the main forms of FGM, with labia majora alterations in almost 5% of cases. Self-reports on FGM status could serve as a proxy measurement for FGM prevalence but not for FGM type. The DHS FGM questions are inaccurate for determining cutting extent.
Ezeh, Osita K; Agho, Kingsley E; Dibley, Michael J; Hall, John; Page, Andrew N
In Nigeria, approximately 109 million and 66 million people lack access to sanitation facilities and water, respectively. This study aimed to determine whether children under 5 years old without access to improved water and sanitation facilities are at higher risk of death in Nigeria. Pooled 2003, 2008 and 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey data were used to examine the impact of water and sanitation on deaths of children aged 0-28 days, 1-11 months, and 12-59 months using Cox regression analysis. Survival information of 63,844 children was obtained, which included 6285 deaths of children under 5 years old; there were 2254 cases of neonatal mortality (0-28 days), 1859 cases of post-neonatal mortality (1-11 months) and 2,172 cases of child mortality (1-4 years old). Over a 10-year period, the odds of neonatal, post-neonatal and child deaths significantly reduced by 31%, 41% and 47% respectively. The risk of mortality from both unimproved water and sanitation was significantly higher by 38% (Adjusted hazard ratios (HR) = 1.38, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.14-1.66) for post-neonatal mortality and 24% (HR = 1.24, 95% CI: 1.04-1.48) for child mortality. The risk of neonatal mortality increased by 6% (HR = 1.06, 95% CI: 0.85-1.23) but showed no significant effect. The Nigerian government needs to invest more in water and sanitation to reduce preventable child deaths.
Jiménez-Mejías, E.; Amezcua-Prieto, C.; Martínez-Ruiz, V.; Olvera-Porcel, M. C.; Jiménez-Moleón, J. J.; Lardelli Claret, P.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of problem-based learning (PBL) on university students' satisfaction with and academic performance in a course on epidemiology and social and demographic health. The participants in this interventional study were 529 students (272 in the intervention group and 257 in the control group) enrolled in a…
Drugli, May Britt
This study explored the association between teacher-reported student-teacher relationship quality (closeness and conflict) and demographic factors, school functioning and child mental health in a cross-sectional study. The study was conducted among a national sample of Norwegian school children (N?=?825) in grades 1 to 7. Bivariate analyses and…
Miner, Kimberly J.; Baker, Judith A.
Health educators must complement individual-level change with communitywide policy and legislative initiatives, focusing on environmental issues such as air pollution, ozone layer depletion, and toxic waste disposal. Recent increases in discomfort and disease related to the physical environment call for immediate action from health professionals…
Bijwaard, G.E.; van Kippersluis, H.
In this paper, we hypothesize that education is associated with a higher efficiency of health investment, yet that this efficiency advantage is solely driven by intelligence. We operationalize efficiency of health investment as the probability of dying conditional on a certain hospital diagnosis and
Bijwaard, G.E.; van Kippersluis, H.
In this paper we hypothesize that education is associated with a higher efficiency of health investment, yet that this efficiency advantage is solely driven by intelligence. We operationalize efficiency of health investment as the probability of dying conditional on a certain hospital diagnosis, and
G.E. Bijwaard (Govert); J.L.W. Kippersluis, van (Hans)
markdownabstract__Abstract__ In this paper we hypothesize that education is associated with a higher efficiency of health investment, yet that this efficiency advantage is solely driven by intelligence. We operationalize efficiency of health investment as the probability of dying conditional on a c
Cortese, C G; Gerbaudo, Laura; Benso, P G; Violante, B
Job stress has negative effects on both health care work ers' (HCW) health and on work organization. To assess whether the presence of stressful conditions, individually considered, or combined in the iso-strain model, is significantly associated with specific socio-demographic characteristics, also with the aim of providing organizational tools for management to reduce stress in the working environment according to Italian law 81/2008. The extended version of the Job Content Questionnaire was administered to 265 healthy HCW in seven paired wards of two hospitals. The five psychosocial scales Job Demand (JD), Job Control (JC), Social Support (SS), Skill Underutilization (SuS), and Job Insecurity (JI) were calculated. The factors JD, JC, and SS were combined together to separate a group of 33 HCW in iso-strain conditions from another group of 232 HCW not in iso-strain conditions. Several socio-demographic variables were collected. Statistically significant associations were found between socio-demographic characteristics and psychosocial factors, whereas the iso-strain conditions were not related to any socio-demographic parameter. Data suggest the need for alternative policies to reduce job stress: for example, actions addressed to operative units or HCW with specific socio-demographic characteristics could be effective in improving individual psychosocial factors; however, integrated actions aimed at reorganizing the working environment as a whole should be implemented to correct iso-strain conditions.
Viens, Laura; Perin, Doug; Senkomago, Virginia; Neri, Antonio; Saraiya, Mona
United Nation's Sustainable Development Goals and the World Health Organization's Global Monitoring Framework support a strong global commitment to reducing the high burden of cervical and breast cancers among low- and middle-income countries. Strategies include vaccination, screening, and early diagnosis. Population-based surveys, such as those conducted by the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) Program, can collect the information needed to guide cancer control efforts in a standardized comparable manner. We identified and evaluated the breadth of breast and cervical cancer screening information that was collected by the DHS from 1984 through 2015. Then, we determined if these surveys currently provide the specific and measurable data about both the quantity and quality of cancer screening needed to guide national efforts to reduce the overall effects of cervical and breast cancers. We searched the DHS website to identify surveys conducted between the start of the DHS Program in 1984 and November 2015 that included questions about breast and cervical cancer screening. The relevant questions were extracted from the questionnaire, translated into English, and grouped by themes. Of the 90 countries where DHS surveys have been implemented, cervical cancer screening questions were included in 22 countries (24.4%) and breast cancer screening questions in 18 countries (20.0%). The common themes identified were disease knowledge, screening knowledge, screening practice, and screening outcomes. Most countries with survey questionnaires available for review addressed at least one aspect of screening practice (88.9% of cervical and 87.5% of breast), although few countries queried knowledge and outcomes. Questions that assess varied aspects of breast and cervical cancer screening have been incorporated into relatively few DHS surveys. The themes identified could guide the design of a standard set of questions for use in future population-based surveys and enable evaluation
Sanaeinasab, H; Tavakoli, R; Karimizarchi, A; Amini, Z Haji; Farokhian, A; Najarkolaei, F Rahmati
This study was conducted to determine the impact of education using the Health Belief Model on preventing osteoporosis among female students. This interventional study (quasi-experimental) was performed on 45 female students aged 15-16 years old who resided in a town near Tehran. The females participated in a threeweek educational programme based on the Health Belief Model. The data collection instrument was a validated and reliable questionnaire in five sections: demographics, knowledge, Health Belief Model constructs, physical activity and consumption of foods containing calcium. The mean scores of students' knowledge were significantly different before and after the educational intervention (P Health Belief Model structures changed significantly after the intervention (P health beliefs and may positively impact physical activity-related behaviour.
Deliens, Tom; Clarys, Peter; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Deforche, Benedicte
This study aimed to examine differences in socio-demographics and health behaviour between Belgian first year university students who attended all final course exams and those who did not. Secondly, this study aimed to identify weight and health behaviour related correlates of academic performance in those students who attended all course exams. Anthropometrics of 101 first year university students were measured at both the beginning of the first (T1) and second (T2) semester of the academic year. An on-line health behaviour questionnaire was filled out at T2. As a measure of academic performance student end-of-year Grade Point Averages (GPA) were obtained from the university's registration office. Independent samples t-tests and chi2-tests were executed to compare students who attended all course exams during the first year of university and students who did not carry through. Uni- and multivariate linear regression analyses were conducted to identify correlates of academic performance in students who attended all course exams during the first year of university. Students who did not attend all course exams were predominantly male, showed higher increases in waist circumference during the first semester and consumed more French fries than those who attended all final course exams. Being male, lower secondary school grades, increases in weight, Body Mass Index and waist circumference over the first semester, more gaming on weekdays, being on a diet, eating at the student restaurant more frequently, higher soda and French fries consumption, and higher frequency of alcohol use predicted lower GPA's in first year university students. When controlled for each other, being on a diet and higher frequency of alcohol use remained significant in the multivariate regression model, with frequency of alcohol use being the strongest correlate of GPA. This study, conducted in Belgian first year university students, showed that academic performance is associated with a wide range
Eddy, James M; Stellefson, Michael L
The nature of health education and health promotion (HE/HP) offers a fertile ground for entrepreneurial activity. As primary prevention of chronic diseases becomes a more central component of the health and/ or medical care continuum, entrepreneurial opportunities for health educators will continue to expand. The process used to design, implement, and evaluate health promotion and disease prevention has clear articulation with entrepreneurial, marketing management, and other business processes. Thus, entrepreneurs in HE/HP must be able to utilize business process to facilitate creative, new HE/HP business ideas. The purpose of this article is to weave theory and practical application into a primer on entrepreneurial applications in HE/HP. More specifically, the authors meld their prospective experiences and expertise to provide background thoughts on entrepreneurship in HE/HP and develop a framework for establishing an entrepreneurial venture in HE/HP. Five Cardinal Rules for Entrepreneurs in HE/HP are proposed.
