Ejermo, Olof; Jung, Taehyun
This paper uses register-linked patent records covering an extended period 1985-2007 to analyze detailed demographic profiles of inventors. The analysis covers about 80 percent of all inventors with Swedish addresses listed on European Patent Office records. Examining temporal trends of gender, age, and education shows that the body of inventors is becoming more balanced in gender, younger, and more educated. However, the rate at which female inventors are entering into patenting has slowed d...
Shepstone, Sven Ewan; Tan, Zheng-Hua; Jensen, Søren Holdt
, which itself is the input to a recommender system. The recommender system finds the content items whose demographics best match the group profile. We tested the effectiveness of the system for several typical home audience configurations. In a survey, users were given a configuration and asked to rate......In this paper we show a new method of using automatic age and gender recognition to recommend a sequence of multimedia items to a home TV audience comprising multiple viewers. Instead of relying on explicitly provided demographic data for each user, we define an audio-based demographic group...... a set of advertisements on how well each advertisement matched the configuration. Unbeknown to the subjects, half of the adverts were recommended using the derived audio demographics and the other half were randomly chosen. The recommended adverts received a significantly higher median rating of 7...
A summary was provided of the central findings about gender inequalities in Egypt, India, Ghana, and Kenya published by the Population Council in 1994. These countries exhibited gender inequalities in different ways: the legal, economic, and educational systems; family planning and reproductive health services; and the health care system. All countries had in common a high incidence of widowhood. Widowhood was linked with high levels of insecurity, which were linked with high fertility. Children thus became insurance in old age. In Ghana, women's insecurity was threatened through high levels of marital instability and polygyny. In Egypt, insecurity was translated into economic vulnerability because of legal discrimination against women when family systems were disrupted. In India and all four countries, insecurity was reflective of limited access to education, an impediment to economic autonomy. In all four countries, women's status was inferior due to limited control over reproductive decision making about childbearing limits and contraception. In India, the cultural devaluation of girls contributed to higher fertility to satisfy the desire for sons. In India and Egypt, family planning programs were dominated by male-run organizations that were more concerned about demographic objectives than reproductive health. The universal inequality was the burden women carry for contraception. Family planning programs have ignored the local realities of reproductive behavior, family structures, and gender relations. The assumption that husbands and wives have similar fertility goals or that fathers fully share the costs of children is mistaken in countries such as Ghana. Consequently, fertility has declined less than 13% in Ghana, but fertility has declined by over 30% in Kenya. Family planning programs must be aware of gender issues.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Public health research characterising the course of life through the middle age in developing societies is scarce. The aim of this study is to explore patterns of adult (15–64 years mortality in an Ethiopian population over time, by gender, urban or rural lifestyle, causes of death and in relation to household economic status and decision-making. Methods The study was conducted in Butajira Demographic Surveillance Site (DSS in south-central Ethiopia among adults 15–64 years old. Cohort analysis of surveillance data was conducted for the years 1987–2004 complemented by a prospective case-referent (case control study over two years. Rate ratios were computed to assess the relationships between mortality and background variables using a Poisson regression model. In the case-referent component, odds ratios (95% confidence intervals were used to assess the effect of certain risk factors that were not included in the surveillance system. Results A total of 367 940 person years were observed in a period of 18 years, in which 2 860 deaths occurred. One hundred sixty two cases and 486 matched for age, sex and place of residence controls were included in the case referent (case control study. Only a modest downward trend in adult mortality was seen over the 18 year period. Rural lifestyle carried a significant survival disadvantage [mortality rate ratio 1.62 (95% CI 1.44 to 1.82, adjusted for gender, period and age group], while the overall effects of gender were negligible. Communicable disease mortality was appreciably higher in rural areas [rate ratio 2.05 (95% CI 1.73 to 2.44, adjusted for gender, age group and period]. Higher mortality was associated with a lack of literacy in a household, poor economic status and lack of women's decision making. Conclusion A complex pattern of adult mortality prevails, still influenced by war, famine and communicable diseases. Individual factors such as a lack of education, low economic
Gavrilov, Leonid A.; Gavrilova, Natalia S.
A common objection against starting a large-scale biomedical war on aging is the fear of catastrophic population consequences (overpopulation). This fear is only exacerbated by the fact that no detailed demographic projections for radical life extension scenario have been conducted so far. This study explores different demographic scenarios and population projections, in order to clarify what could be the demographic consequences of a successful biomedical war on aging. A general conclusion o...
Full Text Available Background: The benefits of regular moderate-to-vigorous leisure-time physical activity (LTPA are well documented, and include reduced morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, depression, and other pervasive conditions. Despite these benefits, adults` participation in regular LTPA is still low. Many previous studies showed associations between adults` participation in LTPA and demographic factors but the results of these researches are inconsistent. The purpose of this study was to perform a systematic review of studies examining the relation between adults` participation in LTPA and two demographic variables: gender and age. Method: The systematic review was limited to four factors: leisure-time physical activity, adults, gender and age. Literature searches were conducted using predefined keywords in 6 key database. A total of 46 potential papers was identified. Of these 46 papers, 25 passed the eligibility criteria and were included in the systematic review. Results: In most of the analyzed studies showed no significant differences in the percentage of inactive men and women. Among sufficient active individuals there were more men than women. In all analyzed studies found significant association between the level of LTPA and age of men and women. However, the directions of these connections were different in individual countries, and age and gender groups. Conclusion: Relationships between adults` participation in LTPA and gender, and age are specific for men and women in individual countries, and age groups, therefore there is necessity to monitor the level of LTPA in these subgroups. The results of these studies should be useful in the creation of the strategies supported adults` participation in LTPA.
Full Text Available The paper analyzes the meaning of the phrase "the woman’s status in the society" that is recognized in demography as an important cultural factor of demographic development and transitional changes. The analysis indicates qualitative shifts in the woman’s status and simultaneously reveals its importance at present, not only in traditional, but also in modern and developed societies. On the other hand, it explains the importance of sex as a biodemographic determinant, and introduces the concept of gender that sheds another light on the concepts of sex and woman’s status in the society and integrates them. Gender regimes that subsume the inferiority of women in public and private social structures are examined from demographic perspective, albeit only in those phenomenological aspects that can be supported by demographic research, theories, and analyses. To this end, the paper analyzes the effects of strengthening gender equalities on the fertility and mortality transitions, the gender’s impact on the population distribution by sex in South Asian countries, and highlights the key role of gender in interpreting certain social and economic structures. It also stresses the establishing of gender equality as an important element of population policies. The global dimension of the patriarchal society is illustrated through a series of examples of demographic phenomena from various societies. Gender regimes underlie all of these phenomena. The paper puts foreword certain theoretical hypotheses about gender inequalities, and finds their connections with demographic behaviors and demographic indicators. Finally, it summarizes the role of demography in gender (inequality research and the demographic perspective of the way and the speed the demographic equality is being established. Demography is seen as an irreplaceable discipline in examining gender inequalities, especially at the global level. With the advance of qualitative methods in demography
Full Text Available This paper analyses the changes in the population structure of the Croatian islands by age, warns of the degree of ageing, provides spatial differentiation of this process and presents perspective of ageing at the level of settlement. Typing of population ageing is based on scores and has seven types. The total island population in 2011 belongs to the type 5 – very old population. Almost a half of the settlements (out of 303 have been affected by the highest levels of ageing (types 6 and 7. It was found that a quarter of island settlements will become “dead villages” in a foreseeable future; most of them are on small islands but also in the interior of larger islands. These are villages decaying in every respect, in which the way of life, as we know it, veins and goes out. The present ageing villagers are their last residents in most cases. Eve¬rything suggests that demographic recovery of the islands is not possible with the forces in situ. It is important to strike a balance between the needs and opportunities in order to successfully organize life on the islands, both small and large ones, and the fact is that there is a continuing disparity, which is especially profound in small islands. A sensitive and selective approach is needed to overcome the unfavourable demographic trends. Therefore it is necessary to respect the particularities of indi¬vidual islands and island groups in devising development strategy. Solutions to the problems must come of the local and wider community in synergy with relevant professional and scientific institutions. However, if the solutions are not found or measures do not give results, if the islands are left to desorganisation and senilisation, a part of the islands will become a wasteland. With regard to the value of this area whose wealth are people in the first place, this would be an intolerable civilization decline.
Full Text Available Romania goes through profound changes due to unprecedented demographic developments. As a result of declining birth rates and emigration after 1990, by the year 2060 is looming a possible doubling of the percentage of the population 65 years and over, from 15 to 30%, and the working age population to fall by about 30 percent. Deterioration of the relationship between labour force and inactive population leads to pressure on the public budget and tax system, strains on pension and social security systems, redefining consumer preferences, type and size of the saved or spent amounts, higher demand for healthcare services, increasing poverty risk for elderly households.
Carney, Gemma M
The article proposes a Gender Politics of Aging approach to the study of aging societies. The approach recognizes the feminization of old age, ageism's roots in sexist discourse, and the need to recognize the role of politics in driving demographic debates. Drawing together arguments from feminist gerontology and political demography, the article argues that the intersection of politics and gender must be considered if appropriate responses to an older, feminized demography are to be produced. I conclude that the work of aging feminists provides a rich vein of research and praxis from which a gender politics of aging approach can draw.
F. Nii-Amoo Dodoo
Full Text Available Background: Anthropological literature has long linked bridewealth payments to decision-making about fertility. Recent research underscores the significance of men's preferences regarding women's reproductive behavior, and suggests that bridewealth payments place constraints on women's reproductive autonomy. Yet because survey data on bridewealth are rare, and the collection of new survey data on bridewealth presents serious challenges, this explanation could not be tested. Objective: Our objective in this paper is to highlight the potential utility of lab experiments (in particular, vignette experiments for improving our understanding of gender relations in Africa, using the hypothesized effect of bridewealth on normative constraints on women's reproductive autonomy as an illustration. Methods: We discuss our reasons for turning to lab experiments, and to vignette experiments in particular. We also summarize a series of studies (Horne, Dodoo, and Dodoo 2013; Dodoo, Horne, and Biney 2014 which have implemented our experimental approach. Results: Our experimental evidence shows that bridewealth payments are associated with greater normative constraints on women's reproductive autonomy. We also find that these negative effects of bridewealth are consistent across participant ages, and do not appear to be ameliorated by female schooling. Conclusions: We conclude that lab experiments in general (and vignette experiments in particular are underutilized methodological tools that may be useful for helping us gain a better understanding of the cultural context of gender relations in Africa; and that demographic research more generally may benefit from taking advantage of the strengths of experimental methods.
Corsi, Marcella; Samek Lodovici, Manuela
Ageing is a distinctly gendered phenomenon, women being increasingly represented in the older cohorts of the European population, due to their longer life expectancy than men. Furthermore, gender differences and inequalities are a fundamental feature of social exclusion and poverty in old age. The twofold discrimination against older women workers based on gender and age stereotypes, combined with their greater vulnerability in the labour market caused by women-specific work trajectories (i.e...
Petrucci, Alessandra; Salvini, Silvana
Climate and society evolve together in a manner that could place already vulnerable areas and their population at a greater risk to extreme weather events. While efforts have been devoted to better planning preparedness and responses to weather extremes, the interactions among various stakeholders who deal with hazard mitigation and response, and the community members, also related with gender and age differences, are not completely understood. In contrast to physical vulnerability, which arises from the potential for environmental extremes to create adverse physiological changes, social vulnerability arises from the potential for these extreme events to cause changes in people's behavior. People can vary in their potential for injury to themselves and their families. They also vary in the potential for destruction of their homes and workplaces, as well as the destruction of the transportation systems and locations for shopping and recreation they use in their daily activities. It is important to recognize that social vulnerability is not randomly distributed either demographically or geographically. In particular, the social vulnerability arising from a lack of psychological resilience, social network integration, economic assets, and political power vary across demographic groups. Some of these components of social vulnerability can be predicted by demographic characteristics such as gender, age, education, income, and ethnicity. This review explores the gender and social difference dimensions of vulnerability and adaptive capacity in relation to climate change.
Full Text Available Ageing society, lack of skilled workforce, changes in work life careers and changes in partner and family models, a shift in societal roles of women and men, young and old, migration flows from rural to urban, multiple residences and new forms of housing and the related spatial impacts are in focus of demographic change. It is obvious that demographic change is not to be managed without gender and equality issues. Spatial planning has a crucial role in facing these challenges as spatial planning laws demand to ensure equal access to housing, services and labour markets and to organize transparent and inclusive decision making procedures. The paper explores key concepts, methods and selected case studies from Europe on gender planning trying to focus on the potential for innovating planning discipline and tackling with demographic change issues in rural areas. Cases from Bavaria and Austria compared to rural regions in Eastern Germany with high female emigration show concrete planning approaches.
Full Text Available The focus point in this paper referes to three issues of demographic development in Serbia presented from the gender perspective. Feminization, mortality in men and low reproductive norms are analyzed as effects of relevant behavior of both sexes. This choice is the result of earlier analyses of gender socio-demographic characteristics as well as the researches of demographic phenomena from the perspective of gender roles and gender relations. The gender aspect, as a cognitive concept, implies the importance of the female and male behavior pattern in understanding demographic structures, processes and phenomena. The theoretical foundation was found in the anthropological character of contemporary demography which focuses on the individual’s behavior in the context of interactive relations with the concrete environment. In the context of a complex deterministic basis and interactive connection of various factors, gender roles and gender relations represent a relative segment of social dimension of various demographic issues. Feminization of the middle-aged and older population emphasizes the importance of female perspective, taking into consideration space diversity. Feminization is most intensive in Belgrade. Among the middle-aged women there is a higher proportion of tertiary educated and divorced, and less share of the economically independent, in relation to the remaining region of Central Serbia. As regards older women, irrespective of spatial distribution, widowhood, unfavorable education characteristics, lower economic activity and greater economic dependency are important matters. The issue of retirement has specific importance, and should be solved in the context of educated and socio-professional characteristics of women, in order to promote their social position and gender equality. A shorter life span of the male population requires recognizing specific mortality factors of the middle-aged and older males, in order to eliminate the
Full Text Available An analysis of demographic characteristics from the gender perspective represents a contribution to enlightening the social relations between female and male population in Belgrade. Gender specificity and explicitness of socio-demographic structures indicate to different positions and statuses of the female and male populations. There are more females than men in the total population of the capital city of Serbia. The sex imbalance of age groups is determined by gender differences in the number of born boys and girls, in migration characteristics and in the level of mortality. The male population is greater in the age group up to 20 years old, while the female population is more numerous among the middle-aged and older generations. Gender differences in marital structure, level of education and economic activities cannot be reduced only to demographic limits. A larger rate of married persons among the males in relation to female population is determined by the different behavior in view of remarriage in case of divorce or death of partner. Women are widowed or divorced more often than men, which can be interpreted as a less favorable position in everyday functioning, especially when the women have small or school-age children, as well as in the case of older women. Gender differences in the level of education of Belgrade population are not exceptionally pronounced and are a consequence of unfavorable positions of older women to a certain degree. Differences in economic activity, among other things, are determined by uneven utilization of female and male work force. The rate of economic activity is greater in the male population, and the coefficient of economic dependency in the female population. The gender difference in the rate of supported persons among the work capable population increases the unfavorable social position of women. The characteristics of socio-demographic structures of female and male population of the city of Belgrade vary
Population Ageing and the Theory of Demographic Transition: The Case of Mauritius. ... the life expectancy of the population and consequently, the society is ageing. ... Originality/Value – Although some studies have been done on ageing yet ...
Holt, Vicky; Skagerberg, Elin; Dunsford, Michael
This article presents the findings from a cross-sectional study on demographic variables and associated difficulties in 218 children and adolescents (Mean age = 14 years, SD = 3.08, range = 5-17 years), with features of gender dysphoria, referred to the Gender Identity Development Service (GIDS) in London during a 1-year period (1 January 2012-31 December 2012). Data were extracted from patient files (i.e. referral letters, clinical notes and clinician reports). The most commonly reported associated difficulties were bullying, low mood/depression and self-harming. There was a gender difference on some of the associated difficulties with reports of self-harm being significantly more common in the natal females and autism spectrum conditions being significantly more common in the natal males. The findings also showed that many of the difficulties increased with age. Findings regarding demographic variables, gender dysphoria, sexual orientation and family features are reported, and limitations and implications of the cross-sectional study are discussed. In conclusion, young people with gender dysphoria often present with a wide range of associated difficulties which clinicians need to take into account, and our article highlights the often complex presentations of these young people. © The Author(s) 2014.
Matytsin, Mikhail; Moorty, Lalita; Richter, Kaspar
Do regions with higher working age populations grow faster? This paper examines this question using data from Russian regions and finds evidence that demographic trends influence regional growth convergence. In other words, keeping other factors constant, poorer regions grow faster than richer regions, and some of the growth convergence is explained by demographic changes: faster growth in...
Full Text Available Background & aim: Gender roles are affected by biosocial and cultural factors. These roles have significant impacts on one’s professional, social, and family life. Therefore, given the recent changes in gender roles in Iran, we aimed to determine the relationship between demographic factors and gender role attitudes among women. Methods:This cross-sectional study was conducted on 712 females, selected via stratified sampling. Data were collected using a demographic checklist and a gender role questionnaire including 2 sections: gender role stereotypes and gender egalitarianism. The validity of this questionnaire was confirmed by content validity and its reliability was verified by internal consistency (α=0.77. For data analysis, ANOVA and correlation coefficient tests were performed, using SPSS version16. Results: The mean scores of gender role stereotypes and egalitarianism were 29.55±4.33 and 112.55±14.64, respectively. Stereotypic and egalitarian attitudes were significantly correlated with age, family size, duration of marriage, women’s age at first childbirth, educational level, intentions to pursue education in future, and occupational status. Conclusion: As to the finding, gender role attitudes were influenced by social, economic, and demographic factors in Iran. By paying attention to these factors, we can implement proper interventions in order to promote personal and social health among women.
The Age Demographics of Academic Librarians: A Profession Apart discusses the current demographics of librarianship in North America and examines how a huge retiree rate will affect the profession. With the average age of librarians increasing dramatically since 1990, this book examines the changes that will have to take place in your library, such as recruiting, training, and working with a smaller staff. The Age Demographics of Academic Librarians provides you with insights on how to make your library's transition easier when several of your colleagues leave your library. Valuable and intelligent, The Age Demographics of Academic Librarians discusses trends through easy-to-read charts, tables, and comprehensive data analysis. Exploring possible reasons for the anomalies of this trend, this book explores several surprising facts, such as: 16 percent of the 1995 American Research Libraries population of librarians will retire by the year 2000, another 16 percent between 2000 and 2005, 24 percent between 2005 ...
Full Text Available The paper presents the result of a spatial analysis considering the effect of demographic ageing and ageing-in-place processes in Germany according to spatially differentiated ageing patterns among urban, sub-urban and rural counties up to 2025. As to the latest official population forecast counties of urban core regions will undergo a slower ageing process than other types of counties, resulting in a reversal of ageing patterns. Urban core areas in this analysis will gain demographically from their net migration surplus while suburban housing locations of the past will be no longer able to attract enough young migrants to compensate for their now rapidly ageing baby boomer generation. The process presented is typical for the fate of (suburban housing areas with homogenous populations under conditions of ageing and shrinking if spatial mobility in ageing population groups is declining.
Full Text Available The paper presents the result of a spatial analysis considering the effect of demographic ageing and ageing-in-place processes in Germany according to spatially differentiated ageing patterns among urban, sub-urban and rural counties up to 2025. As to the latest official population forecast counties of urban core regions will undergo a slower ageing process than other types of counties, resulting in a reversal of ageing patterns. Urban core areas in this analysis will gain demographically from their net migration surplus while suburban housing locations of the past will be no longer able to attract enough young migrants to compensate for their now rapidly ageing baby boomer generation. The process presented is typical for the fate of (suburban housing areas with homogenous populations under conditions of ageing and shrinking if spatial mobility in ageing population groups is declining.
Sanderson, W.; Scherbov, S.
Gender gaps are typically measured by subtracting the survival rates for women from that of men. In most countries and at most ages, these gender gaps indicate a survival rate disadvantage for men. This method is not informative because it is unclear whether larger or smaller gaps would be more equitable. Here we reconceptualize the gender gap in survival based on differences from gender-specific best practice rates and express those gender gaps in the metric years of age. If the age-specific...
greater radiosensitivity. Other studies provided further mechanistic insight into the observed age effect of radiation responses. For example ...DISTRIBUTION A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. October 2017 HDTRA1-14-0003; 0005 Prepared by: Applied ... Research Associates, Inc. 801 N. Quincy Street Suite 700 Arlington, VA 22203 Modification of Acute Radiation Response in Different Demographic Age
Paz, Amira; Doron, Israel; Tur-Sinai, Aviad
The world is aging, and the percentages of older people are on a dramatic ascent. This dramatic demographic aging of human society is not gender neutral; it is mostly about older women. One of the key policy approaches to address the aging revolution is known as "active aging," crystalized by the WHO in 2002 by three pillars: participation, health, and security. The active aging policy has financial and economic aspects and affects both men and women. However, as argued in this article, a gender-based approach has not been adopted within the existing active aging framework. Therefore, a new gender-specific research agenda is needed, one that focuses on an interrelation between gender and different economic aspects of "active aging" from international, comparative, cultural, and longitudinal perspectives.
Feb 7, 2018 ... relation between gender and cardiac device implantation indications and ... cerebrovascular disease, DM = diabetes mellitus, HT = hypertension,. PAD = peripheral arterial ... Figure 2: Trend of device types according to years.
Full Text Available Background: The population pyramid is one of the most popular tools for visualising population age structure. However, it is difficult to discern from the diagram the relative effects of different demographic components on the size of age-specific populations, making it hard to understand exactly how a population's age structure is formed. Objective: The aim of this paper is to introduce a type of population pyramid which shows how births, deaths, and migration have shaped a population's age structure. Methods: Births, deaths, and population data were obtained from the Human Mortality Database and the Australian Bureau of Statistics. A variation on the conventional population pyramid, termed here a components-of-change pyramid, was created. Based on cohort population accounts, it illustrates how births, deaths, and net migration have created the population of each age group. A simple measure which summarises the impact of net migration on age structure is also suggested. Results: Example components-of-change pyramids for several countries and subnational regions are presented, which illustrate how births, deaths, and net migration have fashioned current population age structures. The influence of migration is shown to vary greatly between populations. Conclusions: The new type of pyramid aids interpretation of a population's age structure and helps to understand its demographic history over the last century.
Song, Zirui; Ferris, Timothy G
The United States is facing a significant demographic transition, with about 10,000 baby boomers turning age 65 each day. At the same time, the nation is experiencing a similarly striking transition in hospital capacity, as the supply of hospital beds has declined in recent decades. The juxtaposition of population aging and hospital capacity portends a potentially widening divergence between supply and demand for hospital care. We provide a closer look at current hospital capacity and a rethinking of the future role of hospital beds in meeting the needs of an aging population.
As a concept in gerontology, gender appears as lists of traits learned through socialization when theorized at all. I argue for a framework that theorizes the intersections of relations of gender inequality with those of age. This framework holds that men and women gain resources and bear responsibilities, in relation to one another, by virtue of…
Full Text Available Population ageing is one of the main challenges to the economic and social development in the next decades. This article examines the main implications of demographic and labour force ageing on the future of social protection in Romania. The first part presents the mechanisms which define or govern the relationships between social protection and demographic ageing. The second highlights the main risks for the future of the Romanian social protection system and of the people’s social protection derived from increasing dependence rates, including that of older people; also, derived from labour force distribution changing, by gender. The final part focuses on the employment situation of older persons and on trends of paid jobs (employees, both of them having an important impact on social protection.
Guita Grin Debert
Drawing on the interplay between gender, aging, and sexuality, the aim of this article is twofold: (1) to show how Brazilian gerontologists treat gender differences and sexual activity in old age; (2) to analyze the ways discourses regarding the aging body and sexuality are perceived and evaluated by older women and men . I argue that attempts of gerontologists’ to eroticize old age have to contend with the widespread notion that the desire for sex is inevitably lost with age. Thus, in the...
Zucker, Kenneth J; Bradley, Susan J; Owen-Anderson, Allison; Kibblewhite, Sarah J; Wood, Hayley; Singh, Devita; Choi, Kathryn
This study provided a descriptive and quantitative comparative analysis of data from an assessment protocol for adolescents referred clinically for gender identity disorder (n = 192; 105 boys, 87 girls) or transvestic fetishism (n = 137, all boys). The protocol included information on demographics, behavior problems, and psychosexual measures. Gender identity disorder and transvestic fetishism youth had high rates of general behavior problems and poor peer relations. On the psychosexual measures, gender identity disorder patients had considerably greater cross-gender behavior and gender dysphoria than did transvestic fetishism youth and other control youth. Male gender identity disorder patients classified as having a nonhomosexual sexual orientation (in relation to birth sex) reported more indicators of transvestic fetishism than did male gender identity disorder patients classified as having a homosexual sexual orientation (in relation to birth sex). The percentage of transvestic fetishism youth and male gender identity disorder patients with a nonhomosexual sexual orientation self-reported similar degrees of behaviors pertaining to transvestic fetishism. Last, male and female gender identity disorder patients with a homosexual sexual orientation had more recalled cross-gender behavior during childhood and more concurrent cross-gender behavior and gender dysphoria than did patients with a nonhomosexual sexual orientation. The authors discuss the clinical utility of their assessment protocol.
Full Text Available As humanity is moving into a new age of its demographic evolution, I call it demographic maturity, the emerging demographic configurations – generational sub-replacement fertility, advanced aging and potential population implosion – call for new ways of thinking about population and new policy approaches. While we live longer and healthier, we also reproduce less and less. We are stuck in a culture of low fertility. The strong motivations for foregoing motherhood are financial: a two-salary wage is better than one even for the higher middle class. No less important is the woman’s financial independence in a societal environment where marriage as an institution is under considerable stress. Motherhood is to be rewarded adequately for its highly important social role and it has to be sufficient to reassure potential mothers of their financial concerns. What is required is a more balanced resource allocation between production and reproduction. The old welfare type hand-outs like child bonuses do not work. Societies, particularly the rich, ought to realize that to raise fertility, even to generational replacement level, not only is a much greater financial effort called for but some of the tenants of the liberal economy need to be put into question to make room for social concerns such a renewal of generations, if they want to survive as national entities. This essay advocates a stationary population as the best response to challenges such as ecological health, national identity and cohesion, and possibly world peace.
Nicoli de Mattos, Cristiana; Kim, Hyoun S.; Requi?o, Marinalva G.; Marasaldi, Renata F.; Filomensky, Tatiana Z.; Hodgins, David C.; Tavares, Hermano
Compulsive buying is a common disorder found worldwide. Although recent research has shed light into the prevalence, etiology and clinical correlates of compulsive buying disorder, less is known about gender differences. To address this empirical gap, we assessed potential gender differences in demographic and psychiatric co-morbidities in a sample of 171 compulsive buyers (20 men and 151 women) voluntarily seeking treatment in São Paulo, Brazil. A structured clinical interview confirmed the ...
Kim, YoungHo; Park, InKyoung; Kang, SooJin
The current study investigated how adolescents perceive their own health risks and compare their own likelihood of health risks with that of others of the same age. Moreover, the study identified the differences in health risk perceptions between males and females. A total of 625 adolescents (314 males and 311 females) from the Nowon district, geographically located in northern Seoul, voluntarily participated. In order to measure health risk perceptions a Korean version of self-other risk judgments profile was used. The findings indicated that study participants, regardless of gender and age, tend to underestimate their vulnerability to majority of health risk events. Furthermore, there were significant gender and age differences in health risk perception and perception bias in all health risk domains. The present study suggests that further research is needed to identify realistic and unrealistic perception mechanism for a large number of people from different demographic and socioeconomic backgrounds. Copyright© by the National Institute of Public Health, Prague 2018.
Full Text Available The issue of CEO age and gender vs. concurrent performance is extensively examined, but the association with subsequent performance has limited treatment in the financial literature, and with conflicting findings. In the current study, we examine the association between CEO age and gender, and subsequent company market performance using a more recent set of observations and the standard four-factor model to estimate future cumulative abnormal shareholder returns. We find that subsequent abnormal shareholder returns are marginally significantly higher for female CEOs than for their male counterparts, but no material pattern is observed between CEO age and subsequent abnormal shareholder return performance.
Rossini, Paolo Maria; Marra, Camillo
Demographic changes bring about a wide range of new research fields including policy topics, health, social welfare, work & productivity, urban & rural development, communication tools, and mobility. This new situation requires a new multi-disciplinary approach bringing together different research programs in order to provide solutions for the upcoming challenges. National Health services are now facing a huge shift in the population structure with a predominance of older generations in the total number of citizens. Good health is the most important factor to live independently in old age. A better understanding of ageing processes and the related "plasticity" of individual performance for environmental adaptation, the prevention for age-related illnesses and healthcare strategies are the basis for keeping very old people healthy and active throughout the course of their lives. We will face mainly the biological, cognitive and psychological dimensions of ageing. Afterwards, we will focus on the relationships linking various biological and lifestyle factors - such as nutrition - that are crucial to obtain a comprehensive picture of ageing and to promote preventing strategies against degenerative neurological diseases. Finally we will investigate which interventions - nutritional and physical - could help in keeping people healthy, in particular which factors could promote people's physical, social and psychological functional abilities and the systemic multilevel consequences induced by a healthy ageing.
Dhar, H L
There are more women than men at any elderly age group. Depression and osteoporosis are the commonest problems in elderly subjects. Some problems specific to males are hypogonadism, erectile dysfunction and enlargement of prostrate and to females are post-menopausal disturbances, urinary incontinence and breast and lung cancer. However, problems of special concern in both male and female elderly are malnutrition, falls and cognitive dysfunction. Men and women in general suffer from the same sorts of health problems but the frequency of these problems as well as the speed of the onset of death distinguishes them. Infact cultural and social forces act to separate the sexes in their personal health ethos and their sick propensity. The impact of old age on women is different from that of men because of differences in their status and role in society. This is specially so because proportion of widows in 60+ age group is considerably higher than that of widowers. Sexuality is often overlooked as a health status particularly in elderly women. Clinicians should recognise the importance of sexual functions to the overall health of older persons particularly women. Religious participation and involvement are associated with positive mental and physical health. Family life is the key to the health of elders specially older men. Lack of social support increases the risk of mortality and supportive relationships are associated with lower illness rates, faster recovery rates and higher levels of health care behavior.
Guita Grin Debert
Full Text Available Drawing on the interplay between gender, aging, and sexuality, the aim of this article is twofold: (1 to show how Brazilian gerontologists treat gender differences and sexual activity in old age; (2 to analyze the ways discourses regarding the aging body and sexuality are perceived and evaluated by older women and men . I argue that attempts of gerontologists’ to eroticize old age have to contend with the widespread notion that the desire for sex is inevitably lost with age. Thus, in the retiree associations that were studied, men had a tendency to assume they are not ‘old’ because their erectile function was still in good condition, and divorced or widowed women, in senior citizen associations, tend to regard themselves as happy due to having freed themselves from the sexual obligations imposed by marriage. In both cases, the dominant belief that there is a loss of sexual desire in old age was reproduced.
As a concept in gerontology, gender appears as lists of traits learned through socialization when theorized at all. I argue for a framework that theorizes the intersections of relations of gender inequality with those of age. This framework holds that men and women gain resources and bear responsibilities, in relation to one another, by virtue of mundane categorization into naturalized stratified groups. Current research shows that this approach allows explanation of gender differences, which appear in many reports but which usually go untheorized, as responses to social inequality. I illustrate applications to research and practice in relation to three areas of old age experiences: financial security, spousal care work, and health. Throughout, I discuss implications of focusing on inequality to enhance our abilities to engage in effective research, practice, and policy for older people, women and men alike. For instance, an understanding of the gender division of labor and workplace discrimination makes clear that financial status in later life cannot be reduced to individual choices concerning paid labor or retirement planning. And understanding that people orient their behaviors to gender ideals allows us to see that men and women perform spousal care in similar and different ways that require varied responses from practitioners; it also reveals contexts in which men engage in positive health behaviors. Finally, I argue that gerontologists interested in facilitating favorable outcomes for old people should consider research and practice that would disrupt, not reinforce, the bases of gender inequalities in later life.
