WorldWideScience

Sample records for demographics age gender

  1. Demographic Recommendation by means of Group Profile Elicitation Using Speaker Age and Gender Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shepstone, Sven Ewan; Tan, Zheng-Hua; Jensen, Søren Holdt

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we show a new method of using automatic age and gender recognition to recommend a sequence of multimedia items to a home TV audience comprising multiple viewers. Instead of relying on explicitly provided demographic data for each user, we define an audio-based demographic group......, which itself is the input to a recommender system. The recommender system finds the content items whose demographics best match the group profile. We tested the effectiveness of the system for several typical home audience configurations. In a survey, users were given a configuration and asked to rate...... a set of advertisements on how well each advertisement matched the configuration. Unbeknown to the subjects, half of the adverts were recommended using the derived audio demographics and the other half were randomly chosen. The recommended adverts received a significantly higher median rating of 7...

  2. Young adult and middle age mortality in Butajira demographic surveillance site, Ethiopia: lifestyle, gender and household economy

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    Högberg Ulf

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Public health research characterising the course of life through the middle age in developing societies is scarce. The aim of this study is to explore patterns of adult (15–64 years mortality in an Ethiopian population over time, by gender, urban or rural lifestyle, causes of death and in relation to household economic status and decision-making. Methods The study was conducted in Butajira Demographic Surveillance Site (DSS in south-central Ethiopia among adults 15–64 years old. Cohort analysis of surveillance data was conducted for the years 1987–2004 complemented by a prospective case-referent (case control study over two years. Rate ratios were computed to assess the relationships between mortality and background variables using a Poisson regression model. In the case-referent component, odds ratios (95% confidence intervals were used to assess the effect of certain risk factors that were not included in the surveillance system. Results A total of 367 940 person years were observed in a period of 18 years, in which 2 860 deaths occurred. One hundred sixty two cases and 486 matched for age, sex and place of residence controls were included in the case referent (case control study. Only a modest downward trend in adult mortality was seen over the 18 year period. Rural lifestyle carried a significant survival disadvantage [mortality rate ratio 1.62 (95% CI 1.44 to 1.82, adjusted for gender, period and age group], while the overall effects of gender were negligible. Communicable disease mortality was appreciably higher in rural areas [rate ratio 2.05 (95% CI 1.73 to 2.44, adjusted for gender, age group and period]. Higher mortality was associated with a lack of literacy in a household, poor economic status and lack of women's decision making. Conclusion A complex pattern of adult mortality prevails, still influenced by war, famine and communicable diseases. Individual factors such as a lack of education, low economic

  3. Demographic model of the Swiss cattle population for the years 2009-2011 stratified by gender, age and production type.

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    Sara Schärrer

    Full Text Available Demographic composition and dynamics of animal and human populations are important determinants for the transmission dynamics of infectious disease and for the effect of infectious disease or environmental disasters on productivity. In many circumstances, demographic data are not available or of poor quality. Since 1999 Switzerland has been recording cattle movements, births, deaths and slaughter in an animal movement database (AMD. The data present in the AMD offers the opportunity for analysing and understanding the dynamic of the Swiss cattle population. A dynamic population model can serve as a building block for future disease transmission models and help policy makers in developing strategies regarding animal health, animal welfare, livestock management and productivity. The Swiss cattle population was therefore modelled using a system of ordinary differential equations. The model was stratified by production type (dairy or beef, age and gender (male and female calves: 0-1 year, heifers and young bulls: 1-2 years, cows and bulls: older than 2 years. The simulation of the Swiss cattle population reflects the observed pattern accurately. Parameters were optimized on the basis of the goodness-of-fit (using the Powell algorithm. The fitted rates were compared with calculated rates from the AMD and differed only marginally. This gives confidence in the fitted rates of parameters that are not directly deductible from the AMD (e.g. the proportion of calves that are moved from the dairy system to fattening plants.

  4. Gender inequalities from the demographic perspective

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    Devedžić Mirjana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the meaning of the phrase "the woman’s status in the society" that is recognized in demography as an important cultural factor of demographic development and transitional changes. The analysis indicates qualitative shifts in the woman’s status and simultaneously reveals its importance at present, not only in traditional, but also in modern and developed societies. On the other hand, it explains the importance of sex as a biodemographic determinant, and introduces the concept of gender that sheds another light on the concepts of sex and woman’s status in the society and integrates them. Gender regimes that subsume the inferiority of women in public and private social structures are examined from demographic perspective, albeit only in those phenomenological aspects that can be supported by demographic research, theories, and analyses. To this end, the paper analyzes the effects of strengthening gender equalities on the fertility and mortality transitions, the gender’s impact on the population distribution by sex in South Asian countries, and highlights the key role of gender in interpreting certain social and economic structures. It also stresses the establishing of gender equality as an important element of population policies. The global dimension of the patriarchal society is illustrated through a series of examples of demographic phenomena from various societies. Gender regimes underlie all of these phenomena. The paper puts foreword certain theoretical hypotheses about gender inequalities, and finds their connections with demographic behaviors and demographic indicators. Finally, it summarizes the role of demography in gender (inequality research and the demographic perspective of the way and the speed the demographic equality is being established. Demography is seen as an irreplaceable discipline in examining gender inequalities, especially at the global level. With the advance of qualitative methods in demography

  5. The Gender and Intergenerational Consequences of the Demographic Dividend

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    The demographic transition changes the age composition of a population, potentially affecting resource allocation at the household level and exerting general equilibrium effects at the aggregate level. If age profiles of income, consumption, and savings were stable and estimable for the entire population, they might imply how the demographic transition would affect national savings rates, but there is little agreement on the impact of age composition. These age profiles differ by gender and a...

  6. Demographic Ageing on Croatian Islands

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    Ivo Nejašmić

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the changes in the population structure of the Croatian islands by age, warns of the degree of ageing, provides spatial differentiation of this process and presents perspective of ageing at the level of settlement. Typing of population ageing is based on scores and has seven types. The total island population in 2011 belongs to the type 5 – very old population. Almost a half of the settlements (out of 303 have been affected by the highest levels of ageing (types 6 and 7. It was found that a quarter of island settlements will become “dead villages” in a foreseeable future; most of them are on small islands but also in the interior of larger islands. These are villages decaying in every respect, in which the way of life, as we know it, veins and goes out. The present ageing villagers are their last residents in most cases. Eve¬rything suggests that demographic recovery of the islands is not possible with the forces in situ. It is important to strike a balance between the needs and opportunities in order to successfully organize life on the islands, both small and large ones, and the fact is that there is a continuing disparity, which is especially profound in small islands. A sensitive and selective approach is needed to overcome the unfavourable demographic trends. Therefore it is necessary to respect the particularities of indi¬vidual islands and island groups in devising development strategy. Solutions to the problems must come of the local and wider community in synergy with relevant professional and scientific institutions. However, if the solutions are not found or measures do not give results, if the islands are left to desorganisation and senilisation, a part of the islands will become a wasteland. With regard to the value of this area whose wealth are people in the first place, this would be an intolerable civilization decline.

  7. Toward a gender politics of aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carney, Gemma M

    2017-04-04

    The article proposes a Gender Politics of Aging approach to the study of aging societies. The approach recognizes the feminization of old age, ageism's roots in sexist discourse, and the need to recognize the role of politics in driving demographic debates. Drawing together arguments from feminist gerontology and political demography, the article argues that the intersection of politics and gender must be considered if appropriate responses to an older, feminized demography are to be produced. I conclude that the work of aging feminists provides a rich vein of research and praxis from which a gender politics of aging approach can draw.

  8. Gender in Science and Engineering Faculties: Demographic Inertia Revisited.

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    Nicole R Thomas

    Full Text Available The under-representation of women on faculties of science and engineering is ascribed in part to demographic inertia, which is the lag between retirement of current faculty and future hires. The assumption of demographic inertia implies that, given enough time, gender parity will be achieved. We examine that assumption via a semi-Markov model to predict the future faculty, with simulations that predict the convergence demographic state. Our model shows that existing practices that produce gender gaps in recruitment, retention, and career progression preclude eventual gender parity. Further, we examine sensitivity of the convergence state to current gender gaps to show that all sources of disparity across the entire faculty career must be erased to produce parity: we cannot blame demographic inertia.

  9. Gender in Science and Engineering Faculties: Demographic Inertia Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Nicole R; Poole, Daniel J; Herbers, Joan M

    2015-01-01

    The under-representation of women on faculties of science and engineering is ascribed in part to demographic inertia, which is the lag between retirement of current faculty and future hires. The assumption of demographic inertia implies that, given enough time, gender parity will be achieved. We examine that assumption via a semi-Markov model to predict the future faculty, with simulations that predict the convergence demographic state. Our model shows that existing practices that produce gender gaps in recruitment, retention, and career progression preclude eventual gender parity. Further, we examine sensitivity of the convergence state to current gender gaps to show that all sources of disparity across the entire faculty career must be erased to produce parity: we cannot blame demographic inertia.

  10. Gender, age, socio-demographic and lifestyle factors associated with major dietary patterns in the Spanish Project SUN (Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Villegas, A; Delgado-Rodríguez, M; Martínez-González, M A; De Irala-Estévez, J

    2003-02-01

    To ascertain the major dietary patterns in the cohort 'SUN' and to assess the association of several sociodemographic (including age and gender) and lifestyle variables with the adherence to these dietary patterns. This study is a cross-sectional analysis of 3847 subjects (1587 men and 2260 women) belonging to a prospective cohort study based on self-reported questionnaires. A factor analysis based on 30 predefined food groups was conducted to ascertain the major dietary patterns in the cohort. Multiple regression models were fitted to assess the relationship between several sociodemographic and lifestyle variables and the adherence to these dietary patterns (measured using two scores with observed values ranging from -3.2 to +4.6 for the Western pattern and -3.1 to +5.5 for the Mediterranean pattern). Two major dietary patterns were found. The first pattern was labelled as a 'Western' dietary pattern and the other as a 'Spanish-Mediterranean' dietary pattern. Younger subjects were more likely to follow a 'Western' dietary pattern; the coefficient representing the change for every 10 y increase in age was b=-0.24 (P<0.001) for men and b=-0.12 (P<0.001) for women. More physically active subjects were less likely to follow a 'Western' dietary pattern and more likely to follow a 'Spanish-Mediterranean' dietary pattern. An association between a higher level of physical activity during leisure time and adherence to a 'Spanish-Mediterranean' diet was apparent. However, the profile of being a young, sedentary and single male was identified as the most likely to exhibit a departure from the traditional 'Spanish-Mediterranean' diet and follow a 'Western' dietary pattern.

  11. Gender, Age, Social differences and Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrucci, Alessandra; Salvini, Silvana

    2017-04-01

    Climate and society evolve together in a manner that could place already vulnerable areas and their population at a greater risk to extreme weather events. While efforts have been devoted to better planning preparedness and responses to weather extremes, the interactions among various stakeholders who deal with hazard mitigation and response, and the community members, also related with gender and age differences, are not completely understood. In contrast to physical vulnerability, which arises from the potential for environmental extremes to create adverse physiological changes, social vulnerability arises from the potential for these extreme events to cause changes in people's behavior. People can vary in their potential for injury to themselves and their families. They also vary in the potential for destruction of their homes and workplaces, as well as the destruction of the transportation systems and locations for shopping and recreation they use in their daily activities. It is important to recognize that social vulnerability is not randomly distributed either demographically or geographically. In particular, the social vulnerability arising from a lack of psychological resilience, social network integration, economic assets, and political power vary across demographic groups. Some of these components of social vulnerability can be predicted by demographic characteristics such as gender, age, education, income, and ethnicity. This review explores the gender and social difference dimensions of vulnerability and adaptive capacity in relation to climate change.

  12. How can “gender planning” contribute to tackle the challenges of demographic change?

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    Wankiewicz Heidrun

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Ageing society, lack of skilled workforce, changes in work life careers and changes in partner and family models, a shift in societal roles of women and men, young and old, migration flows from rural to urban, multiple residences and new forms of housing and the related spatial impacts are in focus of demographic change. It is obvious that demographic change is not to be managed without gender and equality issues. Spatial planning has a crucial role in facing these challenges as spatial planning laws demand to ensure equal access to housing, services and labour markets and to organize transparent and inclusive decision making procedures. The paper explores key concepts, methods and selected case studies from Europe on gender planning trying to focus on the potential for innovating planning discipline and tackling with demographic change issues in rural areas. Cases from Bavaria and Austria compared to rural regions in Eastern Germany with high female emigration show concrete planning approaches.

  13. Three demographic consequences of gender-specific behavior pattern: The case of Serbia

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    Šobot Ankica

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The focus point in this paper referes to three issues of demographic development in Serbia presented from the gender perspective. Feminization, mortality in men and low reproductive norms are analyzed as effects of relevant behavior of both sexes. This choice is the result of earlier analyses of gender socio-demographic characteristics as well as the researches of demographic phenomena from the perspective of gender roles and gender relations. The gender aspect, as a cognitive concept, implies the importance of the female and male behavior pattern in understanding demographic structures, processes and phenomena. The theoretical foundation was found in the anthropological character of contemporary demography which focuses on the individual’s behavior in the context of interactive relations with the concrete environment. In the context of a complex deterministic basis and interactive connection of various factors, gender roles and gender relations represent a relative segment of social dimension of various demographic issues. Feminization of the middle-aged and older population emphasizes the importance of female perspective, taking into consideration space diversity. Feminization is most intensive in Belgrade. Among the middle-aged women there is a higher proportion of tertiary educated and divorced, and less share of the economically independent, in relation to the remaining region of Central Serbia. As regards older women, irrespective of spatial distribution, widowhood, unfavorable education characteristics, lower economic activity and greater economic dependency are important matters. The issue of retirement has specific importance, and should be solved in the context of educated and socio-professional characteristics of women, in order to promote their social position and gender equality. A shorter life span of the male population requires recognizing specific mortality factors of the middle-aged and older males, in order to eliminate the

  14. Gender inequality on the example of socio-demographic structures of Belgrade population

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    Kuburović Ankica

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of demographic characteristics from the gender perspective represents a contribution to enlightening the social relations between female and male population in Belgrade. Gender specificity and explicitness of socio-demographic structures indicate to different positions and statuses of the female and male populations. There are more females than men in the total population of the capital city of Serbia. The sex imbalance of age groups is determined by gender differences in the number of born boys and girls, in migration characteristics and in the level of mortality. The male population is greater in the age group up to 20 years old, while the female population is more numerous among the middle-aged and older generations. Gender differences in marital structure, level of education and economic activities cannot be reduced only to demographic limits. A larger rate of married persons among the males in relation to female population is determined by the different behavior in view of remarriage in case of divorce or death of partner. Women are widowed or divorced more often than men, which can be interpreted as a less favorable position in everyday functioning, especially when the women have small or school-age children, as well as in the case of older women. Gender differences in the level of education of Belgrade population are not exceptionally pronounced and are a consequence of unfavorable positions of older women to a certain degree. Differences in economic activity, among other things, are determined by uneven utilization of female and male work force. The rate of economic activity is greater in the male population, and the coefficient of economic dependency in the female population. The gender difference in the rate of supported persons among the work capable population increases the unfavorable social position of women. The characteristics of socio-demographic structures of female and male population of the city of Belgrade vary

  15. Demographic evidence for adaptive theories of aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitteldorf, J J

    2012-07-01

    Pleiotropic theories for the evolutionary origins of senescence have been ascendant for forty years (see, for example, G. Williams (1957) Evolution, 11, 398-411; T. Kirkwood (1977) Nature, 270, 301-304), and it is not surprising that interpreters of demographic data seek to frame their results in this context. But some of that evidence finds a much more natural explanation in terms of adaptive aging. Here we re-interpret the 1997 results of the Centenarian Study in Boston, which found in their sample of centenarian women an excess of late childbearing. The finding was originally interpreted as a selection effect: a metabolic link between late menopause and longevity. But we demonstrate that this interpretation is statistically strained, and that the data in fact indicate a causal link: bearing a child late in life induces a metabolic response that promotes longevity. This conclusion directly contradicts some pleiotropic theories of aging that postulate a "cost of reproduction", and it supports theories of aging as an adaptive genetic program.

  16. The Information Age vs. Gender Equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, Suzanne

    1999-01-01

    Considers gender equity in libraries and library education, particularly the identification of men with information science experience involving computers. Discusses the history of gender imbalance in library education; computers and gender; changes in library education; demographic implications of curriculum changes; the use of adjuncts; library…

  17. Peculiarities of gender and demographically targeted advertising texts

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    A.S. Teletov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The article highlightes the individual components in the total advertising by gender. Examples of typical advertising products for men, women, youth, children, the elderly are given. The classification of objects advertising by gender is made. It is analyzed the specific drafting advertising copy, including headlines and slogans. The basic provisions for advertising of products segmented by demographic principle. The results of the analysis. The analysis of consumer advertising texts revealed some gender peculiarities. It is confirmed that advertising for female audience is informative headlines, because it usually knows what the needed product is at the moment. It shows that an important psychological feature for women is the attention to detail that is normally ignored by men; text ads feature women is the use of a large number of emotionally charged, interrogative and incentive offers. Grounded in advertising to appeal to men innovations more often than other types of uses is provocative headlines. Semantic orientation lexicon in advertising for men focuses on external data and character traits a man on his professionalism. A small number of adjectives emphasizes restraint and courage recipient. Relative adjectives in texts predominate in advertising addressed to men and more qualitative adjectives containing the emotional evaluation of the advertised product – for women. It is proposed to take into account the physiological differences between male (analytical and female (figurative thinking: men do not like when they are run, so do not use verbs in the imperative mood, and women often act as wingmen, they need advice, call to action, so the imperative verb form is more appropriate. It is confirmed that promotional texts baby goods semantics vocabulary related to the development, nutrition, child health and feelings to it, because advertising is designed for parents and other adults. It is better to use verbs in the

  18. Gender, aging, and the economics of "active aging": Setting a new research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz, Amira; Doron, Israel; Tur-Sinai, Aviad

    2017-04-03

    The world is aging, and the percentages of older people are on a dramatic ascent. This dramatic demographic aging of human society is not gender neutral; it is mostly about older women. One of the key policy approaches to address the aging revolution is known as "active aging," crystalized by the WHO in 2002 by three pillars: participation, health, and security. The active aging policy has financial and economic aspects and affects both men and women. However, as argued in this article, a gender-based approach has not been adopted within the existing active aging framework. Therefore, a new gender-specific research agenda is needed, one that focuses on an interrelation between gender and different economic aspects of "active aging" from international, comparative, cultural, and longitudinal perspectives.

  19. The age demographics of academic librarians a profession apart

    CERN Document Server

    Wilder, Stanley

    2013-01-01

    The Age Demographics of Academic Librarians: A Profession Apart discusses the current demographics of librarianship in North America and examines how a huge retiree rate will affect the profession. With the average age of librarians increasing dramatically since 1990, this book examines the changes that will have to take place in your library, such as recruiting, training, and working with a smaller staff. The Age Demographics of Academic Librarians provides you with insights on how to make your library's transition easier when several of your colleagues leave your library. Valuable and intell

  20. An age structured demographic model of technology

    CERN Document Server

    Mercure, J -F

    2013-01-01

    At the heart of technology transitions lie complex processes of technology choices. Understanding and planning sustainability transitions requires modelling work, which necessitates a theory of technology substitution. A theoretical model of technological change and turnover is presented, intended as a methodological paradigm shift from widely used conventional modelling approaches such as cost optimisation. It follows the tradition of evolutionary economics and evolutionary game theory, using ecological population growth dynamics to represent the evolution of technology populations in the marketplace, with substitutions taking place at the level of the decision-maker. Extended to use principles of human demography or the age structured evolution of species in interacting ecosystems, this theory is built from first principles, and through an appropriate approximation, reduces to a form identical to empirical models of technology diffusion common in the technology transitions literature. Using an age structure...

  1. Gender Relations and Applied Research on Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calasanti, Toni

    2010-01-01

    As a concept in gerontology, gender appears as lists of traits learned through socialization when theorized at all. I argue for a framework that theorizes the intersections of relations of gender inequality with those of age. This framework holds that men and women gain resources and bear responsibilities, in relation to one another, by virtue of…

  2. Gender Differences in Compulsive Buying Disorder: Assessment of Demographic and Psychiatric Co-Morbidities

    OpenAIRE

    Nicoli de Mattos, Cristiana; Kim, Hyoun S.; Requi?o, Marinalva G.; Marasaldi, Renata F.; Filomensky, Tatiana Z.; Hodgins, David C.; Tavares, Hermano

    2016-01-01

    Compulsive buying is a common disorder found worldwide. Although recent research has shed light into the prevalence, etiology and clinical correlates of compulsive buying disorder, less is known about gender differences. To address this empirical gap, we assessed potential gender differences in demographic and psychiatric co-morbidities in a sample of 171 compulsive buyers (20 men and 151 women) voluntarily seeking treatment in S?o Paulo, Brazil. A structured clinical interview confirmed the ...

  3. The effect of age and demographics on rib shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcombe, Sven A; Wang, Stewart C; Grotberg, James B

    2017-08-01

    Elderly populations have a higher risk of rib fractures and other associated thoracic injuries than younger adults, and the changes in body morphology that occur with age are a potential cause of this increased risk. Rib centroidal path geometry for 20 627 ribs was extracted from computed tomography (CT) scans of 1042 live adult subjects, then fitted to a six-parameter mathematical model that accurately characterizes rib size and shape, and a three-parameter model of rib orientation within the body. Multivariable regression characterized the independent effect of age, height, weight, and sex on the rib shape and orientation across the adult population, and statistically significant effects were seen from all demographic factors (P rib end-to-end separation and rib aspect ratio are seen to increase with age, producing elongated and flatter overall rib shapes in elderly populations, with age alone explaining up to 20% of population variability in the aspect ratio of mid-level ribs. Age was not strongly associated with overall rib arc length, indicating that age effects were related to shape change rather than overall bone length. The rib shape effect was found to be more strongly and directly associated with age than previously documented age-related changes in rib angulation. Other demographic results showed height and sex being most strongly associated with rib size, and weight most strongly associated with rib pump-handle angle. Results from the study provide a statistical model for building rib shapes typical of any given demographic by age, height, weight, and sex, and can be used to help build population-specific computational models of the thoracic rib cage. Furthermore, results also quantify normal population ranges for rib shape parameters which can be used to improve the assessment and treatment of rib skeletal deformity and disease. © 2017 Anatomical Society.

  4. The long goodbye: Age, demographics, and flexibility in retirement

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    David K. Foot

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The current literature on retirement decisions has given inadequate attention to the impacts of increasing life expectancy. This paper examines workforce aging and retirement within a framework that not only includes age, but also integrates increasing life expectancy into the discussion. Employee preference surveys regarding choice in retirement are supported by the demographic and by work-time compression arguments for retirement flexibility. We outlinearguments why partial-retirement policies would be a practical and timely transition strategy for organizations and societies in a world of increasing life expectancies and aging workforces,especially when facing the imminent retirement of the large post-war baby-boom generation.

  5. The long goodbye: Age, demographics, and flexibility in retirement

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    Rosemary A. Venne

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The current literature on retirement decisions has given inadequate attention to the impacts of increasing life expectancy. This paper examines workforce aging and retirement within a framework that not only includes age, but also integrates increasing life expectancy into the discussion. Employee preference surveys regarding choice in retirement are supported by the demographic and by work-time compression arguments for retirement flexibility. We outlinearguments why partial-retirement policies would be a practical and timely transition strategy for organizations and societies in a world of increasing life expectancies and aging workforces,especially when facing the imminent retirement of the large post-war baby-boom generation.

  6. Demographic analysis from summaries of an age-structured population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, William A.; Royle, J. Andrew; Hatfield, Jeff S.

    2003-01-01

    Demographic analyses of age-structured populations typically rely on life history data for individuals, or when individual animals are not identified, on information about the numbers of individuals in each age class through time. While it is usually difficult to determine the age class of a randomly encountered individual, it is often the case that the individual can be readily and reliably assigned to one of a set of age classes. For example, it is often possible to distinguish first-year from older birds. In such cases, the population age structure can be regarded as a latent variable governed by a process prior, and the data as summaries of this latent structure. In this article, we consider the problem of uncovering the latent structure and estimating process parameters from summaries of age class information. We present a demographic analysis for the critically endangered migratory population of whooping cranes (Grus americana), based only on counts of first-year birds and of older birds. We estimate age and year-specific survival rates. We address the controversial issue of whether management action on the breeding grounds has influenced recruitment, relating recruitment rates to the number of seventh-year and older birds, and examining the pattern of variation through time in this rate.

  7. Gender Differences in Suicide Risk by Socio-Demographic Factors in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Y. K.; Ip, W. C.; Kwan, P.

    2005-01-01

    Some peculiarly low male-to-female suicide ratios have been reported in the Far Eastern populations. This article attempts to investigate whether there are gender differences in suicide risk by socio-demographic factors in Hong Kong, and hereby to explain the low male-to-female suicide ratios. The effects of marital status, duration-of-residence,…

  8. Aging, Gender and Sexuality in Brazilian Society

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    Guita Grin Debert

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on the interplay between gender, aging, and sexuality, the aim of this article is twofold: (1 to show how Brazilian gerontologists treat gender differences and sexual activity in old age; (2 to analyze the  ways  discourses regarding the aging body and sexuality are perceived and evaluated by older women and men . I argue that  attempts of gerontologists’ to eroticize old age have to contend with the widespread notion that the desire for sex is inevitably lost with age. Thus, in the retiree associations that were studied, men had a tendency to assume they are not ‘old’ because their erectile function was still in good condition, and divorced or widowed women, in senior citizen associations, tend to regard themselves as happy due to having freed themselves from the sexual obligations imposed by marriage. In both cases, the dominant belief that there is a loss of sexual desire in old age was reproduced.

  9. ECONOMIC PROBLEMS OF EUROPEAN UNION CAUSED BY THE DEMOGRAPHIC AGEING

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    Iulia-Alexandra Percă

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to offer a realistic perspective upon the imminent situation of demographic ageing issue in European Union. The forecasts are not reasons to major concern for the society but rather to become more responsible and not to neglect a problem that could affect our future. The demographic overview of Europe for 2011 – 2060 shows low birth rates, an increase in life expectancy and migration flows having an impact on population. As a result, the parent generation will no longer completely be replaced by the next generation of children and the narrowed active population will have to sustain a large number of persons far advanced in the age. Economic consequences of this social trend, such as increased expenditures on pensions, extended health care costs and the employment problems, are also discussed in order to define the best policy option available.

  10. Age-gender Structure of Croats in Vojvodina Province

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    Tamara Kovačević

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper elaborates the agegender structure of Croats in Vojvodina and gives insight how old is the Croatian population and does it in general older than population of Vojvodina. Particular attention was given to the period after the Second World War, e.g. on the second half of 20th and at the beginning of 21st century. The main task of the paper was the identification of tendencies in age structure of Croats. Statistical methods and mathematics proceeding are used to compare different parameters of age structure (e.g. middle age, index of ageing etc. The paper proves that Croats are one of the oldest ethnic groups among the population of Vojvodina province. The results of the study will enhance the knowledge about demographic characteristics of Croats in Vojvodina and therefore might be useful for further research in the field.

  11. Demographics, societal aging, and meat consumption in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MIN Shi; BAI Jun-fei; James Seale Jr; Thomas Wahl

    2015-01-01

    Drawn on the data col ected by surveying 1 340 urban households from six cities in China, this paper estimates the impacts of demographic structure and population aging on household meat consumption, by jointly considering meat consumed at home and away from home. Based on the trajectories of population, a simple simulation on meat demand trend in China is conducted subsequently. The results suggest:1) Meat consumed away from home averagely accounts for near 30%of household total meat consumption in terms of quantity, so that its omission likely leads to a signiifcant underestimate of total meat consumption and misunderstanding the driving forces;2) population aging signiifcantly and negatively affects per capita meat consumption, suggesting that the expected meat demand in China without considering population aging wil be overestimated. The ifndings from this study have important implications for better understanding the relative issues on China’s meat consumption under the situation of population aging.

  12. Gender related differences in demographic and clinical manifestations in patients suffering from various subtypes of schizophrenia

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    Gorana Sulejmanpašić Arslanagić

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Schizophrenia is devastating neuropsychiatric disorder that has no clearly identified etiology. The subtypes of schizophrenia are distinguished by the prevalent symptomatology. The aim of this study was to determine gender related differences in demographic and clinical manifestations in patients suffering from various subtypes of schizophrenia.Methods: A longitudinal, prospective,original,clinical investigation first in our local area, with application of Structured Clinical Interview for DSM IV Axis I Disorders (SCID I was used in this work. The study included 121 patients during five years period. Patients were recruited as consecutive admissions to the Psychiatric clinic, from all parts of Bosnia and Herzegovina, mostly Sarajevo region.Results: The study was conducted on a group of schizophrenic patients which consisted of 52.1% male and 47.9% female patients. Average duration of the episode was about a month. Majority of patients (male were in the group of disorganized (hebephrenic schizophrenia. The duration of current psychotic episode was similar in all three groups regarding subtypes of schizophrenia. Psychotic episodes appear equally in both gender (higher in disorganized group with a statistically significant difference between all groups (p<0.001.Conclusions: Male group patients showed tendency to be younger than women. Most of the schizophrenic individuals start to suffer from this disease between age of 20 and 39 years. Male group patients suffered mostly of disorganized (hebephrenic type of schizophrenia. Duration of psychotic episode was proportionally the same in both groups while in male group the highest number of episodes was found in group of disorganized schizophrenia.

  13. Relationships among gender, age, and intellectual development

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Hernandez, Lilian; Marek, Edmund A.; Renner, John W.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships among gender, age, and intellectual development. Random samples of 70 females and 70 males were selected with each sex group equally divided into a low-age and a high-age group. The low-age group ranged in age from 16.25 years to 16.75 years and the high-age group from 16.76 years to 17.25 years. The Piaget tasks selected to measure cognitive development were: Conservation of Volume, Separation of Variables, and Equilibrium in the Balance and Combination of Colorless Chemical Liquids. Data from this research produced these findings: (1) males demonstrate a higher level of intellectual development than females, (2) males mature intellectually earlier than females, (3) the value of the conservation of volume task as a component of a battery of formal tasks depends upon whether the decisions are to be made on the basis of the total-task results or on individual task performance, and (4) there appear to be factors other than age and gender that are related to the development of formal operational reasoning. These investigators hypothesize that experiences is another important factor.

  14. Articulation rate across dialect, age, and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacewicz, Ewa; Fox, Robert A; O'Neill, Caitlin; Salmons, Joseph

    2009-07-01

    The understanding of sociolinguistic variation is growing rapidly, but basic gaps still remain. Whether some languages or dialects are spoken faster or slower than others constitutes such a gap. Speech tempo is interconnected with social, physical and psychological markings of speech. This study examines regional variation in articulation rate and its manifestations across speaker age, gender and speaking situations (reading vs. free conversation). The results of an experimental investigation show that articulation rate differs significantly between two regional varieties of American English examined here. A group of Northern speakers (from Wisconsin) spoke significantly faster than a group of Southern speakers (from North Carolina). With regard to age and gender, young adults read faster than older adults in both regions; in free speech, only Northern young adults spoke faster than older adults. Effects of gender were smaller and less consistent; men generally spoke slightly faster than women. As the body of work on the sociophonetics of American English continues to grow in scope and depth, we argue that it is important to include fundamental phonetic information as part of our catalog of regional differences and patterns of change in American English.

  15. Gender Differences in Compulsive Buying Disorder: Assessment of Demographic and Psychiatric Co-Morbidities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoli de Mattos, Cristiana; Kim, Hyoun S; Requião, Marinalva G; Marasaldi, Renata F; Filomensky, Tatiana Z; Hodgins, David C; Tavares, Hermano

    2016-01-01

    Compulsive buying is a common disorder found worldwide. Although recent research has shed light into the prevalence, etiology and clinical correlates of compulsive buying disorder, less is known about gender differences. To address this empirical gap, we assessed potential gender differences in demographic and psychiatric co-morbidities in a sample of 171 compulsive buyers (20 men and 151 women) voluntarily seeking treatment in São Paulo, Brazil. A structured clinical interview confirmed the diagnosis of compulsive buying. Of the 171 participants, 95.9% (n = 164) met criteria for at least one co-morbid psychiatric disorder. The results found that male and female compulsive buyers did not differ in problem severity as assessed by the Compulsive Buying Scale. However, several significant demographic and psychiatric differences were found in a multivariate binary logistic regression. Specifically, male compulsive buyers were more likely to report being non-heterosexual, and reported fewer years of formal education. In regards to psychiatric co-morbidities, male compulsive buyers were more likely to be diagnosed with sexual addiction, and intermittent explosive disorder. Conversely, men had lower scores on the shopping subscale of the Shorter PROMIS Questionnaire. The results suggest that male compulsive buyers are more likely to present with co-morbid psychiatric disorders. Treatment planning for compulsive buying disorder would do well to take gender into account to address for potential psychiatric co-morbidities.

  16. Proximal attrition facets: morphometric, demographic, and aging characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarig, Rachel; Hershkovitz, Israel; Shvalb, Nir; Sella-Tunis, Tatiana; May, Hila; Vardimon, Alexander D

    2014-08-01

    Although interproximal attrition is considered to be limited in modern populations, it has important clinical implications. However, in contrast to occlusal attrition, proximal attrition receives limited scientific attention. The main purpose of the current study was to fill this void. Seven-hundred and sixty-five teeth were collected from 255 skulls of subjects 18-75 yr of age. For each individual, three mandibular teeth (the first and second premolars and the first molar) were examined for proximal attrition facets (PAFs). The results provide detailed information on the size, shape, and location of the facets according to age cohort, gender, and ethnicity. The validity of the method used to measure the facets was also examined. The major findings were as follows: PAFs are usually located on the upper half of the crown proximal aspect; in each tooth, the mesial facet is more lingually positioned and the distal facet is more buccally positioned; the majority of the facets are subrectangular in shape; the size of the facets tends to increase in an anteroposterior direction (from premolars to molars); and facet size and location are age- and sex-dependent and ethnicity-independent. It is our recommendation that dentists bear in mind that interproximal attrition is a dynamic, long-term process and needs to be considered in many clinical scenarios.

  17. Demographische Diskurse und Politiken aus Geschlechterperspektive Demographic Discourse and Politics from the Perspective of Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Auth

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Der von Peter A. Berger und Heike Kahlert herausgegebene Sammelband umfasst Analysen, die sich aus Geschlechterperspektive mit dem demographischen Wandel im nationalen und internationalen Kontext beschäftigen. Durch seine ideologie- und herrschaftskritischen sowie empirisch fundierten Beiträge zum demographischen Wandel trägt das Buch zur Versachlichung der medial wie wissenschaftlich aufgeheizten Debatte bei. Die Autor/-innen widersprechen allesamt der Tendenz, soziale Probleme zu demographisieren, und fordern stattdessen eine stärkere Historisierung, Kontextualisierung und eine geschlechtssensible Analyse und Interpretation demographischer Entwicklungen.The collected volume, edited by Peter A. Berger and Heike Kahlert, contains analyses that concern themselves with demographic change in the national and international context. The book contains empirically based articles on demographic change that are critical of ideology and dominance, thus contributing to the objectification of the heated debate in the media and science. The authors all contradict the tendency to demographically position social problems and demand instead a stronger focus on history, contextualization, and a gender-sensitive analysis and interpretation of demographic developments.

  18. Academic Performance, Age, Gender, and Ethnicity in Online Courses Delivered by Two-Year Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, Bruce; Rude-Parkins, Carolyn; Githens, Rod P.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects the demographic variables age, gender, and ethnicity and their interactions had on academic performance in online courses delivered by public two-year colleges in Kentucky. The study controlled for previous academic performance measured by cumulative grade point average (GPA). The study used a random sample (N =…

  19. Transferable Skills Representations in a Portuguese College Sample: Gender, Age, Adaptability and Vocational Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Magda

    2012-01-01

    The departing point of this study is the theoretical framework of "Making the Match project" (Evers and Rush in Management Learning 27:275-299, 1996) about how to develop a common language among stakeholders regarding transferable skills. Thus, the paper examines the impact of demographic variables (age and gender) and developmental…

  20. Gender-marked age stereotypes in english proverbs and sayings

    OpenAIRE

    Галапчук-Тарнавська, Олена Михайлівна; Halapchuk-Tarnavska, Olena M.

    2014-01-01

    Gender stereotypes are characteristic features of male/female gender group behavior that are expected by a society.Gender stereotypes in the Ukrainian language are viewed as ethnic stereotypes and perform the function of accumulating and systemizing the social, cultural and historical experiences of the Ukrainian people.Gender-marked age stereotypes are widely accepted believes held about certain age that are perceived as being appropriate for women and men.Family roles are also subject to ch...

  1. Changes of population by age and gender structure of Regions in the Republic of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Resul Hamiti

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the changes of population by age and the gender structure in the regions of the Republic of Macedonia. Age and gender is very important not only for the development of demographic process but also for the development of regions. They play an important role in planning the health care needs and other services with the socio-economic and cultural character. In this sense they affect the performance of demographic processes (births, deaths, marriages, etc. and are a result of bilateral relations fertility, mortality, migration movements and other social processes. The main objective of this paper is to identify the aging phenomenon of population in state level and regions. This paper also dedicates special importance to the changes of age and sex structure, during the period between1981-2014 in the regions of the republic of Macedonia.

  2. Aging and demographic plasticity in response to experimental age structures in honeybees (Apis mellifera L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueppell, Olav; Linford, Robyn; Gardner, Preston; Coleman, Jennifer; Fine, Kari

    2008-08-01

    Honeybee colonies are highly integrated functional units characterized by a pronounced division of labor. Division of labor among workers is mainly age-based, with younger individuals focusing on in-hive tasks and older workers performing the more hazardous foraging activities. Thus, experimental disruption of the age composition of the worker hive population is expected to have profound consequences for colony function. Adaptive demography theory predicts that the natural hive age composition represents a colony-level adaptation and thus results in optimal hive performance. Alternatively, the hive age composition may be an epiphenomenon, resulting from individual life history optimization. We addressed these predictions by comparing individual worker longevity and brood production in hives that were composed of a single age cohort, two distinct age cohorts, and hives that had a continuous, natural age distribution. Four experimental replicates showed that colonies with a natural age composition did not consistently have a higher life expectancy and/or brood production than the single cohort or double cohort hives. Instead, a complex interplay of age structure, environmental conditions, colony size, brood production, and individual mortality emerged. A general trade-off between worker life expectancy and colony productivity was apparent, and the transition from in-hive tasks to foraging was the most significant predictor of worker lifespan irrespective of the colony age structure. We conclude that the natural age structure of honeybee hives is not a colony-level adaptation. Furthermore, our results show that honeybees exhibit pronounced demographic plasticity in addition to behavioral plasticity to react to demographic disturbances of their societies.

  3. Age and gender as predictors of allied health quality stroke care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luker JA

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Julie A Luker1, Julie Bernhardt2, Karen A Grimmer-Somers11International Centre for Allied Health Evidence, University of South Australia Adelaide, South Australia, Australia; 2School of Physiotherapy, La Trobe University Melbourne, Victoria, Australia and Stroke Division, Florey Neurosciences Institutes Heidelberg Heights, Melbourne, Victoria, AustraliaBackground: Improvement in acute stroke care requires the identification of variables which may influence care quality. The nature and impact of demographic and stroke-related variables on care quality provided by allied health (AH professionals is unknown.Aims: Our research explores the association of age and gender on an index of acute stroke care quality provided by AH professionals.Methods: A retrospective clinical audit of 300 acute stroke patients extracted data on AH care, patients' age and gender. AH care quality was determined by the summed compliance with 20 predetermined process indicators. Our analysis explored relationships between this index of quality, age, and gender. Age was considered in different ways (as a continuous variable, and in different categories. It was correlated with care quality, using gender-specific linear and logistic regression models. Gender was then considered as a confounder in an overall model.Results: No significant association was found for any treatment of age and the index of AH care quality. There were no differences in gender-specific models, and gender did not significantly adjust the age association with care quality.Conclusion: Age and gender were not predictors of the quality of care provided to acute stroke patients by AH professionals.Keywords: acute stroke, allied health, quality of care, age, gender

  4. Gender and Age Differences in Awareness and Endorsement of Gender Stereotypes about Academic Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Copping, Kristine E.; Rowley, Stephanie J.; Kinlaw, C. Ryan

    2014-01-01

    We measured age and gender differences in children's awareness and endorsement of gender stereotypes about math, science, and verbal abilities in 463 fourth, sixth, and eighth graders. Children reported their perceptions of adults' beliefs and their own stereotypes about gender differences in academic abilities. Consistent with study…

  5. Gender and Age Differences in Awareness and Endorsement of Gender Stereotypes about Academic Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Copping, Kristine E.; Rowley, Stephanie J.; Kinlaw, C. Ryan

    2014-01-01

    We measured age and gender differences in children's awareness and endorsement of gender stereotypes about math, science, and verbal abilities in 463 fourth, sixth, and eighth graders. Children reported their perceptions of adults' beliefs and their own stereotypes about gender differences in academic abilities. Consistent with study…

  6. Demographic Trends of Adults in New York City Opioid Treatment Programs--An Aging Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Benjamin; Polydorou, Soteri; Ferris, Rosie; Blaum, Caroline S; Ross, Stephen; McNeely, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    The population of adults accessing opioid treatment is growing older, but exact estimates vary widely, and little is known about the characteristics of the aging treatment population. Further, there has been little research regarding the epidemiology, healt h status, and functional impairments in this population. To determine the utilization of opioid treatment services by older adults in New York City. This study used administrative data from New York State licensed drug treatment programs to examine overall age trends and characteristics of older adults in opioid treatment programs in New York City from 1996 to 2012. We found significant increases in utilization of opioid treatment programs by older adults in New York City. By 2012, those aged 50-59 made up the largest age group in opioid treatment programs. Among older adults there were notable shifts in demographic background including gender and ethnicity, and an increase in self-reported impairments. More research is needed to fully understand the specific characteristics and needs of older adults with opioid dependence.

  7. Mother's feeding practices for children 3-10 years of age and their associations with child demographics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendy, Helen M; Williams, Keith E

    2012-04-01

    The present study examined relationships between mothers' feeding practices and child demographics such as gender, age, weight status, and family income. This cross-sectional analysis was conducted using data from 2259 children between 3 and 10 years of age who were sampled for the development of the Parent Mealtime Action Scale. No child gender differences were found in mothers' feeding practices. Older children received more Fat Reduction and Many Food Choices, but less Positive Persuasion, Use of Rewards, Insistence on Eating, and Special Meals, with differences in these feeding practices being most notable from before to after school age. Overweight children received less Insistence on Eating and more Fat Reduction than underweight or normal weight children. Children with the lowest family incomes received less Fat Reduction, less Daily FV Availability, more Use of Rewards. Results suggest that mothers respond to changing conditions, possibly including feedback from school nurses, increases in children's weight status, and availability of financial resources.

  8. Prevalence, demographic characteristics and associated risk factors of malnutrition among 0-5 aged children: a cross-sectional study from Van, eastern Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Baran Serdar Kizilyildiz; Bülent Sönmez; Kamuran Karaman; Burhan Beger; Adnan Mercen; Süleyman Alioğlu; Yaşar Cesur

    2016-01-01

    Malnutrition in childhood is a dramatic indicator of poor socio-economical status worldwide. To recognize and reveal the socio-demographic features is crucial, especially for developing countries. Our aim was to investigate the prevalence and association with sociodemographic variables of malnutrition in 0-5 years old children in Van, Turkey. A total of 702 children are included in this cross-sectional study. Demographic features of subject including age, gender, family characteristics and ot...

  9. Prevalence, Demographic Characteristics and Associated Risk Factors of Malnutrition Among 0-5 Aged Children: A Cross-Sectional Study From Van, Eastern Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Kizilyildiz, Baran Serdar; SÖNMEZ Bülent; Karaman, Kamuran; Beger, Burhan; Mercen, Adnan; Alioglu, Süleyman; CESUR, Yasar

    2016-01-01

    Malnutrition in childhood is a dramatic indicator of poor socio-economical status worldwide. To recognize and reveal the socio-demographic features is crucial, especially for developing countries. Our aim was to investigate the prevalence and association with sociodemographic variables of malnutrition in 0-5 years old children in Van, Turkey. A total of 702 children are included in this cross-sectional study. Demographic features of subject including age, gender, family characteristics and ot...

  10. Exploring Demographic Shifts: Aging and Migration Exploratory Group Model Specification & Simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pruyt, E.; Logtens, T.; Gijsbers, G.

    2011-01-01

    Plausible dynamics of a major demographic shift –(societal) aging– is studied in this paper, both from a global perspective and from a national perspective. Several economic, political and social implications of aging and aging-related demographic shifts are explored using System Dynamics models as

  11. Antidepressant Prescription and Suicide Rates: Effect of Age and Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmar, Sandor; Szanto, Katalin; Rihmer, Zoltan; Mazumdar, Sati; Harrison, Katrin; Mann, J. John

    2008-01-01

    To determine whether the effect of antidepressant exposure on suicide rate is modified by age and gender in Hungary, annual antidepressant prescription rates and suicide rates of about 10 million inhabitants between 1999-2005 were analyzed by age and gender groups. The suicide rate was inversely related to the increased use of antidepressants in…

  12. Main effects and interactions of cerebral hemispheres, gender, and age in the calculation of volumes and asymmetries of selected structures of episodic memory

    OpenAIRE

    Ramirez-Carmona, Rocio; Garcia-Lazaro, Haydee Guadalupe; Dominguez-Corrales, Brenda; Aguilar-Castañeda, Erika; Roldan-Valadez, Ernesto

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the influence of anatomical (cerebral hemisphere) and demographic (age and gender) variables on the gray matter (GM) volumes and volumetric asymmetry indices (VAIs) of selected structures involved in episodic memory.

  13. The influence of gender and gender typicality on autobiographical memory across event types and age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grysman, Azriel; Fivush, Robyn; Merrill, Natalie A; Graci, Matthew

    2016-08-01

    Gender differences in autobiographical memory emerge in some data collection paradigms and not others. The present study included an extensive analysis of gender differences in autobiographical narratives. Data were collected from 196 participants, evenly split by gender and by age group (emerging adults, ages 18-29, and young adults, ages 30-40). Each participant reported four narratives, including an event that had occurred in the last 2 years, a high point, a low point, and a self-defining memory. Additionally, all participants completed self-report measures of masculine and feminine gender typicality. The narratives were coded along six dimensions-namely coherence, connectedness, agency, affect, factual elaboration, and interpretive elaboration. The results indicated that females expressed more affect, connection, and factual elaboration than males across all narratives, and that feminine typicality predicted increased connectedness in narratives. Masculine typicality predicted higher agency, lower connectedness, and lower affect, but only for some narratives and not others. These findings support an approach that views autobiographical reminiscing as a feminine-typed activity and that identifies gender differences as being linked to categorical gender, but also to one's feminine gender typicality, whereas the influences of masculine gender typicality were more context-dependent. We suggest that implicit gendered socialization and more explicit gender typicality each contribute to gendered autobiographies.

  14. Audio-based Age and Gender Identification to Enhance the Recommendation of TV Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shepstone, Sven Ewan; Tan, Zheng-Hua; Jensen, Søren Holdt

    2013-01-01

    Recommending TV content to groups of viewers is best carried out when relevant information such as the demographics of the group is available. However, it can be difficult and time consuming to extract information for every user in the group. This paper shows how an audio analysis of the age...... and gender of a group of users watching the TV can be used for recommending a sequence of N short TV content items for the group. First, a state of the art audio-based classifier determines the age and gender of each user in an M-user group and creates a group profile. A genetic recommender algorithm......, and the other half were selected using the audio-derived demographics. The recommended advertisements received a significant higher median rating of 7.75, as opposed to 4.25 for the randomly selected advertisements 1....

  15. Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and influence of age and gender on histopathologic findings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nargess; Ebrahimi; Daryani; Nasser; Ebrahimi; Daryani; Seyed; Moayed; Alavian; Ali; Zare; Seyed-Mohammad; Fereshtehnejad; Mohammad; Reza; Keramati; Mohammad; Reza; Pashaei; Peiman; Habibollahi

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To characterize the histopathologic specifications of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis(NASH)according to age and gender.METHODS:An analytical cross-sectional study was conducted in two private gastroenterology clinics on biopsy proven patients suffering from NASH.Biopsy histopathologic findings as well as demographic and laboratory data of the patients at the time of biopsy were gathered retrospectively from clinical records.The grading and staging of histopathologic findings were performed according to th...

  16. Delusional disorder: no gender differences in age at onset, suicidal ideation, or suicidal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Rodríguez, Alexandre; Molina-Andreu, Oriol; Navarro, Víctor; Gastó, Cristóbal; Penadés, Rafael; Catalán, Rosa

    2014-01-01

    To investigate gender differences in age at onset, psychopathology, and suicidal behavior rates in delusional disorder (DD). We conducted a prospective longitudinal study of 97 patients with DD. Demographic and clinical data at baseline were recorded. Gender differences were investigated by applying analysis of covariance, using age at onset and age at first psychiatric consultation as dependent variables, comorbid depression and gender as between-subject factors, and employment status, social support, and DD types as covariates. Seventy-six percent of the patients were women. The average age at onset was 48.76 ± 12.67 years, mean age at first psychiatric consultation was 54.13 ± 13.67 years, and men were more likely to be employed than women (p = 0.041). Despite the earlier age at onset and at first psychiatric consultation in men, these differences tended to disappear when adjusted for potential confounders. There were no significant gender differences in depressive comorbidity, presence of suicidal ideation and behavior, or compliance rates at follow-up. Our findings could not confirm that male and female DD patients differ in age at onset, age at first psychiatric consultation, or suicidal ideation and behavior, even after controlling for potential confounders.

  17. Delusional disorder: no gender differences in age at onset, suicidal ideation, or suicidal behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre González-Rodríguez

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate gender differences in age at onset, psychopathology, and suicidal behavior rates in delusional disorder (DD. Methods: We conducted a prospective longitudinal study of 97 patients with DD. Demographic and clinical data at baseline were recorded. Gender differences were investigated by applying analysis of covariance, using age at onset and age at first psychiatric consultation as dependent variables, comorbid depression and gender as between-subject factors, and employment status, social support, and DD types as covariates. Results: Seventy-six percent of the patients were women. The average age at onset was 48.76±12.67 years, mean age at first psychiatric consultation was 54.13±13.67 years, and men were more likely to be employed than women (p = 0.041. Despite the earlier age at onset and at first psychiatric consultation in men, these differences tended to disappear when adjusted for potential confounders. There were no significant gender differences in depressive comorbidity, presence of suicidal ideation and behavior, or compliance rates at follow-up. Conclusions: Our findings could not confirm that male and female DD patients differ in age at onset, age at first psychiatric consultation, or suicidal ideation and behavior, even after controlling for potential confounders.

  18. The Intersection of Gender and Age: An Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gander, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    The understanding of gender inequality for women entering work has not been subject to significant research or theorizing. This small study indicated that young women entering the workplace are subject to direct discrimination and by using an intersectionality approach this paper proposes that the intersection of gender and young age results in…

  19. The Intersection of Gender and Age: An Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gander, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    The understanding of gender inequality for women entering work has not been subject to significant research or theorizing. This small study indicated that young women entering the workplace are subject to direct discrimination and by using an intersectionality approach this paper proposes that the intersection of gender and young age results in…

  20. Statin prescribing according to gender, age and indication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallach-Kildemoes, Helle; Støvring, Henrik; Holme Hansen, Ebba

    2016-01-01

    RATIONALES, AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The increasing dispensing of statins has raised concern about the appropriateness of prescribing to various population groups. We aimed to (1) investigate incident and prevalent statin prescribing according to indication, gender and age and (2) relate prescribing...... numbers of statin users according to register proxies for indication, gender and age. RESULTS: In 2010, the prevalence became highest for ages 75-84 and was higher in men than women (37% and 33%, respectively). Indication-specific incidences and prevalences peaked at ages around 65-70, but in myocardial...... infarction, the prevalence was about 80% at ages 45-80. Particularly, incidences tended to be lower in women until ages of about 60 where after gender differences were negligible. In asymptomatic individuals (hypercholesterolaemia, presumably only indication) aged 50+, dispensing was highest in women...

  1. Gender roles and social policy in an ageing society: the case of Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiko Makita

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the major underpinnings of the Japanese welfare state in the context of social care from a feminist perspective. In Japan, familycare responsibilities have traditionally been assigned to women; hence, care has long been a women’s issue. However, as the social contract of a male breadwinner and a “professional housewife” gradually fades out, Japanese women find more opportunities to renegotiate their caring roles. Of course, this social transformation did not occur in isolation, it was influenced by patterns in economic development, state policies and mainly demographic changes. All this has stimulated new state responses in the form of social welfare expansion that arguably aim to relieve women of the burdens of family-care. The issue remains, however, as to whether Japan would be able to recognise that the main structural issues of population ageing do not originate from demographic changes, but from a strict gendered division of labour and gender inequality.

  2. Atherogenic index and relationship with age, gender, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Atherogenic index and relationship with age, gender, and anthropometric measurements among hypertensive patients attending Niger ... Tropical Journal of Health Sciences ... Subjects were recruited consecutively over a three month period.

  3. Influence Of Age, Gender, Subject Background And Predisposing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence Of Age, Gender, Subject Background And Predisposing Factors On The ... of Nigerian universities apply to study library and information science unless as ... Chi-square tests revealed significant relationships between undergraduates ...

  4. Social Work Leadership and Aging: Meeting the Demographic Imperative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisco, Sarah; Volland, Patricia; Gorin, Stephen

    2005-01-01

    In 2003 nine aging and social work organizations--Council on Social Work Education, NASW, the National Association of Deans and Directors of Schools of Social Work, the Association of Baccalaureate Program Directors, the Society for Social Work and Research, Institute for the Advancement of Social Work Research, the Action Network for Social Work…

  5. GENDER DIFFERENCES IN DEMOGRAPHIC AND CLINICAL FEATURES OF PHYSICIANS ADMITTED TO A PROGRAM FOR MEDICAL PROFESSIONALS WITH MENTAL DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Dolores Braquehais

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine the demographic and clinical differences between men and women admitted to a Physicians’ Health Programme (PHP. Method: Retrospective chart-review of 778 medical records of physicians admitted to the Barcelona PHP from February 1st 1998 until December 31st 2015. Results: Women admitted to the Barcelona PHP were younger than men, were more likely to be self-referred and to be admitted forfor a non-addictive mental disorder. Prevalence of unipolar affective disorders (60.1% vs. 37.6%, adjustment disorders (62.4% vs. 37.6% and obsessive-compulsive disorder (61.1% vs. 38.9% was significantly higher among women while prevalence of alcohol use disorders was lower (32.7% vs. 67.3%. Nevertheless, both groups were similar with regards to medical specialty, working status, length of their first treatment episode, and presence of hospitalization during that episode. After multivariate analysis, age, type of referral and main diagnosis (addictive disorders vs. other mental disorders discriminated the differences between groups. Conclusions: Women physicians seem to be more prone to voluntarily ask for help from PHPs and are more likely to suffer from mood and anxiety disorders compared to men. However, mental disorders’ severity may be similar in both groups. More studies are needed to clarify the gender factors related to this behavior.

  6. Ageing and gender preferences in rural Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    KREAGER, PHILIP; Schröder-Butterfill, Elisabeth

    2009-01-01

    The Asian literature on gender is well known for the strong preference for sons characteristic of patrilineal family systems in major mainland cultures. Elsewhere, however, the situation can be very different, of which the most striking is the powerful preference for daughters, and the eminent role that women play in family economy and society, in Southeast Asia’s largest matrilineal population, the Minangkabau of Sumatra. Javanese and Sundanese family systems are also often remarked for wome...

  7. Age, Gender, and Treatment Attendance among Forensic Psychiatric Outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, Dianne C.; Reddon, John R.; Reddick, Robert D.

    2001-01-01

    Uses the records of forensic psychiatry outpatients (N=6,299) to evaluate absenteeism from treatment in relation to age and gender. Results reveal that females had a significantly higher absentee rate than males in all age groups. For both males and females, missed appointments declined significantly with age. (Contains 34 references and 1 table.)…

  8. Objective Gender and Age Recognition from Speech Sentences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima K. Faek

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work, an automatic gender and age recognizer from speech is investigated. The relevant features to gender recognition are selected from the first four formant frequencies and twelve MFCCs and feed the SVM classifier. While the relevant features to age has been used with k-NN classifier for the age recognizer model, using MATLAB as a simulation tool. A special selection of robust features is used in this work to improve the results of the gender and age classifiers based on the frequency range that the feature represents. The gender and age classification algorithms are evaluated using 114 (clean and noisy speech samples uttered in Kurdish language. The model of two classes (adult males and adult females gender recognition, reached 96% recognition accuracy. While for three categories classification (adult males, adult females, and children, the model achieved 94% recognition accuracy. For the age recognition model, seven groups according to their ages are categorized. The model performance after selecting the relevant features to age achieved 75.3%. For further improvement a de-noising technique is used with the noisy speech signals, followed by selecting the proper features that are affected by the de-noising process and result in 81.44% recognition accuracy.