Taddese Alemu; Melaku Umeta
Anemia is a major public health problem worldwide. In Ethiopia, a nationally representative and consistent evidence is lacking on the prevalence and determinants during pregnancy. We conducted an in-depth analysis of demographic and health survey for the year 2011 which is a representative data collected from all regions in Ethiopia. Considering maternal anemia as an outcome variable, predicting variables from sociodemographic, household, and reproductive/obstetric characteristics were identi...
Uthman Olalekan A
Full Text Available Abstract Background The world's highest HIV infection rates are found in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA, where adult prevalence in most countries exceeds 25%. Food shortages and malnutrition have combined with HIV/AIDS to bring some countries to the brink of crisis. The aim of this study was to describe prevalence of malnutrition among HIV-infected women and variations across socioeconomic status using data from 11 countries in SSA. Methods This study uses meta-analytic procedures to synthesize the results of most recent data sets available from Demographic and Health Surveys of 11 countries in SSA. Pooled prevalence estimates and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using random-and fixed-effects models. Subgroup and leave-one-country-out sensitivity analyses were also carried out. Results Pooling the prevalence estimates of HIV-related malnutrition yielded an overall prevalence of 10.3% (95% CI 7.4% to 14.1% with no statistically significant heterogeneity (I2 = 0.0%, p = .903. The prevalence estimates decreased with increasing wealth index and education attainment. The pooled prevalence of HIV-related malnutrition was higher among women residing in rural areas than among women residing in urban areas; and lower among women that were professionally employed than unemployed or women in agricultural or manual work. Conclusion Prevalence of HIV-related malnutrition among women varies by wealth status, education attainment, occupation, and type of residence (rural/urban. The observed socioeconomic disparities can help provide more information about population subgroups in particular need and high risk groups, which may in turn lead to the development and implementation of more effective intervention programs.
To arrive at an expert consensus in relation to health promotion and health education constructs as they apply to nursing practice, education and policy. Nursing has often been maligned and criticized, both inside and outside of the profession, for its ability to understand and conduct effective health promotion and health education-related activities. In the absence of an expert-based consensus, nurses may find it difficult to progress beyond the current situation. In the absence of any previously published nursing-related consensus research, this study seeks to fill that knowledge-gap. A two-round Delphi technique via email correspondence. A first-round qualitative questionnaire used open-ended questions for defining health promotion and health education. This was both in general terms and as participants believed these concepts related to the clinical, theoretical (academic/educational) and the policy (political) setting in nursing. Line-by-line qualitative content and thematic analysis of the first-round data generated 13 specific categories. These categories contained 134 statement items. The second-round questionnaire comprised the identified 134 statements. Using a five-point Likert scale (ranging from 1 = strongly disagree to 5 = strongly agree) participants scored and rated their level of agreement/disagreement against the listed items. Data from the second-round was descriptively analysed according to distribution and central tendency measures. An expert consensus was reached on 65 of the original 134 statements. While some minor contradiction was demonstrated, strong consensus emerged around the issues of defining health promotion and health education and the emergence of a wider health promotion and health education role for nursing. No consensus was reached on only one of the 13 identified topic categories - that of 'nurses working with other disciplines and agencies in a health education and health promotion role.' This study provides a hitherto
Andrew A Lover
Full Text Available Anemia is a significant risk factor for poor health outcomes for both the mother and neonate; however, the determinants of anemia in many epidemiological settings are poorly understood. Using a subset of a nationally representative cluster survey (2010 Demographic and Health Survey in combination with other non-contemporaneous survey data, the epidemiology of anemia among women of reproductive age in Timor-Leste has been explored. Logistic regression was used to identify risk factors, population-level impacts were estimated as population attributable fractions and spatial analytics were used to identify regions of highest risk. The DHS survey found that ∼ 21% of adult women in Timor-Leste are anemic (49,053; 95% CI: 37,095 to 61,035, with hemoglobin <12.0 g/dL. In this population, the main risk factors (adjusted odds ratio; 95% CI are: currently abstaining from sex for any reason (2.25; 1.50 to 3.38; illiteracy (2.04; 1.49 to 2.80; giving birth within the previous year (1.80; 1.29 to 2.51; consumption of fruits/vegetables low in vitamin A (1.57; 1.13 to 2.20; and the district-level confirmed malaria incidence (1.31; 1.15 to 1.49. A review of prior soil-transmitted helminth surveys in Timor-Leste indicates low-to-moderate prevalence with generally low egg counts, suggesting a limited impact on anemia in this setting, although comprehensive survey data are lacking. Examination of the population-level effects highlights the impacts of both recent births and malaria on anemia, with more limited impacts from diet; the evidence does not suggest a large contribution from geohelminths within Timor-Leste. These patterns are divergent from some other settings in the Asia-Pacific region and highlight the need for further focused research. Targeting high-burden districts and by increasing access to pre/postnatal care, raising literacy levels, increasing access to family planning, and improving malaria control should be prioritized to maximize inherently
Vogel, L D; Cerda, S P
An infant oral health evaluation encompasses the assessment and identification of oral disease, the establishment of preventive practices and the monitoring of developing dentofacial structures. The article presented here focuses on the need for dentists to begin a dialogue with parents of young children with regard to their infant's oral health. Emphasis is on oral hygiene, fluoride intake, non-nutritive habits, bottle feeding and diet.
Fortuna, Cinira Magali; Matumoto, Silvia; Pereira, Maria José Bistafa; Camargo-Borges, Celiane; Kawata, Lauren Suemi; Mishima, Silvana Martins
to analyze the experience of the family health team in resignifying the way to develop educational groups. groups of discussion, with twenty-six biweekly group meetings conducted, with an average of fifteen professionals from the family health team, during the year 2009. The empirical material consisted of the transcription of the groups, on which thematic analysis was performed. two themes were developed and explored from the collective discussions with the team: "The experience and coordination of the groups" and "The work process and educational groups in a service-school". continuing Education in Health developed with the team, not only permitted learning about the educational groups that comprised the population, but also contributed to the team's analysis of its own relationships and its work process that is traversed by institutions. This study contributed to the advancement of scientific knowledge about the process of continuing health education as well as educational groups with the population. Also noteworthy is the research design used, providing reflexivity and critical analysis on the part of the team about the group process experienced in the meetings, appropriating knowledge in a meaningful and transformative manner.