Daniela Violeta Nancu
Full Text Available Europe has faced for several decades and is still facing an ageing process of its population. Within it, Romania, a country, striving to successfully integrate into the European Union, is also experiencing the same process. The ageing process of the Romanian population started at the beginning of the 20th century and evolved progressively, ever since, with significant visible rates in the rural areas. Romania’s population age structure, at the beginning of the Third Millennium, was, according to international experts, not significantly aged compared to populations of the economically advanced countries of Europe. Due to falling birth-rates and the labor emigration rush, the ageing process of the Romanian population has become increasingly serious, argued by a rate of 19.4% over 60-year-old population, of which 24.5% (2008 belongs to the rural area. The main responsible reason for this demographic and social situation is the replacement of the traditional reproduction pattern, mainly characterized by high birth and death rates, with a modern one, characterized by very low rates of the same kind. Low values in natality were, on one hand, the result of a steady regression of fertility, and on the other of, a drop in general mortality, hence the lengthening of the average life-span. To be able to cope with a relatively new phenomenon such as ageing of population, Romania needs to seriously consider adequate measures and steps towards achieving balance. Visionary strategy and plans require, well-grounded medium-and-long-term development programmes especially for the Romanian rural area.
Quanbao, Jiang; Marcus W., Feldman
The large number of missing females in China, a consequence of gender discrimination, is having and will continue to have a profound effect on the country's population development. In this paper, we analyze the causes of this gender discrimination in terms of institutions, culture and, economy, and suggest public policies that might help eliminate gender discrimination. Using a population simulation model, we study the effect of public policies on the sex ratio at birth and excess female child mortality, and the effect of gender discrimination on China's population development. We find that gender discrimination will decrease China's population size, number of births, and working age population, accelerate population aging and exacerbate the male marriage squeeze. These results provide theoretical support for suggesting that the government enact and implement public policies aimed at eliminating gender discrimination. PMID:24363477
Quanbao, Jiang; Shuzhuo, Li; Marcus W, Feldman
The large number of missing females in China, a consequence of gender discrimination, is having and will continue to have a profound effect on the country's population development. In this paper, we analyze the causes of this gender discrimination in terms of institutions, culture and, economy, and suggest public policies that might help eliminate gender discrimination. Using a population simulation model, we study the effect of public policies on the sex ratio at birth and excess female child mortality, and the effect of gender discrimination on China's population development. We find that gender discrimination will decrease China's population size, number of births, and working age population, accelerate population aging and exacerbate the male marriage squeeze. These results provide theoretical support for suggesting that the government enact and implement public policies aimed at eliminating gender discrimination.
Hazra, Nisha C; Gulliford, Martin C; Rudisill, Caroline
There are now 125 million people aged 80 years and over worldwide, projected by the United Nations to grow threefold by 2050. While increases in life expectancy and rapid increases in the older-age population are considered positive developments, the consequential future health care burden represents a leading concern for health services. We revisit Williams' 'fair innings' argument from 1997, in light of technological and demographic changes, and challenge the notion that greater longevity may impose an unfair burden on younger generations. We discuss perspectives on the equity-efficiency trade-off in terms of their implications for the growing over-80 population, as well as society in general. This includes questioning the comparison of treatment cost-effectiveness in younger vs. older populations when using quality-adjusted life years and the transience of life expectancies over generations. While recognising that there will never be a clear consensus regarding societal value judgements, we present empirical evidence on the very elderly that lends support to a stronger anti-ageist stance given current increases in longevity.
Trask, Amanda E; Bignal, Eric M; McCracken, Davy I; Piertney, Stuart B; Reid, Jane M
A population's effective size (N e ) is a key parameter that shapes rates of inbreeding and loss of genetic diversity, thereby influencing evolutionary processes and population viability. However, estimating N e , and identifying key demographic mechanisms that underlie the N e to census population size (N) ratio, remains challenging, especially for small populations with overlapping generations and substantial environmental and demographic stochasticity and hence dynamic age-structure. A sophisticated demographic method of estimating N e /N, which uses Fisher's reproductive value to account for dynamic age-structure, has been formulated. However, this method requires detailed individual- and population-level data on sex- and age-specific reproduction and survival, and has rarely been implemented. Here, we use the reproductive value method and detailed demographic data to estimate N e /N for a small and apparently isolated red-billed chough (Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax) population of high conservation concern. We additionally calculated two single-sample molecular genetic estimates of N e to corroborate the demographic estimate and examine evidence for unobserved immigration and gene flow. The demographic estimate of N e /N was 0.21, reflecting a high total demographic variance (σ2dg) of 0.71. Females and males made similar overall contributions to σ2dg. However, contributions varied among sex-age classes, with greater contributions from 3 year-old females than males, but greater contributions from ≥5 year-old males than females. The demographic estimate of N e was ~30, suggesting that rates of increase of inbreeding and loss of genetic variation per generation will be relatively high. Molecular genetic estimates of N e computed from linkage disequilibrium and approximate Bayesian computation were approximately 50 and 30, respectively, providing no evidence of substantial unobserved immigration which could bias demographic estimates of N e . Our analyses identify
Full Text Available Nowadays mass media shape the perception of social values and roles. Thus, aspects of media education that deal with various kinds of inequalities influence general sensitivity to diversity and its consequences. In this respect media and intercultural competences interrelate. Not only minorities’ rights have to be secured, but also majorities rights have to considered if it happens that majorities are discriminated. Widely accepted gender and age inequalities presented on the media in stereotypes and safely-looking conservatist behaviours may lead to harassment and even violence. That is why understanding media messages and identifying overt and covert forms of discrimination are of special interest of educators. In this article several activities for class teachers are presented to encourage them to introduce the touchy topic of gender and age inequalities into their school practice.
Nowadays mass media shape the perception of social values and roles. Thus, aspects of media education that deal with various kinds of inequalities influence general sensitivity to diversity and its consequences. In this respect media and intercultural competences interrelate. Not only minorities’ rights have to be secured, but also majorities rights have to considered if it happens that majorities are discriminated. Widely accepted gender and age inequalities presented on the media in stereot...
The aim of this research was to explore demographic, familial, and attitudinal correlates of Taiwanese women's employment status. Using data from a representative nationwide sample of female workers aged 21 and above (N = 1,047), the author found that (a) the employment rate of females decreased steadily with age, with no sign of reentry into the…
O. V. Makarenk
Full Text Available Today, the definition “glaucoma” combines a number of eye pathologies that lead to irreversible blindness, and therefore is difficult disabling disease. Glaucoma occurs in people of working age, so this problem is not only medical, but also social, because it causes disability in substantial economic costs not only for individual patients, but also for the whole country – patients become unable to work. Gender features of glaucoma are also contradictory. In European literature the basic idea is that men are more likely to suffer from glaucoma than women. Such studies have not been conducted in the Podillya region of Ukraine, that makes impossible to design a reliable global data to estimate the prevalence of glaucoma in different age groups for persons living in Vinnitsa region. Therefore, the aim of the study was a retrospective analysis of medical records of patients in Eye Microsurgery Department of Vinnitsa Regional Clinical Hospital for the period 2008-2012 years for determining the gender and age characteristics. Materials and methods 1418 patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (841 men and 577 women aged 14 to 92 years (mean age 67,12 ± 7,64, which were treated in the Eye Microsurgery Department, took part in the study. For the purpose of the study they were divided into two groups: I – male patients with glaucoma, II – female patients with glaucoma. Each group was divided into 7 subgroups according to the ontogenesis scheme: A – teens, B – youth, C – I adulthood age, D – II adulthood age, E – elderly age, F – senily age and G – centenarians. Thus was allocated 12 research groups. Results The structure of the incidence of glaucoma is 59.31% in men and 40.69% in women. Incidence of glaucoma is highest in the IE group and is 34.98%. The group IIE incidence is lower – 35.32%. In the group D the incidence of glaucoma among men and women was very different (13.89% and 2.89%, respectively. It should also be noted
McLaughlin, Sara J; Jette, Alan M; Connell, Cathleen M
Although the notion of healthy aging has gained wide acceptance in gerontology, measuring the phenomenon is challenging. Guided by a prominent conceptualization of healthy aging, we examined how shifting from a more to less stringent definition of healthy aging influences prevalence estimates, demographic patterns, and validity. Data are from adults aged 65 years and older who participated in the Health and Retirement Study. We examined four operational definitions of healthy aging. For each, we calculated prevalence estimates and examined the odds of healthy aging by age, education, gender, and race-ethnicity in 2006. We also examined the association between healthy aging and both self-rated health and death. Across definitions, the prevalence of healthy aging ranged from 3.3% to 35.5%. For all definitions, those classified as experiencing healthy aging had lower odds of fair or poor self-rated health and death over an 8-year period. The odds of being classified as "healthy" were lower among those of advanced age, those with less education, and women than for their corresponding counterparts across all definitions. Moving across the conceptual continuum--from a more to less rigid definition of healthy aging--markedly increases the measured prevalence of healthy aging. Importantly, results suggest that all examined definitions identified a subgroup of older adults who had substantially lower odds of reporting fair or poor health and dying over an 8-year period, providing evidence of the validity of our definitions. Conceptualizations that emphasize symptomatic disease and functional health may be particularly useful for public health purposes.
Recent fertility declines in non-Western countries may have the potential to transform gender systems. One pathway for such transformations is the creation of substantial proportions of families with children of only one gender. Such families, particularly those with only daughters, may facilitate greater symmetry between sons and daughters. This article explores whether such shifts may influence gendered expectations of old age support. In keeping with patriarchal family systems, old age support is customarily provided by sons, but not daughters, in India. Using data from the 2005 Indian Human Development Survey, I find that women with sons overwhelmingly expect old age support from a son. By contrast, women with only daughters largely expect support from a daughter or a source besides a child. These findings suggest that fertility decline may place demographic pressure on gendered patterns of old age support and the gender system more broadly.
Nicoli de Mattos, Cristiana; Kim, Hyoun S; Requião, Marinalva G; Marasaldi, Renata F; Filomensky, Tatiana Z; Hodgins, David C; Tavares, Hermano
Compulsive buying is a common disorder found worldwide. Although recent research has shed light into the prevalence, etiology and clinical correlates of compulsive buying disorder, less is known about gender differences. To address this empirical gap, we assessed potential gender differences in demographic and psychiatric co-morbidities in a sample of 171 compulsive buyers (20 men and 151 women) voluntarily seeking treatment in São Paulo, Brazil. A structured clinical interview confirmed the diagnosis of compulsive buying. Of the 171 participants, 95.9% (n = 164) met criteria for at least one co-morbid psychiatric disorder. The results found that male and female compulsive buyers did not differ in problem severity as assessed by the Compulsive Buying Scale. However, several significant demographic and psychiatric differences were found in a multivariate binary logistic regression. Specifically, male compulsive buyers were more likely to report being non-heterosexual, and reported fewer years of formal education. In regards to psychiatric co-morbidities, male compulsive buyers were more likely to be diagnosed with sexual addiction, and intermittent explosive disorder. Conversely, men had lower scores on the shopping subscale of the Shorter PROMIS Questionnaire. The results suggest that male compulsive buyers are more likely to present with co-morbid psychiatric disorders. Treatment planning for compulsive buying disorder would do well to take gender into account to address for potential psychiatric co-morbidities.
Fahlgren, Martha K; Kleiman, Evan M; Puhalla, Alexander A; McCloskey, Michael S
Although we know much about the effects of violence on victims, we know less about individuals who perpetrate violence. In the present study, we used a large, nationally representative sample of adults (National Comorbidity Study-Replication; n = 9,282) to examine demographics (i.e., age and gender) and social, occupational, and cognitive functioning among perpetrators of recent violence. We found that recent violence was more prevalent among younger individuals and males (i.e., these groups were more likely to engage in at least one act of violence). Among those who did engage in violence, there was no effect of age or gender on violence frequency (i.e., number of violent acts engaged in over the past year). Furthermore, gender moderated the effect of age on recent violence prevalence, but not violence frequency. Finally, those reporting violence over the past year showed greater impairment in all examined domains of functioning, but there was no association between impairment and frequency of violence. This study represents one of the first attempts to utilize 12-month prevalence data to explore the lifetime trajectory of violence among those who perpetrate it, which seems to peak in young adulthood and then decrease across the life span. Furthermore, although males are more likely to engage in violence than females, adults who engage in at least one act of violence demonstrate no difference in frequency of yearly violent acts, regardless of gender. Finally, it is apparent that merely engaging in any acts of violence over the past year is associated with functioning problems. Overall, most significant differences emerged between those who do and do not engage in violence, which is key for informing violence risk assessment and prevention.
Zhuang, Ziqing; Landsittel, Douglas; Benson, Stacey; Roberge, Raymond; Shaffer, Ronald
The impact of race/ethnicity upon facial anthropometric data in the US workforce, on the development of personal protective equipment, has not been investigated to any significant degree. The proliferation of minority populations in the US workforce has increased the need to investigate differences in facial dimensions among these workers. The objective of this study was to determine the face shape and size differences among race and age groups from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health survey of 3997 US civilian workers. Survey participants were divided into two gender groups, four racial/ethnic groups, and three age groups. Measurements of height, weight, neck circumference, and 18 facial dimensions were collected using traditional anthropometric techniques. A multivariate analysis of the data was performed using Principal Component Analysis. An exploratory analysis to determine the effect of different demographic factors had on anthropometric features was assessed via a linear model. The 21 anthropometric measurements, body mass index, and the first and second principal component scores were dependent variables, while gender, ethnicity, age, occupation, weight, and height served as independent variables. Gender significantly contributes to size for 19 of 24 dependent variables. African-Americans have statistically shorter, wider, and shallower noses than Caucasians. Hispanic workers have 14 facial features that are significantly larger than Caucasians, while their nose protrusion, height, and head length are significantly shorter. The other ethnic group was composed primarily of Asian subjects and has statistically different dimensions from Caucasians for 16 anthropometric values. Nineteen anthropometric values for subjects at least 45 years of age are statistically different from those measured for subjects between 18 and 29 years of age. Workers employed in manufacturing, fire fighting, healthcare, law enforcement, and other occupational
Rueppell, Olav; Linford, Robyn; Gardner, Preston; Coleman, Jennifer; Fine, Kari
Honeybee colonies are highly integrated functional units characterized by a pronounced division of labor. Division of labor among workers is mainly age-based, with younger individuals focusing on in-hive tasks and older workers performing the more hazardous foraging activities. Thus, experimental disruption of the age composition of the worker hive population is expected to have profound consequences for colony function. Adaptive demography theory predicts that the natural hive age composition represents a colony-level adaptation and thus results in optimal hive performance. Alternatively, the hive age composition may be an epiphenomenon, resulting from individual life history optimization. We addressed these predictions by comparing individual worker longevity and brood production in hives that were composed of a single age cohort, two distinct age cohorts, and hives that had a continuous, natural age distribution. Four experimental replicates showed that colonies with a natural age composition did not consistently have a higher life expectancy and/or brood production than the single cohort or double cohort hives. Instead, a complex interplay of age structure, environmental conditions, colony size, brood production, and individual mortality emerged. A general trade-off between worker life expectancy and colony productivity was apparent, and the transition from in-hive tasks to foraging was the most significant predictor of worker lifespan irrespective of the colony age structure. We conclude that the natural age structure of honeybee hives is not a colony-level adaptation. Furthermore, our results show that honeybees exhibit pronounced demographic plasticity in addition to behavioral plasticity to react to demographic disturbances of their societies.
Aydin, Selami; Harputlu, Leyla; Çelik, Seyda Savran; Ustuk, Özgehan; Güzel, Serhat
The number of studies on the relationship between certain demographic variables, age, gender and grade, and the levels of foreign language anxiety (FLA) in the English as a foreign language (EFL) context regarding adult and young learners is fairly limited, whereas the findings obtained from prior studies did not reach a consensus on the…
Han, Benjamin; Polydorou, Soteri; Ferris, Rosie; Blaum, Caroline S; Ross, Stephen; McNeely, Jennifer
The population of adults accessing opioid treatment is growing older, but exact estimates vary widely, and little is known about the characteristics of the aging treatment population. Further, there has been little research regarding the epidemiology, healt h status, and functional impairments in this population. To determine the utilization of opioid treatment services by older adults in New York City. This study used administrative data from New York State licensed drug treatment programs to examine overall age trends and characteristics of older adults in opioid treatment programs in New York City from 1996 to 2012. We found significant increases in utilization of opioid treatment programs by older adults in New York City. By 2012, those aged 50-59 made up the largest age group in opioid treatment programs. Among older adults there were notable shifts in demographic background including gender and ethnicity, and an increase in self-reported impairments. More research is needed to fully understand the specific characteristics and needs of older adults with opioid dependence.
Галапчук-Тарнавська, Олена Михайлівна; Halapchuk-Tarnavska, Olena M.
Gender stereotypes are characteristic features of male/female gender group behavior that are expected by a society.Gender stereotypes in the Ukrainian language are viewed as ethnic stereotypes and perform the function of accumulating and systemizing the social, cultural and historical experiences of the Ukrainian people.Gender-marked age stereotypes are widely accepted believes held about certain age that are perceived as being appropriate for women and men.Family roles are also subject to ch...
Pruyt, E.; Logtens, T.; Gijsbers, G.
Plausible dynamics of a major demographic shift –(societal) aging– is studied in this paper, both from a global perspective and from a national perspective. Several economic, political and social implications of aging and aging-related demographic shifts are explored using System Dynamics models as
Carinci, Sherrie; Wong, Pia Lindquist
Using a convenience sample and survey research methods, the authors seek to better understand how perspectives on gender are shaped by individuals' age, level of education and gender. Study participants responded in writing to scenarios and survey questions, revealing their personal views on gender as an identity category and as a marker in the social hierarchy. Analysis indicated that there were differences between male and female views on these dimensions of gender, and that age and educational levels were also influential. While younger respondents from both genders demonstrated flexibility in their definitions of gender and expressed strong support for gender equality, they were noticeably lacking in their knowledge of the historical context of gender relations and did not show the skills required to realise their ideals of gender equality, especially when compared to older respondents of both genders with higher levels of educational attainment.
Shepstone, Sven Ewan; Tan, Zheng-Hua; Jensen, Søren Holdt
Recommending TV content to groups of viewers is best carried out when relevant information such as the demographics of the group is available. However, it can be difficult and time consuming to extract information for every user in the group. This paper shows how an audio analysis of the age...... and gender of a group of users watching the TV can be used for recommending a sequence of N short TV content items for the group. First, a state of the art audio-based classifier determines the age and gender of each user in an M-user group and creates a group profile. A genetic recommender algorithm...... profile, thus ensuring that items are proportionally allocated to users with respect to their demographic categorization. The proposed system is compared to an ideal system where the group demographics are provided explicitly. Results using real speaker utterances show that, in spite of the inaccuracies...
Daniela Violeta Nancu; Liliana Guran-Nica; Mihaela Persu
Europe has faced for several decades and is still facing an ageing process of its population. Within it, Romania, a country, striving to successfully integrate into the European Union, is also experiencing the same process. The ageing process of the Romanian population started at the beginning of the 20th century and evolved progressively, ever since, with significant visible rates in the rural areas. Romania’s population age structure, at the beginning of the Third Millennium, was, according...
Full Text Available This paper analyzes the changes of population by age and the gender structure in the regions of the Republic of Macedonia. Age and gender is very important not only for the development of demographic process but also for the development of regions. They play an important role in planning the health care needs and other services with the socio-economic and cultural character. In this sense they affect the performance of demographic processes (births, deaths, marriages, etc. and are a result of bilateral relations fertility, mortality, migration movements and other social processes. The main objective of this paper is to identify the aging phenomenon of population in state level and regions. This paper also dedicates special importance to the changes of age and sex structure, during the period between1981-2014 in the regions of the republic of Macedonia.
Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Copping, Kristine E.; Rowley, Stephanie J.; Kinlaw, C. Ryan
We measured age and gender differences in children's awareness and endorsement of gender stereotypes about math, science, and verbal abilities in 463 fourth, sixth, and eighth graders. Children reported their perceptions of adults' beliefs and their own stereotypes about gender differences in academic abilities. Consistent with study…
Roy, Amrita; Murry, Benrithung
This paper gives a glimpse of the possible gender disparities that can be intimidated through various socio-demographic variables that exist among the tribals of eastern India by gaining insights from the Santals of Jharkhand, India. Data was collected from 1000 ever married women of the Santals, the largest tribal group of eastern India. The data analysis was based on data collected directly from the field using interview schedule and conclusions are based on qualitative analysis. Gender dis...
Grysman, Azriel; Fivush, Robyn; Merrill, Natalie A; Graci, Matthew
Gender differences in autobiographical memory emerge in some data collection paradigms and not others. The present study included an extensive analysis of gender differences in autobiographical narratives. Data were collected from 196 participants, evenly split by gender and by age group (emerging adults, ages 18-29, and young adults, ages 30-40). Each participant reported four narratives, including an event that had occurred in the last 2 years, a high point, a low point, and a self-defining memory. Additionally, all participants completed self-report measures of masculine and feminine gender typicality. The narratives were coded along six dimensions-namely coherence, connectedness, agency, affect, factual elaboration, and interpretive elaboration. The results indicated that females expressed more affect, connection, and factual elaboration than males across all narratives, and that feminine typicality predicted increased connectedness in narratives. Masculine typicality predicted higher agency, lower connectedness, and lower affect, but only for some narratives and not others. These findings support an approach that views autobiographical reminiscing as a feminine-typed activity and that identifies gender differences as being linked to categorical gender, but also to one's feminine gender typicality, whereas the influences of masculine gender typicality were more context-dependent. We suggest that implicit gendered socialization and more explicit gender typicality each contribute to gendered autobiographies.
Ham Chande, R
The demographic transition is leading to demographic aging in Mexico, as lower fertility and greater life expectancy combine to produce absolute and percentage increases in the elderly population. Concern is growing about satisfying the material needs of the elderly population. Only a few developed countries are able to furnish adequate pensions to their retired workers through social security systems. In Mexico, class inequity is a greater determinant of the level of pension coverage than is generational solidarity. Mexico's 1990 census showed that the population of 81,250,000 was comprised of 24,517,000 economically active and 56,733,000 inactive persons. Of the 24,517,000 economically active, 7,282,000 mostly lower level employees and laborers were affiliated only with the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS). 2,308,000 were covered by the IMSS and one of the complementary pension systems sponsored by the largest and most organized private companies. 2,629,000 were entitled to pensions through public sector employment and 584,000 through quasipublic employment. The remaining 11,571,000 had no rights to a pension. In other words, 47% of the labor force was not covered by any retirement pension system. 375,000 of the 5,007,000 persons over age 60 in the economically inactive population had some sort of pension from the IMSS. In 1990, 92% received the minimum pension, equivalent to 70% of the minimum salary. 229,000 had an IMSS pension and a complementary private pension. 196,000 pensioners in the public sector received an average pension of 1.5 times the minimum salary. 66,000 retired workers in quasipublic enterprises received pensions with automatic adjustments for inflation that frequently equaled 20 times the minimum salary. The total number of recipients of pensions of all types was 888,000,leaving 4,119,000 persons over 60 with no pension. Because of the deficiencies of the social security system, families must continue to be the institution that aids
Sarraute, Carlos; Blanc, Pablo; Burroni, Javier
Mobile phone usage provides a wealth of information, which can be used to better understand the demographic structure of a population. In this paper we focus on the population of Mexican mobile phone users. Our first contribution is an observational study of mobile phone usage according to gender and age groups. We were able to detect significant differences in phone usage among different subgroups of the population. Our second contribution is to provide a novel methodology to predict demogra...
The understanding of gender inequality for women entering work has not been subject to significant research or theorizing. This small study indicated that young women entering the workplace are subject to direct discrimination and by using an intersectionality approach this paper proposes that the intersection of gender and young age results in…
Tartaglia, Alexander; Dodd-McCue, Diane; Myer, Kevin A; Mullins, Andrew
The rate of organ donation by older potential donors is significantly declining even though recent studies show positive clinical outcomes with organs transplanted from older donors. This study examined the 50+ age demographic to identify the rationale for donation decisions, preferred media methods of donation information delivery, and responsiveness to an age-tailored donation message. Results from 579 surveys, 87% from the 50+ age demographic, found respondents prone to self-select themselves as medically ineligible based on current medication and health status, even though they might be medically suitable donors. Their incentive to pursue additional information on donation is limited except when motivated by personal accounts within their families and communities. In addition, even when computer literate, they continue to favor the printed or spoken word for donation information delivery. The results suggest an opportunity for those working with older adults to develop more personalized, localized donation education programs targeting this age demographic. © The Author(s) 2014.
Elena Vital’evna Chistova
Full Text Available The paper assesses the possibility of raising the retirement age to mitigate the effects of ageing on the pension system of Russia. The authors make demographic forecasts based on hypotheses about the presence of global demographic trends in population reproduction and manifestations of development features specific for Russia. The demographic forecast is based on the age shifting method according to three scenarios. The forecast takes into account the provisions of a draft law that has already been approved and that provides for a gradual increase in age limit for civil servants, both men and women, to 65 years (by six months each year. The following assumption is made for the purpose of studying the effects of raising the retirement age to 65 years for all categories of Russian citizens. The increase in the retirement age begins in 2016 at the rate of 6 months per year, and it will end for men in 2026 and for women – in 2036. Thus, by 2036, the official retirement age will be 65 years for both sexes. The resulting forecasts show that population ageing in Russia is an inevitable process. Depending on whether demographic processes are in line with global trends or whether certain specific Russian features of development are revealed, ageing process will occur in the first case – “from above”, in the second case – “from below”. The forecast has confirmed a well-known paradox that if the situation regarding the decline in mortality is improved further, as has happened in recent years, then the pace of ageing that negatively affects the balance of the pension system will be even higher, at least in the medium term. Forecast calculations have shown that, first, demographic burden on the working population will continue to increase under any demographic development scenario implemented in Russia, and most significantly, under a scenario that describes a successful demographic policy. Second, the number of retirement age women is a
Moraitou, Despina; Kolovou, Chrysa; Papasozomenou, Chrysa; Paschoula, Catherine
This study examined the relationship between hope as disposition, adaptation to old age, and individual-demographic factors. One hundred and fifty older adults, aged 60-93 years old, completed the Adult Dispositional Hope Scale developed by Snyder et AL. [1991, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60, pp. 570-585], and the Adaptation to…
Eisenberg, N; Zhou, Q; Koller, S
The goal of this study was to examine demographic and individual difference variables that predict level of prosocial moral judgment and self-reported prosocial behavior and to test mediating or moderating relations among predictors. The relations of prosocial moral reasoning and self-reported prosocial behavior to perspective taking, sympathy, age, sociometric status, and gender-role orientation were examined with a sample of 149 Brazilian adolescents who completed a series of questionnaire measures. Prosocial moral judgment was expected to be predicted by both sympathy and perspective taking, whereas sympathy or prosocial moral judgment was expected to mediate the relations of femininity and perspective taking to prosocial behavior. Self-reported perspective taking and sympathy interacted when predicting prosocial moral judgment; adolescents who were high in either sympathy or perspective taking (or both) scored high in prosocial moral reasoning. A feminine orientation predicted sympathy and perspective taking, perspective taking predicted prosocial moral reasoning and sympathy, and sympathy had both direct and indirect paths (through moral judgment) to prosocial behavior. The findings generally were consistent with the contention that both the tendency to take others' perspectives and to sympathize are related to level of prosocial moral reasoning, which in turn motivates prosocial behavior. Moreover, patterns of correlations among variables were similar to those found in the United States.
Full Text Available This paper analyses demographic ageing of the population in the County of Šibenik-Knin by using basic demographic indicators based on data collected from population censuses from 1971 to 2011. It analyses spatial differentiation of the ageing process at the level of the County, micro-regions, towns/municipalities and settlements. The research also provides a comparison of population ageing in different counties of the Republic of Croatia, from which it is evident that the County of Šibenik-Knin, as well as the Country of Lika-Senj, has the oldest population in Croatia. Ageing in the County of Šibenik-Knin, which was triggered by extreme rural exodus that was most intensive from the end of 1960s to the early 1970s, as well as by continuous declining fertility rates and by inherited age composition, was recorded at all territorial levels of the County. Although the ageing process started in littoral area (Primorje, hinterland (Zagora experienced a faster and more intensive ageing. Based on numerous indicators of demographic ageing and its intensity, and compared with the point value indicators of ageing, it is evident that the population of the County of Šibenik-Knin is characterized by advanced old age. However, more than half of the observed settlements are characterized by very advanced or extremely advanced old age.
This investigation was designed to study the effects of the antihistamine, chlorpheniramine maleate, as well as the influence of age and gender, singly and in combination with chlorpheniramine maleate...
May 1, 2014 ... population and how it varies with gender and age. Design: A .... horizontal in orientation. For the purpose of .... race as cornea curvature have been noted to exhibit ... Grosevenor, T. Role of Cornea in Emmetropia and. Myopia.
Angle, John; Wissmann, David A.
Age is a determinant of the gap between U.S. men's and women's work wages; young men are paid more as they age because of age; young women are not. Data from the National Longitudinal Surveys of the Labor Market Experience were analyzed for 5,225 men and 5,159 women. (KC)
Full Text Available This article reviews the major underpinnings of the Japanese welfare state in the context of social care from a feminist perspective. In Japan, familycare responsibilities have traditionally been assigned to women; hence, care has long been a women’s issue. However, as the social contract of a male breadwinner and a “professional housewife” gradually fades out, Japanese women find more opportunities to renegotiate their caring roles. Of course, this social transformation did not occur in isolation, it was influenced by patterns in economic development, state policies and mainly demographic changes. All this has stimulated new state responses in the form of social welfare expansion that arguably aim to relieve women of the burdens of family-care. The issue remains, however, as to whether Japan would be able to recognise that the main structural issues of population ageing do not originate from demographic changes, but from a strict gendered division of labour and gender inequality.
Beckwith, Noor; Reisner, Sari L.; Zaslow, Shayne; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Keuroghlian, Alex S.
Abstract Purpose: Gender-affirming surgeries and hormone therapy are medically necessary treatments to alleviate gender dysphoria; however, significant gaps exist in the research and clinical literature on surgery utilization and age of hormone therapy initiation among transgender adults. Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of electronic health record data from a random sample of 201 transgender patients of ages 18–64 years who presented for primary care between July 1, 2010 and June 30, 2015 (inclusive) at an urban community health center in Boston, MA. Fifty percent in our analyses were trans masculine (TM), 50% trans feminine, and 24% reported a genderqueer/nonbinary gender identity. Regression models were fit to assess demographic, gender identity-related, sexual history, and mental health correlates of gender-affirming surgery and of age of hormone therapy initiation. Results: Overall, 95% of patients were prescribed hormones by their primary care provider, and the mean age of initiation of masculinizing or feminizing hormone prescriptions was 31.8 years (SD=11.1). Younger age of initiation of hormone prescriptions was associated with being TM, being a student, identifying as straight/heterosexual, having casual sexual partners, and not having past alcohol use disorder. Approximately one-third (32%) had a documented history of gender-affirming surgery. Factors associated with increased odds of surgery were older age, higher income levels, not identifying as bisexual, and not having a current psychotherapist. Conclusion: This study extends our understanding of prevalence and factors associated with gender-affirming treatments among transgender adults seeking primary care. Findings can inform future interventions to expand delivery of clinical care for transgender patients. PMID:29159310
Bachmann, Gloria A; Mussman, Brianna
The transgender community has long been marginalized in society. As the world's population ages, gender-unbiased health services for this growing population, with age-related chronic illnesses, will be essential. To optimally eliminate hurdles that trans individuals often confront when requesting services, it appears judicious to eliminate the strict and antiquated definition of what constitutes "normal" female and "normal" male. A review of literature on transgender medicine on PubMed over the last five years was conducted. Existing statistics indicate that unacceptable bias and discrimination are occurring, making trans patients less likely to seek care. There are emerging initiatives that address the transgender and gender non-conforming population. Ongoing needs include defining what constitutes "gender equal," understanding the continuum of gender identity, and establishing and implementing guidelines for gender equal counseling and care. With the routine practice of defining sex at birth and equating sex with gender in the health care setting, the transgender patient encounters multiple barriers to accessing and acquiring health care services. These strict gender labels appear to preclude the institution of gender equal care. Care templates on gender equal patient encounters should be implemented to better address transgender health needs in a non-biased manner. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Women are disproportionally affected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA. The determinants of gender inequality in HIV/AIDS may vary across countries and require country-specific interventions to address them. This study aimed to identify the socio-demographic and behavioral characteristics underlying gender inequalities in HIV/AIDS in 21 SSA countries. Methods We applied an extension of the Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition approach to data from Demographic and Health Surveys and AIDS Indicator Surveys to quantify the differences in HIV/AIDS prevalence between women and men attributable to socio-demographic factors, sexual behaviours, and awareness of HIV/AIDS. We decomposed gender inequalities into two components: the percentage attributable to different levels of the risk factors between women and men (the “composition effect” and the percentage attributable to risk factors having differential effects on HIV/AIDS prevalence in women and men (the “response effect”. Results Descriptive analyses showed that the difference between women and men in HIV/AIDS prevalence varied from a low of 0.68 % (P = 0.008 in Liberia to a high of 11.5 % (P < 0.001 in Swaziland. The decomposition analysis showed that 84 % (P < 0.001 and 92 % (P < 0.001 of the higher prevalence of HIV/AIDS among women in Uganda and Ghana, respectively, was explained by the different distributions of HIV/AIDS risk factors, particularly age at first sex between women and men. In the majority of countries, however, observed gender inequalities in HIV/AIDS were chiefly explained by differences in the responses to risk factors; the differential effects of age, marital status and occupation on prevalence of HIV/AIDS for women and men were among the significant contributors to this component. In Cameroon, Guinea, Malawi and Swaziland, a combination of the composition and response
Sia, Drissa; Onadja, Yentéma; Hajizadeh, Mohammad; Heymann, S Jody; Brewer, Timothy F; Nandi, Arijit
Women are disproportionally affected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The determinants of gender inequality in HIV/AIDS may vary across countries and require country-specific interventions to address them. This study aimed to identify the socio-demographic and behavioral characteristics underlying gender inequalities in HIV/AIDS in 21 SSA countries. We applied an extension of the Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition approach to data from Demographic and Health Surveys and AIDS Indicator Surveys to quantify the differences in HIV/AIDS prevalence between women and men attributable to socio-demographic factors, sexual behaviours, and awareness of HIV/AIDS. We decomposed gender inequalities into two components: the percentage attributable to different levels of the risk factors between women and men (the "composition effect") and the percentage attributable to risk factors having differential effects on HIV/AIDS prevalence in women and men (the "response effect"). Descriptive analyses showed that the difference between women and men in HIV/AIDS prevalence varied from a low of 0.68 % (P = 0.008) in Liberia to a high of 11.5 % (P distributions of HIV/AIDS risk factors, particularly age at first sex between women and men. In the majority of countries, however, observed gender inequalities in HIV/AIDS were chiefly explained by differences in the responses to risk factors; the differential effects of age, marital status and occupation on prevalence of HIV/AIDS for women and men were among the significant contributors to this component. In Cameroon, Guinea, Malawi and Swaziland, a combination of the composition and response effects explained gender inequalities in HIV/AIDS prevalence. The factors that explain gender inequality in HIV/AIDS in SSA vary by country, suggesting that country-specific interventions are needed. Unmeasured factors also contributed substantially to the difference in HIV
Full Text Available Ageing population of India will transform into the elderly in future. The issue of health of the elderly population in India has arrested the attention of health policy makers and the researchers, in the recent past. Demographic structure, quality of life, healthcare services and government planning have serious implications on the ageing population. The objective of the research article is to systematically and critically evaluate the impact of demographic transition, projected demographic indicators and changing population characteristics on the health status of the elderly persons living in India in the coming decades. Analysis and discussions are based on secondary data published by the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare of the Government of India. The results indicate that India will be an ageing nation in the coming years and improvements in health, education and government planning are likely to enhance the life expectancy of the elderly, while the share of children will reduce, suggesting an increase in dependency of the older persons on the adult population. The article provides insights into workable solutions and suggests key recommendations to attain faster demographic dividend. India would be competing with the pressure of a dramatic demographic bulge in future.