  9. What explains gender inequalities in HIV/AIDS prevalence in sub-Saharan Africa? Evidence from the demographic and health surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sia, Drissa; Onadja, Yentéma; Hajizadeh, Mohammad; Heymann, S Jody; Brewer, Timothy F; Nandi, Arijit

    2016-11-03

    Women are disproportionally affected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The determinants of gender inequality in HIV/AIDS may vary across countries and require country-specific interventions to address them. This study aimed to identify the socio-demographic and behavioral characteristics underlying gender inequalities in HIV/AIDS in 21 SSA countries. We applied an extension of the Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition approach to data from Demographic and Health Surveys and AIDS Indicator Surveys to quantify the differences in HIV/AIDS prevalence between women and men attributable to socio-demographic factors, sexual behaviours, and awareness of HIV/AIDS. We decomposed gender inequalities into two components: the percentage attributable to different levels of the risk factors between women and men (the "composition effect") and the percentage attributable to risk factors having differential effects on HIV/AIDS prevalence in women and men (the "response effect"). Descriptive analyses showed that the difference between women and men in HIV/AIDS prevalence varied from a low of 0.68 % (P = 0.008) in Liberia to a high of 11.5 % (P HIV/AIDS among women in Uganda and Ghana, respectively, was explained by the different distributions of HIV/AIDS risk factors, particularly age at first sex between women and men. In the majority of countries, however, observed gender inequalities in HIV/AIDS were chiefly explained by differences in the responses to risk factors; the differential effects of age, marital status and occupation on prevalence of HIV/AIDS for women and men were among the significant contributors to this component. In Cameroon, Guinea, Malawi and Swaziland, a combination of the composition and response effects explained gender inequalities in HIV/AIDS prevalence. The factors that explain gender inequality in HIV/AIDS in SSA vary by country, suggesting that country-specific interventions are

  10. Perceptions of parental behavior with regard to parents’ gender and respondents’ age and gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opsenica-Kostić Jelena

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The findings of the research into the perceived parental behavior provide contrasting data as to the existence and the nature of differences in the perception of parental behavior based on parents’ gender and respondents’ gender. The purpose of the present study is to examine the differences in the perceived parental behavior in adolescents with regard to parents’ gender and respondents’ age and gender. The study included 466 respondents (262 girls and 204 boys, in middle to late adolescence, divided into four sub-groups according to their age. The respondents were asked to fill in the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI questionnaire which measures the care and overprotection in mothers and fathers respectively. The obtained findings show the existence of significant difference based on the parents’ gender for both subscales: both maternal care and maternal overprotection were estimated as higher. Observing the differences by respondents’ gender on the whole sample, only one significant difference is found: paternal overprotection was estimated as higher by girls. The differences by age as observed within gender groups are completely disparate for girl and boy groups. The best insight into the differences is obtained through analysis by gender, for groups relatively homogenous in terms of their age (for the first three groups the only significant difference appears in the paternal overprotection subscale; the difference disappears in the subgroup of the oldest respondents’, while the differences between the perception of maternal and paternal care are of significance here. One particularly important finding for future research into rearing behavior is the fact that the perception of parental behavior changes over the period of adolescence differently for boys and girls; therefore, the analysis including perceived parental behavior should be performed for subgroups by gender, which are as homogenous as possible in terms of their age.

  11. Age and gender interactions in short distance triathlon performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etter, Franziska; Knechtle, Beat; Bukowski, Arkadiusz; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the participation and performance trends as well as the age and gender interaction at the Olympic distance 'Zürich Triathlon' (1.5 km swim, 40 km cycle and 10 km run) from 2000 to 2010 in 7,939 total finishers (1,666 females and 6,273 males). Female triathletes aged from 40 to 54 years significantly (P triathlon performance increased after the age of 35 years, which appeared earlier compared to long distance triathlon as suggested by previous studies. Future investigations should compare gender difference in performance for different endurance events across age to confirm a possible effect of exercise duration on gender difference with advancing age.

  12. Severity of Khat Dependence among Adult Khat Chewers: The Moderating Influence of Gender and Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Motohiro; Dokam, Anisa; Alsameai, Abed; AlSoofi, Mohammed; Khalil, Najat; al'Absi, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    The escalating use of khat (Catha edulis) in East Africa and Arabia is a major concern for public health. Yet little is known about the impact of khat on behaviour. To that end, there has been no study in the region to assess the extent to which dependence syndrome is associated with khat use in this population. We examined in this study was psychometric properties of the Severity of Dependence Scale-Khat (SDS-khat), gender differences in patterns of khat use and dependence, and the extent to which age moderated the link between gender and khat dependence. Two-hundred and ninety-two khat chewers recruited in two Yemeni cities completed face-to-face interviews asking about demographics and patterns of khat use. Validity of SDS-khat was examined by the principle component analysis and reliability of the scale was tested by the Cronbach's alpha. A series of chi-square tests and analysis of variances (ANOVAs) were conducted to examine gender differences in khat use variables. The results indicated that the mean age of khat chewers was 30.52 years (95% CI: 29.34, 31.70) years, and 52% of them were males. The SDS-khat was found to have two factors with moderate reliability. This pattern was consistent when the analysis was conducted in the entire sample and in each gender. Male khat chewers reported more symptoms related to khat dependence than female chewers. A significant gender by age interaction in SDS-khat levels (p =0.013) revealed a positive association between age and khat dependence in women only. These results provide initial support for the use of SDS-khat in the assessment of khat dependence in Yemen. Gender differences in khat use patterns and dependence observed in this study call the need for more studies carefully examining the role of gender in khat research. PMID:25064835

  13. [Demographic aging and social security. The insufficiency of old age pensions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham Chande, R

    1993-01-01

    The demographic transition is leading to demographic aging in Mexico, as lower fertility and greater life expectancy combine to produce absolute and percentage increases in the elderly population. Concern is growing about satisfying the material needs of the elderly population. Only a few developed countries are able to furnish adequate pensions to their retired workers through social security systems. In Mexico, class inequity is a greater determinant of the level of pension coverage than is generational solidarity. Mexico's 1990 census showed that the population of 81,250,000 was comprised of 24,517,000 economically active and 56,733,000 inactive persons. Of the 24,517,000 economically active, 7,282,000 mostly lower level employees and laborers were affiliated only with the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS). 2,308,000 were covered by the IMSS and one of the complementary pension systems sponsored by the largest and most organized private companies. 2,629,000 were entitled to pensions through public sector employment and 584,000 through quasipublic employment. The remaining 11,571,000 had no rights to a pension. In other words, 47% of the labor force was not covered by any retirement pension system. 375,000 of the 5,007,000 persons over age 60 in the economically inactive population had some sort of pension from the IMSS. In 1990, 92% received the minimum pension, equivalent to 70% of the minimum salary. 229,000 had an IMSS pension and a complementary private pension. 196,000 pensioners in the public sector received an average pension of 1.5 times the minimum salary. 66,000 retired workers in quasipublic enterprises received pensions with automatic adjustments for inflation that frequently equaled 20 times the minimum salary. The total number of recipients of pensions of all types was 888,000,leaving 4,119,000 persons over 60 with no pension. Because of the deficiencies of the social security system, families must continue to be the institution that aids

  14. Age, gender, dentures and oral mucosal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacEntee, M I; Glick, N; Stolar, E

    1998-03-01

    The numbers of participants over 75 years of age in previous studies of oral health have not been sufficient to permit a full investigation of the influence of age on the mouth. In this study a disproportionate stratified random sample of 255 independent elders was selected from a list of urban voters to provide similar numbers of men and women in three age groups. The subjects were interviewed and examined, and nearly half of them had mucosal disorders. There was a significant (P angular cheilitis in particular were associated significantly with men and with the use of defective dentures. Logistic regression revealed that neither age alone nor the quality of dentures predispose to mucosal lesions, but that the odds of finding stomatitis, denture-related hyperplasia and angular cheilitis in particular increased about three-fold in denture-users, and almost doubled in men.

  15. Clickers in Teacher Education: Student Perceptions by Age and Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheesman, Elaine A.; Winograd, Gaynelle R.; Wehrman, Joseph D.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the perceptions of classroom response systems, or "clickers," by teacher-candidates of diverse ages and both genders. Participants (n = 63) included 53 females and 10 males aged 21 to 57 who attended small-enrollment reading methods courses in a special education licensure program. Responses to a 32-item survey suggested…

  16. Organ Donation in the 50+ Age Demographic: Survey Results on Decision Rationale and Information Preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartaglia, Alexander; Dodd-McCue, Diane; Myer, Kevin A; Mullins, Andrew

    2016-09-01

    The rate of organ donation by older potential donors is significantly declining even though recent studies show positive clinical outcomes with organs transplanted from older donors. This study examined the 50+ age demographic to identify the rationale for donation decisions, preferred media methods of donation information delivery, and responsiveness to an age-tailored donation message. Results from 579 surveys, 87% from the 50+ age demographic, found respondents prone to self-select themselves as medically ineligible based on current medication and health status, even though they might be medically suitable donors. Their incentive to pursue additional information on donation is limited except when motivated by personal accounts within their families and communities. In addition, even when computer literate, they continue to favor the printed or spoken word for donation information delivery. The results suggest an opportunity for those working with older adults to develop more personalized, localized donation education programs targeting this age demographic.

  17. Forecasting the Effects of Raising the Retirement Age on Russia’s Demographic Struc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Vital’evna Chistova

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper assesses the possibility of raising the retirement age to mitigate the effects of ageing on the pension system of Russia. The authors make demographic forecasts based on hypotheses about the presence of global demographic trends in population reproduction and manifestations of development features specific for Russia. The demographic forecast is based on the age shifting method according to three scenarios. The forecast takes into account the provisions of a draft law that has already been approved and that provides for a gradual increase in age limit for civil servants, both men and women, to 65 years (by six months each year. The following assumption is made for the purpose of studying the effects of raising the retirement age to 65 years for all categories of Russian citizens. The increase in the retirement age begins in 2016 at the rate of 6 months per year, and it will end for men in 2026 and for women – in 2036. Thus, by 2036, the official retirement age will be 65 years for both sexes. The resulting forecasts show that population ageing in Russia is an inevitable process. Depending on whether demographic processes are in line with global trends or whether certain specific Russian features of development are revealed, ageing process will occur in the first case – “from above”, in the second case – “from below”. The forecast has confirmed a well-known paradox that if the situation regarding the decline in mortality is improved further, as has happened in recent years, then the pace of ageing that negatively affects the balance of the pension system will be even higher, at least in the medium term. Forecast calculations have shown that, first, demographic burden on the working population will continue to increase under any demographic development scenario implemented in Russia, and most significantly, under a scenario that describes a successful demographic policy. Second, the number of retirement age women is a

  18. Hope and Adaptation to Old Age: Their Relationship with Individual-Demographic Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraitou, Despina; Kolovou, Chrysa; Papasozomenou, Chrysa; Paschoula, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between hope as disposition, adaptation to old age, and individual-demographic factors. One hundred and fifty older adults, aged 60-93 years old, completed the Adult Dispositional Hope Scale developed by Snyder et AL. [1991, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60, pp. 570-585], and the Adaptation to…

  19. Demographic Consequences of Gender Discrimination in China: Simulation Analysis of Policy Options

    OpenAIRE

    Quanbao, Jiang; Shuzhuo, Li; Marcus W., Feldman

    2011-01-01

    The large number of missing females in China, a consequence of gender discrimination, is having and will continue to have a profound effect on the country's population development. In this paper, we analyze the causes of this gender discrimination in terms of institutions, culture and, economy, and suggest public policies that might help eliminate gender discrimination. Using a population simulation model, we study the effect of public policies on the sex ratio at birth and excess female chil...

  20. [Association of socio-demographic factors with the age at death due to cardiovascular diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, Juan; Lavanderos, Sebastián; Riquelme, Camilo; Morales, Andrea

    2016-11-01

    The association of cardiovascular diseases with socio-demographic factors has not been fully explored. To analyze the association of socio-demographic features with the survival time of individuals who died due to cardiovascular diseases. The death registries published by the Ministry of Health were analyzed. All deaths due to cardiovascular diseases occurred between 2001 and 2013 in people aged over one year were considered. Using a principal component analysis, the age at death was associated with socio-demographic features such as sex, marital status, residence zone, schooling, work status and medical care prior to death. A total of 293,370 cardiovascular deaths were analyzed. The median age at death was 77 years. Not receiving medical care prior to death, was significantly associated with a lower age at the moment of the decease, mainly between 20 and 80 years of age. Among men, being occupationally active (hazard ratio (HR = 1.5 p Socio-demographic profiles are associated with the age at death due to cardiovascular diseases. The effect of not receiving medical care on the age at death is noteworthy and reflects social inequities in the access to health care.

  1. Feature Extraction based Face Recognition, Gender and Age Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venugopal K R

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The face recognition system with large sets of training sets for personal identification normally attains good accuracy. In this paper, we proposed Feature Extraction based Face Recognition, Gender and Age Classification (FEBFRGAC algorithm with only small training sets and it yields good results even with one image per person. This process involves three stages: Pre-processing, Feature Extraction and Classification. The geometric features of facial images like eyes, nose, mouth etc. are located by using Canny edge operator and face recognition is performed. Based on the texture and shape information gender and age classification is done using Posteriori Class Probability and Artificial Neural Network respectively. It is observed that the face recognition is 100%, the gender and age classification is around 98% and 94% respectively.

  2. Affective Computing and the Impact of Gender and Age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Rukavina

    Full Text Available Affective computing aims at the detection of users' mental states, in particular, emotions and dispositions during human-computer interactions. Detection can be achieved by measuring multimodal signals, namely, speech, facial expressions and/or psychobiology. Over the past years, one major approach was to identify the best features for each signal using different classification methods. Although this is of high priority, other subject-specific variables should not be neglected. In our study, we analyzed the effect of gender, age, personality and gender roles on the extracted psychobiological features (derived from skin conductance level, facial electromyography and heart rate variability as well as the influence on the classification results. In an experimental human-computer interaction, five different affective states with picture material from the International Affective Picture System and ULM pictures were induced. A total of 127 subjects participated in the study. Among all potentially influencing variables (gender has been reported to be influential, age was the only variable that correlated significantly with psychobiological responses. In summary, the conducted classification processes resulted in 20% classification accuracy differences according to age and gender, especially when comparing the neutral condition with four other affective states. We suggest taking age and gender specifically into account for future studies in affective computing, as these may lead to an improvement of emotion recognition accuracy.

  3. Age and Gender Differences in Facial Attractiveness, but Not Emotion Resemblance, Contribute to Age and Gender Stereotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocco Palumbo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Considerable research has shown effects of facial appearance on trait impressions and group stereotypes. We extended those findings in two studies that investigated the contribution of resemblance to emotion expressions and attractiveness to younger adults (YA and older adults (OA age and gender stereotypes on the dimensions of warmth and competence. Using connectionist modeling of facial metrics of 240 neutral younger and older faces, Study 1 found that, neutral expression older faces or female faces showed greater structural resemblance to happy expressions and less resemblance to angry expressions than did younger or male faces, respectively. In addition, neutral female faces showed greater resemblance to surprise expressions. In Study 2, YA and OA rated the faces of Study 1 for attractiveness and for 4 traits that we aggregated on the dimensions of competence (competent, healthy and warmth (trustworthy, not shrewd. We found that YA, but not OA, age stereotypes replicated previous research showing higher perceived warmth and lower perceived competence in older adults. In addition, previously documented gender stereotypes were moderated by face age for both YA and OA. The greater attractiveness of younger than older faces and female than male faces influenced age and gender stereotypes, including these deviations from prior research findings using category labels rather than faces. On the other hand, face age and face sex differences in emotion resemblance did not influence age or gender stereotypes, contrary to prediction. Our results provide a caveat to conclusions about age and gender stereotypes derived from responses to category labels, and they reveal the importance of assessing stereotypes with a methodology that is sensitive to influences of group differences in appearance that can exacerbate or mitigate stereotypes in more ecologically valid contexts. Although the gender differences in attractiveness in the present study may not have

  4. Gender and Age Differences among Teen Drivers in Fatal Crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swedler, David I; Bowman, Stephen M; Baker, Susan P

    2012-01-01

    To identify age and gender differences among teen drivers in fatal crashes, we analyzed FARS data for 14,026crashes during 2007-2009. Compared with female teenagers, crashes of male teenagers were significantly more likely to involve BACs of 0.08% or more (21% vs. 12%), speeding (38% vs. 25%), reckless driving (17% vs. 14%), night driving (41% vs. 36%) and felony crashes (hit-and-run, homicide, or manslaughter) (8% vs. 6%) (all χ(2) pteens to involve speeding or reckless driving. Crashes of drivers with BACs of 0.08% or higher increased with age in both genders. Some age effects differed by gender: for example, the proportion of crashes of female teens that involved speeding dropped from 38% to 22% between ages 15 and 19, while for males about 38% of crashes at each age involved speeding. The gender and age differences observed in teen drivers suggest opportunities for targeted driver training - for example, simulator training modules specifically tailored for male or female teenagers. Technology-based tools could also be developed to help parents to focus on the reckless driving tendencies of their sons. Insurance companies should consider ways to incentivize young males to drive more responsibly.

  5. Human Aging Is a Metabolome-related Matter of Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jové, Mariona; Maté, Ianire; Naudí, Alba; Mota-Martorell, Natalia; Portero-Otín, Manuel; De la Fuente, Mónica; Pamplona, Reinald

    2016-05-01

    A molecular description of the mechanisms by which aging is produced is still very limited. Here, we have determined the plasma metabolite profile by using high-throughput metabolome profiling technologies of 150 healthy humans ranging from 30 to 100 years of age. Using a nontargeted approach, we detected 2,678 metabolite species in plasma, and the multivariate analyses separated perfectly two groups indicating a specific signature for each gender. In addition, there is a set of gender-shared metabolites, which change significantly during aging with a similar tendency. Among the identified molecules, we found vitamin D2-related compound, phosphoserine (40:5), monoacylglyceride (22:1), diacylglyceride (33:2), and resolvin D6, all of them decreasing with the aging process. Finally, we found three molecules that directly correlate with age and seven that inversely correlate with age, independently of gender. Among the identified molecules (6 of 10 according to exact mass and retention time), we found a proteolytic product (l-γ-glutamyl-l-leucine), which increased with age. On the contrary, a hydroxyl fatty acid (25-hydroxy-hexacosanoic), a polyunsaturated fatty acid (eicosapentaenoic acid), two phospholipids (phosphocholine [42:9]and phosphoserine [42:3]) and a prostaglandin (15-keto-prostaglandin F2α) decreased with aging. These results suggest that lipid species and their metabolism are closely linked to the aging process.

  6. Motor excitability measurements: the influence of gender, body mass index, age and temperature in healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanova, I; Diaz, A; Pinto, S; de Carvalho, M

    2014-04-01

    The technique of threshold tracking to test axonal excitability gives information about nodal and internodal ion channel function. We aimed to investigate variability of the motor excitability measurements in healthy controls, taking into account age, gender, body mass index (BMI) and small changes in skin temperature. We examined the left median nerve of 47 healthy controls using the automated threshold-tacking program, QTRAC. Statistical multiple regression analysis was applied to test relationship between nerve excitability measurements and subject variables. Comparisons between genders did not find any significant difference (P>0.2 for all comparisons). Multiple regression analysis showed that motor amplitude decreases with age and temperature, stimulus-response slope decreases with age and BMI, and that accommodation half-time decrease with age and temperature. The changes related to demographic features on TRONDE protocol parameters are small and less important than in conventional nerve conduction studies. Nonetheless, our results underscore the relevance of careful temperature control, and indicate that interpretation of stimulus-response slope and accommodation half-time should take into account age and BMI. In contrast, gender is not of major relevance to axonal threshold findings in motor nerves. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Leukocyte telomere length: Effects of schizophrenia, age, and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolkowitz, Owen M; Jeste, Dilip V; Martin, Averria Sirkin; Lin, Jue; Daly, Rebecca E; Reuter, Chase; Kraemer, Helena

    2017-02-01

    Schizophrenia is linked with early medical comorbidity and mortality. These observations indicate possible "accelerated biological aging" in schizophrenia, although prior findings are mixed, and few such studies have examined the role of gender. One putative marker of biological aging is leukocyte telomere length (LTL), which typically shortens with age. We assessed LTL in phenotypically well characterized 134 individuals with schizophrenia (60 women and 74 men) and 123 healthy comparison subjects (HCs) (66 women and 57 men), aged 26 to 65 years. Overall, LTL was inversely associated with age (t(249) = -6.2, p schizophrenia and HC groups (t(249) = 2.48, p = 0.014), with women having longer LTL than men, and a significant gender X diagnosis effect (t(249) = 2.43, p = 0.016) - at the average sample age, women with schizophrenia had shorter LTL than HC women. Gender, not the diagnosis of schizophrenia, was the major factor involved with LTL shortening across the age range studied. We discuss the constraints of a cross-sectional design and other methodological issues, and indicate future directions. Understanding the impact of schizophrenia on biological aging will require separate evaluations in men and women. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. The Risk of Imbalances in the Financing of Social Protection in the Context of Demographic Ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vergil Voineagu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the next decades, developed countries will experience dramatic changes in their demographic trends. The retirement of the wide baby-boom generations, the increase in life expectancy and the decline in fertility ratios are likely to modify the size and the age-structure of their populations. The expected population ageing in European countries will burden the pension systems, especially wherever the pay-as-you-go pillar is predominant. Recently, migration has received a widespread attention as a solution to expected population decline and ageing in these countries. The flow of (young migrants to developed countries is perceived as a means to alleviate the financial burden of pension systems. The aim of this contribution is to clarify the issue of aging on labour and capital markets in a macroeconomic perspective. A special attention is given to the risk of imbalances in the financing of social protection in the context of demographic ageing.

  9. Professor Age and Gender Affect Student Perceptions and Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joye, Shauna W.; Wilson, Janie H.

    2015-01-01

    Student evaluations provide rich information about teaching performance, but a number of factors beyond teacher effectiveness influence student evaluations. In this study we examined the effects of professor gender and perceived age on ratings of effectiveness and rapport as well as academic performance. We also asked students to rate professor…

  10. Gender, Age, and Behavior Differences in Early Adolescent Worry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Stephen L.; Teufel, James A.; Birch, David A.; Kancherla, Vijaya

    2006-01-01

    Early adolescents in the United States are increasingly exposed to a culture of worrisome messages. A degree of adolescent worry is normal, but the likelihood of a young person being anxious or depressed increases with the perceived number of worries. This study examined the effect of age, gender, and worry behavior on frequency of 8 adolescent…

  11. Relationships between happiness and gender, age and marital status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reynaldo Alarcón

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The present research examines the relationships between happiness and variables of gender, age and marital status as well as the degrees of happiness most frequently experienced by people. The sample was constituted by 163 males and females, between the ages of 20 and 60 years, single and married, and from middle class strata. They were administered the Scale of Satisfaction with Life, developed by Diener, with and added item to measure the degrees of happiness. There is no significan! statistically difference between genders; according to age the only significan contras! was between 30 and 50 years, with the notation that the highest means corresponded to ages 50 and 60 years old; married people were found to be happier than single ones. In general, the majority reported feeling happy, the other degrees contained very few frecuencies.

  12. Does whom you work with matter? Effects of referent group gender and age composition on managers' compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostroff, Cheri; Atwater, Leanne E

    2003-08-01

    Much research has examined gender and age effects on compensation, concluding that a wage gap exists favoring men and negative stereotypes against older workers persist. Although the effect of an employee's gender or age has been widely studied, little work has examined the impact of the demographic characteristics of a focal employee's immediate referent groups (e.g., subordinates, peers, or supervisors) on pay. The effect of the gender and age composition of a focal manager's subordinates, peers, and supervisor on the manager's compensation levels was investigated in a sample of 2,178 managers across a wide range of organizations and functional areas. After controlling for a number of human capital variables, results indicated that not only does a wage gap favoring men exist, but also managerial pay is lower when managers' referent groups are largely female, when subordinates are outside the prime age group, and when peers and supervisors are younger.

  13. Effects of message framing on self-report and accelerometer-assessed physical activity across age and gender groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kin-Kit; Cheng, Sheung-Tak; Fung, Helene H

    2014-02-01

    This study compared message-framing effects on physical activity (PA) across age and gender groups. Participants included 111 younger and 100 older adults (68% were women), randomly assigned to read gain-framed or loss-framed PA messages in promotion pamphlets, and who wore accelerometers for the following 14 days. Using regression analyses controlling for demographic and health factors, we found significant age-by-gender-by-framing interactions predicting self-report (B = -4.39, p = .01) and accelerometer-assessed PA (B = -2.44, p = .02) during the follow-up period. Gain-framed messages were more effective than loss-framed messages in promoting PA behaviors only among older men. We speculated that the age-related positivity effect, as well as the age and gender differences in issue involvement, explained the group differences in framing. In addition, more time availability and higher self-efficacy among older men might have contributed to the results.

  14. Gender scripts and age at marriage in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Sonalde; Andrist, Lester

    2010-08-01

    Research on marriage in developing countries has been somewhat narrow in scope because of both conceptual and data limitations. While the feminist literature recognizes marriage as a key institutional site for the production and reproduction of gender hierarchies, little is known about the processes through which this relationship operates. This article uses data from the newly collected India Human Development Survey 2005 for 27,365 ever-married women aged 25-49 to explore ways in which different dimensions of gender in Indian society shape the decisions regarding age at marriage. We explore the impact of three dimensions of gender: (1) economic factors, such as availability of wage employment, dowry expectations, and wedding expenses; (2) indicators offamilial empowerment, such as women s role in household decision making and access to and control over resources; and (3) markers of gender performance, such as observance of purdah and male-female separation in the household. Results from hierarchical linear models confirm the importance of markers of gender performance but fail to demonstrate a large role for economic factors and familial empowerment.

  15. Socio-Demographic Determinants of Economic Growth: Age-Structure, Preindustrial Heritage and Sociolinguistic Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crenshaw, Edward; Robison, Kristopher

    2010-01-01

    This study establishes a socio-demographic theory of international development derived from selected classical and contemporary sociological theories. Four hypotheses are tested: (1. population growth's effect on development depends on age-structure; (2. historic population density (used here as an indicator of preindustrial social complexity)…

  16. Los Ancianos: The Aging of the Hispanic Community. A Preliminary Demographic Profile. Project Anciano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubillos, Herminia L.

    A demographic profile of the aged Hispanic community, a growing population, is provided. Such socioeconomic data on the Hispanic elderly are needed for developing public policies and programs to meet their growing needs. The following topics are presented: (1) changes in the population; (2) living arrangements; (3) education; (4) employment; (5)…

  17. Socio-Demographic Determinants of Economic Growth: Age-Structure, Preindustrial Heritage and Sociolinguistic Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crenshaw, Edward; Robison, Kristopher

    2010-01-01

    This study establishes a socio-demographic theory of international development derived from selected classical and contemporary sociological theories. Four hypotheses are tested: (1. population growth's effect on development depends on age-structure; (2. historic population density (used here as an indicator of preindustrial social complexity)…

  18. Analysis of demographic characteristics in 3242 young age gastric cancer patients in Korea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hye; Won; Chung; Sung; Hoon; Noh; Jong-Baeck; Lim

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To evaluate the epidemiologic features of young age gastric cancer(GC). METHODS:Retrospectively,a total of 3242 patients with GC between 18 and 45 years of age and 3000 sex-and age-matched controls were reviewed.All subjects were stratified into 3 groups based on age (A,18-30 years;B,31-40 years;C,41-45 years). Epidemiologic characteristics and risk factors were investigated with reference to their age and gender. RESULTS:Compared to controls,more frequent intake of high risk diet(P=0.00075),history of ...

  19. Climatic influence on demographic parameters of a tropical seabird varies with age and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oro, Daniel; Torres, Roxana; Rodríguez, Cristina; Drummond, Hugh

    2010-04-01

    In marine ecosystems climatic fluctuation and other physical variables greatly influence population dynamics, but differential effects of physical variables on the demographic parameters of the two sexes and different age classes are largely unexplored. We analyzed the effects of climate on the survival and recruitment of both sexes and several age classes of a long-lived tropical seabird, the Blue-footed Booby (Sula nebouxii), using long-term observations on marked individuals. Results demonstrated a complex interaction between yearly fluctuations in climate (both local and global indexes, during both winter and breeding season) and the sex and age of individuals. Youngest birds' survival and recruitment were commonly affected by local climate, whereas oldest birds' parameters tended to be constant and less influenced by environmental variables. These results confirm the theoretical prediction that sex- and age-related variation in life-history demographic traits is greater under poor environmental conditions, and they highlight the importance of including variability in fitness components in demographic and evolutionary models. Males and females showed similar variation in survival but different recruitment patterns, in relation to both age and the spatial scale of climatic influence (local or global). Results indicate different life-history tactics for each sex and different ages, with birds likely trying to maximize their fitness by responding to the environmental contingencies of each year.

  20. ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL ASPECTS OF THE DEMOGRAPHIC AGEING PROCESS IN THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga SÂRBU

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of this paper consists in analyzing economic and social aspects of demographic aging process in Moldova. To interpret the accumulated data and calculations performed analytical method of calculation tabular method and graphical method was applied. Intense process of aging is associated with changes in all spheres of social and economic life and affects equally the interests of older people and society as a whole. In Republic of Moldova aging population has grown in the last two decades, being conditioned both declining birth rate, which is very low and does not provide simple reproduction of the population and the mass migration of population that leads to the depopulation of the country. Maintaining the natural and migration increase with negative values amplifies the negative demographic deterioration of the country, which influences economic development, competitiveness and stability of the country and welfare of its citizens. In this situation it is necessary to respond positively to the challenges of demographic change through the complex and multisectoral approaches designed to correct current unfavorable demographic evolutions.

  1. IMPACT ON DEVELOPMENT AGE AND GENDER CHARACTERISTICS PROFESSIONAL PERSON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avdeyeva Irina Olegovna

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In article some questions mentioning gender and age features of the identity of municipal employees, working in the social sphere and their influence on professionalism development are considered. Diagnostics of professional and important qualities and features of experts, their moral and regulatory sphere, adaptation potential and a motivational complex on means of application of the following diagnostic techniques is carried out: R. Kettell's 16 factorial questionnaire (16-PF, a form C, "Valuable orientations" M. Rokich, a multilevel personal questionnaire "Adaptability" (MLO-AM, a technique of studying of motivation of professional activity (K.Zemfir in A.Rean's modification. In this research the example of the multiple parameter linear model created and approved for identification and the analysis of age transformations of municipal employees, working in the social sphere is given. Conclusions are drawn on wagging of gender and age features of experts on development of professionalism of their personality.

  2. [The consequences of the demographic revolution and of the aging of society: restructuring the age groups and modifying intergenerational relations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loriaux, M

    1995-01-01

    The consequences of demographic aging in developed societies are examined. The author notes that "demographic aging has intensified over the last decades, bringing with it a significant modification in relationships between age groups and the sexes.... These changes in demographic structures bring with them the reorganization in intergenerational relations, the most spectacular instance of which...[is] the coexistence at the same time and in the same place of four or five generations of direct descendants." The author develops the hypothesis that a new attitude toward old age is needed in which "the social status of the elderly must be reinstated, and everything must be brought into play to encourage the integration of different age groups and intergenerational solidarity, so as to arrive in the best possible conditions at what [can be termed] the 'era of old age'...which will accompany the coming of the post-industrial society with its orientation toward the mass production of leisure and of services." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND SPA) excerpt

  3. Why Age Matters: Aged Gender in the Identity Work of Female Youth Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Hendley, Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    Functioning as our “social skin in social space,” clothing enables both the expression of pre-existing identities and the construction of new ones (Pomerantz 2008:18). Age and gender are important components of identity, and their intersection contributes to the varied nature of femininity. Through my research on female youth soccer players, I examine the relationship of sports clothing to the girls’ identity work, specifically in regards to their experience as aged and gendered subjects. ...

  4. Age and gender specific biokinetic model for strontium in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shagina, N. B.; Tolstykh, E. I.; Degteva, M. O.; Anspaugh, L. R.; Napier, Bruce A.

    2015-03-01

    A biokinetic model for strontium in humans is necessary for quantification of internal doses due to strontium radioisotopes. The ICRP-recommended biokinetic model for strontium has limitation for use in a population study, because it is not gender specific and does not cover all age ranges. The extensive Techa River data set on 90Sr in humans (tens of thousands of measurements) is a unique source of data on long-term strontium retention for men and women of all ages at intake. These, as well as published data, were used for evaluation of age- and gender-specific parameters for a new compartment biokinetic model for strontium (Sr-AGe model). The Sr-AGe model has similar structure as the ICRP model for the alkaline earth elements. The following parameters were mainly reevaluated: gastro-intestinal absorption and parameters related to the processes of bone formation and resorption defining calcium and strontium transfers in skeletal compartments. The Sr-AGe model satisfactorily describes available data sets on strontium retention for different kinds of intake (dietary and intravenous) at different ages (0–80 years old) and demonstrates good agreement with data sets for different ethnic groups. The Sr-AGe model can be used for dose assessment in epidemiological studies of general population exposed to ingested strontium radioisotopes.

  5. Demographics and diaspora, gender and genealogy: anthropological notes on Greek population policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxson, H

    1997-01-01

    Since World War II, Greece's birth rate has fallen into a worsening decline. With the steady emigration of Greeks throughout the century to North America, Australia, and Germany, Greece has experienced one of the most rapid population declines in Europe. In 1991, the PASOK government convened a special Parliamentary Commission to study the demographic problem and develop recommendations for its resolution. Released in 1993, and comparing Greece's depressed population growth rates with the markedly higher ones of Albania and Turkey, the report argues that the demographic problem is one of national survival because a decline in the population undermines the territorial integrity and national independence of the country. At least half of all pregnancies in Greece end in abortion, and the report attributes 40% of the declining population growth rate to women who have repeat abortions. To confront the population dilemma, Greek officials are downplaying the diaspora and encouraging women at home to produce more babies. Maternal pensions forwarded by the state as family and population policies are being criticized by Athenian women as a means of professionalizing motherhood and perpetuating a limited vision of female adulthood. The author explores why the declining birth rate is considered to be such a problem in Greece, even though the other countries of Europe are also experiencing birth rate declines; why and how women are blamed for the demographic situation; and why the state, despite its vehement rhetoric, has failed to implement a family policy capable of boosting fertility.

  6. Age and gender related differences in aortic blood flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traberg, Marie Sand; Pedersen, Mads Møller; Hemmsen, Martin Christian

    2012-01-01

    The abdominal aorta (AA) is predisposed to development of abdominal aneurysms (AAA), a focal dilatation of the artery with fatal consequences if left untreated. The blood flow patterns in the AA is thought to play an important role in the development of AAA. The purpose of this work is to investi......The abdominal aorta (AA) is predisposed to development of abdominal aneurysms (AAA), a focal dilatation of the artery with fatal consequences if left untreated. The blood flow patterns in the AA is thought to play an important role in the development of AAA. The purpose of this work...... is to investigate the blood flow pat- terns within a group of healthy volunteers (4 females, 7 males) aged 23 to 76 years to identify changes and differences related to age and gender. The healthy volunteers were categorized by gender (male/female) and age (below/above 35 years). Subject-specific flow and geometry...... to elderly. Thus, changes in blood flow patterns in the AA related to age and gender is observed. Further investigations are needed to determine the relation between changes in blood flow patterns and AAA development....

  7. Age and gender effects on submental motor-evoked potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sella, Oshrat; Jones, Richard D; Huckabee, Maggie-Lee

    2014-01-01

    It is not known whether there are age- and/or gender-related differences in magnitude of motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) of the submental muscles. Knowledge of this is important in investigations of neurophysiological aspects of swallowing. Forty healthy participants (20 males, 20 females; 20 young [21-35 years], 20 old [53-88 years]) were recruited. Surface electromyography (EMG) electrodes were placed at midline underlying the submental muscle group. Age- and gender-related differences were evaluated in two neurophysiologic measures of swallowing: MEPs stimulated by single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the motor cortex and surface electromyography (sEMG) recorded from the same submental muscle group during non-stimulated swallows. The older participants had larger MEPs during saliva swallowing than the young participants (p = 0.04, d = 0.86). Conversely, the older participants had lower amplitude submental EMG activity during non-stimulated swallows (p = 0.045, d = 0.67). Gender had no significant effect on MEP magnitude and on submental activity during saliva swallowing. There were no effects of age or gender on MEP latencies. These findings suggest deterioration in muscle function with age in a sample of healthy adults presenting with functional swallowing. We speculate that muscular decline is partially ameliorated by increased cortical activity-i.e., increased submental MEPs-so as to preserve swallowing function in healthy older subjects. These findings emphasize the need for different reference points for evaluation of submental MEPs of different age groups.

  8. Proteomic study on gender differences in aging kidney of mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristobal Susana

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aims to analyze sex differences in mice aging kidney. We applied a proteomic technique based on subfractionation, and liquid chromatography coupled with 2-DE. Samples from male and female CD1-Swiss outbred mice from 28 weeks, 52 weeks, and 76 weeks were analysed by 2-DE, and selected proteins were identified by matrix assisted laser desorption ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS. Results This proteomic analysis detected age-related changes in protein expression in 55 protein-spots, corresponding to 22 spots in males and 33 spots in females. We found a protein expression signature (PES of aging composed by 8 spots, common for both genders. The identified proteins indicated increases in oxidative and proteolytic proteins and decreases in glycolytic proteins, and antioxidant enzymes. Conclusion Our results provide insights into the gender differences associated to the decline of kidney function in aging. Thus, we show that proteomics can provide valuable information on age-related changes in expression levels of proteins and related modifications. This pilot study is still far from providing candidates for aging-biomarkers. However, we suggest that the analysis of these proteins could suggest mechanisms of cellular aging in kidney, and improve the kidney selection for transplantation.

  9. Relationship Between Dietary Patterns and Socio- Demographic or Lifestyle Factors in Urban School- Aged Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huan WANG; Yun CHEN; Wei CHEN; Ai ZHAO; Yu-mei ZHANG; Zhi-shen MU

    2014-01-01

    Objective To identify the dietary patterns in urban school-aged children in China and determine the relations with socio-demographic or lifestyle factors.MethodsA total of 620 school-aged children from 7 cities in China were recruited in a cross-sectional study and their dietary data over the preceding 6 months were recorded via questionnaire between 2011-2012. The dietary patterns were identified using principal components analysis. Mann-Whitney U or Kruskal-Walis H test was preformed to reveal the relationship between dietary patterns and socio-demographic or lifestyle characteristics. Results Three major dietary patterns were identified. The traditional pattern had high positive relationships with grains, potatoes, vegetables, fruits, vegetables and soybeans/soybean products. The high-protein pattern was characterized by large positive coefficient for fruits, fish/shrimps, eggs, milk/milk products, soybeans/soybean products and salt. The oil/fat and beverage pattern with highly related with grains, meat/poultry, eggs, oil/fat, salt and beverages. The relationships between the dietary patterns and various socio-demographic or lifestyle characteristics were analyzed.Conclusion Three dietary patterns were identified. A clear association was found between the dietary patterns and socio-demographic or lifestyle characteristics.

  10. Bodacious Berry, Potency Wood and the Aging Monster: Gender and Age Relations in Anti-Aging Ads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calasanti, Toni

    2007-01-01

    This paper situates age discrimination within a broader system of age relations that intersects with other inequalities, and then uses that framework to analyze internet advertisements for the anti-aging industry. Such ads reinforce age and gender relations by positing old people as worthwhile only to the extent that they look and act like those…

  11. Bodacious Berry, Potency Wood and the Aging Monster: Gender and Age Relations in Anti-Aging Ads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calasanti, Toni

    2007-01-01

    This paper situates age discrimination within a broader system of age relations that intersects with other inequalities, and then uses that framework to analyze internet advertisements for the anti-aging industry. Such ads reinforce age and gender relations by positing old people as worthwhile only to the extent that they look and act like those…

  12. Thyroid function and aging: gender-related differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, V M; Moreira, D G; Rosenthal, D

    2001-10-01

    The effects of aging on human or animal thyroid function are still not well defined. We evaluated some aspects of thyroid function during aging using an animal model (young and old Dutch-Miranda rats). In old rats of both genders, serum thyroxine (T4) decreased but serum thyrotrophin (TSH) remained unaltered, suggesting a disturbance in the pituitary-thyroid feedback mechanism during aging. Serum tri-iodothyronine (T3) only decreased in old males, possibly because female rats are almost twice as efficient in hepatic T4 to T3 deiodination. Thyroidal T4-5'-deiodinase activity did not change much during aging, although it decreased slightly in males. Thyroidal iodothyronine-deiodinase type I mRNA expression but not total thyroidal enzymatic activity were higher in female than in male rats. Thus, ovarian/testicular hormones may modulate the expression and/or the activity of hepatic and thyroidal type I iodothyronine-deiodinase. Thyroperoxidase (TPO) and thyroglobulin (Tg) expression were higher in young male rats than in females. In males, TPO and Tg gene expression decreased with aging, suggesting that androgens might increase their expression. Our results showed that aging induces real changes in rat thyroid gland function and regulation, affecting at least pituitary, thyroid and liver functions. Furthermore, some of these changes were gender related, indicating that gonadal hormones may modulate thyroid gland function and regulation.

  13. Automatic age and gender classification using supervised appearance model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukar, Ali Maina; Ugail, Hassan; Connah, David

    2016-11-01

    Age and gender classification are two important problems that recently gained popularity in the research community, due to their wide range of applications. Research has shown that both age and gender information are encoded in the face shape and texture, hence the active appearance model (AAM), a statistical model that captures shape and texture variations, has been one of the most widely used feature extraction techniques for the aforementioned problems. However, AAM suffers from some drawbacks, especially when used for classification. This is primarily because principal component analysis (PCA), which is at the core of the model, works in an unsupervised manner, i.e., PCA dimensionality reduction does not take into account how the predictor variables relate to the response (class labels). Rather, it explores only the underlying structure of the predictor variables, thus, it is no surprise if PCA discards valuable parts of the data that represent discriminatory features. Toward this end, we propose a supervised appearance model (sAM) that improves on AAM by replacing PCA with partial least-squares regression. This feature extraction technique is then used for the problems of age and gender classification. Our experiments show that sAM has better predictive power than the conventional AAM.

  14. Age and gender related differences in aortic blood flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enevoldsen, Marie Sand; Pedersen, Mads Møller; Hemmsen, Martin Christian; Lönn, Lars; Henneberg, Kaj-Åge; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2012-03-01

    The abdominal aorta (AA) is predisposed to development of abdominal aneurysms (AAA), a focal dilatation with fatal consequences if left untreated. The blood flow patterns is thought to play an important role in the development of AAA. The purpose of this work is to investigate the blood flow patterns within a group of healthy volunteers (six females, eight males) aged 23 to 76 years to identify changes and differences related to age and gender. The healthy volunteers were categorized by gender (male/female) and age (below/above 35 years). Subject-specific flow and geometry data were acquired using the research interface on a Profocus ultrasound scanner (B-K Medical, Herlev, Denmark; segmentation of 3D magnetic resonance angiography (Magnetom Trio, Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen, Germany). The largest average diameter was among the elderly males (19.7 (+/- 1.33) mm) and smallest among the young females (12.4 (+/- 0.605) mm). The highest peak systolic velocity was in the young female group (1.02 (+/- 0.336) m/s) and lowest in the elderly male group (0.836 (+/- 0.127) m/s). A geometrical change with age was observed as the AA becomes more bended with age. This also affects the blood flow velocity patterns, which are markedly different from young to elderly. Thus, changes in blood flow patterns in the AA related to age and gender are observed. Further investigations are needed to determine the relation between changes in blood flow patterns and AAA development.

  15. Gender-based violence in Egypt: analyzing impacts of political reforms, social, and demographic change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosetti, Elena; Abu Amara, Nisrin; Condon, Stéphanie

    2013-03-01

    Over recent decades, Egypt has witnessed developments in gender equality. This article discusses recent changes relating to violence against women within this context. Statistical data from the Egyptian DHS surveys is used to describe trends in reported violence and in attitudes toward marital abuse, as well as to examine the survey tools used to measure violence. While findings reflect a growing awareness regarding the issue, the number of women reporting spousal violence remained stable during the study period. The results are contextualized within the political and social debate in which NGO's and women's rights activists play a central role.

  16. Education, Elderly Health, and Differential Population Aging in South Korea: A Demographic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bongoh Kye

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Population aging proceeds with other socioeconomic developments, including educational expansion. Improvements in educational attainment lead to changes in demographic behaviors such as assortative mating, fertility, and the intergenerational transmission of education, which change the health of the elderly and the education of their offspring generation. Objective: We examine such a jointly-changing process in South Korea. Methods: We apply a recursive demographic model (Mare and Maralani 2006 by using the Korean Longitudinal Study of Ageing (KLoSA. Results: First, improvements in education lead to improvements in health among the elderly. Intermediate demographic factors make positive contributions to this improvement. Second, improvements in education lead to a decline in the ratios of offspring to the elderly because better-educated people have fewer children. However, this decrease is not substantial. Third, improvements in education increase the ratio of college-educated offspring to the unhealthy elderly because of improvements in both offspring's education and elderly health. Conclusions: The results suggest that improvements in education change configurations of the elderly and their offspring's generations, mitigating the negative consequences of population aging, such as increasing burdens of elderly support.

  17. Gender atypical behavior in Chinese school-aged children: its prevalence and relation to sex, age, and only child status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lu; Winter, Sam

    2011-07-01

    This study had three purposes: (a) to compare the prevalence of boys' and girls' gender-atypical behaviors (GABs) in a sample of Chinese school-aged children, (b) to examine the developmental pattern of GABs in Chinese boys and girls over the age range in question (6-12 years), and (c) to test the effects of being an only child on children's GAB expression. Parents of 486 boys and 417 girls completed a Child Play Behavior and Activity Questionnaire (CPBAQ) in regard to their own children, and a demographic information sheet. The frequency distribution for each gender-related behavior was calculated. The associations between sex, age, and only-child status, and CPBAQ scale scores were examined. Although most GABs (by their very nature) were exhibited infrequently in Chinese children, it was found that girls displayed GABs more frequently than boys did. The prevalence of GABs rose for girls as they grew older, but fell slightly for boys. The expressions of GABs in only children did not differ from that in children with siblings. Possible effects of Chinese culture (including the current only-child policy) on children's GABs are discussed.

  18. Ageing dynamics of a human-capital-specific population: A demographic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimiter Philipov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Research on how rising human capital affects the consequences of population ageing rarely considers the fact that the human capital of the elderly population is composed in a specific way that is shaped by their earlier schooling and work experience. For an elderly population of a fixed size and age-sex composition, this entails that the higher its human capital, the greater the total amount of public pensions to be paid. Objective: The main purpose of this paper is to analyse the link between human capital and retiree benefits and its effect on population ageing from a demographic viewpoint. Methods: We construct an old age dependency ratio (OADR, in which each person, whether in the numerator or the denominator, is assigned the number of units corresponding to his/her level of human capital. Based on data for Italy, we study the dynamics of this human-capital-specific OADR with the help of multistate population projections to 2107. Results: Our results show that under specific conditions a constant or moderately growing human capital may aggravate the consequences of population ageing rather than alleviate them. Conclusions: With those findings, the authors would like to stimulate the debate on the search for demographic and/or socio-economic solutions to the challenges posed by population ageing.

  19. Weather and age-gender effects on the projection of future emergency ambulance demand in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Poh-Chin; Wong, Ho-Ting

    2015-03-01

    An accurate projection for ambulance demand is essential to enable better resource planning for the future that strives to either maintain current levels of services or reconsider future standards and expectations. More than 2 million cases of emergency room attendance in 2008 were obtained from the Hong Kong Hospital Authority to project the demand for its ambulance services in 2036. The projection of ambulance demand in 2036 was computed in consideration of changes in the age-gender structure between 2008 and 2036. The quadratic relation between average daily temperature and daily ambulance demand in 2036 was further explored by including and excluding age-gender demographic changes. Without accounting for changes in the age-gender structure, the 2036 ambulance demand for age groups of 65 and above were consistently underestimated (by 38%-65%), whereas those of younger age groups were overestimated (by 6%-37%). Moreover, changes in the 2008 to 2036 age-gender structure also shift upward and emphasize relationships between average daily temperature and daily ambulance demand at both ends of the quadratic U-shaped curve. Our study reveals a potential societal implication of ageing population on the demand for ambulance services. © 2012 APJPH.

  20. Gender, Competitiveness and Socialization at a Young Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Ertac, Seda; Gneezy, Uri

    Economists and other social scientists typically rely on gender differences in the family-career balance, discrimination, and ability to explain gender gaps in wages and in the prospect for advancement. A new explanation that has recently surfaced in the economics literature is that men are more...... competitively inclined than women, and having a successful career requires competitiveness. A natural question revolves around the underlying determinants of these documented competitive differences: are women simply born less competitive, or do they become so through the process of socialization? To shed light...... on this issue, we compare the competitiveness of children in matrilineal and patriarchal societies to show that the difference starts around puberty. Moreover, most of the changes during this period of life are within the patriarchal society, in which boys become more competitive with age while girls become...

  1. Gender-dependent effects of aging on the kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.L. Gava

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the kidney plays an important role in the development of cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension. The normal aging process leads to changes in kidney morphology, hemodynamics and function, which increase the incidence of cardiovascular events in the elderly population. These disturbances are influenced by several factors, including gender. In general, females are protected by the effects of estrogens on the cardiorenal system. Several studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of estrogens on renal function in the elderly; however, the relationships between androgens and kidney health during one’s lifetime are not well understood. Sex steroids have many complex actions, and the decline in their levels during aging clearly influences kidney function, decreases the renal reserve and facilitates the development of cardiovascular disorders. Therefore, in this review, we discuss the cellular, biochemical, and molecular mechanisms by which sex hormones may influence renal function during the aging process.

  2. Substance use across adolescence: do gender and age matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celeste Simões

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Many of the choices which impact in lifetime health, such as substance use, are made in adolescence. It becomes, therefore, important to know the factors associated to these behaviours in adolescence in different contexts of life. To analyze these factors, an explanatory model was developed using structural equation modeling. Data from 12.881 state school students from Portugal who participated in two waves of the Health Behaviours in School-aged Children (HBSC / World Health Organization (WHO survey were analyzed. The model fits well the data [CFI: .985; NNFI: .980; RMSEA: .018 (.017-.020; SRMR: .018]. For each of the dependent factors, the levels of variance ranged from 12% (tobacco use to 47% (alcohol and illicit drugs use. Alcohol and tobacco present the strongest associations to illicit drugs use. Relationships with family, friends, classmates, and teachers were also associated with substance use, being this association mediated by certain factors, including psychological symptoms, well-being, and school satisfaction. Several non-invariant paths were obtained in gender and age comparisons. The results showed that substance use is associated with several factors and that social factors are mediated by personal factors. Results have also shown that gender and age are important factors on substance use.

  3. IMPACT ON DEVELOPMENT AGE AND GENDER CHARACTERISTICS PROFESSIONAL PERSON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ирина Олеговна Авдеева

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In article some questions mentioning gender and age features of the identity of municipal employees, working in the social sphere and their influence on professionalism development are considered. Diagnostics of professional and important qualities and features of experts, their moral and regulatory sphere, adaptation potential and a motivational complex on means of application of the following diagnostic techniques is carried out: R. Kettell's 16 factorial questionnaire (16-PF, a form C, "Valuable orientations" M. Rokich, a multilevel personal questionnaire "Adaptability" (MLO-AM, a technique of studying of motivation of professional activity (K.Zemfir in A.Rean's modification. In this research the example of the multiple parameter linear model created and approved for identification and the analysis of age transformations of municipal employees, working in the social sphere is given. Conclusions are drawn on wagging of gender and age features of experts on development of professionalism of their personality.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-4-9

  4. The Association between Body Dissatisfaction and Depression: An Examination of the Moderating Effects of Gender, Age, and Weight Status in a Sample of Chinese Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gui; Guo, Guiping; Gong, Jingbo; Xiao, Shuiyuan

    2015-01-01

    The current study investigated the moderating effects of gender, age, and weight status on the relationship between body dissatisfaction and depression among adolescents. Data were collected on body dissatisfaction, depression, and demographic characteristics from a convenience sample of 1,101 adolescents (505 girls, 596 boys). The relationship…

  5. Retirees and employees ratio in the context of demographic ageing in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojilković Jelena

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Retirees, as a group of economically inactive population, are especially important for future population trends, since their number is constantly growing. Our pension and disability insurance fund has a problem managing unfavorable socioeconomic trends and demographic reality, considering that the number of employees is steadily declining. Employee to retiree ratio has been affected by serious changes during the last half a century, and it declined from 5:1 in 1960s to 1,4:1 nowadays. This is a result of population ageing (life expectancy rising and dropping of total fertility rate and unrestrictive law that allowed pensions to those who didn't deserve it (the share of disability retirees is significantly higher than that in other countries. An additional issue is the fact that baby boom generations are a few years away from the legal age acquired for the age pension. The data used in this paper are provided by the pension and disability fund. .

  6. Risk of advanced colorectal neoplasia according to age and gender.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank T Kolligs

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC is one of the leading causes of cancer related morbidity and death. Despite the fact that the mean age at diagnosis of CRC is lower in men, screening by colonoscopy or fecal occult blood test (FOBT is initiated at same age in both genders. The prevalence of the common CRC precursor lesion, advanced adenoma, is well documented only in the screening population. The purpose of this study was to assess the risk of advanced adenoma at ages below screening age. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We analyzed data from a census of 625,918 outpatient colonoscopies performed in adults in Bavaria between 2006 and 2008. A logistic regression model to determine gender- and age-specific risk of advanced neoplasia was developed. Advanced neoplasia was found in 16,740 women (4.6% and 22,684 men (8.6%. Male sex was associated with an overall increased risk of advanced neoplasia (odds ratio 1.95; 95% confidence interval, CI, 1.91 to 2.00. At any age and in any indication group, more colonoscopies were needed in women than in men to detect advanced adenoma or cancer. At age 75 14.8 (95% CI, 14.4-15.2 screening, 18.2 (95% CI, 17.7-18.7 diagnostic, and 7.9 (95% CI, 7.6-8.2 colonoscopies to follow up on a positive FOBT (FOBT colonoscopies were needed to find advanced adenoma in women. At age 50 39.0 (95% CI, 38.0-40.0 diagnostic, and 16.3 (95% CI, 15.7-16.9 FOBT colonoscopies were needed. Comparable numbers were reached 20 and 10 years earlier in men than in women, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: At any age and independent of the indication for colonoscopy, men are at higher risk of having advanced neoplasia diagnosed upon colonoscopy than women. This suggests that starting screening earlier in life in men than in women might result in a relevant increase in the detection of asymptomatic preneoplastic and neoplastic colonic lesions.

  7. Pedestrians' vulnerability in floodwaters: sensitivity to gender and age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrighi, Chiara; Castelli, Fabio

    2017-04-01

    Among the causes of fatalities during floods, the loss of stability is an aspect which has been usually investigated with conceptual models and laboratory experiments. The human body geometry has been often simplified to derive mechanical equilibrium conditions for toppling and sliding due to weight and hydrodynamic actions. Experimental activity produced water depth versus velocity diagrams showing the critical conditions for people partly immersed in floodwaters, whose scatter reflects the large variability of tested subjects (i.e. children, men and women with different physical characteristics). Nevertheless, the proposed hazard criteria based on the product number HV are not capable of distinguishing between different subjects. A dimensionless approach with a limited number of parameters and 3D numerical simulations highlight the significance of subject height and quantify the drag forces different subjects are able to withstand. From the mechanical point of view, this approach significantly reduces the experimental scatter. Differences in subjects' height are already an evidence of gender differences; however, many other parameters such as age and skeletal muscle mass may play a significant role in individual responses to floodwater actions, which can be responsible of the residual unexplained variance. In this work, a sensitivity analysis of critical instability conditions with respect to gender/age-related parameters is carried out and results and implications for flood risk management are discussed.