Amo-Adjei, Joshua; Anamaale Tuoyire, Derek
We analysed the extent of planned, mistimed and unwanted pregnancies and how they predict optimal use of prenatal (timing and number of antenatal) care services in 30 African countries. We pooled data from Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 30 African countries between 2006 and 2015. We described the extent of mistimed and unwanted pregnancies and further used mixed effects logistic and Poisson regression estimation techniques to examine the impacts of planned, mistimed and unwanted pregnancies on the use of prenatal health services. In total, 73.65% of pregnancies in all countries were planned. Mistimed pregnancy ranged from 7.43% in Burkina Faso to 41.33% in Namibia. Unwanted pregnancies were most common in Swaziland (39.54%) and least common in Niger (0.74%). Timely (first trimester) initiation of ANC was 37% overall in all countries; the multicountry average number of ANC visits was optimal [4.1; 95% CI: 4.1-4.2] but with notable disparities between countries. Overall, mistimed and unwanted pregnancies were strongly associated with late ANC attendance and fewer visits women made in the pooled analysis. Unintended pregnancies are critical risks to achieving improved maternal health in respect of early and optimal ANC coverage for women in Africa. Programmes targeted at advancing coverage of ANC in Africa need to deploy contextually appropriate mechanisms to prevent unintended pregnancies. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Trout, Josh; McColl, Douglas
Evidence suggests that teachers are often at risk for vocal disease and are more likely to change occupations because of their voice problems compared to non-teachers. Physical educators are especially at risk for voice problems due to the intense daily demands of voice projection. Chronic abuse can cause swelling and inflammation of the…
Arboccó de los Heros, Manuel
The following article presents a series of investigations, reflections, and quotes about neuroscience, education, and psychology. Each area is specialized in some matters but at some point they share territory and mutually benefit one another, and help us to increasingly understand the complex world of learning, the brain, and human behavior. We…
Engels, D; Mpitabakana, P
In Burundi, the intestinal parasite, Schistosoma mansoni, inhabits the waters of the Rusizi Plain (1 of the worst affected areas), the Capital Bujumbura, the Imbo-Sud, and around Lake Cohoha. It continues to cause illness in these regions. In 1985, the Lutte Contre la Schistosomiase project implemented a control program in these regions, chiefly involving chemotherapy. In addition, the European Development Fund had financed integration of safe water supply and environmental sanitation efforts into the program. To further reduce the incidence of schistosomiasis, the control program has introduced a training program for auxiliary health workers and health education campaigns. These efforts assist the program in decentralizing schistosomiasis control to health services and communities. Auxiliary health workers in primary schools, health centers, and subcommittees for sociosanitary development are responsible for educating the public about schistosomiasis. Program workers have developed educational material which allows the educators to address consistent messages to all audiences yet also allows for flexibility. The material consists of posters demonstrating how the disease is transmitted and other preventive measures, a film on schistosomiasis control, and a flip chart. Eventually health centers will be responsible for epidemiological surveillance of schistosomiasis. Communal subcommittees for sociosanitary development play an important role in informing local authorities of needed actions to control the disease and in setting priorities.
Wall, Clare R; Gammon, Cheryl S; Bandara, Dinusha K; Grant, Cameron C; Atatoa Carr, Polly E; Morton, Susan M B
.... We aimed to describe dietary patterns of 5664 pregnant women from the Growing Up in New Zealand study, and investigate associations between these patterns and maternal socio-demographic, place...
Gewa, Constance A; Oguttu, Monica; Yandell, Nanette S
High levels of food insecurity and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection place most breastfeeding mothers in Kenya at high risk of malnutrition. We examined the role of selected socio-economic, demographic and health factors as determinants of nutritional status among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected mothers in rural Kenya and further examined the interrelationship between maternal nutritional and child nutritional status within this population. A cross-sectional design was used to collect data from non-pregnant mothers with children ages 4-24 months in Kisumu District, Kenya. Over 80% of the mothers were breastfeeding at the time of the study. Mean maternal body mass index (BMI) (21.60 ± 3.15) and percent body fat (22.29 ± 4.86) values were lower than among lactating mothers in other Sub-Sahara African countries. Maternal HIV status was not significantly associated with any of the maternal nutritional indicators assessed in the study. Breastfeeding, recent severe illness and having multiple children below 2 years of age were negatively associated with maternal nutritional status, while higher maternal age, socio-economic status and household food security were each positively associated with maternal nutritional status. Significant positive association was reported between maternal weight, height, BMI, mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC), body fat and fat-free mass estimates, and children's height-for-age, weight-for-age, weight-for-height and MUAC-for-age z-score. This analysis identifies determinants of maternal nutritional status in rural Kenya and highlights the importance of interventions that address malnutrition in both HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected mothers in rural Kenya. Significant association between maternal and child nutritional status stresses the importance of addressing maternal and young child nutritional status as interrelated factors.
Geiger, Brian F.; Davis, Thomas M.; Beric, Bojana; Devlin, Michele K.
Knowledge and skills for global health program design, implementation and monitoring is an expectation for practicing public health professionals. Major health education professional organizations including American Association for Health Education (AAHE), Society of Public Health Education (SOPHE) and International Union for Health Promotion and…
Full Text Available Public health has been of national and international concern as in the process of assuring the health standards of any nation, it involves mobilizing and engaging local, state, national and international resources. Since the health problems and issues vary from country to country, the health policies and reforms addressing these should also be customized. To effectively implement and practice these developments, it is necessary to scientifically derive the lessons learnt and relate them to adequately trained and adroit health workforce. Winslow in his definition of Public Health stated, “Public Health is the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting health and efficiency through organized community efforts for the sanitation of environment, the control of community infections, the education of individuals in principles of hygiene, the organization of medical and nursing services for the early diagnosis and preventive treatment of disease and the development of social machinery which will ensure to every individual in the community a standard of living adequate for maintenance of health, so organizing these benefits as to enable every citizen to realize his birth right of health and longevity(1. To effectively comply with the multidisciplinary dimensions reflected in Winslow’s definition, it is necessary to explore the different domains of public health and provide sufficient capacity building initiatives to work upon the existing situations related to each of these domains. Public health education and competencies at various levels needed to translate evidence into policies, and to design, implement and evaluate programs(2. The reach of public health has now burgeoned from studying infectious and tropical diseases to understanding the health systems and workforce at large.........
Oppong, Raymond; Mistry, Hema; Frew, Emma
In the UK, the General Medical Council clearly stipulates that upon completion of training, medical students should be able to discuss the principles underlying the development of health and health service policy, including issues relating to health economics. In response, researchers from the UK and other countries have called for a need to incorporate health economics training into the undergraduate medical curricula. The Health Economics education website was developed to encourage and sup...
Background Coronory heart disease (CHD) is a common medical problem worldwide that demands shared care of general practitioners and cardiologists for concerned patients. In order to improve the cooperation between both medical specialists and to optimize evidence-based care, a treatment pathway for patients with CHD was developed and evaluated in a feasibility study according to the recommendation for the development and evaluation of complex interventions of the British Medical Research Council (MRC). In the context of this feasibility study the objective of the present research was to investigate the contributions of different disease related (e.g. prior myocardial infarction), pathway related (e.g. basic medication) and demographic variables on patients` perceived health related quality of life (HRQoL) as a relevant and widely used outcome measure in cardiac populations. Methods Data assessing demographic, disease and pathway related variables of CHD patients included in the study were collected in a quasi-experimental design with three study arms (pathway developers, users, control group) via case record forms and questionnaires at baseline and after 6 and 12 (intervention groups), and 9 months (control group), respectively after the initial implementation on GP level. Additionally, at the same measuring points the CHD patients participating in the study were interviewed by phone regarding their perceived HRQoL, measured with the EuroQol EQ-5D as an index-based health questionnaire. Due to the hierarchical structure of the data, we performed cross-sectional and longitudinal linear mixed models to investigate the impact of disease related, pathway related and demographic variables on patients` perceived HRQoL. Results Of 334 initially recruited patients with CHD, a total of 290 were included in our analysis. This was an average 13.2% dropout rate from baseline assessment to the 12-month follow-up. At all assessment points, patients` HRQoL was associated with a
Full Text Available Abstract Background Coronory heart disease (CHD is a common medical problem worldwide that demands shared care of general practitioners and cardiologists for concerned patients. In order to improve the cooperation between both medical specialists and to optimize evidence-based care, a treatment pathway for patients with CHD was developed and evaluated in a feasibility study according to the recommendation for the development and evaluation of complex interventions of the British Medical Research Council (MRC. In the context of this feasibility study the objective of the present research was to investigate the contributions of different disease related (e.g. prior myocardial infarction, pathway related (e.g. basic medication and demographic variables on patients` perceived health related quality of life (HRQoL as a relevant and widely used outcome measure in cardiac populations. Methods Data assessing demographic, disease and pathway related variables of CHD patients included in the study were collected in a quasi-experimental design with three study arms (pathway developers, users, control group via case record forms and questionnaires at baseline and after 6 and 12 (intervention groups, and 9 months (control group, respectively after the initial implementation on GP level. Additionally, at the same measuring points the CHD patients participating in the study were interviewed by phone regarding their perceived HRQoL, measured with the EuroQol EQ-5D as an index-based health questionnaire. Due to the hierarchical structure of the data, we performed cross-sectional and longitudinal linear mixed models to investigate the impact of disease related, pathway related and demographic variables on patients` perceived HRQoL. Results Of 334 initially recruited patients with CHD, a total of 290 were included in our analysis. This was an average 13.2% dropout rate from baseline assessment to the 12-month follow-up. At all assessment points, patients` HRQo
Manuel Arboccó de los Heros
Full Text Available The following article presents a series of investigations, reflections, and quotes about neuroscience, education, and psychology. Each area is specialized in some matters but at some point they share territory and mutually benefit one another, and help us to increasingly understand the complex world of learning, the brain, and human behavior. We hope them to be of interest and a promoter of new thoughts.