Etter, Franziska; Knechtle, Beat; Bukowski, Arkadiusz; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald
This study investigated the participation and performance trends as well as the age and gender interaction at the Olympic distance 'Zürich Triathlon' (1.5 km swim, 40 km cycle and 10 km run) from 2000 to 2010 in 7,939 total finishers (1,666 females and 6,273 males). Female triathletes aged from 40 to 54 years significantly (P distance triathlon performance increased after the age of 35 years, which appeared earlier compared to long distance triathlon as suggested by previous studies. Future investigations should compare gender difference in performance for different endurance events across age to confirm a possible effect of exercise duration on gender difference with advancing age.
Kessing, L V
BACKGROUND: The risk of recurrence in affective disorder has been found to increase with each new episode. It is unclear whether it is universal without regard to gender, age and type of disorder. METHOD: Survival analysis was used to estimate the risk of recurrence in a case-register study...... episodes regardless of the combination of gender, age and type of disorder. Initially in the course of illness, unipolar and bipolar women experienced an equal greater risk of recurrence than men. The risk of recurrence after the first episode was increased for middle-aged and older unipolar women compared...... with the risk for younger women, while after all other episodes younger age at first episode increased the risk of recurrence. CONCLUSIONS: The course of severe unipolar and bipolar disorder seems to be progressive in nature irrespective of gender, age and type of disorder....
Full Text Available In the next decades, developed countries will experience dramatic changes in their demographic trends. The retirement of the wide baby-boom generations, the increase in life expectancy and the decline in fertility ratios are likely to modify the size and the age-structure of their populations. The expected population ageing in European countries will burden the pension systems, especially wherever the pay-as-you-go pillar is predominant. Recently, migration has received a widespread attention as a solution to expected population decline and ageing in these countries. The flow of (young migrants to developed countries is perceived as a means to alleviate the financial burden of pension systems. The aim of this contribution is to clarify the issue of aging on labour and capital markets in a macroeconomic perspective. A special attention is given to the risk of imbalances in the financing of social protection in the context of demographic ageing.
Lorson, Kevin M; Stodden, David F; Langendorfer, Stephen J; Goodway, Jacqueline D
The purposes of this study were to examine age and gender differences in throwing performance across an underexplored portion of the lifespan: middle adolescents (14-17 years old), young adults (18-25 years old), and adults (35-55 years old). Throwing performance was assessed using the body component levels from Roberton's developmental sequences for force and ball velocity that were recorded by a radar gun. Participants in each age group performed between 5 to 10 forceful overhand throws toward a target approximately 15m to 20m from the thrower. A Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney Test was used to determine gender differences and a Wilcoxon-Signed Ranks Test was used to determine age-group differences for each component. Gender and age-group differences in ball speed were determined by a 3 (age group) x 2 (gender) factorial analysis of variance with follow-up post-hoc tests. Young-adult men had higher body component levels and ball speed compared with the adolescent boys and adult men. Female age-group differences existed only for humerus action between young-adult and adult groups and for ball speed between young-adult and adolescent groups. Gender differences (p < .01) existed in component levels for the adolescent and young-adult groups, but not the adult groups. Gender differences in ball speed (p < .001) existed within each age group. Although these data were cross-sectional, the regressive developmental changes observed and the narrowing gender gap may eventually provide insight related to the relationships among motor skill competence, physical fitness, and physical activity across the lifespan.
... population increases the risks of cognitive decline and suicide. About 25% of older adults have some type of mental health problem, such as a mood disorder not associated with normal aging. Older adults with ...
Full Text Available The findings of the research into the perceived parental behavior provide contrasting data as to the existence and the nature of differences in the perception of parental behavior based on parents’ gender and respondents’ gender. The purpose of the present study is to examine the differences in the perceived parental behavior in adolescents with regard to parents’ gender and respondents’ age and gender. The study included 466 respondents (262 girls and 204 boys, in middle to late adolescence, divided into four sub-groups according to their age. The respondents were asked to fill in the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI questionnaire which measures the care and overprotection in mothers and fathers respectively. The obtained findings show the existence of significant difference based on the parents’ gender for both subscales: both maternal care and maternal overprotection were estimated as higher. Observing the differences by respondents’ gender on the whole sample, only one significant difference is found: paternal overprotection was estimated as higher by girls. The differences by age as observed within gender groups are completely disparate for girl and boy groups. The best insight into the differences is obtained through analysis by gender, for groups relatively homogenous in terms of their age (for the first three groups the only significant difference appears in the paternal overprotection subscale; the difference disappears in the subgroup of the oldest respondents’, while the differences between the perception of maternal and paternal care are of significance here. One particularly important finding for future research into rearing behavior is the fact that the perception of parental behavior changes over the period of adolescence differently for boys and girls; therefore, the analysis including perceived parental behavior should be performed for subgroups by gender, which are as homogenous as possible in terms of their age.
Quanbao, Jiang; Shuzhuo, Li; Marcus W., Feldman
The large number of missing females in China, a consequence of gender discrimination, is having and will continue to have a profound effect on the country's population development. In this paper, we analyze the causes of this gender discrimination in terms of institutions, culture and, economy, and suggest public policies that might help eliminate gender discrimination. Using a population simulation model, we study the effect of public policies on the sex ratio at birth and excess female chil...
Karen Robinson; Robert C. Burns; Chad D. Pierskalla; Alan Graefe
The purpose of this study was to examine the outdoor recreation behavior of Oregon's aging population, including developing a socio-demographic profile and examining the importance of their current motivations with the importance of their expected motivations 10 years from now. A stratified random sample was drawn of Oregon residents, and a mailback questionnaire...
Crenshaw, Edward; Robison, Kristopher
This study establishes a socio-demographic theory of international development derived from selected classical and contemporary sociological theories. Four hypotheses are tested: (1. population growth's effect on development depends on age-structure; (2. historic population density (used here as an indicator of preindustrial social complexity)…
Williams, Anna-Leila; Ness, Peter Van; Dixon, Jane; McCorkle, Ruth
Despite solid basic science research supporting meditation's physiologic benefits, meditation remains a marginalized practice for many Westerners; observational and descriptive studies indicate a spectrum of barriers to meditation practice. The aim of this study was to determine differences in barriers to meditation by gender and age. A cross-sectional survey study of 150 family caregivers to adults with cancer visiting an outpatient chemotherapy center in Connecticut was conducted. The primary outcome was the Determinants of Meditation Practice Inventory. Explanatory variables included demographic characteristics, Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale, Big Five Inventory, and Caregiver Reaction Assessment. Participants included 98 women and 52 men. Age range was 18-84 years (M = 52.3 years). The highest frequency of barriers for both genders related to misconceptions about meditation. The total number of barriers to meditation did not significantly vary by gender (p = .10) nor age (p = .27). After adjusting for personality trait, reactions to caregiving, and emotional distress, gender (adjusted β = 0.81, SE = 1.70, p = .63) and age (adjusted β = 0.02, SE = 0.05, p = .67) still did not predict the number of barriers to meditation. Backward elimination in model building showed that personality trait and reactions to caregiving account for 32% of the variability in barriers. The total number of barriers to meditation was examined, and a difference was not found by age or gender. It is possible that differences by age and gender exist at the item level of evaluation but were not evident when evaluating total scores. Further study is needed with samples large enough to have statistical power for item-level analysis.
The study examined age and gender differences in the premarital sexual attitudes exhibited by adolescents and young adults. A cross-sectional design was employed. A total of 1044 participants in four age categories were drawn from 4 secondary schools and 4 universities all located within three states of South-West ...
This study examined middle-age gender differences in career challenges and emotional intelligence and its counselling implications. The study aimed at sensitizing the development of adult counselling programme for the middle-age persons. Survey design was adopted to obtain samples (800) from a large population of ...
The bachelor thesis deals with preschool children's play in the context of gender. The theoretical part is divided into three main chapters. The first one is devoted to the essence of play and its function for the child, the second one describes the main areas of child development at preschool age and the last chapter is devoted mainly to gender socialization and role of play in it. The practical part has the form of semi- structured interviews, which aimed to find out the extent of gender de...
Christel C. Kern; Laura S. Kenefic; Susan L. Stout
Past research has established that diverse scientific communities foster innovation and problem solving more effectively than communities with a narrow range of knowledge, skills, and experience. However, gender diversity among scientists is limited, particularly in natural-resource fields. We compared data on scientist gender and rank from the US Department of...
Arguments about the spread of gender egalitarian values through the population highlight several sources of change. First, structural arguments point to increases in the proportion of women with high education, jobs with good pay, commitment to careers outside the family, and direct interests in gender equality. Second, value shift arguments…
The consequences of demographic aging in developed societies are examined. The author notes that "demographic aging has intensified over the last decades, bringing with it a significant modification in relationships between age groups and the sexes.... These changes in demographic structures bring with them the reorganization in intergenerational relations, the most spectacular instance of which...[is] the coexistence at the same time and in the same place of four or five generations of direct descendants." The author develops the hypothesis that a new attitude toward old age is needed in which "the social status of the elderly must be reinstated, and everything must be brought into play to encourage the integration of different age groups and intergenerational solidarity, so as to arrive in the best possible conditions at what [can be termed] the 'era of old age'...which will accompany the coming of the post-industrial society with its orientation toward the mass production of leisure and of services." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND SPA) excerpt
Full Text Available Purpose of this paper consists in analyzing economic and social aspects of demographic aging process in Moldova. To interpret the accumulated data and calculations performed analytical method of calculation tabular method and graphical method was applied. Intense process of aging is associated with changes in all spheres of social and economic life and affects equally the interests of older people and society as a whole. In Republic of Moldova aging population has grown in the last two decades, being conditioned both declining birth rate, which is very low and does not provide simple reproduction of the population and the mass migration of population that leads to the depopulation of the country. Maintaining the natural and migration increase with negative values amplifies the negative demographic deterioration of the country, which influences economic development, competitiveness and stability of the country and welfare of its citizens. In this situation it is necessary to respond positively to the challenges of demographic change through the complex and multisectoral approaches designed to correct current unfavorable demographic evolutions.
Padula, Rosimeire Simprini; da Silva Valente, Luciana do Socorro; de Moraes, Mônica Vasconcelos; Chiavegato, Luciana Dias; Cabral, Cristina Maria Nunes
Work capacity is related to physical, environmental and psychosocial factors and is influenced by individual characteristics and occupations. The aim of this study was to evaluated the relationship between work capacity, gender and age. 360 people employed at an institution of higher education of both genders and similar age were asked to participate in this study. The ability to work was analyzed using Work Ability Index (WAI). Descriptive statistical, Pearson correlations and ANOVA test was applied. Of these, 197 workers who participated in the study completed and returned the questionnaire. The results show there weren't any significant differences between work ability in relation to gender and age, but we observed an increase variability of responses for WAI score in older workers. No significant differences in the perception of the ability of work between men and women..
Wing Lok Au
Full Text Available Objective. Wearable and wireless motion sensor devices have facilitated the automated computation of speed, amplitude, and rhythm of hand motion tasks. The aim of this study is to determine if there are any biological influences on these kinematic parameters. Methods. 80 healthy subjects performed hand motion tasks twice for each hand, with movements measured using a wireless motion sensor device (Kinesia, Cleveland Medical Devices Inc., Cleveland, OH. Multivariate analyses were performed with age, gender, and height added into the model. Results. Older subjects performed poorer in finger tapping (FT speed (r=0.593, p<0.001, hand-grasp (HG speed (r=0.517, p<0.001, and pronation-supination (PS speed (r=0.485, p<0.001. Men performed better in FT rhythm p<0.02, HG speed p<0.02, HG amplitude p<0.02, and HG rhythm p<0.05. Taller subjects performed better in the speed and amplitude components of FT p<0.02 and HG tasks p<0.02. After multivariate analyses, only age and gender emerged as significant independent factors influencing the speed but not the amplitude and rhythm components of hand motion tasks. Gender exerted an independent influence only on HG speed, with better performance in men p<0.05. Conclusions. Age, gender, and height are not independent factors influencing the amplitude and rhythm components of hand motion tasks. The speed component is affected by age and gender differences.
Full Text Available Considerable research has shown effects of facial appearance on trait impressions and group stereotypes. We extended those findings in two studies that investigated the contribution of resemblance to emotion expressions and attractiveness to younger adults (YA and older adults (OA age and gender stereotypes on the dimensions of warmth and competence. Using connectionist modeling of facial metrics of 240 neutral younger and older faces, Study 1 found that, neutral expression older faces or female faces showed greater structural resemblance to happy expressions and less resemblance to angry expressions than did younger or male faces, respectively. In addition, neutral female faces showed greater resemblance to surprise expressions. In Study 2, YA and OA rated the faces of Study 1 for attractiveness and for 4 traits that we aggregated on the dimensions of competence (competent, healthy and warmth (trustworthy, not shrewd. We found that YA, but not OA, age stereotypes replicated previous research showing higher perceived warmth and lower perceived competence in older adults. In addition, previously documented gender stereotypes were moderated by face age for both YA and OA. The greater attractiveness of younger than older faces and female than male faces influenced age and gender stereotypes, including these deviations from prior research findings using category labels rather than faces. On the other hand, face age and face sex differences in emotion resemblance did not influence age or gender stereotypes, contrary to prediction. Our results provide a caveat to conclusions about age and gender stereotypes derived from responses to category labels, and they reveal the importance of assessing stereotypes with a methodology that is sensitive to influences of group differences in appearance that can exacerbate or mitigate stereotypes in more ecologically valid contexts. Although the gender differences in attractiveness in the present study may not have
Palumbo, Rocco; Adams, Reginald B; Hess, Ursula; Kleck, Robert E; Zebrowitz, Leslie
Considerable research has shown effects of facial appearance on trait impressions and group stereotypes. We extended those findings in two studies that investigated the contribution of resemblance to emotion expressions and attractiveness to younger adults (YA) and older adults (OA) age and gender stereotypes on the dimensions of warmth and competence. Using connectionist modeling of facial metrics of 240 neutral younger and older faces, Study 1 found that, neutral expression older faces or female faces showed greater structural resemblance to happy expressions and less resemblance to angry expressions than did younger or male faces, respectively. In addition, neutral female faces showed greater resemblance to surprise expressions. In Study 2, YA and OA rated the faces of Study 1 for attractiveness and for 4 traits that we aggregated on the dimensions of competence (competent, healthy) and warmth (trustworthy, not shrewd). We found that YA, but not OA, age stereotypes replicated previous research showing higher perceived warmth and lower perceived competence in older adults. In addition, previously documented gender stereotypes were moderated by face age for both YA and OA. The greater attractiveness of younger than older faces and female than male faces influenced age and gender stereotypes, including these deviations from prior research findings using category labels rather than faces. On the other hand, face age and face sex differences in emotion resemblance did not influence age or gender stereotypes, contrary to prediction. Our results provide a caveat to conclusions about age and gender stereotypes derived from responses to category labels, and they reveal the importance of assessing stereotypes with a methodology that is sensitive to influences of group differences in appearance that can exacerbate or mitigate stereotypes in more ecologically valid contexts. Although the gender differences in attractiveness in the present study may not have generalizability
Vassil, Kristjan; Eamets, Raul; Mõtsmees, Pille
Estonia ranks consistently on top of the list of countries with the largest gender pay gap. However, irrespective of abundant aggregate level evidence, little is known what motivates the gap at the individual level. In this paper we precisely address the issue of gender pay gap at the individual level. We examine how large is the gender pay gap in actual and expected wages and how it can be explained. We use a rich dataset from Estonian Labour Force Survey on actual wages, and the data from C...
Xu, J; Kobayashi, S; Yamaguchi, S; Iijima, K; Okada, K; Yamashita, K
Previous reports have suggested that brain atrophy is associated with aging and that there are gender differences in brain atrophy with aging. These reports, however, neither exclude silent brain lesions in "healthy subjects" nor divide the brain into subregions. The aim of this study is to clarify the effect of gender on age-related changes in brain subregions by MR imaging. A computer-assisted system was used to calculate the brain matter area index (BMAI) of various regions of the brain from MR imaging of 331 subjects without brain lesions. There was significantly more brain atrophy with aging in the posterior parts of the right frontal lobe in male subjects than there was in female subjects. Age-related atrophy in the middle part of the right temporal lobe, the left basal ganglia, the parietal lobe, and the cerebellum also was found in male subjects, but not in female subjects. In the temporal lobe, thalamus, parieto-occipital lobe, and cerebellum, brain volume in the left hemisphere is significantly smaller than in the right hemisphere; sex and age did not affect the hemisphere differences of brain volume in these regions. The effect of gender on brain atrophy with aging varied in different subregions of the brain. There was more brain atrophy with aging in male subjects than in female subjects.
Kornadt, Anna E; Voss, Peggy; Rothermund, Klaus
Whereas it is often stated that aging might have more negative consequences for the evaluation of women compared to men, evidence for this assumption is mixed. We took a differentiated look at age stereotypes of men and women, assuming that the life domain in which older persons are rated moderates gender differences in age stereotypes. A sample of 298 participants aged 20-92 rated 65 - year-old men and women on evaluative statements in eight different life domains. Furthermore, perceptions of gender- and domain-specific age-related changes were assessed by comparing the older targets to 45 - year-old men and women, respectively. The results speak in favor of the domain specificity of evaluative asymmetries in age stereotypes for men and women, and imply that an understanding of gendered perceptions of aging requires taking into account the complexities of domain-specific views on aging.
Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; Owen, Allison; Kaijser, Vanessa G; Bradley, Susan J; Zucker, Kenneth J
This study examined demographic characteristics, social competence, and behavior problems in clinic-referred children with gender identity problems in Toronto, Canada (N = 358), and Utrecht, The Netherlands (N = 130). The Toronto sample was, on average, about a year younger than the Utrecht sample at referral, had a higher percentage of boys, had a higher mean IQ, and was less likely to be living with both parents. On the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), both groups showed, on average, clinical range scores in both social competence and behavior problems. A CBCL-derived measure of poor peer relations showed that boys in both clinics had worse ratings than did the girls. A multiple regression analysis showed that poor peer relations were the strongest predictor of behavior problems in both samples. This study-the first cross-national, cross-clinic comparative analysis of children with gender identity disorder-found far more similarities than differences in both social competence and behavior problems. The most salient demographic difference was age at referral. Cross-national differences in factors that might influence referral patterns are discussed.
Casanova, I; Diaz, A; Pinto, S; de Carvalho, M
The technique of threshold tracking to test axonal excitability gives information about nodal and internodal ion channel function. We aimed to investigate variability of the motor excitability measurements in healthy controls, taking into account age, gender, body mass index (BMI) and small changes in skin temperature. We examined the left median nerve of 47 healthy controls using the automated threshold-tacking program, QTRAC. Statistical multiple regression analysis was applied to test relationship between nerve excitability measurements and subject variables. Comparisons between genders did not find any significant difference (P>0.2 for all comparisons). Multiple regression analysis showed that motor amplitude decreases with age and temperature, stimulus-response slope decreases with age and BMI, and that accommodation half-time decrease with age and temperature. The changes related to demographic features on TRONDE protocol parameters are small and less important than in conventional nerve conduction studies. Nonetheless, our results underscore the relevance of careful temperature control, and indicate that interpretation of stimulus-response slope and accommodation half-time should take into account age and BMI. In contrast, gender is not of major relevance to axonal threshold findings in motor nerves. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
In this study, we use entropy related mixing rate modules to measure the effects of temperature on insect population stability and demographic breakdown. The uncertainty in the age of the mother of a randomly chosen newborn, and how it is moved after a finite act of time steps, is modeled using a stochastic transformation of the Leslie matrix. Age classes are represented as a cycle graph and its transitions towards the stable age distribution are brought forth as an exact Markov chain. The dynamics of divergence, from a non equilibrium state towards equilibrium, are evaluated using the Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy. Moreover, Kullback-Leibler distance is applied as information-theoretic measure to estimate exact mixing times of age transitions probabilities towards equilibrium. Using empirically data, we show that on the initial conditions and simulated projection's trough time, that population entropy can effectively be applied to detect demographic variability towards equilibrium under different temperature conditions. Changes in entropy are correlated with the fluctuations of the insect population decay rates (i.e. demographic stability towards equilibrium). Moreover, shorter mixing times are directly linked to lower entropy rates and vice versa. This may be linked to the properties of the insect model system, which in contrast to warm blooded animals has the ability to greatly change its metabolic and demographic rates. Moreover, population entropy and the related distance measures that are applied, provide a means to measure these rates. The current results and model projections provide clear biological evidence why dynamic population entropy may be useful to measure population stability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bolay, Hayrunnisa; Ozge, Aynur; Saginc, Petek; Orekici, Gulhan; Uludüz, Derya; Yalın, Osman; Siva, Aksel; Bıçakçi, Şebnem; Karakurum, Başak; Öztürk, Musa
Migraine headache is one of the most common primary headache disorders and is three times more prevalent in women than in men, especially during the reproductive ages. The neurobiological basis of the female dominance has been partly established. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of gender on the headache manifestations in migraine patients. The study group consisted of 2082 adult patients from five different hospitals' tertiary care-based headache clinics. The relationship between headache characteristics and gender was evaluated in migraine with aura (MwA) and migraine without aura (MwoA). The duration, severity, frequency of headache and associated symptoms were evaluated in both genders and age-dependent variations and analyzed in two subgroups. Women with migraine were prone to significantly longer duration and intensity of headache attacks. Nausea, phonophobia and photophobia were more prevalent in women. Median headache duration was also longer in women than in men in MwA (p = 0.013) and MwoA (p < 0.001). Median headache intensity was higher in women than in men in MwA (p = 0.010) and MwoA (p = 0.009). The frequency of nausea was significantly higher in women than in men in MwA (p = 0.049). Throbbing headache quality and associated features (nausea, photophobia, and phonophobia) were significantly more frequent in women than in men in MwoA. The gender impact varied across age groups and significant changes were seen in female migraineurs after age 30. No age-dependent variation was observed in male migraineurs. Gender has an influence on the characteristics of the headache as well as on the associated symptoms in migraine patients, and this impact varies across the age groups, particularly in women. © International Headache Society 2014.
Full Text Available The present research examines the relationships between happiness and variables of gender, age and marital status as well as the degrees of happiness most frequently experienced by people. The sample was constituted by 163 males and females, between the ages of 20 and 60 years, single and married, and from middle class strata. They were administered the Scale of Satisfaction with Life, developed by Diener, with and added item to measure the degrees of happiness. There is no significan! statistically difference between genders; according to age the only significan contras! was between 30 and 50 years, with the notation that the highest means corresponded to ages 50 and 60 years old; married people were found to be happier than single ones. In general, the majority reported feeling happy, the other degrees contained very few frecuencies.
Wallach-Kildemoes, Helle; Støvring, Henrik; Holme Hansen, Ebba
RATIONALES, AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The increasing dispensing of statins has raised concern about the appropriateness of prescribing to various population groups. We aimed to (1) investigate incident and prevalent statin prescribing according to indication, gender and age and (2) relate prescribing...... patterns to evidence on beneficial and adverse effects. METHODS: A cohort of Danish inhabitants (n = 4 424 818) was followed in nationwide registries for dispensed statin prescriptions and hospital discharge information. We calculated incidence rates (2005-2009), prevalence trends (2000-2010) and absolute...... numbers of statin users according to register proxies for indication, gender and age. RESULTS: In 2010, the prevalence became highest for ages 75-84 and was higher in men than women (37% and 33%, respectively). Indication-specific incidences and prevalences peaked at ages around 65-70, but in myocardial...
Joye, Shauna W.; Wilson, Janie H.
Student evaluations provide rich information about teaching performance, but a number of factors beyond teacher effectiveness influence student evaluations. In this study we examined the effects of professor gender and perceived age on ratings of effectiveness and rapport as well as academic performance. We also asked students to rate professor…
Gender, Age and Locus of Control as Correlates of Remedial Learners' Attitude towards English Language. ... These findings have far-reaching implications for adult and non-formal education practitioners and other stakeholders interested in improving the lots of several learners out there, in English language. Keywords: ...
Drawing on the work of Carol Gilligan (1982) and Lawrence Kohlberg (1969) the study sought to examine children.s moral reasoning about situations involving conflicts and how they would resolve them. It also explored whether children.s choice of moral orientation varied across individual factors such as age and gender.
We explored the relationship between age, gender and anthropometric measurements and atherogenic index in hypertensive patients. A cross sectional study was done involving 109 adult hypertensive patients attending the cardiology clinic of Niger Delta University Teaching Hospital. Subjects were recruited ...
The conclusion of the study was that there were differences with respect to age, gender, course of study and school type in students' aspirations for entrepreneurial careers, while there was none regarding form/class level. Among the counselling implications are that counsellors must take into consideration personal and ...
Krapf, Sandra; Kreyenfeld, Michaela; Wolf, Katharina
Demography, the official journal of the Population Association of America, has been given the highest rating among demographic journals by the Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI). Our aim here is to investigate the development of research subfields and female authorship in Demography over the last
Syme, Maggie L; Cohn, Tracy J
Stigma related to later life sexuality could produce detrimental effects for older adults, through individual concerns and limited sexual health care for older adults. Identifying groups at risk for aging sexual stigma will help to focus interventions to reduce it. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to examine cross-sectional trends in aging sexual stigma attitudes by age group, generational status, and gender. An online survey was administered to a national sample of adults via a crowdsourcing tool, in order to examine aging sexual stigma across age groups, generational status, and gender (N = 962; 47.0% male, 52.5% female, and .5% other; mean age = 45 years). An aging sexual stigma index was formulated from the attitudinal items of the Aging Sexual Knowledge and Attitudes Scale. This sample reported moderately permissive attitudes toward aging sexuality, indicating a low level of aging sexual stigma. Though descriptive data showed trends of stigma attitudes increasing with age and later generations, there were no significant differences between age groups or generations in terms of aging sexual stigma beliefs. Men, regardless of age and/or generation, were found to espouse significantly higher stigmatic beliefs than women or those reporting 'other' gender. Aging sexual stigma beliefs may not be prevalent among the general population as cohorts become more sexually liberal over time, though men appear more susceptible to these beliefs. However, in order to more comprehensively assess aging sexual stigma, future research may benefit from measuring explicit and implicit aging sexual stigma beliefs.
Ostroff, Cheri; Atwater, Leanne E
Much research has examined gender and age effects on compensation, concluding that a wage gap exists favoring men and negative stereotypes against older workers persist. Although the effect of an employee's gender or age has been widely studied, little work has examined the impact of the demographic characteristics of a focal employee's immediate referent groups (e.g., subordinates, peers, or supervisors) on pay. The effect of the gender and age composition of a focal manager's subordinates, peers, and supervisor on the manager's compensation levels was investigated in a sample of 2,178 managers across a wide range of organizations and functional areas. After controlling for a number of human capital variables, results indicated that not only does a wage gap favoring men exist, but also managerial pay is lower when managers' referent groups are largely female, when subordinates are outside the prime age group, and when peers and supervisors are younger.
Consedine, Nathan S; Fiori, Katherine L
Although patterns of attachment have been linked to patterns of emotional experience, studies in developmentally diverse samples are few and have not yet examined possible gender differences in attachment or their implications for emotional wellbeing. This article describes patterns of attachment in a diverse sample of 616 men and women from middle age and later life, examines the relations between attachment and nine discrete emotions, and tests the thesis that gender moderates these associations. Convenience sampling was used to derive a sample of 616 ethnically diverse men and women from seven ethnic groups. Multiple regressions controlling for demographics found no gender differences in attachment categorizations although men reported greater dimensional fearful avoidance. Security predicted greater joy and interest whereas dismissingness was associated with lower shame and fear and with greater interest. Both preoccupation and fearful avoidance predicted most negative emotions but were not associated with positive emotions. Finally, gender moderated these associations such that (a) attachment security was more closely related to interest and, marginally, joy, among men; (b) fearful avoidance was more closely related to fear and contempt among men; and (c) preoccupation was associated with greater interest among men, whereas fear and contempt were associated with preoccupation among women only. Interpreted in the context of theories of emotions, the social origins of emotional experience, and the different roles that social relationships have for aging men and women, our data imply that attachment styles may differentially predict male emotions because of their less diverse networks.
Since World War II, Greece's birth rate has fallen into a worsening decline. With the steady emigration of Greeks throughout the century to North America, Australia, and Germany, Greece has experienced one of the most rapid population declines in Europe. In 1991, the PASOK government convened a special Parliamentary Commission to study the demographic problem and develop recommendations for its resolution. Released in 1993, and comparing Greece's depressed population growth rates with the markedly higher ones of Albania and Turkey, the report argues that the demographic problem is one of national survival because a decline in the population undermines the territorial integrity and national independence of the country. At least half of all pregnancies in Greece end in abortion, and the report attributes 40% of the declining population growth rate to women who have repeat abortions. To confront the population dilemma, Greek officials are downplaying the diaspora and encouraging women at home to produce more babies. Maternal pensions forwarded by the state as family and population policies are being criticized by Athenian women as a means of professionalizing motherhood and perpetuating a limited vision of female adulthood. The author explores why the declining birth rate is considered to be such a problem in Greece, even though the other countries of Europe are also experiencing birth rate declines; why and how women are blamed for the demographic situation; and why the state, despite its vehement rhetoric, has failed to implement a family policy capable of boosting fertility.
Avdeyeva Irina Olegovna
Full Text Available In article some questions mentioning gender and age features of the identity of municipal employees, working in the social sphere and their influence on professionalism development are considered. Diagnostics of professional and important qualities and features of experts, their moral and regulatory sphere, adaptation potential and a motivational complex on means of application of the following diagnostic techniques is carried out: R. Kettell's 16 factorial questionnaire (16-PF, a form C, "Valuable orientations" M. Rokich, a multilevel personal questionnaire "Adaptability" (MLO-AM, a technique of studying of motivation of professional activity (K.Zemfir in A.Rean's modification. In this research the example of the multiple parameter linear model created and approved for identification and the analysis of age transformations of municipal employees, working in the social sphere is given. Conclusions are drawn on wagging of gender and age features of experts on development of professionalism of their personality.