  8. Demographic characteristics, social competence, and behavior problems in children with gender identity disorder : A cross-national, cross-clinic comparative analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen-Kettenis, PT; Owen, A; Kaijser, VG; Bradley, SJ; Zucker, KJ

    2003-01-01

    This study examined demographic characteristics, social competence, and behavior problems in clinic-referred children with gender identity problems in Toronto, Canada (N = 358), and Utrecht, The Netherlands (N = 130). The Toronto sample was, on average, about a year younger than the Utrecht sample a

  9. Age and Gender Differences in the Relation between Self-Concept Facets and Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arens, A. Katrin; Hasselhorn, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    This study tested whether the gender intensification hypothesis applies to relations between multiple domain-specific self-concept facets and self-esteem. This hypothesis predicts gender-stereotypic differences in these relations and assumes they intensify with age. Furthermore, knowledge about gender-related or age-related differences in…

  10. Age and Gender Differences in the Relation between Self-Concept Facets and Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arens, A. Katrin; Hasselhorn, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    This study tested whether the gender intensification hypothesis applies to relations between multiple domain-specific self-concept facets and self-esteem. This hypothesis predicts gender-stereotypic differences in these relations and assumes they intensify with age. Furthermore, knowledge about gender-related or age-related differences in…

  11. Gender and age are associated with healthy food purchases via grocery voucher redemption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardin-Fanning, Frances; Gokun, Yevgeniya

    2014-01-01

    Grocery vouchers that specifically target foods associated with reduced cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk result in increased consumption of those foods. In regions with disproportionately high CVD rates, there is little research concerning the impact of vouchers on purchases of risk-reducing foods when there are no restrictions placed on grocery voucher redemption. Since many food assistance programs place few restrictions on type of foods that can be purchased, identifying demographic factors associated with purchasing habits is a prerequisite to promoting healthy eating. The purpose of this study was to determine the associations of age, gender, education and income level with purchasing of healthful foods through the use of a grocery voucher in a rural food desert (poverty rate of ≥20% and ≥33% of residents living >16 km from a large grocery store) with high rates of chronic disease. The effectiveness of an intervention that included a media campaign, a $5 grocery voucher, local heart healthy food branding and a grocery store event was tested. Brief nutritional articles were published in both local newspapers during four consecutive weeks. These articles explained the physiological actions of healthy foods and listed a health-promoting recipe. During the fourth week of the media campaign, a voucher for a $5 grocery gift card redeemable at one of either community grocery stores was also printed in both local newspapers. In each store, foods that are known to be associated with a reduced risk of CVD were marked with a blue logo. Participants (N=311) completed a questionnaire that assessed demographics and usual servings of fruits, vegetables and grains. Participants received a $5 grocery card and a list of labelled foods. Returned grocery receipts were stapled to the questionnaires to analyse the relationship between demographics and food choices. Participants who bought at least one labelled food item were older (M=48.5, SD=14.7) than those who did not buy

  12. AGE AND GENDER PECULIARITIES OF DEVELOPMENT OF GALLSTONE DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Hohlacheva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Goal. Study of the role of risk factors in mechanized gall stone formation depending on sex and age of patients. Material and methods We examined 210 patients with stage I gallstone disease (GSD. In verification of diagnosis used an ultrasound study of the hepatobiliary system, multi-grade duodenal sounding with subsequent macroscopic, microscopic, chemical and physical examination of bile. In the portions “b” and “C” bile was determined the total concentration of bile acids, cholesterol, with the subsequent calculation it consists of cholesterol ratio. Estimation of surface tension of bile viscosity and bile. In the studied blood levels of total cholesterol, lipoproteins of very low density, lowdensity lipoproteins, high density lipoproteins, triglycerides, were determined the coefficient of atherogenicity. To assess the degree of accumulation of body fat was used the Quetelet index. Studied the relative risk of anamnestic risk factors of GSD. Results. The features of biliary lithogenesis based on gender and age of patients. High value PR for the gall stone formation are female gender — 3,16, Mature and elderly age (older than 50 of 3.67. In young women, gall-stone formation is mainly due to the increase of cholesterol level of bile, at the age of 50 years with a decline in zhelchnokamennaja pool, increased viscosity and surface tension of bile. The most important risk factors of cholecystolithiasis are also gender differences: if women is multiple pregnancies and (or childbirth (more than 3 — OR 4,62, overweight (BMI over 26 — OR is 4.57 and the violation of the principles of good nutrition (eating disorders, overeating or starvation, the use of large quantities of animal fats — OR 3,94, for men it’s physical inactivity — OR a 4.25, the increase in KA — PR 3.87 and burdened by GSD genetics — OR of 2.05. Conclusion. The data obtained can be used in the organization of dispensary work with patients with hepatobiliary

  13. Influence of vascular enhancement, age and gender on pulmonary perfused blood volume quantified by dual-energy-CTPA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meinel, Felix G., E-mail: felix.meinel@med.uni-muenchen.de; Graef, Anita, E-mail: anita.graef@med.uni-muenchen.de; Sommer, Wieland H., E-mail: wieland.sommer@uni-muenchen.de; Thierfelder, Kolja M., E-mail: kolja.thierfelder@uni-muenchen.de; Reiser, Maximilian F., E-mail: maximilian.reiser@med.uni-muenchen.de; Johnson, Thorsten R.C., E-mail: thorsten.johnson@med.uni-muenchen.de

    2013-09-15

    Objectives: To determine the influence of technical and demographic parameters on quantification of pulmonary perfused blood volume (PBV) in dual energy computed tomography pulmonary angiography (DE-CTPA). Materials and methods: Pulmonary PBV was quantified in 142 patients who underwent DE-CTPA for suspected pulmonary embolism but in whom no thoracic pathologies were detected. Multivariate linear regression analysis was performed to calculate the influence of age, gender, enhancement of pulmonary trunk and enhancement difference between pulmonary trunk and left atrium (as a measure of timing) on PBV values. The resulting regression coefficients were used to calculate age-specific ranges of normal for PBV values adjusted for vascular enhancement and timing. Results: Enhancement of the pulmonary trunk (β = −0.29, p = 0.001) and enhancement difference between pulmonary trunk and left atrium (β = −0.24, p = 0.003) were found to significantly influence PBV values. Age (β = −0.33, p < 0.001) but not gender (β = 0.14, p = 0.05) had a significant negative influence on pulmonary PBV values. There was a 20% relative decrease of pulmonary PBV from patients aged <30 to patients over 80 years of age. Conclusions: DE-CTPA derived PBV values need to be corrected for age, vascular enhancement and timing but not for gender. The age-specific ranges of normal derived from this study can be used as a reference in future studies of PBV in pulmonary pathologies.

  14. Patterns of Age Mixing and Gender Mixing among Children and Adolescents at an Ungraded School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Peter; Feldman, Jay

    1997-01-01

    Examined age and gender mixing among students, ages 4-19, at an ungraded, self-directed, democratically structured school. Found that age mixing was more frequent for 12- to 15-year-olds than for younger or older students, and that gender mixing was less frequent for 8- to 11-year-olds than for any other age group. (MDM)

  15. Emotional well-being in advanced old age: comparative study by age and gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Buz Delgado

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In very old age, emotional states become the most important reasonto maintain life satisfaction. In this study we examined the role of positive and negative emotions on the judgment of life satisfaction in advanced old age and the age and gender differences in a sample of 400 elderly people of Salamanca, aged between 75 and 104. The results show a higher frequency of positive emotions than negative, with the most frequent of the former being attentive,active and strong, and the less frequent ones being excited and inspired. Among the more frequent negative emotions are feeling jittery, nervous and alert, and the less frequent ones are feeling guilty, hostile and ashamed. In addition, there are differences in terms of both age (people aged between 75 and 84 are more active, enthusiastic and inspired and gender (very old women are more jittery, nervous, proud, afraid, scared and upset. Moreover, multiple regression analysis showed that remaining lively, happy, interested and alert to events is essential for maintaining the life satisfaction of people aged over 75. These results confirm that positive emotions are a potential resource for psychological esilience in advanced old age.

  16. Gender bias in the evaluation of new age music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colley, Ann; North, Adrian; Hargreaves, David J

    2003-04-01

    Eminent composers in Western European art music continue to be predominantly male and eminence in contemporary pop music is similarly male dominated. One contributing factor may be the continuing under-valuation of women's music. Possible anti-female bias in a contemporary genre was investigated using the Goldberg paradigm to elicit judgments of New Age compositions. Since stronger stereotyping effects occur when information provided about individuals is sparse, fictitious male and female composers were presented either by name only or by name with a brief biography. Evidence for anti-female bias was found in the name-only condition and was stronger when liking for the music was controlled. Other findings were the tendency for females to give higher ratings, and the association of gender differences in liking of the music with ratings of quality in the name-only condition. These results are relevant to the design of formal assessment procedures for musical composition.

  17. Some Insights about Gender Gaps in Matching Patterns by Age and Educational Attainment: a Case Study of Spanish Intermarriage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís García PEREIRO

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decades the socio-demographic dynamics have experienced dramatic changes in Spain. One of them is linked with the recent arrival of important flows of foreign population and the consequences that such arrival could have in changing those dynamics, particularly in the union formation patterns and the marriage market. So, the aim of this paper is to examine trends in matching patterns by age and educational attainment of Spanish intermarriage, highlighting gender gaps. The data is drawn from the Spanish Marriage Register and the Labor Force Survey. Results show that intermarriage is not gender neutral. There is a peculiar pattern among Spanish men/Foreign women couples: have a higher incidence and are more age and educational heterogamous.

  18. Influence of age, gender, and race on pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and safety of fesoterodine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, B K; Wood, N; Sachse, R

    2009-09-01

    elderly white women was 49, 48, and 54 ng/ml x h, respectively; mean Cmax in young white men, elderly white men, and elderly white women was 4.1, 3.8, and 4.6 ng/ml, respectively. Consistent with the anticholinergic pharmacology of fesoterodine, declines in salivary volume were observed in both studies, and elevations in residual urinary volume were observed, especially in elderly subjects, in Study 2. Fesoterodine was well tolerated, with common adverse events such as headache and dry mouth recognized as antimuscarinic class effects. Subject demographics, such as age, gender, and race, do not have a clinically meaningful effect on 5-HMT pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamics after single-dose administration of fesoterodine 8 mg; thus, no dosage adjustment is required for fesoterodine based on age, gender, or race.

  19. Rewriting age to overcome misaligned age and gender norms in later life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelock, Jeremiah C; Stokes, Jeffrey E; Moorman, Sara M

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we suggest that older adults undergo a misalignment between societal age norms and personal lived experience, and attempt reconciliation through discursive strategies: They rewrite how they frame chronological age as well as their subjective relations to it. Using a sample of 4041 midlife and older adults from the 2004-2006 wave of the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS II), we explore associations of age and gender with subjective age and at what age respondents felt people enter later life. Our results confirm that as men and women age, they push up the age at which they think people enter later life, and slow down subjective aging (there is a growing gap between subjective and chronological age). Relations between a person's age and at what age they think people enter later life were stronger for men than for women. For every year they get older get older, men push up when they think people enter later life by 0.24years, women by 0.16years. Age norms surrounding the transition to later life may be more prominent for men than for women, and the difference in their tendencies to push up when they mark entry into later life may be a reflection of this greater prominence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Demographics and Angiographic Findings in Patients under 35 Years of Age with Acute ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Abbasi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI is a major cause of cardiovascular mortality worldwide.There are differences between very young patients with STEMI and their older counterparts. This study investigates the demographics and clinical findings in very young patients with STEMI.Methods: Through a review of the angiography registry, 108 patients aged ≤ 35 years (Group I were compared with 5544 patients aged > 35 years (Group II who underwent coronary angiography after STEMI.Results: Group I patients were more likely to be male (92.6%, smokers, and have a family history of cardiovascular diseases (34.6%. The prevalence of diabetes, dyslipidemia, and hypertension was higher in the old patients. Triglyceride and hemoglobin were significantly higher in Group I. Normal coronary angiogram was reported in 18.5% of the young patients, and in 2.1% of the older patients. The prevalence of single-vessel and multi-vessel coronary artery disease was similar in the two groups (34.3% vs. 35.2%. The younger subjects were more commonly candidates for medical treatmentand percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI (84.2%, while coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG was considered for the 39.5% of their older counterparts.Conclusion: In the young adults with STEMI, male gender, smoking, family history, and high triglyceride level were moreoften observed. A considerable proportion of the young patients presented with multi-vessel coronary disease. PCI or medicaltreatment was the preferred treatment in the younger patients; in contrast to their older counterparts, in whom CABG was more commonly chosen for revascularization.

  1. Management of COPD, equal treatment across age, gender, and social situation? A register study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henoch I

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Ingela Henoch,1,2 Susann Strang,1,2 Claes-Göran Löfdahl,1,3 Ann Ekberg-Jansson1,4 1Angered Hospital, Research and Development Department, 2The Sahlgrenska Academy, Institute of Health and Care Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, 3University of Lund, Lund, 4Sahlgrenska Academy, Institute of Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden Abstract: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a progressive chronic disease where treatment decisions should be based on disease severity and also should be equally distributed across age, gender, and social situation. The aim of this study was to determine to what extent patients with COPD are offered evidence-based interventions and how the interventions are distributed across demographic and clinical factors in the sample. Baseline registrations of demographic, disease-related, and management-related variables of 7,810 patients in the Swedish National Airway Register are presented. One-third of the patients were current smokers. Patient-reported dyspnea and health-related quality of life were more deteriorated in elderly patients and patients living alone. Only 34% of currently smoking patients participated in the smoking cessation programs, and 22% of all patients were enrolled in any patient education program, with women taking part in them more than men. Less than 20% of the patients had any contact with physiotherapists or dieticians, with women having more contact than men. Men had more comorbidities than women, except for depression and osteoporosis. Women were more often given pharmacological treatments. With increasing severity of dyspnea, participation in patient education programs was more common. Dietician contact was more common in those with lower body mass index and more severe COPD stage. Both dietician contact and physiotherapist contact increased with deteriorated health-related quality of life, dyspnea, and increased exacerbation frequency. The present study

  2. The Effects of Age, Gender, and 4-H Involvement on Life Skill Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Bruce E.; Mincemoyer, Claudia C.; Perkins, Daniel F.

    2015-01-01

    The study reported here examined the effects of age, gender, and 4-H involvement in clubs on life skill development of youth ages eight to 18 over a 12-month period. Regression analyses found age, gender, and 4-H involvement significantly influenced life skill development. Results found that females have higher levels of competencies in life…

  3. The Effects of Age, Gender, and 4-H Involvement on Life Skill Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Bruce E.; Mincemoyer, Claudia C.; Perkins, Daniel F.

    2015-01-01

    The study reported here examined the effects of age, gender, and 4-H involvement in clubs on life skill development of youth ages eight to 18 over a 12-month period. Regression analyses found age, gender, and 4-H involvement significantly influenced life skill development. Results found that females have higher levels of competencies in life…

  4. Gender Concept Development and Preschool-Aged Children in the United States and Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerscheid, Jean D.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Tested the gender understanding of 31 American and 31 Egyptian children. American children had a higher mean score on gender identity than Egyptian children. Found significant positive relationships between subject's age and two gender constructs, identity and stability. (Author/BJV)

  5. Economic implications of Japan's aging population: a macro-economic demographic modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, N

    1982-01-01

    This paper utilizes a macroeconomic demographic model to analyze the probable impact of population aging on various public programs in Japan. Rapid fertility decline aided by mortality decline has caused the proportion of the Japanese population aged 65 and over to increase from 4.9% in 1950 to 9.0% in 1980. A population projection based on the 1975 population census assumes a recovery of fertility from a total fertility rate (TFR) of 1.9 in 1976 to 2.16 in 1980 and a gradual decline to 2.1 by 1987, while an alternative projection assumes a continuing fertility decline to a TFR of 1.65 in 2025. According to these assumptions, in 2025 18.12% to 21.29% of the total population would be aged 65 or over and 38.66% to 43.80% of the working age population would be aged 45-64. A macroeconomic neoclassical growth model with some Keynesian features was formulated to evaluate the future impact of population aging on social security programs. Population changes are transmitted to economic variables in the model through the supply of labor, level of savings, public health care plans, and old-age pension schemes. The simulation experiments included the 2 population projections and 2 alternative production functions, 1 with the quality of labor incorporated and 1 without. The results indicated that, regardless of the population projection and production function used, the growth of the economy is likely to slow to 1 or 0% in the beginning of the next century due to decreased growth of the labor force and a change in its quality due to age-compositional variations. Public health insurance schemes and pension plans will require increasing financial resources as a result of accelerated population aging; depending on the choice of benefit levels, the proportion of national income allocated to them is expected to range from 14%-40% in the year 2010. Per capita gross national product will continue to grow despite decreased economic growth, but savings might be adversely affected if the

  6. Prevalence, Demographic Characteristics and Associated Risk Factors of Malnutrition Among 0-5 Aged Children: A Cross-Sectional Study From Van, Eastern Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizilyildiz, Baran Serdar; Sönmez, Bülent; Karaman, Kamuran; Beger, Burhan; Mercen, Adnan; Alioglu, Süleyman; Cesur, Yasar

    2016-11-17

    Malnutrition in childhood is a dramatic indicator of poor socio-economical status worldwide. To recognize and reveal the socio-demographic features is crucial, especially for developing countries. Our aim was to investigate the prevalence and association with sociodemographic variables of malnutrition in 0-5 years old children in Van, Turkey. A total of 702 children are included in this cross-sectional study. Demographic features of subject including age, gender, family characteristics and other data were obtained. Nutritional assessment was done using anthropometric indices including weight-for-age, height-for-age, weight-for-height, head circumference and body mass index-for-age. Multivariate logistic regressions were carried out to assess malnutrition-associated factors. Prevalence of underweight, stunting and wasting were 19.7, 17.7 and 16.2%, respectively. Socio-demographic variables that statistical significantly in association with malnutrition were low monthly family income, educational level and employment status of father, parental consanguinity, number of pregnancies, regular intake of vitamin D and history of prematurity. The prevalence of children with head circumference-z score ≤2SD and body mass index-for-age ≤2SD were 9.8 and 16.3%, respectively. Multivariate analysis detected following risk factors for these indices; low monthly family income, history of prematurity, unemployed father and the period between pregnancies (1-2 years). We found that prevalence of malnutrition in the city of Van, was still higher than more developed regions of Turkey. The associated risk factors of malnutrition should be specifically interpreted by health professionals and also by government authorities that are responsible for making practical politics of public health.

  7. Prevalence, demographic characteristics and associated risk factors of malnutrition among 0-5 aged children: a cross-sectional study from Van, eastern Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baran Serdar Kizilyildiz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Malnutrition in childhood is a dramatic indicator of poor socio-economical status worldwide. To recognize and reveal the socio-demographic features is crucial, especially for developing countries. Our aim was to investigate the prevalence and association with sociodemographic variables of malnutrition in 0-5 years old children in Van, Turkey. A total of 702 children are included in this cross-sectional study. Demographic features of subject including age, gender, family characteristics and other data were obtained. Nutritional assessment was done using anthropometric indices including weight-for-age, height-for-age, weight-for-height, head circumference and body mass index-for-age. Multivariate logistic regressions were carried out to assess malnutrition- associated factors. Prevalence of underweight, stunting and wasting were 19.7, 17.7 and 16.2%, respectively. Socio-demographic variables that statistical significantly in association with malnutrition were low monthly family income, educational level and employment status of father, parental consanguinity, number of pregnancies, regular intake of vitamin D and history of prematurity. The prevalence of children with head circumference-z score ≤−2SD and body mass index-for-age ≤−2SD were 9.8 and 16.3%, respectively. Multivariate analysis detected following risk factors for these indices; low monthly family income, history of prematurity, unemployed father and the period between pregnancies (1- 2 years. We found that prevalence of malnutrition in the city of Van, was still higher than more developed regions of Turkey. The associated risk factors of malnutrition should be specifically interpreted by health professionals and also by government authorities that are responsible for making practical politics of public health.

  8. Impact of demographic ageing on sustainability of public finance in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdravković Aleksandar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Population ageing is a global phenomenon without precedent in the history of humanity having implications in all facets of life. From an economic point of view, population ageing is certainly one of the biggest challenges of modern time. A consequence of these global demographic tendencies reflected in growing number of pensioners which negatively affects sustainability of public pension systems financed by the principle of intergenerational solidarity (Pay-As-You-Go - widely represented in public pension schemes of European countries. In this paper, impact of demographic ageing on pension systems is analyzed in the context of sustainability of public finance in Serbia in the period 2010-2050. Although the comparative analysis of the pension expenditure share in gross domestic product (GDP does not point to significant differences between Serbia and the countries in the neighborhood and the European Union, the growth trend of subsidizing the Pension Fund from the government budget endangers medium-term sustainability of the public pension system in Serbia, bearing in mind that the implementation of measures proposed in pension reforms can be valorized only in the long run. The main objective of the analysis is projecting long-term pension expenditure as a share of GDP. The projections were formed indirectly by modeling the average pension expenditure, because this variable incorporates both growth in the total pension expenditure and growth in the number of pensioners as a result of demographic trends, and better reflects the actual growth of pension expenditure. For the purposes of the analysis, in addition to the projection of real GDP growth, size of the inactive population aged 65 and over, as the main contingent of the pension system users and the total number of pensioners, was projected by means of stochastic cohort component methodology. Based on these projections and assumptions about the growth rate of average pension expenditure

  9. Comparative Study of Human Age Estimation with or without Preclassification of Gender and Facial Expression

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Dat Tien; Cho, So Ra; Shin, Kwang Yong; Bang, Jae Won; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2014-01-01

    Age estimation has many useful applications, such as age-based face classification, finding lost children, surveillance monitoring, and face recognition invariant to age progression. Among many factors affecting age estimation accuracy, gender and facial expression can have negative effects. In our research, the effects of gender and facial expression on age estimation using support vector regression (SVR) method are investigated. Our research is novel in the following four ways. First, the a...

  10. Who theorizes age? The "socio-demographic variables" device and age-period-cohort analysis in the rhetoric of survey research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rughiniș, Cosima; Humă, Bogdana

    2015-12-01

    In this paper we argue that quantitative survey-based social research essentializes age, through specific rhetorical tools. We outline the device of 'socio-demographic variables' and we discuss its argumentative functions, looking at scientific survey-based analyses of adult scientific literacy, in the Public Understanding of Science research field. 'Socio-demographics' are virtually omnipresent in survey literature: they are, as a rule, used and discussed as bundles of independent variables, requiring little, if any, theoretical and measurement attention. 'Socio-demographics' are rhetorically effective through their common-sense richness of meaning and inferential power. We identify their main argumentation functions as 'structure building', 'pacification', and 'purification'. Socio-demographics are used to uphold causal vocabularies, supporting the transmutation of the descriptive statistical jargon of 'effects' and 'explained variance' into 'explanatory factors'. Age can also be studied statistically as a main variable of interest, through the age-period-cohort (APC) disambiguation technique. While this approach has generated interesting findings, it did not mitigate the reductionism that appears when treating age as a socio-demographic variable. By working with age as a 'socio-demographic variable', quantitative researchers convert it (inadvertently) into a quasi-biological feature, symmetrical, as regards analytical treatment, with pathogens in epidemiological research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Implementation of age and gender recognition system for intelligent digital signage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Heon; Sohn, Myoung-Kyu; Kim, Hyunduk

    2015-12-01

    Intelligent digital signage systems transmit customized advertising and information by analyzing users and customers, unlike existing system that presented advertising in the form of broadcast without regard to type of customers. Currently, development of intelligent digital signage system has been pushed forward vigorously. In this study, we designed a system capable of analyzing gender and age of customers based on image obtained from camera, although there are many different methods for analyzing customers. We conducted age and gender recognition experiments using public database. The age/gender recognition experiments were performed through histogram matching method by extracting Local binary patterns (LBP) features after facial area on input image was normalized. The results of experiment showed that gender recognition rate was as high as approximately 97% on average. Age recognition was conducted based on categorization into 5 age classes. Age recognition rates for women and men were about 67% and 68%, respectively when that conducted separately for different gender.

  12. Primary Teachers and ICT: Is gender, age or experience important?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Morley

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The research uses both qualitative and quantitative methodologies employing multiple sources of data collection. The data collection primarily used a questionnaire survey of primary schools in two English Local Authorities. The qualitative evidence of the teacher sample was through individual semi-structured interviews and a focus group interview of Local Authorities officers. There is an evidence trail which examines academic papers, HMI, QCA, Ofsted and DfES reports. The main findings from these reports indicate that teachers were becoming familiar with the use of computers. They understood the skills involved in using computers but were still uncertain as to a suitable pedagogy which made them lack confidence when using ICT in the classroom. Teachers’ major difficulty is finding time to keep pace or develop their ICT skills. The reports have a generic view of teachers, with no further analysis of gender, age or experience phenomena. The analysis of these variables concludes that teacher subject knowledge formed through teaching experience of the subject, informs teachers when computers aid teaching and learning.

  13. Oral health related to demographic features in Bosnian children aged six.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratbegović, Amra Arslanagić; Marković, Nina; Zukanović, Amila; Kobaslija, Sedin; Dragas, Mediha Selimović; Jurić, Hrvoje

    2010-09-01

    The main aim of this paper is to present epidemiological indicators of oral health among six-year olds in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BH) and to analyze values of dmft index and dental treatment needs in order to identify differences in parts of the country. Another aim is to identify the needs from the public oral health care system in Bosnia and Herzegovina related to early permanent dentition by analyzing the condition of first permanent molars (FPM) as an indicator of oral health of permanent dentition. Survey was carried out in 2004 in 8 cantons of the Federation of BH (FBH) and in the Republic of Srpska (RS). Final sample included 560 participants aged six (mean 6.2, SD +/- 0.87). One dental team clinically examined all participants according to WHO methodology and criteria. The parameters used were: dmft index, DMFT index of first permanent molars (FPM), presence of sealants and treatment needs. A questionnaire about oral health habits had been administered. Dmft was 6.71 in that the d-component constituted the major part of the index. DMFT index of FPM was 0.61 (SD +/- 1.08). Percentage of caries free participants aged 6 was 6.8%. Average number of FPM with fissure sealants in BH was 0.25 (SD +/- 0.78). Significant demographic differences in dmft index, DMFT FPM and treatment needs were identified. Most participants (48.5%) had their first dental visit between the ages of five and seven. National oral health goal for Bosnia and Herzegovina should be to develop and implement disease prevention programs based on education of both parents and dental practitioners. It is necessary to improve access to dental care and shift focus from curative to preventive procedures. It is also necessary to set real goals for improvement of oral health which can be achieved within a desired time frame, as well as to precisely define measures to be taken.

  14. Age and gender differences in the relation between self-concept facets and self-esteem

    OpenAIRE

    Arens, A. Katrin; Hasselhorn, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    This study tested whether the gender intensification hypothesis applies to relations between multiple domain-specific self-concept facets and self-esteem. This hypothesis predicts gender-stereotypic differences in these relations and assumes they intensify with age. Furthermore, knowledge about gender-related or age-related differences in self-concept-self-esteem relations might provide valuable knowledge for designing effective self-esteem enhancement interventions. We investigated grade and...

  15. Influence of age, gender, and prodromal symptoms on sudden death in a tertiary care hospital, eastern Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houssien Kamal Nofal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sudden death (SD remains an important worldwide public health problem. The incidence of SD and causes vary in different societies, and these differences are influenced also by demographic and clinical factors such as age, gender and prodromal symptoms and signs. This six-year study describes the influence of these factors on SD. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study of SD in all age groups undertaken in King Fahd Hospital of the University (KFHU, Eastern Saudi Arabia. All cases of death (1273 total, 1050 expected death and 223 cases of sudden unexpected death that occurred between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2005 were investigated and subsequently analyzed on demographic and clinical parameters of the deceased patients. The statistical analysis was performed as appropriate to illustrate any possible association between different demographic variables and SD. Results: There were 223 cases of SD (17.5% out of 1273 total deaths in KFHU in the 6-year study period. There was a definite influence of age on the incidence of sudden death (SD as it increased clearly at the two ends of the age spectrum, 32.2% of the cases were infants (from birth to 12 months, and 31.4% were elderly (> 60 year-old. However, among infantile age group, the highest frequency of SD (22.2% of the cases was among the neonates. There was also a significant trend of gender influence on the incidence of SD which was higher in men than women (56% vs. 42%. The influence of prodromal symptoms and signs on SD was variable. Dyspnea and cough as major symptoms of cardiovascular and respiratory disease were the most frequent presenting symptoms in 32.3% of the cases, followed by fever as a sign of infections in 11.7%, premature infants in 10.8%, circulatory collapse in 9.4%, and angina in 7.6% of the cases. Conclusion: The current study indicated a definite influence of age, gender and prodromal symptoms on the incidence of SD. The highest incidence

  16. Demographic features and premorbid personality disorder traits in relation to age of onset and sex in paranoid schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skokou, Maria; Gourzis, Philippos

    2014-03-30

    Personality disorders in the premorbid period of schizophrenia and particularly in relation to age of onset and sex, seem to be a rather under-researched area. In the present study, 88 patients with paranoid schizophrenia were examined, regarding demographic characteristics and premorbid personality disorder traits, in order to investigate for differences in the premorbid period of the disease, in relation to age of onset and sex. Age cutoff points were set at paranoid schizophrenia.

  17. Age and Gender Differences in Depression across Adolescence: Real or "Bias"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beek, Yolanda; Hessen, David J.; Hutteman, Roos; Verhulp, Esmee E.; van Leuven, Mirande

    2012-01-01

    Background: Since developmental psychologists are interested in explaining age and gender differences in depression across adolescence, it is important to investigate to what extent these observed differences can be attributed to measurement bias. Measurement bias may arise when the phenomenology of depression varies with age or gender, i.e., when…

  18. How Gender Influences the Effect of Age on Self-Efficacy and Training Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bausch, Sonja; Michel, Alexandra; Sonntag, Karlheinz

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown age and gender differences in training, but the results have been mixed and their combined influence is only rarely examined. We fill those gaps by analysing age and gender effects on self-efficacy and training success. Study participants were trainees in an e-learning time- and self-management behaviour modelling…

  19. Gender, age and circumstances analysis of flood and landslide fatalities in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvati, Paola; Petrucci, Olga; Rossi, Mauro; Bianchi, Cinzia; Pasqua, Aurora A; Guzzetti, Fausto

    2017-08-18

    Floods and landslides are frequent and destructive geo-hydrological hazards that cause harm to people every year. We analysed data on 1292 landslide and 771 flood fatalities that occurred in Italy in the 50-year period 1965-2014, to determine the dependence of the fatalities on gender and age and the circumstances of death by type of hazard. The multinomial probability mass function of the expected fatalities by gender and age, as reported by national census data, were estimated and compared with the observed landslide and flood fatalities. We identified the age categories over or under represented when the observed fatalities were respectively higher or lower than the modelled expected deaths. We found that in Italy males are more vulnerable to floods and landslides for most of the age categories. Apart from children, males are over-represented up to the age of 89 for floods and up to 79 for landslides, whereas females are under-represented up to the age of 59 for floods and landslides, and over-represented above 70 for floods and between 60 and 79 for landslides. To consider the demographic and socio-cultural changes over time, we performed a temporal analysis splitting the record into two non-overlapping subsets of 25year each. The analysis demonstrated that the over-representation of males compared to the females, both for landslide and flood is statistically significant and does not vary in time, indicating a different propensity towards the risk taking and a different degree of exposure between males and females. Analysis of the data allowed to identify the common circumstances of death. Landslides fatalities occurred frequently indoor, whereas the majority of the flood fatalities occurred outdoor, outlining the different dynamics of the hazards. Floods killed numerous people along roads and drivers or passengers travelling in vehicles. We expect that the results of this work will be helpful to design recommendations for self-protecting actions, and proactive

  20. The influence of age, gender and education on the performance of healthy individuals on a battery for assessing limb apraxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Mantovani-Nagaoka

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Apraxia is defined as a disorder of learned skilled movements, in the absence of elementary motor or sensory deficits and general cognitive impairment, such as inattention to commands, object-recognition deficits or poor oral comprehension. Limb apraxia has long been a challenge for clinical assessment and understanding and covers a wide spectrum of disorders, all involving motor cognition and the inability to perform previously learned actions. Demographic variables such as gender, age, and education can influence the performance of individuals on different neuropsychological tests. Objective: The present study aimed to evaluate the performance of healthy subjects on a limb apraxia battery and to determine the influence of gender, age, and education on the praxis skills assessed. Methods: Forty-four subjects underwent a limb apraxia battery, which was composed of numerous subtests for assessing both the semantic aspects of gestural production as well as motor performance itself. The tasks encompassed lexical-semantic aspects related to gestural production and motor activity in response to verbal commands and imitation. Results: We observed no gender effects on any of the subtests. Only the subtest involving visual recognition of transitive gestures showed a correlation between performance and age. However, we observed that education level influenced subject performance for all sub tests involving motor actions, and for most of these, moderate correlations were observed between education level and performance of the praxis tasks. Conclusion: We conclude that the education level of participants can have an important influence on the outcome of limb apraxia tests.

  1. Time Trends in Self-Rated Health and Disability in Older Spanish People: Differences by Gender and Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giron, Pedro

    2016-03-01

    To analyse time trends in self-rated health in older people by gender and age and examine disability in the time trends of self-rated health. The data used come from the Spanish National Health Surveys conducted in 2001, 2003, 2006 and 2011-12. Samples of adults aged 16 yr and older were selected. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the association between age, gender, socio-economic status, marital status, disability and self-rated health across period study. Women exhibited lower (higher) prevalence of good self-rated health (disability) compared to men. The multivariate analysis for time trends found that good self-rated health increased from 2001 to 2012. Overall, variables associated with a lower likelihood of good self-rated health were: being married or living with a partner, lower educational level, and disability. Trends of good self-rated health differ by gender according to socio-demographic factors and the prevalence of disability.

  2. ACCEPTABILITY EVALUATION FOR USING ICRP TISSUE WEIGHTING FACTORS TO CALCULATE EFFECTIVE DOSE VALUE FOR SEPARATE GENDER-AGE GROUPS OF RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Repin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An article describes radiation risk factors for several gender-age population groups according to Russian statistical and medical-demographic data, evaluates the lethality rate for separate nosologic forms of malignant neoplasms based on Russian cancer registries according to the method of the International Agency for Cancer Research. Relative damage factors are calculated for the gender-age groups under consideration. The tissue weighting factors recommended by ICRP to calculate effective doses are compared with relative damage factors calculated by ICRP for the nominal population and with similar factors calculated in this work for separate population cohorts in theRussian Federation. The significance of differences and the feasibility of using tissue weighting factors adapted for the Russian population in assessing population risks in cohorts of different gender-age compositions have been assessed.

  3. Age and gender might influence big five factors of personality: a preliminary report in Indian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magan, Dipti; Mehta, Manju; Sarvottam, Kumar; Yadav, Raj Kumar; Pandey, R M

    2014-01-01

    Age and gender are two important physiological variables which might influence the personality of an individual. The influence of age and gender on big five personality domains in Indian population was assessed in this cross-sectional study that included 155 subjects (female = 76, male = 79) aged from 16-75 years. Big five personality factors were evaluated using 60-item NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) at a single point in time. Among the big five factors of personality, Conscientiousness was positively correlated (r = 0.195; P personality traits might change with age, and is gender-dependent.

  4. Main effects and interactions of cerebral hemispheres, gender, and age in the calculation of volumes and asymmetries of selected structures of episodic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Carmona, Rocio; Garcia-Lazaro, Haydee Guadalupe; Dominguez-Corrales, Brenda; Aguilar-Castañeda, Erika; Roldan-Valadez, Ernesto

    The aim of this study was to clarify the influence of anatomical (cerebral hemisphere) and demographic (age and gender) variables on the gray matter (GM) volumes and volumetric asymmetry indices (VAIs) of selected structures involved in episodic memory. A cross-sectional study was performed in 47 healthy volunteers. Neuropsychological evaluation revealed similar IQs across the sample. Using SPM-based software, brain segmentation, labeling and volume measurements of the hippocampus, amygdala, middle temporal gyrus and parahippocampal gyrus were performed in each cerebral hemisphere. A two-way between-groups multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) was applied to GM volumes and VAIs. The main effects of gender and cerebral hemisphere on GM volumes were significant (p gender and cerebral hemisphere. VAI measurements showed a nonsignificant effect of gender, but a significant influence of age (p = .015). The linear model of interactions and main effects explained 33% of the variance influencing the GM volume quantification. While cerebral hemisphere and gender were found to affect the volumes of brain structures involved in episodic memory, the calculation of VAIs was affected only by age. A comprehensive understanding of the main effects and interaction effects of cerebral hemisphere, gender and age on the volumes and asymmetries of structures related to episodic memory might help neurologists, psychiatrists, geriatricians and other neuroscientists in the study of degenerative brain diseases.

  5. Main effects and interactions of cerebral hemispheres, gender, and age in the calculation of volumes and asymmetries of selected structures of episodic memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Carmona, Rocio; Garcia-Lazaro, Haydee Guadalupe; Dominguez-Corrales, Brenda; Aguilar-Castañeda, Erika; Roldan-Valadez, Ernesto

    2016-01-01

    Summary The aim of this study was to clarify the influence of anatomical (cerebral hemisphere) and demographic (age and gender) variables on the gray matter (GM) volumes and volumetric asymmetry indices (VAIs) of selected structures involved in episodic memory. A cross-sectional study was performed in 47 healthy volunteers. Neuropsychological evaluation revealed similar IQs across the sample. Using SPM-based software, brain segmentation, labeling and volume measurements of the hippocampus, amygdala, middle temporal gyrus and parahippocampal gyrus were performed in each cerebral hemisphere. A two-way between-groups multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) was applied to GM volumes and VAIs. The main effects of gender and cerebral hemisphere on GM volumes were significant (p < .001), while there was no significant interaction effect between gender and cerebral hemisphere. VAI measurements showed a non-significant effect of gender, but a significant influence of age (p = .015). The linear model of interactions and main effects explained 33% of the variance influencing the GM volume quantification. While cerebral hemisphere and gender were found to affect the volumes of brain structures involved in episodic memory, the calculation of VAIs was affected only by age. A comprehensive understanding of the main effects and interaction effects of cerebral hemisphere, gender and age on the volumes and asymmetries of structures related to episodic memory might help neurologists, psychiatrists, geriatricians and other neuroscientists in the study of degenerative brain diseases. PMID:28072386

  6. Gender stereotypes across the ages: On-line processing in school-age children, young and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siyanova-Chanturia, Anna; Warren, Paul; Pesciarelli, Francesca; Cacciari, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Most research to date on implicit gender stereotyping has been conducted with one age group - young adults. The mechanisms that underlie the on-line processing of stereotypical information in other age groups have received very little attention. This is the first study to investigate real time processing of gender stereotypes at different age levels. We investigated the activation of gender stereotypes in Italian in four groups of participants: third- and fifth-graders, young and older adults. Participants heard a noun that was stereotypically associated with masculine (preside "headmaster") or feminine roles (badante "social care worker"), followed by a male (padre "father") or female kinship term (madre "mother"). The task was to decide if the two words - the role noun and the kinship term - could describe the same person. Across all age groups, participants were significantly faster to respond, and significantly more likely to press 'yes,' when the gender of the target was congruent with the stereotypical gender use of the preceding prime. These findings suggest that information about the stereotypical gender associated with a role noun is incorporated into the mental representation of this word and is activated as soon as the word is heard. In addition, our results show differences between male and female participants of the various age groups, and between male- and female-oriented stereotypes, pointing to important gender asymmetries.

  7. SOCIO - DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILE OF OLD AGE PEOPLE LIVING IN URBAN & URBAN SLUM AREAS IN MAHARASHTRA, KARAD: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leena Rahul Salunkhe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available NTRODUCTION: Aging refers to normal, progressive and irreversible biological changes that occur over an individual’s life span. The advancement of medical science and increased awareness among the people has brought about a sharp decline in mortality and a steady decline in fertility. This has resulted in a worldwide shift in the demographic profile and has led to significant increase in the aged population. About two thirds of all older people are concentrated in the developing world. OBJECTIVES: to study & compare socio - demographic variables of old age people living in Urban & Urban slum areas. MATERIAL & METHODS: all the old age people living in urb a n slum area & rando mly selected one urban area of K arad town were interviewed by using pre structured proforma about socio - demographic variable & compared with each other. OBSERVATIONS: Total 153 from urban & 135 from urban slum were enrolled for the study. Nearly 2/3 rd subjects were above age 65yrs in both areas with more female proportions in slum area than urban area. Significant difference was found with education, occupation & socio - economic status in both areas. CONCLUSION: Ageing is a universal phenomenon, with advanced fertility control, improvement in health and social services life expectancy has increased. Ageing has profound effect on the individual status in the family, the work force, goals and organization of health, social services, policies and practices of the government

  8. Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grauer, Kit

    1996-01-01

    This publication focuses on the theme "Gender." Articles include: (1) "Sex! Violence! Death! Art Education for Boys" (Riita Vira; Finland); (2) "Pedagogy for a Gender Sensitive Art Practice" (Rita Irwin; Canada); (3) "Women's Conscientiousness of Gender in Art and Art Education in Brazil" (Ana Mae Barbosa; Brazil); (4) "Gender Issues in United…

  9. "It's your badge of inclusion": the Red Hat Society as a gendered subculture of aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Anne E; Pai, Manacy; Redmond, Rebecca

    2012-12-01

    Although studies document the health-enhancing effects of social engagement, they reveal little about the underlying mechanisms operating within specific organizational contexts. Limited attention is given to the role of inequality--particularly age and gender--in shaping either the organizations to which we belong or their consequences for our well-being. We address this issue by examining the Red Hat Society, a social organization for middle-aged and older women. Interviews with members (n=52) illustrate how age and gender inequality interact to shape the organization, which can be viewed as a gendered subculture of aging. Drawing on this framework, we discuss four processes through which participation generates benefits for older women involved in age- and gender-segregated organizations: enhancing social networks, countering invisibility, creating positive frames for aging experiences, and promoting youthful identities.

  10. Social physique anxiety and physical self-esteem: gender and age effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagger, Martin S; Stevenson, Andy

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the generalisability of the factor pattern, structural parameters, factor correlations and latent mean structure of social physique anxiety and physical self-esteem across gender, age and gender x age. The social physique anxiety scale and general physical self-esteem scale from the physical self-perception profile was administered to high school and university students aged 11-24 years (N = 2334). Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to test the adequacy of a two-factor correlated model in the full sample, and separately by gender, age and gender x age sub-samples. The CFA model satisfied criteria for goodness-of-fit with the data in all sub-samples, the only exception was for females aged 21 and over. Tests of invariance of the factor pattern, structural parameters and correlations across age, gender and age x gender revealed few decrements in goodness-of-fit. Latent means analysis revealed that females had consistently higher levels of social physique anxiety and lower levels of physical self-esteem than males, with the exception of the 11-12 age group. Results extend previous findings that females tend to report higher levels of social physique anxiety and lower levels of physical self-esteem than males by demonstrating that these differences are consistent across age group.

  11. Decline in lumbar extensor muscle strength the older adults: correlation with age, gender and spine morphology

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Devinder Kaur Ajit; Bailey, Martin; Lee, Raymond

    2013-01-01

    Background Muscle morphology, age and gender may be determinants of muscle strength in older adults. However, very few research studies have directly examined such correlation in the ageing spine. The aim of the study was to examine the correlation between lumbar extensor muscle strength, its muscle fibre angles, thoracolumbar curvature, age and gender in the older and younger adults. Methods Muscle fibre angles of lumbar extensor muscles, thoracolumbar curvature and lumbar extensor muscle st...

  12. Gender and age disparities in adult undernutrition in northern Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schramm, Stine; Kaducu, Felix Ocaka; Aas Smedemark, Siri

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of adult malnutrition and associated risk factors in a post-conflict area of northern Uganda. METHODS: A cross-sectional community survey was performed from September 2011 to June 2013. All registered residents in Gulu Health and Demographic Surveillance...

  13. The characteristics of social categorization based on the unidimensional variation of gender versus age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pei; Zhang, Qin; Liu, Yuting; Bai, He; Zhang, Kaili

    2017-02-01

    The present study explored the characteristics of social categorization based on the unidimensional variation of gender or age using the Garner's Selective Attention Paradigm. The task of the experiment was to judge whether there was a mole on a person's face, and the results showed that young participants' response times were slower when the age or gender of the face stimuli varied, demonstrating that young people, rather than older people, can activate both an age category and a gender category automatically. Meanwhile, all participants' responses to the old faces were slower than that to the young faces. Females reacted faster than males, demonstrating that females tend to have an advantage for face processing.

  14. Investigation of age and gender effects on positive orientation in Italian twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagnani, Corrado; Medda, Emanuela; Stazi, Maria A; Caprara, Gian V; Alessandri, Guido

    2014-12-01

    We investigated age and gender effects on "Positive Orientation" (POS)-an individual's tendency to view life with a positive outlook-using a genetically informed design. Study subjects were 1016 twins aged 22-75 from the Italian twin registry. We assessed POS by the recently developed P-scale. First, we used confirmatory factor analysis to investigate scale's measurement invariance by age and gender. Then, we applied biometric modelling to estimate genetic and environmental components of POS score. Overall, we found a satisfactory degree of measurement invariance by both age and gender. Results from these analyses further indicated an increasing mean level of POS across the lifespan. Additive genetic and unshared environmental factors explained respectively 58% and 42% of variance in POS score, with no significant gender differences; furthermore, the pattern of change of gene-environment architecture of POS over time was consistent with a greater plasticity of personality at older ages.

  15. The Effects of Age, Authority, and Gender on Perceptions of Statutory Rape Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahl, Daniel; Keene, Jennifer Reid

    2012-01-01

    Using a sample of 2,838 students from a Southwestern university in the United States, the authors examine the effect of respondent's gender, the adult's gender, the age gap between the adult and teen, and the adult's authority, on students' perceptions of vignettes describing adult-teen sexual relationships. Specifically, the authors investigate…

  16. The Effect of Gender and Age Differences on the Recognition of Emotions from Facial Expressions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneevogt, Daniela; Paggio, Patrizia

    2016-01-01

    subjects. We conduct an emotion recognition task followed by two stereotype question- naires with different genders and age groups. While recent findings (Krems et al., 2015) suggest that women are biased to see anger in neutral facial expressions posed by females, in our sample both genders assign higher...

  17. Age and Input in the Acquisition of Grammatical Gender in Dutch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unsworth, Sharon

    2008-01-01

    This article investigates the effect of age of first exposure and the quantity and quality of input to which non-native acquirers (L2ers) are exposed in their acquisition of grammatical gender in Dutch. Data from 103 English-speaking children, preteens and adults were analyzed for gender agreement on definite determiners. It was observed that…

  18. Media Representations of Bullying toward Queer Youth: Gender, Race, and Age Discrepancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paceley, Megan S.; Flynn, Karen

    2012-01-01

    In 2010, media coverage on the bullying of queer youth increased dramatically. This study examined online news media's portrayal of the gender, race, and age of bullying victims. Content analyses of ten sources were compared to research on the dynamics of sexuality-based bullying. Discrepancies were found for gender and race (with White males…

  19. Addiction treatment trials: how gender, race/ethnicity, and age relate to ongoing participation and retention in clinical trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korte JE

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Jeffrey E Korte1, Carmen L Rosa2, Paul G Wakim2, Harold I Perl21Division of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, 2Center for the Clinical Trials Network, National Institute on Drug Abuse, Bethesda, MD, USAIntroduction: Historically, racial and ethnic minority populations have been underrepresented in clinical research, and the recruitment and retention of women and ethnic minorities in clinical trials has been a significant challenge for investigators. The National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network (CTN conducts clinical trials in real-life settings and regularly monitors a number of variables critical to clinical trial implementation, including the retention and demographics of participants.Purpose: The examination of gender, race/ethnicity, and age group differences with respect to retention characteristics in CTN trials.Methods: Reports for 24 completed trials that recruited over 11,000 participants were reviewed, and associations of gender, race/ethnicity, and age group characteristics were examined along with the rate of treatment exposure, the proportion of follow-up assessments obtained, and the availability of primary outcome measure(s.Results: Analysis of the CTN data did not indicate statistical differences in retention across gender or race/ethnicity groups; however, retention rates increased for older participants.Conclusion: These results are based on a large sample of patients with substance use disorders recruited from a treatment-seeking population. The findings demonstrate that younger participants are less likely than older adults to be retained in clinical trials.Keywords: addiction treatment, age, ethnic minorities, gender difference, substance use disorders, race, recruitment, retention, clinical trials

  20. Biophysical properties of the human finger for touch comprehension: influences of ageing and gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djaghloul, M.; Thieulin, C.; Vargiolu, R.; Pailler-Mattei, C. ; Zahouani, H.

    2017-01-01

    The human finger plays an extremely important role in tactile perception, but little is known about how age and gender affect its biophysical properties and their role in tactile perception. We combined studies on contact characteristics, mechanical properties and surface topography to understand age and gender effects on the human finger. The values obtained regarding contact characteristics (i.e. adhesive force) were significantly higher for women than for men. As for mechanical properties (i.e. Young's modulus E), a significant and positive correlation with age was observed and found to be higher for women. A positive correlation was observed between age and the arithmetic mean of surface roughness for men. However, an inverse age effect was highlighted for women. The age and gender effects obtained have never been reported previously in the literature. These results open new perspectives for understanding the weakening of tactile perception across ages and how it differs between men and women. PMID:28878982

  1. Attitudes of Austrian veterinarians towards euthanasia in small animal practice: impacts of age and gender on views on euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartnack, Sonja; Springer, Svenja; Pittavino, Marta; Grimm, Herwig

    2016-02-04

    Euthanasia of pets has been described by veterinarians as "the best and the worst" of the profession. The most commonly mentioned ethical dilemmas veterinarians face in small animal practice are: limited treatment options due to financial constraints, euthanizing of healthy animals and owners wishing to continue treatment of terminally ill animals. The aim of the study was to gain insight into the attitudes of Austrian veterinarians towards euthanasia of small animals. This included assessing their agreement with euthanasia in exemplified case scenarios, potentially predicted by demographic variables (e.g. gender, age, working in small animal practice, employment, working in a team, numbers of performed euthanasia). Further describing the veterinarians' agreement with a number of different normative and descriptive statements, including coping strategies. A questionnaire with nine euthanasia scenarios, 26 normative and descriptive statements, and demographic data were sent to all members of the Austrian Chamber of Veterinary Surgeons (n = 2478). In total, 486 veterinarians answered sufficiently completely to enable analyses. Responses were first explored descriptively before being formally analysed using linear regression and additive Bayesian networks - a multivariate regression methodology - in order to identify joint relationships between the demographic variables, the statements and each of the nine euthanasia scenarios. Mutual dependencies between the demographic variables were found, i.e. female compared to male veterinarians worked mostly in small animal practice, and working mostly in small animal practice was linked to performing more euthanasia per month. Gender and age were found to be associated with views on euthanasia: female veterinarians and veterinarians having worked for less years were more likely to disagree with euthanasia in at least some of the convenience euthanasia scenarios. The number of veterinarians working together was found to be

  2. Age- and gender-related incisor changes in different vertical craniofacial relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linjawi, Amal I

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the age- and gender-related changes in upper and lower incisors' position and inclination in different vertical craniofacial relationships. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study on patients' records of age 8–48 years. The sample was divided based on Frankfort mandibular plane angle into three groups; normal, high, and low angle groups. It was then subdivided according to age. Upper and lower incisors' inclinations and positions were assessed from lateral cephalometric radiographs. Gender and age associations and effects size were calculated using two-way ANOVA tests. Significance level was set at P 0.05). All significant associations and effects were found in the low angle group only. A significant association was found between gender and upper incisor inclination (P < 0.05) with medium effect size (0.13 ≤ ηp2 < 0.26). An association is also found between age × gender interaction and upper incisor inclination and lower incisor position (P < 0.05) with large effect size (0.26 ≤ ηp2). Conclusion: Age- and gender-related upper and lower incisor changes were found to be significant in subjects with decreased vertical skeletal pattern only. The upper incisor inclination and the lower incisor position were the most affected variables with age and gender. PMID:27843888

  3. Motor Vehicle Occupant Death Rate, by Age and Gender, 2012 & 2014, All States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Rate of deaths by age/gender (per 100,000 population) for motor vehicle occupants killed in crashes, 2012 & 2014. 2012 Source: Fatality Analysis Reporting System...

  4. Motor Vehicle Occupant Death Rate, by Age and Gender, 2012 & 2014, Region 8 - Denver

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Rate of deaths by age/gender (per 100,000 population) for motor vehicle occupants killed in crashes, 2012 & 2014. 2012 Source: Fatality Analysis Reporting System...

  5. Motor Vehicle Occupant Death Rate, by Age and Gender, 2012 & 2014, Region 4 - Atlanta

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Rate of deaths by age/gender (per 100,000 population) for motor vehicle occupants killed in crashes, 2012 & 2014. 2012 Source: Fatality Analysis Reporting System...

  6. Motor Vehicle Occupant Death Rate, by Age and Gender, 2012 & 2014, Region 6 - Dallas

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Rate of deaths by age/gender (per 100,000 population) for motor vehicle occupants killed in crashes, 2012 & 2014. 2012 Source: Fatality Analysis Reporting System...

  7. Motor Vehicle Occupant Death Rate, by Age and Gender, 2012 & 2014, Region 3 - Philadelphia

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Rate of deaths by age/gender (per 100,000 population) for motor vehicle occupants killed in crashes, 2012 & 2014. 2012 Source: Fatality Analysis Reporting System...

  8. Motor Vehicle Occupant Death Rate, by Age and Gender, 2012 & 2014, HHS Region 1 - Boston

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Rate of deaths by age/gender (per 100,000 population) for motor vehicle occupants killed in crashes, 2012 & 2014. 2012 Source: Fatality Analysis Reporting System...

  9. Motor Vehicle Occupant Death Rate, by Age and Gender, 2012 & 2014, Region 5 - Chicago

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Rate of deaths by age/gender (per 100,000 population) for motor vehicle occupants killed in crashes, 2012 & 2014. 2012 Source: Fatality Analysis Reporting System...

  10. Motor Vehicle Occupant Death Rate, by Age and Gender, 2012 & 2014, Region 2 - New York

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Rate of deaths by age/gender (per 100,000 population) for motor vehicle occupants killed in crashes, 2012 & 2014. 2012 Source: Fatality Analysis Reporting System...

  11. Motor Vehicle Occupant Death Rate, by Age and Gender, 2012 & 2014, Region 7 - Kansas City

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Rate of deaths by age/gender (per 100,000 population) for motor vehicle occupants killed in crashes, 2012 & 2014. 2012 Source: Fatality Analysis Reporting System...

  12. Impaired Driving Death Rate, by Age and Gender, 2012 & 2014, Region 5 - Chicago

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Rate of deaths by age/gender (per 100,000 population) for people killed in crashes involving a driver with BAC =>0.08%, 2012, 2014. 2012 Source: Fatality Analysis...

  13. Motor Vehicle Occupant Death Rate, by Age and Gender, 2012 & 2014, Region 9 - San Francisco

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Rate of deaths by age/gender (per 100,000 population) for motor vehicle occupants killed in crashes, 2012 & 2014. 2012 Source: Fatality Analysis Reporting System...

  14. Impaired Driving Death Rate, by Age and Gender, 2012 & 2014, Region 7 - Kansas City

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Rate of deaths by age/gender (per 100,000 population) for people killed in crashes involving a driver with BAC =>0.08%, 2012, 2014. 2012 Source: Fatality Analysis...

  15. Exploiting quality and texture features to estimate age and gender from fingerprints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marasco, Emanuela; Lugini, Luca; Cukic, Bojan

    2014-05-01

    Age and gender of an individual, when available, can contribute to identification decisions provided by primary biometrics and help improve matching performance. In this paper, we propose a system which automatically infers age and gender from the fingerprint image. Current approaches for predicting age and gender generally exploit features such as ridge count, and white lines count that are manually extracted. Existing automated approaches have significant limitations in accuracy especially when dealing with data pertaining to elderly females. The model proposed in this paper exploits image quality features synthesized from 40 different frequency bands, and image texture properties captured using the Local Binary Pattern (LBP) and the Local Phase Quantization (LPQ) operators. We evaluate the performance of the proposed approach using fingerprint images collected from 500 users with an optical sensor. The approach achieves prediction accuracy of 89.1% for age and 88.7% for gender.

  16. gender, age and religion as determinants of eating habit of youth in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elizabeth

    The study examined the influence of Age, Gender and Religion on eating habit of youth. It made use of ... In a research conducted in some selected countries in Europe, those who ..... Holstein B. (2002) Socio-economic inequality and health.

  17. Impaired Driving Death Rate, by Age and Gender, 2012 & 2014, Region 4 - Atlanta

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Rate of deaths by age/gender (per 100,000 population) for people killed in crashes involving a driver with BAC =>0.08%, 2012, 2014. 2012 Source: Fatality Analysis...

  18. Impaired Driving Death Rate, by Age and Gender, 2012 & 2014, Region 2 - New York

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Rate of deaths by age/gender (per 100,000 population) for people killed in crashes involving a driver with BAC =>0.08%, 2012, 2014. 2012 Source: Fatality Analysis...

  19. Impaired Driving Death Rate, by Age and Gender, 2012 & 2014, Region 10 - Seattle

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Rate of deaths by age/gender (per 100,000 population) for people killed in crashes involving a driver with BAC =>0.08%, 2012, 2014. 2012 Source: Fatality Analysis...

  20. Impaired Driving Death Rate, by Age and Gender, 2012 & 2014, All States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Rate of deaths by age/gender (per 100,000 population) for people killed in crashes involving a driver with BAC =>0.08%, 2012. 2012 Source: Fatality Analysis...

  1. Impaired Driving Death Rate, by Age and Gender, 2012 & 2014, Region 3 - Philadelphia

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Rate of deaths by age/gender (per 100,000 population) for people killed in crashes involving a driver with BAC =>0.08%, 2012, 2014. 2012 Source: Fatality Analysis...

  2. Impaired Driving Death Rate, by Age and Gender, 2012 & 2014, Region 8 - Denver

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Rate of deaths by age/gender (per 100,000 population) for people killed in crashes involving a driver with BAC =>0.08%, 2012, 2014. 2012 Source: Fatality Analysis...

  3. Impaired Driving Death Rate, by Age and Gender, 2012 & 2014, Region 1 - Boston

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Rate of deaths by age/gender (per 100,000 population) for people killed in crashes involving a driver with BAC =>0.08%, 2012, 2014. 2012 Source: Fatality Analysis...

  4. Impaired Driving Death Rate, by Age and Gender, 2012 & 2014, Region 6 - Dallas

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Rate of deaths by age/gender (per 100,000 population) for people killed in crashes involving a driver with BAC =>0.08%, 2012, 2014. 2012 Source: Fatality Analysis...

  5. Motor Vehicle Occupant Death Rate, by Age and Gender, 2012 & 2014, Region 10 - Seattle

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Rate of deaths by age/gender (per 100,000 population) for motor vehicle occupants killed in crashes, 2012 & 2014. 2012 Source: Fatality Analysis Reporting System...

  6. Impaired Driving Death Rate, by Age and Gender, 2012 & 2014, Region 9 - San Francisco

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Rate of deaths by age/gender (per 100,000 population) for people killed in crashes involving a driver with BAC =>0.08%, 2012, 2014. 2012 Source: Fatality Analysis...