Le Var, R M
There is increasing evidence that the health care needs of people from black and ethnic minority groups in England are not being met. A growing number of initiatives are being undertaken to remedy the situation. Many of them are focused on health care delivery at local and national levels. However, unless the preparation of health care professionals in the area of multi-cultural health care is appropriate and effective, a great deal of corrective action will continue to have to be taken. Despite 1997 having been the European Year Against Racism, it is still necessary to consider what educational preparation should be like. The article draws on identified inadequacies in health care provision as well as examples of initiatives taken to improve care provision. The author identifies deficiencies in educational preparation and proposes a range of actions to be taken. The article is focused on nursing, midwifery and health visiting education in England, but is deemed to be relevant to all health care professionals not only in Europe but other continents, as they become increasingly international and multi-ethnic.
P. Kim Streatfield
Full Text Available Background: Mortality from non-communicable diseases (NCDs is a major global issue, as other categories of mortality have diminished and life expectancy has increased. The World Health Organization's Member States have called for a 25% reduction in premature NCD mortality by 2025, which can only be achieved by substantial reductions in risk factors and improvements in the management of chronic conditions. A high burden of NCD mortality among much older people, who have survived other hazards, is inevitable. The INDEPTH Network collects detailed individual data within defined Health and Demographic Surveillance sites. By registering deaths and carrying out verbal autopsies to determine cause of death across many such sites, using standardised methods, the Network seeks to generate population-based mortality statistics that are not otherwise available. Objective: To describe patterns of adult NCD mortality from INDEPTH Network sites across Africa and Asia, according to the WHO 2012 verbal autopsy (VA cause categories, with separate consideration of premature (15–64 years and older (65+ years NCD mortality. Design: All adult deaths at INDEPTH sites are routinely registered and followed up with VA interviews. For this study, VA archives were transformed into the WHO 2012 VA standard format and processed using the InterVA-4 model to assign cause of death. Routine surveillance data also provide person-time denominators for mortality rates. Results: A total of 80,726 adult (over 15 years deaths were documented over 7,423,497 person-years of observation. NCDs were attributed as the cause for 35.6% of these deaths. Slightly less than half of adult NCD deaths occurred in the 15–64 age group. Detailed results are presented by age and sex for leading causes of NCD mortality. Per-site rates of NCD mortality were significantly correlated with rates of HIV/AIDS-related mortality. Conclusions: These findings present important evidence on the distribution of
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pregnancy-related (PR deaths are often a result of direct obstetric complications occurring at childbirth. METHODS AND FINDINGS: To estimate the burden of and characterize risk factors for PR mortality, we evaluated deaths that occurred between 2003 and 2008 among women of childbearing age (15 to 49 years using Health and Demographic Surveillance System data in rural western Kenya. WHO ICD definition of PR mortality was used: "the death of a woman while pregnant or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy, irrespective of the cause of death". In addition, symptoms and events at the time of death were examined using the WHO verbal autopsy methodology. Deaths were categorized as either (i directly PR: main cause of death was ascribed as obstetric, or (ii indirectly PR: main cause of death was non-obstetric. Of 3,223 deaths in women 15 to 49 years, 249 (7.7% were PR. One-third (34% of these were due to direct obstetric causes, predominantly postpartum hemorrhage, abortion complications and puerperal sepsis. Two-thirds were indirect; three-quarters were attributable to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis. Significantly more women who died in lower socio-economic groups sought care from traditional birth attendants (p = 0.034, while less impoverished women were more likely to seek hospital care (p = 0.001. The PR mortality ratio over the six years was 740 (95% CI 651-838 per 100,000 live births, with no evidence of reduction over time (χ(2 linear trend = 1.07; p = 0.3. CONCLUSIONS: These data supplement current scanty information on the relationship between infectious diseases and poor maternal outcomes in Africa. They indicate low uptake of maternal health interventions in women dying during pregnancy and postpartum, suggesting improved access to and increased uptake of skilled obstetric care, as well as preventive measures against HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis among all women of childbearing age may
Lamichhane, Reeta; Zhao, Yun; Paudel, Susan; Adewuyi, Emmanuel O
Infant mortality is one of the priority public health issues in developing countries like Nepal. The infant mortality rate (IMR) was 48 and 46 per 1000 live births for the year 2006 and 2011, respectively, a slight reduction during the 5 years' period. A comprehensive analysis that has identified and compared key factors associated with infant mortality is limited in Nepal, and, therefore, this study aims to fill the gap. Datasets from Nepal Demographic and Health Surveys (NDHS) 2006 and 2011 were used to identify and compare the major factors associated with infant mortality. Both surveys used multistage stratified cluster sampling techniques. A total of 8707 and 10,826 households were interviewed in 2006 and 2011, with more than 99% response rate in both studies. The survival information of singleton live-born infants born 5 years preceding the two surveys were extracted from the 'childbirth' dataset. Multiple logistic regression analysis using a hierarchical modelling approach with the backward elimination method was conducted. Complex Samples Analysis was used to adjust for unequal selection probability due to the multistage stratified cluster-sampling procedure used in both NDHS. Based on NDHS 2006, ecological region, succeeding birth interval, breastfeeding status and type of delivery assistance were found to be significant predictors of infant mortality. Infants born in hilly region (AOR = 0.43, p = 0.013) and with professional assistance (AOR = 0.27, p = 0.039) had a lower risk of mortality. On the other hand, infants with succeeding birth interval less than 24 months (AOR = 6.66, p = 0.001) and those who were never breastfed (AOR = 1.62, p = 0.044) had a higher risk of mortality. Based on NDHS 2011, birth interval (preceding and succeeding) and baby's size at birth were identified to be significantly associated with infant mortality. Infants born with preceding birth interval (AOR = 1.94, p = 0.022) or succeeding
Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C; de Vries, Jeanne H; Bleeker, Sacha E; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Hofman, Albert; Raat, Hein; Moll, Henriette A
Determinants of a child's diet shortly after weaning and lactation have been relatively understudied. The aim of the present study was hence to identify common dietary patterns in toddlers and to explore parental and child indicators of these dietary patterns. The study was a population-based, prospective birth-cohort study in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Food consumption data of 2420 children aged 14 months were used. A 'Health conscious' dietary pattern characterised by pasta, fruits, vegetables, oils, legumes and fish, and a 'Western-like' dietary pattern characterised by snacks, animal fats, confectionery and sugar-containing beverages were extracted using principal component analysis. Low paternal education, low household income, parental smoking, multiparity, maternal BMI, maternal carbohydrate intake and television-watching of child were determinants of a 'Western-like' diet, whereas parental age, dietary fibre intake during pregnancy, introduction of solids after 6 months and female sex were inversely associated with a 'Western-like' diet of the child. Maternal co-morbidity, alcohol consumption during pregnancy and female sex were inversely associated with a 'Health conscious' dietary pattern of the child, while single parenthood, folic acid use and dietary fibre intake during pregnancy were positively associated. All aforementioned associations were statistically significant. In conclusion, both 'Western-like' and 'Health conscious' diets can already be identified in toddlers. Particularly, adherence to a 'Western-like' diet is associated with unfavourable lifestyle factors of the parents and child, and low socio-economic background. These findings can form a basis for future epidemiological studies regarding dietary patterns and health outcomes in young children.