This paper situates age discrimination within a broader system of age relations that intersects with other inequalities, and then uses that framework to analyze internet advertisements for the anti-aging industry. Such ads reinforce age and gender relations by positing old people as worthwhile only to the extent that they look and act like those…
Full Text Available Background Non-communicable disease (NCD risk factors can co-exist with disability and cause a greater burden on the health status of adults with disabilities. A lack of egalitarian social policies in China may result in gender disparities in the NCD risk factors of adults with disabilities. However, little is known about the gender disparities in the association between socio-demographics and NCD risk factors among adults with disabilities in China; consequently, we examined this association among adults with disabilities in Shanghai, China. Methods We used the health examination data of 44,896 adults with disabilities in Shanghai in 2014. Descriptive analyses and logistic regression models were conducted to estimate gender disparities in the association between socio-demographics, disability characteristics, and four selected NCD risk factors among adults with disabilities—including high blood pressure, high blood glucose, high blood lipids, and being overweight. We estimated marginal effects (MEs on NCD risk factors between gender and other confounders. Results Women with disabilities were about 11.6 percentage points more likely to suffer from high blood lipids and less likely to develop the other three risk factors than men were. The association of age group, residence permit, education level, marital status, and disability type with health outcomes varied by gender among adults with disabilities. The difference in age effects between men and women was more pronounced in older age groups. Urban residence was associated with less risk of high blood pressure risk among women (ΔME = − 0.035, p < 0.01, but no significant difference in other NCD risk factors. Education remained a major protective factor against high blood pressure, high blood glucose and being overweight among women with disabilities (MEs < 0, p < 0.05; however, this did not hold for men. The difference in marriage effects between men and women was observed in
Traberg, Marie Sand; Pedersen, Mads Møller; Hemmsen, Martin Christian
The abdominal aorta (AA) is predisposed to development of abdominal aneurysms (AAA), a focal dilatation of the artery with fatal consequences if left untreated. The blood flow patterns in the AA is thought to play an important role in the development of AAA. The purpose of this work is to investi......The abdominal aorta (AA) is predisposed to development of abdominal aneurysms (AAA), a focal dilatation of the artery with fatal consequences if left untreated. The blood flow patterns in the AA is thought to play an important role in the development of AAA. The purpose of this work...... is to investigate the blood flow pat- terns within a group of healthy volunteers (4 females, 7 males) aged 23 to 76 years to identify changes and differences related to age and gender. The healthy volunteers were categorized by gender (male/female) and age (below/above 35 years). Subject-specific flow and geometry...... to elderly. Thus, changes in blood flow patterns in the AA related to age and gender is observed. Further investigations are needed to determine the relation between changes in blood flow patterns and AAA development....
Pekić Jasmina M.
Full Text Available The article focuses on the phenomenon of school indiscipline which proved to be an important factor of disruption in the teaching process. The aims of our research were to determine whether there were gender and age differences in expressing indiscipline during a class, as well as to examine the latent space of the School Indiscipline Scale. The sample included 897 students (42.1% boys and 57.9% girls who attend elementary (46.6% or secondary (53.4% school, aged 12 - 19. The instrument used was the Scale of School Indiscipline. The results of the component analysis indicated four components: nonparticipation, aggression, defiance to authority and cheating. By applying the MANOVA test we detected gender differences in all four subscales: that girls tend to cheat or not participate in the teaching process, while boys are more inclined to aggression and authority defiance. Regarding age differences it was noted that elementary school students are more inclined to behave aggressively while secondary school students tend not to participate and cheat. Bearing in mind that knowing gender and age differences of expressing unwanted behavior in school is very important it seems that the success of any prevention programs depend, to a large extent, upon their congruence with the students with different characteristics.
Burra, Patrizia; De Martin, Eleonora; Gitto, Stefano; Villa, Erica
Women constitute a particular group among patients with chronic liver disease and in the post-liver transplantation (LT) setting: they are set apart not only by traditional differences with respect to men (ie, body mass index, different etiologies of liver disease, and accessibility to transplantation) but also in increasingly evident ways related to hormonal changes that characterize first the fertile age and subsequently the postmenopausal period (eg, disease course variability and responses to therapy). The aim of this review is, therefore, to evaluate the role of the interplay of factors such as age, gender, and hormones in influencing the natural history of chronic liver disease before and after LT and their importance in determining outcomes after LT. As the population requiring LT ages and the mean age at transplantation increases, older females are being considered for transplantation. Older patients are at greater risk for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, osteoporosis, and a worse response to antiviral therapy. Female gender per se is associated with a greater risk for osteoporosis because of metabolic changes after menopause, the bodily structure of females, and, in the population of patients with chronic liver disease, the greater prevalence of cholestatic and autoimmune liver diseases. With menopause, the fall of protective estrogen levels can lead to increased fibrosis progression, and this represents a negative turning point for women with chronic liver disease and especially for patients with hepatitis C. Therefore, the notion of gender as a binary female/male factor is now giving way to the awareness of more complex disease processes within the female gender that follow hormonal, social, and age patterns and need to be addressed directly and specifically. Copyright © 2012 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.
Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aims to analyze sex differences in mice aging kidney. We applied a proteomic technique based on subfractionation, and liquid chromatography coupled with 2-DE. Samples from male and female CD1-Swiss outbred mice from 28 weeks, 52 weeks, and 76 weeks were analysed by 2-DE, and selected proteins were identified by matrix assisted laser desorption ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS. Results This proteomic analysis detected age-related changes in protein expression in 55 protein-spots, corresponding to 22 spots in males and 33 spots in females. We found a protein expression signature (PES of aging composed by 8 spots, common for both genders. The identified proteins indicated increases in oxidative and proteolytic proteins and decreases in glycolytic proteins, and antioxidant enzymes. Conclusion Our results provide insights into the gender differences associated to the decline of kidney function in aging. Thus, we show that proteomics can provide valuable information on age-related changes in expression levels of proteins and related modifications. This pilot study is still far from providing candidates for aging-biomarkers. However, we suggest that the analysis of these proteins could suggest mechanisms of cellular aging in kidney, and improve the kidney selection for transplantation.
Costa, Sebastiano; Hausenblas, Heather A; Oliva, Patrizia; Cuzzocrea, Francesca; Larcan, Rosalba
The purpose of our study was to explore the prevalence, and the role of mood, exercise frequency, age, and gender differences of exercise dependence. Regular exercisers (N = 409) completed a socio-demographic questionnaire, the Exercise Dependence Scale, and the Profile of Mood States. For data analyses, the participants were stratified for sex and age (age ranges = young adults: 18-24 years, adults: 25-44 years, and middle-aged adults: 45-64 years). We found that: (a) 4.4% of the participants were classified as at-risk for exercise dependence; (b) the men and the two younger groups (i.e., young adults and adults) had higher exercise dependence scores; and (c) age, gender, exercise frequency, and mood state were related to exercise dependence. Our results support previous research on the prevalence of exercise dependence and reveal that adulthood may be the critical age for developing exercise dependence. These findings have practical implication for identifying individuals at-risk for exercise dependence symptoms, and may aid in targeting and guiding the implementation of prevention program for adults.
Full Text Available Recent years have seen a growing interest in the problem of aggressive driving. In the presentstudy two demographic variables (gender and age, two non-psychological driving-experiencerelated variables (annual mileage and legal driving experience in years and aggressiveness asa personality trait (including behavioural and affective components as psychological variableof individual differences were examined as potential predictors of aggressive driving. The aimof the study was to find out the best predictors of aggressive driving behaviour. The study wasbased on an online survey, and 228 vehicle drivers in Latvia participated in it. The questionnaireincluded eight-item Aggressive Driving Scale (Bone & Mowen, 2006, short Latvian versionof the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (AQ; Buss & Perry, 1992, and questions gainingdemographic and driving experience information. Gender, age and annual mileage predictedaggressive driving: being male, young and with higher annual driving exposure were associatedwith higher scores on aggressive driving. Dispositional aggressiveness due to anger componentwas a significant predictor of aggressive diving score. Physical aggression and hostility wereunrelated to aggressive driving. Altogether, the predictors explained a total of 28% of thevariance in aggressive driving behaviour. Findings show that dispositional aggressiveness,especially the anger component, as well as male gender, young age and higher annual mileagehas a predictive validity in relation to aggressive driving. There is a need to extend the scope ofpotential dispositional predictors pertinent to driving aggression.
In a recent study of 714 graves of the Early Bronze Age cemetery, Franzhausen I, 658 individuals were demographically analysed. The masculinity rate and the mortality rate in the age groups were of similar order compared with estimates derived from other series of this period. On the base of a stationary population model, life tables were calculated showing life expectancy at birth to be 25.8 years and at the age of 20, 17.7 years. Also computed were: the crude death rate (Z = 38.8); and the population size (P = 31 or 65). The lack of infants were estimated by regressions (5q0 = 58%) and the results are discussed.
Full Text Available This research aimed to investigate whether demographic factors are similarly related to retrieval of object and proper names.The sample included 5,907 individuals above age 70 who participated in the Health and Retirement Study between 2004 and 2012. Participants were asked to name two objects as well as the US President and Vice President. Latent growth curve models examined the associations of age, education, and self-rated health with baseline levels and change trajectories in retrieval.Age and education were more strongly related to retrieval of proper names than to retrieval of object names, both for baseline scores and for change trajectory. Similar effects of self-rated health emerged for both types of stimuli.The results show that examining object names and proper names together as indication of cognitive status in the HRS might overlook important differences between the two types of stimuli, in both baseline performance and longitudinal change.
Serow, W J; Spar, M A
"The purpose of this paper is to analyze the effects of a prolonged period of sustained low fertility upon shifts in the population distribution of the United States among Department of Energy (DOE) regions." The authors also examine the impact of demographic aging on income distribution up to the year 2000 using the assumptions made in the Series III population projections prepared by the U.S. Bureau of the Census in 1977. It is noted that migration will emerge as the primary agent for internal population redistribution. excerpt
In Lithuania, as well as in other countries, psychological studies on time perspective are still making their first steps. Currently, no theoretical paradigm is extensive enough to serve well as a basis for further fundamental and applied research in this field. The goal of this study was to explore the link between time perspective and personality traits in different gender and age groups. To analyse time perspective and personality traits, two independent studies were carried out (N=636 in ...
Krapf, Sandra; Kreyenfeld, Michaela; Wolf, Katharina
Demography, the official journal of the Population Association of America, has been given the highest rating among demographic journals by the Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI). Our aim here is to investigate the development of research subfields and female authorship in Demography over the last 50 years. We find that female authorship in Demography has risen considerably since the 1980s and that currently a woman is about as likely as a man to be the sole or the first author of a paper published in the journal. However, we find some differences by subfield. Women seem to be overrepresented in the "family and household" research subfield but underrepresented in the "mortality and health" and "data and methods" categories.
Yu, Lu; Winter, Sam
This study had three purposes: (a) to compare the prevalence of boys' and girls' gender-atypical behaviors (GABs) in a sample of Chinese school-aged children, (b) to examine the developmental pattern of GABs in Chinese boys and girls over the age range in question (6-12 years), and (c) to test the effects of being an only child on children's GAB expression. Parents of 486 boys and 417 girls completed a Child Play Behavior and Activity Questionnaire (CPBAQ) in regard to their own children, and a demographic information sheet. The frequency distribution for each gender-related behavior was calculated. The associations between sex, age, and only-child status, and CPBAQ scale scores were examined. Although most GABs (by their very nature) were exhibited infrequently in Chinese children, it was found that girls displayed GABs more frequently than boys did. The prevalence of GABs rose for girls as they grew older, but fell slightly for boys. The expressions of GABs in only children did not differ from that in children with siblings. Possible effects of Chinese culture (including the current only-child policy) on children's GABs are discussed.
Full Text Available Purpose . Gender identity manifestations in schoolchildren were investigated. Material . The study involved schoolchildren of 3 -11th forms of the secondary schools (206 – boys, 213 - girls. For the research of age peculiarities in psychological gender, a questioner worked out by Sundry Bam which consists of 60 statements was used. Results . A number of aspects of self description which have different psychological characteristics in boys and girls were analysed. A peculiarity of gender identity in schoolchildren, which was identified by the overall number of respondents in whom the androgens personality type was identified, was singled out. Out of 206 boys – 90% have an androgens index, as for the girls – 69.5% refer to androgens personality type. The presence of feminine character qualities in boys and masculine – in girls was found out, which proves maximal development of feminine and masculine in one person. This will help social adaptation of schoolchildren. Conclusions . Physical education has enormous potential emotional and physical impact on the formation of gender identity of students and their notions of femininity and masculinity. This can directly affect the formation of life value orientations students in general, including the formation of values in the sphere of physical culture.
Montagnese, Federica; Mondello, Stefania; Wenninger, Stephan; Kress, Wolfram; Schoser, Benedikt
This study aims to provide a detailed clinical characterization of a large cohort of myotonic dystrophy type 2 (DM2) patients investigating the influence of age and gender as modifying factors of DM2 phenotype. A retrospective study was conducted on 307 patients with genetically confirmed DM2. The following data were analyzed: (1) demographics, (2) clinical features (first symptom, muscular complaints, and multisystemic involvement), (3) diagnostics (serological tests, electromyography, and muscle biopsy). In this cohort (186 females, 121 males), a proximal weakness was the leading symptom at onset (55.4%), followed by myalgia (35.5%) and myotonia (25.4%). Proximal weakness was more common in women than men (64.9 vs. 43.8%, p = 0.0006), whereas being male was associated with higher odds for developing myalgia [OR 2.94 (95% CI 1.53-5.67)]. Patients with muscle weakness at onset were older than those with myalgia and myotonia (p women (p = 0.002 and p = 0.002, respectively). Early onset of DM2 is an independent risk factor for the occurrence of multisystemic involvement [OR 0.94 (95% CI 0.90-0.98)]. In this updated clinical description of DM2 emerges a profound gender and age influence on the phenotype, emphasizing that female gender and ageing may be associated with a higher disease burden. These age- and gender-specific differences should be considered in diagnostics, management, and future clinical studies of DM2.
Adnan, M.; Shabbir, I.; Ali, Z.; Ali, S.F.; Rahat, T.
Objectives:To see the effects of age, gender and diabetes on serum lipid levels. Study type, settings and duration:Cross sectional analytical study conducted at PMRC Research Centre, Fatima Jinnah Medical College,Lahore from Jun-Dec 2011. Materials and Methods: One hundred type 2 diabetes mellitus and equal numbers of gender matched healthy controls were randomly selected for the study. After an overnight fasting, blood specimens were drawn for lipid profile where total cholesterol,high density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides were measured by standard enzymatic endpoint methods and LDL-cholesterol by Friedweld's formula. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS-15. Results Odd ratios of age for total cholesterol (OR 1.198); high density lipoprotein cholesterol (OR 1.144); and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (OR 1.576) revealed that subjects aged 45 years or more had greater risk of having deranged lipid levels. Female gender had higher high density lipoprotein cholesterol (p 0.000); and triglycerides (p 0.001). Odd ratios of men for total cholesterol (OR 0.775); high density lipoprotein cholesterol(OR 0.183); and low density lipoprotein Cholesterol (OR 0.683) illustrated that men were significantly less prone to dyslipidemia than women. Odd ratio of diabetes for high density lipoprotein cholesterol (OR 1.802) suggested that diabetics had 1.8 times more risk of having low high density lipoprotein cholesterol. Conclusions: Diabetic females over 45 years of age have significantly high chances of having disturbed or high lipid profile. Policy message:All persons in general and diabetics in particular over the age of 45 years should be screened for dyslipidemia and informed using behavior change communication to prevent disease complications. (author)
Adnan, M.; Shabbir, I.; Ali, Z.; Ali, S. F.; Rahat, T. [Fatima Jinnah Medical College, Lahore (Pakistan)
Objectives:To see the effects of age, gender and diabetes on serum lipid levels. Study type, settings and duration:Cross sectional analytical study conducted at PMRC Research Centre, Fatima Jinnah Medical College,Lahore from Jun-Dec 2011. Materials and Methods: One hundred type 2 diabetes mellitus and equal numbers of gender matched healthy controls were randomly selected for the study. After an overnight fasting, blood specimens were drawn for lipid profile where total cholesterol,high density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides were measured by standard enzymatic endpoint methods and LDL-cholesterol by Friedweld's formula. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS-15. Results Odd ratios of age for total cholesterol (OR 1.198); high density lipoprotein cholesterol (OR 1.144); and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (OR 1.576) revealed that subjects aged 45 years or more had greater risk of having deranged lipid levels. Female gender had higher high density lipoprotein cholesterol (p 0.000); and triglycerides (p 0.001). Odd ratios of men for total cholesterol (OR 0.775); high density lipoprotein cholesterol(OR 0.183); and low density lipoprotein Cholesterol (OR 0.683) illustrated that men were significantly less prone to dyslipidemia than women. Odd ratio of diabetes for high density lipoprotein cholesterol (OR 1.802) suggested that diabetics had 1.8 times more risk of having low high density lipoprotein cholesterol. Conclusions: Diabetic females over 45 years of age have significantly high chances of having disturbed or high lipid profile. Policy message:All persons in general and diabetics in particular over the age of 45 years should be screened for dyslipidemia and informed using behavior change communication to prevent disease complications. (author)
Miragoli, Sarah; Camisasca, Elena; Di Blasio, Paola
The main purpose of the study was to explore the child sexual behaviors that Italian teachers have observed in the school context. A representative sample of 227 children, from 5 to 10 years old, was rated by their teachers through the Child Sexual Behavior Inventory. Frequencies of sexual behaviors among children aged 5 to 6, 7 to 8, and 9 to 10 are presented. Younger children showed a broader range of sexual behaviors that decrease with the growing age, such as males in comparison to females. Moreover, findings showed that child sexual behavior is not only related to age and gender but also to family characteristics. These results suggested that child sexual behaviors reported by teachers through the Child Sexual Behavior Inventory may provide useful information about the development of children's sexuality. The knowledge of age appropriate sexual behaviors can help teachers discern normal sexual behaviors from problematic sexual behaviors.
Warner, David F; Brown, Tyson H
A number of studies have demonstrated wide disparities in health among racial/ethnic groups and by gender, yet few have examined how race/ethnicity and gender intersect or combine to affect the health of older adults. The tendency of prior research to treat race/ethnicity and gender separately has potentially obscured important differences in how health is produced and maintained, undermining efforts to eliminate health disparities. The current study extends previous research by taking an intersectionality approach (Mullings & Schulz, 2006), grounded in life course theory, conceptualizing and modeling trajectories of functional limitations as dynamic life course processes that are jointly and simultaneously defined by race/ethnicity and gender. Data from the nationally representative 1994-2006 US Health and Retirement Study and growth curve models are utilized to examine racial/ethnic/gender differences in intra-individual change in functional limitations among White, Black and Mexican American Men and Women, and the extent to which differences in life course capital account for group disparities in initial health status and rates of change with age. Results support an intersectionality approach, with all demographic groups exhibiting worse functional limitation trajectories than White Men. Whereas White Men had the lowest disability levels at baseline, White Women and racial/ethnic minority Men had intermediate disability levels and Black and Hispanic Women had the highest disability levels. These health disparities remained stable with age-except among Black Women who experience a trajectory of accelerated disablement. Dissimilar early life social origins, adult socioeconomic status, marital status, and health behaviors explain the racial/ethnic disparities in functional limitations among Men but only partially explain the disparities among Women. Net of controls for life course capital, Women of all racial/ethnic groups have higher levels of functional
O'Neill, Siobhan; Corry, Colette; McFeeters, Danielle; Murphy, Sam; Bunting, Brendan
The circumstances surrounding death by suicide can give us insight into the factors affecting suicide risk in particular regions. This study examined gender and circumstances surrounding death by suicide in Northern Ireland from 2005 to 2011. The study analyzed 1,671 suicides (77% male and 23% female cases) using information contained from the coroner's files on suicides and undetermined deaths. Hanging was the most common method and more than one third of the deceased had prior suicide attempts. There was evidence of alcohol use in 41% of the cases. Only, 61% of cases had recorded adverse events; most had multiple and complex combinations of experiences. Relationship and interpersonal difficulties were the most common category of adverse event (40.3%). However, illness and bereavement, employment /financial crisis, and health problems were also common. One third of those who died by suicide were employed, compared with 50.3% who were not in employment. Just over half (50.1%) were known to have a mental health disorder. The results provide the first profile of deaths by suicide in Northern Ireland. They highlight the need to target people who have difficult life experiences in suicide prevention work, notably men, people with employment, financial and relationship crises, and those with mental disorders.
Syme, Maggie L.; Cohn, Tracy J.
Objectives: Stigma related to later life sexuality could produce detrimental effects for older adults, through individual concerns and limited sexual health care for older adults. Identifying groups at risk for aging sexual stigma will help to focus interventions to reduce it. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to examine cross-sectional trends in aging sexual stigma attitudes by age group, generational status, and gender.Method: An online survey was administered to a national sample ...
Teo Sir Hiang
Full Text Available Road safety is a substantial issue worldwide. Speeding contributed to one-third of all the fatal crashes reported from year 2002 to 2011 with young drivers reported to have the highest fatality and injury rates. This paper studied on the speeding driving behavior of 10 teenagers and 10 adults, from both genders. The aim was to investigate the relationship between age and gender with speeding driving behavior. The drivers were required to drive within an enclosed compound by using a test car. Results showed young and male drivers averagely travelled at higher velocity before entering the roundabout and at the same time accelerate to higher velocity upon exiting the roundabout compared to old and female drivers.
Mitri, Rosy N; Boulos, Christa M; Adib, Salim M
The implications of rapid aging of the Lebanese population are under-researched. No national studies have so far investigated the living conditions and the health status of urban Lebanese elderly across gender. This was a cross-sectional study involving 905 randomly selected community dwelling elderly aged ≥65 years living in Greater Beirut. Gender differences were assessed among participants who completed a standardized questionnaire on socio-demographic factors, nutritional, health, and functional characteristics. The sample included 533 men (59%) and 372 women (41%). Elderly were regrouped into 'younger elderly' (≤70 years), and 'older elderly' (>70 years) which represented respectively 44.3% and 55.7% of the total population. Women, regardless of their age, were less educated and more likely to live alone. Moreover, poor nutritional status, self-perceived health, absence of physical activity, comorbidity, polymedication and depression were significantly higher among women. 'Older elderly' women became significantly more functionally disabled compared with men of their age. This study evidenced that Lebanese elderly women were disadvantaged regarding their socio-economic, health and functional status. It is requested a nationwide effort to improve the socio-economic status and the health of Lebanese elderly, especially women. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.
Smith, Delores E.; Muenchen, Robert A.
Investigated the relationships among gender, age, and self-image of adolescents attending three secondary schools in Jamaica. Results revealed statistically significant effects for both gender and age. Gender significantly influenced morals, while age differences affected six other dimensions. Some results contradicted past research. (RJM)
Full Text Available It is well known that the kidney plays an important role in the development of cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension. The normal aging process leads to changes in kidney morphology, hemodynamics and function, which increase the incidence of cardiovascular events in the elderly population. These disturbances are influenced by several factors, including gender. In general, females are protected by the effects of estrogens on the cardiorenal system. Several studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of estrogens on renal function in the elderly; however, the relationships between androgens and kidney health during one’s lifetime are not well understood. Sex steroids have many complex actions, and the decline in their levels during aging clearly influences kidney function, decreases the renal reserve and facilitates the development of cardiovascular disorders. Therefore, in this review, we discuss the cellular, biochemical, and molecular mechanisms by which sex hormones may influence renal function during the aging process.
Full Text Available Many of the choices which impact in lifetime health, such as substance use, are made in adolescence. It becomes, therefore, important to know the factors associated to these behaviours in adolescence in different contexts of life. To analyze these factors, an explanatory model was developed using structural equation modeling. Data from 12.881 state school students from Portugal who participated in two waves of the Health Behaviours in School-aged Children (HBSC / World Health Organization (WHO survey were analyzed. The model fits well the data [CFI: .985; NNFI: .980; RMSEA: .018 (.017-.020; SRMR: .018]. For each of the dependent factors, the levels of variance ranged from 12% (tobacco use to 47% (alcohol and illicit drugs use. Alcohol and tobacco present the strongest associations to illicit drugs use. Relationships with family, friends, classmates, and teachers were also associated with substance use, being this association mediated by certain factors, including psychological symptoms, well-being, and school satisfaction. Several non-invariant paths were obtained in gender and age comparisons. The results showed that substance use is associated with several factors and that social factors are mediated by personal factors. Results have also shown that gender and age are important factors on substance use.
Tobiasz-Adamczyk, Beata; Galas, Aleksander; Zawisza, Katarzyna; Chatterji, Somnath; Haro, Josep Maria; Ayuso-Mateos, Jos? Luis; Koskinen, Seppo; Leonardi, Matilde
Purpose Gender-related differences in life expectancy, prevalence of chronic conditions and level of disability in the process of ageing have been broadly described. Less is known about social determinants, which may have different impacts on quality of life in men and women. The investigation aims to reveal gender-related differences in social determinants on quality of life assessed by a multi-pathway model including health, social, demographic and living place characteristics. Methods The ...
Alshami, Ali M.
Objectives: To establish the period prevalence of spinal disorders referred to physical therapy in a university hospital over a 3-year period, and to determine the relationships of common spinal disorders with patients’ age and gender. Methods: This retrospective study was conducted in the Physical Therapy Department, King Fahd Hospital of the University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia. Computer data of all new electronic referrals from January 2011 to December 2013 were retrieved and reviewed. The computer data included demographic information, referring facility, and diagnosis/disorder. Results: One thousand six hundred and sixty-nine (28.1%) of all referred patients (5929) had spinal disorders. The most common disorders affected the lumbar spine (53.1%) and cervical spine (27.1%), and pain was the most common disorder. Neck pain (60.5%) was more common in patients spondylosis was common (~30%) in the >30 age groups. Spondylosis and low back pain were more prevalent in women (7.8% and 76.2%) than in men (73.9% and 3.3%). Conclusion: Spinal disorders were common compared with other disorders. Low back pain and neck pain were the most common spinal disorders. Age and gender were weakly related to some of the disorders that affected the lumbar and cervical spine. PMID:25987116
This paper utilizes a macroeconomic demographic model to analyze the probable impact of population aging on various public programs in Japan. Rapid fertility decline aided by mortality decline has caused the proportion of the Japanese population aged 65 and over to increase from 4.9% in 1950 to 9.0% in 1980. A population projection based on the 1975 population census assumes a recovery of fertility from a total fertility rate (TFR) of 1.9 in 1976 to 2.16 in 1980 and a gradual decline to 2.1 by 1987, while an alternative projection assumes a continuing fertility decline to a TFR of 1.65 in 2025. According to these assumptions, in 2025 18.12% to 21.29% of the total population would be aged 65 or over and 38.66% to 43.80% of the working age population would be aged 45-64. A macroeconomic neoclassical growth model with some Keynesian features was formulated to evaluate the future impact of population aging on social security programs. Population changes are transmitted to economic variables in the model through the supply of labor, level of savings, public health care plans, and old-age pension schemes. The simulation experiments included the 2 population projections and 2 alternative production functions, 1 with the quality of labor incorporated and 1 without. The results indicated that, regardless of the population projection and production function used, the growth of the economy is likely to slow to 1 or 0% in the beginning of the next century due to decreased growth of the labor force and a change in its quality due to age-compositional variations. Public health insurance schemes and pension plans will require increasing financial resources as a result of accelerated population aging; depending on the choice of benefit levels, the proportion of national income allocated to them is expected to range from 14%-40% in the year 2010. Per capita gross national product will continue to grow despite decreased economic growth, but savings might be adversely affected if the
Arrighi, Chiara; Castelli, Fabio
Among the causes of fatalities during floods, the loss of stability is an aspect which has been usually investigated with conceptual models and laboratory experiments. The human body geometry has been often simplified to derive mechanical equilibrium conditions for toppling and sliding due to weight and hydrodynamic actions. Experimental activity produced water depth versus velocity diagrams showing the critical conditions for people partly immersed in floodwaters, whose scatter reflects the large variability of tested subjects (i.e. children, men and women with different physical characteristics). Nevertheless, the proposed hazard criteria based on the product number HV are not capable of distinguishing between different subjects. A dimensionless approach with a limited number of parameters and 3D numerical simulations highlight the significance of subject height and quantify the drag forces different subjects are able to withstand. From the mechanical point of view, this approach significantly reduces the experimental scatter. Differences in subjects' height are already an evidence of gender differences; however, many other parameters such as age and skeletal muscle mass may play a significant role in individual responses to floodwater actions, which can be responsible of the residual unexplained variance. In this work, a sensitivity analysis of critical instability conditions with respect to gender/age-related parameters is carried out and results and implications for flood risk management are discussed.
Butters, Jennifer; Mann, Robert E; Wickens, Christine M; Boase, Paul
Driving safety, impaired driving, and legislation to address these concerns remain important issues. It is imperative countermeasures be targeted toward the most appropriate groups. This paper explores the potential relationship between gender and driving attitudes toward safety issues and impaired-driving countermeasures. The data are from the 2007 Impaired Driving Survey commissioned by Transport Canada and Mothers Against Drunk Driving (MADD) Canada. The survey is a, stratified by region, telephone survey of 1,514 Canadian drivers 18years of age and older with a valid driver's license who had driven within the past 30days. The findings illustrate a consistent impact of gender on these issues. Other variables were also identified as relevant factors although less consistently. Current findings suggest that strategies for building support for interventions, or for changing risk perception/concern for risky driving behaviors should be tailored by gender to maximize the potential for behavior change. This information may assist program and policy developers through the identification of more or less receptive target groups. Future research directions are also presented. Copyright © 2012 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lilian Teresa Bucken Gobbi
Full Text Available Studies have shown an inverse relationship between physical activity level (PAL, quality of life (QoL and use of medications in the elderly. The objective of this study was to analyze possible relationships and differences between PAL, QoL and use of medications in the elderly. A total of 192 subjects (≥ 60 years were selected by stratified random sampling according to census sector. The following assessment instruments were used: a Modified Baecke Questionnaire for older adults, b Medical Outcomes Study – 36-Item Short Form Health Survey, and c Sociodemographic and Health Factors Questionnaire. Descriptive statistics and parametric and nonparametric tests were used (p < 0.05. a With respect to chronological age, significant differences between groups were only observed for PAL, with G1 (60-69 years being more active than the other groups. b With respect to gender irrespective of age, analysis showed a difference in QoL and in the number of medications, with men reporting better perceived QoL and using fewer medications. c With respect to gender but considering chronological age, differences in PAL, QoL and medication use were observed between genders for specific age groups. In conclusion, in the elderly a PAL is low, declines even more during advanced age and is higher in men than in women during the first decade of old age, and b men report better perceived QoL and use fewer medications than women.
Full Text Available Objectives: Auditory Brain Stem Response (ABR is a result of eight nerve and brain stem nuclei stimulation. Several factors may affect the latencies, interpeak latencies and amplitudes in ABR especially sex and age. In this study, age and sex influence on ABR were studied. Methods: This study was performed on 120 cases (60 males and 60 females at Akhavan rehabilitation center of university of welfare and rehabilitation sciences, Tehran, Iran. Cases were divided in three age groups: 18-30, 31-50 and 51-70 years old. Each age group consists of 20 males and 20 females. Age and sex influences on absolute latency of wave I and V, and IPL of I-V were examined. Results: Independent t test showed that females have significantly shorter latency of wave I, V, and IPL I-V latency (P<0.001 than males. Two way ANOVA showed that latency of wave I, V and IPL I-V in 51-70 years old group was significantly higher than 18-30 and 31-50 years old groups (P<0.001 Discussion: According to the results of present study and similar studies, in clinical practice, different norms for older adults and both genders should be established.
Nakabeppu, Yoshiaki; Tanabe, Hiroaki; Jinguji, Megumi; Umanodan, Tomokazu; Nakajo, Masayuki; Nakajo, M.; Tateno, T.; Jinnouchi, S.