  7. Differences in oral sexual behaviors by gender, age, and race explain observed differences in prevalence of oral human papillomavirus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gypsyamber D'Souza

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: This study explores whether gender, age and race differences in oral sexual behavior account for the demographic distribution of oral human papillomavirus infection (HPV and HPV-positive oropharyngeal cancer (HPV-OSCC. METHODS: This analysis included 2,116 men and 2,140 women from NHANES (2009-10 who answered a behavioral questionnaire and provided an oral-rinse sample for HPV detection. Weighted prevalence estimates and prevalence ratios (PR were calculated for sexual behaviors and oral HPV infection by gender, age-cohort (20-29, 30-44, 45-59, 60-69, and race, and contrasted with incidence rate ratios (IRR of OSCC from SEER 2009. Multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate predictors of oral sexual behavior and oral HPV16 infection. RESULTS: Differences in oral sexual behavior were observed by gender, age-cohort and race. Most men (85.4% and women (83.2% had ever performed oral sex, but men had more lifetime oral and vaginal sexual partners and higher oral HPV16 prevalence than women (each p<0.001. 60-69 year olds (yo were less likely than 45-59 or 30-44 (yo to have performed oral sex (72.7%, 84.8%, and 90.3%, p<0.001, although oral HPV16 prevalence was similar. Prevalence ratios (PR of ever oral sex in men vs. women (PR = 1.03, and 45-59 vs. 30-44 year-old men (PR = 0.96 were modest relative to ratios for oral HPV16 infection (PRs = 1.3-6.8 and OSCC (IRR = 4.7-8.1. In multivariate analysis, gender, age-cohort, and race were significant predictors of oral sexual behavior. Oral sexual behavior was the primary predictor of oral HPV16 infection; once this behavior was adjusted for, age-cohort and race were no longer associated with oral HPV16. CONCLUSION: There are differences in oral sexual behaviors when considering gender, age-cohort and race which explain observed epidemiologic differences in oral HPV16 infection across these groups.

  8. Leveraging age diversity in times of demographic change: the crucial role of leadership

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janz, K.; Buengeler, C.; Eckhoff, R.A.; Homan, A.C.; Voelpel, S.C.; Scott, C.L.; Byrd, M.Y.

    2012-01-01

    With demographic change, organizations today are seeing changes in societal make-up translated to the composition of their workforce. In the future, younger and older employees will have to work together synergistically to achieve good performance. The authors argue that it will be largely up to lea

  9. Leveraging age diversity in times of demographic change: the crucial role of leadership

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janz, K.; Buengeler, C.; Eckhoff, R.A.; Homan, A.C.; Voelpel, S.C.; Scott, C.L.; Byrd, M.Y.

    2012-01-01

    With demographic change, organizations today are seeing changes in societal make-up translated to the composition of their workforce. In the future, younger and older employees will have to work together synergistically to achieve good performance. The authors argue that it will be largely up to

  10. Demographic Change across the Globe: Maintaining Social Security in Ageing Economies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, M.; Groot, L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the fiscal pressure from demographic change in relation to the labor market space for fifty countries that cover 75% of the world population. The pressure-to-space indicator ranks Poland, Turkey and Greece high. Apart from Turkey and India, developing countries rank low due t

  11. DOES AGE AND GENDER INFLUENCE THE DURATION OF UNEMPLOYMENT FOR ISCED 5 UNEMPLOYED PERSONS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela-Emanuela Dănăcică

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the impact of age and gender for the duration of unemployment for the ISCED 5 subjects registered as unemployed on the labor market of Gorj County. The obtained results show that age has a significant negative impact for the duration of unemployment, while gender doesn’t have a significant impact for the duration of unemployment of analyzed ISCED 5 subjects.

  12. DOES AGE AND GENDER INFLUENCE THE DURATION OF UNEMPLOYMENT FOR ISCED 5 UNEMPLOYED PERSONS?

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela-Emanuela Dănăcică; ANA-GABRIELA BABUCEA; Doru Cîrnu

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the impact of age and gender for the duration of unemployment for the ISCED 5 subjects registered as unemployed on the labor market of Gorj County. The obtained results show that age has a significant negative impact for the duration of unemployment, while gender doesn’t have a significant impact for the duration of unemployment of analyzed ISCED 5 subjects.

  13. [The new aging society: demographic transition and its effects on old-age insurance and care of the elderly in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, T; Flöthmann, E-J

    2013-07-01

    In China, fundamental changes in population development have occurred during the past 50 years. The demographic transition in China required only a few years, while in most European countries this process took several decades. The fertility and mortality rates have declined very quickly, like in Japan and South Korea. China is one of the countries that has passed through the transition process the quickest. In the following article, this development is considered in more detail. Even if the fertility and mortality rates should stabilize at a new low level, which today certainly cannot be conclusively stated, the age effects will persist for the next few decades. The demographic aging during recent years will increase enormously in the coming decades. This development leads to far-reaching social and political challenges. The demographic aging in China is associated with a loss of function of the family. Both developments have a strong impact on the old-age insurance and on old-age care. Only a few years ago did politics and society start to respond with comprehensive reforms. For example, a modern pension system was introduced, but only in urban areas of China. Rural populations are still waiting for such reforms even today. Currently, there is a pilot project to gain experience with a pension system for the entire population. In contrast to the old-age insurance, in China there is very little public interest in old-age care because the elderly have until now been only a matter for the family. In the near future, the changing role of family and demographic aging will require a greater discussion about the care of older people in China.

  14. Outpatient antibiotic prescription in Aragon and the differences by gender and age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jesus Lallana-Alvarez, M.; Feja-Solana, Cristina; Armesto-Gomez, Javier

    2012-01-01

    between different age groups and between genders. Children (0-4 years) had the highest rate. Females, in general, used antibiotics more than males. Penicillins was the most used antibacterial group in all age groups, except for people of advanced age (>80 years), where quinolones were the most frequently...

  15. An Investigation of Gender and Age Differences in Academic Motivation and Classroom Behaviour in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugler, Myfanwy; McGeown, Sarah; St. Clair-Thompson, Helen

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated gender- and age-related differences in academic motivation and classroom behaviour in adolescents. Eight hundred and fifty-five students (415 girls and 440 boys) aged 11-16 ("M" age = 13.96, "SD" = 1.47) filled in a questionnaire that examined student academic motivation and teachers completed a…

  16. Variability in neurocognitive performance: Age, gender, and school-related differences in children and from ages 6 to 12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochhann, Renata; Gonçalves, Hosana Alves; Pureza, Janice da Rosa; Viapiana, Vanisa Fante; Fonseca, Flavia Dos Passos; Salles, Jerusa Fumagali; Fonseca, Rochele Paz

    2017-04-20

    Cognitive development in children presents peculiarities according to groups of age, gender, and type of school. Few studies have been investigating the effects of all these factors. The aim of this study was to investigate the main effects and the interactions of age, gender, and type of school in 419 children from ages 6 to 12 years old evaluated by the Child Brief Neuropsychological Assessment Battery (NEUPSILIN-Inf). Older children, children in private schools and girls presented better results. Interactions between all three independent variables were observed in different cognitive domains. The results highlight both the heterogeneity and the influence of multiple factors in children's neuropsychological development.

  17. The Brief Repeatable Battery: psychometrics and normative values with age, education and gender corrections in a Serbian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obradovic, D; Petrovic, M; Antanasijevic, I; Marinkovic, J; Stojanovic, T; Obradovic, S

    2012-12-01

    Cognitive impairment is present in up to 65 % of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. The Brief Repeatable Battery of neuropsychological tests (BRB) is one of the most used neuropsychological tools for cognitive assessment in MS. However, relative lack of normative data limits its application in research and clinical practice. In order to obtain normative data for a Serbian population, we administered the BRB version A to 140 healthy subjects and assessed the influence of demographic factors such as gender, age, and education on the tests' scores. We also calculated corrections for these factors. Higher education was associated with better performance on all the tests. Age influenced all the tests, except the word list generation, higher age being associated with worse performance on all other tests. Women performed worse on the paced auditory serial addition test 2, no other gender differences were observed. Our data obtained for the Serbian population could further improve use of the BRB in clinical practice and for the research purposes, establishing cognitive evaluation as a part of standard neurological examination of MS patients.

  18. Age and Gender Differences in Relationships Among Emotion Regulation, Mood, and Mental Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouhei Masumoto PhD

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We investigated the effects of age on mood and mental health-mediated emotion regulation, such as cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression, and examined whether these relationships differ according to gender. Method: We recruited 936 Japanese participants. They comprised six age groups ranging from 20 to 70 years old, with 156 participants in each age group and equal numbers of men and women. Results: Structural equation model analysis showed that older participants were more likely to use cognitive reappraisal, further enhancing positive mood and reducing negative mood, whereas, age did not affect expressive suppression. Moreover, expressive suppression had a smaller impact on mood than cognitive reappraisal. A multi-group analysis showed significant gender differences. In men, cognitive reappraisal increased with age and influenced mood more positively than in women. Discussion: Our findings indicated gender differences in aging effects on emotion regulation. We discussed about these results from the cognitive process, motivation to emotion regulation, and cultural differences.

  19. Relationship with some socio-demographic characteristics and traditional beliefs, practices about forecast and determination of baby gender during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nülüfer Erbil

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was done to determine effects on health and traditional beliefs and practices of women about forecast and determination of baby gender during pregnancy.Material and Methods: The population of this descriptive and cross-sectional study was consisted of the women consulting to gynecology and obstetric policlinic of Gynecology-Maternity and Children Diseases Hospital in Ordu The 213 pregnant who accepted to take part in the study constituted the sample of the study. The research was conducted between 1 October and 31 December 2005. The research data were collected via a questionnaire. The analysis of the data was done with frequency, percentage, arithmetic mean, standard deviation, chi-square test, Pearson correlation analysis test.Findings: It was determined that 16.1% of women had traditional beliefs and practices about forecast and determination of baby gender during pregnancy, 34.0% of them used traditional methods during pregnancy. It was determined that 27.8% of them believed "partially" and 0.5% "most certainly" to traditional practices. These practices were seen "correct" and "effective" by women. It was established that 23.0% of women practiced "scissors-knife" method, 14.1% of them "ring" method for forecast of baby gender. It was determined that 4.2% of women had been read "praying by hodja" and 3.8% of them ate "bitter and sour" for determination of preferred fetal gender during pregnancy. It was found that four of women had health problems because they used traditional practices.Conclusion: In current, women continue traditional beliefs and practices about forecast and determination of baby gender during pregnancy. Some of traditional beliefs and practices adversely may affect both themselves and their baby in pregnancy. The health persons who in antenatal and postnatal care services should be evaluated about traditional beliefs and practices of women.

  20. Maternal morbidity and near miss associated with maternal age: the innovative approach of the 2006 Brazilian demographic health survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando César de Oliveira Jr

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study the prevalence of potentially life-threatening maternal conditions and near miss in Brazil according to maternal age. METHODS: A secondary analysis of the 2006 Brazilian demographic health survey database using a validated questionnaire to evaluate maternal morbidity with a focus on age extremes. The study included 5,025 women with at least 1 live birth in the 5-year reference period preceding their interviews. Three age range periods were used: 15-19 years (younger age, 20-34 years (control, and 35-49 years (advanced maternal age. According to a pragmatic definition, any woman reporting eclampsia, hysterectomy, blood transfusion, or admission to the intensive care unit during her pregnancy/childbirth was considered a near-miss case. The associations between age and severe maternal morbidity were further assessed. RESULTS: For the 6,833 reported pregnancies, 73.7% of the women were 20-34 years old, 17.9% were of advanced maternal age, and only 8.4% were of younger age. More than 22% of the women had at least one of the complications appraised, and blood transfusion, which was more prevalent among the controls, was the only variable with a significant difference among the age groups. The overall rate of maternal near miss was 21.1 per 1000 live births. There was a trend of higher maternal near miss with increasing age. The only significant risk factor identified for maternal near miss was a lower literacy level among older women. CONCLUSIONS: There is a trend towards worse results with increasing age. The investigation of the determinants of maternal near miss at the community level using an innovative approach through a demographic health survey is an example suggested for under-resourced settings.

  1. Pentosidine accumulates in the aging vitreous body: a gender effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Deemter, M.; Ponsioen, T.L.; Bank, R.A.; Snabel, J.M.M.; van der Worp, R.J.; Hooymans, J.M.M.; Los, L.I.

    2009-01-01

    The human vitreous body undergoes structural changes with aging. This can be followed by a posterior vitreous detachment, which can result in ocular pathology. As in many collagenous tissues, age-related changes in the vitreous could be caused by the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGE

  2. Pentosidine accumulates in the aging vitreous body : A gender effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Deemter, M.; Ponsioen, T. L.; Bank, R. A.; Snabel, J. M. M.; van der Worp, R. J.; Hooymans, J. M. M.; Los, L. I.

    2009-01-01

    The human vitreous body undergoes structural changes with aging. This can be followed by a posterior vitreous detachment, which can result in ocular pathology. As in many collagenous tissues, age-related changes in the vitreous could be caused by the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGE

  3. Pentosidine accumulates in the aging vitreous body: A gender effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deemter, M. van; Ponsioen, T.L.; Bank, R.A.; Snabel, J.M.M.; Worp, R.J. van der; Hooymans, J.M.M.; Los, L.I.

    2009-01-01

    The human vitreous body undergoes structural changes with aging. This can be followed by a posterior vitreous detachment, which can result in ocular pathology. As in many collagenous tissues, age-related changes in the vitreous could be caused by the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGE

  4. Older women and sexuality: Narratives of gender, age, and living environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jen, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Little research has explored the intersection of aging and sexuality. This qualitative study is informed by a life course approach and narrative gerontology methods. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 13 women age 55 and older to explore the effects of gender, aging, and living environment on past and current sexual experiences. Subthemes from each major theme are discussed, including: (a) messages about and perceived effects of gender, (b) perceived effects of aging, and (c) perceived effects of living environment. Findings support the use of dynamical systems theory to study women's sexual experiences.

  5. A Study of Age Demographics across the Aviation and Missile Materiel Enterprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-31

    future Aviation and Missile ME may look like. The Defense Civilian Personnel Data System (DCPDS) Human Resource managers across the Aviation and...Missile ME use the Defense Civilian Personnel Data System (DCPDS) as the warehouse for storing employee information. Each of the five organizations...Aviation and Missile Life Cycle Management Command Public Affairs, 25 April 2016 AVIATION AND MISSILE MATERIEL ENTERPRISE DEMOGRAPHICS 2

  6. Let me guess how old you are: effects of age, gender, and facial expression on perceptions of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelkle, Manuel C; Ebner, Natalie C; Lindenberger, Ulman; Riediger, Michaela

    2012-06-01

    Perceptions of age influence how we evaluate, approach, and interact with other people. Based on a paramorphic human judgment model, the present study investigates possible determinants of accuracy and bias in age estimation across the adult life span. For this purpose, 154 young, middle-aged, and older participants of both genders estimated the age of 171 faces of young, middle-aged, and older men and women, portrayed on a total of 2,052 photographs. Each face displayed either an angry, fearful, disgusted, happy, sad, or neutral expression (FACES database; Ebner, Riediger, & Lindenberger, 2010). We found that age estimation ability decreased with age. Older and young adults, however, were more accurate and less biased in estimating the age of members of their own as compared with those of the other age group. In contrast, no reliable own-gender advantage was observed. Generally, the age of older faces was more difficult to estimate than the age of younger faces. Furthermore, facial expressions had a substantial impact on accuracy and bias of age estimation. Relative to other facial expressions, the age of neutral faces was estimated most accurately, while the age of faces displaying happy expressions was most likely underestimated. Results are discussed in terms of methodological and practical implications for research on age estimation.

  7. Testing three evolutionary models of the demographic transition: Patterns of fertility and age at marriage in urban South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenk, Mary K

    2009-01-01

    Over the last three decades many authors have addressed the demographic transition from the perspective of evolutionary theory. Some authors have emphasized parental investment factors such as the costs of raising children, others have emphasized the effects of mortality and other forms of risk, and others have emphasized the biased transmission of cultural norms from people of high status. Yet the literature says little about the relative strengths of each of these types of motivations or about which ones are more likely to serve as the primary impetus for large-scale demographic change. In this paper, I examine how each of these factors has influenced the demographic transition in urban South India during the course of the 20th century using two measures of fertility transition: number of surviving children and age at marriage. I find that investment-related, risk-related, and cultural transmission predictors all have significant individual effects on the outcome variables, which persist when they are entered in combination. When the three types of predictors are compared, however, investment-related models appear to provide more robust explanations for patterns in both fertility and age of marriage. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Comparative Study of Human Age Estimation with or without Preclassification of Gender and Facial Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dat Tien Nguyen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Age estimation has many useful applications, such as age-based face classification, finding lost children, surveillance monitoring, and face recognition invariant to age progression. Among many factors affecting age estimation accuracy, gender and facial expression can have negative effects. In our research, the effects of gender and facial expression on age estimation using support vector regression (SVR method are investigated. Our research is novel in the following four ways. First, the accuracies of age estimation using a single-level local binary pattern (LBP and a multilevel LBP (MLBP are compared, and MLBP shows better performance as an extractor of texture features globally. Second, we compare the accuracies of age estimation using global features extracted by MLBP, local features extracted by Gabor filtering, and the combination of the two methods. Results show that the third approach is the most accurate. Third, the accuracies of age estimation with and without preclassification of facial expression are compared and analyzed. Fourth, those with and without preclassification of gender are compared and analyzed. The experimental results show the effectiveness of gender preclassification in age estimation.

  9. Comparative study of human age estimation with or without preclassification of gender and facial expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Dat Tien; Cho, So Ra; Shin, Kwang Yong; Bang, Jae Won; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2014-01-01

    Age estimation has many useful applications, such as age-based face classification, finding lost children, surveillance monitoring, and face recognition invariant to age progression. Among many factors affecting age estimation accuracy, gender and facial expression can have negative effects. In our research, the effects of gender and facial expression on age estimation using support vector regression (SVR) method are investigated. Our research is novel in the following four ways. First, the accuracies of age estimation using a single-level local binary pattern (LBP) and a multilevel LBP (MLBP) are compared, and MLBP shows better performance as an extractor of texture features globally. Second, we compare the accuracies of age estimation using global features extracted by MLBP, local features extracted by Gabor filtering, and the combination of the two methods. Results show that the third approach is the most accurate. Third, the accuracies of age estimation with and without preclassification of facial expression are compared and analyzed. Fourth, those with and without preclassification of gender are compared and analyzed. The experimental results show the effectiveness of gender preclassification in age estimation.

  10. Sexual orientation disparities in adolescent cigarette smoking: intersections with race/ethnicity, gender, and age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corliss, Heather L; Rosario, Margaret; Birkett, Michelle A; Newcomb, Michael E; Buchting, Francisco O; Matthews, Alicia K

    2014-06-01

    We examined sexual orientation differences in adolescent smoking and intersections with race/ethnicity, gender, and age. We pooled Youth Risk Behavior Survey data collected in 2005 and 2007 from 14 jurisdictions; the analytic sample comprised observations from 13 of those jurisdictions (n = 64,397). We compared smoking behaviors of sexual minorities and heterosexuals on 2 dimensions of sexual orientation: identity (heterosexual, gay-lesbian, bisexual, unsure) and gender of lifetime sexual partners (only opposite sex, only same sex, or both sexes). Multivariable regressions examined whether race/ethnicity, gender, and age modified sexual orientation differences in smoking. Sexual minorities smoked more than heterosexuals. Disparities varied by sexual orientation dimension: they were larger when we compared adolescents by identity rather than gender of sexual partners. In some instances race/ethnicity, gender, and age modified smoking disparities: Black lesbians-gays, Asian American and Pacific Islander lesbians-gays and bisexuals, younger bisexuals, and bisexual girls had greater risk. Sexual orientation, race/ethnicity, gender, and age should be considered in research and practice to better understand and reduce disparities in adolescent smoking.

  11. Survey of independent inventors: An overview. [Includes information on demographics, gender, ethnicity, education, income, employment, areas of invention, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whalley, P.

    1992-01-01

    Independent inventors are important but little-researched members of the US technical community. The survey reported on here is the first in modern times to attempt to provide a profile of the US independent inventor that goes beyond a single geographical or organizational locale. The report that follows provides an overview of the demographics, practices and concerns of the modern US inventor as represented by the members of leading US inventor organizations. It is by no means comprehensive but seeks to be indicative of the issues raised in the survey each which will be dealt with more comprehensively in future publications.

  12. Wine and health perceptions: Exploring the impact of gender, age and ethnicity on consumer perceptions of wine and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn J. Chang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study explores U.S. wine consumers’ perception of wine and health by gender, age, and ethnic background. An extensive body of epidemiological studies suggests that there are health benefits from moderate wine drinking. In light of an increased consumer preference over healthier foods and beverages, it is important to understand the health orientation of wine consumers and the effect of gender, age, or ethnicity on their perceptions of wine and health. An online survey was used to collect data from more than 1000 U.S. wine consumers. The results show that there is a statistically significant difference across demographic segments in terms of the level of health consciousness. Millennials and Asians are the most concerned, whereas Whites are the least, about health in their respective segments. Red wine is considered the healthiest wine type compared to other colors and styles. Moreover, more than 80% of the sample believes drinking red wine is healthier than drinking beer or spirits. However, nearly 50% of the sample thinks sulfites in wine can cause headaches. Managerial implications are discussed.

  13. Identity Statuses throughout Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Large-Scale Study into Gender, Age, and Contextual Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaux Verschueren

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Identity formation constitutes a core developmental task during adolescence and emerging adulthood. However, it remains unclear how identity formation may vary across age, gender, and context (education vs. employment in these developmental periods. The present study used a recently developed model to examine identity statuses or types in a sample of 7,906 Flemish individuals (14–30 years old; 64% female. As expected, achievement, foreclosure, moratorium, carefree diffusion, troubled diffusion, and an undifferentiated status emerged through cluster analysis. Women were overrepresented in the moratorium status (characterized by high exploration, whereas men were mainly situated in foreclosure and carefree diffusion statuses (both characterized by low exploration, but individuals in foreclosure having strong identity commitments as well. Individuals in the carefree and troubled diffusion statuses, which represent the least adaptive statuses, were youngest. High school students were overrepresented in the diffusion statuses and college students were mostly present in achievement (representing the most mature status and moratorium. Finally, employed individuals were overrepresented in foreclosure, whereas unemployed individuals were mainly situated in troubled diffusion. In sum, the present study systematically examined relationships between empirically-identified identity statuses and socio-demographic variables in a large-scale sample, generating important information on age, gender, and contextual differences in identity.

  14. Population ageing in the Netherlands: Demographic and financial arguments for a balanced approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salverda, W.

    2007-01-01

    Dutch policy makers recently set the public debate on ageing alight by enforcing drastic cuts in early retirement opportunities; increasing taxation of the aged and augmenting retirement age are also considered. The prime argument is to diminish a burden on public finances far in future. This paper

  15. Socio-demographic and lifestyle factors associated with folate status among non-supplement-consuming Canadian women of childbearing age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yipu; De Groh, Margaret; MacFarlane, Amanda J

    2014-05-09

    Mandatory folic acid fortification was implemented in Canada in 1998 to reduce the risk of neural tube defects (NTD). Our objective was to assess the relationship between socio-demographic factors and folate status in non-supplement-consuming Canadian women of childbearing age. Data on demographic factors, lifestyle factors, physical measures and red blood cell (RBC) folate concentration were collected from 1,008 non-supplement-consuming women aged 15-49 years in the Canadian Health Measures Survey (2007-2009). RBC folate ³906 nmol/L was used as a cut-off for optimal folate status for protection from NTD. Approximately 75% of non-supplement consuming women had an RBC folate concentration ³906 nmol/L. Young age (15-19 years), White ethnicity, less than secondary education, lowest income adequacy, smoking and high body mass index were associated with a higher prevalence of lower folate status. After adjustment, only young age (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.99-95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.25-3.18) was associated with lower folate status. Less than secondary education (adjusted OR 5.66, 95% CI: 1.10-29.04) and lowest income adequacy (adjusted OR 4.77, 95% CI: 1.06-21.49) were associated with lower folate status in women aged 15-24 and 25-49 years, respectively. Many risk factors for lower folate status identified before food fortification was implemented were not associated with folate status in our representative sample of non-supplement-consuming Canadian women. However, younger women, women aged 15-24 with less than secondary education and women aged 25-49 with low income adequacy remain at risk of lower folate status, supporting the continued promotion of folic acid supplement use to women of childbearing age.

  16. Clinimetric testing in Mexican elders: associations with age, gender and place of residence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena eTavano-Colaizzi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate the ability of five clinimetric instruments to discriminate between subjects >60 years of age living at home versus those living in a residency.Methods. Trained nutritionists applied five instruments (Cognition/ Depression/ Functionality/ Nutrition/ Appetite to 285 subjects with majorities of women (64%, aged <80y (61% and home residents (54%.Results. Multivariable regression models were generated for each instrument using age, gender and residency as independent variables. Age was associated with worsening scores in the five instruments whereas residency showed association in three instruments, and gender in two. Score-age regressions by place of residency showed differences suggesting that Mundet residents had increasingly worse scores with increasing age, than home dwellers for Cognition, Depression and Nutrition. Also, living at home prevented the worsening of Depression with increasing age. In contrast, Functionality and Appetite deteriorated at a similar rate for home and Mundet residents suggesting an inhability of these two instruments to dicriminate between settings. Score-age regressions by gender suggested males have less cognitive problems at 60 and 80 years of age but not at 100, and better appetite than women at all ages.Conclusions. Increasing age proved to be associated to worsening scores in the five instruments but only three were able to detect differences according to setting. An interesting observation was that living at home appeared to prevent the Depression increase with increasing age seen in Mundet residents.

  17. Clinimetric Testing in Mexican Elders: Associations with Age, Gender, and Place of Residence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavano-Colaizzi, Lorena; Arroyo, Pedro; Loria, Alvar; Pérez-Lizaur, Ana Bertha; Pérez-Zepeda, Mario Ulises

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the ability of five clinimetric instruments to discriminate between subjects >60 years of age living at home versus those living in a residency. Methods: Trained nutritionists applied five instruments (cognition/depression/functionality/nutrition/appetite) to 285 subjects with majorities of women (64%), aged <80 years (61%), and home residents (54%). Results: Multivariable regression models were generated for each instrument using age, gender, and residency as independent variables. Age was associated with worsening scores in the five instruments whereas residency showed association in three instruments, and gender in two. Score-age regressions by place of residency showed differences suggesting that Mundet residents had increasingly worse scores with increasing age than home dwellers for cognition, depression, and nutrition. Also, living at home prevented the worsening of depression with increasing age. In contrast, functionality and appetite deteriorated at a similar rate for home and Mundet residents suggesting an inability of these two instruments to discriminate between settings. Score-age regressions by gender suggested that males have less cognitive problems at 60 and 80 years of age but not at 100 years, and better appetite than women at all ages. Conclusion: Increasing age proved to be associated to worsening scores in the five instruments but only three were able to detect differences according to setting. An interesting observation was that living at home appeared to prevent the depression increase with increasing age seen in Mundet residents. PMID:25593910

  18. Fusion of Fingerprint and Age Biometric for Gender Classification Using Frequency and Texture Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Gornale

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Classification of gender from fingerprints is one of the important steps in forensic anthropology. This forensic anthropology is used to identify the gender of a criminal in order to minimize the suspects list of search. A very few researcher have worked on gender classification using fingerprints and have gain the competitive results. In this work we are trying to fuse the fingerprint and age biometrics for gender classification. The real fingerprints were collected from different age groups such as 15-20 years and 20- 60 years of the rural and urban people. According to this experimental observation soft biometric information can be used significantly to improve the recognition performance of biometric system. The overall performance of the proposed method is found to be satisfactory and more competitive.

  19. The association of gender, ethnicity, age, and education with Rorschach scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Gregory J; Giromini, Luciano; Viglione, Donald J; Reese, Jennifer B; Mihura, Joni L

    2015-02-01

    We examined the association of gender, ethnicity, age, and education with 60 Rorschach scores using three clinical and nonclinical samples of adults and youths (ns = 640, 249, and 241). As anticipated for our data sets, there were no reliable associations for gender, ethnicity, or adult age. However, in adults years of education was associated with variables indicative of complexity, the articulation of subtlety and nuance, cognitive synthesis, and coping resources. In the clinical sample of youths, increasing age was primarily associated with more conventional perception and less illogical thought processes. Limitations are discussed in conjunction with further research that could address them, along with implications for applied practice.

  20. Transcriptional analysis reveals gender-specific changes in the aging of the human immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marttila, Saara; Jylhävä, Juulia; Nevalainen, Tapio; Nykter, Matti; Jylhä, Marja; Hervonen, Antti; Tserel, Liina; Peterson, Pärt; Hurme, Mikko

    2013-01-01

    Aging and gender have a strong influence on the functional capacity of the immune system. In general, the immune response in females is stronger than that in males, but there is scant information about the effect of aging on the gender difference in the immune response. To address this question, we performed a transcriptomic analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells derived from elderly individuals (nonagenarians, n = 146) and young controls (aged 19-30 years, n = 30). When compared to young controls, we found 339 and 248 genes that were differentially expressed (p1.5 or human immune system are significantly different in males and females.

  1. Basal serum pancreatic polypeptide is dependent on age and gender in an adult population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brimnes Damholt, M; Rasmussen, B K; Hilsted, L

    1997-01-01

    This study is the first epidemiologically based study of basal levels of serum pancreatic polypeptide (s-PP). The basal level of serum PP has become a field of interest mainly due to the role of PP as an endocrine tumour marker, and as a marker of pancreatic neuroendocrine function after pancreas...... a monospecific radioimmunoassay. Fasting serum pancreatic polypeptide depended on age and gender. The results demonstrated that fasting pancreatic polypeptide levels increase exponentially with age. Fitted separately for each sex, basal serum pancreatic polypeptide was found to increase by approximately 3% per...... reports on the fasting levels of serum pancreatic polypeptide are most likely due to lack of adjustment for age and gender. Thus, variation due to age and gender should be considered in evaluating fasting levels of serum pancreatic polypeptide. Whether similar considerations are important when evaluating...

  2. Age and gender identity in a perpetrators of sexual violence against children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dvoryanchikov N.V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper devoted to the age and gender identity among the perpetrators of sexual violence against children and discussed the factors lead to pathogenesis of abnormal sexual behavior against children. We have identified particularities of gender and age identity in perpetrators of violent sexual acts against children. It was noted that patients with a diagnosis of pedophilia have abnormalities mostly in cognitive structure of sexual identity, that is shown in undifferentiated age peculiarities of perception of self-image and gender and role stereotypes. These data allow assessing more accurately the abnormalities of sexual sphere, explaining the deviant behavior, as well as structure of age and sex self-identity in persons with the disorder of sexual desire in the form of pedophilia and take a step closer to understanding the mechanisms of abnormal choice of sexual object.

  3. The Relationship between Gender Stereotypes, Sense of Power, and Demographic Variables with the Cycle of Demand-Withdrawal Marital Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    somayeh shahmoradi

    2014-04-01

    The regression results showed that gender stereotypes, sense of power and number of children were all significant predictors for demand/withdraw pattern. The correlation results showed that increasing in stereotypical thinking and the number of children can lead to an increase in the probability of demand/withdraw cycle. Also, more sense of power has a positive correlation with the “withdrawal pattern” and less sense of power has a positive correlation with the “demand pattern”. The results demonstrate that the variables which were considered in the analysis of the cycle in this research are important and can help relevant agents to provide opportunities for improving couple relationships.

  4. Perceiving Age and Gender in Unfamiliar Faces: An fMRI Study on Face Categorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiese, Holger; Kloth, Nadine; Gullmar, Daniel; Reichenbach, Jurgen R.; Schweinberger, Stefan R.

    2012-01-01

    Efficient processing of unfamiliar faces typically involves their categorization (e.g., into old vs. young or male vs. female). However, age and gender categorization may pose different perceptual demands. In the present study, we employed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to compare the activity evoked during age vs. gender…

  5. Measurement Invariance of the Reynolds Depression Adolescent Scale across Gender and Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca-Pedrero, Eduardo; Wells, Craig; Paino, Mercedes; Lemos-Giraldez, Serafin; Villazon-Garcia, Ursula; Sierra, Susana; Garcia-Portilla Gonzalez, Ma Paz; Bobes, Julio; Muniz, Jose

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of the present study was to examine measurement invariance of the Reynolds Depression Adolescent Scale (RADS) (Reynolds, 1987) across gender and age in a representative sample of nonclinical adolescents. The sample was composed of 1,659 participants, 801 males (48.3%), with a mean age of 15.9 years (SD = 1.2). Confirmatory…

  6. Dietary fat and risk of coronary heart disease: possible effect modification by gender and age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Overvad, Kim; Dyerberg, Jørn

    2004-01-01

    In a 16-year follow-up study (ending in 1998) of 3,686 Danish men and women aged 30–71 years at recruitment, the association between energy intake from dietary fat and the risk of coronary heart disease was evaluated while assessing the possible modifying role of gender and age. In the models used...

  7. School Effects and Ethnic, Gender and Socio-Economic Gaps in Educational Achievement at Age 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, Steve

    2014-01-01

    There are long-standing achievement gaps in England associated with socio-economic status (SES), ethnicity and gender, but relatively little research has evaluated interactions between these variables or explored school effects on such gaps. This paper analyses the national test results at age 7 and age 11 of 2,836 pupils attending 68 mainstream…

  8. Effects of Gender, Age, and Education on Assertiveness in a Nigerian Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyeizugbo, Eucharia U.

    2003-01-01

    Two hundred fourteen (214) married persons, 101 men and 113 women aged 20-60, with at least high school education, participated in the study which investigated the effects of gender, age, and educational attainment on assertiveness among married persons in Nigeria. The Assertive Behavior Assessment scale (ABAS; Onyeizugbo, 1998) was used to…

  9. Adolescents' Definitions of Bullying: The Contribution of Age, Gender, and Experience of Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Hollie; Dooley, Barbara; Fitzgerald, Amanda; Dolphin, Louise

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present research was to examine adolescents' definitions of bullying in a nationally representative sample of adolescents in Ireland. Definitions of bullying were examined according to age, gender, and bullying experiences. A sample of 4358 adolescents aged 12-19 years (M = 14.99 years, SD = 1.63) provided their definitions of…

  10. [Socioeconomic inequalities and age and gender differences in cardiovascular risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-González, Ángel A; Bennasar-Veny, Miquel; Tauler, Pedro; Aguilo, Antoni; Tomàs-Salvà, Matias; Yáñez, Aina

    2015-01-01

    To describe the cardiovascular risk factors in a working population in the Balearic Islands and to examine whether differences by social class vary according to age and gender. A cross-sectional study was carried out in a sample of active workers aged 20-65 years in the Balearic Islands. The participants were included in the study during their annual work health assessment in 2011. The following variables were collected: occupation, social class, age, gender, height, weight, smoking, blood pressure, lipid profile, and glucose levels. Cardiovascular risk was calculated using two different equations (Framingham and REGICOR). Differences by social class were observed for most cardiovascular risk factors. The pattern of these differences differed depending on age group and gender. Differences in obesity by social class increased with age in women but decreased in men. More differences in hypertension by social class were found among women than among men, with differences increasing with age in both genders. Significant differences by social class were found among women in lipid profile, and these differences increased with age, mainly for low levels of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol. Inequalities in cardiovascular risk factors by social class were higher among women than among men. Some cardiovascular risk factors such as smoking and obesity showed significant inequalities from a very early age. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. Relative Age Effect and Gender Differences in Physical Education Attainment in Norwegian Schoolchildren

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aune, Tore Kristian; Pedersen, Arve Vorland; Ingvaldsen, Rolf Petter; Dalen, Terje

    2017-01-01

    The relative age effect (RAE) refers to that children born early in their year of birth show higher performance compared to children born late in the same cohort. The present study evaluated whether RAE exists within non-competitive physical education (PE) attainments, change in RAE magnitude with age, and possible gender differences. The results…

  12. Gender-specific regulation of response to thyroid hormone in aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzuki Satoru

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Similar to other systems, the endocrine system is affected by aging. Thyroid hormone, the action of which is affected by many factors, has been shown to be associated with longevity. The most useful marker for the assessment of thyroid hormone action is TSH level. Although age and gender are believed to modify the pituitary set point or response to free thyroid hormone concentration, the precise age- and gender-dependent responses to thyroid hormone have yet to be reported. Methods We analyzed the results of 3564 thyroid function tests obtained from patients who received medication at both out- and inpatient clinics of Shinshu University Hospital. Subjects were from among those with thyroid function test results in the normal or mildly abnormal range. Based on a log-linear relationship between the concentrations of FHs and TSH, we established the putative resistance index to assess the relation between serum FH and TSH levels. Results Free thyroid hormone and TSH concentration showed an inverse log-linear relation. In males, there was a negative relationship between the free T3 resistance index and age. In females, although there were no relationships between age and FHs, the indices were positively related to age. Conclusions These findings indicated that there is a gender-specific response to thyroid hormone with aging. Although the TSH level is a useful marker for the assessment of peripheral thyroid hormone action, the values should be interpreted carefully, especially with regard to age- and gender-related differences.

  13. Decline in age of drinking onset in Ireland, gender and per capita alcohol consumption.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Smyth, Bobby P

    2011-01-01

    We sought to examine the fall in age of first drinking in Ireland and to determine whether there were gender differences. We also aimed to determine whether there was a relationship between the per capita alcohol consumption evident when people entered later adolescence and their age of drinking onset.

  14. School Effects and Ethnic, Gender and Socio-Economic Gaps in Educational Achievement at Age 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, Steve

    2014-01-01

    There are long-standing achievement gaps in England associated with socio-economic status (SES), ethnicity and gender, but relatively little research has evaluated interactions between these variables or explored school effects on such gaps. This paper analyses the national test results at age 7 and age 11 of 2,836 pupils attending 68 mainstream…

  15. Age and gender-specific reference values of orbital fat and muscle volumes in Caucasians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regensburg, N.I.; Wiersinga, W.M.; van Velthoven, M.E.J.; Berendschot, T.T.J.M.; Zonneveld, F.W.; Baldeschi, L.; Saeed, P.; Mourits, M.P.

    2011-01-01

    To provide age and gender-specific reference values for orbital fat and muscle volumes (MV) in Caucasian adults. Computed tomographic scans of 160 orbits from 52 men and 55 women, aged 20-80 years, not affected by orbital disease were evaluated. Orbital bony cavity volume (OV), fat volume (FV) and M

  16. Age and gender-specific reference values of orbital fat and muscle volumes in Caucasians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regensburg, N.I.; Wiersinga, W.M.; van Velthoven, M.E.J.; Berendschot, T.T.J.M.; Zonneveld, F.W.; Baldeschi, L.; Saeed, P.; Mourits, M.P.

    2011-01-01

    To provide age and gender-specific reference values for orbital fat and muscle volumes (MV) in Caucasian adults. Computed tomographic scans of 160 orbits from 52 men and 55 women, aged 20-80 years, not affected by orbital disease were evaluated. Orbital bony cavity volume (OV), fat volume (FV) and

  17. Effects of Age, Gender, and Causality on Perceptions of Persons with Mental Retardation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panek, Paul E.; Jungers, Melissa K.

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of age, gender, and causality on the perceptions of persons with mental retardation. Participants rated individuals with mental retardation using a semantic differential scale with three factors: activity, evaluation, and potency. Target individuals in each scenario varied on the variables of age (8, 20, 45),…

  18. Adolescents' Definitions of Bullying: The Contribution of Age, Gender, and Experience of Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Hollie; Dooley, Barbara; Fitzgerald, Amanda; Dolphin, Louise

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present research was to examine adolescents' definitions of bullying in a nationally representative sample of adolescents in Ireland. Definitions of bullying were examined according to age, gender, and bullying experiences. A sample of 4358 adolescents aged 12-19 years (M = 14.99 years, SD = 1.63) provided their definitions of…

  19. Age, Race, and Gender Differences in Depressive Symptoms: A Lifespan Developmental Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracken, Bruce A.; Reintjes, Cristina

    2010-01-01

    This study considered depressive symptoms among a normative sample of 1,900 children, adolescents, and adults (950 males and 950 females) divided across four age-levels to investigate the developmental progression of depressive symptoms by age, race/ethnicity, and gender. The national normative sample of the Clinical Assessment of Depression (CAD)…

  20. GENDER-SELECTIVE INTERACTION BETWEEN AGING AND CARDIOVASCULAR SYMPATHETIC ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorat D Kiran

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Physiologically aging refers to the impaired ability to maintain homeostasis during external as wellas internal stresses. The sympathetic nervous system becomes tonically, progressively and markedlyactivated with aging in humans. Study is done to measure the cardiovascular sympatheticdysfunctions in the males and females of the different age groups. Total 80, healthy subjects nothaving any major illness and any chronic addiction, were selected for the study. All the subjects wereevaluated by using “CANWIN cardiac autonomic neuropathy analyzer” using the tests like Pulse rateby Palpatory method, Blood Pressure response to sudden standing and Sustained Handgrip test. In all the elderly subjects the sympathetic system was over activated and this over activation of the sympathetic system became more severe as the age advanced. Aging is accompanied by a greater increase in sympathetic activity in women than in men, independent of menopausal status. The study concludes that there is more marked influence of age on sympathetic nervous system activation and impaired sensitivity of baroreceptors in women than men.

  1. Self-esteem and life satisfaction in adolescents-gender and age as potential moderators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moksnes, Unni K; Espnes, Geir A

    2013-12-01

    The present paper investigated gender differences on life satisfaction and self-esteem as well as the association between self-esteem and life satisfaction in Norwegian adolescents aged 13-18 years. The potential moderating role of gender and age in the relation between self-esteem and life satisfaction was also investigated. A total of 1,239 adolescents from public elementary and secondary schools in mid-Norway participated in the school-based survey study. Mean score differences on the variables used in the study were tested using t tests. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was used to evaluate the association between self-esteem and life satisfaction, controlled for gender, age, stress, subjective health, and chronic health conditions. The results showed that boys scored higher than girls on both self-esteem and life satisfaction. Self-esteem was positively associated with life satisfaction, explaining 24 % of the variance. However, no interaction effect of gender × self-esteem or age × self-esteem was found in relation to life satisfaction. The results give support for that boys report higher self-esteem and life satisfaction than girls. Self-esteem has a positive role in association with adolescents' life satisfaction, and this relationship is equally strong for both genders and across age.

  2. Psychological Well-Being (PWB of School Adolescents Aged 12-18 yr, its Correlation with General Levels of Physical Activity (PA and Socio-Demographic Factors In Gilgit, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmin KHAN

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adolescence is a critical developmental stage marked by complex transitions. The purpose of study was to assess school adolescents’ PWB, examine the relationship of PA and socio-demographic factors with PWB.Methods: A cross sectional study conducted in five randomly selected schools with 345 adolescents (aged 12-18 from grade 6th-10th. A self-administered Well-Being index was adapted to measure PWB and questionnaire for adoles-cents PA (PAQ-A. Socio-demographic variables determined: age, gender, household income and parental education. Bivariate and multivariate regression analyses performed to examine the association between PWB, PA and covariates.Results: Findings indicated the mean age 14.64 (SD=1.275, 55.4% were female. Without gender difference the ma-jority (43.4% of adolescents showed moderate, while (23.2% revealed low level of PWB. Participants with low level likely to have depression but scores were significantly not different between low, moderate and high PWB with PA. Socio-demographic trends of adolescents’ were observed significant (P <0.005 for PWB. In multivariable analysis the mean wellbeing in females adjusted for other covariates was significant (P =0.004 than males. PWB importantly (P <0.001 decreased by 3.36 units as its covariates increased and PA score in boys found 0.05 unit more than girls.Conclusion: The study results are invaluable in addressing low, moderate and high levels of PWB. Inadequate PA and PWB decreasing with some socio-demographic covariates is crucial health issue among female adolescents in Pakistan. Further studies need to find barrier, social indicators of PWB and implication of health among adolescents.

  3. Age- and gender-specific changes of tricuspid annular motion velocities in normal hearts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Shuji; Yamada, Hirotsugu; Nishio, Susumu; Hotchi, Junko; Bando, Mika; Takagawa, Yuriko; Saijo, Yoshihito; Hirata, Yukina; Sata, Masataka

    2015-05-01

    Mitral annular motion (MAM) and tricuspid annular motion (TAM) velocities obtained by pulsed tissue Doppler echocardiography have been used to evaluate left ventricular (LV) and right ventricular (RV) functions. Although TAM velocity has been clinically applied for evaluating various cardiac diseases, the effects of age and gender remain unclear. Therefore, we aimed to determine the effects of age and gender on TAM velocity in normal hearts. We randomly selected 265 subjects (mean age, 59 years; range, 20-89 years) without abnormal clinical, electrocardiographic, and echocardiographic findings from a pool of subjects who had undergone transthoracic echocardiography. They were classified into four age groups: 20-39, 40-59, 60-79, and >80 years. Pulsed wave Doppler was applied to obtain MAM velocity of the lateral side and TAM velocity of the RV free wall side. The peak systolic (s'), early diastolic (e'), and atrial systolic (a') velocities of MAM and TAM were measured in all subjects. While MAM-s' (r=-0.267, p<0.001) correlated with age, TAM-s' did not (p=0.755). TAM-s' in any age groups had no significant gender differences. TAM-e' (r=-0.447, p<0.001) and MAM-e' (r=-0.724, p<0.001) correlated with age, respectively. In those aged 40-59 years, both TAM-e' (p=0.002) and MAM-e' (p=0.048) in females were significantly higher than those in males. The gender differences diminished in the ≥60 years age groups. There was no age-associated decline in TAM-s', while TAM-e' varied with age and gender as did MAM-e'. Although the same criteria for the TAM-s' can be used for identifying abnormal RV systolic function regardless of age and gender, age and gender differences must be considered when one utilizes the TAM-e' for the diagnosis or management of cardiovascular disease. Copyright © 2014 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Analysis, Design and Implementation of Human Fingerprint Patterns System “Towards Age & Gender Determination, Ridge Thickness To Valley Thickness Ratio (RTVTR & Ridge Count On Gender Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E O Omidiora

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to analyze humans fingerprint texture in order to determine their Age & Gender, and correlation of RTVTR and Ridge Count on gender detection. The study is to analyze the effectiveness of physical biometrics (thumbprint in order to determine age and gender in humans. An application system was designed to capture the finger prints of sampled population through a fingerprint scanner device interfaced to the computer system via Universal Serial Bus (USB, and stored in Microsoft SQL Server database, while back-propagation neural network will be used to train the stored fingerprint. The specific Objectives of this research are to: Use fingerprint sensor to collect different individual fingerprint, alongside their age and gender, Formulate a model and develop a fingerprint based identification system to determine age and gender of individuals and evaluate the developed system.

  5. Socio-economic and demographic variations in school lunch participation of French children aged 3-17 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubuisson, Carine; Lioret, Sandrine; Dufour, Ariane; Calamassi-Tran, Gloria; Volatier, Jean-Luc; Lafay, Lionel; Turck, Dominique

    2011-02-01

    To assess school canteen attendance in a French nationally representative sample of children and to analyse its association with the socio-economic and demographic characteristics of the children and their families. Data from the second French national cross-sectional food consumption survey (INCA2), performed in 2006-2007, were used. Information on usual weekly school canteen attendance was collected through a self-reported questionnaire, and demographic and socio-economic variables through a face-to-face questionnaire. The associations between school canteen attendance and the socio-economic and demographic variables were investigated by multivariate logistic regression analyses. The INCA2 sample was representative of the children aged 3-17 years in France. Analysis was performed on 1413 schoolchildren who completed the school canteen attendance questions. Some 65·6 % of schoolchildren aged 3-17 years had school lunch at least once weekly. This rate of attendance was positively correlated with age. Whatever the school level, school canteen attendance was positively associated with the educational level of the caregiver/parent. In pre- and elementary-school children, enrolment at the school canteen was also higher when the caregiver/parent worked, or in single-parent families. In secondary-school children, school lunch participation decreased with children living in more densely populated areas and increased with the level of the household's living standards. School canteen attendance was positively associated with children's socio-economic background. This could reduce the effectiveness of the forthcoming school meal composition regulations designed to improve the diet of children from deprived backgrounds, who are more likely to have unhealthy food habits.

  6. Toward a Demographic Understanding of Incarceration Disparities: Race, Ethnicity, and Age Structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogel, M.S.; Porter, L.C.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics in the United States are more likely to be incarcerated than non-Hispanic whites. The risk of incarceration also varies with age, and there are striking differences in age distributions across racial/ethnic groups. Guided by these trends, the present stud

  7. Liking and Identifying Emotionally Expressive Music: Age and Gender Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Patrick G.; Schellenberg, E. Glenn; Stalinski, Stephanie M.

    2011-01-01

    Adults and children 5, 8, and 11 years of age listened to short excerpts of unfamiliar music that sounded happy, scary, peaceful, or sad. Listeners initially rated how much they liked each excerpt. They subsequently made a forced-choice judgment about the emotion that each excerpt conveyed. Identification accuracy was higher for young girls than…

  8. Liking and Identifying Emotionally Expressive Music: Age and Gender Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Patrick G.; Schellenberg, E. Glenn; Stalinski, Stephanie M.

    2011-01-01

    Adults and children 5, 8, and 11 years of age listened to short excerpts of unfamiliar music that sounded happy, scary, peaceful, or sad. Listeners initially rated how much they liked each excerpt. They subsequently made a forced-choice judgment about the emotion that each excerpt conveyed. Identification accuracy was higher for young girls than…

  9. Understanding low fertility in Poland: Demographic consequences of gendered discrimination in employment and post-socialist neoliberal restructuring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Z. Mishtal

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available After the state socialist regime of Poland collapsed in 1989, the nation's total fertility rate plummeted from 2.1 to 1.27 by 2007. Simultaneously, Poland severely reduced social service provisions and restricted access to family planning. A three-month mixed-methods research study was conducted in 2007 in Gdansk to investigate Polish women's reproductive intentions and decision making. These data reveal that discriminatory practices by employers against pregnant women and women with small children are decisive in women's decisions to postpone or forego childbearing. The case of Poland demonstrates the urgent need to redress fundamental gendered discrimination in employment before work-family reconciliation policies can be effective.

  10. Prolactin secretion in healthy adults is determined by gender, age and body mass index.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdinand Roelfsema

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prolactin (PRL secretion is quantifiable as mean, peak and nadir PRL concentrations, degree of irregularity (ApEn, approximate entropy and spikiness (brief staccato-like fluctuations. HYPOTHESIS: Distinct PRL dynamics reflect relatively distinct (combinations of subject variables, such as gender, age, and BMI. LOCATION: Clinical Research Unit. SUBJECTS: Seventy-four healthy adults aged 22-77 yr (41 women and 33 men, with BMI 18.3-39.4 kg/m(2. MEASURES: Immunofluorometric PRL assay of 10-min samples collected for 24 hours. RESULTS: Mean 24-h PRL concentration correlated jointly with gender (P<0.0001 and BMI (P = 0.01, but not with age (overall R(2 = 0.308, P<0.0001. Nadir PRL concentration correlated with gender only (P = 0.017 and peak PRL with gender (P<0.001 and negatively with age (P<0.003, overall R(2 = 0.325, P<0.0001. Forward-selection multivariate regression of PRL deconvolution results demonstrated that basal (nonpulsatile PRL secretion tended to be associated with BMI (R(2 = 0.058, P = 0.03, pulsatile secretion with gender (R(2 = 0.152, P = 0.003, and total secretion with gender and BMI (R(2 = 0.204, P<0.0001. Pulse mass was associated with gender (P = 0.001 and with a negative tendency to age (P = 0.038. In male subjects older than 50 yr (but not in women approximate entropy was increased (0.942±0.301 vs. 1.258±0.267, P = 0.007 compared with younger men, as well as spikiness (0.363±0.122 vs. 0463±2.12, P = 0.031. Cosinor analysis disclosed higher mesor and amplitude in females than in men, but the acrophase was gender-independent. The acrophase was determined by age and BMI (R(2 = 0.186, P = 0.001. CONCLUSION: In healthy adults, selective combinations of gender, age, and BMI specify distinct PRL dynamics, thus requiring balanced representation of these variables in comparative PRL studies.

  11. Investigating m-Health Acceptance from a Protection Motivation Theory Perspective: Gender and Age Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xitong; Han, Xiaocui; Zhang, Xiaofei; Dang, Yuanyuan; Chen, Chun

    2015-08-01

    Mobile health (m-health) services are becoming increasingly important and widely accepted. However, empirical studies on potential users' m-health acceptance behavior remain underexplored. Indeed, m-health adoption is not only a technology acceptance behavior, but also a health-related behavior. Based on the Protection Motivation Theory, this article explores users' m-health adoption behavior from the perspectives of threat appraisal and coping appraisal, and also examines the moderating role of gender and age through a survey of potential users. The survey was conducted among 500 potential m-health service participants. Our results show that threat appraisal and coping appraisal factors influence adoption intention through attitude. It is also found that gender and age play different moderating roles with threat appraisal and coping appraisal factors. Gender and age play different roles between threat appraisal and coping appraisal factors in the acceptance of m-health. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  12. Prediction of Elderly Anthropometric Dimension Based On Age, Gender, Origin, and Body Mass Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indah, P.; Sari, A. D.; Suryoputro, M. R.; Purnomo, H.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Studies have indicated that elderly anthropometric dimensions will different for each person. To determine whether there are differences in the anthropometric data of Javanese elderly, this study will analyze whether the variables of age, gender, origin, and body mass index (BMI) have been associated with elderly anthropometric dimensions. Age will be divided into elderly and old categories, gender will divide into male and female, origins were divided into Yogyakarta and Central Java, and for BMI only use the normal category. Method: Anthropometric studies were carried out on 45 elderly subjects in Sleman,Yogyakarta. Results and Discussion: The results showed that some elderly anthropometric dimensions were influenced by age, origin, and body mass index but gender doesn't significantly affect the elderly anthropometric dimensions that exist in the area of Sleman. The analysis has provided important aid when designing products that intended to the Javanese elderly Population.

  13. Performance Comparison of Gender and Age Group Recognition for Human-Robot Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myung-Won Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we focus on performance comparison of gender and age group recognition to perform robot’s application services for Human-Robot Interaction (HRI. HRI is a core technology that can naturally interact between human and robot. Among various HRI components, we concentrate audio-based techniques such as gender and age group recognition from multichannel microphones and sound board equipped withrobots. For comparative purposes, we perform the performancecomparison of Mel-Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCC andLinear Prediction Coding Coefficients (LPCC in the feature extraction step, Support Vector Machine (SVM and C4.5 Decision Tree (DT in the classification step. Finally, we deal with the usefulness of gender and age group recognition for humanrobot interaction in home service robot environments.

  14. Adult anthropometric measures and socio-demographic factors influencing age at menarche of university students in malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Md Golam; Wee, Ai-Sze; Ashaie, Maeirah; Kamarul, T

    2013-09-01

    Early onset of menarche has been shown to be associated with breast cancer and ischaemic heart disease. Studies on age at menarche of the Malaysian population are poorly documented. This study aimed to determine the influence of anthropometric and socio-demographic factors on the age at menarche of university students in Malaysia. Data were obtained in 2010-11 from 961 students between the ages of 18 and 25 years from the University of Malaya using stratified sampling, and multiple regression analysis was applied. Sixty-three per cent of students reached menarche at the age of 12 or 13 years, with the mean and median of age at menarche being 12.45 ± 1.17 and 12.01 years, respectively. Menarcheal age was positively associated with height (p<0.05) and negatively associated with BMI (p<0.001). Students from urban areas attained menarche earlier than those from rural areas (p<0.05). Students from small-sized families attained menarche earlier than those from larger families (p<0.05). First-born students experienced menarche earlier than those who were seventh-born or later. Obese and overweight students reached menarche earlier than students who were underweight or of normal weight (p<0.01). The variations in age at menarche among the Malaysian ethnic groups were statistically insignificant. The results suggest that heavier and first-born students from small families are more likely to attain menarche earlier than their counterparts.

  15. Mental problems and their socio-demographic determinants in young schoolchildren in Sweden, a country with high gender and income equality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenmark, Helena; Bergström, Erik; Hägglöf, Bruno; Öhman, Ann; Petersen, Solveig

    2016-02-01

    Mental problems and their potential socio-demographic determinants were investigated in young schoolchildren in Sweden, a high-income country in the top of income- and gender-equality rankings. Cross-sectional study of 1465 schoolchildren in grades 3 and 6. Mental health was measured by the Child Behavior Checklist and the Youth Self Report (Total problems and 14 specific problem areas). Potential socio-demographic determinants were sex, parental education and occupation, family structure, and immigrant status. Mental problems were present in 14% of the sixth graders and in 7% of the third graders. In grade 3, the mean total problem score was lower in girls than in boys, but the prevalence of problems at a subclinical/clinical level did not differ by sex. Furthermore, in nine to 13 of the 14 specific problem areas, problems were equally distributed by sex, parental education, parental occupation, immigrant status, and family structure. In grade 6, both the total mean score and the overall odds of subclinical/clinical problems were similar in girls and boys. Likewise, in all the specific problem areas, problems were evenly distributed by parental education and occupation, and only independently associated with immigrant status and family structure in one problem area. In five specific problem areas, boys had higher odds of problems than girls. This study shows that also in a relatively wealthy and equal country such as Sweden, mental problems are a significant child public health issue. The association between socio-demographic background and mental problems seems to be rather weak, but differ dependent on the type of mental problem in focus. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  16. The Association of Age and Gender with Risk Factors of Noncommunicable Diseases among Employees in West of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khademi, Nahid; Babanejad, Mehran; Asadmobini, Atefeh; Karim, Hossein

    2017-01-01

    Background: The relationships that age and gender share with risk factors (RFs) of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) were assessed among a large-scale employ in Western Iran. Methods: In this epidemiologic cross-sectional study, 7129 employees from Kermanshah Province were assessed using a census method in 2012. Data on RFs of NCD were collected using a standard questionnaire. Demographic information, diet, physical activity, tobacco use, and history of hypertension, history of diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis, and cancer were studied. Results: The proportion of ≥5 servings of fruits and vegetables consumption per day was lower in higher ages (P = 0.001), and this proportion was greater in females than males (72.1% vs. 47.8%; P < 0.0001). Tobacco use was more in higher ages and was higher among males than females (13.3% vs. 0.6%; P < 0.0001). Overweight and obesity prevalence increased in higher ages and was more prominent among males than females (67.8% vs. 55.3%; P < 0.0001). Overall, the prevalence of having 3–5 RFs was greater among those with ≥55 years and among males than females (20.4% vs. 6.6%; P < 0.0001). Conclusions: The prevalence of major RFs of NCDs was greater among older persons and male participants. More preventive programs such as health education on employees of Kermanshah are recommended.