COLLINSON, MARK A.; TOLLMAN, STEPHEN M.; KAHN, KATHLEEN
Background World population growth will be increasingly concentrated in the urban areas of the developing world; however, some scholars caution against the oversimplification of African urbanization noting that there may be “counter-urbanization” and a prevailing pattern of circular rural–urban migration. The aim of the paper is to examine the ongoing urban transition in South Africa in the post-apartheid period, and to consider the health and social policy implications of prevailing migration patterns. Methods Two data sets were analysed, namely the South African national census of 2001 and the Agincourt health and demographic surveillance system. A settlement-type transition matrix was constructed on the national data to show how patterns of settlement have changed in a five-year period. Using the sub-district data, permanent and temporary migration was characterized, providing migration rates by age and sex, and showing the distribution of origins and destinations. Findings The comparison of national and sub-district data highlight the following features: urban population growth, particularly in metropolitan areas, resulting from permanent and temporary migration; prevailing patterns of temporary, circular migration, and a changing gender balance in this form of migration; stepwise urbanization; and return migration from urban to rural areas. Conclusions Policy concerns include: rural poverty exacerbated by labour migration; explosive conditions for the transmission of HIV; labour migrants returning to die in rural areas; and the challenges for health information created by chronically ill migrants returning to rural areas to convalesce. Lastly, suggestions are made on how to address the dearth of relevant population information for policy-making in the fields of migration, settlement change and health. PMID:17676507
Kiely, J M
Health care and medical education in Uganda, once the best in Black Africa, have been adversely affected by the economic, political, and social upheavals in this developing country during the past decade. Crop failures, inadequate public health measures, shortage of medical equipment and essential drugs, and lack of sufficient medical school faculty have resulted in a major crisis. Substantial aid from the medical profession in developed countries will be necessary to help restore medical practice and education to the level present before the regime of Idi Amin.
Miyazaki, Soichiro; Nishiyama, Akiko
Successful aging is characterized by minimal age-associated loss of the physiological functions of sleep and circadian clock. Sleep health education is necessary to have normal, quality nighttime sleep and full daytime alertness. Elderly people show changes of sleep parameters, accompanied by increased napping. Many studies have reported that daytime sleepiness or napping in elderly people could have potentially serious effects such as dementia and life-style related diseases. The main topics of sleep health education for elderly people are as follows: Right knowledge of sleep mechanism, understanding the bad influence of excessive napping, the effects of light on the circadian rhythm and negative effects of caffeine, alcohol and television.
Mbawalla Hawa S
Full Text Available Abstract Background Promoting oral health of adolescents is important for improvement of oral health globally. This study used baseline-data from LASH-project targeting secondary students to; 1 assess frequency of poor oral hygiene status and oral impacts on daily performances, OIDP, by socio-demographic and behavioural characteristics, 2 examine whether socio-economic and behavioural correlates of oral hygiene status and OIDP differed by gender and 3 examine whether socio-demographic disparity in oral health was explained by oral health-related behaviours. Methods Cross-sectional study was conducted in 2009 using one-stage cluster sampling design. Total of 2412 students (mean age 15.2 yr completed self-administered questionnaires, whereas 1077 (mean age 14.9 yr underwent dental-examination. Bivariate analyses were conducted using cross-tabulations and chi-square statistics. Multiple variable analyses were conducted using stepwise standardized logistic regression (SLR with odds ratios and 95% Confidence intervals (CI. Results 44.8% presented with fair to poor OHIS and 48.2% reported any OIDP. Older students, those from low socio-economic status families, had parents who couldn't afford dental care and had low educational-level reported oral impacts, poor oral hygiene, irregular toothbrushing, less dental attendance and fewer intakes of sugar-sweetened drinks more frequently than their counterparts. Stepwise logistic regression revealed that reporting any OIDP was independently associated with; older age-groups, parents do not afford dental care, smoking experience, no dental visits and fewer intakes of sugar-sweetened soft drinks. Behavioural factors accounted partly for association between low family SES and OIDP. Low family SES, no dental attendance and smoking experience were most important in males. Low family SES and fewer intakes of sugar-sweetened soft drinks were the most important correlates in females. Socio-behavioural factors
States, Rebecca A; Susman, William M; Riquelme, Luis F; Godwin, Ellen M; Greer, Ellen
To address disparities in access to health care information, we developed a model program of community-based, health education workshops to be delivered in English and Spanish to older urban adults from diverse ethnic, cultural, and language backgrounds. The workshops were created through an interdisciplinary collaboration among faculty from seven health care professions and focused on three healthcare topics identified in Healthy People 2010: dementia and depression, stress reduction, and physical activity. The development of workshop content and structure, including didactic and interactive components, an approach to interdisciplinary student involvement, and program evaluation by clients and community center staff, are presented as a model for other educators. The workshops presented at five senior centers were attended by 1110 mostly female clients with an average age of 74 yrs and with a large proportion self-identified as of minority background. One hundred seven students from seven healthcare programs helped deliver the workshops. Interviews and surveys of the clients demonstrated that most had a positive learning experience, whereas the evidence of intent to take action on health care issues was less definitive. Analysis of student essays demonstrated increased student understanding of older adults and of community services. A website, Geriatric Educational Resources for Instructors and Elders (www.GERIE.org), was created to provide access to the instructional and resource materials used for the workshops, including presentation materials in Spanish. This model program may help address the substantial health education needs of a growing population of older adults from diverse ethnic, cultural, and language minorities.
The purpose of this study was to discuss the implementation of nutritional education in public health services from the perspective of health professionals (physicians and nurses) working in them. The study was conducted in the Municipality of Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil, from October 1993 to July 1995, using action-based research methodology. The results describe the construction of nutritional knowledge in training and professional institutions; behavior towards food-related problems ...
Oppong, Raymond; Mistry, Hema; Frew, Emma
In the UK, the General Medical Council clearly stipulates that upon completion of training, medical students should be able to discuss the principles underlying the development of health and health service policy, including issues relating to health economics. In response, researchers from the UK and other countries have called for a need to incorporate health economics training into the undergraduate medical curricula. The Health Economics education website was developed to encourage and support teaching and learning in health economics for medical students. It was designed to function both as a forum for teachers of health economics to communicate and to share resources and also to provide instantaneous access to supporting literature and teaching materials on health economics. The website provides a range of free online material that can be used by both health economists and non-health economists to teach the basic principles of the discipline. The Health Economics education website is the only online education resource that exists for teaching health economics to medical undergraduate students and it provides teachers of health economics with a range of comprehensive basic and advanced teaching materials that are freely available. This article presents the website as a tool to encourage the incorporation of health economics training into the undergraduate medical curricula.
Małgorzata Anna Basińska
Full Text Available Background Beliefs as cognitive components of personality indicate what we consider as true or false and help us to answer questions concerning others, the world surrounding us and situations that we encounter. Beliefs about the health locus of control and their relations with expectations pertaining to therapeutic education seem to be of vital importance in the case of occurrence of a chronic illness. The aim of this paper is to verify whether expectations concerning therapeutic education in chronically ill patients demonstrate a relation with beliefs about the health locus of control and whether they vary according to gender, age and health, and to present the results of research that applies the Polish OE-15 scale for the evaluation of therapeutic education expectations depending on the health condition. Participants and procedure Two hundred and ninety-one persons were examined, including 180 patients and 111 healthy controls (the control group, 187 women and 104 men. The average age of subjects was 45.71 (SD = 13.51 years, ranging from 21 to 80 years. The OE-15 Therapeutic Education Expectations Scale and the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale in versions relevant for patients and healthy controls as well as demographics were used. Results Age, gender and beliefs about the health locus of control are related to expectations of therapeutic education. Conclusions When providing therapeutic education for chronically ill patients, one should assess their expectations and pay attention to patients’ beliefs about the health locus of control.