The purpose of this study is to examine the change in brain fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) distribution with aging. Subjects were 85 men and 116 women who had no mental abnormality and no evidence of cancer in the whole body FDG-positron emission tomography (PET) study for cancer checkup. The brain data were extracted from whole body data, and stratified according to the age: 30-39 (M: 10, F: 18), 40-49 (M: 11, F: 14), 50-59 (M: 10, F: 27), 60-64 (M: 11, F: 13), 65-69 (M: 11, F: 11), 70-74 (M: 11, F: 10), 75-79 (M: 13, F: 11), over 80 (M: 8, F: 12) years. Forties or more male and female stratified age groups were compared with each gender 30's age data using Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM)2. In the man, the FDG activity of the bilateral temporal and frontal lobes decreased and the decreased domains were expanded with aging. But in the females, the decreased domains were complicated in 40-69 years old. Dynamic changes of sex hormones in the individual female menopause may affect the complicated results in the females. Further studies are needed to confirm it. (author)
Cohen-Kettenis, PT; Owen, A; Kaijser, VG; Bradley, SJ; Zucker, KJ
This study examined demographic characteristics, social competence, and behavior problems in clinic-referred children with gender identity problems in Toronto, Canada (N = 358), and Utrecht, The Netherlands (N = 130). The Toronto sample was, on average, about a year younger than the Utrecht sample
Full Text Available Population ageing is a global phenomenon without precedent in the history of humanity having implications in all facets of life. From an economic point of view, population ageing is certainly one of the biggest challenges of modern time. A consequence of these global demographic tendencies reflected in growing number of pensioners which negatively affects sustainability of public pension systems financed by the principle of intergenerational solidarity (Pay-As-You-Go - widely represented in public pension schemes of European countries. In this paper, impact of demographic ageing on pension systems is analyzed in the context of sustainability of public finance in Serbia in the period 2010-2050. Although the comparative analysis of the pension expenditure share in gross domestic product (GDP does not point to significant differences between Serbia and the countries in the neighborhood and the European Union, the growth trend of subsidizing the Pension Fund from the government budget endangers medium-term sustainability of the public pension system in Serbia, bearing in mind that the implementation of measures proposed in pension reforms can be valorized only in the long run. The main objective of the analysis is projecting long-term pension expenditure as a share of GDP. The projections were formed indirectly by modeling the average pension expenditure, because this variable incorporates both growth in the total pension expenditure and growth in the number of pensioners as a result of demographic trends, and better reflects the actual growth of pension expenditure. For the purposes of the analysis, in addition to the projection of real GDP growth, size of the inactive population aged 65 and over, as the main contingent of the pension system users and the total number of pensioners, was projected by means of stochastic cohort component methodology. Based on these projections and assumptions about the growth rate of average pension expenditure
Arens, A. Katrin; Hasselhorn, Marcus
This study tested whether the gender intensification hypothesis applies to relations between multiple domain-specific self-concept facets and self-esteem. This hypothesis predicts gender-stereotypic differences in these relations and assumes they intensify with age. Furthermore, knowledge about gender-related or age-related differences in…
Daphne C. Watkins
Full Text Available Previous studies report a race and mental health paradox: Whites score higher on measures of major depression compared to African Americans, but the opposite is true for psychological distress (i.e., African Americans score higher on distress measures compared to Whites. Independently, race, age, and gender outcomes for psychological distress are well documented in the literature. However, there is relatively little research on how psychological distress interferes with the lives of African Americans and Whites at the intersection of their various race, age, and gender identities. This study uses data from the 2016 National Health Interview Survey to examine age and gender differences in psychological distress and how much psychological distress interferes with the lives of African Americans and Whites. Our study findings are contrary to the paradox such that young White women (M = 3.36, SD = 1.14 and middle-aged White men (M = 2.55, SD = 3.97 experienced higher psychological distress than all other race, age, and gender groups. Psychological distress interference was relatively high among the high distress groups, except for older African American men (M = 1.73, SD = 1.05 and young African American women (M = 1.93, SD = 0.95. Implications for studies that consider cultural experiences of psychological distress, and how it impacts different demographic groups are discussed.
Reicks, Marla; Degeneffe, Dennis; Rendahl, Aaron; Smith Edge, Marianne; Burns, Katie; O'Meara, Brian; Blevins, Greg
To describe how frequency and characteristics of traditional meal and non-meal occasions vary by age, gender, presence of children, and body mass index (BMI). A cross-sectional survey was administered to a national demographically balanced sample of adults via an online market research panel. Online survey. Survey respondents were in the 18- to 80-year-old age range and had consumed any food or beverage at home or away from home the previous day. The sample included 2702 adults reporting on 6689 eating/drinking occasions. Most (80.3%) had no children at home; 43.5% were male and about two thirds were overweight/obese. Eating occasion characteristics and goals by age, gender, presence of children, and BMI. Older respondents were more likely to report planning traditional meal occasions and report on a breakfast occasion than younger respondents. Two prominent reasons that triggered consumption occasions were habit and hunger/thirst with one dominant benefit of satisfying hunger or thirst. Habit and nutrition played a larger role as a goal for eating occasions for older compared to younger respondents. When children were present in the household, respondents had a goal of connecting with "family, friends, or colleagues" at dinner compared to those without children. Few gender differences were noted; however, women more often reported goals of satisfying hunger/thirst and taste at lunch than men. BMI levels were related to a range of triggers, goals, and behaviors but not as prominently as the relationships observed with age. Those with BMI ≥ 30 were less health conscious regarding dinner and breakfast consumption compared to those with a lower BMI. Among demographic variables, age differences were noted in relation to eating occasion characteristics more often than other demographic characteristics or BMI. Understanding these differences can be beneficial in tailoring promotion of healthful intake at specific eating occasions for particular subgroups.
Noon, Rinat Ben; Ayalon, Liat
There is a substantial body of literature on the importance of the environment in the lives of older adults. Nonetheless, to date, there has been limited research on everyday activities of urban older adults in public open spaces. The present study examined the activities of older adults in public open spaces in Israel with a specific focus on age and gender as potential variables of relevance. Using still photography, we systematically photographed four sessions in two different public outdoor settings attended by older Israelis. Still photographs were converted to narrative descriptions, and then coded, quantified, and compared using descriptive statistics. The majority (311, 97%) of older adults arrived alone to the public setting. Of these, 44% formed a social group of two or more people, whereas the remaining older adults stayed alone. When social interactions occurred, they were primarily gender homogenous (69%); women were more likely to integrate in spontaneous social conversations and men were more likely to participate in common games. Our findings call attention to the important role played by the outdoor environment as a venue for social activities among older adults. The findings further stress the high levels of aloneness experienced by older adults, which do not seem to be alleviated by the mere attendance of public spaces. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Rughiniș, Cosima; Humă, Bogdana
In this paper we argue that quantitative survey-based social research essentializes age, through specific rhetorical tools. We outline the device of 'socio-demographic variables' and we discuss its argumentative functions, looking at scientific survey-based analyses of adult scientific literacy, in the Public Understanding of Science research field. 'Socio-demographics' are virtually omnipresent in survey literature: they are, as a rule, used and discussed as bundles of independent variables, requiring little, if any, theoretical and measurement attention. 'Socio-demographics' are rhetorically effective through their common-sense richness of meaning and inferential power. We identify their main argumentation functions as 'structure building', 'pacification', and 'purification'. Socio-demographics are used to uphold causal vocabularies, supporting the transmutation of the descriptive statistical jargon of 'effects' and 'explained variance' into 'explanatory factors'. Age can also be studied statistically as a main variable of interest, through the age-period-cohort (APC) disambiguation technique. While this approach has generated interesting findings, it did not mitigate the reductionism that appears when treating age as a socio-demographic variable. By working with age as a 'socio-demographic variable', quantitative researchers convert it (inadvertently) into a quasi-biological feature, symmetrical, as regards analytical treatment, with pathogens in epidemiological research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Meinel, Felix G.; Graef, Anita; Sommer, Wieland H.; Thierfelder, Kolja M.; Reiser, Maximilian F.; Johnson, Thorsten R.C.
Objectives: To determine the influence of technical and demographic parameters on quantification of pulmonary perfused blood volume (PBV) in dual energy computed tomography pulmonary angiography (DE-CTPA). Materials and methods: Pulmonary PBV was quantified in 142 patients who underwent DE-CTPA for suspected pulmonary embolism but in whom no thoracic pathologies were detected. Multivariate linear regression analysis was performed to calculate the influence of age, gender, enhancement of pulmonary trunk and enhancement difference between pulmonary trunk and left atrium (as a measure of timing) on PBV values. The resulting regression coefficients were used to calculate age-specific ranges of normal for PBV values adjusted for vascular enhancement and timing. Results: Enhancement of the pulmonary trunk (β = −0.29, p = 0.001) and enhancement difference between pulmonary trunk and left atrium (β = −0.24, p = 0.003) were found to significantly influence PBV values. Age (β = −0.33, p < 0.001) but not gender (β = 0.14, p = 0.05) had a significant negative influence on pulmonary PBV values. There was a 20% relative decrease of pulmonary PBV from patients aged <30 to patients over 80 years of age. Conclusions: DE-CTPA derived PBV values need to be corrected for age, vascular enhancement and timing but not for gender. The age-specific ranges of normal derived from this study can be used as a reference in future studies of PBV in pulmonary pathologies
Been, Ella; Shefi, Sara; Soudack, Michalle
Cervical lordosis is of great importance to posture and function. Neck pain and disability is often associated with cervical lordosis malalignment. Surgical procedures involving cervical lordosis stabilization or restoration must take into account age and gender differences in cervical lordosis architecture to avoid further complications. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to evaluate differences in cervical lordosis between males and females from childhood to adulthood. This is a retrospective descriptive study. A total of 197 lateral cervical radiographs of patients aged 6-50 years were examined. These were divided into two age groups: the younger group (76 children aged 6-19; 48 boys and 28 girls) and the adult group (121 adults aged 20-50; 61 males and 60 females). The retrospective review of the radiographs was approved by the institutional review board. On each radiograph, six lordosis angles were measured including total cervical lordosis (FM-C7), upper (FM-C3; C1-C3) and lower (C3-C7) cervical lordosis, C1-C7 lordosis, and the angle between foramen magnum and the atlas (FM-C1). Wedging angles of each vertebral body (C3-C7) and intervertebral discs (C2-C3 to C6-C7) were also measured. Vertebral body wedging and intervertebral disc wedging were defined as the sum of the individual body or disc wedging of C3 to C7, respectively. Each cervical radiograph was classified according to four postural categories: A-lordotic, B-straight, C-double curve, and D-kyphotic. The total cervical lordosis of males and females was similar. Males had smaller upper cervical lordosis (FM-C3) and higher lower cervical lordosis (C3-C7) than females. The sum of vertebral body wedging of males and females is kyphotic (anterior height smaller than posterior height). Males had more lordotic intervertebral discs than females. Half of the adults (51%) had lordotic cervical spine, 41% had straight spine, and less than 10% had double curve or kyphotic spine. Children had
Full Text Available In this paper the important parameters of customer loyalty and impact of education, gender and age of the respondents will be tested. The study was conducted in the Republic of Croatia, as part of research relevant parameters of customer loyalty, loyal consumer behavior and the role of social networks in building and maintaining a loyal behavior. The concept of loyalty has a strong foothold in marketing theories and in theories of intellectual capital companies. Loyalty has been related to the management of intellectual capital, especially relational capital, as a component of intellectual capital. In terms of loyalty, series of key parameters that describe it or have an effect on it, and thus impacting the company's business appear.
Colley, Ann; North, Adrian; Hargreaves, David J
Eminent composers in Western European art music continue to be predominantly male and eminence in contemporary pop music is similarly male dominated. One contributing factor may be the continuing under-valuation of women's music. Possible anti-female bias in a contemporary genre was investigated using the Goldberg paradigm to elicit judgments of New Age compositions. Since stronger stereotyping effects occur when information provided about individuals is sparse, fictitious male and female composers were presented either by name only or by name with a brief biography. Evidence for anti-female bias was found in the name-only condition and was stronger when liking for the music was controlled. Other findings were the tendency for females to give higher ratings, and the association of gender differences in liking of the music with ratings of quality in the name-only condition. These results are relevant to the design of formal assessment procedures for musical composition.
Ratner, Shayna; Khwaja, Raamis; Xi, Yin; Zhang, Lihua; Dessouky, Riham; Rubin, Craig; Chhabra, Avneesh
To evaluate inter-reader performance for cross-sectional area and fat quantification of bilateral sciatic nerves on MRI and assess correlations with anthropometrics. In this IRB-approved, HIPPA-compliant study, three readers performed a cross-sectional analysis of 3T lumbosacral plexus MRIs over an 18-month period. Image slices were evaluated at two levels (A and B). The sciatic nerve was outlined using a free hand region of interest tool on PACS. Proton-density fat fraction (FF) and cross-sectional areas were recorded. Inter-reader agreement was assessed using intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). Spearman correlation coefficients were used for correlations with age, BMI and height and Wilcoxon rank sum test was used to assess gender differences. A total of 67 patients were included in this study with male to female ratio of 1:1. Inter-reader agreement was good to excellent for FF measurements at both levels (ICC=0.71-0.90) and poor for sciatic nerve areas (ICC=0.08-0.27). Positive correlations of sciatic FF and area were seen with age (p value<0.05). Males had significantly higher sciatic intraneural fat than females (p<0.05). Fat quantification MRI is highly reproducible with significant positive correlations of sciatic FF and area with age, which may have implications for MRI diagnosis of sciatic neuropathy. (orig.)
Vaccaro, J A; Huffman, F G
To explore the relationships among ethnicity/race, gender, demographics, age-group and dietary health in a nationally representative sample of older adults. Cross-sectional study. Data for this study were collected by interview in the mobile examination centers from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 2011 - 2012. U.S. representative sample of adults aged 55 years and older (N = 1860) from five ethnic/racial groups. All participants read, understood, and signed informed consent forms under data collection procedures by trained individuals. Sociodemographics were collected by trained interviewers using a general questionnaire. Food groups were determined by 24-hour recall using the validated USDA Automated Multiple-Pass Method. Data were presented by cross-tabulation and logistic regression to investigate relationships among race/ethnicity, gender, and age groups. Over 70% of older adults failed to consume 2.75 cups of combined fruits and vegetables. Other Hispanics (Hispanics excluding Mexican Americans) had higher Odds of sugar-containing food consumption compared to non-Hispanic Whites (adjusted model). Being older and female were protective factors for over-consumption of sugar. Older Americans are not meeting dietary guidelines and there are differences by gender and ethnicity. Since diet has been associated with quality of life and medical costs, public health interventions can benefit by knowing age-, gender- and racial/ethnic- specific dietary behaviors.
Cooper, Grant; Berry, Amanda; Baglin, James
Using the Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) data, this paper aimed to examine if, and to what extent, demographic factors predict students' participation in science over the age of 16 (post-16). While all the students participating in this study are attending Australian schools, the comprehensiveness of these datasets, together with inclusion of studies from around the world provides a useful reference point for an international audience. Over 7000 students are included in the analysis of this paper. Characteristics of focus in this paper include groups who have been identified as being underrepresented in past studies including Indigenous students, those from lower-socio-economic status (SES) backgrounds, sex differences and immigrants. Among the factors tested, Indigenous status was the strongest negative predictor of post-16 science participation. SES was also a relatively strong predictor of post-16 science participation. Compared to students categorised with an Australian-ancestry, first-generation and foreign-background students were more likely to participate in post-16 science. The findings of this study contribute to existing research on debates about equity and trends in science participation.
Kollath-Cattano, Christy; Osman, Amira; Thrasher, James F
The impact of pregnancy-related health warning labels (HWLs) appearing on cigarette packages on women of reproductive age and other socio-demographic groups is not well understood. The current study analyzes how different age/gender groups respond to pregnancy-related HWLs as compared to non-pregnancy HWLs. Data were analyzed from four waves of an online longitudinal study with adult smokers aged 18-64 in Australia, Canada, Mexico, and the US. Participants were classified into four age\\gender groups: women 40 and under; men 40 and under; women over 40; men over 40. Participants rated one pregnancy-related and several non-pregnancy related labels on worry, believability, and motivation to quit. Country-specific adjusted linear GEE were estimated regressing ratings for each of the three key outcomes for 1) pregnancy-related HWLs and 2) a rating difference score that subtracted the average ratings of the non-pregnancy warning from the rating of the pregnancy warning. All models adjusted for socio-demographics and smoking related variables. In Mexico and Australia, where graphic pregnancy-related HWL imagery is used (i.e., premature infant), women of reproductive age reported stronger believability, worry, and quit motivation than all other groups. Results were similar in the US, where text only HWLs are used. In contrast in Canada, where the pregnancy-related HWL imagery features a pregnant woman, ratings were unassociated with gender/age groups. Stronger effects among women of reproductive age were limited to pregnancy HWLs in each country, except Canada. HWLs that depict graphic effects to illustrate smoking-related pregnancy risks appear to be perceived as particularly effective among women of reproductive age. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Snitz, Beth E; Unverzagt, Frederick W; Chang, Chung-Chou H; Bilt, Joni Vander; Gao, Sujuan; Saxton, Judith; Hall, Kathleen S; Ganguli, Mary
Neuropsychological tests, including tests of language ability, are frequently used to differentiate normal from pathological cognitive aging. However, language can be particularly difficult to assess in a standardized manner in cross-cultural studies and in patients from different educational and cultural backgrounds. This study examined the effects of age, gender, education and race on performance of two language tests: the animal fluency task (AFT) and the Indiana University Token Test (IUTT). We report population-based normative data on these tests from two combined ethnically divergent, cognitively normal, representative population samples of older adults. Participants aged > or =65 years from the Monongahela-Youghiogheny Healthy Aging Team (MYHAT) and from the Indianapolis Study of Health and Aging (ISHA) were selected based on (1) a Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) score of 0; (2) non-missing baseline language test data; and (3) race self-reported as African-American or white. The combined sample (n = 1885) was 28.1% African-American. Multivariate ordinal logistic regression was used to model the effects of demographic characteristics on test scores. On both language tests, better performance was significantly associated with higher education, younger age, and white race. On the IUTT, better performance was also associated with female gender. We found no significant interactions between age and sex, and between race and education. Age and education are more potent variables than are race and gender influencing performance on these language tests. Demographically stratified normative tables for these measures can be used to guide test interpretation and aid clinical diagnosis of impaired cognition.
Secondary school enrolment in Uganda has historically favoured males over females. Recently, however, researchers have reported that the secondary enrolment gender gap has significantly diminished, and perhaps even disappeared in Uganda. Even if gender parity is being achieved for enrolment broadly, there may be a gender gap concerning…
Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2009v11n2p210 Studies have shown an inverse relationship between physical activity level (PAL, quality of life (QoL and use of medications in the elderly. The objective of this study was to analyze possible relationships and differences between PAL, QoL and use of medications in the elderly. A total of 192 subjects (≥ 60 years were selected by stratified random sampling according to census sector. The following assessment instruments were used: a Modified Baecke Questionnaire for older adults, b Medical Outcomes Study – 36-Item Short Form Health Survey, and c Sociodemographic and Health Factors Questionnaire. Descriptive statistics and parametric and nonparametric tests were used (p < 0.05. a With respect to chronological age, significant differences between groups were only observed for PAL, with G1 (60-69 years being more active than the other groups. b With respect to gender irrespective of age, analysis showed a difference in QoL and in the number of medications, with men reporting better perceived QoL and using fewer medications. c With respect to gender but considering chronological age, differences in PAL, QoL and medication use were observed between genders for specific age groups. In conclusion, in the elderly a PAL is low, declines even more during advanced age and is higher in men than in women during the first decade of old age, and b men report better perceived QoL and use fewer medications than women.
Özbulak, Gökhan; Aytar, Yusuf; Ekenel, Hazım Kemal
Age and gender are complementary soft biometric traits for face recognition. Successful estimation of age and gender from facial images taken under real-world conditions can contribute improving the identification results in the wild. In this study, in order to achieve robust age and gender classification in the wild, we have benefited from Deep Convolutional Neural Networks based representation. We have explored transferability of existing deep convolutional neural network (CNN) models for a...
Lauer, Jillian E.; Ilksoy, Sibel D.; Lourenco, Stella F.
Infants exhibit visual preferences for gender-typed objects (e.g., dolls, toy vehicles) that parallel the gender-typed play preferences of preschool-aged children, but the developmental stability of individual differences in early emerging gender-typed preferences has not yet been characterized. In the present study, we examined the longitudinal…
Leena Rahul Salunkhe
Full Text Available NTRODUCTION: Aging refers to normal, progressive and irreversible biological changes that occur over an individual’s life span. The advancement of medical science and increased awareness among the people has brought about a sharp decline in mortality and a steady decline in fertility. This has resulted in a worldwide shift in the demographic profile and has led to significant increase in the aged population. About two thirds of all older people are concentrated in the developing world. OBJECTIVES: to study & compare socio - demographic variables of old age people living in Urban & Urban slum areas. MATERIAL & METHODS: all the old age people living in urb a n slum area & rando mly selected one urban area of K arad town were interviewed by using pre structured proforma about socio - demographic variable & compared with each other. OBSERVATIONS: Total 153 from urban & 135 from urban slum were enrolled for the study. Nearly 2/3 rd subjects were above age 65yrs in both areas with more female proportions in slum area than urban area. Significant difference was found with education, occupation & socio - economic status in both areas. CONCLUSION: Ageing is a universal phenomenon, with advanced fertility control, improvement in health and social services life expectancy has increased. Ageing has profound effect on the individual status in the family, the work force, goals and organization of health, social services, policies and practices of the government
Susan A. McDaniel
Full Text Available Some analysts lean toward comparative analyses of population aging, then draw potential policy implications. Others lean in the direction of attention to differences in policy regimes and then consider implications of population aging. Key differences among advanced societies may not emanate from demographic aging but from differences in how markets, states, and families work to redistribute societal benefits. In this paper, three countries with contrasting configurations of markets, states, and families, and at different stages of demographic aging, are compared and contrasted: Canada, Japan, and Korea. The paper has three objectives: 1 to outline key changes in population, family, and work in the three countries; 2 to consider how knowledge about these changes, their dynamics and interrelationships, is framed with respect to policy options; and 3 to compare Canada, Japan, and Korea in terms of the framing of policy challenges related to demographic aging. It is found that Canada is joining the longstanding pattern of Japan and Korea of late home-leaving by youth, meaning less effective time in the paid labour force. Little deep connection exists between population aging and economic productivity or labour force shortages. Differential labour market participation of women mediates the effects of population aging.
Perrig-Chiello, Pasqualina; Hutchison, Sara
The demographic and societal changes of the past decades, such as longevity and improvements in public health, have created new and often very distinct realities for men and women. However, these diversities have only marginally and fragmentally been the topic of research endeavours. There is a growing awareness of the societal phenomenon 'feminization of old age', yet the topic and its psychosocial and health-related consequences have not attracted the scientific interest they deserve. Due to scientific neglects and limitations, state of the art research in the field of gender, health and ageing is still sketchy and often contradictory. In the present article, the complex pattern of roles and values that define what is thought of as 'masculine' and 'feminine' and its significant impact on health-related lifestyles will be examined. Based on current research, we try to give answers to questions such as: 'Do older women really have more physical and mental health problems than older men, or are these findings influenced by a gender bias, due to a different awareness and understanding of health and illness?' It will be shown that it is impossible to find satisfactory answers to such questions without considering the cultural and social contexts of the individuals studied. The inclusion of gender as a social reality in the broadest sense is therefore an absolute prerequisite for gaining valid information. Gender has played only a marginal role in the hitherto existing geriatric and gerontological research and practice. Therefore, a gender-fair approach in research and practice is indicated, i.e. an approach that takes into account differences and commonalities of women and men and considers their differing circumstances and specific problems (gender mainstream). Gender mainstreaming entails on the one hand horizontal justice (denoting equal treatment and benefits for equal needs of men and women) and on the other hand vertical justice (indicating differential
Schafer, Markus H; Shippee, Tetyana P
Drawing on past studies of age identity, this article examined whether feeling older was associated with more pessimistic views about cognitive aging. Using respondents aged 55 years and older in the Midlife Development in the United States study, we estimated a series of linear regression models to predict people's dispositions toward their cognitive aging. The main comparison is whether the effects of age identity on cognitive aging differ for men and women. Beyond the effects of chronological age, older age identities were associated with more pessimistic dispositions about cognitive aging. This relationship, however, was found only among women. Age identity shapes cognitive aging dispositions, though the gendered nature of this relationship remains somewhat unclear. The findings give further evidence about the far-reaching implications of age identity for successful aging and suggest that future work can explicate how subjective aging processes may differ by gender.
Aznar, Ana; Tenenbaum, Harriet R
This study examined gender, age, and task differences in positive touch and physical proximity during mother-child and father-child conversations. Sixty-five Spanish mothers and fathers and their 4- ( M = 53.50 months, SD = 3.54) and 6-year-old ( M = 77.07 months, SD = 3.94) children participated in this study. Positive touch was examined during a play-related storytelling task and a reminiscence task (conversation about past emotions). Fathers touched their children positively more frequently during the play-related storytelling task than did mothers. Both mothers and fathers were in closer proximity to their 6-year-olds than their 4-year-olds. Mothers and fathers touched their children positively more frequently when reminiscing than when playing. Finally, 6-year-olds remained closer to their parents than did 4-year-olds. Implications of these findings for future research on children's socioemotional development are discussed.
Full Text Available The research uses both qualitative and quantitative methodologies employing multiple sources of data collection. The data collection primarily used a questionnaire survey of primary schools in two English Local Authorities. The qualitative evidence of the teacher sample was through individual semi-structured interviews and a focus group interview of Local Authorities officers. There is an evidence trail which examines academic papers, HMI, QCA, Ofsted and DfES reports. The main findings from these reports indicate that teachers were becoming familiar with the use of computers. They understood the skills involved in using computers but were still uncertain as to a suitable pedagogy which made them lack confidence when using ICT in the classroom. Teachers’ major difficulty is finding time to keep pace or develop their ICT skills. The reports have a generic view of teachers, with no further analysis of gender, age or experience phenomena. The analysis of these variables concludes that teacher subject knowledge formed through teaching experience of the subject, informs teachers when computers aid teaching and learning.
Demographic, health-related, and work-related factors associated with body mass index and body fat percentage among workers at six Connecticut manufacturing companies across different age groups: a cohort study.
Garza, Jennifer L; Dugan, Alicia G; Faghri, Pouran D; Gorin, Amy A; Huedo-Medina, Tania B; Kenny, Anne M; Cherniack, Martin G; Cavallari, Jennifer M
Effective workplace interventions that consider the multifactorial nature of obesity are needed to reduce and prevent obesity among adults. Furthermore, the factors associated with obesity may differ for workers across age groups. Therefore, the objective of this study was to identify demographic, health-related, and work-related factors associated with baseline and changes in body mass index (BMI) and body fat percentage (BFP) and among Connecticut manufacturing workers acrossage groups. BMI and BFPof 758 workers from six Connecticut manufacturing companies were objectively measuredat two time points approximately 36 months apart. Demographic, health-related, and work-related factors wereassessed via questionnaire. All variables were included in linear regression models to identify factors associated with baseline and changes in BMI and BFP for workers in 3 age groups: 55 years (28 %). There were differences in baseline and changes in BMI and BFP among manufacturing workers across age groups. Being interested in changing weight was significantly (p gender (BMI p = 0.04), female gender (BFP p gender (BMI p = 0.02), female gender (BFP p gender (BFP p 55 year age category. Few factors were associated with change in BMI or BFP across any age category. Among manufacturing workers, we identified associations between individual, health-related, and work-related factors and baseline BMIand BFP that differed by age. Such results support the use of strategies tailored to the challenges faced by workers in specific age groups rather than adopting a one size fits all approach. Effective interventions should consider a full range of individual, health-related, and work-related factors. More work must be done to identify factors or strategies associated with changes in obesity over time.
Andrews, Jane M; Heddle, Richard; Hebbard, Geoffrey S; Checklin, Helen; Besanko, Laura; Fraser, Robert J
Awareness of patient demographics, common diagnoses and associations between these may improve the use and interpretation of manometric investigations. The aim of the present study therefore was to determine whether age and/or gender affect manometric diagnosis in a clinical motility service. An audit of all 452 clinical manometry reports issued from December 2003 to July 2005 with respect to age, gender and diagnosis was carried out. Patients were divided by age (17-24 years n = 14, 25-44 years n = 87, 45-64 years n = 216 and >or=65 years n = 135), and gender and data compared using contingency tables. Women were more commonly referred overall (59%) and in each age bracket except motor problems P = 0.01. With aging, normal motor function became less common (P = 0.013), with non-specific motor disorder, ineffective/hypotensive peristalsis and 'achalasia-like' conditions each more common (individual P = NS). Increasing age showed a trend for increased spastic motor disorders (P = 0.06). Gender did not, however, influence whether motility was abnormal (P = 0.5), spastic (P = 0.7) or whether a non-specific motor disorder was present (P = 0.1). In the total cohort, the principal manometric diagnoses were: non-specific motor disorder 33%, normal motility 29%, low basal lower esophageal sphincter pressure 18%, hypotensive/ineffective peristalsis 10%, achalasia/achalasia-like 6%, diffuse esophageal spasm 3% and other 1%. Aging leads to increasing esophageal motor abnormalities. Men and women have similar rates of dysfunction, although 'low-pressure problems' were more common in men.
9.6) and in females, lower ... fill in a demographic self‑questionnaire that included information about age, gender, ..... of irritable bowel syndrome in young adult Malaysians: A survey .... the development of irritable bowel syndrome in adolescents:.
Melnikov, Semyon; Itzhaki, Michal; Koton, Silvia
Stroke is a leading cause of long-term disability and the fifth leading cause of death in Israel. Knowledge of stroke warning signs has been linked to early seeking of medical help. Little is known about knowledge of stroke warning signs in Israeli Jewish adults. Stroke knowledge was examined among Jewish Israeli adults. Using a structured questionnaire, registered nurses interviewed a convenience sample of the respondents, 18 years or older, with no stroke history. Stroke knowledge and demographics were examined by 3 age groups (64 years) in men and women. In total, 1137 Jewish Israelis were interviewed, 457 (40.2%) men and 680 women (59.8%); 493 (43.4%) were younger than 45 years, 541 (47.6%) were aged 45 to 64 years, and 102 (9%) were older than 64 years; 1 (0.1%) did not report age. On average, each interview lasted for 25 to 30 minutes. Participants younger than 45 years showed the lowest knowledge of stroke cause. Women younger than 45 years were less likely to identify at least 2 stroke warning signs. Participants younger than 45 years were less likely to identify at least 2 risk factors, compared with participants aged 45 to 64 years and older than 64 years. Women younger than 45 years were less likely to identify at least 2 stroke prevention strategies. Participants younger than 45 years showed the lowest levels of stroke knowledge. The highest stroke knowledge was found in the 45 to 64 years age group. Stroke knowledge among different age groups was similar in both genders. Educational campaigns aimed at increasing knowledge of stroke among the general population and targeting the younger population are recommended.
Lee, Sang-Heon; Sohn, Myoung-Kyu; Kim, Hyunduk
Intelligent digital signage systems transmit customized advertising and information by analyzing users and customers, unlike existing system that presented advertising in the form of broadcast without regard to type of customers. Currently, development of intelligent digital signage system has been pushed forward vigorously. In this study, we designed a system capable of analyzing gender and age of customers based on image obtained from camera, although there are many different methods for analyzing customers. We conducted age and gender recognition experiments using public database. The age/gender recognition experiments were performed through histogram matching method by extracting Local binary patterns (LBP) features after facial area on input image was normalized. The results of experiment showed that gender recognition rate was as high as approximately 97% on average. Age recognition was conducted based on categorization into 5 age classes. Age recognition rates for women and men were about 67% and 68%, respectively when that conducted separately for different gender.
Warin, Briar; Exeter, Daniel J; Zhao, Jinfeng; Kenealy, Timothy; Wells, Susan
To determine whether the prevalence of diagnosed diabetes in the greater Auckland Region varies by General Electoral District (GED). Using encrypted National Health Identifiers and record linkage of routine health datasets, we identified a regional cohort of people with diagnosed diabetes in 2011 from inpatient records and medication dispensing. The geographical unit of a person's residence (meshblock) was used to determine the GED of residence. We calculated prevalence estimates and 95% confidence intervals and used binary logistic regression to map geographical variations in diabetes. An estimated 63,014 people had diagnosed diabetes in Auckland in 2011, a prevalence of 8.5% of the adult population ≥30 years of age. We found significant variation in diabetes prevalence by age, gender, ethnicity and GED. There was a more than five-fold difference in the unadjusted prevalence of diabetes by GED, ranging from 3.2% (3.1 to 3.4%) in the North Shore to 17.3% (16.8 to 17.7%) in Mangere. Such variations remained after binary logistic regression adjusting for socio-demographic variables. Compared to New Zealand Europeans, Indian people had the highest odds of having diabetes at 3.85 (3.73 to 3.97), while the odds of people living in the most deprived areas having diabetes was nearly twice that of those living in least deprived areas (OR 1.93, [1.87 to 1.99]). Geographic variations in diabetes remained after adjusting for socio-demographic circumstances: people living in GEDs in south-west Auckland were at least 60% more likely than people living in the North Shore GED to have diabetes. There is significant variation in the prevalence of diabetes by GED in Auckland that persists across strata of age group, gender and ethnicity, and persists after controlling for these same variables. These inequities should prompt action by politicians, policymakers, funders, health providers and communities for interventions aimed at reducing such inequities. Geography and its
Cournoyer, Robert J.; And Others
College-aged (n=88) and middle-aged (n=89) men completed 5 measures that assess gender role conflict and psychological well-being. Results indicate that, compared with college-aged men, middle-aged men were less conflicted about success, power, and competition, but were more conflicted about work and family responsibilities. The discussion focuses…
Bohlin, Anna; Ahlgren, Christina; Hammarstrom, Anne; Gustafsson, Per E
Musculoskeletal pain is a major health problem, especially in women, and is partially determined by psychosocial factors. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether gender inequality in the couple relationship was related to musculoskeletal pain. Participants (n=721; 364 women and 357 men) were all individuals living in a couple relationship in the Northern Swedish Cohort, a 26-year Swedish cohort study. Self-administered questionnaire data at age 42 years comprised perceived gender inequality in the couple relationship and musculoskeletal pain (in three locations, summarised into one score and median-split), concurrent demographic factors, psychological distress, and previous musculoskeletal pain at age 30 years. Associations were examined using logistic regression. Gender inequality was positively associated with symptoms of musculoskeletal pain in the total sample, remaining significant after addition of possible confounders and of previous musculoskeletal pain. Separate adjustment for concurrent psychological distress attenuated the association but not below significance. The association was present and of comparable strength in both women and men. Gender inequality in the couple relationship might contribute to the experience of musculoskeletal pain in both women and men. The results highlight the potential adverse bodily consequences of living in unequal relationships.