  17. Gender and age interact to affect early outcome after intracerebral hemorrhage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odera Umeano

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH is a common and devastating form of cerebrovascular disease. In ICH, gender differences in outcomes remain relatively understudied but have been examined in other neurological emergencies. Further, a potential effect of age and gender on outcomes after ICH has not been explored. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that age and gender interact to modify neurological outcomes after ICH. METHODS: Adult patients admitted with spontaneous primary supratentorial ICH from July 2007 through April 2010 were assessed via retrospective analysis of an existing stroke database at Duke University. Univariate analysis of collected variables was used to compare gender and outcome. Unfavorable outcome was defined as discharge to hospice or death. Using multivariate regression, the combined effect of age and gender on outcome after ICH was analyzed. RESULTS: In this study population, women were younger (61.1+14.5 versus 65.8+17.3 years, p=0.03 and more likely to have a history of substance abuse (35% versus 8.9%, p<0.0001 compared to men. Multivariable models demonstrated that advancing age had a greater effect on predicting discharge outcome in women compared to men (p=0.02. For younger patients, female sex was protective; however, at ages greater than 60 years, female sex was a risk factor for discharge to hospice or death. CONCLUSION: While independently associated with discharge to hospice or death after ICH, the interaction effect between gender and age demonstrated significantly stronger correlation with early outcome after ICH in a single center cohort. Prospective study is required to verify these findings.

  18. Gender, Race, and Age: The Content of Compound Stereotypes Across the Life Span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreoletti, Carrie; Leszczynski, Jennifer P; Disch, William B

    2015-07-01

    While stereotypes about gender, race, and age (particularly old age) have been studied independently, few have examined the content of compound stereotypes that consider the intersection of gender, race, and age. Using a within-subjects design, we examined stereotypes as a function of target gender (male, female), race (Black, White), and age across the life span (adolescent, young adult, middle-aged, young-old, and old-old). Participants rated 20 target groups on 10 attributes representative of either an agentic (e.g., ambitious) or communal (e.g., considerate) orientation. Participants were presented only with categorical information (e.g., Black, 85-year-old, males), and ordering of categorical information and target groups was counterbalanced across participants. We hypothesized differential effects of target gender and race as a function of age. Multivariate analyses of variance on each attribute revealed significant main effects that supported traditional stereotype research, but significant interactions revealed a more complicated picture. Overall, results showed that while gender stereotypes about agency and communion generally hold up across the life span, they are more applicable to White than Black targets. Results also supported the notion that we hold unique stereotypes based on multiple social categories rather than simply perceiving one social category as more salient than another, which was best exemplified in the case of Black female targets that were less likely to be perceived in gender stereotypic ways across the life span. We suggest stereotype research needs to shift to accommodate for the complexity and diversity of real people.

  19. ANTHROPOMETRICAL STATUS AND GENDER DIFFERENCES AT 12 YEARS OF AGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilir Gllareva

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to verify the current anthropometrical status of the pupils of the age 12, as well as to compare it with the standards of raising in accordance with the WHO standards. In the study were included 62 pupils (42 male and 20 female. The anthropometric tests were done in height, weight, biacromial and elbow breadth, subcutaneous adipose tissue at the : suprailiac skinfold; subscapular skinfold; triceps skinfold, as well as the abdominal circumference. The results showed that there was a heterogenic distribution of results, especially in the body weight, where the distribution between the minimal and maximal results is 28-70 kg, with the average 43, 14 ± 9, 78 of standard deviation with the male pupils, while with the female pupils was noticed more homogenous group and the standard deviation was significantly lower than with the female pupils in all variables. The findings show that almost in all measured variables female pupils are more developed at this age, especially the body high, body weight and subcutaneous adipose tissue, while as regards the abdominal circumference and body breadth, the male pupils are more developed. Comparison of symbolic sample of this research with the WHO data shows an approximate trend of raising and development of children which were included in this research, and the difference is as follows: Female pupils age 12, body height=151.97 cm

  20. Gender differences in old age mortality: roles of health behavior and baseline health status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jersey; Bennett, Joan M; Sugisawa, Hidehiro; Kobayashi, Erika; Fukaya, Taro

    2003-06-01

    This research aims to further current understanding of gender differences in old age mortality. In particular, it assesses the relative importance of health behavior and baseline health conditions in predicting the risk of dying, and how their effects differ between elderly men and women. Data for this research came from a prospective study of a national sample of 2,200 older adults in Japan from 1987 to 1999. Hazard rate models were employed to ascertain the interaction effects involving gender and health behavior (i.e., smoking and drinking) and baseline health status. Gender differences in old age mortality in the Japanese are quite pronounced throughout all of our models. In addition, interaction effects of gender and smoking, functional limitation, and cognitive impairment, indicate that females in Japan suffer more from these risk factors than do their male counterparts. Failure to adjust for population heterogeneity may lead to a significant underestimation of female advantage in survival. The inclusion of health behavior and health status measures only offsets a limited proportion of this gender differential. The increased mortality risk due to smoking, functional limitation, and cognitive impairment among elderly Japanese women suggests that narrowing of gender gap in mortality may be due to not only changes in the levels of these risk factors but also their differential effects on men and women.

  1. How diversity gets lost: Age and gender in design practices of information and communication technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudshoorn, Nelly; Neven, Louis; Stienstra, Marcelle

    2016-01-01

    This article adopts an intersectional approach to investigate how age, gender, and diversity are represented, silenced, or prioritized in design. Based on a comparative study of design practices of information and communication technologies (ICTs) for young girls and older people, this article describes differences and similarities in the ways in which designers tried to cope with diversity. Ultimately diversity was neglected, and the developers relied on hegemonic views of gender and age, constructed older people and young girls as an "other," and consequently their input was neglected. These views were thus materialized in design and reinforce such views in powerful yet unobtrusive ways.

  2. Age and Gender Effects on Motivation and Attitudes in German Learning: The Polish Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okuniewski Jan E.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The research investigates the German language learning motivations of Polish secondary school students and university students. Questionnaire data were collected from 247 students (126 from secondary school and 121 from university. The aim of this research was to examine the relationships among language attitudes, instrumental, cultural interest, integrative, L2 self and motivated learning. The results show the existence of age and gender difference in variables under consideration. Relationships were found between age and gender to the motivational attitudes: older and female students had a more integrative attitude than younger and mail students and experienced more intensive motivation.

  3. GMM-based speaker age and gender classification in Czech and Slovak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Přibil, Jiří; Přibilová, Anna; Matoušek, Jindřich

    2017-01-01

    The paper describes an experiment with using the Gaussian mixture models (GMM) for automatic classification of the speaker age and gender. It analyses and compares the influence of different number of mixtures and different types of speech features used for GMM gender/age classification. Dependence of the computational complexity on the number of used mixtures is also analysed. Finally, the GMM classification accuracy is compared with the output of the conventional listening tests. The results of these objective and subjective evaluations are in correspondence.

  4. The Effect of Gender and Age Differences on the Recognition of Emotions from Facial Expressions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneevogt, Daniela; Paggio, Patrizia

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated gender and cultural differences in the recognition of emotions in facial expressions. However, most studies were conducted on American subjects. In this pa- per, we explore the generalizability of several findings to a non-American culture in the form of Danish...... subjects. We conduct an emotion recognition task followed by two stereotype question- naires with different genders and age groups. While recent findings (Krems et al., 2015) suggest that women are biased to see anger in neutral facial expressions posed by females, in our sample both genders assign higher...... ratings of anger to all emotions expressed by females. Furthermore, we demonstrate an effect of gender on the fear-surprise-confusion observed by Tomkins and McCarter (1964); females overpredict fear, while males overpredict surprise....

  5. Influence of Age and Gender in Takotsubo Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Birke; Sechtem, Udo

    2016-10-01

    Takotsubo syndrome (TTS) occurs predominantly in elderly females but young individuals and children may also be affected. There are no consistent differences between men and women regarding age, symptoms, prehospital delay, or clinical course. Mortality has been reported to be higher in males. The QTc interval may be disproportionately prolonged in male patients in the days after admission predisposing them to ventricular arrhythmias. The higher level of cardiac markers in males with TTS may be related to the greater frequency of physical stress before the onset of TTS. Understanding the pathogenetic background may lead to preventive/therapeutic means against this life-threatening disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Socio-Demographic Variables and Successful Aging of the Angolan Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Galiana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The proportion of elderly people is growing faster than any other age group. Amongst them, the group of oldest old is indeed the segment of the elderly population with the fastest growth rate. The increase in the proportion of elderly in the Angolan population makes research on this area badly needed. Within the theoretical framework of successful aging, the study aims to test for sociodemographic group differences in perceived health, life satisfaction, and social relations in Angolan elderly. The dependent variables are three of the components of what has been called successful aging. Data came from a cross-sectional survey of elderly people living in Luanda. 1003 Angolan elderly were surveyed on sociodemographic information, perceived health, life satisfaction, and social support. MANOVAs were calculated to test for mean differences in the dependent variables. Results permit to conclude that the factors associated with the largest differences on the Angolan elderly’s quality of life and social relations were age (becoming oldest old and institutionalization. The interactions of several factors with age pointed out that the oldest old were clearly a group in which the decreased quality of life due to becoming oldest old could not be compensated by other factors, as it was the case in the group of young old.

  7. School Anxiety Inventory-Short Version: Factorial Invariance and Latent Mean Differences Across Gender and Age in Spanish Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingles, Candido J.; Garcia-Fernandez, Jose M.; Marzo, Juan C.; Martinez-Monteagudo, Maria C.; Estevez, Estefania

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the factorial invariance and latent mean differences of the School Anxiety Inventory-Short Version across gender and age groups for 2,367 Spanish students, ranging in age from 12 to 18 years. Configural and measurement invariance were found across gender and age samples for all dimensions of the School Anxiety Inventory-Short…

  8. School Anxiety Inventory-Short Version: Factorial Invariance and Latent Mean Differences Across Gender and Age in Spanish Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingles, Candido J.; Garcia-Fernandez, Jose M.; Marzo, Juan C.; Martinez-Monteagudo, Maria C.; Estevez, Estefania

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the factorial invariance and latent mean differences of the School Anxiety Inventory-Short Version across gender and age groups for 2,367 Spanish students, ranging in age from 12 to 18 years. Configural and measurement invariance were found across gender and age samples for all dimensions of the School Anxiety Inventory-Short…

  9. Gender differences in age-related decline in regional cerebral glucose metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, Seong Ae; Cho, Sang Soo; Yoon, Eun Jin; Park, Hyun Soo; Lee, Eun Ju; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Kim, Sang Sun [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    In this study, we investigated gender differences in age-related declines in regional cerebral glucose metabolism using FDG-PET in a large population sample with a broad age range. 230 healthy subjects (90 male; age: 34-80 y, 140 females; age: 33-82 y) participated. Correlation maps showing age related declines in glucose uptake were created separately for each gender in SPM2. Using population-based probabilistic volume of interests (VOIs), VOIs were defined for the regions showing significant decline with aging. Age related declines were separately assessed within each age range using analysis of covariate in SPSS 13.0. In the total population without gender effect, age-related negative correlation of glucose metabolism was found in the bilateral inferior frontal gyri, bilateral caudate, bilateral thalamus, left insula, left superior frontal gyrus, left uncus, right superior temporal gyrus, right medial frontal gyrus, right parahippocampal gyrus, right anterior cingulate gyrus (P < 0.001 corrected, extent threshold k = 100). 14 VOIs values of brain regions were calculated based on this negative correlation results. The rate of decline across all defined VOIs assessed in the age category of 'more than 70' referenced to the category of '30- 39years' were 7.85% in the entire sample; 7.62% in male and 8.09% in female. Detailed analyses of declines in each age range showed separable patterns of declines across gender. In males, greater decline was observed after the age 60 (20.45%) than the ages of 30 and 50(7.98%). Whereas in females, greater declines were found in age 60s (20.15%) compared to 50s, and in 40(14.84%) compared to 30s. Age-related decline in cerebral glucose metabolism was found in both genders. We further observed that males show a relatively constant pattern of decline across a life span; whereas, females show a pattern of steep changes aging to 60s and to 40s, which may be related to changes in sex hormone levels after menopause.

  10. Facing the Gender Gap in Aging: Italian Women’s Pension in the European Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Letizia Zanier

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the phenomenon of increasing gender inequalities that happen at old age regarding women’s pension. Moving from recent life-course theories and studies, this study analyzes the reasons behind gender-biased pension levels and how their cumulative effects result in (continuous significant gender gaps. The article presents a European overview of pension gender gap, focusing on family and work-life issues in Italy. This is one of the first critical reviews of the small but growing literature and national data concerning the effect of gender inequalities related to pension gaps in Italy. In the past, research on the balance of welfare provision between State, family, and market has ignored gender, while more recent studies have barely explored how gender roles, changing over time, interact with the shifts in pension policies. Considering the effects of work-life balance policies since the 2000 Lisbon agenda process and its development, the study especially focuses on the Italian case within the European context. The article examines how the choices in work-life balance policies vary between different national contexts and welfare regimes, by highlighting the Italian case. In this country, welfare and social policy regimes remain very unbalanced, showing a lack of awareness of family and women’s needs, as in many Southern countries, and Italy is not able to give appropriate answers to these problems and to the question of the growing gender gap. This article finally shows the poignancy of structural and cultural reasons for gender differentiated pension levels in Italy, within the European context, according to patterns of employment, marital, and maternal status between earlier and later generations of women.

  11. Gender differences in episodic memory and visual working memory including the effects of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauls, Franz; Petermann, Franz; Lepach, Anja Christina

    2013-01-01

    Analysing the relationship between gender and memory, and examining the effects of age on the overall memory-related functioning, are the ongoing goals of psychological research. The present study examined gender and age group differences in episodic memory with respect to the type of task. In addition, these subgroup differences were also analysed in visual working memory. A sample of 366 women and 330 men, aged between 16 and 69 years of age, participated in the current study. Results indicate that women outperformed men on auditory memory tasks, whereas male adolescents and older male adults showed higher level performances on visual episodic and visual working memory measures. However, the size of gender-linked effects varied somewhat across age groups. Furthermore, results partly support a declining performance on episodic memory and visual working memory measures with increasing age. Although age-related losses in episodic memory could not be explained by a decreasing verbal and visuospatial ability with age, women's advantage in auditory episodic memory could be explained by their advantage in verbal ability. Men's higher level visual episodic memory performance was found to result from their advantage in visuospatial ability. Finally, possible methodological, biological, and cognitive explanations for the current findings are discussed.

  12. Correlation between age and gender in Candida species infections of complete denture wearers: a retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loster, Jolanta E; Wieczorek, Aneta; Loster, Bartłomiej W

    2016-01-01

    Denture-related stomatitis is a disorder that often affects denture wearers. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the intensity, genera, and frequency of yeasts in the oral cavity of complete denture wearers in terms of subject gender and age. Nine hundred twenty patients (307 males and 613 females) with complete upper dentures were selected for the study and divided into four age groups: ≤50 years, 51-60, 61-70, and >70 years. Yeast samples were taken as a smear from the palate. The data were collected from January 15, 2007 to January 15, 2012. The distribution of the number of yeast colonies by gender was statistically significant (P=0.02). Across all subjects, there was a statistically significant relationship between the intensity of yeast growth and the gender (P=0.01). In every age group, the number of infection-free individuals was greater among males than females. Intermediate, intense, and abundant growth of yeast occurred most frequently in the youngest group of females. The genera of Candida species and the frequency of yeast infection in denture wearers appear to be influenced by both age and gender. The complete denture wearers ≤50 years of age appeared to have the greatest proclivity to oral Candida infections.

  13. The impact of gender on emotions and age acting as a moderator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khurram Saleem Alimgeer

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Emotional expression is the lifeblood of any organization or community. This study provides a particular focus on how organizational work commitment and performance is gendered and emotionalized. This study investigated what impact gender have on employee emotions for employee well-being. Work commitment research has also not adequately addressed the importance of emotions as part of Commitment. It is this lack of attention to the importance of the relationships between gender and emotions and their impact on work commitment, and how this relationship is understood from the perspective of organizational members that underpins the need for research in this area. The research is also based on age acting as a moderator in the relationship of gender and emotion. Recent research investigating emotion in old age suggests that autonomic responsiveness diminishes with age. The experiential aspects of emotion, however, show less marked age differences. As concerned to the emotional expressions research seems to suggest that older adults are better than younger adults at regulating socially-relevant emotional information, older adults are not affected by negative emotions as much as younger counterparts. With age comes the ability to better regulate emotions in order to not disrupt performance on a memory-intensive task. Future studies should also be conducted to determine exactly how older adults achieved the same emotion-regulatory goal with less cognitive effort.

  14. Age and gender as independent predictors of violence under the influence of alcohol in Zurich, Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mica, Ladislav; Oesterle, Linda; Werner, Clément M L; Simmen, Hans-Peter

    2015-04-08

    Violent behaviour associated with alcohol consumption is frequently reported by different media. Clinical data analysing the correlation between alcohol intoxication, age, gender and violence are scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of age, gender and blood alcohol content on violent behaviour under the influence of alcohol under central European conditions. Three hundred patients admitted to the emergency department were included into this study in the time period from January 01. to December 31. 2009. The inclusion criteria were a blood alcohol content (BAC) of ≥10 mmol/l, any traumatic injury and an age ≥16 years. Violence was defined as an evitable act committed by others leading to patient's hospitalisation. The data were compared with Wilcoxon and χ2-test for proportions. The data were considered as significant if pviolence with no correlation to blood alcohol content found. Logistic regression analysis revealed male gender and young age as an independent predictor for violence. These results clarify the relationship between alcohol, age, gender and violence and have important implications for municipal-level alcohol policies.

  15. demogR: A Package for the Construction and Analysis of Age-structured Demographic Models in R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Holland Jones

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of matrix population models has become a fundamental tool in ecology, conservation biology, and life history theory. In this paper, I present demogR, a package for analyzing age-structured population models in R. The package includes tools for the construction and analysis of matrix population models. In addition to the standard analyses commonly used in evolutionary demography and conservation biology, demogR contains a variety of tools from classical demography. This includes the construction of period life tables, and the generation of model mortality and fertility schedules for human populations. The tools in demogR are generally applicable to age-structured populations but are particularly useful for analyzing problems in human ecology. I illustrate some of the capabilities of the package by doing an evolutionary demographic analysis of several human populations.

  16. Age- and gender-specific risk of death after first hospitalization for heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosterd A

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hospitalization for heart failure (HF is associated with high-in-hospital and short- and long-term post discharge mortality. Age and gender are important predictors of mortality in hospitalized HF patients. However, studies assessing short- and long-term risk of death stratified by age and gender are scarce. Methods A nationwide cohort was identified (ICD-9 codes 402, 428 and followed through linkage of national registries. The crude 28-day, 1-year and 5-year mortality was computed by age and gender. Cox regression models were used for each period to study sex differences adjusting for potential confounders (age and comorbidities. Results 14,529 men, mean age 74 ± 11 years and 14,524 women, mean age 78 ± 11 years were identified. Mortality risk after admission for HF increased with age and the risk of death was higher among men than women. Hazard ratio's (men versus women and adjusted for age and co-morbidity were 1.21 (95%CI 1.14 to 1.28, 1.26 (95% CI 1.21 to 1.31, and 1.28 (95%CI 1.24 to 1.31 for 28 days, 1 year and 5 years mortality, respectively. Conclusions This study clearly shows age- and gender differences in short- and long-term risk of death after first hospitalization for HF with men having higher short- and long-term risk of death than women. As our study population includes both men and women from all ages, the estimates we provide maybe a good reflection of 'daily practice' risk of death and therefore be valuable for clinicians and policymakers.

  17. Economic Implications of Japan's Ageing Population: A Macro-economic Demographic Modelling Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Naohiro

    1982-01-01

    This study discusses the impact of the aging of the Japanese population upon various socioeconomic factors. Major findings are that the rate of real gross national product growth will decline continuously and that more financial resources will be required for government social security programs. (Editor/CT)

  18. Changing the balance of social care for older people: simulating scenarios under demographic ageing in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lay-Yee, Roy; Pearson, Janet; Davis, Peter; von Randow, Martin; Kerse, Ngaire; Brown, Laurie

    2017-05-01

    The demographic ageing of New Zealand society, as elsewhere in the developed world, has dramatically increased the proportion of older people (aged 65 years and over) in the population. This has major policy implications for the future organisation of social care. Our objective was to test the effects on social care use, first, of putative changes in the overall disability profile of older people, and second, of alterations to the balance of their care, i.e. whether it was community-based or residential. In order to undertake these experiments, we developed a microsimulation model of the later life course using individual-level data from two official national survey series on health and disability, respectively, to generate a synthetic version which replicated original data and parameter settings. A baseline projection under current settings from 2001 to 2021 showed moderate increases in disability and associated social care use. Artificially decreasing disability levels, below the baseline projection, only moderately reduced the use of community care (both informal and formal). Scenarios implemented by rebalancing towards informal care use moderately reduced formal care use. However, only moderate compensatory increases in community-based care were required to markedly decrease the transition to residential care. The disability impact of demographic ageing may not have a major negative effect on system resources in developed countries like New Zealand. As well as healthy ageing, changing the balance of social care may alleviate the impact of increasing demand due to an expanding population of older people. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Gender, socioeconomic status, age, and jealousy: emotional responses to infidelity in a national sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Melanie C; Sabini, John

    2006-05-01

    The authors used a representative national sample (N = 777) to test the evolutionary hypothesis that men would be more bothered by sexual infidelity and women by emotional infidelity, the Jealousy as a Specific Innate Module (JSIM) effect. Our alternative conceptualization of jealousy suggests that there are distinct emotional components of jealousy that did not evolve differently by gender. The authors looked for effects of age, socioeconomic status (SES), and type of measure (continuous or dichotomous) on jealousy. The authors did not find age or SES effects. Forced-choice items provided support for our alternative view; both genders showed more anger and blame over sexual infidelity but more hurt feelings over emotional infidelity. Continuous measures indicated more emotional response to sexual than emotional infidelity among both genders.

  20. Stretch-shortening cycle muscle power in women and men aged 18-81 years: Influence of age and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwén, C E; Thorlund, J B; Magnusson, S P; Slinde, F; Svantesson, U; Hulthén, L; Aagaard, P

    2014-08-01

    This study explored the age-related deterioration in stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) muscle power and concurrent force-velocity properties in women and men across the adult life span. A total of 315 participants (women: n = 188; men: n = 127) aged 18-81 years performed maximal countermovement jumps on an instrumented force plate. Maximal SSC leg extension power expressed per kg body mass (Ppeak) was greater in men than in women across the adult age span (P < 0.001); however, this gender difference was progressively reduced with increasing age, because men showed an ∼50% faster rate of decline in SSC power than women (P < 0.001). Velocity at peak power (VPpeak) was greater in men than in women (P < 0.001) but declined at a greater rate in men than in women (P = 0.002). Vertical ground reaction force at peak power (FPpeak) was higher in men than in women in younger adults only (P < 0.001) and the age-related decline was steeper in men than in women (P < 0.001). Men demonstrated a steeper rate of decline in Ppeak than women with progressive aging. This novel finding emerged as a result of greater age-related losses in men for both force and velocity. Consequently, maximal SSC power production was observed to converge between genders when approaching old age.

  1. Potential gains in reproductive-aged life expectancy by eliminating maternal mortality: a demographic bonus of achieving MDG 5.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Canudas-Romo

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We assessed the change over time in the contribution of maternal mortality to a life expectancy calculated between ages 15 and 49, or Reproductive-Aged Life Expectancy (RALE. Our goal was to estimate the increase in RALE in developed countries over the twentieth century and the hypothetical gains in African countries today by eliminating maternal mortality. METHODS: Analogous to life expectancy, RALE is calculated from a life table of ages 15 to 49. Specifically, RALE is the average number of years that women at age 15 would be expected to live between 15 and 49 with current mortality rates. Associated single decrement life tables of causes of death other than maternal mortality are explored to assess the possible gains in RALE by reducing or eliminating maternal mortality. We used population-based data from the Human Mortality Database and the Demographic and Health Surveys. FINDINGS: In developed countries, five years in RALE were gained over the twentieth century, of which approximately 10%, or half a year, was attributable to reductions in maternal mortality. In sub-Saharan African countries, the possible achievable gains fluctuate between 0.24 and 1.47 years, or 6% and 44% of potential gains in RALE. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal mortality is a rare event, yet it is still a very important component of RALE. Averting the burden of maternal deaths could return a significant increase in the most productive ages of human life.

  2. Statin prescribing according to gender, age and indication: what about the benefit-risk balance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallach-Kildemoes, Helle; Stovring, Henrik; Holme Hansen, Ebba; Howse, Kenneth; Pétursson, Hálfdán

    2016-04-01

    The increasing dispensing of statins has raised concern about the appropriateness of prescribing to various population groups. We aimed to (1) investigate incident and prevalent statin prescribing according to indication, gender and age and (2) relate prescribing patterns to evidence on beneficial and adverse effects. A cohort of Danish inhabitants (n = 4 424 818) was followed in nationwide registries for dispensed statin prescriptions and hospital discharge information. We calculated incidence rates (2005-2009), prevalence trends (2000-2010) and absolute numbers of statin users according to register proxies for indication, gender and age. In 2010, the prevalence became highest for ages 75-84 and was higher in men than women (37% and 33%, respectively). Indication-specific incidences and prevalences peaked at ages around 65-70, but in myocardial infarction, the prevalence was about 80% at ages 45-80. Particularly, incidences tended to be lower in women until ages of about 60 where after gender differences were negligible. In asymptomatic individuals (hypercholesterolaemia, presumably only indication) aged 50+, dispensing was highest in women. The fraction of statin dispensing for primary prevention decreased with age: higher for incident than prevalent prescribing. Independent of age, this fraction was highest among women, e.g. 60% versus 45% at ages 55-64. The fraction for potential atherosclerotic condition (PAC, e.g. heart failure) increased with age. Prevalence of statin utilization was highest for ages 75-84, although indication-specific measures were relatively low. Despite inconclusive evidence for a favourable risk-benefit balance, statin prescribing was high among people aged 80+, asymptomatic women and PAC patients. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Association of socio-economic and demographic factors with physical activity of males and females aged 20–69 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Biernat

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available [b]Objective[/b]. To assess the physical activity of working residents of Warsaw aged 20–69 years, as well as to identify the socio-demographic factors associated with their levels of physical activity. [b]Materials and method[/b]. The study involved 2,544 working residents of Warsaw aged 20–69 years. The short version of the IPAQ was applied and four physical activity levels (insufficient, sufficient, augmented, high were distinguished. The relationships between physical activity and gender, age, BMI, education, economic and martial status as well as participation in recreation were determined. [b]Results[/b]. High levels of physical activity were reached by 8% of respondents, 22% achieved augmented level, 32% were sufficiently and 32% insufficiently active. Out of 2544 studied subjects, 6% declared complete sedentariness. Females were, as compared to males, more frequently (p<0.05 insufficiently active (35.9 vs. 31.9%. In obese and overweight subjects insufficient physical activity predominated (42.9 and 36.2%, respectively and was significantly more frequent than in subjects with normal BMI (31.0%. Moreover, the subjects living in partner relationships were significantly (p<0.05 more frequently insufficiently active than those staying single (36.3 vs. 30.3%. Respondents who declared regular participation in leisure activities were less frequently insufficiently active (20.0% and more frequently met the criteria of sufficient (37.6%, augmented (28.0% or high (14.4% level of physical activity. No significant effects were found with respect to education of respondents. [b]Conclusions[/b]. Prophylactic schedules associated with the improvement of physical activity level should be addressed particularly to females, people taking up recreation occasionally or to those not involved in recreation at all, living in partner relationships, youngest (21–30 years, in obese and overweight and in the lowest economic category.

  4. Age, period, or birth cohort: What determines demographic differences in seafood consumption?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim; Lund, Eiliv; Trondsen, Torbjørn

    Effects of age, period and birth cohort on consumption of fat fish, lean fish and processed fish were estimated based on panel data from the Norwegian Women and Seafood Consumption Study (NOWAC). Cohorts selected for the present analysis were women born between 1951 and 1966. Survey questionnaires...... fish increased between 1996 and 2001, while consumption of lean fish decreased. All three period effects were stable across birth cohorts. Estimation of polynomial contrasts indicated that birth cohort itself had linear effects on consumption, with older generations consuming significantly more fat...... and lean fish, but less processed fish than younger generations. Finally, the effects of cohort and period on consumption of lean and processed fish remained stable when biological age was controlled for, whilst the effect of period on fat fish consumption vanished. Regarding total consumption of fat fish...

  5. Electroconvulsive therapy clinical database: Influence of age and gender on the electrical charge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador Sánchez, Javier; David, Mónica Delia; Torrent Setó, Aurora; Martínez Alonso, Montserrat; Portella Moll, Maria J; Pifarré Paredero, Josep; Vieta Pascual, Eduard; Mur Laín, María

    The influence of age and gender in the electrical charge delivered in a given population was analysed using an electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) clinical database. An observational, prospective, longitudinal study with descriptive analysis was performed using data from a database that included total bilateral frontotemporal ECT carried out with a Mecta spECTrum 5000Q(®) in our hospital over 6 years. From 2006 to 2012, a total of 4,337 ECT were performed on 187 patients. Linear regression using mixed effects analysis was weighted by the inverse of the number of ECT performed on each patient per year of treatment. The results indicate that age is related with changes in the required charge (P=.031), as such that the older the age a higher charge is needed. Gender is also associated with changes in charge (P=.014), with women requiring less charge than men, a mean of 87.3mC less. When the effects of age and gender are included in the same model, both are significant (P=.0080 and P=.0041). Thus, for the same age, women require 99.0mC less charge than men, and in both genders the charge increases by 2.3mC per year. From our study, it is concluded that the effect of age on the dosage of the electrical charge is even more significant when related to gender. It would be of interest to promote the systematic collection of data for a better understanding and application of the technique. Copyright © 2015 SEP y SEPB. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Social Cognitive Predictors of Peer Acceptance at Age 5 and the Moderating Effects of Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braza, Francisco; Azurmendi, Aitziber; Munoz, Jose M.; Carreras, Maria R.; Braza, Paloma; Garcia, Ainhoa; Sorozabal, Aizpea; Sanchez-Martin, Jose R.

    2009-01-01

    In this study we examined the effects of social intelligence, empathy, verbal ability and appearance-reality distinction on the level of peer acceptance, as well as the moderating role of gender. Participants were 98 five-year-old children (43 boys and 55 girls; mean age 5 years 3 months for boys and girls). Our results showed a main effect of…

  7. Gender and Age Patterns in Emotional Expression, Body Image, and Self-Esteem: A Qualitative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polce-Lynch, Mary; Myers, Barbara J.; Kilmartin, Christopher T.; Forssmann-Falck, Renate; Kliewer, Wendy

    1998-01-01

    Used written narratives to examine gender and age patterns in body image, emotional expression, and self-esteem for 209 students in grades 5, 8, and 12. Results indicate that boys restrict emotional expression in adolescence, whereas girls increase emotional expression in the same period. Girls also are more influenced by body image. (SLD)

  8. The effect of gender and age structure on municipal waste generation in Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talalaj, Izabela Anna, E-mail: izabela.tj@gmail.com; Walery, Maria, E-mail: m.walery@pb.edu.pl

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • An effect of gender and age structure on municipal waste generation was presented. • The waste accumulation index is influenced by a number of unemployed women. • Greater share of women in society contributes to greater waste production. • A model describing the analyzed dependences was determined. - Abstract: In this study the effect of gender and age structure on municipal waste generation was investigated. The data from 10-year period, from 2001 to 2010 year, were taken into consideration. The following parameters of gender and age structure were analyzed: men and woman quantity, female to male ratio, number of working, pre-working and post-working age men/women, number of unemployed men/women. The results have showed a strong correlation of annual per capita waste generation rate with number of unemployed women (r = 0.70) and female to male ratio (r = 0.81). This indicates that waste generation rate is more depended on ratio of men and women that on quantitative size of each group. Using the regression analysis a model describing the dependence between female to male ratio, number of unemployed woman and waste quantity was determined. The model explains 70% of waste quantity variation. Obtained results can be used both to improve waste management and to a fuller understanding of gender behavior.

  9. Gender Differences in Food Preferences of School-Aged Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caine-Bish, Natalie L.; Scheule, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    Background: Schools have the opportunity, through the National School Lunch Program and Local School Wellness Policies, to have a significant impact on healthy eating behaviors. An understanding of children's and adolescents' food preferences in relation to gender and age will facilitate the successful creation of both healthy and financially…

  10. Age, Gender and Job Satisfaction among Elementary School Head Teachers in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazi, Safdar Rehman; Maringe, Felix

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore general job satisfaction of elementary school head teachers in Pakistan with respect to their age and gender. One hundred and eighty head teachers were sampled from government elementary schools of Toba Tek Singh, Punjab, Pakistan, to collect the relevant data using a modified version of the Minnesota…

  11. Effects of Age, Gender and Educational Background on Strength of Motivation for Medical School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusurkar, Rashmi; Kruitwagen, Cas; ten Cate, Olle; Croiset, Gerda

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of selection, educational background, age and gender on strength of motivation to attend and pursue medical school. Graduate entry (GE) medical students (having Bachelor's degree in Life Sciences or related field) and Non-Graduate Entry (NGE) medical students (having only completed high school),…

  12. Health and Ageing in Older Adults: A gender-specific and life-course perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Jaspers (Loes)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractIn this thesis we aimed to provide insights in health and ageing of older adults whilst adopting an integrated, gender-specific, and life-course approach. As a first step we studied the global micro-economic and macro-economic impact of NCDs in societies. Thereafter, we developed a

  13. Who is affected by neighbourhood income mix? gender, age, family, employment and income differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galster, G.; Andersson, R.; Musterd, S.

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses the degree to which the mixture of low-, middle- and high-income males in the neighbourhood affects the subsequent earnings of individuals, and aims to test explicitly the degree to which these impacts vary across gender, age, presence of children, employment status or income at

  14. Age, Gender and Social Class in ELT Coursebooks: A Critical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arikan, Arda

    2005-01-01

    Recent trends in English Language Teaching (ELT) research necessitates the study of coursebooks and instructional materials from various perspectives including but not limited to their cultural, social, and psychological qualities and effects (Kramsch 2000). Age, social class, and gender, as represented in coursebooks are studied because teachers…

  15. Children's Attitudes toward Singing and Song Recordings Related to Gender, Ethnicity, and Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebenaler, Dennis

    2008-01-01

    This study examines students' attitudes toward singing and choir participation related to gender, age, and ethnic background. It also looks at attitudes toward recordings from basal music series that are designed to provide an appropriate model and to encourage singing. Participants (N = 249) were third to fifth graders enrolled in two public…

  16. Age and gender differences in self-esteem : A cross-cultural window

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleidorn, Wiebke; Arslan, R.C.; Denissen, J.J.A.; Rentfrow, P.J.; Gebauer, J.E.; Potter, J.; Gosling, S.D.

    2016-01-01

    Research and theorizing on gender and age differences in self-esteem have played a prominent role in psychology over the past 20 years. However, virtually all empirical research has been undertaken in the United States or other Western industrialized countries, providing a narrow empirical base from

  17. Impact of vocational interests, previous academic experience, gender and age on Situational Judgement Test performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schripsema, Nienke R; van Trigt, Anke M; Borleffs, Jan C C; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke

    2017-01-01

    Situational Judgement Tests (SJTs) are increasingly implemented in medical school admissions. In this paper, we investigate the effects of vocational interests, previous academic experience, gender and age on SJT performance. The SJT was part of the selection process for the Bachelor's degree progra

  18. Gait impairment in cervical spondylotic myelopathy: comparison with age- and gender-matched healthy controls.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Malone, Ailish

    2012-12-01

    Gait impairment is a primary symptom of cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM); however, little is known about specific kinetic and kinematic gait parameters. The objectives of the study were: (1) to compare gait patterns of people with untreated CSM to those of age- and gender-matched healthy controls; (2) to examine the effect of gait speed on kinematic and kinetic parameters.

  19. Gender Differences in the Age-Changing Relationship between Instrumentality and Family Contact in Emerging Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneed, Joel R.; Johnson, Jeffrey G.; Cohen, Patricia; Gilligan, Carol; Chen, Henian; Crawford, Thomas N.; Kasen, Stephanie

    2006-01-01

    Data from the Children in the Community Transitions Study were used to examine gender differences in the impact of family contact on the development of finance and romance instrumentality from ages 17 to 27 years. Family contact decreased among both men and women across emerging adulthood, although it decreased more rapidly in men than in women.…

  20. Playing-Related Musculoskeletal Problems in Child Instrumentalists: The Influence of Gender, Age and Instrument Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranelli, Sonia; Smith, Anne; Straker, Leon

    2011-01-01

    Playing-related musculoskeletal problems (PRMP) are common in adult musicians. The limited available evidence suggests PRMP are common in children and adolescents and that risk factors may be similar. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of PRMP in children and adolescents and their associations with female gender, age and…

  1. Mathematics Confidence, Grade-Level Choice, Gender, and Age in Preservice Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Lesley Knoth

    2012-01-01

    Problem: The purpose of the study was to determine whether teachers' mathematics confidence influenced their choice of grade level. The study also examined whether there was a difference in teachers' mathematics confidence based on their age or gender. Method: A 6-item Mathematics Survey was distributed to 83 single-and multiple-subject preservice…

  2. Gender Differences in Food Preferences of School-Aged Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caine-Bish, Natalie L.; Scheule, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    Background: Schools have the opportunity, through the National School Lunch Program and Local School Wellness Policies, to have a significant impact on healthy eating behaviors. An understanding of children's and adolescents' food preferences in relation to gender and age will facilitate the successful creation of both healthy and financially…

  3. Mathematics Confidence, Grade-Level Choice, Gender, and Age in Preservice Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Lesley Knoth

    2012-01-01

    Problem: The purpose of the study was to determine whether teachers' mathematics confidence influenced their choice of grade level. The study also examined whether there was a difference in teachers' mathematics confidence based on their age or gender. Method: A 6-item Mathematics Survey was distributed to 83 single-and multiple-subject preservice…

  4. Acceptance of Genetic Testing in a General Population: Age, Education and Gender Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aro, A. R.; Hakonen, A.; Hietala, M.; Lonnqvist, J.; Niemela, P.; Peltonen, L; Aula, P.

    1997-01-01

    Effects of age, education, and gender on acceptance of genetic testing were studied. Finnish participants responded to a questionnaire presenting reasons for and against genetic testing (N=1,967). Intentions to take genetic tests, worries, and experience of genetic test or hereditary disease were also assessed. Results are presented and discussed.…

  5. Problematic Internet Usage: Personality Traits, Gender, Age and Effect of Dispositional Hope Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin Gudunz, Hicran; Eksioglu, Subhan; Tarhan, Sinem

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to examine the effect of personality traits, gender, age and effects of dispositional hope level in problematic internet usage of university students. Research Methods: This paper is an example of a descriptive study, which presents the relationship between problematic internet usage of university students…

  6. Age, Gender and Social Class in ELT Coursebooks: A Critical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arikan, Arda

    2005-01-01

    Recent trends in English Language Teaching (ELT) research necessitates the study of coursebooks and instructional materials from various perspectives including but not limited to their cultural, social, and psychological qualities and effects (Kramsch 2000). Age, social class, and gender, as represented in coursebooks are studied because teachers…

  7. Gender, Age, Attendance at a Place of Worship and Young People's Attitudes towards the Bible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freathy, R. J. K.

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the outcomes of a questionnaire survey which sought to ascertain the attitudes of young people towards the Bible. One thousand and sixty-six pupils from Years 6, 9 and 12 in nine English schools participated. The young people's attitudes are discussed in relation to gender, age and attendance at a place of worship. The…

  8. Invariance of an Extended Technology Acceptance Model Across Gender and Age Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Tunku Badariah Tunku; Madarsha, Kamal Basha; Zainuddin, Ahmad Marzuki; Ismail, Nik Ahmad Hisham; Khairani, Ahmad Zamri; Nordin, Mohamad Sahari

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we examined the likelihood of a TAME (extended technology acceptance model), in which the interrelationships among computer self-efficacy, perceived usefulness, intention to use and self-reported use of computer-mediated technology were tested. In addition, the gender- and age-invariant of its causal structure were evaluated. The…

  9. Effects of aging, gender, and physical training on peripheral vascular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, W H; Ogawa, T; Kohrt, W M; Malley, M T; Korte, E; Kieffer, P S; Schechtman, K B

    1991-08-01

    Blood pressure and total peripheral resistance increase with age. However, the effect of age on vasodilatory capacity has not been characterized. To delineate the effects of aging, gender, and physical training on peripheral vascular function, we measured blood pressure during submaximal and maximal treadmill exercise and measured blood pressure, calf blood flow, and calf conductance (blood flow/mean blood pressure) at rest and during maximal hyperemia in 58 healthy sedentary subjects (men aged 25 +/- 5 and 65 +/- 3 years and women aged 27 +/- 5 and 65 +/- 4 years) and in 52 endurance exercise-trained subjects (men aged 30 +/- 3 and 65 +/- 4 years and women aged 27 +/- 3 and 65 +/- 3 years). Systolic and mean blood pressures were higher at rest, during maximal calf hyperemia, and during submaximal exercise of the same intensity in the older than in the younger subjects of the same gender and exercise training status (p less than 0.01). The magnitude of the age-related effect on blood pressure during exercise was greater in women than in men (p less than 0.01). Diastolic blood pressure during submaximal exercise was also higher in the older than in the younger subjects (p less than 0.05) but not in women treated with estrogen replacement. In contrast, systolic and mean blood pressures during submaximal work were lower in physically conditioned subjects than in sedentary age- and gender-matched subjects (p less than 0.05) but not in older women. Increased age was associated with reduced maximal calf conductance in women (p less than 0.01) but not in men. However, calf vasodilatory capacity was higher in trained than in untrained subjects (p less than 0.01), regardless of age and gender. There was a significant inverse relation between maximal calf conductance and systolic, diastolic, and mean blood pressures during submaximal exercise (r = -0.31 to -0.53, p less than 0.01) and a direct relation between maximal calf conductance and maximal oxygen uptake (r = 0.66, p

  10. [The (in)visible gender of third age in nursing knowledge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Maria do Livramento Fortes; Tyrrel, Maria Antonieta Rubio

    2005-01-01

    This is a bibliographic study in which a research of scientific production regarding to Woman in the Third Age was proceeded, analizing the catalogue of Dissertations and Thesis of the Center of Studies and Researches in Nursing (CEPEn) of the Brazilian Association of Nursing (ABEn) available in CD-ROM, comprising the period from 1979 to 1999. The objective was to know the removals and approaches in nursing knowledge concerning the study object from the doctorate thesis "The ageing women's knowledge and health practices in gender perspective". It was concluded that the issue of woman in the third age was investigated in few studies. In addition, those researches' objects was strongly removed from gender issues, demonstrating that sexual approach of ageing was out of consideration, as well as denial of woman's social roles.

  11. Effect of age and gender on children’s reading performance: The possible neural underpinnings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippos Vlachos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to assess the effect of age and gender on second-grade children’s reading performance. Two hundred and eighty-seven children aged 7.1–8.2 years were divided into two age subgroups (the younger, 85–91 months and the older, 92–98 months and were examined in reading accuracy, fluency, and comprehension tasks. Results showed a significant effect of age in reading performance, with the older children having better scores than younger ones for reading fluency, reading comprehension, and the total reading performance. Gender was not found to play an important role in reading performance. The findings are discussed on the ground of functional brain development and the different rates of cerebral maturation.

  12. Dietary fat and risk of coronary heart disease: possible effect modification by gender and age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Overvad, Kim; Dyerberg, Jørn

    2004-01-01

    In a 16-year follow-up study (ending in 1998) of 3,686 Danish men and women aged 30–71 years at recruitment, the association between energy intake from dietary fat and the risk of coronary heart disease was evaluated while assessing the possible modifying role of gender and age. In the models used...... not significantly. In conclusion, the present study suggests that coronary heart disease risk relates to both the quantity and the quality of dietary fats....

  13. Age, gender and puberty influence the development of facial emotion recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Lawrence, Kate; Campbell, Ruth; Skuse, David

    2015-01-01

    Our ability to differentiate between simple facial expressions of emotion develops between infancy and early adulthood, yet few studies have explored the developmental trajectory of emotion recognition using a single methodology across a wide age-range. We investigated the development of emotion recognition abilities through childhood and adolescence, testing the hypothesis that children’s ability to recognize simple emotions is modulated by chronological age, pubertal stage and gender. In or...

  14. Effects of age, gender, and gonadectomy on neurochemistry and behavior in animal models of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamás, Andrea; Lubics, Andrea; Lengvári, István; Reglodi, Dóra

    2006-04-01

    The effects of aging and gender on the neurochemistry of the dopaminergic system have been studied extensively; however, data on comparative behavioral consequences of lesions of the dopaminergic system in aging and in female animals are limited. This study presents experimental results on the behavioral and morphological outcome in young, aging, and gonadectomized male and female rats in the 6-OHDA model of Parkinson's disease. Both young and aging male animals were more susceptible to 6-OHDA than females: female rats had significantly less dopaminergic cell loss and showed a higher degree of behavioral recovery. Although the dopaminergic cell loss was only slightly more in the aging rats of the same sex, they showed more severe behavioral deficits in both gender groups. Ovariectomy did not significantly influence the dopaminergic cell loss, but behavioral recovery was worse when compared to non-ovariectomized females. In contrast, castrated males had significantly less dopaminergic cell loss than non-castrated males, but the behavioral recovery was not significantly better. The obtained results are discussed in light of the available literature on the age and gender differences in animals models of Parkinson's disease.

  15. Age and gender-related differences in a spatial memory task in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, Irene; Tascón, Laura; Cimadevilla, José Manuel

    2016-06-01

    Cognitive skills decline with age. Our ability to keep oriented in our surrounding environment was demonstrated to be influenced by factors like age and gender. Introduction of virtual reality based tasks improved assessment of spatial memory in humans. In this study, spatial orientation was assessed in a virtual memory task in order to determine the effect of aging and gender on navigational skills. Subjects from 45 to 74 years of age were organized in three groups (45-54, 55-64, 65-74 years old). Two levels of difficulty were considered. Results showed that males outperformed females in 65-74 years-old group. In addition to this, females showed a more noticeable poor performance in spatial memory than males, since memory differences appeared between all age groups. On the other hand, 65-74 year-old males showed an impaired performance in comparison with 45-54 year-old group. These results support that spatial memory becomes less accurate as we age and gender is an important factor influencing spatial orientation skills.

  16. Age, Gender and Suicidal Ideation Following Voluntary HIV Counseling and Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourens Schlebusch

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of suicidal ideation in patients who were tested for HIV-infection and whether along with their HIV status, age and gender influenced their risk for suicidal ideation. The sample consisted of 189 patients who attended a voluntary HIV counseling and testing clinic (VCT at a general state hospital in Durban, South Africa. Their mean age at baseline was 34.2 years, with an age range of between 16–79 years. Seropositivity, age and gender were significantly associated with suicidal ideation. The majority of these patients were in the younger age group, and young males had a 1.8 times higher risk for suicidal ideation than females. Although risk factors for seropositive-related suicidal ideation can be complex and multi-factorial, this study identified a young age and male gender as important high risk factors in the sample studied. It is recommended that all, but especially young male HIV-infected patients seen at a VCT clinic be screened for suicidal ideation and that early intervention to prevent subsequent suicides or suicidal attempts be included in pre- and post-test HIV counseling.

  17. [Spatial pattern and consequences of demographic aging processes for regional planning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, K

    1991-01-01

    The spatial dimension of man-environment interactions in old age is analyzed within urban, suburban, and rural residential environments of the German Rhine-Main-Agglomeration. By comparing the three levels of organization, utilization, and interpretation, housing conditions as well as geographical distribution and redistribution (migrations) our outside-home-activities and environmental perception show a fundamental influence on the everyday lives of the 750 elderly who were interviewed. The majority of the target population and, especially, the rural elderly is characterized by traditional patterns of spatial organization and distribution, mobility, regional attachment, and a concern about preserving the stability of their current residential environment from changes. The suburban and urban seniors, however, exhibit a greater amount of locational flexibility and utility-oriented behavior patterns. These spatial variations are induced by specific regional values and intensity of local and regional identification. They might be interpreted as different stages in the process of modernization within postindustrial societies. Reflecting, however, the paradigms of planning for the elderly, these different patterns are not systematically considered to the necessary and sufficient extent. Instead of promoting regional or local networks that are favored by senior citizens, agencies usually prefer comprehensive approaches on a macrolevel. First steps to improve this situation and to combine life- and system-world demands have been taken by the federal government, which implemented a neighborhood-related research program on housing for the elderly. As a result of this, further research on environmental aspects on aging should pay more methodological attention to the hitherto neglected regional and local level, and also for the transfer of its findings into planning policy.

  18. Gender and Age-Dependent Etiology of Community-Acquired Urinary Tract Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Magliano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections (UTIs are among the most frequent community-acquired infections worldwide. Escherichia coli is the most common UTI pathogen although underlying host factors such as patients’ age and gender may influence prevalence of causative agents. In this study, 61 273 consecutive urine samples received over a 22-month period from outpatients clinics of an urban area of north Italy underwent microbiological culture with subsequent bacterial identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of positive samples. A total of 13 820 uropathogens were isolated and their prevalence analyzed according to patient’s gender and age group. Overall Escherichia coli accounted for 67.6% of all isolates, followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (8.8%, Enterococcus faecalis (6.3%, Proteus mirabilis (5.2%, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (2.5%. Data stratification according to both age and gender showed E. coli isolation rates to be lower in both males aged ≥60 years (52.2%, E. faecalis and P. aeruginosa being more prevalent in this group (11.6% and 7.8%, resp., as well as in those aged ≤14 years (51.3% in whom P. mirabilis prevalence was found to be as high as 21.2%. Streptococcus agalactiae overall prevalence was found to be 2.3% although it was shown to occur most frequently in women aged between 15 and 59 years (4.1%. Susceptibility of E. coli to oral antimicrobial agents was demonstrated to be as follows: fosfomycin (72.9%, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (72.9%, ciprofloxacin (76.8%, ampicillin (48.0%, and amoxicillin/clavulanate (77.5%. In conclusion, both patients’ age and gender are significant factors in determining UTIs etiology; they can increase accuracy in defining the causative uropathogen as well as providing useful guidance to empiric treatment.

  19. The Conundrum of Demographic Aging and Policy Challenges: A Comparative Case Study of Canada, Japan and Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McDaniel, Susan A.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractSome analysts lean toward comparative analyses of population aging, then draw potential policy implications. Others lean in the direction of attention to differences in policy regimes and then consider implications of population aging. Key differences among advanced societies may not emanate from demographic aging but from differences in how markets, states, and families work to redistribute societal benefits. In this paper, three countries with contrasting configurations of markets, states, and families, and at different stages of demographic aging, are compared and contrasted: Canada, Japan, and Korea. The paper has three objectives: 1to outline key changes in population, family, and work in the three countries; 2 to consider how knowledge about these changes, their dynamics and interrelationships, is framed with respect to policy options; and 3 to compare Canada, Japan, and Korea in terms of the framing of policy challenges related to demographic aging. It is found that Canada is joining the longstanding pattern of Japan and Korea of late home-leaving by youth, meaning less effective time in the paid labour force. Little deep connection exists between population aging andeconomic productivity or labour force shortages. Differential labour market participation of women mediates the effects of population aging.RésuméIl y a des analystes qui ont un penchant pour les analyses comparatives du vieillissement despopulations, puis en déduisent les implications possibles sur les politiques. D’autres préfèrentporter leur attention sur les différences dans les régimes de politiques, puis considèrent lesimplications sur le vieillissement des populations. Il est possible que les différences majeuresdans les civilisations de pointe ne soient pas apparentes dans le vieillissement démographique mais plutôt dans les différentes manières dont les marchés, les états, et les familles oeuvrent àredistribuer les avantages sociaux. Dans

  20. Who tweets? Deriving the demographic characteristics of age, occupation and social class from twitter user meta-data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, Luke; Morgan, Jeffrey; Burnap, Pete; Williams, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    This paper specifies, designs and critically evaluates two tools for the automated identification of demographic data (age, occupation and social class) from the profile descriptions of Twitter users in the United Kingdom (UK). Meta-data data routinely collected through the Collaborative Social Media Observatory (COSMOS: http://www.cosmosproject.net/) relating to UK Twitter users is matched with the occupational lookup tables between job and social class provided by the Office for National Statistics (ONS) using SOC2010. Using expert human validation, the validity and reliability of the automated matching process is critically assessed and a prospective class distribution of UK Twitter users is offered with 2011 Census baseline comparisons. The pattern matching rules for identifying age are explained and enacted following a discussion on how to minimise false positives. The age distribution of Twitter users, as identified using the tool, is presented alongside the age distribution of the UK population from the 2011 Census. The automated occupation detection tool reliably identifies certain occupational groups, such as professionals, for which job titles cannot be confused with hobbies or are used in common parlance within alternative contexts. An alternative explanation on the prevalence of hobbies is that the creative sector is overrepresented on Twitter compared to 2011 Census data. The age detection tool illustrates the youthfulness of Twitter users compared to the general UK population as of the 2011 Census according to proportions, but projections demonstrate that there is still potentially a large number of older platform users. It is possible to detect "signatures" of both occupation and age from Twitter meta-data with varying degrees of accuracy (particularly dependent on occupational groups) but further confirmatory work is needed.

  1. Socio-demographic and lifestyle factors associated with overweight in a representative sample of 11-15 year olds in France: results from the WHO-Collaborative Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuy, Marie; Godeau, Emmanuelle; Vignes, Céline; Ahluwalia, Namanjeet

    2011-06-07

    The prevalence of overweight in children and adolescents is high and overweight is associated with poor health outcomes over short- and long-term. Lifestyle factors can interact to influence overweight. Comprehensive studies linking overweight concomitantly with several demographic and potentially-modifiable lifestyle factors and health-risk behaviours are limited in adolescents--an age-group characterized by changes in lifestyle behaviours and high prevalence of overweight. Thus, the objective of the current study was to examine the association of overweight with several socio-demographic and lifestyle variables simultaneously in a representative sample of adolescents. A nationally representative sample of 11-15 year-olds (n = 7154) in France participated as part of the WHO-Collaborative Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study. Students reported data on their age, height, weight, socio-demographic variables, lifestyle factors including nutrition practices, physical activity at two levels of intensity (moderate and vigorous), sedentary behaviours, as well as smoking and alcohol consumption patterns using standardized HBSC protocols. Overweight (including obesity) was defined using the IOTF reference. The multivariate association of overweight with several socio-demographic and lifestyle factors was examined with logistic regression models. The adjusted odds ratios for the association with overweight were: 1.80 (95% CI: 1.37-2.36) for low family affluence; 0.73 (0.60-0.88) for eating breakfast daily; 0.69 (0.56-0.84) for moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA); and 0.71 (0.59-0.86) for vigorous physical activity (VPA). Significant interactions between age and gender as well as television (TV) viewing and gender were noted: for boys, overweight was not associated with age or TV viewing; in contrast, for girls overweight correlated negatively with age and positively with TV viewing. Fruit and vegetable intake, computer and video-games use, smoking

  2. Socio-demographic and lifestyle factors associated with overweight in a representative sample of 11-15 year olds in France: Results from the WHO-Collaborative Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godeau Emmanuelle

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of overweight in children and adolescents is high and overweight is associated with poor health outcomes over short- and long-term. Lifestyle factors can interact to influence overweight. Comprehensive studies linking overweight concomitantly with several demographic and potentially-modifiable lifestyle factors and health-risk behaviours are limited in adolescents - an age-group characterized by changes in lifestyle behaviours and high prevalence of overweight. Thus, the objective of the current study was to examine the association of overweight with several socio-demographic and lifestyle variables simultaneously in a representative sample of adolescents. Methods A nationally representative sample of 11-15 year-olds (n = 7154 in France participated as part of the WHO-Collaborative Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC study. Students reported data on their age, height, weight, socio-demographic variables, lifestyle factors including nutrition practices, physical activity at two levels of intensity (moderate and vigorous, sedentary behaviours, as well as smoking and alcohol consumption patterns using standardized HBSC protocols. Overweight (including obesity was defined using the IOTF reference. The multivariate association of overweight with several socio-demographic and lifestyle factors was examined with logistic regression models. Results The adjusted odds ratios for the association with overweight were: 1.80 (95% CI: 1.37-2.36 for low family affluence; 0.73 (0.60-0.88 for eating breakfast daily; 0.69 (0.56-0.84 for moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA; and 0.71 (0.59-0.86 for vigorous physical activity (VPA. Significant interactions between age and gender as well as television (TV viewing and gender were noted: for boys, overweight was not associated with age or TV viewing; in contrast, for girls overweight correlated negatively with age and positively with TV viewing. Fruit and vegetable

  3. Multiple linear regression to develop strength scaled equations for knee and elbow joints based on age, gender and segment mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Souza, Sonia; Rasmussen, John; Schwirtz, Ansgar

    2012-01-01

    and valuable ergonomic tool. Objective: To investigate age and gender effects on the torque-producing ability in the knee and elbow in older adults. To create strength scaled equations based on age, gender, upper/lower limb lengths and masses using multiple linear regression. To reduce the number of dependent...