Doctor, Henry V; Olatunji, Alabi; Jumare, Abdul'azeez
Maternal and child health indicators are generally poor in Nigeria with the northern part of the country having the worst indicators than the southern part. Efforts to address maternal and health challenges in Nigeria include, among others, improvement in health and management information systems. We report on the experience of mobile phone technology in supporting the activities of a health and demographic surveillance system in northern Nigeria. Our experience calls for the need for the Nigerian Government, the mobile network companies, and the international community at large to consolidate their efforts in addressing the mobile network coverage and power supply challenges in order to create an enabling environment for socio-economic development particularly in rural and disadvantaged areas. Unless power and mobile network challenges are addressed, health interventions that rely on mobile phone technology will not have a significant impact in improving maternal and child health.
Byers, E. Sandra; Sears, Heather A.; Foster, Lyndsay R.
This paper examines factors associated with middle school students' perceptions of the quality of the sexual health education (SHE) they received at school. Participants were 478 predominately White young people (256 girls, 222 boys) in grades 6-8 who completed a survey assessing their demographic characteristics; dating and sexual…
Full Text Available The article presents the results of research on social and demographic factors of Ukr health literacy, health culture, young adults, concepts of health and healthy lifestyle, motivations, forms of communication, learning methods ainian youth money attitudes. The aim of the research is to identify dependency between money attitudes of the young people and such social and demographic characteristics as sex, age, education, place of residence, place of employment, employment position and level of income. The research required application of survey and questionnaire methods as well as statistical methods of results processing.
Full Text Available The analysis of the special scientific literature is conducted on issue health of economy for students, approaches and features of forming for the students of requirement in the healthy physically active way of life in the process of physical education. It is set that creation of environment, cooperant the physical and moral making healthy of students must become the strategic purpose of higher education. Also - to maintenance of health level, strengthening of health, forming of skills of healthy way of life. It is marked that education of culture of health is reduced negative action of external and internal средовых factors. The theoretical going is generalized near research of problem health of economy for the participants of educational process. Possible directions activity are rotined on realization health of saving technologies in the institute of higher. Essence, components, criteria and directions of development, is certain health of saving technologies in the process of teaching in the system of trade education. It is well-proven that development and realization of ideology and policy of economy of health of students, overcoming of crisis demographic situation, must be fixed in basis of activity of all of public organs of power. Main strategies of decision of problems of national development and safety of Ukraine are rotined, further effective socio-economic development of country.
Sriranganathan, Gobika; Jaworsky, Denise; Larkin, June; Flicker, Sarah; Campbell, Lisa; Flynn, Susan; Janssen, Jesse; Erlich, Leah
Peer education is used as a health promotion strategy in a number of areas, including sexual health. Although peer education programmes have been around for some time, published systematic evaluations of youth sexual health peer education programmes are rare. This article discusses the advantages and disadvantages of youth sexual health peer…
Carvalho, Graca S.; Dantas, Catarina; Rauma, Anna-Liisa; Luzi, Daniela; Ruggieri, Roberta; Bogner, Franz; Geier, Christine; Caussidier, Claude; Berger, Dominique; Clement, Pierre
Classically, health education has provided mainly factual knowledge about diseases and their prevention. This educational approach is within the so called Biomedical Model (BM). It is based on pathologic (Pa), curative (Cu) and preventive (Pr) conceptions of health. In contrast, the Health Promotion (HP) approach of health education intends to…
Abebaw Gebeyehu Worku
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Accessing family planning can reduce a significant proportion of maternal, infant, and childhood deaths. In Ethiopia, use of modern contraceptive methods is low but it is increasing. This study aimed to analyze the trends and determinants of changes in modern contraceptive use over time among young married women in Ethiopia. METHODS: The study used data from the three Demographic Health Surveys conducted in Ethiopia, in 2000, 2005, and 2011. Young married women age 15-24 years with sample sizes of 2,157 in 2000, 1,904 in 2005, and 2,146 in 2011 were included. Logit-based decomposition analysis technique was used for analysis of factors contributing to the recent changes. STATA 12 was employed for data management and analyses. All calculations presented in this paper were weighted for the sampling probabilities and non-response. Complex sampling procedures were also considered during testing of statistical significance. RESULTS: Among young married women, modern contraceptive prevalence increased from 6% in 2000 to 16% in 2005 and to 36% in 2011. The decomposition analysis indicated that 34% of the overall change in modern contraceptive use was due to difference in women's characteristics. Changes in the composition of young women's characteristics according to age, educational status, religion, couple concordance on family size, and fertility preference were the major sources of this increase. Two-thirds of the increase in modern contraceptive use was due to difference in coefficients. Most importantly, the increase was due to change in contraceptive use behavior among the rural population (33% and among Orthodox Christians (16% and Protestants (4%. CONCLUSIONS: Modern contraceptive use among young married women has showed a remarkable increase over the last decade in Ethiopia. Programmatic interventions targeting poor, younger (adolescent, illiterate, and Muslim women would help to maintain the increasing trend in modern
Acharya, Pawan; Mishra, Shiva Raj; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele
This study assessed the association between use of solid fuel in kitchen and ARI among under five children in Nepal. The latest data from the Nepal Demographic and Health Survey 2011 were used. A total of 4,802 under 5 de-jure children were included in this analysis. Cough accompanied by short/rapid breath and chest problem within 2 weeks before survey was considered as the symptoms of ARI. Logistic regression analysis was performed to calculate the odds of being suffered from ARI among the children from households using solid fuel in comparison to the children from households using cleaner fuel. About 84.6% of the families used solid fuel as a primary fuel. Approximately 4.5% children had symptoms of ARI within 2 weeks before the survey. About 3.4 and 4.9% of children from the families using cleaner fuel and solid fuel respectively had symptoms of ARI within 2 weeks preceding survey. After adjusting for age, sex, birth order, urban/rural residence, ecological zone, development region, economic status, number of family members, mother's smoking status and mother's education, odds of suffering from ARI was 1.79 times higher among the children from the households using solid fuel in comparison to the children from households using cleaner fuel (95% CI 1.02, 3.14). This study found the use of solid fuel in the kitchen has as a risk factor for ARI among under five children in Nepal. Longitudinal studies with direct measurement of indoor air pollution and clinical ARI cases can be future research priority.
This is part I of a two-part annotated bibliography of selected references on medical education in the People's Republic of China. The references date from 1925 to 1983. Most of the references are from the 1970's. (RH)
P. Kim Streatfield
Full Text Available Background: Childhood mortality, particularly in the first 5 years of life, is a major global concern and the target of Millennium Development Goal 4. Although the majority of childhood deaths occur in Africa and Asia, these are also the regions where such deaths are least likely to be registered. The INDEPTH Network works to alleviate this problem by collating detailed individual data from defined Health and Demographic Surveillance sites. By registering deaths and carrying out verbal autopsies to determine cause of death across many such sites, using standardised methods, the Network seeks to generate population-based mortality statistics that are not otherwise available. Objective: To present a description of cause-specific mortality rates and fractions over the first 15 years of life as documented by INDEPTH Network sites in sub-Saharan Africa and south-east Asia. Design: All childhood deaths at INDEPTH sites are routinely registered and followed up with verbal autopsy (VA interviews. For this study, VA archives were transformed into the WHO 2012 VA standard format and processed using the InterVA-4 model to assign cause of death. Routine surveillance data also provided person-time denominators for mortality rates. Cause-specific mortality rates and cause-specific mortality fractions are presented according to WHO 2012 VA cause groups for neonatal, infant, 1–4 year and 5–14 year age groups. Results: A total of 28,751 childhood deaths were documented during 4,387,824 person-years over 18 sites. Infant mortality ranged from 11 to 78 per 1,000 live births, with under-5 mortality from 15 to 152 per 1,000 live births. Sites in Vietnam and Kenya accounted for the lowest and highest mortality rates reported. Conclusions: Many children continue to die from relatively preventable causes, particularly in areas with high rates of malaria and HIV/AIDS. Neonatal mortality persists at relatively high, and perhaps sometimes under-documented, rates
C.H. Bruining; Dr. Johan de Jong
Main goal of the Sport Physical Education And Coaching in Health Project (SPEACH/Erasmus+ sport 557083-EPP-1-2014-1-NL-SPO-SCP) is to increase awareness and behavioural change in sport professionals and European citizens towards an active and healthy lifestyle. Sedentariness and physical inactivity
Waineo, Eva; Arfken, Cynthia L.; Morreale, Mary K.