Arens, A. Katrin; Hasselhorn, Marcus
This study tested whether the gender intensification hypothesis applies to relations between multiple domain-specific self-concept facets and self-esteem. This hypothesis predicts gender-stereotypic differences in these relations and assumes they intensify with age. Furthermore, knowledge about gender-related or age-related differences in self-concept-self-esteem relations might provide valuable knowledge for designing effective self-esteem enhancement interventions. We investigated grade and...
Recent fertility declines in non-Western countries may have the potential to transform gender systems. One pathway for such transformations is the creation of substantial proportions of families with children of only one gender. Such families, particularly those with only daughters, may facilitate greater symmetry between sons and daughters. This article explores whether such shifts may influence gendered expectations of old age support. In keeping with patriarchal family systems, old age sup...
Ladron de Guevara, David; Lobo, Gabriel; Perez, Andres; Jim ez, Cesar
Several factors influence MDP-Tc99m uptake by sacroiliac joint, and therefore the quantitative sacroiliac scintigraphy index. Age and gender have been reported how not influencing SI/S ratio, although previous reports show discordant results. The aim of our study was evaluate the influence of age and gender in sacroiliac joint uptake in an adult control population (Au)
Janz, K.; Buengeler, C.; Eckhoff, R.A.; Homan, A.C.; Voelpel, S.C.; Scott, C.L.; Byrd, M.Y.
With demographic change, organizations today are seeing changes in societal make-up translated to the composition of their workforce. In the future, younger and older employees will have to work together synergistically to achieve good performance. The authors argue that it will be largely up to
Jeffrey H. Gove
A demographic approach based on a size-structured version of the McKendrick-Von Foerster equation is used to demonstrate a theoretical link between the population size distribution and the underlying vital rates (recruitment, mortality and diameter growth) for the population of individuals whose diameter distribution is negative exponential. This model supports the...
Houssien Kamal Nofal
Full Text Available Background: Sudden death (SD remains an important worldwide public health problem. The incidence of SD and causes vary in different societies, and these differences are influenced also by demographic and clinical factors such as age, gender and prodromal symptoms and signs. This six-year study describes the influence of these factors on SD. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study of SD in all age groups undertaken in King Fahd Hospital of the University (KFHU, Eastern Saudi Arabia. All cases of death (1273 total, 1050 expected death and 223 cases of sudden unexpected death that occurred between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2005 were investigated and subsequently analyzed on demographic and clinical parameters of the deceased patients. The statistical analysis was performed as appropriate to illustrate any possible association between different demographic variables and SD. Results: There were 223 cases of SD (17.5% out of 1273 total deaths in KFHU in the 6-year study period. There was a definite influence of age on the incidence of sudden death (SD as it increased clearly at the two ends of the age spectrum, 32.2% of the cases were infants (from birth to 12 months, and 31.4% were elderly (> 60 year-old. However, among infantile age group, the highest frequency of SD (22.2% of the cases was among the neonates. There was also a significant trend of gender influence on the incidence of SD which was higher in men than women (56% vs. 42%. The influence of prodromal symptoms and signs on SD was variable. Dyspnea and cough as major symptoms of cardiovascular and respiratory disease were the most frequent presenting symptoms in 32.3% of the cases, followed by fever as a sign of infections in 11.7%, premature infants in 10.8%, circulatory collapse in 9.4%, and angina in 7.6% of the cases. Conclusion: The current study indicated a definite influence of age, gender and prodromal symptoms on the incidence of SD. The highest incidence
The following research question were formulated to guide the study;. • What is ... What is the influence of gender on librarians' job satisfaction in university .... relevant data which was analyzed using quantitative and qualitative statistics. From.
Spangenberg, Lena; Zenger, Markus; Glaesmer, Heide; Brähler, Elmar; Strauss, Bernhard
The present study aimed to extend the knowledge regarding dimensionality, socio-demographic correlates and shifts in age stereotypes over the past 15 years using a time-sequential design. In 1996 and 2011, we assessed age stereotypes in two independent samples of the German population aged ≥ 45 years ( N = 970 in sample 1, N = 1545 in sample 2). Three scales with six items each were assessed. Two scales cover negative (i.e., rigidity/isolation, burden), and one scale covers positive age stereotypes (wisdom/experience). Dimensionality of the scale, associations with socio-demographic variables and whether the stereotypes have shifted were tested using confirmatory factor analyses, structural equation modeling and analyses of variances. Three dimensions were identified and replicated following an exploratory as well as a confirmatory approach. Age stereotypes did shift between 1996 and 2011 in the dimension burden (i.e., becoming more negative). Our results further underpin the finding that age stereotypes are multifaceted and suggest that dimensions do not change over time. Additionally, our data provide some evidence that societal age stereotypes partly change over time.
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Apraxia is defined as a disorder of learned skilled movements, in the absence of elementary motor or sensory deficits and general cognitive impairment, such as inattention to commands, object-recognition deficits or poor oral comprehension. Limb apraxia has long been a challenge for clinical assessment and understanding and covers a wide spectrum of disorders, all involving motor cognition and the inability to perform previously learned actions. Demographic variables such as gender, age, and education can influence the performance of individuals on different neuropsychological tests. Objective: The present study aimed to evaluate the performance of healthy subjects on a limb apraxia battery and to determine the influence of gender, age, and education on the praxis skills assessed. Methods: Forty-four subjects underwent a limb apraxia battery, which was composed of numerous subtests for assessing both the semantic aspects of gestural production as well as motor performance itself. The tasks encompassed lexical-semantic aspects related to gestural production and motor activity in response to verbal commands and imitation. Results: We observed no gender effects on any of the subtests. Only the subtest involving visual recognition of transitive gestures showed a correlation between performance and age. However, we observed that education level influenced subject performance for all sub tests involving motor actions, and for most of these, moderate correlations were observed between education level and performance of the praxis tasks. Conclusion: We conclude that the education level of participants can have an important influence on the outcome of limb apraxia tests.
Kattari, Shanna K; Hasche, Leslie
Given the increasing diversity among older adults and changes in health policy, knowledge is needed on potential barriers to health care for transgender and gender non-conforming (GNC) individuals. Using the 2010 National Transgender Discrimination Survey (NTDS), logistic regression models test differences between age groups (below 35, 35-49, 50-64, and 65 and above) in lifetime experience of anti-transgender discrimination, harassment, and victimization within health care settings while considering the influences of insurance status, level of passing, time of transition, and other socio-demographic factors. Although more than one fifth of transgender and GNC individuals of all ages reported health discrimination, harassment, or victimization, significant age differences were found. Insurance status and level of passing were also influential. Medicare policy changes and this study's findings prompt further consideration for revising other health insurance policies. In addition, expanded cultural competency trainings that are specific to transgender and GNC individuals are crucial. © The Author(s) 2015.
Yashin, AI; De Benedictis, G; Vaupel, JW
In population studies on aging, the data on genetic markers are often collected for individuals from different age groups. The purpose of such studies is to identify, by comparison of the frequencies of selected genotypes, “longevity” or “frailty” genes in the oldest and in younger groups...... of individuals. To address questions about more-complicated aspects of genetic influence on longevity, additional information must be used. In this article, we show that the use of demographic information, together with data on genetic markers, allows us to calculate hazard rates, relative risks, and survival...... functions for respective genes or genotypes. New methods of combining genetic and demographic information are discussed. These methods are tested on simulated data and then are applied to the analysis of data on genetic markers for two haplogroups of human mtDNA. The approaches suggested in this article...
Magan, Dipti; Mehta, Manju; Sarvottam, Kumar; Yadav, Raj Kumar; Pandey, R M
Age and gender are two important physiological variables which might influence the personality of an individual. The influence of age and gender on big five personality domains in Indian population was assessed in this cross-sectional study that included 155 subjects (female = 76, male = 79) aged from 16-75 years. Big five personality factors were evaluated using 60-item NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) at a single point in time. Among the big five factors of personality, Conscientiousness was positively correlated (r = 0.195; P personality traits might change with age, and is gender-dependent.
L. V. Repin
Full Text Available An article describes radiation risk factors for several gender-age population groups according to Russian statistical and medical-demographic data, evaluates the lethality rate for separate nosologic forms of malignant neoplasms based on Russian cancer registries according to the method of the International Agency for Cancer Research. Relative damage factors are calculated for the gender-age groups under consideration. The tissue weighting factors recommended by ICRP to calculate effective doses are compared with relative damage factors calculated by ICRP for the nominal population and with similar factors calculated in this work for separate population cohorts in theRussian Federation. The significance of differences and the feasibility of using tissue weighting factors adapted for the Russian population in assessing population risks in cohorts of different gender-age compositions have been assessed.
Demographic Characteristics, Components of Sexuality and Gender, and Minority Stress and Their Associations to Excessive Alcohol, Cannabis, and Illicit (Noncannabis) Drug Use Among a Large Sample of Transgender People in the United States.
Gonzalez, Cesar A; Gallego, Joseph D; Bockting, Walter O
The current study examined demographics, sexual orientation, gender characteristics, and gender minority stress and their association to excessive alcohol, cannabis, and illicit (noncannabis) drug use among 1210 transgender adults living in the United States. The authors conducted a secondary analysis of data that included 680 transgender women (M age = 32.63, SD age = 12.29) and 530 transgender men (M age = 26.14, SD age = 7.42). A modified version of the Risk Behavioral Assessment quantified participants' alcohol, cannabis, and illicit drug use in the past 3 months. Overall, 21.5% of participants reported excessive alcohol use; no significant differences were found on the rates of excessive alcohol use between transgender women and men. Cannabis use among our sample was 24.4%; trangender men reported significantly higher rates of cannabis use compared to transgender women. Illicit drug (noncannabis) use among our sample was 11.6%; transgender men also reported significantly higher rates of illicit drug use compared to transgender women. Multivariate analyses suggested that gender dysphoria was significantly associated with: excessive alcohol use for transgender women, cannabis use among both transgender women and men, and illicit (noncannabis) drug use among transgender women. A nonheterosexual orientation was associated with increased odds of cannabis use among transgender women and men; a nonheterosexual orientation was associated with greater odds of illicit substance use among transgender men but not among transgender women. Gender minority stressors were independently associated with excessive alcohol use among transgender men and cannabis use among transgender women. The authors suggest that minority stress may only partially account for substance use among transgender people. Consequently, the authors suggest that in addition to minority stress, other biopsychosocial mechanisms should continue to be examined to identify pathways that may lead
Lauer, Jillian E; Ilksoy, Sibel D; Lourenco, Stella F
Infants exhibit visual preferences for gender-typed objects (e.g., dolls, toy vehicles) that parallel the gender-typed play preferences of preschool-aged children, but the developmental stability of individual differences in early emerging gender-typed preferences has not yet been characterized. In the present study, we examined the longitudinal association between infants' (N = 51) performance on an object-preference task, administered between 6 and 13 months of age, and their play preferences at 4 years of age. Greater visual interest in a toy truck relative to a doll in infancy predicted significantly greater male-typical toy and activity preferences (e.g., play with vehicles, videogames) at age 4. These findings suggest that gender-typed object preferences present during the 1st year of life may represent the developmental precursors of gender-typed play preferences observed later in childhood. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Scott, Kenneth A; Fisher, Gwenith G; Barón, Anna E; Tompa, Emile; Stallones, Lorann; DiGuiseppi, Carolyn
As the workforce ages, occupational injuries from falls on the same level will increase. Some industries may be more affected than others. We conducted a cross-sectional study using data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics to estimate same-level fall injury incidence rates by age group, gender, and industry for four sectors: 1) healthcare and social assistance; 2) manufacturing; 3) retail; and 4) transportation and warehousing. We calculated rate ratios and rate differences by age group and gender. Same-level fall injury incidence rates increase with age in all four sectors. However, patterns of rate ratios and rate differences vary by age group, gender, and industry. Younger workers, men, and manufacturing workers generally have lower rates. Variation in incidence rates suggests there are unrealized opportunities to prevent same-level fall injuries. Interventions should be evaluated for their effectiveness at reducing injuries, avoiding gender- or age-discrimination and improving work ability. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Barrett, Anne E; Pai, Manacy; Redmond, Rebecca
Although studies document the health-enhancing effects of social engagement, they reveal little about the underlying mechanisms operating within specific organizational contexts. Limited attention is given to the role of inequality--particularly age and gender--in shaping either the organizations to which we belong or their consequences for our well-being. We address this issue by examining the Red Hat Society, a social organization for middle-aged and older women. Interviews with members (n=52) illustrate how age and gender inequality interact to shape the organization, which can be viewed as a gendered subculture of aging. Drawing on this framework, we discuss four processes through which participation generates benefits for older women involved in age- and gender-segregated organizations: enhancing social networks, countering invisibility, creating positive frames for aging experiences, and promoting youthful identities. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Schramm, Stine; Kaducu, Felix Ocaka; Aas Smedemark, Siri
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of adult malnutrition and associated risk factors in a post-conflict area of northern Uganda. METHODS: A cross-sectional community survey was performed from September 2011 to June 2013. All registered residents in Gulu Health and Demographic Surveillance...
Zhen, Jie; Huang, Xiaochen; Van Halm-Lutterodt, Nicholas; Dong, Shengqi; Ma, Weiwei; Xiao, Rong; Yuan, Linhong
ApoE gene polymorphism has been reportedly associated with serum lipids and cognition. However, very few studies have explored the combined effects of ApoE gene polymorphism and gender on serum lipid profile with subsequent impacts on cognition in Chinese population. A total of 1,000 Chinese community dwellers aged 55 years and above were recruited in this cross-sectional study. Demographic information of the participants was collected using well designed self-administered questionnaires. The...
Andersen, Steffen; Ertac, Seda; Gneezy, Uri
Economists and other social scientists typically rely on gender differences in the family-career balance, discrimination, and ability to explain gender gaps in wages and in the prospect for advancement. A new explanation that has recently surfaced in the economics literature is that men are more...... competitively inclined than women, and having a successful career requires competitiveness. A natural question revolves around the underlying determinants of these documented competitive differences: are women simply born less competitive, or do they become so through the process of socialization? To shed light...
Dutch policy makers recently set the public debate on ageing alight by enforcing drastic cuts in early retirement opportunities; increasing taxation of the aged and augmenting retirement age are also considered. The prime argument is to diminish a burden on public finances far in future. This paper
Barefoot, J C; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Helms, M J
in women than in men at ages 50 and 60, but not at age 80. Men showed increases in depressive symptoms from age 60 to 80, but women did not (interaction p genders. Potential explanations include differential...... changes in social roles with aging....
Full Text Available Abstract Background The INSIG2 gene has been implicated in cholesterol metabolism and a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP near INSIG2 has been shown to be associated with obesity. We sought to determine the relationship of the INSIG2 SNP to cardiovascular disease (CVD related phenotypes. Methods and Results Nine hundred forty six patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI in wave 5 of the multicenter NHLBI Dynamic Registry were genotyped using RT-PCR/TaqMan/allelic discrimination for the rs7566605 SNP near the INSIG2 gene. Clinical variables analyzed include demographics, medical history, and procedural details. The prevalence of peripheral vascular disease (PVD was significantly higher in older men (≥65 years who were either homozygous or carriers of the obesity/lipid risk allele ("C" compared to non-carriers (odds ratio 3.4, p = 0.013 using a logistic regression model incorporating history of hypercholesterolemia, history of hypertension, cerebrovascular disease, history of diabetes, and BMI. A similar relationship with cerebrovascular disease was found in older (>65 women (odds ratio 3.4, p = 0.013. The INSIG2 SNP was not associated with BMI, nor with other clinical variables. Conclusion Age and gender may influence the association of the INSIG2 obesity SNP with PVD and cerebrovascular disease in patients with pre-existing CVD.
Sugawara, Norio; Yasui-Furukori, Norio; Sasaki, Giro; Tanaka, Osamu; Umeda, Takashi; Takahashi, Ippei; Danjo, Kazuma; Matsuzaka, Masashi; Kaneko, Sunao; Nakaji, Shigeyuki
The purpose of this study was to assess middle-aged Japanese workers for possible gender differences in the risk factors associated with depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation. 5,878 workers (40-60 yr of age) (3,631 males and 2,247 females) were recruited from randomly selected companies in northern Japan. Demographic and lifestyle factors, suicidal ideation rate, and the data for the Brief Job Stress Questionnaire (BJSQ) and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies for Depression scale (CES-D) were obtained from the self-report questionnaires. After adjusting for possible confounding variables, marital status, absent of stress reduction technique and low job compatibility were significant independent risk factors for suicidal ideation among males. In females, marital status, feeling of insufficient sleep and absence of stress reduction techniques were significant independent risk factors after adjusting for all variables. Under the same adjustments, temporary employment also showed a protective effect against female suicidal ideation. In conclusion, our results suggest that factors related to suicidal ideation differed by gender. Different approaches for each gender might be useful in the development of suicide prevention programs. However, interpretation of work-related effects, such as temporary employment, interpersonal conflict and transportation industry, was hampered by lack of data concerning personal income, working hours and organizational commitment. Additional studies are needed to examine the longitudinal relationships between the risk factors associated with suicidal ideation and depressive symptoms.
Rae, Michael J.; Butler, Robert N.; Campisi, Judith; de Grey, Aubrey D. N. J.; Finch, Caleb E.; Gough, Michael; Martin, George M.; Vijg, Jan; Perrott, Kevin M.; Logan, Barbara J.
The social and medical costs of the biological aging process are high and will rise rapidly in coming decades, creating an enormous challenge to societies worldwide. In recent decades, researchers have expanded their understanding of the underlying deleterious structural and physiological changes (aging damage) that underlie the progressive functional impairments, declining health, and rising mortality of aging humans and other organisms and have been able to intervene in the process in model organisms, even late in life. To preempt a global aging crisis, we advocate an ambitious global initiative to translate these findings into interventions for aging humans, using three complementary approaches to retard, arrest, and even reverse aging damage, extending and even restoring the period of youthful health and functionality of older people. PMID:20630854
Magadi, Monica Akinyi
Women in sub-Saharan Africa bear a disproportionate burden of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections, which is exacerbated by their role in society and biological vulnerability. The specific objectives of this article are to (i) determine the extent of gender disparity in HIV infection; (ii) examine the role of HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) awareness and sexual behaviour factors on the gender disparity and (iii) establish how the gender disparity varies between individuals of different characteristics and across countries. The analysis involves multilevel logistic regression analysis applied to pooled Demographic and Health Surveys data from 20 countries in sub-Saharan Africa conducted during 2003–2008. The findings suggest that women in sub-Saharan Africa have on average a 60% higher risk of HIV infection than their male counterparts. The risk for women is 70% higher than their male counterparts of similar sexual behaviour, suggesting that the observed gender disparity cannot be attributed to sexual behaviour. The results suggest that the risk of HIV infection among women (compared to men) across countries in sub-Saharan Africa is further aggravated among those who are younger, in female-headed households, not in stable unions or marital partnerships or had an earlier sexual debut. PMID:21545443
Burkhalter, Nancy A.; Wendt, Janice C.
Examined relationships between physical factors, psychological factors, gender, and age in middle school physical education (PE) students. Data on PE alienation, perceived competency toward physical fitness (PCf) and physical activity (PCp), and various fitness and strength measures indicated that gender and PCf significantly predicted fitness.…
This study investigated the extent to which gender differences in coping, school and family environments could account for variation in psychopathology among school-age children. Participants were 665 middle school students. Results showed no gender differences for PTSD. Females scored higher on emotional problems and prosocial behavior whereas…
Todd, Brenda K.; Barry, John A.; Thommessen, Sara A. O.
Many studies have found that a majority of boys and girls prefer to play with toys that are typed to their own gender but there is still uncertainty about the age at which such sex differences first appear, and under what conditions. Applying a standardized research protocol and using a selection of gender-typed toys, we observed the toy…
Sahl, Daniel; Keene, Jennifer Reid
Using a sample of 2,838 students from a Southwestern university in the United States, the authors examine the effect of respondent's gender, the adult's gender, the age gap between the adult and teen, and the adult's authority, on students' perceptions of vignettes describing adult-teen sexual relationships. Specifically, the authors investigate…
age, race and gender, on the outcome of renal transplantation. Most reports ... Gender does not influence graft survival, but females do have a higher overall mortality rate following renal transplantation at our centre. S Afr Med 2003; 93: 689-695. have a suitable living ..... analysis of its role in graft outcome. Transplantation ...
Vogel, M.S.; Porter, L.C.
Objectives Non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics in the United States are more likely to be incarcerated than non-Hispanic whites. The risk of incarceration also varies with age, and there are striking differences in age distributions across racial/ethnic groups. Guided by these trends, the present
Arjunan, Sridhar; Kumar, Dinesh; Kalra, Chandan; Burne, John; Bastos, Teodiano
This study reports the effects of age and gender on the surface electromyogram while performing isometric contraction. Experiments were conducted with two age groups--Young (Age: 20-29) and Old (Age: 60-69) where they performed sustained isometric contractions at various force levels (50%, 75%, 100% of maximum voluntary contraction). Traditional features such as root mean square (RMS) and median frequency (MDF) were computed from the recorded sEMG. The result indicates that the MDF of sEMG was not significantly affected by age, but was impacted by gender in both age groups. Also there was a significant change in the RMS of sEMG with age and gender at all levels of contraction. The results also indicate a large inter-subject variation. This study will provide an understanding of the underlying physiological effects of muscle contraction and muscle fatigue in different cohorts.
Maria Letizia Zanier; Isabella Crespi
The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the phenomenon of increasing gender inequalities that happen at old age regarding women’s pension. Moving from recent life-course theories and studies, this study analyzes the reasons behind gender-biased pension levels and how their cumulative effects result in (continuous) significant gender gaps. The article presents a European overview of pension gender gap, focusing on family and work-life issues in Italy. This is one of the first c...
Leshukov, Timofey; Brel, Olga; Zaytseva, Anna; Kaizer, Philipp; Makarov, Kirill
The main goal of the article is to show the influence of the age-sex structure of the population on the basic demographic processes in the Kemerovo region. During research the authors have established correlation links between the sex-age structure of the population and the main demographic indicators (birth and mortality rate, morbidity rate, migration and others) based on the analysis of official statistical data. The direct influence of internal and external factors on the age-sex structure of the population is revealed. Conclusions about the impact of demographic processes on the sex-age structure of the population of the Kemerovo region are drawn.
Shahid, A.; Ramzan, A.; Memon, A.
Background: Malnutrition is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in children. It is important to realize that normal length and weight being attained at 1 year of age, would predict the nutritional status at 3 years of age. To asses the nutritional status and the associated socio-demographic characteristics in supposedly healthy Children of up to 2 years of age and highlight the importance of anthropometric measurements in routine child health care. Anthropometric measurements i.e. height and weight, were measured and a standard Questionnaire was used to interview the mothers regarding socio-demographic back ground information after a verbal informed consent and ensuring confidentiality. Height for age, weight for age and weight for height of the children were compared with the National Centre of Health Statistics (NCHS) reference population of the United States and Z -score< - 2 SD were considered as stunted, under weight and wasted respectively. Data was analyzed using SPSS software package. We observed stunting in 22%, wasting in 15% and under weight in 31.6% children. Majority of children with low weight were between 19 - 24 months of age Regarding socio-economic status of the households, 53.8% had family income less than Rs. 6000 month and almost 50% had a family size of 6-10 persons. Parents' education to the level of illiteracy (father, 27% and mother, 4 0%) and incomplete immunization ( 20%) were other associated factors for stunting, wasting and under weight. About 32% of children up to 2 years of age in the selected population were under weight, followed by stunning (22%). Policy Message: Anthropometric measurement of children is useful in routine child care settings as it will facilitate early identification and timely interventions for emerging health problems. (author)
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Rate of deaths by age/gender (per 100,000 population) for people killed in crashes involving a driver with BAC =>0.08%, 2012, 2014. 2012 Source: Fatality Analysis...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Rate of deaths by age/gender (per 100,000 population) for people killed in crashes involving a driver with BAC =>0.08%, 2012, 2014. 2012 Source: Fatality Analysis...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Rate of deaths by age/gender (per 100,000 population) for people killed in crashes involving a driver with BAC =>0.08%, 2012, 2014. 2012 Source: Fatality Analysis...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Rate of deaths by age/gender (per 100,000 population) for motor vehicle occupants killed in crashes, 2012 & 2014. 2012 Source: Fatality Analysis Reporting System...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Rate of deaths by age/gender (per 100,000 population) for motor vehicle occupants killed in crashes, 2012 & 2014. 2012 Source: Fatality Analysis Reporting System...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Rate of deaths by age/gender (per 100,000 population) for motor vehicle occupants killed in crashes, 2012 & 2014. 2012 Source: Fatality Analysis Reporting System...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Rate of deaths by age/gender (per 100,000 population) for people killed in crashes involving a driver with BAC =>0.08%, 2012. 2012 Source: Fatality Analysis...
Cosgun, Sema; Ozbek, I Yucel
This paper investigates the utility of forced expiratory spirometry (FES) test with efficient machine learning algorithms for the purpose of gender detection and age group classification. The proposed method has three main stages: feature extraction, training of the models and detection. In the first stage, some features are extracted from volume-time curve and expiratory flow-volume loop obtained from FES test. In the second stage, the probabilistic models for each gender and age group are constructed by training Gaussian mixture models (GMMs) and Support vector machine (SVM) algorithm. In the final stage, the gender (or age group) of test subject is estimated by using the trained GMM (or SVM) model. Experiments have been evaluated on a large database from 4571 subjects. The experimental results show that average correct classification rate performance of both GMM and SVM methods based on the FES test is more than 99.3 % and 96.8 % for gender and age group classification, respectively.
CHATEAUROUX, E; WANG, X
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of age, gender, and target location upon arm reach capacity and posture. Background: The older adult population is growing in number. Their specific needs must be better understood to improve the design of work and life spaces. Method: Thirty-eight adults, divided into four groups according to their gender and age, participated in the experiment. They were asked to reach 84 targets located in a large space defined according to their anthrop...
The study examined the influence of Age, Gender and Religion on eating habit of youth. It made use of simple random technique in selecting 400 youths within Ikenne local government of Ogun State, Nigeria. The age range of the respondents was between 15 years and 40 years with the mean age of 25.2 and standard ...
Soltis, Samuel L; Probst, Janice; Xirasagar, Sudha; Martin, Amy B; Smith, Bradley H
Analyze diagnostic and demographic factors to identify predictors of delinquency resulting in incarceration within a group of children/adolescents diagnosed with ADHD. The study followed a cohort of 15,472 Medicaid covered children/adolescents with ADHD, ages 6 to 15 inclusive, between January 1, 2003, and December 31, 2006. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev. [ DSM-IV-TR]), 2000 Codes were used for qualifying diagnosis codes. Available demographic characteristics included race, sex, and residence. The outcome was incarceration at the South Carolina Department of Juvenile Justice during 2005-2006. Among youth with ADHD, incarceration was more likely among black, male, and urban youth. Children/adolescents with comorbid ODD and/or CD were at greater risk compared with those with ADHD alone. Within ADHD-diagnosed youth, comorbid conditions and demographic characteristics increase the risk of incarceration. Intervention and treatment strategies that address behavior among youth with these characteristics are needed to reduce incarceration.
Kouhei Masumoto PhD
Full Text Available Objective: We investigated the effects of age on mood and mental health-mediated emotion regulation, such as cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression, and examined whether these relationships differ according to gender. Method: We recruited 936 Japanese participants. They comprised six age groups ranging from 20 to 70 years old, with 156 participants in each age group and equal numbers of men and women. Results: Structural equation model analysis showed that older participants were more likely to use cognitive reappraisal, further enhancing positive mood and reducing negative mood, whereas, age did not affect expressive suppression. Moreover, expressive suppression had a smaller impact on mood than cognitive reappraisal. A multi-group analysis showed significant gender differences. In men, cognitive reappraisal increased with age and influenced mood more positively than in women. Discussion: Our findings indicated gender differences in aging effects on emotion regulation. We discussed about these results from the cognitive process, motivation to emotion regulation, and cultural differences.
Masumoto, Kouhei; Taishi, Nozomi; Shiozaki, Mariko
Objective: We investigated the effects of age on mood and mental health-mediated emotion regulation, such as cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression, and examined whether these relationships differ according to gender. Method: We recruited 936 Japanese participants. They comprised six age groups ranging from 20 to 70 years old, with 156 participants in each age group and equal numbers of men and women. Results: Structural equation model analysis showed that older participants were more likely to use cognitive reappraisal, further enhancing positive mood and reducing negative mood, whereas, age did not affect expressive suppression. Moreover, expressive suppression had a smaller impact on mood than cognitive reappraisal. A multi-group analysis showed significant gender differences. In men, cognitive reappraisal increased with age and influenced mood more positively than in women. Discussion: Our findings indicated gender differences in aging effects on emotion regulation. We discussed about these results from the cognitive process, motivation to emotion regulation, and cultural differences.
Hossain, Md Golam; Wee, Ai-Sze; Ashaie, Maeirah; Kamarul, T
Early onset of menarche has been shown to be associated with breast cancer and ischaemic heart disease. Studies on age at menarche of the Malaysian population are poorly documented. This study aimed to determine the influence of anthropometric and socio-demographic factors on the age at menarche of university students in Malaysia. Data were obtained in 2010-11 from 961 students between the ages of 18 and 25 years from the University of Malaya using stratified sampling, and multiple regression analysis was applied. Sixty-three per cent of students reached menarche at the age of 12 or 13 years, with the mean and median of age at menarche being 12.45 ± 1.17 and 12.01 years, respectively. Menarcheal age was positively associated with height (pObese and overweight students reached menarche earlier than students who were underweight or of normal weight (p<0.01). The variations in age at menarche among the Malaysian ethnic groups were statistically insignificant. The results suggest that heavier and first-born students from small families are more likely to attain menarche earlier than their counterparts.