  4. Gender Agreement in Adult Second Language Learners and Spanish Heritage Speakers: The Effects of Age and Context of Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montrul, Silvina; Foote, Rebecca; Perpinan, Silvia

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates knowledge of gender agreement in Spanish L2 learners and heritage speakers, who differ in age and context/mode of acquisition. On some current theoretical accounts, persistent difficulty with grammatical gender in adult L2 acquisition is due to age. These accounts predict that heritage speakers should be more accurate on…

  5. Effects of age, gender, and stimulus presentation period on visual short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunimi, Mitsunobu

    2016-01-01

    This study focused on age-related changes in visual short-term memory using visual stimuli that did not allow verbal encoding. Experiment 1 examined the effects of age and the length of the stimulus presentation period on visual short-term memory function. Experiment 2 examined the effects of age, gender, and the length of the stimulus presentation period on visual short-term memory function. The worst memory performance and the largest performance difference between the age groups were observed in the shortest stimulus presentation period conditions. The performance difference between the age groups became smaller as the stimulus presentation period became longer; however, it did not completely disappear. Although gender did not have a significant effect on d' regardless of the presentation period in the young group, a significant gender-based difference was observed for stimulus presentation periods of 500 ms and 1,000 ms in the older group. This study indicates that the decline in visual short-term memory observed in the older group is due to the interaction of several factors.

  6. Assessment of Oro-Maxillofacial Trauma According to Gender, Age, Cause and Type of the Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matijević, Marko; Sikora, Miroslav; Leović, Dinko; Mumlek, Ivan; Macan, Darko

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The occurrence and causes of maxillofacial trauma varies in different regions of the world. The aim of this study was to identify the occurrence, types and causes of maxillofacial injuries according to the age and gender differences in patients treated at the Department of Maxillofacial Surgery, University Hospital Center Osijek, between January 2011 and December 2013. Materials and methods A total of 64 patients, 41 males (64.1%) and 23 females (35.9%), aged from 18 to 86 years (mean age 42) participated in the study. Data collected and analyzed included gender, age, cause of injury and the type of maxillofacial injuries. Results The most common cause of injuries in both gender groups was falling down (39% males; 65% females). The second leading cause of injuries in males was interpersonal violence (29%) and in females traffic accident (26%) (p0.05). The most common causes of injuries in the youngest patients was violence (43%), and in others fall (50-70%; p0.05). The majority of the falls and violence caused bone tissue injuries, and soft tissue and dentalveolar injuries were detected in traffic and sports accidents (p>0.05). Conclusion Falling down was the most common cause of oro-maxillofacial injuries in both men and women and in all three age groups. The leading type of injury was bone injury. The data obtained from this study provide important information for future prevention from injuries. PMID:27688419

  7. Age, education, and the gender gap in the sense of control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slagsvold, Britt; Sørensen, Annemette

    2008-01-01

    High sense of control is related to benefits in many aspects of life, and education is known to be strongly related to sense of control. In this article we explore why women tend to feel a lower sense of control than men, and why the sense of control tends to be lower among the elderly than among younger people. In particular we explore the role played by education in explaining age- and gender differences in sense of control. The analysis is based on data from the first wave of the Norwegian NorLAG study, with a representative sample of adults aged 40-79 in 30 municipalities. We find that education accounts for some of the age and gender differences in sense of control, but the mediating effects of education are rather modest. We find an increasing gender gap in sense of control with age, and this increasing gap is completely explained by differences in education. Gender differences in sense of control is explained completely by four factors, which are related to resources and power; physical health, education, living with a partner, and leadership experience. Age differences in sense of control are only partially explained. Education, physical health and employment status cuts the age effect on sense of control to half. The effect of education on sense of control is partly mediated through what we suggest are tangible benefits of education, namely health, employment, and leadership experience. Education also influences individuals through socialization mechanisms. We view agentive orientation as a psychological benefit of education, and measure this characteristic with Bem's (1981) sex-role scale on masculinity. Agentive orientation completely explains the remaining effect of education on sense of control.

  8. Age, Gender, and Fine-Grained Ethnicity Prediction using Convolutional Neural Networks for the East Asian Face Dataset

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srinivas, Nisha [ORNL; Rose, Derek C [ORNL; Bolme, David S [ORNL; Mahalingam, Gayathri [ORNL; Atwal, Harleen [ORNL; Ricanek, Karl [ORNL

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the difficulty associated with performing machine-based automatic demographic prediction on a sub-population of Asian faces. We introduce the Wild East Asian Face dataset (WEAFD), a new and unique dataset to the research community. This dataset consists primarily of labeled face images of individuals from East Asian countries, including Vietnam, Burma, Thailand, China, Korea, Japan, Indonesia, and Malaysia. East Asian turk annotators were uniquely used to judge the age and fine grain ethnicity attributes to reduce the impact of the other race effect and improve quality of annotations. We focus on predicting age, gender and fine-grained ethnicity of an individual by providing baseline results with a convolutional neural network (CNN). Finegrained ethnicity prediction refers to predicting ethnicity of an individual by country or sub-region (Chinese, Japanese, Korean, etc.) of the East Asian continent. Performance for two CNN architectures is presented, highlighting the difficulty of these tasks and showcasing potential design considerations that ease network optimization by promoting region based feature extraction.

  9. Production activities and economic dependency by age and gender in Europe: A cross-country comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Bernhard; Prskawetz, Alexia; Freund, Inga

    2015-01-01

    We compare selected European countries using an economic dependency ratio which emphasizes the role of age-specific levels of production and consumption. Our analysis reveals large differences in the age- and gender-specific level and type of production activities across selected European countries and identifies possible strategies to adjust age-specific economic behaviour to an ageing population. The cross-country differences in economic dependency of children and elderly persons are largely determined by the age at which people enter, respectively exit, the labour market. The ability of the working age population to support children and elderly persons in turn is strongly influenced by the participation of women in paid work. We also provide a measure for the age-specific production and consumption in form of unpaid household work. The inclusion of unpaid household work leads to a decrease of the gender differences in production activities and indicates that the working age population supports children and elderly persons not only through monetary transfers but also through services produced by unpaid work (e.g. childcare, cooking, cleaning…). Given the available data, we cannot distinguish the age profile of consumption by gender and have to assume – in case of unpaid work - that each member of the household consumes the same. Hence, our results have to be regarded as a first approximation only. Our paper aims to argue that a reform of the welfare system needs to take into account not only public transfers but also private transfers, in particular the transfers in form of goods and services produced through unpaid household work. PMID:26110107

  10. A demographic transition altered the strength of selection for fitness and age-specific survival and fertility in a 19th century American population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorad, Jacob A

    2013-06-01

    Modernization has increased longevity and decreased fertility in many human populations, but it is not well understood how or to what extent these demographic transitions have altered patterns of natural selection. I integrate individual-based multivariate phenotypic selection approaches with evolutionary demographic methods to demonstrate how a demographic transition in 19th century female populations of Utah altered relationships between fitness and age-specific survival and fertility. Coincident with this demographic transition, natural selection for fitness, as measured by the opportunity for selection, increased by 13% to 20% over 65 years. Proportional contributions of age-specific survival to total selection (the complement to age-specific fertility) diminished from approximately one third to one seventh following a marked increase in infant survival. Despite dramatic reductions in age-specific fertility variance at all ages, the absolute magnitude of selection for fitness explained by age-specific fertility increased by approximately 45%. I show that increases in the adaptive potential of fertility traits followed directly from decreased population growth rates. These results suggest that this demographic transition has increased the adaptive potential of the Utah population, intensified selection for reproductive traits, and de-emphasized selection for survival-related traits. © 2013 The Author(s). Evolution © 2013 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  11. “Such is life that people get old and change”: Gendered Experiences of Ageing Bodies from Older Persons’ View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdenko Zeman

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Ageing/aged bodies reflects gender norms and power relations. The paper is based on analysis of four focus groups realized in homes for older and infirm persons with participants older than 65 years. Old age and ageing are not gender neutral phenomenon – perception, experience, interpretation and strategies of managing of ageing/aged body are gendered. For participants tidiness and cleanliness are most important despite gender. Dominant interpretations of focus groups’ participants reflect traditional understanding of gender roles, gender ideals and internalization of gender and age stereotypes: physical appearance is more important to women than to men; beauty and physical attractiveness are reserved for youth; female sexuality is interpreted as burden, obligation and source of pain for women; menopausa is interpreted as beginning of declining; male ageing bodies were interpreted in functional terms. Negative attitudes toward all types of surgical interventions on face and body are dominant and in this aspect participants reject socio-cultural pres- sures for youthful and glamorous looking in old age.

  12. Age and gender differences in aggression of Slovene elementary and secondary school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Kozina

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The study examined age and gender differences in aggression using three representative samples for Slovenia: 4th grade elementary school students; 8th grade elementary school students; 4th grade secondary school students in Matura programs. The results were based on the LA aggression scale that measures general aggression and four specific types of aggression: physical aggression (TA, verbal aggression (BA, internal aggression (NA and aggression towards authority (AA. Based on the results of two-way ANOVA we found important effects of age, gender and their interaction. The gender differences were significant in the groups of elementary school students but not in secondary school students. Male elementary school students, 4th and 8th grade, were more aggressive compared to female elementary school students. 8th grade elementary school students were more physically, verbally, internally aggressive and more aggressive towards authority when compared to 4th grade elementary school students. Secondary school students were significantly less physically and verbally aggressive, and on the other hand more internally aggressive when compared to both groups of elementary school students. Secondary school students reported higher level of aggression towards authority than 4th grade elementary students, and lower level then 8th grade elementary students. The results were congruent with the findings of the research literature indicating higher aggression of males when compared to females and different developmental paths for different types of aggression in question. The study introduced important findings regarding age and gender differences in representative school samples in Slovenia and proposed future research mostly in direction of including measures of indirect aggression that is linked to female gender and older students.

  13. Gender and age variations in the self-image of Jamaican adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D E; Muenchen, R A

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationships among gender, age, and self-image of adolescents attending three secondary schools in Jamaica. The relatively few studies that have been done regarding self-perceptions of these youth are not only dated but have utilized a unidimensional conceptualization of the self. The Offer Self-Image Questionnaire which employs a multidimensional construct of the self was administered to a sample of 174 Jamaican adolescents ranging in age from 14 to 18 years (M = 15.90 years, SD = 1.21). Results revealed statistically significant effects for both gender and age. Gender was found to be significant on one self-image dimension: Morals, while age differences were evident on six dimensions: Social Relationships, Morals, Sexual Attitudes, Mastery of the External World, Vocational and Educational Goals, and Emotional Health. The results in some instances were contrary to those of past research. Discussion focused on cultural socialization and other factors affecting youth in Jamaican society.

  14. Level of emotional awareness in the general French population: effects of gender, age, and education level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandrino, Jean-Louis; Baracca, Margaret; Antoine, Pascal; Paget, Virginie; Bydlowski, Sarah; Carton, Solange

    2013-01-01

    The Levels of Emotional Awareness Scale (LEAS) developed by Lane et al. (1990) measures the ability of a subject to discriminate his or her own emotional state and that of others. The scale is based on a cognitive-developmental model in which emotional awareness increases in a similar fashion to intellectual functions. Because studies performed using North American and German populations have demonstrated an effect of age, gender, and level of education on the ability to differentiate emotional states, our study attempts to evaluate whether these factors have the same effects in a general French population. 750 volunteers (506 female, 244 male), who were recruited from three regions of France (Lille, Montpellier, Paris), completed the LEAS. The sample was divided into five age groups and three education levels. The results of the LEAS scores for self and others and the total score showed a difference in the level of emotional awareness for different age groups, by gender and education level. A higher emotional level was observed for younger age groups, suggesting that emotional awareness depends on the cultural context and generational societal teachings. Additionally, the level of emotional awareness was higher in women than in men and lower in individuals with less education. This result might be explained by an educational bias linked to gender and higher education whereby expressive ability is reinforced. In addition, given the high degree of variability in previously observed scores in the French population, we propose a standard based on our French sample.

  15. Topographic determination of corneal asphericity as a function of age, gender, and refractive error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdani, Negareh; Shahkarami, Leila; OstadiMoghaddam, Hadi; Ehsaei, Asieh

    2017-08-01

    The aim of the study is to evaluate corneal asphericity in three diameters of 5, 6, and 7 mm, and to assess the effect of age, refractive error, and gender on asphericity. The study included 500 healthy subjects with a mean ± SD age of 29.51 ± 11.53 years. All analyses were based on the right eyes of the patients. Topographic data were analyzed using Oculus Keratograph 4. Mean ± SD corneal asphericity values of the study population in 5, 6, and 7 mm diameters were -0.21 ± 0.11, -0.24 ± 0.10, and -0.27 ± 0.11, respectively. The anterior corneal surface asphericity showed no correlation with either age, gender, or refractive error. The corneal asphericity shows a tendency for an increase with diameter and asphericity does not have a significant correlation with any factors of age, gender, and refractive error.

  16. Immunohistochemical Patterns in the Interfollicular Caucasian Scalps: Influences of Age, Gender, and Alopecia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudine Piérard-Franchimont

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Skin ageing and gender influences on the scalp have been seldom studied. We revisited the changes in the interfollicular scalp. The study was performed on a population of 650 volunteers (300 women and 350 men for over 7 years. Three age groups were selected in both genders, namely, subjects aged 20–35, 50–60, and 60–70 years. The hair status was further considered according to nonalopecic and alopecic patterns and severity (discrete, moderate, and severe. Biopsies from the parietal area were processed for immunohistochemistry. Stromal cells were distinguished according to the presence of vimentin, Factor XIIIa, CD117, and versican. Blood and lymphatic vessels were highlighted by Ulex europaeus agglutinin-1 and human podoplanin immunoreactivities, respectively. Actinic elastosis was identified by the lysozyme coating of elastic fibres. The epidermis was explored using the CD44 variant 3 and Ki67 immunolabellings. Biplot analyses were performed. Immunohistochemistry revealed a prominent gender effect in young adults. Both Factor XIIIa+ dermal dendrocytes and the microvasculature size decreased with scalp ageing. Alopecia changes mimicked stress-induced premature senescence.

  17. Job satisfaction among health care workers: the role of gender and age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Carrillo-García

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to analyze the influence of gender and age on the quality of the professional lives of health care professionals at a university hospital. METHOD: a total of 546 professionals completed a general questionnaire that measured sociodemographic variables and evaluated job satisfaction using a scale adopted from the NTP 394 Job Satisfaction scale and translated into Spanish. RESULTS: overall, 77.2% of the professionals surveyed were satisfied with the work they perform. With regards to gender, we found overwhelming evidence of the feminization of practically all health care professions included in the study, with higher levels of job satisfaction among women than men. Regarding age, 20-30-year-olds and professionals over 61 years old showed higher satisfaction levels than did middle-aged professionals. Higher levels of dissatisfaction were reported by professionals between 41 and 50 years old. CONCLUSIONS: we were able to detect the influence of gender and age on the level of job satisfaction, finding significant associations between job satisfaction and both of these variables. Generally, women expressed more satisfaction than men, and elderly professionals showed higher satisfaction compared to younger professionals. Management policies should focus on taking action to correct the conditions that produce dissatisfaction among certain groups of employees.

  18. Gender and Age Impacts on the Association Between Thyroid Function and Metabolic Syndrome in Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Zhaowei; Liu, Ming; Zhang, Qing; Liu, Li; Song, Kun; Tan, Jian; Jia, Qiang; Zhang, Guizhi; Wang, Renfei; He, Yajing; Ren, Xiaojun; Zhu, Mei; He, Qing; Wang, Shen; Li, Xue; Hu, Tianpeng; Liu, Na; Upadhyaya, Arun; Zhou, Pingping; Zhang, Jianping

    2015-12-01

    The relationship between thyroid dysfunction and metabolic syndrome (MS) is complex. We aimed to explore the impact of gender and age on their association in a large Chinese cohort. This cross-sectional study enrolled 13,855 participants (8532 male, 5323 female), who self-reported as healthy without any known previous diseases. Clinical data including anthropometric measurements, thyroid function, and serum metabolic parameters were collected. The associations between thyroid function and MS of both genders were analyzed separately after dividing thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free triiodothyronine (FT3), and age into subgroups. MS risks were calculated by binary logistic regression models. Young males had significantly higher MS prevalence than females, yet after menopause, females had higher prevalence than males. Females had higher incidence of thyroid dysfunction than males. By using TSH quartiles as the categorical variables and the lowest quartile as reference, significantly increased MS risk was demonstrated in quartile 4 for males, yet quartiles 3 and 4 for females. By using FT3 quartiles as the categorical variables, significantly increased MS risk was demonstrated in quartile 2 to 4 for females only. By using age subgroups as the categorical variables, significantly increased MS risk was shown in both genders, with females (4.408-58.455) higher than males (2.588-4.943). Gender and age had substantial influence on thyroid function and MS. Females with high TSH and high FT3 had higher MS risks than males. Aging was a risk for MS, especially for females. Urgent need is necessary to initiate interventional programs.

  19. China’s grave demographic challenges in coming decades

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任强; 郑晓瑛

    2009-01-01

    This paper systematically analyzes the uncertainties of major demographic indicators from China’s 2000 census,such as fertility,gender ratio at birth,and age structure,and through a probability demographic forecast gives an assessment of the situation facing the country.Research outcomes suggest that great differences exist in the estimate of China’s fertility,gender ratio at birth and low-age child population.These differences directly affect China’s current and future demographic uncertainties,and have implications for policy and future research.The demographic uncertainties caused by current conditions are of great value to decision-makers and the public alike.

  20. Maternal risk of breeding failure remained low throughout the demographic transitions in fertility and age at first reproduction in Finland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianghua Liu

    Full Text Available Radical declines in fertility and postponement of first reproduction during the recent human demographic transitions have posed a challenge to interpreting human behaviour in evolutionary terms. This challenge has stemmed from insufficient evolutionary insight into individual reproductive decision-making and the rarity of datasets recording individual long-term reproductive success throughout the transitions. We use such data from about 2,000 Finnish mothers (first births: 1880s to 1970s to show that changes in the maternal risk of breeding failure (no offspring raised to adulthood underlay shifts in both fertility and first reproduction. With steady improvements in offspring survival, the expected fertility required to satisfy a low risk of breeding failure became lower and observed maternal fertility subsequently declined through an earlier age at last reproduction. Postponement of the age at first reproduction began when this risk approximated zero-even for mothers starting reproduction late. Interestingly, despite vastly differing fertility rates at different stages of the transitions, the number of offspring successfully raised to breeding per mother remained relatively constant over the period. Our results stress the importance of assessing the long-term success of reproductive strategies by including measures of offspring quality and suggest that avoidance of breeding failure may explain several key features of recent life-history shifts in industrialized societies.

  1. Demographic Estimation from Face Images: Human vs. Machine Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hu; Otto, Charles; Liu, Xiaoming; Jain, Anil K

    2015-06-01

    Demographic estimation entails automatic estimation of age, gender and race of a person from his face image, which has many potential applications ranging from forensics to social media. Automatic demographic estimation, particularly age estimation, remains a challenging problem because persons belonging to the same demographic group can be vastly different in their facial appearances due to intrinsic and extrinsic factors. In this paper, we present a generic framework for automatic demographic (age, gender and race) estimation. Given a face image, we first extract demographic informative features via a boosting algorithm, and then employ a hierarchical approach consisting of between-group classification, and within-group regression. Quality assessment is also developed to identify low-quality face images that are difficult to obtain reliable demographic estimates. Experimental results on a diverse set of face image databases, FG-NET (1K images), FERET (3K images), MORPH II (75K images), PCSO (100K images), and a subset of LFW (4K images), show that the proposed approach has superior performance compared to the state of the art. Finally, we use crowdsourcing to study the human perception ability of estimating demographics from face images. A side-by-side comparison of the demographic estimates from crowdsourced data and the proposed algorithm provides a number of insights into this challenging problem.

  2. A study on the effect of age, gender and paralysis on sEMG signals

    CERN Document Server

    Jha, Abhishek

    2015-01-01

    Surface Electromyography (sEMG) is a technology to measure the bio-potentials across the muscles. The true prospective of this technology is yet to be explored. In this paper, a simple and economic construction of a sEMG sensor is proposed. These sensors are used to determine the differences in the Electromyography (EMG) signal patterns of different individuals. Signals of several volunteers from different age groups, gender and individual having paralysis have been obtained. The sEMG data acquisition is done using the soundcard of a computer, hence reducing the need of additional hardware. Finally, the data is used to analyse the relationship between electromyography and factors like age, gender and health condition i.e. paralysis.

  3. Self-esteem and emotional health in adolescents--gender and age as potential moderators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moksnes, Unni K; Espnes, Geir A

    2012-12-01

    The present paper investigates possible gender and age differences on emotional states (depression and anxiety) and self-esteem as well as the association between self-esteem and emotional states. The cross-sectional sectional sample consists of 1,209 adolescents 13-18 years from public elementary and secondary schools in mid-Norway. The results showed that girls reported higher scores on state anxiety and state depression, whereas boys consistently scored higher on self-esteem in all age groups. Self-esteem was strongly and inversely associated with both state depression and state anxiety. An interaction effect of gender by self-esteem was found on state depression, where the association was stronger for girls than for boys. The associations found give support for the positive role of self-esteem in relation to adolescents' emotional health and well-being.

  4. How sex- and age-disaggregated data and gender and generational analyses can improve humanitarian response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurana, Dyan; Benelli, Prisca; Walker, Peter

    2013-07-01

    Humanitarian aid remains largely driven by anecdote rather than by evidence. The contemporary humanitarian system has significant weaknesses with regard to data collection, analysis, and action at all stages of response to crises involving armed conflict or natural disaster. This paper argues that humanitarian actors can best determine and respond to vulnerabilities and needs if they use sex- and age-disaggregated data (SADD) and gender and generational analyses to help shape their assessments of crises-affected populations. Through case studies, the paper shows how gaps in information on sex and age limit the effectiveness of humanitarian response in all phases of a crisis. The case studies serve to show how proper collection, use, and analysis of SADD enable operational agencies to deliver assistance more effectively and efficiently. The evidence suggests that the employment of SADD and gender and generational analyses assists in saving lives and livelihoods in a crisis.

  5. The effect of gender and age differences on media selection in small and medium tourism enterprises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehkordi, Majid A; Zarei, Behrouz; Dehkordi, Shabnam A

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the impact that gender and age differences have on the communication media selection within the context of small and medium tourism enterprises (SMEs). Media Richness Theory (MRT) was used to assess media preferences in the firms. Using a mail questionnaire, data from 78 firms were collected on seven popular media in use. Historical data of the firms, media characteristics, and other firm-specific factors were included in the analysis. The results indicated that there are substantial gender and age differences in term of communication media selection. This is consistent with MRT and highlights the importance of choosing the appropriate media in SMEs, according with the employee's behaviors, in order to achieve better outcomes and to smooth the path towards good performance in the future.

  6. Sources of variation in emotional awareness: Age, gender, and socioeconomic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankus, Annette M; Boden, Matthew Tyler; Thompson, Renee J

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined associations between emotional awareness facets (type clarity, source clarity, negative emotion differentiation, voluntary attention, involuntary attention) and sociodemographic characteristics (age, gender, and socioeconomic status (SES)) in a large US sample (N = 919). Path analyses-controlling for variance shared between sociodemographic variables and allowing emotional awareness facets to correlate-demonstrated that (a) age was positively associated with type clarity and source clarity, and inversely associated with involuntary attention; (b) gender was associated with all facets but type clarity, with higher source clarity, negative emotion differentiation, voluntary attention, and involuntary attention reported by women then men; and (c) SES was positively associated with type clarity with a very small effect. These findings extend our understanding of emotional awareness and identify future directions for research to elucidate the causes and consequences of individual differences in emotional awareness.

  7. Piagetian Conservation Tasks in Ghanaian Children: the Role of Geographical Location, Gender and Age Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn AmaAssan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the influence of geographical location, gender and age on the performance of Piagetian Conservation tasks. Four conservation tasks; conservation of liquid, length, substance amount and number respectively were administered to children [4-6 years] from rural and urban Ghana and their performance on each task were recorded. Results indicated that there were no significant relationships among the performance of Piagetian conservation tasks and geographical location. Similar trends were noted in the performance of gender and age differences on Piagetian conservation tasks. Nonetheless, older children performed better on the conservation of liquid in a glass than younger children. Based on the results, both quantities and perceptual comparisons can be applied in future studies to examine some possible variations in children’s cognitive development.

  8. Age and gender differences of psychogenic fever: a review of the Japanese literature

    OpenAIRE

    Oka Kae; Oka Takakazu

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Psychogenic fever is one of the most common psychosomatic diseases. Patients with psychogenic fever have acute or persistent body temperature above normal range in psychologically stressful situations. In spite of numerous case reports on psychogenic fever, there are few epidemiological studies. Therefore, our goal was to investigate the age distribution and gender differences of psychogenic fever in Japan. Methods To achieve this goal, we searched Medline and Ichushi WEB,...

  9. Multiwork and satisfaction with various life domains: Analysis of sex, gender, occupational and age differences

    OpenAIRE

    Agnieszka Lipińska-Grobelny

    2016-01-01

    Background: Contemporary multiwork definitely changes its face, and statistics show that Poland is in the forefront of European countries in terms of the number of multiworkers. The question arises whether the provision of work for more than one employer can influence personal and professional satisfaction, and whether job satisfaction, satisfaction with marriage and satisfaction with life are differentiated by sex, gender, age and a job position. Material and Methods: The study involved 218 ...

  10. Validity of Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory – 2 – Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) scores as a function of gender, ethnicity, and age of bariatric surgery candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek, Ryan J; Ben-Porath, Yossef S; Sellbom, Martin; McNulty, John L; Heinberg, Leslie J

    2015-01-01

    Presurgical psychological screening is used to identify factors that may impact postoperative adherence and surgical outcomes in bariatric surgery candidates. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory - 2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) findings have demonstrated utility for this task. To explore whether there are clinically meaningful gender, ethnicity, or age differences in presurgical MMPI-2-RF scores and the validity of these scores in bariatric surgery candidates. The sample was composed of 872 men and 2337 women. Ethnicity/race groups included 2,204 Caucasian, 744 African American, and 96 Hispanic individuals. A sample of 165 were not included in the ethnicity/race analyses because they were of another descent. Ages groups included 18-35 year olds (n = 454), 36-49 year olds (n = 1154), 50-64 year olds, (n = 1246), and 65 years old or older (n = 355). Validity data, obtained via a retrospective chart review, were available for a subset patients (n = 1,268) who were similarly distributed. Step-down hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to assess for differential validity. Bariatric surgery candidates produced comparable MMPI-2-RF scores in all subsamples, indicating that the test norms generalize across demographic groups. Validity findings were also generally comparable, indicating that MMPI-2-RF scores have the same interpretive implications in demographically diverse subgroups of bariatric surgery candidates. The MMPI-2-RF can assist in presurgical psychological screening of demographically diverse bariatric surgery candidates. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Relationship of age and gender to the prevalence and correlates of psychological distress in later life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byles, Julie E; Gallienne, Lucy; Blyth, Fiona M; Banks, Emily

    2012-06-01

    As populations age, psychological distress in late life will become of increasing public health and social importance. This study seeks to bridge the gap in information that exists about psychological distress in late life, by exploring the prevalence of psychological distress among a very large sample of older adults to determine the impact of age and gender, and the modifying effect of these factors on the associations between measures of psychological distress and sociodemographic and comorbid conditions. We analyzed self-reported data from 236,508 men and women in the New South Wales 45 and Up Study, to determine the impact of age and gender, and the modifying effects of these factors on associations between psychological distress and sociodemographic and comorbid conditions. Higher education, married status, and higher income were associated with lower risk of psychological distress. Although overall prevalence of psychological distress is lower at older ages, this increases after age 80, and is particularly associated with physical disabilities. Some older people (such as those requiring help because of disability and those with multiple comorbid health conditions) are at increased risk of psychological distress. These findings have implications for both healthcare providers and policy-makers in identifying and responding to the needs of older people in our aging society.

  12. Gender differences in hypertension control among older korean adults: Korean social life, health, and aging project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Sang Hui; Baek, Ji Won; Kim, Eun Sook; Stefani, Katherine M; Lee, Won Joon; Park, Yeong-Ran; Youm, Yoosik; Kim, Hyeon Chang

    2015-01-01

    Controlling blood pressure is a key step in reducing cardiovascular mortality in older adults. Gender differences in patients' attitudes after disease diagnosis and their management of the disease have been identified. However, it is unclear whether gender differences exist in hypertension management among older adults. We hypothesized that gender differences would exist among factors associated with hypertension diagnosis and control among community-dwelling, older adults. This cross-sectional study analyzed data from 653 Koreans aged ≥60 years who participated in the Korean Social Life, Health, and Aging Project. Multiple logistic regression was used to compare several variables between undiagnosed and diagnosed hypertension, and between uncontrolled and controlled hypertension. Diabetes was more prevalent in men and women who had uncontrolled hypertension than those with controlled hypertension or undiagnosed hypertension. High body mass index was significantly associated with uncontrolled hypertension only in men. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that in women, awareness of one's blood pressure level (odds ratio [OR], 2.86; p=0.003) and the number of blood pressure checkups over the previous year (OR, 1.06; p=0.011) might influence the likelihood of being diagnosed with hypertension. More highly educated women were more likely to have controlled hypertension than non-educated women (OR, 5.23; p=0.013). This study suggests that gender differences exist among factors associated with hypertension diagnosis and control in the study population of community-dwelling, older adults. Education-based health promotion strategies for hypertension control might be more effective in elderly women than in elderly men. Gender-specific approaches may be required to effectively control hypertension among older adults.

  13. VARIATION IN THYROID HORMONES LEVEL AMONG PEOPLE OF DIFFERENT AGE, GENDER AND SEASONS, PIPARIA, GUJARAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallavi Chaurasia

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Thyroid is an endocrine gland located below the larynx. The principal thyroid hormones are thyroxine (T4, tri-iodothyroxine (T3. The current study was carried out to investigate the impact of age, gender and seasons on the level of Thyroxine (T4, Triiodothyronine (T3 and Thyroid Stimulating Hormone in individuals free of thyroid diseases. Methods: - Serum levels of T3, T4 and TSH in 198 individuals attending Dhiraj General Hospital in different seasons were examined. Hormonal assay was done by using AIA 360 immunoassay. Results: - Levels of T3, T4 and TSH ranged from 0.98-4.8ng/dl, 0.56-3-25ng/dl and 0.01-5.3μIU/L. There is significant change in thyroid hormone levels in both genders of different age group in different seasons. Conclusion:- It is concluded that the age, gender and seasons have an appreciable effects on the levels T3, T4 and TSH. [National J of Med Res 2011; 1(2.000: 57-59

  14. Electroglottographic evaluation of age and gender effects during sustained phonation and connected speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Estella P-M; Love, Amanda L

    2010-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of age and gender on selected vocal fold vibratory behaviors during vowel prolongation and connected speech using electroglottography (EGG). Forty-six young and older individuals (23 males and 23 females) with normal voices participated in this study. EGG parameters including fundamental frequency and contact quotient were measured during sustained vowel prolongation and connected speech tasks. Significant age-by-gender interactions were found for both parameters. Moreover, results from discriminant function analyses revealed that the overall accuracies of the parameters in predicting different age and gender groups were higher for the connected speech tasks than for the sustained vowel prolongation task (89.1% and 73.9% for passage and phrase tasks vs 71.7% for vowel prolongation). These findings suggest that reliability of EGG measures can be affected by the test stimuli. Therefore, one should carefully consider the use of the speech material when assessing vocal fold behaviors using EGG. The findings also support the use of connected speech stimulus, preferably at passage level, in electroglottographic evaluation for a better representation of vocal fold vibrating behaviors. Copyright (c) 2010 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. FORMATION OF THE PRECONDITIONS FOR THE EMERGENCE OF GENDER PSYCHOLOGY IN MIDDLE AGES PERIOD

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    Veronika Olegovna Mokhova

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this article is to analyze the main ideas of the Medieval Period authors in Europe and in Russia, in terms of identifying the most important theses of this historical period for the formation and development of the ideas of gender psychology. It is being considered the role of Christianity and the emergence of the women's education issue in the formation of gender stereotypes. In this article the Middle Ages period is being considered as a separate historical phase for the basic ideas formation in the gender psychology, which is a new approach to the history of gender science. To estimate medieval texts - European and Russian, the method of qualitative content analysis is used, by means of which the most relevant to the period ideas associated with the sexes are identified. For Europe, it inter-sexual features, for Russia - different behavioral requirements of the society associated with sexes. Conclusions contain ideas of the Middle Ages in Europe and in Russia that are relevant to the development and establishment of gender psychology. In Europe: the continuation of the ancient thesis of the initial androgyny of a human being; impact of the woman's education on her ability for development; consideration of sexuality as sinful; the issue of women's emancipation, the declining value of the large numerous families despite of a ban on interference in the reproductive cycle in the middle of the Medieval period. In Russia: the perception of inter-sexual characteristics as defined by the God; unconditional obedience of a woman to her husband; androgyny in the distribution of the farmers’ responsibilities.Objective: To analyze the main ideas of the authors of the Middle Ages in Europe and in Russia, in terms of identifying the significant theses of this historical period for the formation and development of the ideas of the gender psychology.Method of the research work: A qualitative content analysis of the texts by the authors

  16. Gender, aging, and work: aging workers' strategies to confront the demands of production in maquiladora plants in nogales, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adarga, Mireya Scarone; Becerril, Leonor Cedillo; Champion, Catalina Denman

    2010-01-01

    This work is part of a qualitative socio-cultural investigation with a group of men and women 40 years and older in the maquila export industry in Nogales, Sonora, Mexico. In 1994, as a result of the North American Free Trade Agreement, maquila plants combined traditional intensive work methods with new "just in time" production norms that impacted work and health conditions, particularly in older, or aging, workers. The workers that were interviewed for this study show a reduction in their functional ability to work starting at 40 years of age. Work organization demands, general health conditions, and a decrease in physical abilities brings these 40-year-old workers to prematurely construct an image of themselves as aging workers and to develop coping strategies that vary by gender.

  17. Age and gender, two key factors in the associations between physical activity and strength during the ageing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Cabello, Alba; Carnicero, Jose A; Alonso-Bouzón, Cristina; Tresguerres, Jesús Ángel; Alfaro-Acha, Ana; Ara, Ignacio; Rodriguez-Mañas, Leocadio; García-García, Francisco-José

    2014-06-01

    The aims of this study were to identify if the associations of physical activity (PA) and muscle strength may vary throughout the ageing process; to study the differences among genders in the relationships between PA and strength in elderly people and to test whether these differences are explained by the hormonal, nutritional and inflammatory status. A total of 1741 people ≥65 years of age participated in this cross-sectional study. Upper- and lower-limbs maximal voluntary isometric strength was obtained using standardized techniques and equipment. PA was recorded by a validated questionnaire. The associations of PA with strength were assessed using generalized linear regression models with a Gamma-distributed dependent variable. A significant gender by PA interaction was found for all strength-related variables (all P<0.01). Moreover, when sexual hormones, albumin or C-Reactive protein were taken into account in the model, the results did not significantly change. In women, PA was positively associated with upper and lower-body strength; however in men, PA was only associated with grip and knee strength (both P<0.01). Higher strength values were associated with higher levels of PA, especially in women. However, this tendency had a different pattern across the age range, showing a stronger association in the 'young' elderly compared with the 'old' elderly. Higher levels of PA are related to greater muscle strength, especially in women and those who were younger. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Gender Differences in Sleep Disturbance among Elderly Koreans: Hallym Aging Study

    OpenAIRE

    Quan, Shan-Ai; Li, Yong-Chun; Li, Wen-Jie; Li, Yan; Jeong, Jin-Young; Kim, Dong-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Sleep is an important component in our lives as it is necessary throughout one’s entire life span. This study was conducted to elucidate whether there are gender differences in sleep quality and what factors can affect sleep quality in community-dwelling elderly Koreans. A total of 382 subjects (175 males and 207 females) were recruited among elderly aged 45 or over who participated in the 2010 Hallym Aging Study (HAS). They were invited to a general hospital and were evaluated for socioecono...

  19. Influence of age and gender on presentation of symptomatic primary hyperparathyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V N Shah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The geographical difference in presentation of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT is known. However, there is sparse literature on the influence of age and gender on presentation of PHPT. Aim: To analyze the effect of age and gender on presentation of symptomatic primary hyperparathyroidism. Setting and Design: This is a retrospective analysis of data from the primary hyperparathyroidism registry of a north Indian tertiary care teaching institute. Materials and Methods: Analysis of 184 histopathologically proven PHPT patients registered between March 1990 and March 2010 from a single centre of north India. PHPT patients were divided into three different age groups i.e. children and adolescents less than 25 years, adults 25-49 years, and ≥ 50 years. Clinical presentations, biochemical parameters and parathyroid weight were compared between different age groups and gender using appropriate statistical methods. Results: Mean age of patients was 38.5±13.8 years with female: male ratio of 7:3. Rickets as presenting manifestations were seen in one child and adolescent each. Prevalence of renal stones (P=0.03 and gall stones (P=0.02 was higher in the adult groups compared to the younger and older. There was no difference in bone pain (P=0.7, fracture (P=0.3, osteitis fibrosa cystica (P=0.2, fatigue (P=0.6 and other symptoms among different age groups. There was no difference in serum calcium, phosphate, parathyroid hormone (PTH and 25 (OH D levels among different age groups, however, as expected alkaline phosphatase was higher in adolescents compared to adults (P=0.03. Bone pain and muscle aches (P<0.001, fracture (P=0.04, osteitis fibrosa cystica (P=0.01, and gall stones (P=0.03 were more common among women while renal stones (P=0.05 and pancreatitis (P=0.02 were common in men. Serum calcium and phosphate levels were similar in either sex but parathyroid hormone (iPTH level was higher among women (P=0.02. Parathyroid adenoma weight was

  20. ApoE rs429358 and rs7412 Polymorphism and Gender Differences of Serum Lipid Profile and Cognition in Aging Chinese Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Zhen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ApoE gene polymorphism has been reportedly associated with serum lipids and cognition. However, very few studies have explored the combined effects of ApoE gene polymorphism and gender on serum lipid profile with subsequent impacts on cognition in Chinese population. A total of 1,000 Chinese community dwellers aged 55 years and above were recruited in this cross-sectional study. Demographic information of the participants was collected using well designed self-administered questionnaires. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA test was employed to evaluate the cognitive status of the participants. Semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ was used to obtain the dietary intake information. Fasting venous blood samples were taken for ApoE genotyping and serum lipid measurements. Significant gender differences in cognition, serum lipid profile and dietary fat-rich foods consumption were observed (p < 0.05. Cognition of the subjects was found to be associated with ApoE genotypes (p < 0.05. ApoE rs429358 and rs7412 variants demonstrated a significant effect on cognitive performance in the male subjects; especially within the attention and language cognitive domains as well as the total MoCA score (p < 0.05, respectively. Serum lipid profile and cognition of Chinese adults are significantly linked with gender and ApoE genetic polymorphism. The ApoE variant rs429358 is found to be notably associated with cognition in aging male Chinese population.

  1. Health, lifestyle and gender influences on aging well: An Australian longitudinal analysis to guide health promotion

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    Hal eKendig

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A primary societal goal for aging is enabling older people to continue to live well as long as possible. The evidence base around aging well (‘healthy’, ‘active’ and ‘successful’ aging has been constructed mainly from academic and professional conceptualizations of mortality, morbidity, functioning, and psychological well-being with some attention to lay views. Our study aims to inform action on health promotion to achieve aging well as conceptualized by qualitative research identifying what older Australians themselves value most: continuing to live as long as possible in the community with independence in daily living, and good self-rated health and psychological well-being. Multivariate survival analyses from the Melbourne Longitudinal Studies on Healthy Ageing (MELSHA program found that important threats to aging well for the total sample over a 12 year period were chronological age, multi-morbidity, low perceived social support, low nutritional score, and being underweight. For men, threats to aging well were low strain, perceived inadequacy of social activity, and being a current smoker. For women, urinary incontinence, low physical activity and being underweight were threats to aging well. The findings indicate that healthy lifestyles can assist aging well, and suggest the value of taking gender into account in health promotion strategies.

  2. Variations of immune parameters in terrestrial isopods: a matter of gender, aging and Wolbachia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicard, Mathieu; Chevalier, Frédéric; de Vlechouver, Mickaël; Bouchon, Didier; Grève, Pierre; Braquart-Varnier, Christine

    2010-09-01

    Ecological factors modulate animal immunocompetence and potentially shape the evolution of their immune systems. Not only environmental parameters impact on immunocompetence: Aging is one major cause of variability of immunocompetence between individuals, and sex-specific levels of immunocompetence have also been frequently described. Moreover, a growing core of data put in light that vertically transmitted symbionts can dramatically modulate the immunocompetence of their hosts. In this study, we addressed the influence of gender, age and the feminising endosymbiont Wolbachia ( wVulC) on variations in haemocyte density, total PO activity and bacterial load in the haemolymph of the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare. This host-symbiont system is of particular interest to address this question since: (1) wVulC was previously shown as immunosuppressive in middle-aged females and (2) wVulC influences sex determination. We show that age, gender and Wolbachia modulate together immune parameters in A. vulgare. However, wVulC, which interacts with aging, appears to be the prominent factor interfering with both PO activity and haemocyte density. This interference with immune parameters is not the only aspect of wVulC virulence on its host, as reproduction and survival are also altered.

  3. Influences of sex, age and education on attitudes towards gender inequitable norms and practices in South Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jennifer; Hacker, Michele; Averbach, Sarah; Modest, Anna M; Cornish, Sarah; Spencer, Danielle; Murphy, Maureen; Parmar, Parveen

    2014-01-01

    Prolonged conflict in South Sudan exacerbated gender disparities and inequities. This study assessed differences in attitudes towards gender inequitable norms and practices by sex, age and education to inform programming. Applying community-based participatory research methodology, 680 adult respondents, selected by quota sampling, were interviewed in seven South Sudanese communities from 2009 to 2011. The verbally administered survey assessed attitudes using the Gender Equitable Men scale. Data were stratified by sex, age and education. Of 680 respondents, 352 were female, 326 were male and two did not report their sex. The majority of respondents agreed with gender inequitable household roles, but the majority disagreed with gender inequitable practices (i.e., early marriage, forced marriage and inequitable education of girls). Respondents who reported no education were more likely than those who reported any education to agree with gender inequitable practices (all p forced marriage (p = 0.07), and few significant differences were observed when these responses were stratified by sex and by age. The study reveals agreement with gender inequitable norms in the household but an overall disagreement with gender inequitable practices in sampled communities. The findings support that education of both women and men may promote gender equitable norms and practices.

  4. Influences of sex, age, and education on attitudes toward gender inequitable norms and practices in South Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jennifer; Hacker, Michele; Averbach, Sarah; Modest, Anna M.; Cornish, Sarah; Spencer, Danielle; Murphy, Maureen; Parmar, Parveen

    2014-01-01

    Background Prolonged conflict in South Sudan exacerbated gender disparities and inequities. This study assessed differences in attitudes toward gender inequitable norms and practices by sex, age, and education to inform programming. Methods Applying community-based participatory research methodology, 680 adult respondents, selected by quota sampling, were interviewed in seven South Sudanese communities from 2009 to 2011. The verbally administered survey assessed attitudes using the Gender Equitable Men scale. Data were stratified by sex, age, and education. Results Of 680 respondents, 352 were female, 326 were male, and two did not report their sex. The majority of respondents agreed with gender inequitable household roles, but the majority disagreed with gender inequitable practices (i.e. early marriage, forced marriage, and inequitable education of girls). Respondents who reported no education were more likely than those who reported any education to agree with gender inequitable practices (all pforced marriage (p=0.07), and few significant differences were observed when these responses were stratified by sex and age. Conclusion The study reveals agreement with gender inequitable norms in the household, but an overall disagreement with gender inequitable practices in sampled communities. The findings support that education of both women and men may promote gender equitable norms and practices. PMID:25026024

  5. A Primrose Path? Moderating Effects of Age and Gender in the Association between Green Space and Mental Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth H. Bos

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper explored whether the association between green space and mental health is moderated by age and gender. Questionnaires on psychopathology and quality of life were filled out by 4924 individuals from the general Dutch population and regressed on greenness levels. Green space was associated with better mental health, but only in specific age and gender groups, and only in a 3 km, not a 1 km buffer. The moderating effects of age and gender may be explained by whether or not people have the opportunity to make use of their green living environment.

  6. A Primrose Path? Moderating Effects of Age and Gender in the Association between Green Space and Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Elisabeth H; van der Meulen, Leon; Wichers, Marieke; Jeronimus, Bertus F

    2016-05-11

    This paper explored whether the association between green space and mental health is moderated by age and gender. Questionnaires on psychopathology and quality of life were filled out by 4924 individuals from the general Dutch population and regressed on greenness levels. Green space was associated with better mental health, but only in specific age and gender groups, and only in a 3 km, not a 1 km buffer. The moderating effects of age and gender may be explained by whether or not people have the opportunity to make use of their green living environment.

  7. Anti-hepatitis C virus seropositivity is not associated with metabolic syndrome irrespective of age, gender and fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yuan-Lung; Wang, Yuan-Chen; Lan, Keng-Hsin; Huo, Teh-Ia; Huang, Yi-Hsiang; Su, Chien-Wei; Lin, Han-Chieh; Lee, Fa-Yauh; Wu, Jaw-Ching; Lee, Shou-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Although many studies have tried to clarify the association between hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and metabolic syndrome, few studies have comprehensively assessed their relationship stratified by different demographic characteristics. We aimed to investigate the correlation between metabolic syndrome and anti-HCV seropositivity in Taiwan. This study enrolled consecutive subjects who had received health check-up services at Taipei Veterans General Hospital from 2002 to 2009. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed according to the criteria defined by the International Diabetes Federation Task Force on Epidemiology and Prevention. Among the 30616 subjects enrolled in this study, the prevalence of positive anti-HCV serology was 2.7%, and 28.8% were diagnosed with metabolic syndrome. By multivariate analysis, metabolic syndrome was associated with higher body mass index, older age, male sex, a higher level of alanine aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyltransferase, platelet count and the presence of fatty liver whereas anti-HCV seropositivity was not an independent variable for metabolic syndrome. Further stratifying the subjects by age and sex, and there was still no significant difference in HCV status between those with and without metabolic syndrome. Moreover, the stage of liver fibrosis represented by aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index was also not correlated with metabolic syndrome in the subjects with anti-HCV seropositivity. In conclusion, although subjects with anti-HCV seropositivity had higher fasting glucose levels and lower cholesterol and triglyceride levels compared to those with negative anti-HCV test, anti-HCV seropositivity was not associated with metabolic syndrome based on the current diagnostic criteria irrespective of age, gender and the stage of hepatic fibrosis.

  8. US health spending trends by age and gender: selected years 2002-10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassman, David; Hartman, Micah; Washington, Benjamin; Andrews, Kimberly; Catlin, Aaron

    2014-05-01

    This article presents estimates of personal health care spending by age and gender in selected years during the period 2002-10 and an analysis of the variation in spending among children, working-age adults, and the elderly. Our research found that in this period, aggregate spending on children's health care increased at the slowest rate. However, per capita spending for children grew more rapidly than that for working-age adults and the elderly. Per capita spending for the elderly remained about five times higher than spending for children. Overall, females spent more per capita than males, but the gap had decreased by 2010. The implementation of Medicare Part D, the effects of the recent recession, and the aging of the baby boomers affected the spending trends and distributions during the period of this study.

  9. Influence of gender and age on haematological indicators of Polbar’s breed chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gryzińska Magdalena

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the values of selected haematological indices of the Polbar breed of chickens by gender and age. There was a significant WBC difference in cocks and hens with age. In each of the periods, cocks were characterized by a lower than hens number of LY. LY and NE declined with increasing age. Most values showed significant (P ≤ 0.05 differences for birds at different ages. These results of the haematological indices from consolidated Polbar breed can be used for comparisons with other breeds of poultry. The study deepens and organizes the knowledge within the possibilities of using and interpreting levels of haematological indicators for monitoring health of hens. In this paper, we managed to obtain information on the level of indicators rarely determined in chickens.

  10. Gender differentials and old age survival in the Nairobi slums, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Rachel; Chepngeno-Langat, Gloria; Evandrou, Maria; Falkingham, Jane

    2016-08-01

    This paper examines gender differentials in survival amongst older people (50+ years) in the Nairobi slums and to the best of our knowledge is the first study of its kind in an urban African setting. The results provide evidence contrary to the expected paradox of poorer self-rated health yet better survival amongst older women. Older women in the Nairobi slums have poorer self-rated health and poorer circumstances across other factors, including disability and socio-economic status. Further, older women in the slums do not have better survival. The conventional female advantage in mortality only becomes apparent after accounting for the cumulative influence of individual characteristics, social networks, health and socio-economic status, suggesting the female advantage in unadjusted old-age mortality does not apply to contexts where women experience significant disadvantage across multiple life domains. This highlights the urgent need to redress the support, status and opportunities available for women across the life course in contexts such as the Nairobi slums. In addition, a greater number of factors differentiate mortality risk amongst men than amongst women, suggesting inequality amongst slum dwelling older men and highlighting the need for gender sensitive interventions which account for the particular needs of both genders in old age.

  11. Dietary patterns of Australian children aged 14 and 24 months, and associations with socio-demographic factors and adiposity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, L K; Golley, R K; Daniels, L; Magarey, A M

    2013-06-01

    Previous research has shown, in predominantly European populations, that dietary patterns are evident early in life. However, little is known about early-life dietary patterns in Australian children. We aimed to describe dietary patterns of Australian toddlers and their associations with socio-demographic characteristics and adiposity. Principal component analysis was applied to 3 days (1 × 24-h recall and 2 × 24-h record) data of 14 (n=552)- and 24 (n=493)-month-old children from two Australian studies, NOURISH and South Australian Infant Dietary Intake (SAIDI). Associations with dietary patterns were investigated using regression analyses. Two patterns were identified at both ages. At 14 months, the first pattern was characterised by fruit, grains, vegetables, cheese and nuts/seeds ('14-month core foods') and the second pattern was characterised by white bread, milk, spreads, juice and ice-cream ('basic combination'). Similarly, at 24 months the '24-month core foods' pattern included fruit, vegetables, dairy, nuts/seeds, meat and water, whereas the 'non-core foods' included white bread, spreads, sweetened beverages, snacks, chocolate and processed meat. Lower maternal age and earlier breastfeeding cessation were associated with higher 'basic combination' and 'non-core foods' pattern scores, whereas earlier and later solid introduction were associated with higher 'basic combination' and '24-month core foods' pattern scores, respectively. Patterns were not associated with body mass index (BMI) z-score. Dietary patterns reflecting core and non-core food intake are identifiable in Australian toddlers. These findings support the need to intervene early with parents to promote healthy eating in children and can inform future investigations on the effects of early diet on long-term health.

  12. Gender differences in health and aging of Atlantic cod subject to size selective fishery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethanie Carney Almroth

    2012-07-01

    We have analyzed health and physiological aging parameters in male and female Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua, captured in Kattegat, Skagerrak and in Öresund. Gender differences were clearly evident in a number of variables. Males had longer liver telomeres and higher catalase activities than females, while females had higher superoxide dismutase activity, liver somatic index and condition factor. Effects of age were found for males where levels of the antioxidant glutathione and telomere length declined with age, indicating physiological aging. Liver somatic index increased and percentage oxidized glutathione decreased with age. Between-site comparisons of males show that percentage oxidized glutathione and catalase were lowest in Kattegat, whereas protein carbonyls and condition factor were higher in Skagerrak. Females, on the other hand, showed no differences between sites or indications of somatic aging or age-related effects in egg quality, indicating that older and larger female cod are healthy and show no changes in eggs with age. In contrast, males showed indications of physiological aging and lower condition than females. The results emphasize the importance of conserving old mature fish, in particular high egg-productive females, when managing fisheries.

  13. Metabonomics approach to assessing the metabolism variation and gender gap of Drosophila melanogaster in aging process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yu-Zhi; Yan, Ming-Liang; Gao, Li; Zhang, Jian-Qin; Qin, Xue-Mei; Zhang, Xiang; Du, Guan-Hua

    2017-08-12

    Drosophila melanogaster is increasingly used for study aging mechanism and evaluating anti-aging drugs, but the changes of metabolites and differences of metabolites change between male and female during the aging process are not well known. Metabolomics technology, a massive information provider, has promoted the understanding of metabolic profile and overall changes of metabolites in organism. In this study, (1)H NMR based metabonomics was employed to investigate the dynamic changes of metabolites in whole bodies of male and female Drosophila melanogaster at 3, 15, 30, 45days and to research the gender gap of metabolites changes in aging process. The results showed that the metabolic profile at different ages in both male and female Drosophila melanogaster were separated obviously by multivariate analysis. Besides, the variety track of metabolites between male and female Drosophila melanogaster were different, the change speed in female was significantly slow than that in male. In addition, the results showed 14 metabolites (including leucine, valine, alanine, methionine, cysteine, phenylalanine, glycine, glutamine, tyrosine, tryptophan and histidine, succinate, xanthine and DMA) were associated with aging and 7 metabolites (including leucine, valine, methionine, cysteine phenylalanine, succinate and DMA) were associated with gender gap in the aging process of Drosophila melanogaster. Corresponding metabolic mechanisms referenced to the KEGG database and literatures were discussed. This study demonstrate that metabolomics is promising as a valuable method not only to reveal metabolites that related to senescence, but also to help us understand differences between male and female flies in aging process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The impact of gender, education and age on employee attitudes towards corporate social responsibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosati, Francesco; Calabrese, Armando; Costa, Roberta

    Engaging employees can have a positive effect on turnover reduction, client satisfaction, company profitability, innovation and growth. Engaging employees in corporate social responsibility (CSR) can also generate positive impacts on environment and society. To do this, companies need to understand...... their employees' CSR attitudes. In this regard, many studies show that individual characteristics can influence CSR attitudes. This research aims to identify the influence of three sociodemographic characteristics such as gender, educational level and age on three employee CSR attitudes, such as CSR demandingness...... and satisfied than female colleagues. Educational level differences also have a significant influence on CSR trust and CSR satisfaction, with graduated employees generally more trustful and satisfied than not graduated colleagues. However, employee gender and education do not influence CSR demandingness...

  15. Age and Gender Differences in Urinary Levels of Eleven Phthalate Metabolites in General Taiwanese Population after a DEHP Episode.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Chin Huang

    Full Text Available In 2011, the Taiwan FDA disclosed illegal di(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP and dibutyl phthalate (DBP use in beverage and nutrition supplements. We aim to determine phthalate exposure and other relevant factors in a sample of the general Taiwanese population in order to evaluate actual phthalate exposure levels after this disclosure of DEHP use.We selected subjects aged 7 years old and older in 2013 from the general Taiwanese population. First morning urine samples from each participant were collected to analyze 11 phthalate metabolites representing 7 parent phthalates using on-line liquid chromatography/ tandem mass spectrometry. An interview questionnaire was applied to obtain participant demographic characteristics, lifestyle, and other relevant factors.The median levels of metabolites of DEHP, including mono-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP, mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl phthalate (MEOHP, mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl phthalate (MEHHP, mono-(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl phthalate (MECPP, DBP (DnBP and DiBP, including mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP and mono-iso-butyl phthalate (MiBP, and mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP in urine samples of 290 adults/ 97 minors (<18 years were 7.9/ 6.1, 12.6/ 17.8, 22.0/ 25.8, 25.4/ 30.8, 18.1/ 23.6, 9.4/ 13.6 and 14.5/ 12.4 μg/g creatinine, respectively. Women (≧18 years were exposed to significantly higher levels of MEHHP (P=0.011, MECPP (P=0.01, MnBP (P=0.001 and MEP (P<0.001 than men (≧18 years, whereas no gender difference was observed in minors. We found significant higher level of MEP (creatinine-unadjusted in subject aged between 18 to 40 years old (P<0.001, especially for women. Exposure levels of MEOHP (P<0.001, MECPP (P=0.002 and MnBP (P=0.044 in minors were significantly higher than those of adults. High frequency usage of food preservation film and bags, and personal care products are potential sources of phthalates exposure in general Taiwanese.Our findings indicated that DEHP and DBP exposure in a sample of the

  16. Gender Differences in Self-Reported Health in the Ukrainian Working-age Population: Evidence from the European Social Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazhak, Iryna

    Gender is a one of the most important social determinants of health inequality. Ukrainian life expectancy gender gap is almost ten years in favor of women. Data from the 2 - 6 rounds (N=5158) of a European Social Survey are used to show gender differences in self-reported health (IBM SPSS 22......). It was assumed that women reported poorer health status compared with men despite of longevity. Women estimate their health significantly lower than men do (OR 1.83; 95% CI 1.65, 2.04). For both genders, age and feeling about household’s income nowadays were associated with increased odds for poor self...

  17. Epidemiology of fractures in 15,000 adults: the influence of age and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, B R; McLauchlan, G J; Robinson, C M; Christie, J

    1998-03-01

    We report a prospective study of the incidence of fractures in the adult population of Edinburgh, related to age and gender. Over a two-year period, 15,293 adults, 7428 males and 7865 females, sustained a fracture, and 5208 (34.0%) required admission. Between 15 and 49 years of age, males were 2.9 times more likely to sustain a fracture than females (95% CI 2.7 to 3.1). Over the age of 60 years, females were 2.3 times more likely to sustain a fracture than males (95% CI 2.1 to 2.4). There were three main peaks of fracture distribution: the first was in young adult males, the second was in elderly patients of both genders, mainly in metaphyseal bone such as the proximal femur, although diaphyseal fractures also showed an increase in incidence. The third increase in the incidence of fractures, especially of the wrist, was seen to start at 40 years of age in women. Our study has also shown that 'osteoporotic' fractures became evident in women earlier than expected, and that they were not entirely a postmenopausal phenomenon.