Objective: This report discusses psychiatric residents' perceptions of sexual health education and their opinions regarding curricular improvements. Methods: An anonymous, web-based survey was sent to residents in one general psychiatry program (N = 33). The response rate was 69.7%. Results: Residents reported inadequate experience in multiple…
Walker, Peter; Portnoy, Barry
This study sought to determine the effects of a high blood pressure education program for sixth graders on the preventive hypertension health attitudes and behaviors of their parents. Attention was focused on the role of students ("significant others") in affecting parental attitude and behavior changes relating to the three risk factors of…
Since its founding in 1950, the Society for Public Health Education (SOPHE) has evolved in response to the changing needs of both the public and the profession. This SOPHE Presidential Address provides a brief review of SOPHE's history and the legacy of its achievements over some 60 years. It also describes how new challenges being created by the…
Lindsey, Billie J.; Saunders, Cynthia M.
Investigated whether college level peer educators were adequately prepared to teach peers about sexual health, sexual assault, and substance abuse. They completed 20 hours of training on the issues and on public speaking, leadership, and presentation skills. Pretesting and posttesting indicated that the program increased students' factual…
Brown, Jackie; Busfield, Robert; O'Shea, Alison; Sibthorpe, Joanne
This paper will discuss research undertaken within a London borough in 2009 that aimed to examine how Personal, Social, Health and Economic education (PSHE) was perceived and delivered. The ethos of schools was incorporated into the enquiry as a key determinate of both perception and delivery of PSHE. The findings are presented with particular…
From dating violence to sexting and social networking, districts are struggling to address a number of sensitive and relatively new health education issues that are aggravated by students' increasing access to computers, cell phones and other digital devices. Through new or revised curricula, administrators are attempting to deal with these and…
Harbit, Maryanne Drake; Willis, Dawn
Lyme disease may be one of the most commonly misdiagnosed diseases of this decade. Health educators should be knowledgeable about this new disease and be able to share with the public information about prevention, early signs and symptoms, and treatment of the disease (Author/IAH)
The African Journal of Health Professions Education is an online, bi-annual, ... Use of role-play and community engagement to teach parasitic diseases ... 'He has a life, a soul, a meaning that extends far deeper than his medical assessment …
Koskinen, Liisa; Kelly, Hélène; Bergknut, Eva
This article concerns the European Curriculum in Cultural Care Project (2005-2009), which aimed at developing a curriculum framework for the enhancement of cultural competence in European health care education. The project was initiated and supported by the Consortium of Institutes in Higher...
Lindsey, Billie J.; Saunders, Cynthia M.
Investigated whether college level peer educators were adequately prepared to teach peers about sexual health, sexual assault, and substance abuse. They completed 20 hours of training on the issues and on public speaking, leadership, and presentation skills. Pretesting and posttesting indicated that the program increased students' factual…
Waineo, Eva; Arfken, Cynthia L.; Morreale, Mary K.
Objective: This report discusses psychiatric residents' perceptions of sexual health education and their opinions regarding curricular improvements. Methods: An anonymous, web-based survey was sent to residents in one general psychiatry program (N = 33). The response rate was 69.7%. Results: Residents reported inadequate experience in multiple…
Mirowsky, John; Ross, Catherine E
Education has a large and increasing impact on health in America. This paper examines one reason why. Education gives individuals the ability to override the default American lifestyle. The default lifestyle has three elements: displacing human energy with mechanical energy, displacing household food production with industrial food production, and displacing health maintenance with medical dependency. Too little physical activity and too much food produce imperceptibly accumulating pathologies. The medical industry looks for products and services that promise to soften the consequences but do not eliminate the underlying pathologies. This "secondary prevention" creates pharmacologic accumulation: prolonging the use of medications, layering them, and accruing their side effects and interactions. Staying healthy depends on recognizing the risks of the default lifestyle. Overriding it requires insight, knowledge, critical analysis, long-range strategic thinking, personal agency, and self-direction. Education develops that ability directly and indirectly, by way of creative work and a sense of controlling one's own life.
Conde, José G; De, Suvranu; Hall, Richard W; Johansen, Edward; Meglan, Dwight; Peng, Grace C Y
Telehealth applications are increasingly important in many areas of health education and training. In addition, they will play a vital role in biomedical research and research training by facilitating remote collaborations and providing access to expensive/remote instrumentation. In order to fulfill their true potential to leverage education, training, and research activities, innovations in telehealth applications should be fostered across a range of technology fronts, including online, on-demand computational models for simulation; simplified interfaces for software and hardware; software frameworks for simulations; portable telepresence systems; artificial intelligence applications to be applied when simulated human patients are not options; and the development of more simulator applications. This article presents the results of discussion on potential areas of future development, barries to overcome, and suggestions to translate the promise of telehealth applications into a transformed environment of training, education, and research in the health sciences.
Kushniruk, Andre; Borycki, Elizabeth; Armstrong, Brian; Kuo, Mu-Hsing
The paper describes the authors' work in the area of health informatics (HI) education involving emerging health information technologies. A range of information technologies promise to modernize health care. Foremost among these are electronic health records (EHRs), which are expected to significantly improve and streamline health care practice. Major national and international efforts are currently underway to increase EHR adoption. However, there have been numerous issues affecting the widespread use of such information technology, ranging from a complex array of technical problems to social issues. This paper describes work in the integration of information technologies directly into the education and training of HI students at both the undergraduate and graduate level. This has included work in (a) the development of Web-based computer tools and platforms to allow students to have hands-on access to the latest technologies and (b) development of interdisciplinary educational models that can be used to guide integrating information technologies into HI education. The paper describes approaches that allow for remote hands-on access by HI students to a range of EHRs and related technology. To date, this work has been applied in HI education in a variety of ways. Several approaches for integration of this essential technology into HI education and training are discussed, along with future directions for the integration of EHR technology into improving and informing the education of future health and HI professionals.
Lemos, Cristiane Lopes Simão
The scope of this study was to analyze the concept and principles of Ongoing Health Education (OHE) - the Brazilian acronym is PNEPS. The methodology was based on the analysis of documents from the Ministry of Health and related scientific articles. It was revealed that the concept of OHE transcends its pedagogical significance and is undergoing a service restructuring process in the face of the new demands of the model. Precisely at the time in which jobs are increasingly unstable and precarious, the Ministry of Health engages in discourse regarding innovative management, focusing on the issue of OHE. The idea is not one of ongoing education, but of ongoing management. Rather than being an instrument for radical transformation, OHE becomes an attractive ideology due to its appearance as a pedagogical novelty.