Thorsen, Kenneth; Søreide, Jon Arne; Kvaløy, Jan Terje; Glomsaker, Tom; Søreide, Kjetil
AIM: To investigate the epidemiological trends in incidence and mortality of perforated peptic ulcer (PPU) in a well-defined Norwegian population. METHODS: A retrospective, population-based, single-center, consecutive cohort study of all patients diagnosed with benign perforated peptic ulcer. Included were both gastric and duodenal ulcer patients admitted to Stavanger University Hospital between January 2001 and December 2010. Ulcers with a malignant neoplasia diagnosis, verified by histology after biopsy or resection, were excluded. Patients were identified from the hospitals administrative electronic database using pertinent ICD-9 and ICD-10 codes (K25.1, K25.2, K25.5, K25.6, K26.1, K26.2, K26.5, K26.6). Additional searches using appropriate codes for relevant laparoscopic and open surgical procedures (e.g., JDA 60, JDA 61, JDH 70 and JDH 71) were performed to enable a complete identification of all patients. Patient demographics, presentation patterns and clinical data were retrieved from hospital records and surgical notes. Crude and adjusted incidence and mortality rates were estimated by using national population demographics data. RESULTS: In the study period, a total of 172 patients with PPU were identified. The adjusted incidence rate for the overall 10-year period was 6.5 per 100 000 per year (95%CI: 5.6-7.6) and the adjusted mortality rate for the overall 10-year period was 1.1 per 100 000 per year (95%CI: 0.7-1.6). A non-significant decline in adjusted incidence rate from 9.7 to 5.6 occurred during the decade. The standardized mortality ratio for the whole study period was 5.7 (95%CI: 3.9-8.2), while the total 30-d mortality was 16.3%. No difference in incidence or mortality was found between genders. However, for patients ≥ 60 years, the incidence increased over 10-fold, and mortality more than 50-fold, compared to younger ages. The admission rates outside office hours were high with almost two out of three (63%) admissions seen at evening
Mazlan, Rafidah; Kei, Joseph; Ya, Cheng Li; Yusof, Wan Nur Hanim Mohd; Saim, Lokman; Zhao, Fei
Purpose: This study examined the effects of age and gender on wideband energy absorbance in adults with normal middle ear function. Method: Forty young adults (14 men, 26 women, aged 20-38 years), 31 middle-aged adults (16 men, 15 women, aged 42-64 years), and 30 older adults (20 men, 10 women, aged 65-82 years) were assessed. Energy absorbance…
Bautista-Arredondo, Sergio; Servan-Mori, Edson; Beynon, Fenella; González, Andrea; Volkow, Patricia
To date, the HIV epidemic in Mexico has been concentrated mainly among men who have sex with men, butheterosexual transmission, particularly to women, is increasingly important. This study examine gender differences in socio-demographic characteristics and risk behaviors of HIV positive individuals in Mexico City. We analyzed data from a cross-sectional survey of 1,490 clinic patients (male:female ratio 8:1) with HIV inMexico City in 2010. We examined socio-demographic characteristics, risk behavior, and history of HIV infection.From multivariate non-linear probability (probit) models we calculated predicted probabilities by sex of several outcomes: marginalization, demographic and sexual risk behaviors. Significant differences were found between men and women. Multivariate models suggest that women had lower schooling levels; were less likely to have been employed in the past month and earn more than the minimal wage; more likely to have children, to have been sexually abused, to never have used condoms and to report having been infected by a stable partner. Additionally, women were less likely to report having a partner with a history of migration to the USA and to have engaged in transactional sex. Significant differences exist between men and women with HIV in Mexico City in terms of their socioeconomicand behavioral profiles, which translate into differences in terms of exposure to HIV infection. Women face social and economic vulnerability while men tend to have riskier sexual behavior. Gender issues must be approached in prevention and treatment efforts, using diverse methods to target those most vulnerable and at risk.
Ultra-endurance challenges were once the stuff of legend isolated to the daring few who were driven to take on some of the greatest physical endurance challenges on the planet. With a growing fascination for major physical challenges during the nineteenth century, the end of the Victorian era witnessed probably the greatest ultra-endurance race of all time; Scott and Amundsen's ill-fated race to the South Pole. Ultra-endurance races continued through the twentieth century; however, these events were isolated to the elite few. In the twenty-first century, mass participation ultra-endurance races have grown in popularity. Endurance races once believed to be at the limit of human durability, i.e. marathon running, are now viewed as middle-distance races with the accolade of true endurance going to those willing to travel significantly further in a single effort or over multiple days. The recent series of papers in Extreme Physiology & Medicine highlights the burgeoning research data from mass participation ultra-endurance events. In support of a true 'mass participation' ethos Knetchtle et al. reported age-related changes in Triple and Deca Iron-ultra-triathlon with an upper age of 69 years! Unlike their shorter siblings, the ultra-endurance races appear to present larger gender differences in the region of 20% to 30% across distance and modality. It would appear that these gender differences remain for multi-day events including the 'Marathon des Sables'; however, this gap may be narrower in some events, particularly those that require less load bearing (i.e. swimming and cycling), as evidenced from the 'Ultraman Hawaii' and 'Swiss Cycling Marathon', and shorter (a term I used advisedly!) distances including the Ironman Triathlon where differences are similar to those of sprint and endurance distances i.e. c. 10%. The theme running through this series of papers is a continual rise in participation to the point where major events now require selection races to remain
French, John; McGahan, Colleen; Duncan, Graeme; Lengoc, Sonca; Soo, Jenny; Cannon, Jerry
Purpose: Comparing radiation therapy utilization rates (RTUR) to those predicted by best evidence is a useful measure of the equity and accessibility of service delivery. In this study the RTUR for melanoma was established for British Columbia, Canada, and compared with the rate suggested by the evidence. Demographic variables, specifically age, gender, and geography that influenced the RTUR were examined with a view to identifying methods of improving underutilization. Methods and Materials: The RTUR in the management of malignant melanoma was taken from British Columbia Cancer registry data for 1986 to 1998. Variations in utilization based on age, gender, health authority, stage of disease, and referral patterns were analyzed. Results: An RTUR of 11% was identified. This was consistent over time. Referral rates decreased between 1986 and 1998. RT is used mostly for later stage disease. Males were more likely to receive RT than females, related to later stage of disease in men. Referral rates decreased, but RTUR for referred cases increased, in health authorities that did not have a cancer center. Conclusions: Use of RT is influenced by age and by stage of disease. Overall RTUR in British Columbia is lower than suggested by best evidence. Referral patterns are influenced by geography. RTUR was higher in males, consistent with a different pattern of disease in males compared with females
Edle von Gaessler, Anne; Ziesemer, Thomas
We modify a Lucas-type endogenous growth model to contain endogenous labour supply, imperfect international capital movements, and estimated interest and education time functions. Solutions based on realistic calibrations show that (i) the rate of human capital depreciation through ageing has a much
Little research has explored the intersection of aging and sexuality. This qualitative study is informed by a life course approach and narrative gerontology methods. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 13 women age 55 and older to explore the effects of gender, aging, and living environment on past and current sexual experiences. Subthemes from each major theme are discussed, including: (a) messages about and perceived effects of gender, (b) perceived effects of aging, and (c) perceived effects of living environment. Findings support the use of dynamical systems theory to study women's sexual experiences.
Butz, Sarah M; Sweeney, Jane K; Roberts, Pamela L; Rauh, Mitchell J
To examine relationships among age, gender, anthropometrics, and dynamic balance. Height, weight, and arm and foot length were measured in 160 children with typical development aged 5 to 12 years. Dynamic balance was assessed using the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test, Pediatric Reach Test (PRT), and Pediatric Balance Scale (PBS). Moderate to good positive relationships (r = 0.61 and r = 0.56) were found between increasing age and PRT and PBS scores. A fair negative relationship (r = -0.49) was observed between age and TUG test. No significant gender-by-age group difference was observed. Age had the strongest influence on TUG and PBS scores; arm length had the strongest influence on PRT scores. Dynamic balance ability is directly related to chronological age. Age and arm length have the strongest relationships with balance scores. These findings may assist pediatric therapists in selecting dynamic balance tests according to age rather than specific diagnosis.
Aznar, Ana; Tenenbaum, Harriet R
This study examined gender differences in emotion word use during mother-child and father-child conversations. Sixty-five Spanish mothers and fathers and their 4- (M = 53.50, SD = 3.54) and 6-year-old (M = 77.07, SD = 3.94) children participated in this study. Emotion talk was examined during a play-related storytelling task and a reminiscence task (conversation about past experiences). Mothers mentioned a higher proportion of emotion words than did fathers. During the play-related storytelling task, mothers of 4-year-old daughters mentioned a higher proportion of emotion words than did mothers of 4-year-old sons, whereas fathers of 4-year-old daughters directed a higher proportion of emotion words than did fathers of 4-year-old sons during the reminiscence task. No gender differences were found with parents of 6-year-old children. During the reminiscence task daughters mentioned more emotion words with their fathers than with their mothers. Finally, mothers' use of emotion talk was related to whether children used emotion talk in both tasks. Fathers' use of emotion talk was only related to children's emotion talk during the reminiscence task. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.
Stevens, Sally J; Andrade, Rosi A C; Ruiz, Bridget S
Historically, data has shown that a smaller percentage of women use alcohol and illicit substances compared to men, and that frequency of use has been lower among women compared to use among men. Although this data on usage may be true, researchers also acknowledge that substance use among women has been a hidden issue, one not realistically acknowledged by society, especially prior to the mid-1960s. Along with this, more recent data indicates that rates of substance use among women are increasing. Factors contributing to this increase in substance abuse have begun to receive considerable attention, and recent research suggests that many issues exist that are unique to substance use among women. The purpose of this article is to discuss gender specific considerations in women's substance abuse by examining the history of substance use among women; analyzing gender-specific factors, including physiological factors, trauma-related factors, mental health issues, and cultural considerations that impact on women's substance use; articulating treatment approaches for working with substance abusing women and girls; and providing recommendations for further research in this area.
Abstract. Background: Meningiomas are common brain tumours and display gender, racial and ethnic differences in their demographic profile. ... The mean age of patients was 45.7 ± 10.5 years with a female-to-male ratio of 3.8:1. The mean ...
Full Text Available The main objective of the present study is to investigate the impact of gender as well as age on the choice of forms of address in Persian. The hypothesis is that variation in the forms of address is related not only to gender of the interlocutors but also to the age of them. For this study, 30 university students- 15 males and 15 females- participated in this process that all of them were asked to fill out a questionnaire presented in the appendix. The results of the data analysis indicate that both men and women use address forms of formality (Šoma more frequently in addressing the older people from both genders that shows age is more significant than gender in determining the pronouns in address system of Persian.
Bleidorn, Wiebke; Arslan, Ruben C; Denissen, Jaap J A; Rentfrow, Peter J; Gebauer, Jochen E; Potter, Jeff; Gosling, Samuel D
Research and theorizing on gender and age differences in self-esteem have played a prominent role in psychology over the past 20 years. However, virtually all empirical research has been undertaken in the United States or other Western industrialized countries, providing a narrow empirical base from which to draw conclusions and develop theory. To broaden the empirical base, the present research uses a large Internet sample (N = 985,937) to provide the first large-scale systematic cross-cultural examination of gender and age differences in self-esteem. Across 48 nations, and consistent with previous research, we found age-related increases in self-esteem from late adolescence to middle adulthood and significant gender gaps, with males consistently reporting higher self-esteem than females. Despite these broad cross-cultural similarities, the cultures differed significantly in the magnitude of gender, age, and Gender × Age effects on self-esteem. These differences were associated with cultural differences in socioeconomic, sociodemographic, gender-equality, and cultural value indicators. Discussion focuses on the theoretical implications of cross-cultural research on self-esteem. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Independent inventors are important but little-researched members of the US technical community. The survey reported on here is the first in modern times to attempt to provide a profile of the US independent inventor that goes beyond a single geographical or organizational locale. The report that follows provides an overview of the demographics, practices and concerns of the modern US inventor as represented by the members of leading US inventor organizations. It is by no means comprehensive but seeks to be indicative of the issues raised in the survey each which will be dealt with more comprehensively in future publications.
Campos, Ana Cristina Viana; Ferreira e Ferreira, Efigenia; Vargas, Andréa Maria Duarte
The scope of this study was to construct an indicator of active aging and assess its association with quality of life and possible determinants according to gender. The AGEQOL (Aging, Gender and Quality of Life) study was used to interview 2052 individuals aged 60 years and older residing in Sete Lagoas in the State of Minas Gerais. The association between active aging, quality of life and possible determinants was performed by multiple logistic regression with a 5% level of statistical significance separately for each gender. Most men were in the active aging group (58%), and 51.8% of women were in the normal aging group (p active aging. Women with higher incomes, who did not suffer falls and engaged in community participation, had a better chance of belonging to the active aging group. The conclusion drawn is that quality of life and participation in groups are the main determinants of active aging, and the other factors associated with active aging are different for each gender.
Scholderer, Joachim; Lund, Eiliv; Trondsen, Torbjørn
Effects of age, period and birth cohort on consumption of fat fish, lean fish and processed fish were estimated based on panel data from the Norwegian Women and Seafood Consumption Study (NOWAC). Cohorts selected for the present analysis were women born between 1951 and 1966. Survey questionnaires...... fish increased between 1996 and 2001, while consumption of lean fish decreased. All three period effects were stable across birth cohorts. Estimation of polynomial contrasts indicated that birth cohort itself had linear effects on consumption, with older generations consuming significantly more fat...... and lean fish, but less processed fish than younger generations. Finally, the effects of cohort and period on consumption of lean and processed fish remained stable when biological age was controlled for, whilst the effect of period on fat fish consumption vanished. Regarding total consumption of fat fish...
Koren, L; Peled, E; Trogan, R; Norman, D; Berkovich, Y; Israelit, S
Initial pain level in the acute whiplash injury is the most consistent predictor of transformation to a chronic pain syndrome. The risk factors for those early pain levels were, to our knowledge, scarcely evaluate to this date. We set to evaluate whether gender, age or ethnicity comprise a risk factor for those initial pain levels. Further, gender, age and ethnicity have been shown to be bias factors in pain management. We investigated if gender, age or ethnicity are bias factor in pain management in the face of a standardized pain treatment protocol in the acute whiplash injury. We reviewed 2,538 patients with acute whiplash injury that were treated at our emergency department (ED). Gender, age and ethnicity were investigated as risk factors for elevated visual analog scale (VAS) scores. Those factors were also investigated as bias in pain medication administration in the face of a standardized analgesic protocol. Women had significantly higher VAS scores (p = 0.009). Age and ethnicity did not influence pain levels. There was no influence of gender or age on pain medication administration. The Jewish patients (the majority in Israel) were administered fewer pain medication (p whiplash injury. Age and ethnicity have less impact on those pain levels. A pain management protocol might reduce bias in pain management in the acute whiplash injury in the ED. The Jewish population tends to be less receptive to pain medication administration.
Full Text Available Reliable statistics on maternal morbidity and mortality are scarce in low and middle-income countries, especially in rural areas. This is the case in Mozambique where many births happen at home. Furthermore, a sizeable number of facility births have inadequate registration. Such information is crucial for developing effective national and global health policies for maternal and child health. The aim of this study was to generate reliable baseline socio-demographic information on women of reproductive age as well as to establish a demographic surveillance platform to support the planning and implementation of the Community Level Intervention for Pre-eclampsia (CLIP study, a cluster randomized controlled trial. This study represents a census of all women of reproductive age (12-49 years in twelve rural communities in Maputo and Gaza provinces of Mozambique. The data were collected through electronic forms implemented in Open Data Kit (ODK (an app for android based tablets and household and individual characteristics. Verbal autopsies were conducted on all reported maternal deaths to determine the underlying cause of death. Between March and October 2014, 50,493 households and 80,483 women of reproductive age (mean age 26.9 years were surveyed. A total of 14,617 pregnancies were reported in the twelve months prior to the census, resulting in 9,029 completed pregnancies. Of completed pregnancies, 8,796 resulted in live births, 466 resulted in stillbirths and 288 resulted in miscarriages. The remaining pregnancies had not yet been completed during the time of the survey (5,588 pregnancies. The age specific fertility indicates that highest rate (188 live births per 1,000 women occurs in the age 20-24 years old. The estimated stillbirth rate was 50.3/1,000 live and stillbirths; neonatal mortality rate was 13.3/1,000 live births and maternal mortality ratio was 204.6/100,000 live births. The most common direct cause of maternal death was eclampsia and
Sacoor, Charfudin; Payne, Beth; Augusto, Orvalho; Vilanculo, Faustino; Nhacolo, Ariel; Vidler, Marianne; Makanga, Prestige Tatenda; Munguambe, Khátia; Lee, Tang; Macete, Eusébio; von Dadelszen, Peter; Sevene, Esperança
Reliable statistics on maternal morbidity and mortality are scarce in low and middle-income countries, especially in rural areas. This is the case in Mozambique where many births happen at home. Furthermore, a sizeable number of facility births have inadequate registration. Such information is crucial for developing effective national and global health policies for maternal and child health. The aim of this study was to generate reliable baseline socio-demographic information on women of reproductive age as well as to establish a demographic surveillance platform to support the planning and implementation of the Community Level Intervention for Pre-eclampsia (CLIP) study, a cluster randomized controlled trial. This study represents a census of all women of reproductive age (12–49 years) in twelve rural communities in Maputo and Gaza provinces of Mozambique. The data were collected through electronic forms implemented in Open Data Kit (ODK) (an app for android based tablets) and household and individual characteristics. Verbal autopsies were conducted on all reported maternal deaths to determine the underlying cause of death. Between March and October 2014, 50,493 households and 80,483 women of reproductive age (mean age 26.9 years) were surveyed. A total of 14,617 pregnancies were reported in the twelve months prior to the census, resulting in 9,029 completed pregnancies. Of completed pregnancies, 8,796 resulted in live births, 466 resulted in stillbirths and 288 resulted in miscarriages. The remaining pregnancies had not yet been completed during the time of the survey (5,588 pregnancies). The age specific fertility indicates that highest rate (188 live births per 1,000 women) occurs in the age 20–24 years old. The estimated stillbirth rate was 50.3/1,000 live and stillbirths; neonatal mortality rate was 13.3/1,000 live births and maternal mortality ratio was 204.6/100,000 live births. The most common direct cause of maternal death was eclampsia and
Prioux, France; Barbieri, Magali
France had 65.3 million inhabitants as of 1 January 2012, including 1.9 million in the overseas départements . The population is slightly younger than that of the European Union as a whole. Population growth continues at the same rate, mainly through natural increase. There are now more African than European immigrants living in France. Fertility was practically stable in 2011 (2.01 children per woman), but the lifetime fertility of the 1971-1972 cohorts reached a historic low in metropolitan France (1.99 children per woman), nevertheless remaining among the highest in Europe. Abortion levels remained stable and rates among young people are no longer increasing. The marriage rate is falling and the divorce rate has stabilized (46.2 divorces per 100 marriages in 2011). The risk of divorce decreases with age, but has greatly increased among the under-70s over the last decade. Life expectancy at birth (78.4 years for men, 85.0 for women) has continued to increase at the same rate, mainly thanks to progress at advanced ages. Among European countries, France has the lowest mortality in the over-65 age group, but it ranks less well for premature mortality.
Montgomery, Jade; Kusano, Kristofer D; Gabler, Hampton C
21-30 (n=27) or between ages 31-50 (n=23) and 50+(n=19). There are clear statistical differences in TTC at braking for both gender and those over 30 vs. those under 30. Designers of FCW systems can use the data found in this study to tailor alert timings to the target demographic of a vehicle when designing forward collision warning systems. Appropriate alert timings for FCW systems will maximize effectiveness in collision reduction and mitigation.
Napolioni, Valerio; Carpi, Francesco M; Giannì, Paola; Sacco, Roberto; Di Blasio, Luca; Mignini, Fiorenzo; Lucarini, Nazzareno; Persico, Antonio M
Aging is a complex phenotype with multiple determinants but a strong genetic component significantly impacts on survival to extreme ages. The dysregulation of immune responses occurring with increasing age is believed to contribute to human morbidity and mortality. Conversely, some genetic determinants of successful aging might reside in those polymorphisms for the immune system genes regulating immune responses. Here we examined the main effects of single loci and multi-locus interactions to test the hypothesis that the adenosine deaminase (ADA) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) genes may influence human life-expectancy. ADA (22G>A, rs73598374) and TNF-α (-308G>A, rs1800629; -238G>A, rs361525) functional SNPs have been determined for 1071 unrelated healthy individuals from Central Italy (18-106 years old) divided into three gender-specific age classes defined according to demographic information and accounting for the different survivals between sexes: for men (women), the first class consists of individuals88 years old (>91 years old). Single-locus analysis showed that only ADA 22G>A is significantly associated with human life-expectancy in males (comparison 1 (age class 2 vs. age class 1), O.R. 1.943, P=0.036; comparison 2 (age class 3 vs. age class 2), O.R. 0.320, P=0.0056). Age- and gender-specific patterns of epistasis between ADA and TNF-α were found using Generalized Multifactor Dimensionality Reduction (GMDR). In comparison 1, a significant two-loci interaction occurs in females between ADA 22G>A and TNF-α -238G>A (Sign Test P=0.011). In comparison 2, both two-loci and three-loci interaction are significant associated with increased life-expectancy over 88 years in males. In conclusion, we report that a combination of functional SNPs within ADA and TNF-α genes can influence life-expectancy in a gender-specific manner and that males and females follow different pathways to attain longevity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Vasilenko, Sara A; Evans-Polce, Rebecca J; Lanza, Stephanie T
Although research has documented age differences in substance use, less is known about how prevalence of substance use disorders (SUDs) vary across age and differ by gender and race/ethnicity. Time-varying effect models (TVEMs) were estimated on data from the National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions-III (NESARC III; N=36,309), a nationally representative survey of the adult population. The sample was 44% male; 53% White, 21% Black, 19% Hispanic/Latino, 6% other race/ethnicity. Prevalence of four SUDs (alcohol, tobacco, cannabis and opioid use disorders) were flexibly estimated across ages 18-90 by gender and race/ethnicity. Estimated SUD prevalences were generally higher for men compared to women at most ages until the 70s. However, disparities by race/ethnicity varied with age, such that for most SUDs, estimated prevalences were higher for White participants at younger ages and Black participants at older ages. Results suggest relatively constant disparities by gender across age, and a crossover effect for Black and White participants. Findings demonstrate that Black individuals in midlife may be an important target of intervention programs for some substances. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Variations in cytokine and immune mediator expression patterns in amniotic fluid due to gestational age, maternal age and fetal gender were investigated. Findings Amniotic fluid samples were obtained from 192 women, 82 with a mid-trimester amniocentesis (median gestational age 17 weeks and 110 with a caesarean section not in labor (median gestational age 39 weeks. Amniotic fluid was screened by commercial ELISAs for the TH1/TH2/TH17 cytokines and immune mediators IL-1 beta, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, IL-15, IL-17, TNF alpha, GRO-alpha, MIP1alpha, MIP1beta, Histone, and IP10. Analysis was by Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. None of the 15 examined cytokines revealed any differences in expression patterns regarding fetal gender. Significant differences were found in IL-4, IL-10, IL-12, TNF- alpha, GRO-alpha and MIP1-beta with respect to gestational age and in GRO-alpha regarding maternal age. Conclusion Cytokines utilized as biomarkers in the diagnosis of intrauterine infections are not influenced in their expression pattern by fetal gender but may vary with respect to maternal age and gestational age.
Lee, Baekhee; Lee, Mina; Yoh, Myeung Sook; You, Heecheon; Park, Hyunji; Jung, Kihyo; Lee, Byung Hwa; Na, Duk L; Kim, Geon Ha
The present study examined the effects of age (20s to 70s), gender (male and female), and hand (dominant and nondominant) on force control capabilities (FCCs) in four force control phases (initiation, development, maintenance, and termination). Normative data of FCCs by force control phase are needed for various populations in age and gender to identify a type of motor performance reduction and its severity. FCCs of 360 participants (30 for each combination of age group and gender) were measured using a finger dynamometer and quantified in terms of initiation time (IT), development time (DT), maintenance error (ME), and termination time (TT). Although gradual increases (1%~28%) by age were shown in IT, DT, and TT, a dramatic increase in ME was observed among participants in their 50s (26%), 60s (68%), and 70s (160%) compared to those in their 20s~40s. The most distinctive interaction effect of age and gender was found in ME out of the four FCC measures. Lastly, hand and its related interactions were not found significant. Normative FCC data were established for four age groups (20s~40s, 50s, 60s, and 70s) and gender. The normative FCC data can be used for evaluating an individual's motor performance, screening patients with brain disorders, and designing input devices triggered and/or operated by the finger. © 2015, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.
Lewis, Jordan P
Today, AIAN Elders are more actively engaged in their families and communities, encouraging the development of intergenerational programs, language and cultural revitalization, being stewards in research conducted in their communities, as well passing on their knowledge and experiences on how to live as healthy Native people. Elders have traditionally been quiet and observant of their environment, but the current and future cohorts of Elders are advocates, leaders, and culture bearers for their families and communities and they are now in positions of leadership. Western society acknowledges the value of traditional knowledge and AIAN Elders are viewed as exemplars of healthy aging and their lessons and experiences can be attributed to our own lives. This commentary highlights the paradigm shift in how society views older adults, specifically AIAN Elders and their role in health and wellbeing.
32 Figure 15: Profile of Job Series at PEO AVN ……………………………………….………….34 Figure 16: Histogram of Age at PEO AVN (FY15)…………………………………….………35...Figure 17: Histogram of Years-Service at PEO AVN (FY15)………………………....……….35 Figure 18: PEO AVN Retirement Eligibility by Labor Category………………………………36...Figure 19: PEO AVN Retirement Eligibility of Managers………..……………………………37 Figure 20: Profile of Job Series at AMRDEC…………………………………………………..39 Figure 21
Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate the ability of five clinimetric instruments to discriminate between subjects >60 years of age living at home versus those living in a residency.Methods. Trained nutritionists applied five instruments (Cognition/ Depression/ Functionality/ Nutrition/ Appetite to 285 subjects with majorities of women (64%, aged <80y (61% and home residents (54%.Results. Multivariable regression models were generated for each instrument using age, gender and residency as independent variables. Age was associated with worsening scores in the five instruments whereas residency showed association in three instruments, and gender in two. Score-age regressions by place of residency showed differences suggesting that Mundet residents had increasingly worse scores with increasing age, than home dwellers for Cognition, Depression and Nutrition. Also, living at home prevented the worsening of Depression with increasing age. In contrast, Functionality and Appetite deteriorated at a similar rate for home and Mundet residents suggesting an inhability of these two instruments to dicriminate between settings. Score-age regressions by gender suggested males have less cognitive problems at 60 and 80 years of age but not at 100, and better appetite than women at all ages.Conclusions. Increasing age proved to be associated to worsening scores in the five instruments but only three were able to detect differences according to setting. An interesting observation was that living at home appeared to prevent the Depression increase with increasing age seen in Mundet residents.
Full Text Available The paper devoted to the age and gender identity among the perpetrators of sexual violence against children and discussed the factors lead to pathogenesis of abnormal sexual behavior against children. We have identified particularities of gender and age identity in perpetrators of violent sexual acts against children. It was noted that patients with a diagnosis of pedophilia have abnormalities mostly in cognitive structure of sexual identity, that is shown in undifferentiated age peculiarities of perception of self-image and gender and role stereotypes. These data allow assessing more accurately the abnormalities of sexual sphere, explaining the deviant behavior, as well as structure of age and sex self-identity in persons with the disorder of sexual desire in the form of pedophilia and take a step closer to understanding the mechanisms of abnormal choice of sexual object.
Brimnes Damholt, M; Rasmussen, B K; Hilsted, L
This study is the first epidemiologically based study of basal levels of serum pancreatic polypeptide (s-PP). The basal level of serum PP has become a field of interest mainly due to the role of PP as an endocrine tumour marker, and as a marker of pancreatic neuroendocrine function after pancreas...... a monospecific radioimmunoassay. Fasting serum pancreatic polypeptide depended on age and gender. The results demonstrated that fasting pancreatic polypeptide levels increase exponentially with age. Fitted separately for each sex, basal serum pancreatic polypeptide was found to increase by approximately 3% per...... reports on the fasting levels of serum pancreatic polypeptide are most likely due to lack of adjustment for age and gender. Thus, variation due to age and gender should be considered in evaluating fasting levels of serum pancreatic polypeptide. Whether similar considerations are important when evaluating...
Ang, Rebecca P; Lowe, Patricia A; Yusof, Noradlin
The present study investigated the factor structure, reliability, convergent and discriminant validity, and U.S. norms of the Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale, Second Edition (RCMAS-2; C. R. Reynolds & B. O. Richmond, 2008a) scores in a Singapore sample of 1,618 school-age children and adolescents. Although there were small statistically significant differences in the average RCMAS-2 T scores found across various demographic groupings, on the whole, the U.S. norms appear adequate for use in the Asian Singapore sample. Results from item bias analyses suggested that biased items detected had small effects and were counterbalanced across gender and ethnicity, and hence, their relative impact on test score variation appears to be minimal. Results of factor analyses on the RCMAS-2 scores supported the presence of a large general anxiety factor, the Total Anxiety factor, and the 5-factor structure found in U.S. samples was replicated. Both the large general anxiety factor and the 5-factor solution were invariant across gender and ethnic background. Internal consistency estimates ranged from adequate to good, and 2-week test-retest reliability estimates were comparable to previous studies. Evidence providing support for convergent and discriminant validity of the RCMAS-2 scores was also found. Taken together, findings provide additional cross-cultural evidence of the appropriateness and usefulness of the RCMAS-2 as a measure of anxiety in Asian Singaporean school-age children and adolescents.
Full Text Available Identity formation constitutes a core developmental task during adolescence and emerging adulthood. However, it remains unclear how identity formation may vary across age, gender, and context (education vs. employment in these developmental periods. The present study used a recently developed model to examine identity statuses or types in a sample of 7,906 Flemish individuals (14–30 years old; 64% female. As expected, achievement, foreclosure, moratorium, carefree diffusion, troubled diffusion, and an undifferentiated status emerged through cluster analysis. Women were overrepresented in the moratorium status (characterized by high exploration, whereas men were mainly situated in foreclosure and carefree diffusion statuses (both characterized by low exploration, but individuals in foreclosure having strong identity commitments as well. Individuals in the carefree and troubled diffusion statuses, which represent the least adaptive statuses, were youngest. High school students were overrepresented in the diffusion statuses and college students were mostly present in achievement (representing the most mature status and moratorium. Finally, employed individuals were overrepresented in foreclosure, whereas unemployed individuals were mainly situated in troubled diffusion. In sum, the present study systematically examined relationships between empirically-identified identity statuses and socio-demographic variables in a large-scale sample, generating important information on age, gender, and contextual differences in identity.
Kathryn J. Chang
Full Text Available This study explores U.S. wine consumers’ perception of wine and health by gender, age, and ethnic background. An extensive body of epidemiological studies suggests that there are health benefits from moderate wine drinking. In light of an increased consumer preference over healthier foods and beverages, it is important to understand the health orientation of wine consumers and the effect of gender, age, or ethnicity on their perceptions of wine and health. An online survey was used to collect data from more than 1000 U.S. wine consumers. The results show that there is a statistically significant difference across demographic segments in terms of the level of health consciousness. Millennials and Asians are the most concerned, whereas Whites are the least, about health in their respective segments. Red wine is considered the healthiest wine type compared to other colors and styles. Moreover, more than 80% of the sample believes drinking red wine is healthier than drinking beer or spirits. However, nearly 50% of the sample thinks sulfites in wine can cause headaches. Managerial implications are discussed.
Giordimaina, Alicia M.; Sheldon, Jane P.; Kiedrowski, Lesli A.; Jayaratne, Toby Epstein
Kinkeepers facilitate family communication and may be key to family medical history collection and dissemination. Middle-aged women are frequently kinkeepers. Using type 2 diabetes (T2DM) as a model, we explored whether the predicted gender and age effects of kinkeeping can be extended to family medical historians. Through a U.S. telephone survey,…
Smyth, Bobby P
We sought to examine the fall in age of first drinking in Ireland and to determine whether there were gender differences. We also aimed to determine whether there was a relationship between the per capita alcohol consumption evident when people entered later adolescence and their age of drinking onset.
Bracken, Bruce A.; Reintjes, Cristina
This study considered depressive symptoms among a normative sample of 1,900 children, adolescents, and adults (950 males and 950 females) divided across four age-levels to investigate the developmental progression of depressive symptoms by age, race/ethnicity, and gender. The national normative sample of the Clinical Assessment of Depression (CAD)…
Powlishta, Kimberly K.
Investigated the impact of target age on gender stereotyping. College and elementary students viewed photographs of men, women, boys, and girls, rating each for masculine, feminine, and neutral personality traits. Adults also rated likelihood of masculine and feminine traits in adults versus children. Target age had important implications for…
Fonseca-Pedrero, Eduardo; Wells, Craig; Paino, Mercedes; Lemos-Giraldez, Serafin; Villazon-Garcia, Ursula; Sierra, Susana; Garcia-Portilla Gonzalez, Ma Paz; Bobes, Julio; Muniz, Jose
The main objective of the present study was to examine measurement invariance of the Reynolds Depression Adolescent Scale (RADS) (Reynolds, 1987) across gender and age in a representative sample of nonclinical adolescents. The sample was composed of 1,659 participants, 801 males (48.3%), with a mean age of 15.9 years (SD = 1.2). Confirmatory…
López-González, Ángel A; Bennasar-Veny, Miquel; Tauler, Pedro; Aguilo, Antoni; Tomàs-Salvà, Matias; Yáñez, Aina
To describe the cardiovascular risk factors in a working population in the Balearic Islands and to examine whether differences by social class vary according to age and gender. A cross-sectional study was carried out in a sample of active workers aged 20-65 years in the Balearic Islands. The participants were included in the study during their annual work health assessment in 2011. The following variables were collected: occupation, social class, age, gender, height, weight, smoking, blood pressure, lipid profile, and glucose levels. Cardiovascular risk was calculated using two different equations (Framingham and REGICOR). Differences by social class were observed for most cardiovascular risk factors. The pattern of these differences differed depending on age group and gender. Differences in obesity by social class increased with age in women but decreased in men. More differences in hypertension by social class were found among women than among men, with differences increasing with age in both genders. Significant differences by social class were found among women in lipid profile, and these differences increased with age, mainly for low levels of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol. Inequalities in cardiovascular risk factors by social class were higher among women than among men. Some cardiovascular risk factors such as smoking and obesity showed significant inequalities from a very early age. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
The aim of this study was to investigate burnout levels of handball players in terms of age, gender and experience. In this study, 116 female and 128 male, totally 244 handball players with the mean age 22.39 ± 1.98 year participated voluntarily. Maslach Burnout Inventory that originally developed by Maslach and Jackson (1981) and adapted to…
Onyeizugbo, Eucharia U.