  18. Age and gender differences in self-control and its intergenerational transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L; Fan, C; Tao, T; Gao, W

    2017-03-01

    Few studies have been conducted in people of Asian descent that have reported to demonstrate the distinct developmental trends in good self-control and poor control. To fill this gap, we conducted a national cross-sectional survey among adolescents and young adults in China to further clarify the age and gender differences in self-control from a dual-systems perspective. A total of 2910 adolescents (female, n = 1698) and their parents from five different provinces in China were surveyed using the Dual-Modes of Self-Control Scale (DMSC-S) and the Parents' Perceived Self-Control Scale. The mean age of the adolescent sample was 17.47 years (ranging from 12.50 to 25.42 years). Boys exhibited greater good self-control than girls. Poor control increased between 12 and 17 years of age and declined thereafter; however, good self-control increased over the entire study period. Both good self-control and poor control in student participants were significantly associated with parents' perceived self-control; moreover, the association between good self-control and parental self-control was mediated by SES. The roles of age, gender, parental self-control and SES varied in a dual-systems model of self-control: good self-control and poor control. Implications of these results are discussed. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Mechanical Characterization and Constitutive Modeling of Human Trachea: Age and Gender Dependency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Safshekan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Tracheal disorders can usually reduce the free lumen diameter or wall stiffness, and hence limit airflow. Trachea tissue engineering seems a promising treatment for such disorders. The required mechanical compatibility of the prepared scaffold with native trachea necessitates investigation of the mechanical behavior of the human trachea. This study aimed at mechanical characterization of human tracheas and comparing the results based on age and gender. After isolating 30 human tracheas, samples of tracheal cartilage, smooth muscle, and connective tissue were subjected to uniaxial tension to obtain force-displacement curves and calculate stress-stretch data. Among several models, the Yeoh and Mooney-Rivlin hyperelastic functions were best able to describe hyperelastic behavior of all three tracheal components. The mean value of the elastic modulus of human tracheal cartilage was calculated to be 16.92 ± 8.76 MPa. An overall tracheal stiffening with age was observed, with the most considerable difference in the case of cartilage. Consistently, we noticed some histological alterations in cartilage and connective tissue with aging, which may play a role in age-related tracheal stiffening. No considerable effect of gender on the mechanical behavior of tracheal components was observed. The results of this study can be applied in the design and fabrication of trachea tissue engineering scaffolds.

  20. Gender- and Gestational Age-Specific Body Fat Percentage at Birth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hawkes, Colin P

    2011-08-08

    Background: There is increasing evidence that in utero growth has both immediate and far-reaching influence on health. Birth weight and length are used as surrogate measures of in utero growth. However, these measures poorly reflect neonatal adiposity. Air-displacement plethysmography has been validated for the measurement of body fat in the neonatal population. Objective: The goal of this study was to show the normal reference values of percentage body fat (%BF) in infants during the first 4 days of life. Methods: As part of a large population-based birth cohort study, fat mass, fat-free mass, and %BF were measured within the first 4 days of life using air-displacement plethsymography. Infants were grouped into gestational age and gender categories. Results: Of the 786 enrolled infants, fat mass, fat-free mass, and %BF were measured in 743 (94.5%) infants within the first 4 days of life. %BF increased significantly with gestational age. Mean (SD) %BF at 36 to 37 weeks\\' gestation was 8.9% (3.5%); at 38 to 39 weeks\\' gestation, 10.3% (4%); and at 40 to 41 weeks\\' gestation, 11.2% (4.3%) (P < .001). Female infants had significantly increased mean (SD) %BF at 38 to 39(11.1% [3.9%] vs 9.8% [3.9%]; P = .012) and at 40 to 41 (12.5% [4.4%] vs 10% [3.9%]; P < .001) weeks\\' gestation compared with male infants. Gender- and gestational age-specific centiles were calculated, and a normative table was generated for reference. Conclusion: %BF at birth is influenced by gestational age and gender. We generated accurate %BF centiles from a large population-based cohort.

  1. Ageing, deep vein thrombosis and male gender predict poor outcome after acute Achilles tendon rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arverud, E Domeij-; Anundsson, P; Hardell, E; Barreng, G; Edman, G; Latifi, A; Labruto, F; Ackermann, P W

    2016-12-01

    Patients with an acute Achilles tendon rupture (ATR) take a long time to heal, have a high incidence of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and widely variable functional outcomes. This variation in outcome may be explained by a lack of knowledge of adverse factors, and a subsequent shortage of appropriate interventions. A total of 111 patients (95 men, 16 women; mean age 40.3, standard deviation 8.4) with an acute total ATR were prospectively assessed. At one year post-operatively a uniform outcome score, Achilles Combined Outcome Score (ACOS), was obtained by combining three validated, independent, outcome measures: Achilles tendon Total Rupture Score, heel-rise height test, and limb symmetry heel-rise height. Predictors of ACOS included treatment; gender; age; smoking; body mass index; time to surgery; physical activity level pre- and post-injury; symptoms; quality of life and incidence of DVT. There were three independent variables that correlated significantly with the dichotomised outcome score (ACOS), while there was no correlation with other factors. An age of less than 40 years old was the strongest independent predictor of a good outcome one year after ATR (odds ratio (OR) 0.20, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.08 to 0.51), followed by female gender (OR) 4.18, 95% CI 1.01 to 17.24). Notably, patients who did not have a DVT while immobilised post-operatively had a better outcome (OR 0.31, 95% CI 0.12 to 0.80). Over the age of 40 years, male gender and having a DVT while immobilised are independent negative predictors of outcome in patients with an acute ATR. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2016;98-B:1635-41. ©2016 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  2. The effects of age, gender, and crash types on drivers' injury-related health care costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Sijun; Neyens, David M

    2015-04-01

    There are many studies that evaluate the effects of age, gender, and crash types on crash related injury severity. However, few studies investigate the effects of those crash factors on the crash related health care costs for drivers that are transported to hospital. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationships between drivers' age, gender, and the crash types, as well as other crash characteristics (e.g., not wearing a seatbelt, weather condition, and fatigued driving), on the crash related health care costs. The South Carolina Crash Outcome Data Evaluation System (SC CODES) from 2005 to 2007 was used to construct six separate hierarchical linear regression models based on drivers' age and gender. The results suggest that older drivers have higher health care costs than younger drivers and male drivers tend to have higher health care costs than female drivers in the same age group. Overall, single vehicle crashes had the highest health care costs for all drivers. For males older than 64-years old sideswipe crashes are as costly as single vehicle crashes. In general, not wearing a seatbelt, airbag deployment, and speeding were found to be associated with higher health care costs. Distraction-related crashes are more likely to be associated with lower health care costs in most cases. Furthermore this study highlights the value of considering drivers in subgroups, as some factors have different effects on health care costs in different driver groups. Developing an understanding of longer term outcomes of crashes and their characteristics can lead to improvements in vehicle technology, educational materials, and interventions to reduce crash-related health care costs.

  3. Age preferences for mates as related to gender, own age, and involvement level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buunk, BP; Dijkstra, P; Kenrick, DT; Warntjes, A

    2001-01-01

    The present study examined desired minimum and maximum ages for mates across five different levels of relationship involvement (marriage, serious relationship, falling in love, casual sex, and sexual fantasies) comparing individuals of 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 years old. Consistent with previous findi

  4. Education-related differences in physical performance after age 60: a cross-sectional study assessing variation by age, gender and occupation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Welmer, Anna-Karin; Kåreholt, Ingemar; Rydwik, Elisabeth; Angleman, Sara; Wang, Hui-Xin

    2013-01-01

    .... This study examined whether there are education-related differences across four dimensions of physical performance by age, gender or occupational class and to what extent chronic diseases and life...

  5. Do gender differences in audio-visual benefit and visual influence in audio-visual speech perception emerge with age?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus eAlm

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Gender and age have been found to affect adults’ audio-visual (AV speech perception. However, research on adult aging focuses on adults over 60 years, who have an increasing likelihood for cognitive and sensory decline, which may confound positive effects of age-related AV-experience and its interaction with gender. Observed age and gender differences in AV speech perception may also depend on measurement sensitivity and AV task difficulty. Consequently both AV benefit and visual influence were used to measure visual contribution for gender-balanced groups of young (20-30 years and middle-aged adults (50-60 years with task difficulty varied using AV syllables from different talkers in alternative auditory backgrounds. Females had better speech-reading performance than males. Whereas no gender differences in AV benefit or visual influence were observed for young adults, visually influenced responses were significantly greater for middle-aged females than middle-aged males. That speech-reading performance did not influence AV benefit may be explained by visual speech extraction and AV integration constituting independent abilities. Contrastingly, the gender difference in visually influenced responses in middle adulthood may reflect an experience-related shift in females’ general AV perceptual strategy. Although young females’ speech-reading proficiency may not readily contribute to greater visual influence, between young and middle-adulthood recurrent confirmation of the contribution of visual cues induced by speech-reading proficiency may gradually shift females AV perceptual strategy towards more visually dominated responses.

  6. Relation of left ventricular thickness to age and gender in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maron, Barry J; Casey, Susan A; Hurrell, David G; Aeppli, Dorothee M

    2003-05-15

    Left ventricular (LV) wall thickening is the most consistent clinical marker of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HC), and characteristically increases substantially during adolescence. In this study, we used 2-dimensional echocardiography to develop a cross-sectional profile of LV wall thicknesses in adult patients with HC. We studied a regional community-based cohort of 239 consecutively enrolled patients (aged 18 to 91 years). On average, maximum LV wall thickness decreased relative to increasing age (p = 0.007) within 4 age groups: 22.8 +/- 5.1 mm (18 to 39 years) to 22.1 +/- 5.1 mm (40 to 59 years) to 21.1 +/- 3.7 mm (60 to 74 years) to 20.8 +/- 3.6 mm (>or=75 years). The LV thickness index (summation of wall thicknesses in all 4 segments) also decreased with age (p = 0.017): 63.0 +/- 12.2 mm to 59.8 +/- 11.9 mm to 58.3 +/- 10.4 mm to 57.9 +/- 9.8 mm. Decreasing magnitude of LV hypertrophy was independently associated with increasing age, but not with other relevant disease variables, such as symptoms and outflow obstruction. However, when separated by gender, this inverse relation between age and LV wall thickness was statistically significant only for women (p = 0.007). In conclusion, in an unselected HC cohort, cross-sectional analysis showed a modest but statistically significant inverse relation between age and LV hypertrophy that was largely gender-specific for women. This association constitutes another facet of the natural history of this complex and heterogenous disease and may reflect disproportionate occurrence of premature death in young patients with HC with marked hypertrophy or possibly gradual LV remodeling.

  7. Gender-divergent profile of bile acid homeostasis during aging of mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zidong Donna Fu

    Full Text Available Aging is a physiological process with a progressive decline of adaptation and functional capacity of the body. Bile acids (BAs have been recognized as signaling molecules regulating the homeostasis of glucose, lipid, and energy. The current study characterizes the age-related changes of individual BA concentrations by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS in serum and liver of male and female C57BL/6 mice from 3 to 27 months of age. Total BA concentrations in serum increased 340% from 3 to 27 months in female mice, whereas they remained relatively constant with age in male mice. During aging, male and female mice shared the following changes: (1 BA concentrations in liver remained relatively constant; (2 the proportions of beta-muricholic acid (βMCA increased and deoxycholic acid (DCA decreased between 3 and 27 months in serum and liver; and (3 total BAs in serum and liver became more hydrophilic between 3 and 27 months. In female mice, (1 the mRNAs of hepatic BA uptake transporters, the Na(+/taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (Ntcp and the organic anion transporting polypeptide 1b2 (Oatp1b2, decreased after 12 months, and similar trends were observed for their proteins; (2 the mRNA of the rate-limiting enzyme for BA synthesis, cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (Cyp7a1, increased from 3 to 9 months and remained high thereafter. However, in male mice, Ntcp, Oatp1b2, and Cyp7a1 mRNAs remained relatively constant with age. In summary, the current study shows gender-divergent profiles of BA concentrations and composition in serum and liver of mice during aging, which is likely due to the gender-divergent expression of BA transporters Ntcp and Oatp1b2 as well as the synthetic enzyme Cyp7a1.

  8. The evaluation of MCI, MI, PMI and GT on both genders with different age and dental status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozdag, G; Sener, S

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the mandibular cortical index (MCI), mental index (MI), panoramic mandibular index (PMI) and cortical bone thickness in the zone of the gonial angle (GT) in panoramic radiographies from a large sample of males and females and to determine how they relate to patients' age, gender and dental status. 910 panoramic radiographs were obtained and grouped into age, dental status and gender. The MCI, MI, PMI and GT were analysed. Remarkable differences were observed for MCI and GT regarding gender, age groups and dental status on both sides (p PMI in females, dental status had an effect on the MI and PMI in males (p PMI (p PMI and MI measurements. The effects of age and tooth loss in the GT and MCI measurements are similar, and these indices can be accepted as more reliable in studies including both genders.

  9. The association of gender, age, and intelligence with neuropsychological functioning in young typically developing children: The Generation R study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mous, Sabine E; Schoemaker, Nikita K; Blanken, Laura M E; Thijssen, Sandra; van der Ende, Jan; Polderman, Tinca J C; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C; Tiemeier, Henning; White, Tonya

    2017-01-01

    Although early childhood is a period of rapid neurocognitive development, few studies have assessed neuropsychological functioning in various cognitive domains in young typically developing children. Also, results regarding its association with gender and intelligence are mixed. In 853 typically developing children aged 6 to 10 years old, the association of gender, age, and intelligence with neuropsychological functioning in the domains of attention, executive functioning, language, memory, sensorimotor functioning, and visuospatial processing was explored. Clear positive associations with age were observed. In addition, gender differences were found and showed that girls generally outperformed boys, with the exception of visuospatial tasks. Furthermore, IQ was positively associated with neuropsychological functioning, which was strongest in visuospatial tasks. Performance in different neuropsychological domains was associated with age, gender, and intelligence in young typically developing children, and these factors should be taken into account when assessing neuropsychological functioning in clinical or research settings.

  10. Strategic Enrollment Management in the Age of Austerity and Changing Demographics: Managing Recruitment, Leveraging, Revenue, and Access in Challenging Economic Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langston, Randall; Scheid, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    Ever since the beginning of the Great Recession, higher education has braced for the impending age of austerity and changing demographics. Now a reality, these conditions threaten the ability of institutions of higher education to remain competitive in an ever growing global marketplace. This article presents several core SEM strategies that can…

  11. Strategic Enrollment Management in the Age of Austerity and Changing Demographics: Managing Recruitment, Leveraging, Revenue, and Access in Challenging Economic Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langston, Randall; Scheid, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    Ever since the beginning of the Great Recession, higher education has braced for the impending age of austerity and changing demographics. Now a reality, these conditions threaten the ability of institutions of higher education to remain competitive in an ever growing global marketplace. This article presents several core SEM strategies that can…

  12. Wine and health perceptions: Exploring the impact of gender, age and ethnicity on consumer perceptions of wine and health

    OpenAIRE

    Kathryn J. Chang; MW Liz Thach; Janeen Olsen

    2016-01-01

    This study explores U.S. wine consumers’ perception of wine and health by gender, age, and ethnic background. An extensive body of epidemiological studies suggests that there are health benefits from moderate wine drinking. In light of an increased consumer preference over healthier foods and beverages, it is important to understand the health orientation of wine consumers and the effect of gender, age, or ethnicity on their perceptions of wine and health. An online survey was used to collect...

  13. Cytokine responses in relation to age, gender, body mass index, Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, and otitis media among inuit in greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nina Odgaard; Soborg, Bolette; Børresen, Malene

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the cytokine response pattern in Inuit in Greenland in relation to age, gender, body mass index (BMI), Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (MTI), and otitis media (OM) to assess whether Inuit may have signs of impaired immune responsiveness to infection.......To evaluate the cytokine response pattern in Inuit in Greenland in relation to age, gender, body mass index (BMI), Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (MTI), and otitis media (OM) to assess whether Inuit may have signs of impaired immune responsiveness to infection....

  14. Age- and Gender-related Differences in the Use of Secondary Medical Prevention after Primary Vascular Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgh, Annette Langager; Lindholt, Jes S.; Nielsen, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the possible age- and gender-related differences in the use of secondary medical prevention following primary vascular reconstruction in a population-based long-term follow-up study.......This study examined the possible age- and gender-related differences in the use of secondary medical prevention following primary vascular reconstruction in a population-based long-term follow-up study....

  15. Passing rates on physical fitness. Effects of age, gender, physical activity, overweight and obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Monteiro de Vilhena e Santos

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to analyze the influence of gender, age, physicalactivity (PA and overweight/obesity on health-related physical fitness (HRPF passing rates. Asample of 581 boys and 529 girls, aged 6 to 10 years and enrolled in first cycle primary schoolsin Albergaria-a-Velha, Portugal, was studied. Weight and height were measured and BMI wascalculated. The FITNESSGRAM test battery was applied. The cut-off values of Cole et al.(2000 for overweight and obesity were used. PA levels were estimated using the questionnaireof Godin and Shephard. A high prevalence of overweight and obesity was found. No positiveassociation was observed between PA and HRPF. Age does not seem to have an impact onHRPF passing rates.

  16. Questions of culture, age and gender in the epidemiology of suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster Rudmin, Floyd; Ferrada-Noli, Marcello; Skolbekken, John-Arne

    2003-09-01

    Cultural values were examined as predictors of suicide incidence rates compiled for men and women in six age groups for 33 nations for the years 1965, 1970, 1975, 1980, and 1985. Hofstede's cultural values of Power-Distance, Uncertainty Avoidance, and Masculinity (i.e., social indifference) were negative correlates of reported suicide, and Individualism was a strong positive correlate. The proportion of variance in suicide reports generally related to these four cultural values was R2 = 0.25. Suicide by women and by middle-aged people was most related to cultural values, even though international variance in suicide is greater for men and for the elderly. Suicide incidence for girls and young women showed unique negative correlations with Individualism. For all age groups, Individualism predicted a greater preponderance of male suicides, and Power-Distance predicted more similar male and female suicide rates. Social alienation and Gilligan's feminist theory of moral judgment were hypothesized to explain some gender differences.

  17. Children Perception on TV Advertisement: The Impact of Age, Gender and Parental Influence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahasanul Haque

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined two components of understanding TV advertising: the recognition of the difference between programmes and commercials and the comprehension of advertising intent. ANOVA analyses were performed to assess the effect on age, gender, parent-child interaction and parental control over children of TV programme watching. Research found that majority of children aged between five and eight have some understanding of TV advertising, they are capable in differentiate programme and commercials especially if this understanding is measured by non-verbal rather than verbal measure. However, the results based on verbal measures are not as conclusive. The findings also indicated that children age has substantial positive effect on the children understanding of TV advertising. This effect pronounced for verbal measure of comprehension intent for advertisements. Results also showed a small but significant negative effect of parental control of TV viewing, in which a high control of TV viewing result in a relatively low understanding of TV advertising.

  18. Anthropometric, body composition and health determinants of active ageing: a gender approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Pilar Montero; Fernández-Ballesteros, Rocío; Zamarrón, María Dolores; López, Santiago Rodríguez

    2011-09-01

    This study applied a gender perspective to establish some of the anthropometric, body composition, health and socio-cultural determinants of active ageing. The variable 'active ageing' (presence/absence) was created based on cognitive and disability/illness/physical functioning, subjective health, satisfaction with life and productive activity performed, and used in predictive models to establish its relationship with anthropometric variables, physical health indicators and educational level. The sample consisted of 456 home-living individuals (169 men and 287 women; age range 54-75 years) from Madrid and Toledo in Spain. The women had a higher prevalence of obesity than the men (37.6% vs 29.0%), significantly greater fat accumulation in the abdominal area and worst perceived health (p=0.003). The frequency of active agers is higher in men than in women (38.4% vs 21.9%; peducation factors are also relevant in men.

  19. Gender differences on the impacts of social exclusion on mortality among older Japanese: AGES cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Masashige; Kondo, Naoki; Kondo, Katsunori; Ojima, Toshiyuki; Hirai, Hiroshi

    2012-09-01

    To evaluate the gender-specific impact of social exclusion on the mortality of older Japanese adults, we performed a prospective data analysis using the data of the Aichi Gerontological Evaluation Study (AGES). In AGES, we surveyed functionally independent residents aged 65 years or older who lived in six municipalities in Aichi prefecture, Japan. We gathered baseline information from 13,310 respondents in 2003. Information on mortality was obtained from municipal databases of the public long-term care insurance system. All participants were followed for up to 4 years. We evaluated social exclusion in terms of the combination of social isolation, social inactivity, and relative poverty. Cox's proportional hazard model revealed that socially excluded older people were at significantly increased risk (9-34%) for premature mortality. Those with simultaneously relative poverty and social isolation and/or social inactivity were 1.29 times more likely to die prematurely than those who were not socially excluded. Women showed stronger overall impact of social exclusion on mortality, whereas relative poverty was significantly associated with mortality risks for men. If these associations are truly causal, social exclusion is attributable to 9000-44,000 premature deaths (1-5%) annually for the older Japanese population. Health and social policies to mitigate the issue of social exclusion among older adults may require gender-specific approaches.

  20. Advanced theory of mind in adolescence: Do age, gender and friendship style play a role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Białecka-Pikul, Marta; Kołodziejczyk, Anna; Bosacki, Sandra

    2017-04-01

    The ability to recursively infer the mental states of others to explain their complex behavior in ambiguous social situation may be called Advanced Theory of Mind (aToM). The relations between two components of aToM, cognitive and affective, measured on a behavioral level in 151 Polish 13-year-olds and 174 16-year-olds was examined. The role of age, gender and friendship style and its relations to the cognitive and affective aToM was explored. Cognitive aToM was only weakly to moderately related to affective aToM. Across both age groups females scored higher than males. Males' aToM abilities did not differ according to age, but they scored higher in the cognitive aToM than affective ToM. Also, different aspects of friendship style were significant predictors of both aToM abilities. The implications for two aToM components within a gendered social context were discussed.

  1. Age, gender and hypertension as major risk factors in development of subclinical atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajla Rahimić Ćatić

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Intima-media thickness (IMT measurement of the common carotid artery (CCA is considered as useful indicator of carotid atherosclerosis. Early detection of atherosclerosis and its associated risk factors is important to prevent stroke and heart diseases. The aim of the present study was to investigate which risk factors are better determinants of subclinical atherosclerosis, measured by common carotidartery intima media thickness (CCA-IMT.Methods: A total of 74 subjects were randomly selected in this cross – sectional study. Information on the patient’s medical history and laboratory fi ndings were obtained from their clinical records. Risk factors relevant to this study were age, gender, cigarette smoking status, diabetes, hypertension and dyslipidemia. Ultrasound scanning of carotid arteries was performed with a 7,5 MHz linear array transducer (GE Voluson730 pro. The highest value of six common carotid artery measurements was taken as the fi nal IMT. Increased CCA-IMT was defi ned when it was > 1 mm.Results: Our data demonstrated higher CCA-IMT values in male patients compared with female patients. Increased CCA-IMT was the most closely related to age (PConclusion: Age, gender and hypertension are the most important risk factors in development of carotid atherosclerosis. Early detection of atherosclerosis among high-risk populations is important in order to prevent stroke and heart diseases, which are leading causes of death worldwide.

  2. Multiwork and satisfaction with various life domains: Analysis of sex, gender, occupational and age differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Lipińska-Grobelny

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Contemporary multiwork definitely changes its face, and statistics show that Poland is in the forefront of European countries in terms of the number of multiworkers. The question arises whether the provision of work for more than one employer can influence personal and professional satisfaction, and whether job satisfaction, satisfaction with marriage and satisfaction with life are differentiated by sex, gender, age and a job position. Material and Methods: The study involved 218 multiworkers and 218 monoworkers. The subjects completed the following research tools: a survey, the Satisfaction with Life Scale, the Job Description Questionnaire, the Job Affect Scale, the Scale of Masculinity and Femininity. Results: The research shows that multiwork differentiates satisfaction with organization and management. Sex, gender, age and job position affect the whole system of satisfaction dimensions, especially satisfaction with work and with life. Interaction of multiwork and age, sex, and job position differentiate satisfaction with certain aspects of job. Conclusions: The results of the study contribute to the deepening of knowledge about psychosocial functioning of multiworkers and the phenomenon of multiwork. Med Pr 2016;67(3:385–395

  3. Impact of Donor Age, Gender and Handling Time on the DNA Concentration Left on Different Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branka Gršković

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: We analyzed the correlation between several factors (donor age and gender, and handling time and trace DNA concentration that participants left on different surfaces (paper, plastic, plastic coated metal while holding items in their hands or rubbing them with their fingers, their palms, and the side of the palm of the dominant hand. Material and Methods: Sixty participants took part in the study. Items were swabbed with a moistened cotton swab. DNA was isolated using the Chelex procedure and quantified by real-time PCR. Results: We found that DNA concentration transferred to an item was independent of the handling time. On the contrary, it was dependent on the item’s texture; the greatest concentration was left on plastic coated metal (PCM and the least on paper. The greatest concentration of trace DNA was left by participants from 35 to 44 years of age. Results of the study showed that men deposit a higher DNA concentration than do women. Conclusion: Item texture, donor age, and gender influence trace DNA concentration. Further investigations are necessary to fully understand the process of DNA transfer from donors to handled items.

  4. How avoidant attachment influences subjective well-being: an investigation about the age and gender differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tianyuan; Fung, Helene H

    2014-01-01

    Intimate relationship is a significant factor that influences older adults' subjective well-being. Avoidant attachment reflects a basic working model regarding interpersonal relationships. The current study aims to test how age and gender moderate the effect of avoidant attachment to spouse on subjective well-being. Fifty-six married couples aged from 20 to 79 years in Hong Kong were recruited for the study. Their avoidant attachment to spouse and subjective well-being were measured by questionnaires. In general, avoidant attachment to spouse was found to undermine subjective well-being. More importantly, age significantly moderated the negative association between avoidant attachment and subjective well-being, but the direction of the moderating effect was opposite for husbands and wives. Compared with their younger counterparts, the detrimental effect of avoidant attachment on subjective well-being was weaker for older wives but stronger for older husbands. The results suggest that marital relationship may play different roles in different life stages for the two genders. In later adulthood, males may become more dependent on the marital relationship to maintain subjective well-being, whereas females can be relatively independent.

  5. Gender and age-based differences in computed-tomography measurements of the orophaynx

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigeta, Yuko; Ogawa, Takumi; Venturin, Jaqueline; Nguyen, Manuel; Clark, Glenn T; Enciso, Reyes

    2008-01-01

    Objective To examine the influence of aging and body-mass-index (BMI) on the oropharynx configuration in male and female Japanese patients. Study design This study examined the computed tomography (CT) images of 19 male and 19 females, group matched for age and BMI. The airway and the soft tissue volumes between the posterior nasal spine and top of the epiglottis were compared. Results The patient's height, total oropharynx length (TOL), and lower oropharynx lengths and volume measurements (soft tissue and airway) demonstrated statistically significant gender differences. Men consistently had larger TOL and volumes than women. In men, TOL changed with age, and age was a significant predictor of lower oropharynx length. In males, the upper oropharynx soft tissue volume decreased significantly with age and lower oropharynx soft tissue volume increased significantly with age. In females no significant relationship was identified. Conclusion The airway lengthens with aging in males and we speculate that it becomes more collapsible, which in turn could contribute to obstructive sleep apnea. PMID:18602313

  6. Cross-national trends in perceived school pressure by gender and age from 1994 to 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinger, Don A; Freeman, John G; Bilz, Ludwig

    2015-01-01

    /2006 and 2009/2010) were used to examine time-, age- and gender-related trends in the amounts of reported school pressure among 11-, 13- and 15-year-olds, in five different regions (North America, Great Britain, Eastern Europe, Nordic and Germanic countries). RESULTS: Across the regions the reported perceptions...... expectations of secondary education. Time-related increases in school pressure occurred in the years following the release of the PISA results, and were larger in those regions in which results were less positive....

  7. Preferences and behaviour of pedestrians and cyclists by age and gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernhoft, Inger Marie; Carstensen, Gitte

    2008-01-01

    significantly more than the younger respondents do. To a larger extent they feel that it is dangerous to cross the road where these facilities are missing. The older pedestrians also find the presence of a pavement very important on their route whereas the younger pedestrians more often focus on a fast passage....... Differences in preferences and behaviour within the group of older respondents can be related to differences in health and physical abilities rather that to differences in age and gender. The older road users seem to be more influenced by the fact that an action is illegal than the younger road users are...

  8. Usability evaluation through gonad shielding production of pediatric patients by gender and age rating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chui, Sung Hyun; Park, Jung Eun [Dept. of Radiology, Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chun, Woon Kwan; Ju, Yong Jin; Yang, Nam Hee [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Dong, Kyung Rae [Dept. of Radiological Technology, Gwangju Health University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The gonad shielding is used to minimize the impact of the exposure to gonads when Abdomen, Plevis and Hip X-ray inspections are conducted on radiation impressionable pediatric patients. By the way, the gonad is palpable difficult and impossible to check visually because it's a sensitive area, so tests are conducted with the approximate location of shielding, thereby appearing problems of not shielding gonads accurately. Accordingly, this study produced shields by age and gender of pediatric patients and studied the method of positioning shields with ASIS as a reference point without palpable sensitive areas, and tried to evaluate its usability. The study surveyed 30 pediatric patients by gender and age, who came and got inspected in Department of Radiology, our hospital from February 2012 to January 2014 and obtained the value of tolerance by measuring the average size of the pelvis using the distance measurement function of Infinitt Piview with the images stored in the PACS and producing shields by age and gender of pediatric patients and specifying the areas at random for the comparative analysis of pre- and post-using. It calculated the technology statistics (mean±SD) with the value of tolerance measured the length using SPSS 12.0 statistical program. As for boys, differences in the tolerance range of pre- and post-using shields were 2.69 mm in case of 1 year old, 2.58 mm in 2 years, 2.37 mm in 3 years, 2.815 mm in 4-5 years, 2.043 mm in 7-10 years, and as for girls,1.92 mm in 1-2 years, 1.75 mm in 3-4 years, 2.52 mm in 5-6 years and 1.93 mm in 7-10. After analyzing the pre- and post-using shields for all of boys and girls, there were statistically significant differences (P<0.050). It is considered that we can minimize the exposure to gonads and get a better video for diagnosis in testing high biological impressionable pediatric, if we use shields correctly with ASIS as a reference point considering its shape and size by age and gender in Abdomen, Plevis

  9. Relationships between body dimensions, body weight, age, gender, breed and echocardiographic dimensions in young endurance horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trachsel, D S; Giraudet, A; Maso, D

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The heart's physiological adaptation to aerobic training leads to an increase in heart chamber size, and is referred to as the Athlete's heart. However, heart dimensions are also related to body weight (BWT), body size, growth and (in some species) breed. There are few published data...... functional indices did not. Although there was no gender difference for LV dimensions, females had larger LA dimensions. In terms of breed, Anglo-Arabians had the largest LV dimensions. Regression models indicated that the included explanatory factors had a weak influence on heart dimensions. Age, body...... may therefore reflect early adaptations linked to the initiation of endurance training....

  10. Gender and age identities in rituals of comensality. The argaric societies

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Romero, Margarita

    2007-01-01

    Analysis of meat offerings included in the grave goods of Argaric burials has shown the importance of commensality practices for these societies not only as a part of the funerary ritual but also as a way to manifest social inequalities. Our main interest in this paper will be to understand how gender and age identities are incorporated in this social negotiation. El análisis de ofrendas cárnicas que se incluyen en los ajuares funerarios argáricos de la Edad del Bronce del sudeste de la Pe...

  11. Age and gender modulate the neural circuitry supporting facial emotion processing in adults with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briceño, Emily M; Rapport, Lisa J; Kassel, Michelle T; Bieliauskas, Linas A; Zubieta, Jon-Kar; Weisenbach, Sara L; Langenecker, Scott A

    2015-03-01

    Emotion processing, supported by frontolimbic circuitry known to be sensitive to the effects of aging, is a relatively understudied cognitive-emotional domain in geriatric depression. Some evidence suggests that the neurophysiological disruption observed in emotion processing among adults with major depressive disorder (MDD) may be modulated by both gender and age. Therefore, the present study investigated the effects of gender and age on the neural circuitry supporting emotion processing in MDD. Cross-sectional comparison of fMRI signal during performance of an emotion processing task. Outpatient university setting. One hundred adults recruited by MDD status, gender, and age. Participants underwent fMRI while completing the Facial Emotion Perception Test. They viewed photographs of faces and categorized the emotion perceived. Contrast for fMRI was of face perception minus animal identification blocks. Effects of depression were observed in precuneus and effects of age in a number of frontolimbic regions. Three-way interactions were present between MDD status, gender, and age in regions pertinent to emotion processing, including frontal, limbic, and basal ganglia. Young women with MDD and older men with MDD exhibited hyperactivation in these regions compared with their respective same-gender healthy comparison (HC) counterparts. In contrast, older women and younger men with MDD exhibited hypoactivation compared to their respective same-gender HC counterparts. This the first study to report gender- and age-specific differences in emotion processing circuitry in MDD. Gender-differential mechanisms may underlie cognitive-emotional disruption in older adults with MDD. The present findings have implications for improved probes into the heterogeneity of the MDD syndrome. Copyright © 2015 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Age- and gender-adjusted normative data for the German version of Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test from healthy subjects aged between 50 and 70 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speer, Paula; Wersching, Heike; Bruchmann, Sabine; Bracht, Dorothea; Stehling, Christoph; Thielsch, Meinald; Knecht, Stefan; Lohmann, Hubertus

    2014-01-01

    Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT) is widely used to evaluate dysfunctional episodic memory. The current study aimed to provide extended age- and gender-specific norms for the German AVLT for individuals older than 50 years. In 690 subjects, a comprehensive medical examination including a structural 3.0-tesla magnetic resonance imaging scan was administered, as well as extensive neuropsychological tests. After controlling for exclusion criteria, 407 subjects were included in the analysis. AVLT performance decreased with age, and women outperformed men. We present age- and gender-specific normative data for the German AVLT from subjects aged between 50 and 70 years.

  13. The influence of gender and age on the thickness and echo-density of skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firooz, A; Rajabi-Estarabadi, A; Zartab, H; Pazhohi, N; Fanian, F; Janani, L

    2017-02-01

    The more recent use of ultrasound scanning allows a direct measurement on unmodified skin, and is considered to be a reliable method for in vivo measurement of epidermal and dermal thickness. The objective of this study was to assess the influence of gender and age on the thickness and echo-density of skin measured by high frequency ultrasonography (HFUS). This study was carried out on 30 healthy volunteers (17 female, 13 male) with age range of 24-61 years old. The thickness and echo-density of dermis as well as epidermal entrance echo thickness in five anatomic sites (cheek, neck, palm, dorsal foot, and sole) were measured using two different types of B mode HFUS, 22 and 50 MHz frequencies. The epidermal entrance echo thickness and thickness of dermis in males were higher than females, which was statistically significant on neck and dorsum of foot. The echo-density of dermis was higher in females on all sites, but was only statistically significant on neck. The epidermal entrance echo thickness and thickness of dermis in young age group was statistically higher than old group on sole and dorsal of the foot respectively. Overall, the skin thickness decreased with age. High frequency ultrasonography method provides a simple non-invasive method for evaluating the skin thickness and echo-density. Gender and age have significant effect on these parameters. Differences in study method, population, and body site likely account for different results previously reported. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. From the glass door to the glass ceiling: An analysis of the gender wage gap by age groups

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Dalla Chiara; Eleonora Matteazzi; Ilaria Petrarca

    2014-01-01

    Using 2009 EU-SILC data for France, Italy, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom, we decompose the gender wage gap for prime age workers. We adopt an age group approach to identify when and how the glass door and the glass ceiling effects arise and their persistency over time. The empirical results verify that the raw gender wage gap increases with age. In all considered countries, the glass ceiling effect is completely realized by the age of 30 and increases over time. French, Italian and B...

  15. Age- and gender-related differences in the cortical anatomical network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Gaolang; Rosa-Neto, Pedro; Carbonell, Felix; Chen, Zhang J; He, Yong; Evans, Alan C

    2009-12-16

    Neuroanatomical differences attributable to aging and gender have been well documented, and these differences may be associated with differences in behaviors and cognitive performance. However, little is known about the dynamic organization of anatomical connectivity within the cerebral cortex, which may underlie population differences in brain function. In this study, we investigated age and sex effects on the anatomical connectivity patterns of 95 normal subjects ranging in age from 19 to 85 years. Using the connectivity probability derived from diffusion magnetic resonance imaging tractography, we characterized the cerebral cortex as a weighted network of connected regions. This approach captures the underlying organization of anatomical connectivity for each subject at a regional level. Advanced graph theoretical analysis revealed that the resulting cortical networks exhibited "small-world" character (i.e., efficient information transfer both at local and global scale). In particular, the precuneus and posterior cingulate gyrus were consistently observed as centrally connected regions, independent of age and sex. Additional analysis revealed a reduction in overall cortical connectivity with age. There were also changes in the underlying network organization that resulted in decreased local efficiency, and also a shift of regional efficiency from the parietal and occipital to frontal and temporal neocortex in older brains. In addition, women showed greater overall cortical connectivity and the underlying organization of their cortical networks was more efficient, both locally and globally. There were also distributed regional differences in efficiency between sexes. Our results provide new insights into the substrates that underlie behavioral and cognitive differences in aging and sex.

  16. Adult Life-Span Patterns in WAIS-R Block Design Performance: Cross-Sectional versus Longitudinal Age Gradients and Relations to Demographic Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronnlund, Michael; Nilsson, Lars-Goran

    2006-01-01

    Aging patterns in WAIS-R Block Design Test (BDT) were examined cross-sectionally and longitudinally. One sample (35-80 years, n=1000) was assessed in 1988-1990 and five years later (836 returned). An independent cohort-matched sample (n=974) was assessed at Time 2 to control for practice effects. Relations between BDT, gender, and education were…

  17. Oxidative damage parameters in renal tissues of aged and young rats based on gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzun D

    2013-06-01

    young control group for both genders. Conclusion: With respect to PCO and AOPP, impaired redox homeostasis is substantially more prominent in males than females. The decrease of G-SH levels in male groups could be attributed to stabilizing the redox status of protein thiol groups by the depletion of the GSH groups. Considering the results, the renal tissue proteins and lipids in different genders may have different susceptibilities to oxidative damage. Keywords: lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, radicals, renal aging

  18. Aberrant driving behaviour: homogeneity of a four-factor structure in samples differing in age and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimmö, P-A

    2002-06-20

    Four samples, representing a broad age range, were compared in confirmatory factor analyses with respect to a four-factor model of aberrant driving behaviour. With the restrictions imposed on the data by the model, an approximate fit was obtained for all four samples. Additional analyses, which tested equality of factor loadings and correlations for different age groups, also indicated that the model was a good fit. Separate analyses on male and female respondents yielded similar results. Although earlier results have shown that aberrant driving behaviours are differentially related to age and gender, the findings suggest that structural differences in relation to age and gender may be of minor importance. The four-factor model of aberrant driving behaviour sufficiently meets statistical criteria in a model-generating phase. In addition, it is an appropriate solution to apply on data obtained from respondents varying in age and gender.

  19. Gender and Age Related Effects While Watching TV Advertisements: An EEG Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartocci, Giulia; Cherubino, Patrizia; Rossi, Dario; Modica, Enrica; Maglione, Anton Giulio; di Flumeri, Gianluca; Babiloni, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to show how the variation of the EEG frontal cortical asymmetry is related to the general appreciation perceived during the observation of TV advertisements, in particular considering the influence of the gender and age on it. In particular, we investigated the influence of the gender on the perception of a car advertisement (Experiment 1) and the influence of the factor age on a chewing gum commercial (Experiment 2). Experiment 1 results showed statistically significant higher approach values for the men group throughout the commercial. Results from Experiment 2 showed significant lower values by older adults for the spot, containing scenes not very enjoyed by them. In both studies, there was no statistical significant difference in the scene relative to the product offering between the experimental populations, suggesting the absence in our study of a bias towards the specific product in the evaluated populations. These evidences state the importance of the creativity in advertising, in order to attract the target population. PMID:27313602

  20. Single Stance Stability and Proprioceptive Control in Older Adults Living at Home: Gender and Age Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Riva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In developed countries, falls in older people represent a rising problem. As effective prevention should start before the risk becomes evident, an early predictor is needed. Single stance instability would appear as a major risk factor. Aims of the study were to describe single stance stability, its sensory components, and their correlation with age and gender. A random sample of 597 older adults (319 men, 278 women living at home, aged 65–84, was studied. Stability tests were performed with an electronic postural station. The single stance test showed the impairment of single stance stability in older individuals (75–84 yrs. The significant decline of stability in the older subjects may be explained by the impairment of proprioceptive control together with the decrease in compensatory visual stabilization and emergency responses. Younger subjects (65–74 yrs exhibited better, but still inadequate, proprioceptive control with compensatory visual stabilization. Gender differences appeared in older subjects: women were significantly less stable than men. The measurement of the sensory components of single stance stability could aid in the early detection of a decay in antigravity movements many years before the risk of falling becomes evident. Adequate proprioceptive control could mitigate the effects of all other risks of falling.

  1. Effects of age and gender on finger coordination in MVC and submaximal force-matching tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinohara, Minoru; Li, Sheng; Kang, Ning; Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M; Latash, Mark L

    2003-01-01

    The objective of the study is to examine the effects of age and gender on finger coordination. Twelve young (24 +/- 8 yr; 6 men and 6 women) and 12 elderly (75 +/- 5 yr; 6 men and 6 women) subjects performed single-finger maximal contraction [maximal voluntary contraction (MVC)], four-finger MVC, and four-finger ramp force production tasks by pressing on individual force transducers. A drop in the force of individual fingers during four-finger MVC tasks compared with single-finger MVC tasks (force deficit) was larger, whereas unintended force production by other fingers during single-finger MVC tasks (enslaving) was smaller, in elderly than in young subjects and in women than in men. Force deficit was smaller and enslaving was larger in subjects with higher peak force. During the ramp task, the difference between the variance of total force and the sum of variances of individual forces showed a logarithmic relation to the level of total force, across all subject groups. These findings suggest that indexes of finger coordination scale with force-generating capabilities across gender and age groups.

  2. Gender and Age Related Effects While Watching TV Advertisements: An EEG Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartocci, Giulia; Cherubino, Patrizia; Rossi, Dario; Modica, Enrica; Maglione, Anton Giulio; di Flumeri, Gianluca; Babiloni, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to show how the variation of the EEG frontal cortical asymmetry is related to the general appreciation perceived during the observation of TV advertisements, in particular considering the influence of the gender and age on it. In particular, we investigated the influence of the gender on the perception of a car advertisement (Experiment 1) and the influence of the factor age on a chewing gum commercial (Experiment 2). Experiment 1 results showed statistically significant higher approach values for the men group throughout the commercial. Results from Experiment 2 showed significant lower values by older adults for the spot, containing scenes not very enjoyed by them. In both studies, there was no statistical significant difference in the scene relative to the product offering between the experimental populations, suggesting the absence in our study of a bias towards the specific product in the evaluated populations. These evidences state the importance of the creativity in advertising, in order to attract the target population.

  3. Gender and Age Related Effects While Watching TV Advertisements: An EEG Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Cartocci

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present paper is to show how the variation of the EEG frontal cortical asymmetry is related to the general appreciation perceived during the observation of TV advertisements, in particular considering the influence of the gender and age on it. In particular, we investigated the influence of the gender on the perception of a car advertisement (Experiment 1 and the influence of the factor age on a chewing gum commercial (Experiment 2. Experiment 1 results showed statistically significant higher approach values for the men group throughout the commercial. Results from Experiment 2 showed significant lower values by older adults for the spot, containing scenes not very enjoyed by them. In both studies, there was no statistical significant difference in the scene relative to the product offering between the experimental populations, suggesting the absence in our study of a bias towards the specific product in the evaluated populations. These evidences state the importance of the creativity in advertising, in order to attract the target population.

  4. Gender and age differences in mixed metal exposure and urinary excretion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berglund, Marika, E-mail: Marika.Berglund@ki.se [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Lindberg, Anna-Lena [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Rahman, Mahfuzar; Yunus, Mohammad [International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research (Bangladesh); Grander, Margaretha [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Loennerdal, Bo [Department of Nutrition, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Vahter, Marie [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2011-11-15

    Background: Little is known about the variation in exposure to toxic metals by age and gender and other potential modifying factors. We evaluated age and gender differences by measurements of metal/element concentrations in urine in a rural population in Matlab, Bangladesh, in three age groups: 8-12 (N=238), 14-15 (N=107) and 30-88 (N=710) years of age, living in an area with no point sources of metal exposure but where elevated water arsenic concentrations are prevalent. Results: We found marked differences in urine concentrations of metals and trace elements by gender, age, tobacco use, socioeconomic and nutritional status. Besides a clearly elevated urinary arsenic concentration in all age groups (medians 63-85 {mu}g As/L), and despite the low degree of contamination from industries and traffic, the urine concentrations of toxic metals such as cadmium and lead were clearly elevated, especially in children (median 0.31 {mu}g Cd/L and 2.9 {mu}g Pb/L, respectively). In general, women had higher urinary concentrations of toxic metals, especially Cd (median 0.81 {mu}g/L) compared to men (0.66 {mu}g/L) and U (median 10 ng/L in women, compared to 6.4 ng/L in men), while men had higher urinary concentrations of the basic and essential elements Ca (69 mg/L in men, 30-50 years, compared to 52 mg/L in women), Mg (58 mg/L in men compared to 50 mg/L in women), Zn (182 {mu}g/L in men compared to 117 {mu}g/L in women) and Se (9.9 {mu}g/L in men compared to 8.7 {mu}g/L in women). Manganese was consistently higher in females than in males in all age groups, suggesting a biological difference between females and males in Mn metabolism. Increasing socioeconomic status decreased the toxic metal exposure significantly in children and especially in men. Poor iron status was detected in 17% of children, adolescents and women, but only in 6% of men. Also zinc deficiency was more prevalent in females than in males. Conclusions: Women and children seemed to be more at risk for toxic

  5. Preliminary results in the redox balance in healthy cats: influence of age and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Cristina; Pereira, Victor; Abuelo, Angel; Guimarey, Rebeca; García-Vaquero, Marco; Benedito, José L; Hernández, Joaquín

    2013-04-01

    Oxidative stress (OS) impairs organic function and is considered causally related to cellular senescence and death. This study aims to evaluate if the redox balance varies in relation to age and gender in healthy cats. To quantify the oxidative status of this species we determined the oxidative damage as serum reactive oxygen metabolites (ROM) and the total serum antioxidant capacity (SAC). In addition, we used the ratio of ROM to SAC as a measure of the oxidative balance, with higher values meaning higher oxidative stress (oxidative stress index). Our results suggest that the male population is at oxidative risk when compared with females, especially between the age of 2 and 7 years. Nutritional strategies in this population looking for additional antioxidant support would probably avoid the oxidative stress status that predisposes to chronic processes in senior male cats. Further clinical trials in this field are recommended.

  6. Tourist Roles, Gender and Age in Greece: A Study of Tourists in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgia Yfantidou

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This research is set in the context of tourism marketing and refers specifically to tourist roles. A representative sample of 1675 tourists brings to light the tourist role preference in Greece, and allows us to examine the possible differences between men and women of varying ages. The Tourist Role Preference Scale (TRPS was used for this research. The findings of this study support the existence of Yiannakis and Gibson’s 15 leisure tourist roles in Greece. Sun lover, anthropologist, archaeologist, independent mass tourist and escapist were found to be the most prevalent tourist roles in Greece. A comparison between gender and age revealed more similarities than differences. TRPS was proven reliable and valid for the sample used in this study and the questions of the scale represented significantly the tourist roles measured.

  7. Age, gender, and interpersonal behavior development using the FIRO-BC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, S A; Goggin, W C

    1985-04-01

    It has been argued that many human behaviors follow predictable developmental patterns, or stages. The FIRO-BC was given to 9- through 13-year-old children (n = 282) to test for a stage-like progression in interpersonal behavior development. The data presented here failed to evidence an age-related progression. However, gender differences did appear in 11-year-olds and increased dramatically by age 13. Geographical differences were found in that the present data differed significantly from the normative data presented in the FIRO manual. The data also support the notion that, at least within the southern population tested. interpersonal behavior may be more related to puberty than has been previously supposed.

  8. The effect of age and gender on pressure pain thresholds and suprathreshold stimuli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrini, Laura; Tomczak Matthiesen, Susan; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2015-01-01

    (20–34, mean age = 24.6 ± 3.5 years, ten female) and twenty elderly (65–88, mean age = 73.7 ± 6.6 years, ten female) healthy volunteers were compared. Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE 28–30) assessed intact cognitive functioning. Pain thresholds were assessed together with the sensory intensity....... Conversely, the intensity and unpleasantness of the pain stimulus were significantly rated lower in the elderly as compared with the young. No gender differences were observed in the report of intensity and unpleasantness of the stimulations. Discussion: a mismatch in pain sensitivity, tolerance, and pain...... self-reports was observed. Findings suggest that pain experiences in the elderly differ from the experiences in the young on multiple dimensions: sensory, affective, and cognitive. Findings may also indicate that the elderly appraise pain experiences using different psychological strategies....

  9. Impact of age and gender on the clinicopathological characteristics of bladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parag Gupta

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine the impact of age and gender on the clinicopathological characteristics of histologically confirmed bladder cancer in India. Materials and Methods: From January 2001 to June 2008, records of patients with bladder cancer were evaluated for age and gender at presentation, clinical symptoms, cystoscopic finding, history of smoking, and histopathological characteristics. A total of 561 patients were identified from the computer-based hospital information system and the case files of patients. Results: A total of 97% of the patients presented with painless hematuria. The mean age was 60.2 ± 4.4 years old (range: 18-90 years old and the male to female ratio was 8.6:1. Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC was the most common histological variety, which was present in 97.71% (470 of 481 of the patients. A total of 26% of the patients had muscle invasive disease at the time of presentation. However, 34.5% (166 of 481 of the patients did not show any evidence of detrusor muscle in their biopsy specimen. In patients with nonmuscle-invasive bladder carcinoma, 55% had p Ta while 45% had p T1. Overall, 44.7% (215 of 481 of the patients had low-grade disease. Among patients younger than 60 years old, low-grade (51.0% vs. 38.1%; P = 0.006 and low-stage (77.1% vs. 70.8%; P = 0.119 disease were more prevalent than in patients older than 60 years old. The incidence of smoking was much higher among males compared with females (74% vs. 22%. Conclusion: TCC is the predominant cancer, with significant male preponderance among Indian patients. Younger-aged patients have low-grade disease. Hematuria is the most common presentation and greater awareness is needed not to overlook bladder cancer.

  10. [Flow density measurements using optical coherence tomography angiography : Impact of age and gender].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnawaiseh, M; Brand, C; Lauermann, J L; Eter, N

    2017-07-19

    This article presents the normative data for flow density measured using optical coherence tomography (OCT) angiography and the impact of age and gender is evaluated. In this study 58 eyes from 58 healthy volunteers with no history of any ocular disease or ocular surgery were included. The OCT angiography imaging was performed using the RTVue XR Avanti with the AngioVue (Optovue, Fremont, CA). The macula was imaged using a 3 × 3 mm scan, and the flow density data in the superficial retinal OCT angiogram and deep retinal OCT angiogram were extracted and analyzed. The groups were compared using the Mann-Whitney U‑test and the degree of correlation between two variables was expressed as the Spearman's correlation coefficient (rSp.) RESULTS: The mean subject age was 38.3 ± 14.6 years. The flow density (whole en face) in the deep retinal OCT angiogram was significantly higher compared to the flow density in the superficial retinal OCT angiogram (p density in superficial and deep OCT angiograms of the macula between males (n = 27) and females (n = 31). There was a significant correlation between the flow density in the deep retinal OCT angiogram and age (rSp. = -0.41, p = 0.001). Whereas gender has no impact on the flow density measured using OCT angiography, there was a significant correlation between the flow density in the deep retinal OCT angiogram and age.

  11. Bromazepam pharmacokinetics: influence of age, gender, oral contraceptives, cimetidine, and propranolol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochs, H R; Greenblatt, D J; Friedman, H; Burstein, E S; Locniskar, A; Harmatz, J S; Shader, R I

    1987-05-01

    Pharmacokinetics of the benzodiazepine bromazepam were evaluated in volunteer subjects who received single 6 mg oral doses followed by blood sampling during the next 48 hours. Age and gender effects were studied in 32 subjects, divided into young (aged 21 to 29 years) and elderly (aged 60 to 81 years) groups. Compared with young subjects, the elderly had significantly higher peak serum bromazepam concentrations (132 vs. 82 ng/ml), smaller volume of distribution (0.88 vs. 1.44 L/kg), lower oral clearance (0.41 vs. 0.76 ml/min/kg), and increased serum free fraction (34.8% vs. 28.8% unbound). However, gender had no significant influence on bromazepam kinetics. In 11 young female users of oral contraceptive steroids, compared with seven age- and weight-matched control women not using oral contraceptives, no differences in bromazepam kinetics were observed. Coadministration of cimetidine (1.2 gm daily) significantly reduced bromazepam clearance (0.41 vs. 0.82 ml/min/kg) and prolonged elimination half-life (29 vs. 23 hours). Propranolol (160 mg daily) significantly prolonged bromazepam half-life (28 vs. 23 hours), but the reduction in clearance associated with propranolol (0.65 vs. 0.82 ml/min/kg) did not reach significance. Bromazepam has the pharmacokinetic characteristics of benzodiazepines with half-life values between 20 and 30 hours. Consistent with its biotransformation pathway by hepatic microsomal oxidation, bromazepam clearance is significantly impaired in elderly individuals, by coadministration of cimetidine and possibly propranolol.

  12. Noninvasive markers of bone metabolism in the rhesus monkey: normal effects of age and gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahoon, S.; Boden, S. D.; Gould, K. G.; Vailas, A. C.

    1996-01-01

    Measurement of bone turnover in conditions such as osteoporosis has been limited by the need for invasive iliac bone biopsy to reliably determine parameters of bone metabolism. Recent advances in the area of serum and urinary markers of bone metabolism have raised the possibility for noninvasive measurements; however, little nonhuman primate data exist for these parameters. The purpose of this experiment was to define the normal range and variability of several of the newer noninvasive bone markers which are currently under investigation in humans. The primary intent was to determine age and gender variability, as well as provide some normative data for future experiments in nonhuman primates. Twenty-four rhesus macaques were divided into equal groups of male and female according to the following age groupings: 3 years, 5-10 years, 15-20 years, and > 25 years. Urine was collected three times daily for a four-day period and measured for several markers of bone turnoverm including pyridinoline (PYD), deoxypyrodinoline (DPD), hydroxyproline, and creatinine. Bone mineral density measurements of the lumbar spine were performed at the beginning and end of the study period. Serum was also obtained at the time of bone densitometry for measurement of osteocalcin levels by radioimmunoassay. There were no significant differences in bone mineral density, urine PYD, or urine DPD based on gender. Bone density was lowest in the youngest animals, peaked in the 15-20-year group, but again decreased in the oldest animals. The osteocalcin, PYD, and DPD levels followed an inversely related pattern to bone density. The most important result was the relative age insensitivity of the ratio of PYD:DPD in monkeys up to age 20 years. Since bone density changes take months or years to become measurable and iliac biopsies are invasive, the PYD/DPD marker ratio may have important implications for rapid noninvasive measurement of the effects of potential treatments for osteoporosis in the non

  13. Parent-proxy perception of overweight adolescents' health-related quality of life is different according to adolescent gender and age and parent gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchini, Josiane Aparecida Alves; da Silva, Danilo Fernandes; Nardo, Claudia Christina Sanchez; Carolino, Idalina Diair Regla; Hernandes, Florencio; Nardo, Nelson

    2013-10-01

    This study assessed health-related quality of life (HRQoL) reported by overweight adolescents and compared to their parent-proxy perception of HRQoL, according to adolescent gender, adolescent age, and parent gender. Patients and a total of 179 adolescents aged 10 to 18 years with excess weight were evaluated for perceived HRQoL prior to beginning a weight-loss intervention, using the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL 4.0) questionnaire, estimating quality of life in the physical, emotional, social, and school domains, as well as index measures of psychosocial and overall quality of life. Parents completed the same questionnaire estimating his or her child's HRQoL. Compared to their child's self-report, parents underestimated all the domains of HRQoL except the school domain. Parents underestimated all the domains of HRQoL among boys; however, they only underestimated the physical domain among girls. Comparisons between parent-proxy perception and self-report of the adolescent according to adolescent's age revealed that parents underestimated their children's HRQoL in the younger adolescents (10 to 13 years) for all except for the school domain and underestimated only the physical domain in older adolescents (14 to 18 years). The same comparison between parent-proxy perception and their child's self-report of HRQoL according to parent gender showed that mothers underestimated HRQoL in all domains except for the school domain, while fathers only underestimated the school domain. The differences between self-report of overweight adolescent and perceptions of their parents about the HRQoL of their children are influenced by adolescent gender and age and parent gender.