Bijwaard, Govert E; Van Kippersluis, Hans
In this paper, we hypothesize that education is associated with a higher efficiency of health investment, yet that this efficiency advantage is solely driven by intelligence. We operationalize efficiency of health investment as the probability of dying conditional on a certain hospital diagnosis and estimate a multistate structural equation model with three states: (i) healthy, (ii) hospitalized, and (iii) death. We use data from a Dutch cohort born around 1940 that links intelligence tests at age 12 years to later-life hospitalization and mortality records. The results indicate that intelligent individuals have a clear survival advantage for most hospital diagnoses, while the remaining disparities across education groups are small and not statistically significant. © 2016 The Authors. Health Economics Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Anand, Ankit; Roy, Nobhojit
The Millennium Development Goals are now replaced by 17 sustainable development goals. The emphasis of old goals was on improving water, sanitation, and child mortality conditions in developing countries. The study explored the major question about the association between different household environment conditions with child survival and health in Sub-Saharan African and South Asian countries in the current scenario. This paper estimated the risk of death, morbidity, and undernutrition among children living in households with the improved sources of water, sanitation, and non-solid cooking fuel. Two sources of information are explored in this study. First, data from World Health Statistics (WHS)-2014 for all of the Sub-Saharan African and South Asian countries were used. Second, available standard Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) performed in the countries of Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia after 2010 was included in the study. It resulted in the inclusion of 15 countries which were Bangladesh (2011), Congo Republic (2013-2014), Cote d'Ivoire (2011-2012), Ethiopia (2011), Gambia (2013), Mali (2012-2013), Mozambique (2011), Namibia (2013), Nepal (2011), Niger (2012), Nigeria (2013), Pakistan (2012-2013), Sierra Leone (2013), Uganda (2011), and Zambia (2013). The scatter plot diagram was plotted, and the curve was fitted using the WHS-2014. Cox regression and logistic regression were used to estimate adjusted risks (odds ratio) of child mortality and health outcomes using DHSs. The use of non-solid cooking fuel was very high in most of the Sub-Saharan African and South Asian countries. There was a positive correlation between improving access to safe drinking water and sanitation. The exponential curve fitted well with child mortality and household environmental indicators. The use of improved source of water and sanitation significantly related with the lower odds ratio of death, morbidity, and undernutrition among children aged 12-59 months. The risks were
Full Text Available The millennium development goals are now replaced by seventeen sustainable development goals. The emphasis of old goals was on improving water, sanitation, and child mortality conditions in developing countries. The study explored the major question about the association between different household environment conditions with child survival and health in Sub-Saharan African and South Asian countries in the current scenario. This paper estimated the risk of death, morbidity and under-nutrition among children living in households with the improved sources of water, sanitation and non-solid cooking fuel. Two sources of information explored in this study. First, data from World Health Statistics (WHS -2014 for all of the Sub-Saharan African and South Asian countries were used. Second, available standard Demographic and Health Survey performed in the countries of Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia after 2010, included in the study. It resulted in inclusion of 15 countries which were Bangladesh (2011, Congo Republic (2013-14, Cote d'Ivoire (2011-12, Ethiopia (2011, Gambia (2013, Mali (2012-13, Mozambique (2011, Namibia (2013, Nepal (2011, Niger (2012, Nigeria (2013, Pakistan (2012-13, Sierra Leone (2013, Uganda (2011 and Zambia (2013. The Scatter plot diagram was plotted, and the curve was fitted using the WHS-2014. Cox regression and logistic regression were used to estimate adjusted risks (odds ratio of child mortality and health outcomes using DHS surveys. The use of non-solid cooking fuel was very high in most of the Sub-Saharan African and South Asian Countries. There was a positive correlation between improving access to safe drinking water and sanitation. The exponential curve fitted well with child mortality and Household environmental indicators. The use of improved source of water and sanitation significantly related with the lower odds ratio of death, morbidity and under-nutrition among children aged 12-59 months. The risks were not
Rosinski, Edwin F.
With federal financial support, an area health education center was established in the central San Joaquin Valley of California. The center is a cooperative health sciences education and health care program organized by the University of California and some of the educational and health care institutions of the valley. The center's goals include providing and improving primary health care education, and improving the distribution of health personnel. These goals are achieved through the cooperative development of a number of independent and interdependent activities. An extensive evaluation of the Area Health Education Center has shown that it is a highly effective program. PMID:664636
Bhoopathi, P S; Sheoran, R
In traditional didactic teaching, the learner has a passive role, digesting the knowledge presented by the teacher. Stimulating and active teaching processes may be better at instilling information than more pedestrian approaches. Games involving repetition, reinforcement, association and use of multiple senses have been proposed as part of experiential learning. To assess the effects of educational games on the knowledge and clinical skill of mental health professionals compared to the effects of standard teaching approaches. We performed electronic searches of AMED (1998 - November 2005), British Nursing Index (November 2005), Cochrane Library (Issue 3, 2005), Cochrane Schizophrenia Group Trials Register (November 2005), CINAHL (November 2005) EMBASE (November 2005), Educational Resources Information Centre on CSA (1966 - November 2005), MEDLINE (November 2005), PsycINFO (November 2005). We also searched references of all selected articles and contacted authors of included trials for more information. Randomised controlled trials comparing any educational game aiming at increasing knowledge and/or skills with a standard educational approach for mental health professionals. We extracted data independently and analysed on an intention-to-treat basis. We analysed the individual person data using fixed effect Peto Odds Ratio (OR) calculated the 95% confidence intervals (CI). If appropriate, the number needed to treat (NNT) or number needed to harm (NNH) was estimated. For continuous data, we calculated weighted mean differences. We identified one trial (n=34) of an educational game for mental health nursing students of only a few hours follow up. For an outcome we arbitrarily defined ('no academically important improvement [a 10% improvement in scores]') those allocated to educational games fared considerably better than students in the standard education techniques group (OR 0.06 CI 0.01 to 0.27, NNT 3 CI 2 to 4). On average those in the games group scored six more
Jack, Leonard; Hayes, Sandra C; Scharalda, Jeanfreau G.; Stetson, Barbara; Jones-Jack, Nkenge H.; Valliere, Matthew; Kirchain, William R.; Fagen, Michael; LeBlanc, Cris
Many practicing health educators do not feel they possess the skills necessary to critically appraise quantitative research. This publication is designed to help provide practicing health educators with basic tools helpful to facilitate a better understanding of quantitative research. This article describes the major components—title, introduction, methods, analyses, results and discussion sections—of quantitative research. Readers will be introduced to information on the various types of stu...
Background Digital health social networks (DHSNs) are widespread, and the consensus is that they contribute to wellness by offering social support and knowledge sharing. The success of a DHSN is based on the number of participants and their consistent creation of externalities through the generation of new content. To promote network growth, it would be helpful to identify characteristics of superusers or actors who create value by generating positive network externalities. Objective The aim of the study was to investigate the feasibility of developing predictive models that identify potential superusers in real time. This study examined associations between posting behavior, 4 demographic variables, and 20 indication-specific variables. Methods Data were extracted from the custom structured query language (SQL) databases of 4 digital health behavior change interventions with DHSNs. Of these, 2 were designed to assist in the treatment of addictions (problem drinking and smoking cessation), and 2 for mental health (depressive disorder, panic disorder). To analyze posting behavior, 10 models were developed, and negative binomial regressions were conducted to examine associations between number of posts, and demographic and indication-specific variables. Results The DHSNs varied in number of days active (3658-5210), number of registrants (5049-52,396), number of actors (1085-8452), and number of posts (16,231-521,997). In the sample, all 10 models had low R2 values (.013-.086) with limited statistically significant demographic and indication-specific variables. Conclusions Very few variables were associated with social network engagement. Although some variables were statistically significant, they did not appear to be practically significant. Based on the large number of study participants, variation in DHSN theme, and extensive time-period, we did not find strong evidence that demographic characteristics or indication severity sufficiently explain the variability in
Full Text Available E-learning as an educational approach has been adopted by diverse educational and academic centers worldwide as it facilitates learning in facing the challenges of the new era in education. Considering the significance of virtual education and its growing practice, it is of vital importance to examine its components for promoting and maintaining success. This analytical cross-sectional study was an attempt to determine the relationship between four factors of content, educator, learner and system, and effective e-learning in terms of demographic variables, including age, gender, educational background, and marital status of postgraduate master's students (MSc studying at virtual faculty of Tehran University of Medical Sciences. The sample was selected by census (n=60; a demographic data gathering tool and a researcher-made questionnaire were used to collect data. The face and content validity of both tools were confirmed and the results were analyzed by descriptive statistics (frequency, percentile, standard deviation and mean and inferential statistics (independent t-test, Scheffe's test, one-way ANOVA and Pearson correlation test by using SPSS (V.16. The present study revealed that There was no statistically significant relationship between age and marital status and effective e-learning (P>0.05; whereas, there was a statistically significant difference between gender and educational background with effective e-learning (P<0.05. Knowing the extent to which these factors can influence effective e-learning can help managers and designers to make the right decisions about educational components of e-learning, i.e. content, educator, system and learner and improve them to create a more productive learning environment for learners.
Paul Andrew Bourne
Full Text Available Background: Education provides choices, opportunities, access to resources and it is associated with an increased likelihood of higher income. Does this holds true in developing nations like Jamaica, and does the educated class experience greater self-rated health status than the uneducated classes? Aims: The current study will identify the socio-demographic correlates of self-rated health status of Jamaicans, examine the effects of these variables, explore self-rated health status and self-reported diagnosed recurring illness among the educated and uneducated classes, compute mean income among the different educational types, and determine whether a significant statistical correlation exists between the different educational cohorts. Mater