  14. Evaluation of palatal mucosal thickness and its association with age and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, N; Hungund, S; Astekar, M S; Dodani, K

    2014-10-01

    The palatal masticatory mucosa is widely used as donor material for periodontal plastic surgery. The thickness of graft tissue is important for graft survival. We investigated the thickness of palatal mucosa using a bone sounding technique. We also examined the relation of age and gender to the thickness of palatal mucosa. Fifty healthy subjects were divided into a younger age group of 25 subjects, 14-21 years old (mean, 19 years); the older age group consisted of 25 subjects, 30-59 years old (mean, 34.4 years). A bone sounding method using a periodontal probe and endodontic spreader no. 60 was used to assess the thickness of palatal mucosa at 15 pre-determined sites defined according to the gingival margin and palatal lines. Student's 't' test was used to validate differences in mucosal thickness between the groups. The mean thickness of palatal masticatory mucosa ranged from 2.5 to 3.7 mm. The younger age group had a thinner mucosa than the older age group and females had a thinner mucosa than males. The canine and premolar areas appeared to be the most appropriate donor sites for grafting procedures.

  15. Demographic and spatial predictors of anemia in women of reproductive age in Timor-Leste: implications for health program prioritization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew A Lover

    Full Text Available Anemia is a significant risk factor for poor health outcomes for both the mother and neonate; however, the determinants of anemia in many epidemiological settings are poorly understood. Using a subset of a nationally representative cluster survey (2010 Demographic and Health Survey in combination with other non-contemporaneous survey data, the epidemiology of anemia among women of reproductive age in Timor-Leste has been explored. Logistic regression was used to identify risk factors, population-level impacts were estimated as population attributable fractions and spatial analytics were used to identify regions of highest risk. The DHS survey found that ∼ 21% of adult women in Timor-Leste are anemic (49,053; 95% CI: 37,095 to 61,035, with hemoglobin <12.0 g/dL. In this population, the main risk factors (adjusted odds ratio; 95% CI are: currently abstaining from sex for any reason (2.25; 1.50 to 3.38; illiteracy (2.04; 1.49 to 2.80; giving birth within the previous year (1.80; 1.29 to 2.51; consumption of fruits/vegetables low in vitamin A (1.57; 1.13 to 2.20; and the district-level confirmed malaria incidence (1.31; 1.15 to 1.49. A review of prior soil-transmitted helminth surveys in Timor-Leste indicates low-to-moderate prevalence with generally low egg counts, suggesting a limited impact on anemia in this setting, although comprehensive survey data are lacking. Examination of the population-level effects highlights the impacts of both recent births and malaria on anemia, with more limited impacts from diet; the evidence does not suggest a large contribution from geohelminths within Timor-Leste. These patterns are divergent from some other settings in the Asia-Pacific region and highlight the need for further focused research. Targeting high-burden districts and by increasing access to pre/postnatal care, raising literacy levels, increasing access to family planning, and improving malaria control should be prioritized to maximize inherently

  16. Research on ageing, health and gender: A long and winding road. Reply to Månsdotter's 'Further thoughts on gender and lifetime health'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrig-Chiello, Pasqualina; Hutchison, Sara

    2010-01-01

    This contribution is a reply to Dr. Månsdotter's comments on our discussion paper 'Health and well-being in old age: the pertinence of a gender mainstreaming approach in research' published in Gerontology [Gerontology 2010 (in press)]. Even though the comments are interesting and comprehensible, they cannot be left unanswered, this primarily because they are based on weak empirical evidence. (1) It is broadly uncontested that gender is not static. However, the conclusion that the more egalitarian division of parental duties can be viewed as an indicator for reduction of the gender gap in longevity and health is highly speculative. There is not enough empirical evidence to substantiate this position. (2) The 'caring hypothesis' proposed by Månsdotter, which holds that caring fathers develop less risky lifestyles and increased worries, is a possible, but not a sufficient explanation for gender convergence of physical and psychological health in future generations. Such a convergence seems to be heavily co-determined by the changing lifestyles of women. (3) From a lifespan developmental perspective, androgyny does not mean gender equality, but a necessary openness of an individual for the positive traits of the opposing gender role, an essential trait for successful ageing. (4) Månsdotter's doubts concerning the implementation of gender mainstreaming in gerontological research and practice because of society's limited resources are not comprehensible. Exactly because economical resources are limited, and exactly because men and women have different resources and disadvantages due to their specific bio-psycho-social realities, the most efficient way of dealing with the gender gaps in health is with a differentialapproach. (5) The concluding recommendation of Månsdotter for more openness as a scientific position regarding the impact of gender roles on human health and well-being stands in contrast to her claim for normative standpoints and prioritization of either

  17. INFLUENCE OF AGE, GENDER AND SIRE LINE ON YOUNG CATTLE BEHAVIOUR TRAITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Broucek

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to test effects of age, gender, and sire line on dairy cattle behaviour. We have analyzed results of ethological tests for 40 Holstein breed animals (23 males and 17 females, offsprings of three sires. Maintenance behaviour were observed at the age of 90, 130 and 170 days. Behaviour in the maze was conducted at the age of 119 days, an open-field test was applied at the age of 124, 168, and 355 days. The social behaviour was determined by feeding on 155th day of the age. The times and the number of periods in all activities of maintenance behaviour were changing significantly (P<0.001 according to the age. The total time of lying, lying with ruminating, ruminating, feeding was increasing from the age of 90 days to the age of 170 days, on the other hand the time of standing was decreasing. The times of total lying, lying with ruminating, total ruminating, feeding were increased, and time of standing was decreased from the age of 90 days to the age of 170 days. Calves spent more time lying on the left side than on the right side. The number of ruminating periods was increasing according to the age. Eating periods were decreasing from the age of 90 to 170 days. The most of lying periods were recorded at the age of 130 days. The differences between sex were found in total time of lying, lying on the right side (P<0.05, and the males rest longer and had more periods of lying than females. We have found differences in times of feeding (P<0.001, total lying, standing (P<0.01, and lying on the left side (P<0.05 according to sire by comparing behaviour of the calves. Sire genotypes were significantly manifested in period number of total lying (P<0.001, lying on the right side, feeding (P<0.01, and standing (P<0.05. Males stood in the first part of maze longer than females (P<0.001, also length of total standing was longer by bulls (P<0.01. Heifers took shorter time to leave the maze than bulls (P<0.05. Sire lineages significantly

  18. Gender- and age-dependent gamma-secretase activity in mouse brain and its implication in sporadic Alzheimer disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Placanica

    Full Text Available Alzheimer disease (AD is an age-related disorder. Aging and female gender are two important risk factors associated with sporadic AD. However, the mechanism by which aging and gender contribute to the pathogenesis of sporadic AD is unclear. It is well known that genetic mutations in gamma-secretase result in rare forms of early onset AD due to the aberrant production of Abeta42 peptides, which are the major constituents of senile plaques. However, the effect of age and gender on gamma-secretase has not been fully investigated. Here, using normal wild-type mice, we show mouse brain gamma-secretase exhibits gender- and age-dependent activity. Both male and female mice exhibit increased Abeta42ratioAbeta40 ratios in aged brain, which mimics the effect of familial mutations of Presenilin-1, Presenlin-2, and the amyloid precursor protein on Abeta production. Additionally, female mice exhibit much higher gamma-secretase activity in aged brain compared to male mice. Furthermore, both male and female mice exhibit a steady decline in Notch1 gamma-secretase activity with aging. Using a small molecule affinity probe we demonstrate that male mice have less active gamma-secretase complexes than female mice, which may account for the gender-associated differences in activity in aged brain. These findings demonstrate that aging can affect gamma-secretase activity and specificity, suggesting a role for gamma-secretase in sporadic AD. Furthermore, the increased APP gamma-secretase activity seen in aged females may contribute to the increased incidence of sporadic AD in women and the aggressive Abeta plaque pathology seen in female mouse models of AD. In addition, deceased Notch gamma-secretase activity may also contribute to neurodegeneration. Therefore, this study implicates altered gamma-secretase activity and specificity as a possible mechanism of sporadic AD during aging.

  19. Does ethnicity, gender or age of physiotherapy students affect performance in the final clinical placements? An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naylor, Sandra; Norris, Meriel; Williams, Annabel

    2014-03-01

    To explore demographic differences in awarded marks of the final clinical placement in a physiotherapy undergraduate programme. Retrospective analysis of clinical placement assessment marks. A London university offering clinical placements throughout South East England. 333 physiotherapy students entering physiotherapy training between 2005 to 2009. Marks awarded following assessment using a clinical placement assessment form. The mean mark (SD) for age were standard entry 71 (7.4) vs. mature entry 72 (7.99) (ns); for gender male 72 (8.45) vs. female 71 (7.21) (ns); and ethnicity White British 72 (7.71) vs. ethnic minority 70 (7.01) (p=0.023). No interaction effects were observed between the independent variables and only ethnicity demonstrated a statistically significant effect (mean difference (MD) 2.4% 95%CI 0.5 to 4.3, F=5.24, p=0.023). This difference was maintained in most subcategories. Significant differences were observed for the interpersonal section (MD 2.21% 95%CI 0.14 to 4.28, F=4.409, p=0.03), the clinical reasoning section (MD 2.39% 95%CI 0.53 to 4.25, F=6.37, p=0.012) and the treatment section (MD 2.93 95%CI 1.10 to 4.83, F=9.198, p=0.003). Physiotherapy students from minority ethnic backgrounds were awarded a significantly lower mark than their white majority peers in final clinical placements, although the difference was small. Potential reasons are considered, with the strongest recommendation being for further enquiry into the potential relationship between ethnicity and success in undergraduate physiotherapy education. Copyright © 2013 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Drugs prescribed by general practitioners according to age, gender and socioeconomic status after adjustment for multimorbidity level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skoog, Jessica; Midlöv, Patrik; Beckman, Anders

    2014-01-01

    of prescription drugs among patients, issued in primary health care, according to age, gender and socioeconomic status after adjustment for multimorbidity level.MethodData were collected on all individuals above 20 years of age in Östergötland county with about 400 000 inhabitants in year 2006. The John Hopkins......BackgroundAge, gender and socioeconomic status have been shown to be associated with the use of prescription drugs, even after adjustment for multimorbidity. General practitioners have a holistic and patient-centred perspective and our hypothesis is that this may reflect on the prescription...... ACG Case-mix was used as a proxy for multimorbidity level. Odds ratio (OR) of having prescription drugs issued in primary health care in the population and rates of prescription drug use among patients in primary health care, stated as incidence rate ratio (IRR), according to age, gender...

  1. Gender and age effects in structural brain asymmetry as measured by MRI texture analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalev, Vassili A; Kruggel, Frithjof; von Cramon, D Yves

    2003-07-01

    Effects of gender and age on structural brain asymmetry were studied by 3D texture analysis in 380 adults. Asymmetry is detected by comparing the complex 3D gray-scale image patterns in the left and right cerebral hemispheres as revealed by anatomical T1-weighted MRI datasets. The Talairach and Tournoux parcellation system was applied to study the asymmetry on five levels: the whole cerebrum, nine coronal sections, 12 axial sections, boxes resulting from both coronal and axial subdivisions, and by a sliding spherical window of 9 mm diameter. The analysis revealed that the brain asymmetry increases in the anterior-posterior direction starting from the central region onward. Male brains were found to be more asymmetric than female. This gender-related effect is noticeable in all brain areas but is most significant in the superior temporal gyrus, Heschl's gyrus, the adjacent white matter regions in the temporal stem and the knee of the optic radiation, the thalamus, and the posterior cingulate. The brain asymmetry increases significantly with age in the inferior frontal gyrus, anterior insula, anterior cingulate, parahippocampal gyrus, retrosplenial cortex, coronal radiata, and knee region of the internal capsule. Asymmetry decreases with age in the optic radiation, precentral gyrus, and angular gyrus. The texture-based method reported here is based on extended multisort cooccurrence matrices that employ intensity, gradient, and anisotropy features in a uniform way. It is sensitive, simple to reproduce, robust, and unbiased in the sense that segmentation of brain compartments and spatial transformations are not necessary. Thus, it should be considered as another tool for digital morphometry in neuroscience.

  2. Impact of vocational interests, previous academic experience, gender and age on Situational Judgement Test performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schripsema, Nienke R; van Trigt, Anke M; Borleffs, Jan C C; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke

    2017-05-01

    Situational Judgement Tests (SJTs) are increasingly implemented in medical school admissions. In this paper, we investigate the effects of vocational interests, previous academic experience, gender and age on SJT performance. The SJT was part of the selection process for the Bachelor's degree programme in Medicine at University of Groningen, the Netherlands. All applicants for the academic year 2015-2016 were included and had to choose between learning communities Global Health (n = 126), Sustainable Care (n = 149), Intramural Care (n = 225), or Molecular Medicine (n = 116). This choice was used as a proxy for vocational interest. In addition, all graduate-entry applicants for academic year 2015-2016 (n = 213) were included to examine the effect of previous academic experience on performance. We used MANCOVA analyses with Bonferroni post hoc multiple comparisons tests for applicant performance on a six-scenario SJT. The MANCOVA analyses showed that for all scenarios, the independent variables were significantly related to performance (Pillai's Trace: 0.02-0.47, p < .01). Vocational interest was related to performance on three scenarios (p < .01). Graduate-entry applicants outperformed all other groups on three scenarios (p < .01) and at least one other group on the other three scenarios (p < .01). Female applicants outperformed male applicants on three scenarios (p < .01) and age was positively related to performance on two scenarios (p < .05). A good fit between applicants' vocational interests and SJT scenario was related to better performance, as was previous academic experience. Gender and age were related to performance on SJT scenarios in different settings. Especially the first effect might be helpful in selecting appropriate candidates for areas of health care in which more professionals are needed.

  3. The Role of Adolescents' Morality and Identity in Volunteering. Age and Gender Differences in a Process Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Goethem, Anne A. J.; van Hoof, Anne; van Aken, Marcel A. G.; Raaijmakers, Quinten A. W.; Boom, Jan; de Castro, Bram Orobio

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explain adolescents' volunteering in terms of their morality and identity and to examine the moderation effect of gender and age in this process. Data were collected among 698 Dutch adolescents aged 12 to 20 (M = 15.19; SD = 1.43). Adolescents' moral reasoning was positively associated with understanding moral issues…

  4. The Influence of Moral Disengagement, Morally Based Self-Esteem, Age, and Gender on Traditional Bullying and Cyberbullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Claire; Witenberg, Rivka T.

    2013-01-01

    The current study investigated moral disengagement, morally based self-esteem, age, and gender as predictors of traditional bullying and cyberbullying. The participants were 210 Australian school students aged 12 to 15, evenly split between males and females. Salient predictors of traditional bullying were overall moral disengagement, and the…

  5. The Role of Adolescents' Morality and Identity in Volunteering. Age and Gender Differences in a Process Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Goethem, Anne A. J.; van Hoof, Anne; van Aken, Marcel A. G.; Raaijmakers, Quinten A. W.; Boom, Jan; de Castro, Bram Orobio

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explain adolescents' volunteering in terms of their morality and identity and to examine the moderation effect of gender and age in this process. Data were collected among 698 Dutch adolescents aged 12 to 20 (M = 15.19; SD = 1.43). Adolescents' moral reasoning was positively associated with understanding moral issues…

  6. AGE AND GENDER RELATED ANALYSIS OF PSYCHOSOCIAL FACTORS IN ATTEMPTED SUICIDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P.N. Suresh

    1998-01-01

    Hundred consecutive suicide attempters admitted in the Medical Intensive Care Unit(MlCU) of Christian Medical College, Vellore during the period December 1991 to December 1992 were evaluated in detail with respect to all psycho-socio-demographic variables. Instruments used included a specially designed sociodemographic proforma, Gurmeet Singh's Presumptive Stressful Life Event Scale, Suicide Intent Questionnaire and DSM III R Diagnostic Criteria. Young males constituted major part of the sample. Organophosphorus poisoning was the commonest mode of suicide attempt. More than 90% had psychiatric diagnosis. Adjustment disorder was the commonest psychiatric diagnosis followed by major depression and alcohol abuse/dependence. Many of the risk factors reported earlier was found to be operating in older age group only. Among males the commonest mode of attempt was organophosphorus poisoning whereas in females it was drug over dose and native poisoning. The implication of these findings are discussed in the context of prevention and further management strategies. PMID:21494498

  7. Mortality forecast from gastroduodenal ulcer disease for different gender and age population groups in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duzhiy I.D.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Until 2030 the ulcer mortality will have a growing trend as estimated by the World Health Organization. Detection of countries and population groups with high risks for the ulcer mortality is possible using forecast method. The authors made a forecast of mortality rate from complicated ulcer disease in males and females and their age groups (15-24, 25-34, 35-54, 55-74, over 75, 15 - over 75 in our country. The study included data of the World Health Organization Database from 1991 to 2012. The work analyzed absolute all-Ukrainian numbers of persons of both genders died from the ulcer causes (К25-К27 coded by the 10th International Diseases Classification. The relative mortality per 100 000 of alive persons of the same age was calculated de novo. The analysis of distribution laws and their estimation presents a trend of growth of the relative mortality. A remarkable increase of deaths from the ulcer disease is observed in males and females of the age after 55 years old. After the age of 75 years this trend is more expressed.

  8. Sexism and alexithymia: correlations and differences as a function of gender, age, and educational level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maite Garaigordobil

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The goals of the study were to analyze differences as a function of gender, age, and educational level in sexism and alexithymia in a nonclinical and in a clinical sample, and to explore the relation between these constructs. A descriptive and correlational cross-sectional methodology was used. The Ambivalent Sexism Inventory (Glick & Fiske, 1996 and the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (Parker et al. 1993 were administered. The sample comprised 989 participants from the Basque Country, aged between 18 and 65 years. The results revealed: 1 Significantly higher scores in the males in sexism (hostile, benevolent, and ambivalent and in alexithymia (difficulties to express emotions and external-oriented thinking in both samples; in the total alexithymia score, the males had significantly higher scores only in the nonclinical sample; 2 As of 55 years of age, a significant increase in benevolent and ambivalent sexism, and in difficulties to identify emotions, external-oriented thinking, and in the total alexithymia score were observed (only in the nonclinical sample; however, no changes with age were observed in hostile sexism and in difficulties to express emotions; 3 A decrease in sexism and alexithymia as the educational level increased; and 4 Significant positive correlations between sexism and alexithymia.

  9. Functional limitations of Brazilian elderly by age and gender differences: data from SABE Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbosa Aline R.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This study provides the prevalence, by gender and age-groups, of observed physical performance test (PPT assessing functional limitation for representative samples of elderly Brazilian subjects living in São Paulo city. This cross-sectional epidemiological study, both population- and household-based, is part of a multicenter survey (SABE undertaken in seven Latin American and Caribbean countries and coordinated by the Pan-American Health Organization. From January 2000 to March 2001, 2,143 elderly individuals (> 60 years of both sexes were examined. Of this total, 1,894 participated in the study. PPT included handgrip strength, standing balance, timed repeated "chair stand", and "pick up a pen". Results have shown (based on chi-square that the prevalence relating to the performance differed according to sex, age group, and from one test to another. With increasing age, there was a reduction (p = 0.000 in both males and females in the proportion of individuals that had better results on the tests. The male group, on every test, when compared to women from the same age group, had a more individuals with better scores. Data suggest that older individuals and women have more functional limitations.

  10. Dental caries among children in Georgia by age, gender, residence location and ethnic group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgan-Cohen, H D; Margvelashvili, V; Bilder, L; Kalandadze, M; Gordon, M; Margvelashvili, M; Zini, A

    2014-09-01

    To provide prevalence data for dental caries in Georgia. This World Health Organization pathfinder survey was conducted among 1,351 (6, 12 and 15 year-old) Georgian children, representing the main ethnic groups in urban and rural locations. Caries was analysed at univariate and multivariate levels, according to age, gender, urban/rural locality and ethnic group. Caries experience levels among 6-year-olds were dmft = 4.57, sd 3.42 (14.8% caries-free); DMFT = 2.04 (sd 2.02) among 12-year-olds (31.1% caries-free); and DMFT = 3.51 (sd 3.14) for the 15-year-olds (17.7% caries-free). Urban children at ages 6 and 12 years were more likely to be caries-free and have both lower levels of caries-experience and higher levels of filled or restored teeth. In multivariate regression analyses, most age groups showed a significant contribution from residence location. No differences were found by age and no consistent differences were detected by ethnic group. These data should provide the baseline for formulating and conducting public oral health efforts in Georgia, with emphases on rural residence locations.

  11. Predicting body fat percentage based on gender, age and BMI by using artificial neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupusinac, Aleksandar; Stokić, Edita; Doroslovački, Rade

    2014-02-01

    In the human body, the relation between fat and fat-free mass (muscles, bones etc.) is necessary for the diagnosis of obesity and prediction of its comorbidities. Numerous formulas, such as Deurenberg et al., Gallagher et al., Jackson and Pollock, Jackson et al. etc., are available to predict body fat percentage (BF%) from gender (GEN), age (AGE) and body mass index (BMI). These formulas are all fairly similar and widely applicable, since they provide an easy, low-cost and non-invasive prediction of BF%. This paper presents a program solution for predicting BF% based on artificial neural network (ANN). ANN training, validation and testing are done by randomly divided dataset that includes 2755 subjects: 1332 women (GEN = 0) and 1423 men (GEN = 1), with AGE from 18 to 88 y and BMI from 16.60 to 64.60 kg/m(2). BF% was estimated by using Tanita bioelectrical impedance measurements (Tanita Corporation, Tokyo, Japan). ANN inputs are: GEN, AGE and BMI, and output is BF%. The predictive accuracy of our solution is 80.43%. The main goal of this paper is to promote a new approach to predicting BF% that has same complexity and costs but higher predictive accuracy than above-mentioned formulas.

  12. Associations of gender and age groups on the knowledge and use of drug information resources by American pharmacists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carvajal MJ

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To explore knowledge and use of drug information resources by pharmacists and identify patterns influenced by gender and age-group classification. Methods: A survey questionnaire was mailed nationwide to 1,000 practitioners working in community (n = 500 and hospital (n = 500 settings who answer drug information questions as part of their expected job responsibilities. Responses pertaining to drug information resource use and knowledge of different types of drug-related queries, resource media preferences, and perceived adequacy of resources maintained in the pharmacy were analyzed by gender and age group. The t statistic was used to test for significant differences of means and percentages between genders and between age groups. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize other findings.Results: Gender and age group classification influenced patterns of knowledge and use of drug information resources by pharmacists. They also affected pharmacists’ perceptions of the most common types of questions prompting them to consult a drug information reference, as well as the resources consulted. Micromedex, exclusively available in electronic format, was the most commonly consulted resource overall by pharmacists. Lexi-Comp Online was the leading choice by women, preferred over Micromedex, but was not one of the top two resources selected by men. Conclusion: This study successfully identified the influence of gender and age-group classification in assessing drug information resource knowledge and use of general and specific types of drug-related queries.

  13. The Influence of Gender, Age, Education, and Household Size on Meal Preparation and Food Shopping Responsibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee Anne, Flagg; Bisakha, Sen; Kilgore, Meredith L.; Locher, Julie L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the extent to which the gendered division of labor persists within households in the US in regard to meal planning/preparation and food shopping activities. Design Secondary analysis of cross-sectional data. Setting 2007-2008 U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Subjects Subsample of 3,195 adults at least 20 years old who had a spouse or partner. Results Analyses revealed that the majority of women and men reported that they shared in both meal planning/preparing and food shopping activities (meal planning/preparation: women, 54 % and men, 56 % and food shopping: women, 60 % and men, 57 %). Results from multinomial logistic regression analyses indicated that, compared to men, women are more likely to take primary responsibility than to share this responsibility and are less likely to report having no responsibility for these tasks. Gender differences were observed for age/cohort, education, and household size. Conclusions This study may have implications for public health nutritional initiatives and the well-being of families in the US. PMID:23988018

  14. Age, gender, and puberty influence the development of facial emotion recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Kate; Campbell, Ruth; Skuse, David

    2015-01-01

    Our ability to differentiate between simple facial expressions of emotion develops between infancy and early adulthood, yet few studies have explored the developmental trajectory of emotion recognition using a single methodology across a wide age-range. We investigated the development of emotion recognition abilities through childhood and adolescence, testing the hypothesis that children's ability to recognize simple emotions is modulated by chronological age, pubertal stage and gender. In order to establish norms, we assessed 478 children aged 6-16 years, using the Ekman-Friesen Pictures of Facial Affect. We then modeled these cross-sectional data in terms of competence in accurate recognition of the six emotions studied, when the positive correlation between emotion recognition and IQ was controlled. Significant linear trends were seen in children's ability to recognize facial expressions of happiness, surprise, fear, and disgust; there was improvement with increasing age. In contrast, for sad and angry expressions there is little or no change in accuracy over the age range 6-16 years; near-adult levels of competence are established by middle-childhood. In a sampled subset, pubertal status influenced the ability to recognize facial expressions of disgust and anger; there was an increase in competence from mid to late puberty, which occurred independently of age. A small female advantage was found in the recognition of some facial expressions. The normative data provided in this study will aid clinicians and researchers in assessing the emotion recognition abilities of children and will facilitate the identification of abnormalities in a skill that is often impaired in neurodevelopmental disorders. If emotion recognition abilities are a good model with which to understand adolescent development, then these results could have implications for the education, mental health provision and legal treatment of teenagers.

  15. Age, gender and puberty influence the development of facial emotion recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate eLawrence

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Our ability to differentiate between simple facial expressions of emotion develops between infancy and early adulthood, yet few studies have explored the developmental trajectory of emotion recognition using a single methodology across a wide age-range. We investigated the development of emotion recognition abilities through childhood and adolescence, testing the hypothesis that children’s ability to recognise simple emotions is modulated by chronological age, pubertal stage and gender. In order to establish norms, we assessed 478 children aged 6-16 years, using the Ekman-Friesen Pictures of Facial Affect. We then modelled these cross-sectional data in terms of competence in accurate recognition of the six emotions studied, when the positive correlation between emotion recognition and IQ was controlled. Significant linear trends were seen in children’s ability to recognise facial expressions of happiness, surprise, fear and disgust; there was improvement with increasing age. In contrast, for sad and angry expressions there is little or no change in accuracy over the age range 6-16 years; near-adult levels of competence are established by middle-childhood. In a sampled subset, pubertal status influenced the ability to recognize facial expressions of disgust and anger; there was an increase in competence from mid to late puberty, which occurred independently of age. A small female advantage was found in the recognition of some facial expressions. The normative data provided in this study will aid clinicians and researchers in assessing the emotion recognition abilities of children and will facilitate the identification of abnormalities in a skill that is often impaired in neurodevelopmental disorders. If emotion recognition abilities are a good model with which to understand adolescent development, then these results could have implications for the education, mental health provision and legal treatment of teenagers.

  16. Age, gender, and puberty influence the development of facial emotion recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Kate; Campbell, Ruth; Skuse, David

    2015-01-01

    Our ability to differentiate between simple facial expressions of emotion develops between infancy and early adulthood, yet few studies have explored the developmental trajectory of emotion recognition using a single methodology across a wide age-range. We investigated the development of emotion recognition abilities through childhood and adolescence, testing the hypothesis that children’s ability to recognize simple emotions is modulated by chronological age, pubertal stage and gender. In order to establish norms, we assessed 478 children aged 6–16 years, using the Ekman-Friesen Pictures of Facial Affect. We then modeled these cross-sectional data in terms of competence in accurate recognition of the six emotions studied, when the positive correlation between emotion recognition and IQ was controlled. Significant linear trends were seen in children’s ability to recognize facial expressions of happiness, surprise, fear, and disgust; there was improvement with increasing age. In contrast, for sad and angry expressions there is little or no change in accuracy over the age range 6–16 years; near-adult levels of competence are established by middle-childhood. In a sampled subset, pubertal status influenced the ability to recognize facial expressions of disgust and anger; there was an increase in competence from mid to late puberty, which occurred independently of age. A small female advantage was found in the recognition of some facial expressions. The normative data provided in this study will aid clinicians and researchers in assessing the emotion recognition abilities of children and will facilitate the identification of abnormalities in a skill that is often impaired in neurodevelopmental disorders. If emotion recognition abilities are a good model with which to understand adolescent development, then these results could have implications for the education, mental health provision and legal treatment of teenagers. PMID:26136697

  17. Clinical and surgical implications regarding morphometric variations of the medial wall of the orbit in relation to age and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Avalos, Rodolfo; Santos-Martínez, Arlette Gabriela; Ávalos-Fernández, Cesia Gisela; Mohamed-Noriega, Karim; Sánchez-Mejorada, Gabriela; Montemayor-Alatorre, Adolfo; Martínez-Fernández, David A; Espinosa-Uribe, Abraham G; Mohamed-Noriega, Jibran; Cuervo-Lozano, Edgar E; Mohamed-Hamsho, Jesús; Quiroga-García, Oscar; Lugo-Guillen, Roberto A; Guzmán-López, Santos; Elizondo-Omaña, Rodrigo E

    2016-09-01

    The ethmoidal foramens are located on the medial wall of the orbit and are key reference points for intraoperative orientation. Detailed knowledge of the anatomy, bony landmarks and morphometric characteristics of the medial wall of the orbit is essential for various surgical procedures. The aim of this study was to determine the morphometric variations in the medial wall of the orbit and establish significant variations regarding age and gender. A total of 110 orbits were analyzed and subdivided by age (over or under 40 years) and gender. The distances of the medial wall of the orbit between the anterior lacrimal crest, the ethmoidal foramen, the optic canal and the interforamina were determined. Safe surgical areas were sought. Statistical tests were used to determine the differences between groups. In men, there is a safe surgical area proximal to the anterior and posterior ethmoidal foramen. In women, this area is in the posterior third of the medial wall of the orbit between the posterior ethmoidal foramen and the optic canal. Regarding variation according to age, the results of this study suggested that the anteroposterior diameter of the medial wall increases with age. This study showed that the anteroposterior total length of the medial orbit wall is similar between genders of similar age, increases with age, and has significant variations in the distances between the various structures that make up the medial orbit wall with regard to gender and age.

  18. Impact of Age, Gender, and Addition of Probiotics on Treatment Success for Helicobacter pylori in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noam Weiner MD

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of age, gender, and the use of probiotics with standard treatment regimen on Helicobacter pylori eradication. Based on endoscopic findings and clinical presentation, selected patients were treated with standard triple therapy (omeprazole, clarithromycin, and amoxicillin. Those who failed were offered a repeat treatment with omeprazole, metronidazole, and amoxicillin. After the publications of the possible advantages of probiotic treatment on H pylori eradication, the probiotic agent “Probiotica Forte” was routinely added to the treatment. Eradication was noted for 94/130 patients (72% and for 128/197 patients (65% with or without probiotic agent, respectively (P = .23. For second-line treatment eradication was noted in 33/46 (72% and in 9/20 (45% with or without probiotic agent, respectively (P = .053. The addition of probiotics may improve eradication success especially in addition to second-line treatment.

  19. GENDER-BASED DIFFERENCES IN SCHOOL-AGED CHILDREN’S DIVERGENT THINKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leah Roue

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines whether the shortage of females in science and engineering is linked to possible gender-based differences in school-aged children’s divergent thinking. Divergent thinking is a direct measure of creativity and an important characteristic in science and engineering. A survey instrument designed to measure divergent thinking was administered to 8th and 11th graders in a mid-western United States school district. Results showed that there were no difference between girls and boys on the three measures of divergent thinking: fluency, flexibility, and originality. These results indicate little reason as to why participation in science and engineering is male dominated, and support the notion that additional exposure to science and engineering through divergent-thinking activities will provide girls with the self-knowledge that they are capable of solving open-ended problems and engineering tasks.

  20. Comparing flood mortality in Portugal and Greece under a gender and age perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Susana; Diakakis, Michalis; Deligiannakis, Georgios; Luís Zêzere, José

    2017-04-01

    Flood mortality is analyzed and compared between Portugal and Greece. Flood fatality incidents are explored and compared in terms of their temporal evolution, spatial distribution, deadliest flood types, surrounding environments, gender and age of the victims. A common flood fatalities database for the period 1960-2010 was formed by merging the DISASTER database for Portugal and the Greek database previously built from documental sources. Each entry of the database, corresponding to a flood fatal incident has the following attributes: (i) ID number of the flood case; (ii) the flood type (riverine flood, flash flood, urban flood, or not defined type); (iii) date (day-month-year); (iv) location (x and y coordinates); (v) number of fatalities; (vi) surrounding environment where the flood fatal incident occurred (i.e. outdoors on foot, outdoors inside a vehicle, or inside a building). (vii) gender of the victim (male, female, or gender not reported); (viii) age of the victim (65 years). Excluding the outlier 1967 flash flood event occurred in the Lisbon metropolitan area that caused 522 fatalities, Portugal recorded 114 flood fatalities (related to 80 flood cases) and Greece registered 189 fatalities (related to 57 flood cases). Results identified decreasing mortality trend in both countries, despite some fluctuations irregularly distributed over time. Since the 1980's the number of flood cases with multiple fatalities has been gradually decreasing. In both Greece and Portugal flash floods were responsible for more than 80% of flood mortality and the main metropolitan areas of each country (Athens and Lisbon) presented a clustering of fatalities, attributed to the higher population density combined with the presence of flood-prone areas. Indoor fatalities have been gradually reducing with time, whereas vehicle-related deaths have been rising in both countries. In both countries the majority of flood victims are males, indicating that males are more vulnerable to fatal

  1. Variations in Decision-Making Profiles by Age and Gender: A Cluster-Analytic Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Rebecca; Strough, JoNell; Parker, Andrew M; de Bruin, Wandi Bruine

    2015-10-01

    Using cluster-analysis, we investigated whether rational, intuitive, spontaneous, dependent, and avoidant styles of decision making (Scott & Bruce, 1995) combined to form distinct decision-making profiles that differed by age and gender. Self-report survey data were collected from 1,075 members of RAND's American Life Panel (56.2% female, 18-93 years, Mage = 53.49). Three decision-making profiles were identified: affective/experiential, independent/self-controlled, and an interpersonally-oriented dependent profile. Older people were less likely to be in the affective/experiential profile and more likely to be in the independent/self-controlled profile. Women were less likely to be in the affective/experiential profile and more likely to be in the interpersonally-oriented dependent profile. Interpersonally-oriented profiles are discussed as an overlooked but important dimension of how people make important decisions.

  2. Rosalind Brown-Grant, French Romance of the Later Middle Ages. Gender, Morality, and Desire

    OpenAIRE

    Szkilnik, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    Les romans français de la fin du Moyen Age, souvent décriés mais mal connus en réalité, font l’objet, dans la riche étude de R. Brown-Grant, d’une nouvelle évaluation qui vise à corriger le regard négatif porté, depuis Johan Huizinga, sur la littérature de fiction du XVe siècle. Examinés sous l’angle des gender studies, les romans analysés par R. Brown-Grant peignent, des relations entre les sexes, du rapport entre amour et responsabilité sociale, du statut de la femme et de l’homme dans le ...

  3. Mortality in Graves' orbitopathy is increased and influenced by gender, age and pre-existing morbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwensen, Charlotte F; Hjelm Brandt Kristensen, Frans; Hegedüs, Laszlo

    2017-01-01

     = 3965) between 1995 and 2012 were matched for age and gender with four control subjects. Median follow-up time was 7.9 years (range 0-17.5). Mortality risk in GO patients compared to the control population and compared to GD patients was calculated using Cox regression analyses, adjusting for pre......INTRODUCTION: It is unclear whether the excess mortality associated with Graves' disease differs between individuals with Graves' orbitopathy (GO) or without (GD). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A nationwide, register-based cohort study in which all adult Danes diagnosed with GD (n = 28 461) and GO (n......-existing morbidity using the Charlson score. RESULTS: Adjusted mortality in Graves' disease overall (GD + GO) was significantly increased compared to that in the background population (HR = 1.18 (95% confidence interval: 1.15-1.21)). In GD and GO separately, adjusted mortality was also significantly higher than...

  4. Social integration and healthy aging in Japan: how gender and rurality matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kimiko; Johnson, Nan E

    2010-06-01

    The current study analyzed the 1999 and 2001 waves of the Nihon University Japanese Longitudinal Study of Aging. Two measures of social integration were associated with lower risks of being physically disabled or depressed at Wave 1 and with a lower risk of progressing into deeper levels of physical disability and depression by Wave 2. Ceteris paribus, compared to elderly urbanites, elderly ruralites had a much higher risk of being physically disabled but much lower odds of being depressed. And compared to elderly men, elderly women had similar risks of being physically disabled but much higher odds of being depressed. Suggestions are made on how future research on longevity in Japan, the world's most longevous nation, can explore the links among social integration, place, gender, and the postponement of mortality.

  5. Adolescent Self-Esteem: Differences by Race/Ethnicity, Gender, and Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachman, Jerald G.; O’Malley, Patrick M.; Freedman-Doan, Peter; Trzesniewski, Kali H.; Donnellan, M. Brent

    2012-01-01

    Large-scale representative surveys of 8th-, 10th-, and 12th-grade students in the United States show high self-esteem scores for all groups. African-American students score highest, Whites score slightly higher than Hispanics, and Asian Americans score lowest. Males score slightly higher than females. Multivariate controls for grades and college plans actually heighten these race/ethnic/gender differences. A truncated scoring method, designed to counter race/ethnic differences in extreme response style, reduced but did not eliminate the subgroup differences. Age differences in self-esteem are modest, with 12th graders reporting the highest scores. The findings are highly consistent across 18 annual surveys from 1991 through 2008, and self-esteem scores show little overall change during that period. PMID:22279425

  6. Isokinetic and Isometric Muscle Strength in a Healthy Population – with Special Reference to Age and Gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danneskiold-Samsøe, B; Bartels, E M; Bülow, P M

    2009-01-01

    was subgrouped according to age and gender. Isometric and isokinetic muscle strength was measured in each subject across the main joints in the body. A statistical model was developed that encompassed the three main muscle groups: upper limbs, trunk and lower limbs. Results: Muscle strength in healthy men...... decreases in a linear fashion from the age of 25 years down to between 54% and 89% at the age of 75 years, and seems not highly dependent on any other parameter than age. For women, the muscle strength is dependent on weight and is only related to age from around 40 years of age. The decrease in muscle...

  7. Gender differences in hazardous drinking among middle-aged in Europe: the role of social context and women's empowerment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosque-Prous, Marina; Espelt, Albert; Borrell, Carme; Bartroli, Montse; Guitart, Anna M; Villalbí, Joan R; Brugal, M Teresa

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the magnitude of gender differences in hazardous drinking among middle-aged people and to analyse whether these differences are associated with contextual factors, such as public policies or socioeconomic factors. Cross-sectional design. The study population included 50- to 64-year-old residents of 16 European countries who participated in the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe project conducted in 2010-12 (n = 26 017). We estimated gender differences in hazardous drinking in each country. To determine whether different social context or women's empowerment variables were associated with gender differences in hazardous drinking, we fitted multilevel Poisson regression models adjusted for various individual and country-level variables, which yielded prevalence ratios and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Prevalence of hazardous drinking was significantly higher in men than women [30.2% (95% CI: 29.1-31.4%) and 18.6% (95% CI: 17.7-19.4%), respectively] in most countries, although the extent of these differences varied between countries. Among individuals aged 50-64 years in Europe, risk of becoming a hazardous drinker was 1.69 times higher (95% CI: 1.45-1.97) in men, after controlling for individual and country-level variables. We also found that lower values of the gender empowerment measure and higher unemployment rates were associated with higher gender differences in hazardous drinking. Countries with the greatest gender differences in hazardous drinking were those with the most restrictions on women's behaviour, and the greatest gender inequalities in daily life. Lower gender differences in hazardous drinking seem to be related to higher consumption among women. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  8. Gender as a Moderator of the Relation Between Age Cohort and Three-Dimensional Wisdom in Iranian Culture.

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    Cheraghi, Fereshte; Kadivar, Parvin; Ardelt, Monika; Asgari, Ali; Farzad, Valiollah

    2015-07-01

    This study examined whether gender moderated the association between age cohort and the cognitive, reflective, and compassionate dimensions of wisdom, using an Iranian sample of 439 adults from three age cohorts: young (18-34), middle-aged (35-54), and older (55 and above). Results indicated that the interaction effect between gender and age cohort was significant for three-dimensional wisdom and all three wisdom dimensions. Compared with younger women and older men, older women tended to have less education and to score lower on the cognitive wisdom dimension, but they had similar average scores as older men on the compassionate wisdom dimension. Overall, the association between age and wisdom was only positive for men, due mainly to the positive relation between age and the reflective and compassionate wisdom dimensions for men after adjusting for education. The results are interpreted with reference to generation gaps, socialization of men versus women, and life experiences and opportunities.

  9. An investigation into the relationship between pre-competition mood states, age, gender and a national ranking in artistic gymnastics.

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    Boldizsár, Dóra; Soós, István; Whyte, Ian; Hamar, Pál

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated the relationship between pre-competition mood state factors in gymnastics by gender, age and a national ranking. Participant-gymnasts (total n=116, male n=49, female n=67) completed a Brunel Mood Scale (BRUMS) one day prior to their main competition of the year. Information was also gathered from gymnasts of gender, age and a national ranking. Consistent with theoretical predictions, results confirmed that a number of pre-competition mood states differed by age with both juniors and seniors having a higher level of anger than children (panger showed significant differences by gender with male gymnasts demonstrating higher levels of anger than female gymnasts (panger compared with second class gymnasts (psports, as well as competitive performances.

  10. Usefulness of multidetector spiral computed tomography according to age and gender for diagnosis of acute pulmonary embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Paul D; Beemath, Afzal; Quinn, Deborah A; Olson, Ronald E; Goodman, Lawrence R; Gottschalk, Alexander; Hales, Charles A; Hull, Russell D; Leeper, Kenneth V; Sostman, H Dirk; Weg, John G; Woodard, Pamela K

    2007-05-01

    Data from the Prospective Investigation of Pulmonary Embolism Diagnosis II (PIOPED II) were evaluated to test the hypothesis that the performance of multidetector computed tomographic (CT) pulmonary angiography and CT venography is independent of a patient's age and gender. In 773 patients with adequate CT pulmonary angiography and 737 patients with adequate CT pulmonary angiography and CT venography, the sensitivity and specificity for pulmonary embolism for groups of patients aged 18 to 59, 60 to 79, and 80 to 99 years did not differ to a statistically significant extent, nor were there significant differences according to gender. Overall, however, the specificity of CT pulmonary angiography was somewhat greater in women, but in men and women, it was > or =93%. In conclusion, the results indicate that multidetector CT pulmonary angiography and CT pulmonary angiography and CT venography may be used with various diagnostic strategies in adults of all ages and both genders.

  11. Age and gender dependent development of theory of mind in 6 to 8-years old children.

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    Cecilia Ines Calero

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The ability to attribute different mental states to distinct individuals, or Theory of Mind (ToM, is widely believed to be developed mostly during preschool years. How different factors such as gender, number of siblings or coarse personality traits affect this development is not entirely agreed upon. Here, we introduce a computerized version of the scaled ToM suite of tasks introduced by Wellman and Liu (2004, which allows us to meaningfully test ToM development on children 6 to 8-years old. We find that kids this age are still not entirely proficient in all ToM tasks, and continue to show a progression of performance with age. By testing this age range, too, we are able to observe a significant advantage of girls over boys in ToM performance. Other factors such as number of siblings, birth order, and coarse personality traits show no significant relation with the ToM task results. Finally, we introduce a novel way to quantify the scaling property of the suite involving a sequence of set inclusions and also, a comparison between specially tailored sets of logistic models. These measures confirm the validity of the scale in the 6 to 8-years old range.

  12. Contribution of Gender, Marital Status, and Age to English Language Teachers’ Burnout

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    Seyedehhava Mousavy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Teaching is a stressful job and can lead to teachers’ burnout. Teachers feel burned out when they experience high levels of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization but low levels of personal accomplishment (Maslach, 1999. A wealth of research is available on this subject but the findings are inconsistent. The present study surveyed the level of burnout among a randomly selected group of English language teachers (n = 315 in Malaysia. It also investigated whether these teachers’ gender, age and marital status could significantly contribute to their burnout levels. Maslach’s Burnout Inventory (Maslach & Jackson, 1986 was used to collect the data. According to the results, the teachers suffered from significantly high levels of burnout in reference to their PA scores. In comparison with the male teachers, female teachers reported significantly higher levels of burnout considering their emotional exhaustion (p = .008, depersonalization (p = .002 and personal accomplishment (p = .000. Additionally, older teachers (aged ≤ 40 were significantly more burned out than their younger colleagues (aged ≥ 30, regarding their depersonalization (p = .001 and personal achievement (p = .000 mean scores. Finally, married teachers indicated significantly higher levels of burnout compared with those who were not married. The study is expected to have useful implications for teachers, administrators, and researchers.

  13. Profile of oxidant and antioxidant activity in prepubertal children related to age, gender, exercise, and fitness.

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    Llorente-Cantarero, Francisco Jesus; Gil-Campos, Mercedes; Benitez-Sillero, Juan de Dios; Muñoz-Villanueva, Maria Carmen; Tasset, Inmaculada; Pérez-Navero, Juan Luis

    2013-04-01

    Tissue damage resulting from oxidative stress induced by a pathological condition might have more serious consequences in children than in adults. Researchers have not yet identified particular markers - alone or in combination with others - of oxidative stress, or their role in pediatric diseases. The aim of this study was to identify gender-based biomarkers for measuring oxidative stress. Oxidative biomarkers were studied in 138 healthy Spanish children (85 boys, 53 girls) 7 to 12 years of age, at the prepubertal (Tanner I) stage, independent of body mass index (BMI), age, fitness (measured by 20-m shuttle run test), and physical activity (measured by participation in an after-school exercise program). The oxidative biomarkers measured were lipid peroxidation products, total nitrites, protein carbonyls, and oxidized glutathione (GSSG). The antioxidant biomarkers measured were total glutathione (TG), reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase activity. In the study population, height, weight, waist circumference, and BMI were lower in girls than in boys. For oxidative biomarkers, boys had higher levels of protein carbonyl than girls (p fitness, and physical activity. In conclusion, prepubertal girls had higher oxidative stress than boys, in addition to higher levels of SOD, independent of age, BMI, fitness, and physical activity.

  14. Age and gender changes in children and adolescent patients of a Brazilian eating disorder program

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    Felipe Alckmin-Carvalho

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background International studies have demonstrated an increase in the prevalence of boys and a decrease of patients’ age at the beginning of outpatient treatment for eating disorders (ED. Objective To evaluate if these changes are also present in the Brazilian population participating in the PROTAD, a Brazilian ED program, and to discuss its clinical implication for treatment. Methods Cross-sectional study. We evaluated 150 medical records of patients under 18 years diagnosed with ED (DSM IV-TR. Patients were divided into two groups: G1 (2001-2007 (n = 77 and G2 (2008-2014 (n = 73. The girl/boy proportion and the mean age of patients were compared. Results In G1, six boys (7.8% were admitted (girl/boy proportion: 11.8:1, while in G2, 16 (22% boys were admitted (girl/boy proportion: 3.5:1 (p 0.05. Discussion The increase in the number of boys treated for EDs reported in international studies was also found at the PROTAD. Contrary to what has been reported in international studies, the mean age of patients at the PROTAD did not decrease significantly. Gender and sexual orientation issues, clinical presentation, prior overweight history and culture/media impact on boys should be addressed by the healthcare team to increase the therapeutic efficacy.

  15. Gender and age differences in quality of life and the impact of psychopathological symptoms among HIV-infected patients.

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    Pereira, Marco; Canavarro, Maria Cristina

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine gender and age differences and interaction effects on the quality of life (QoL) domains in a sample of Portuguese HIV-positive patients, and to examine to what degree psychopathological symptoms are associated with QoL in addition to sociodemographic and clinical variables. The sample consisted of 1191 HIV-positive patients, and measures included the WHOQOL-HIV-Bref and the Brief Symptom Inventory. Controlling for clinical status, there was a significant effect of gender on QoL. Women reported lower scores of Psychological and Spirituality QoL. Younger patients reported higher scores on Physical and Level of Independence domains. Age by gender interactions emerged on all domains of QoL except on the Level of Independence domain. Overall, women over 45 years old showed lower QoL scores. Psychopathological symptoms contributed significantly to the variance of all QoL domains. Gender differences in the association of HIV infection with QoL and psychopathological symptoms seemed to be modulated by age. Understanding gender and age differences (and their interaction) may provide potentially useful information for planning interventions to improve QoL and mental health among people infected with HIV/AIDS, especially among older women.

  16. Changing patterns of tobacco use in a middle-aged population – the role of snus, gender, age, and education

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    Margareta Norberg

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background : In Sweden, the smoking prevalence has declined. In 2007, it was among the lowest in the industrialized world. A steady increase in the use of Swedish oral moist snuff, snus, has occurred in parallel. This development is neither solicited by authorities nor the medical establishment, but rather has occurred along with increased awareness of the dangers of smoking, and has been promoted by product development and marketing of snus. Objective : To evaluate time trends in patterns of tobacco use in northern Sweden during 1990–2007. Design : Cross-sectional (99,381 subjects and longitudinal (26,867 subjects data from the Västerbotten Intervention Programme (VIP 1990–2007 were analyzed. All adults in Västerbotten County are invited to a VIP health examination at ages 40, 50, and 60 years, and until 1995 also 30 years. Smoking and use of snus were evaluated by gender, age and educational groups. Intermittent smoking was categorized as smoking. Results : From the period 1990–1995 to the period 2002–2007, smoking prevalence decreased from 26 to 16% among men and from 27 to 18% among women. The differences in prevalence increased between educational groups. The decline in smoking was less and the increase of snus use was greater among those with basic education. The use of snus among basic-educated 40-year-olds reached 35% among men and 14% among women during 2002–2007. Dual smoking and snus use increased among men and women with basic education. Smoking without snus use was more prevalent among women. Gender differences in total smoking prevalence (smoking only plus dual use were small in all age groups, but increased among those with basic education reaching 7.3% during 2002–2007, with women being more frequent smokers. Smoking prevalences were similar among never, former and current snus users. Among the 30,000 former smokers, 38% of men and 64% of women had never used snus. Longitudinal data showed a decline in total tobacco

  17. Brain perfusion SPECT in the mouse: normal pattern according to gender and age.

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    Apostolova, Ivayla; Wunder, Andreas; Dirnagl, Ulrich; Michel, Roger; Stemmer, Nina; Lukas, Mathias; Derlin, Thorsten; Gregor-Mamoudou, Betina; Goldschmidt, Jürgen; Brenner, Winfried; Buchert, Ralph

    2012-12-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) is a useful surrogate marker of neuronal activity and a parameter of primary interest in the diagnosis of many diseases. The increasing use of mouse models spawns the demand for in vivo measurement of rCBF in the mouse. Small animal SPECT provides excellent spatial resolution at adequate sensitivity and is therefore a promising tool for imaging the mouse brain. This study evaluates the feasibility of mouse brain perfusion SPECT and assesses the regional pattern of normal Tc-99m-HMPAO uptake and the impact of age and gender. Whole-brain kinetics was compared between Tc-99m-HMPAO and Tc-99m-ECD using rapid dynamic planar scans in 10 mice. Assessment of the regional uptake pattern was restricted to the more suitable tracer, HMPAO. Two HMPAO SPECTs were performed in 18 juvenile mice aged 7.5 ± 1.5weeks, and in the same animals at young adulthood, 19.1 ± 4.0 weeks (nanoSPECT/CTplus, general purpose mouse apertures: 1.2kcps/MBq, 0.7mm FWHM). The 3-D MRI Digital Atlas Database of an adult C57BL/6J mouse brain was used for region-of-interest (ROI) analysis. SPECT images were stereotactically normalized using SPM8 and a custom made, left-right symmetric HMPAO template in atlas space. For testing lateral asymmetry, each SPECT was left-right flipped prior to stereotactical normalization. Flipped and unflipped SPECTs were compared by paired testing. Peak brain uptake was similar for ECD and HMPAO: 1.8 ± 0.2 and 2.1 ± 0.6 %ID (p=0.357). Washout after the peak was much faster for ECD than for HMPAO: 24 ± 7min vs. 4.6 ± 1.7h (p=0.001). The general linear model for repeated measures with gender as an intersubject factor revealed an increase in relative HMPAO uptake with age in the neocortex (p=0.018) and the hippocampus (p=0.012). A decrease was detected in the midbrain (p=0.025). Lateral asymmetry, with HMPAO uptake larger in the left hemisphere, was detected primarily in the neocortex, both at juvenile age (asymmetry index AI=2.7 ± 1

  18. Prevalence and determinants of the gender differentials risk factors of child deaths in Bangladesh: evidence from the Bangladesh demographic and health survey, 2011.

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    Md Mosharaf Hossain

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The number of child deaths is a potential indicator to assess the health condition of a country, and represents a major health challenge in Bangladesh. Although the country has performed exceptionally well in decreasing the mortality rate among children under five over the last few decades, mortality still remains relatively high. The main objective of this study is to identify the prevalence and determinants of the risk factors of child mortality in Bangladesh. METHODS: The data were based on a cross-sectional study collected from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS, 2011. The women participants numbered 16,025 from seven divisions of Bangladesh - Rajshahi, Dhaka, Chittagong, Barisal, Khulna, Rangpur and Sylhet. The 2 test and logistic regression model were applied to determine the prevalence and factors associated with child deaths in Bangladesh. RESULTS: In 2011, the prevalence of child deaths in Bangladesh for boys and girls was 13.0% and 11.6%, respectively. The results showed that birth interval and birth order were the most important factors associated with child death risks; mothers' education and socioeconomic status were also significant (males and females. The results also indicated that a higher birth order (7 & more of child (OR=21.421 & 95%CI=16.879-27.186 with a short birth interval ≤ 2 years was more risky for child mortality, and lower birth order with longer birth interval >2 were significantly associated with child deaths. Other risk factors that affected child deaths in Bangladesh included young mothers of less than 25 years (mothers' median age (26-36 years: OR=0.670, 95%CI=0.551-0.815, women without education compared to those with secondary and higher education (OR =0 .711 & .628, 95%CI=0.606-0.833 & 0.437-0.903, mothers who perceived their child body size to be larger than average and small size (OR= 1.525 & 1.068, 95%CI=1.221-1.905 & 0.913-1.249, and mothers who delivered their child by non

  19. Prevalence and determinants of the gender differentials risk factors of child deaths in Bangladesh: evidence from the Bangladesh demographic and health survey, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Md Mosharaf; Mani, Kulanthayan K C; Islam, Md Rafiqul

    2015-03-01

    The number of child deaths is a potential indicator to assess the health condition of a country, and represents a major health challenge in Bangladesh. Although the country has performed exceptionally well in decreasing the mortality rate among children under five over the last few decades, mortality still remains relatively high. The main objective of this study is to identify the prevalence and determinants of the risk factors of child mortality in Bangladesh. The data were based on a cross-sectional study collected from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS), 2011. The women participants numbered 16,025 from seven divisions of Bangladesh - Rajshahi, Dhaka, Chittagong, Barisal, Khulna, Rangpur and Sylhet. The 2 test and logistic regression model were applied to determine the prevalence and factors associated with child deaths in Bangladesh. In 2011, the prevalence of child deaths in Bangladesh for boys and girls was 13.0% and 11.6%, respectively. The results showed that birth interval and birth order were the most important factors associated with child death risks; mothers' education and socioeconomic status were also significant (males and females). The results also indicated that a higher birth order (7 & more) of child (OR=21.421 & 95%CI=16.879-27.186) with a short birth interval ≤ 2 years was more risky for child mortality, and lower birth order with longer birth interval >2 were significantly associated with child deaths. Other risk factors that affected child deaths in Bangladesh included young mothers of less than 25 years (mothers' median age (26-36 years): OR=0.670, 95%CI=0.551-0.815), women without education compared to those with secondary and higher education (OR =0 .711 & .628, 95%CI=0.606-0.833 & 0.437-0.903), mothers who perceived their child body size to be larger than average and small size (OR= 1.525 & 1.068, 95%CI=1.221-1.905 & 0.913-1.249), and mothers who delivered their child by non-caesarean (OR= 1.687, 95%CI=1

  20. Heavy burden of non-communicable diseases at early age and gender disparities in an adult population of Burkina Faso: world health survey

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    Miszkurka Malgorzata

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background WHO estimates suggest that age-specific death rates from non-communicable diseases are higher in sub-Saharan Africa than in high-income countries. The objectives of this study were to examine, in Burkina Faso, the prevalence of non-communicable disease symptoms by age, gender, socioeconomic group and setting (rural/urban, and to assess gender and socioeconomic inequalities in the prevalence of these symptoms. Methods We obtained data from the Burkina Faso World Health Survey, which was conducted in an adult population (18 years and over with a high response rate (4822/4880 selected individuals. The survey used a multi-stage stratified random cluster sampling strategy to identify participants. The survey collected information on socio-demographic and economic characteristics, as well as data on symptoms of a variety of health conditions. Our study focused on joint disease, back pain, angina pectoris, and asthma. We estimated prevalence correcting for the sampling design. We used multiple Poisson regression to estimate associations between non-communicable disease symptoms, gender, socioeconomic status and setting. Results The overall crude prevalence and 95% confidence intervals (CI were: 16.2% [13.5; 19.2] for joint disease, 24% [21.5; 26.6] for back pain, 17.9% [15.8; 20.2] for angina pectoris, and 11.6% [9.5; 14.2] for asthma. Consistent relationships between age and the prevalence of non-communicable disease symptoms were observed in both men and women from rural and urban settings. There was markedly high prevalence in all conditions studied, starting with young adults. Women presented higher prevalence rates of symptoms than men for all conditions: prevalence ratios and 95% CIs were 1.20 [1.01; 1.43] for joint disease, 1.42 [1.21; 1.66] for back pain, 1.68 [1.39; 2.04] for angina pectoris, and 1.28 [0.99; 1.65] for asthma. Housewives and unemployed women had the highest prevalence rates of non-communicable disease