Two hundred fourteen (214) married persons, 101 men and 113 women aged 20-60, with at least high school education, participated in the study which investigated the effects of gender, age, and educational attainment on assertiveness among married persons in Nigeria. The Assertive Behavior Assessment scale (ABAS; Onyeizugbo, 1998) was used to…
Al-Bahrani, Muna; Aldhafri, Said; Alkharusi, Hussain; Kazem, Ali; Alzubiadi, Abdulqawi
This study examines adolescents' coping styles, with relation to their gender and age and level, of six types of problems. The participants were 1843 adolescents (51.7% female and 48.3% male) from the Sultanate of Oman with a mean age of 15.75. Two scales examining general adaptive and maladaptive coping styles and levels of school, economic,…
Wiese, Holger; Kloth, Nadine; Gullmar, Daniel; Reichenbach, Jurgen R.; Schweinberger, Stefan R.
Efficient processing of unfamiliar faces typically involves their categorization (e.g., into old vs. young or male vs. female). However, age and gender categorization may pose different perceptual demands. In the present study, we employed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to compare the activity evoked during age vs. gender…
Byrne, Hollie; Dooley, Barbara; Fitzgerald, Amanda; Dolphin, Louise
The aim of the present research was to examine adolescents' definitions of bullying in a nationally representative sample of adolescents in Ireland. Definitions of bullying were examined according to age, gender, and bullying experiences. A sample of 4358 adolescents aged 12-19 years (M = 14.99 years, SD = 1.63) provided their definitions of…
There are contradicting information on the influence of age and gender on blood lipid profile, some researchers believe the levels of total cholesterol and other components of lipid profile increase with age, others have proved significant negative correlation between total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and ...
Park, Soo Kyung; Lee, Chung Kwon; Kim, Haeryun
Previous studies in Eastern as well as Western countries have shown a relationship between marital status and suicide mortality. However, to date, no Korean study has calculated national suicide rates by marital status for specific genders, ages, and education levels. This study investigated whether the relationship between marital status and suicide differs by age, gender, and educational attainment, and analyzed the effect of marital status on suicide risk after controlling for these socio-demographic variables. Using national mortality data from 2015, and aggregated census data from 2010 in South Korea, we created a virtually individualized dataset with multiple weighting algorithms, including individual socio-demographic characteristics and suicide rates across the entire population. The findings show that the following groups faced the highest relative suicide risks: 1) divorced men of all ages and men aged more than 75 years, particularly divorced men aged more than 75; and 2) never-married men aged 55-64 years, and never-married women of lower education status. We did not account for important variables such as mental health, substance abuse, employment insecurity, social integration, perceived loneness, and family income which we were unable to access. This current research extends prior theoretical and methodological work on suicide, aiding efforts to reduce suicide mortality in South Korea. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Joanna Z. Mishtal
Full Text Available After the state socialist regime of Poland collapsed in 1989, the nation's total fertility rate plummeted from 2.1 to 1.27 by 2007. Simultaneously, Poland severely reduced social service provisions and restricted access to family planning. A three-month mixed-methods research study was conducted in 2007 in Gdansk to investigate Polish women's reproductive intentions and decision making. These data reveal that discriminatory practices by employers against pregnant women and women with small children are decisive in women's decisions to postpone or forego childbearing. The case of Poland demonstrates the urgent need to redress fundamental gendered discrimination in employment before work-family reconciliation policies can be effective.
Demographic projections concerning the shortage of teachers in Canada, their pay scale, the feminization of teaching, the gender gap in salaries, and teacher autonomy have often been incorrect, or correct for the wrong reasons. Instead of relying on demographic predictions, teachers should contemplate who they really want to be professionally,…
Axelrad, Hila; Mcnamara, Tay K
The different pathways out of the labor force have been the focus of many recent studies, yet not enough scholarly attention has been paid to the effect of country-level, individual, and job characteristics and their potentially different influence across genders. The current article examines the relationships between retirement decisions and macroeconomic conditions, personal characteristics, and job satisfaction, while focusing on gender differences. Data came from 16,337 respondents in 13 European countries that participated in the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE). We find that the relative importance of macroeconomic conditions and job satisfaction differs by gender.
Yu, Liang; Recker, Mimi; Chen, Shijian; Zhao, Nan; Yang, Qiuyan
This study investigated the relationship between adolescents' problematic Internet use (PIU) and demographic characteristics such as age, gender, and information and communication technology (ICT) literacy and the moderating effect of geographic area on this relationship using a cross-sectional research design. The study sample comprised 2160 adolescents from the Chongqing area of China and consisted of 47.3 percent boys (N = 1022) and 52.7 percent girls (N = 1138). Participants anonymously completed a 38-item questionnaire that examined their Internet use, behaviors, and attitudes, ICT literacy, parents' education level, and other demographic information. The results showed that the geographic area in which respondents lived (urban vs. rural), gender, age, father's education, mother's education, and ICT literacy had significant relationships with PIU. Moreover, hierarchical multiple regression analyses indicated that geographic area was found to be a significant moderator for both age and gender in their relationship with PIU. These findings suggest that it is essential to address differences between urban and rural areas when seeking to mitigate PIU among adolescents.
Gbadamosi, Gbolahan; Bello, M.
This study investigates attitude towards corruption and the role of gender, religion, education and age using a Nigerian survey data. It also seeks to establish how attitudes towards corruption relates to some other reported ethical measures such as Islamic work ethics, money ethic and corruption perception. Over 3800 questionnaires were administered with 1833 or about 48% response rate. Results revealed no significant gender differences in corruption but women reported being more religious. ...
Skokou, Maria; Gourzis, Philippos
Personality disorders in the premorbid period of schizophrenia and particularly in relation to age of onset and sex, seem to be a rather under-researched area. In the present study, 88 patients with paranoid schizophrenia were examined, regarding demographic characteristics and premorbid personality disorder traits, in order to investigate for differences in the premorbid period of the disease, in relation to age of onset and sex. Age cutoff points were set at personality disorder traits were retrospectively assessed by using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-Patient Edition for Axis II disorders (SCID-II). Comparisons were performed by applying the two-tailed Wilcoxon rank-sum and the χ(2) statistical tests. Young onset patients were characterized by significantly higher proportion of urban birth, single status, more avoidant premorbid personality disorder traits, and less passive-aggressive premorbid personality disorder traits, than late onset counterparts. Differences were more prominently shown in men. Earlier age of onset seems to be associated to increased social inhibition and worse psychosocial adaptation in the premorbid period of paranoid schizophrenia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kim, Hyunduk; Lee, Sang-Heon; Sohn, Myoung-Kyu; Hwang, Byunghun
In this paper, we propose an age and gender estimation framework using the region-SIFT feature and multi-layered SVM classifier. The suggested framework entails three processes. The first step is landmark based face alignment. The second step is the feature extraction step. In this step, we introduce the region-SIFT feature extraction method based on facial landmarks. First, we define sub-regions of the face. We then extract SIFT features from each sub-region. In order to reduce the dimensions of features we employ a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and a Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA). Finally, we classify age and gender using a multi-layered Support Vector Machines (SVM) for efficient classification. Rather than performing gender estimation and age estimation independently, the use of the multi-layered SVM can improve the classification rate by constructing a classifier that estimate the age according to gender. Moreover, we collect a dataset of face images, called by DGIST_C, from the internet. A performance evaluation of proposed method was performed with the FERET database, CACD database, and DGIST_C database. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed approach classifies age and performs gender estimation very efficiently and accurately.
Moksnes, Unni K; Espnes, Geir A
The present paper investigated gender differences on life satisfaction and self-esteem as well as the association between self-esteem and life satisfaction in Norwegian adolescents aged 13-18 years. The potential moderating role of gender and age in the relation between self-esteem and life satisfaction was also investigated. A total of 1,239 adolescents from public elementary and secondary schools in mid-Norway participated in the school-based survey study. Mean score differences on the variables used in the study were tested using t tests. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was used to evaluate the association between self-esteem and life satisfaction, controlled for gender, age, stress, subjective health, and chronic health conditions. The results showed that boys scored higher than girls on both self-esteem and life satisfaction. Self-esteem was positively associated with life satisfaction, explaining 24 % of the variance. However, no interaction effect of gender × self-esteem or age × self-esteem was found in relation to life satisfaction. The results give support for that boys report higher self-esteem and life satisfaction than girls. Self-esteem has a positive role in association with adolescents' life satisfaction, and this relationship is equally strong for both genders and across age.
Full Text Available [b]Objective[/b]. To assess the physical activity of working residents of Warsaw aged 20–69 years, as well as to identify the socio-demographic factors associated with their levels of physical activity. [b]Materials and method[/b]. The study involved 2,544 working residents of Warsaw aged 20–69 years. The short version of the IPAQ was applied and four physical activity levels (insufficient, sufficient, augmented, high were distinguished. The relationships between physical activity and gender, age, BMI, education, economic and martial status as well as participation in recreation were determined. [b]Results[/b]. High levels of physical activity were reached by 8% of respondents, 22% achieved augmented level, 32% were sufficiently and 32% insufficiently active. Out of 2544 studied subjects, 6% declared complete sedentariness. Females were, as compared to males, more frequently (p<0.05 insufficiently active (35.9 vs. 31.9%. In obese and overweight subjects insufficient physical activity predominated (42.9 and 36.2%, respectively and was significantly more frequent than in subjects with normal BMI (31.0%. Moreover, the subjects living in partner relationships were significantly (p<0.05 more frequently insufficiently active than those staying single (36.3 vs. 30.3%. Respondents who declared regular participation in leisure activities were less frequently insufficiently active (20.0% and more frequently met the criteria of sufficient (37.6%, augmented (28.0% or high (14.4% level of physical activity. No significant effects were found with respect to education of respondents. [b]Conclusions[/b]. Prophylactic schedules associated with the improvement of physical activity level should be addressed particularly to females, people taking up recreation occasionally or to those not involved in recreation at all, living in partner relationships, youngest (21–30 years, in obese and overweight and in the lowest economic category.
Oct 10, 2013 ... Background: Data on central region morphometry of a child brain is important not only in terms of ... brain volume reaches the peak at the age of 14.5 in men ..... child and adolescent brain and effects of genetic variation.
Danzinger, Paula R.; Welfel, Elizabeth Reynolds
Study compares the responses to the Age Bias Questionnaire among professional clinical counselors, psychologists, and clinical social workers. Results indicate that mental health professionals judged older clients significantly less competent and less likely to improve than younger clients. They also judged female clients as less competent than…
Full Text Available This paper specifies, designs and critically evaluates two tools for the automated identification of demographic data (age, occupation and social class from the profile descriptions of Twitter users in the United Kingdom (UK. Meta-data data routinely collected through the Collaborative Social Media Observatory (COSMOS: http://www.cosmosproject.net/ relating to UK Twitter users is matched with the occupational lookup tables between job and social class provided by the Office for National Statistics (ONS using SOC2010. Using expert human validation, the validity and reliability of the automated matching process is critically assessed and a prospective class distribution of UK Twitter users is offered with 2011 Census baseline comparisons. The pattern matching rules for identifying age are explained and enacted following a discussion on how to minimise false positives. The age distribution of Twitter users, as identified using the tool, is presented alongside the age distribution of the UK population from the 2011 Census. The automated occupation detection tool reliably identifies certain occupational groups, such as professionals, for which job titles cannot be confused with hobbies or are used in common parlance within alternative contexts. An alternative explanation on the prevalence of hobbies is that the creative sector is overrepresented on Twitter compared to 2011 Census data. The age detection tool illustrates the youthfulness of Twitter users compared to the general UK population as of the 2011 Census according to proportions, but projections demonstrate that there is still potentially a large number of older platform users. It is possible to detect "signatures" of both occupation and age from Twitter meta-data with varying degrees of accuracy (particularly dependent on occupational groups but further confirmatory work is needed.
Sloan, Luke; Morgan, Jeffrey; Burnap, Pete; Williams, Matthew
This paper specifies, designs and critically evaluates two tools for the automated identification of demographic data (age, occupation and social class) from the profile descriptions of Twitter users in the United Kingdom (UK). Meta-data data routinely collected through the Collaborative Social Media Observatory (COSMOS: http://www.cosmosproject.net/) relating to UK Twitter users is matched with the occupational lookup tables between job and social class provided by the Office for National Statistics (ONS) using SOC2010. Using expert human validation, the validity and reliability of the automated matching process is critically assessed and a prospective class distribution of UK Twitter users is offered with 2011 Census baseline comparisons. The pattern matching rules for identifying age are explained and enacted following a discussion on how to minimise false positives. The age distribution of Twitter users, as identified using the tool, is presented alongside the age distribution of the UK population from the 2011 Census. The automated occupation detection tool reliably identifies certain occupational groups, such as professionals, for which job titles cannot be confused with hobbies or are used in common parlance within alternative contexts. An alternative explanation on the prevalence of hobbies is that the creative sector is overrepresented on Twitter compared to 2011 Census data. The age detection tool illustrates the youthfulness of Twitter users compared to the general UK population as of the 2011 Census according to proportions, but projections demonstrate that there is still potentially a large number of older platform users. It is possible to detect “signatures” of both occupation and age from Twitter meta-data with varying degrees of accuracy (particularly dependent on occupational groups) but further confirmatory work is needed. PMID:25729900
McDaniel, Susan A.
Full Text Available AbstractSome analysts lean toward comparative analyses of population aging, then draw potential policy implications. Others lean in the direction of attention to differences in policy regimes and then consider implications of population aging. Key differences among advanced societies may not emanate from demographic aging but from differences in how markets, states, and families work to redistribute societal benefits. In this paper, three countries with contrasting configurations of markets, states, and families, and at different stages of demographic aging, are compared and contrasted: Canada, Japan, and Korea. The paper has three objectives: 1to outline key changes in population, family, and work in the three countries; 2 to consider how knowledge about these changes, their dynamics and interrelationships, is framed with respect to policy options; and 3 to compare Canada, Japan, and Korea in terms of the framing of policy challenges related to demographic aging. It is found that Canada is joining the longstanding pattern of Japan and Korea of late home-leaving by youth, meaning less effective time in the paid labour force. Little deep connection exists between population aging andeconomic productivity or labour force shortages. Differential labour market participation of women mediates the effects of population aging.RésuméIl y a des analystes qui ont un penchant pour les analyses comparatives du vieillissement despopulations, puis en déduisent les implications possibles sur les politiques. D’autres préfèrentporter leur attention sur les différences dans les régimes de politiques, puis considèrent lesimplications sur le vieillissement des populations. Il est possible que les différences majeuresdans les civilisations de pointe ne soient pas apparentes dans le vieillissement démographique mais plutôt dans les différentes manières dont les marchés, les états, et les familles oeuvrent àredistribuer les avantages sociaux. Dans
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to verify the current anthropometrical status of the pupils of the age 12, as well as to compare it with the standards of raising in accordance with the WHO standards. In the study were included 62 pupils (42 male and 20 female. The anthropometric tests were done in height, weight, biacromial and elbow breadth, subcutaneous adipose tissue at the : suprailiac skinfold; subscapular skinfold; triceps skinfold, as well as the abdominal circumference. The results showed that there was a heterogenic distribution of results, especially in the body weight, where the distribution between the minimal and maximal results is 28-70 kg, with the average 43, 14 ± 9, 78 of standard deviation with the male pupils, while with the female pupils was noticed more homogenous group and the standard deviation was significantly lower than with the female pupils in all variables. The findings show that almost in all measured variables female pupils are more developed at this age, especially the body high, body weight and subcutaneous adipose tissue, while as regards the abdominal circumference and body breadth, the male pupils are more developed. Comparison of symbolic sample of this research with the WHO data shows an approximate trend of raising and development of children which were included in this research, and the difference is as follows: Female pupils age 12, body height=151.97 cm
George, James F; Pamboukian, Salpy V; Tallaj, José A; Naftel, David C; Myers, Susan L; Foushee, Margaret T; Brown, Robert N; Pajaro, Octavio E; McGiffin, David C; Kirklin, James K
Donor and recipient risk factors for rejection and infection have been well characterized. The contribution of demographic factors, especially age at the time of transplantation to morbidity and mortality due to rejection and infection, is much less well understood. Using parametric hazard analysis and multivariate risk-factor equations for infection and rejection events, we quantitatively determined the relationship of fundamental demographic variables (age, race and gender) to infection and rejection. These analyses were conducted with respect to date of transplant and age at the time of transplantation. The patient group consisted of all primary heart transplants performed at the University of Alabama at Birmingham during the years 1990 to 2007 (n = 526). Risk factors for rejection within 12 months post-transplantation were date of transplant (p < 0.0001) and age at the time of transplantation (young adults 10 to 30 years of age, p < 0.0001). Risk factors for infection were date of transplant (p < 0.0001) and age at the time of transplantation (young children and older adults, p < 0.0001). There were three immunosuppressive eras in 1990 to 2007. Notably, although the proportion of patients experiencing rejection and infection events decreased during each successive immunosuppressive era, the relative relationship of infection to rejection, as well as age at the time of transplantation, remained similar into the most recent era. The maximal frequency of rejection events and rejection death occurred among patients transplanted at ages 10 to 30 years. Conversely, the frequency of infection events was minimal within the same group. In the oldest and youngest patients receiving transplants, infection was the predominant cause of death and rates of rejection events decreased. These data show that evolving immunosuppressive strategies have successfully reduced rejection and infection frequencies, and those patients transplanted at 30 to 60 years of age have the lowest
Vyas, K.; Eklem, M.; Seto, H.; Bobba, V.R.; Brown, P.; Haines, J.; Krishnamurthy, G.T.
The effects of age, gender, and laterality on sacroiliac/sacral ratios obtained during quantitative joint imaging were assessed in 97 nonarthritic control subjects. For the entire group, the right sacroiliac-to-sacral mean ratio of 1.27 in 54 males was significantly higher than the right mean ratio of 1.18 in 53 females. In both genders the right joint ratio tended to be higher than the left in all age groups. The difference in mean ratio between the two joints was wider for males than for females. The age did not afect the joint ratio in either gender. It is concluded that the range of normal sacroiliac-to-sacral ratios are different for males and females and should be taken into account during a quantitative sacroiliac joint imaging examination
Guo, Xitong; Han, Xiaocui; Zhang, Xiaofei; Dang, Yuanyuan; Chen, Chun
Mobile health (m-health) services are becoming increasingly important and widely accepted. However, empirical studies on potential users' m-health acceptance behavior remain underexplored. Indeed, m-health adoption is not only a technology acceptance behavior, but also a health-related behavior. Based on the Protection Motivation Theory, this article explores users' m-health adoption behavior from the perspectives of threat appraisal and coping appraisal, and also examines the moderating role of gender and age through a survey of potential users. The survey was conducted among 500 potential m-health service participants. Our results show that threat appraisal and coping appraisal factors influence adoption intention through attitude. It is also found that gender and age play different moderating roles with threat appraisal and coping appraisal factors. Gender and age play different roles between threat appraisal and coping appraisal factors in the acceptance of m-health. Implications for research and practice are discussed.
Wiese, Holger; Schweinberger, Stefan R; Neumann, Markus F
We used repetition priming to investigate implicit and explicit processes of unfamiliar face categorization. During prime and test phases, participants categorized unfamiliar faces according to either age or gender. Faces presented at test were either new or primed in a task-congruent (same task during priming and test) or incongruent (different tasks) condition. During age categorization, reaction times revealed significant priming for both priming conditions, and event-related potentials yielded an increased N170 over the left hemisphere as a result of priming. During gender categorization, congruent faces elicited priming and a latency decrease in the right N170. Accordingly, information about age is extracted irrespective of processing demands, and priming facilitates the extraction of feature information reflected in the left N170 effect. By contrast, priming of gender categorization may depend on whether the task at initial presentation requires configural processing.
Ricarte Trives, Jorge Javier; Navarro Bravo, Beatriz; Latorre Postigo, José Miguel; Ros Segura, Laura; Watkins, Ed
Our study tested the hypothesis that older adults and men use more adaptive emotion regulatory strategies but fewer negative emotion regulatory strategies than younger adults and women. In addition, we tested the hypothesis that rumination acts as a mediator variable for the effect of age and gender on depression scores. Differences in rumination, problem solving, distraction, autobiographical recall and depression were assessed in a group of young adults (18-29 years) compared to a group of older adults (50-76 years). The older group used more problem solving and distraction strategies when in a depressed state than their younger counterparts (ps .06). Ordinary least squares regression analyses with bootstrapping showed that rumination mediated the association between age, gender and depression scores. These results suggest that older adults and men select more adaptive strategies to regulate emotions than young adults and women with rumination acting as a significant mediator variable in the association between age, gender, and depression.
Kouhei Masumoto PhD; Nozomi Taishi PhD; Mariko Shiozaki PhD
Objective: We investigated the effects of age on mood and mental health-mediated emotion regulation, such as cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression, and examined whether these relationships differ according to gender. Method: We recruited 936 Japanese participants. They comprised six age groups ranging from 20 to 70 years old, with 156 participants in each age group and equal numbers of men and women. Results: Structural equation model analysis showed that older participants were mo...
Full Text Available Background: The separate spheres, in which men dominate the public sphere of politics, arts, media, and wage work and women dominate the private sphere of unpaid production and caring, is a powerful configuration in much social theory (including Parsons, Becker, and Goode, which posited that with industrialization, family structures and activities would converge towards the nuclear family with strict gender roles. Objective: This paper examines the major trends unraveling the gender division of family support and care that reached its peak in the mid-20th century, often called the 'worker-carer' or the 'separate spheres' model, by comparing the experiences of Sweden and the United States. Methods: We use data that includes time series of macro-level demographic and economic indicators, together with cross-sectional data from censuses and time use surveys. Results: The unraveling of the separate spheres began with the increase in the labor force participation of married women and continues with the increase in men's involvement with their homes and children, but its foundations were laid in the 19th century, with industrialization. We show that despite short-term stalls, slowdowns, and even reverses, as well as huge differences in policy contexts, the overall picture of increasing gender sharing in family support and care is strongly taking shape in both countries. Contribution: By doing a comparative, in-depth analysis, it becomes clear that the extreme role specialization within the couple that divided caring from 'work,' though theoretically important, applied only for a limited period in Northern Europe and the United States, however important it might be in other regions.
Gayoso-Diz, Pilar; Otero-Gonzalez, Alfonso; Rodriguez-Alvarez, María Xosé; Gude, Francisco; Cadarso-Suarez, Carmen; García, Fernando; De Francisco, Angel
To describe the distribution of HOMA-IR levels in a general nondiabetic population and its relationships with metabolic and lifestyles characteristics. Cross-sectional study. Data from 2246 nondiabetic adults in a random Spanish population sample, stratified by age and gender, were analyzed. Assessments included a structured interview, physical examination, and blood sampling. Generalized additive models (GAMs) were used to assess the effect of lifestyle habits and clinical and demographic measurements on HOMA-IR. Multivariate GAMs and quantile regression analyses of HOMA-IR were carried out separately in men and women. This study shows refined estimations of HOMA-IR levels by age, body mass index, and waist circumference in men and women. HOMA-IR levels were higher in men (2.06) than women (1.95) (P=0.047). In women, but not men, HOMA-IR and age showed a significant nonlinear association (P=0.006), with increased levels above fifty years of age. We estimated HOMA-IR curves percentile in men and women. Age- and gender-adjusted HOMA-IR levels are reported in a representative Spanish adult non-diabetic population. There are gender-specific differences, with increased levels in women over fifty years of age that may be related with changes in body fat distribution after menopause. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ferrari, Roberto; Abergel, Hélène; Ford, Ian; Fox, Kim M; Greenlaw, Nicola; Steg, Ph Gabriel; Hu, Dayi; Tendera, Michal; Tardif, Jean-Claude
Contemporary generalizable data on the demographics and management of outpatients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) in routine clinical practice are sparse. Using the data from the CLARIFY registry we describe gender- and age-related differences in baseline characteristics and management of these patients across broad geographic regions. This international, prospective, observational, longitudinal registry enrolled stable CAD outpatients from 45 countries in Africa, Asia, Australia, Europe, the Middle East, and North, Central, and South America. Baseline data were available for 33280 patients. Mean (SD) age was 64 (10.5) years and 22.5% of patients were female. The prevalence of CAD risk factors was generally higher in women than in men. Women were older (66.6 vs 63.4 years), more frequently diagnosed with diabetes (33% vs 28%), hypertension (79% vs 69%), and higher resting heart rate (69 vs 67 bpm), and were less physically active. Smoking and a history of myocardial infarction were more common in men. Women were more likely to have angina (28% vs 20%), but less likely to have undergone revascularization procedures. CAD was more likely to be asymptomatic in older patients perhaps because of reduced levels of physical activity. Prescription of evidence-based medication for secondary prevention varied with age, with patients ≥ 75 years treated less often with beta blockers, aspirin and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors than patients age groups of outpatients with stable CAD. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Oudshoorn, Nelly; Neven, Louis; Stienstra, Marcelle
This article adopts an intersectional approach to investigate how age, gender, and diversity are represented, silenced, or prioritized in design. Based on a comparative study of design practices of information and communication technologies (ICTs) for young girls and older people, this article describes differences and similarities in the ways in which designers tried to cope with diversity. Ultimately diversity was neglected, and the developers relied on hegemonic views of gender and age, constructed older people and young girls as an "other," and consequently their input was neglected. These views were thus materialized in design and reinforce such views in powerful yet unobtrusive ways.
Todd, B.; Barry, J.A.; Thommessen, S.
Many studies have found that a majority of boys and girls prefer to play with toys that are typed to their own gender but there is still uncertainty about the age at which such sex differences first appear, and under what conditions. Applying a standardized research protocol and using a selection of gender-typed toys, we observed the toy preferences of boys and girls engaged in independent play in UK nurseries, without the presence of a parent. The 101 boys and girls fell into three age group...
Gróf, Marek; Vagašová, Tatiana; Oltman, Marián; Skladaný, Ľubomír; Maličká, Lenka
The economy of each state provides a significant amount of money into the health care system with the aim of knowing the health status of its population in the context of socioeconomic characteristics for effective resource allocation. In recent years, there is a growing number of cancer deaths in Slovakia. Therefore, the structure of cancer deaths according to its primary determinants, such as age, sex and education with the aim of effective implementation of prevention programs in Slovakia was examined. Main source of data on deaths from 1996 to 2014 was provided by National Health Information Centre in Slovakia. However, data were available only from 2011. Standardized mortality rate per 100,000 inhabitants was estimated by the method of direct standardization using European standard population. The R project for statistical computing was used for calculation of statistically significant differences among various groups of mortality. The results show that people with primary education die from cancer later than people with higher education. However, major differences related to both sex and age are present in people with university education. A different variety of cancers occur in childhood (neoplasm of brain), adolescents (neoplasm of bone), young adults (neoplasm of brain), or adults (lung cancer and breast cancer). Malignant neoplasm of brain was more prevalent at higher education levels, Malignant neoplasm of bladder and Malignant melanoma of skin were more prevalent at the university level of education. The results can be useful for economists to define the health priorities in each country, make the financial decisions in economics, and thus contribute to better health, economic growth, as well as effective spending of health expenditures. Copyright© by the National Institute of Public Health, Prague 2017.
Schneevogt, Daniela; Paggio, Patrizia
subjects. We conduct an emotion recognition task followed by two stereotype question- naires with different genders and age groups. While recent findings (Krems et al., 2015) suggest that women are biased to see anger in neutral facial expressions posed by females, in our sample both genders assign higher...... ratings of anger to all emotions expressed by females. Furthermore, we demonstrate an effect of gender on the fear-surprise-confusion observed by Tomkins and McCarter (1964); females overpredict fear, while males overpredict surprise.......Recent studies have demonstrated gender and cultural differences in the recognition of emotions in facial expressions. However, most studies were conducted on American subjects. In this pa- per, we explore the generalizability of several findings to a non-American culture in the form of Danish...
Scheiring, Gábor; Stefler, Dénes; Irdam, Darja; Fazekas, Mihaly; Azarova, Aytalina; Kolesnikova, Irina; Köllő, János; Popov, Vladimir; Szelenyi, Ivan; Marmot, Michael; Murphy, Michael; McKee, Martin; Bobak, Martin; King, Lawrence
Research on the health outcomes of globalisation and economic transition has yielded conflicting results, partly due to methodological and data limitations. Specifically, the outcomes of changes in foreign investment and state ownership need to be examined using multilevel data, linking macro-effects and micro-effects. We exploited the natural experiment offered by the Hungarian economic transition by means of a multilevel study designed to address these gaps in the scientific literature. For this indirect demographic, retrospective cohort study, we collected multilevel data related to Hungary between 1995 and 2004 from the PrivMort database and other sources at the town, company, and individual level to assess the relation between the dominant company ownership of a town and mortality. We grouped towns into three ownership categories: dominant state, domestic private, and foreign ownership. We did population surveys in these towns to collect data on vital status and other characteristics of survey respondents' relatives. We assessed the relation between dominant ownership and mortality at the individual level. We used discrete-time survival modelling, adjusting for town-level and individual-level confounders, with clustered SEs. Of 83 eligible towns identified, we randomly selected 52 for inclusion in the analysis and analysed ownership data from 262 companies within these towns. Additionally, between June 16, 2014, and Dec 22, 2014, we collected data on 78 622 individuals from the 52 towns, of whom 27 694 were considered eligible. After multivariable adjustment, we found that women living in towns with prolonged state ownership had significantly lower odds of dying than women living in towns dominated by domestic private ownership (odds ratio [OR] 0·74, 95% CI 0·61-0·90) or by foreign investment (OR 0·80, 0·69-0·92). Prolonged state ownership was associated with protection of life chances during the post-socialist transformation for women. The indirect
Bang, Seong Ae; Cho, Sang Soo; Yoon, Eun Jin; Park, Hyun Soo; Lee, Eun Ju; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Kim, Sang Sun
In this study, we investigated gender differences in age-related declines in regional cerebral glucose metabolism using FDG-PET in a large population sample with a broad age range. 230 healthy subjects (90 male; age: 34-80 y, 140 females; age: 33-82 y) participated. Correlation maps showing age related declines in glucose uptake were created separately for each gender in SPM2. Using population-based probabilistic volume of interests (VOIs), VOIs were defined for the regions showing significant decline with aging. Age related declines were separately assessed within each age range using analysis of covariate in SPSS 13.0. In the total population without gender effect, age-related negative correlation of glucose metabolism was found in the bilateral inferior frontal gyri, bilateral caudate, bilateral thalamus, left insula, left superior frontal gyrus, left uncus, right superior temporal gyrus, right medial frontal gyrus, right parahippocampal gyrus, right anterior cingulate gyrus (P < 0.001 corrected, extent threshold k = 100). 14 VOIs values of brain regions were calculated based on this negative correlation results. The rate of decline across all defined VOIs assessed in the age category of 'more than 70' referenced to the category of '30- 39years' were 7.85% in the entire sample; 7.62% in male and 8.09% in female. Detailed analyses of declines in each age range showed separable patterns of declines across gender. In males, greater decline was observed after the age 60 (20.45%) than the ages of 30 and 50(7.98%). Whereas in females, greater declines were found in age 60s (20.15%) compared to 50s, and in 40(14.84%) compared to 30s. Age-related decline in cerebral glucose metabolism was found in both genders. We further observed that males show a relatively constant pattern of decline across a life span; whereas, females show a pattern of steep changes aging to 60s and to 40s, which may be related to changes in sex hormone levels after menopause
Bang, Seong Ae; Cho, Sang Soo; Yoon, Eun Jin; Park, Hyun Soo; Lee, Eun Ju; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Kim, Sang Sun [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
In this study, we investigated gender differences in age-related declines in regional cerebral glucose metabolism using FDG-PET in a large population sample with a broad age range. 230 healthy subjects (90 male; age: 34-80 y, 140 females; age: 33-82 y) participated. Correlation maps showing age related declines in glucose uptake were created separately for each gender in SPM2. Using population-based probabilistic volume of interests (VOIs), VOIs were defined for the regions showing significant decline with aging. Age related declines were separately assessed within each age range using analysis of covariate in SPSS 13.0. In the total population without gender effect, age-related negative correlation of glucose metabolism was found in the bilateral inferior frontal gyri, bilateral caudate, bilateral thalamus, left insula, left superior frontal gyrus, left uncus, right superior temporal gyrus, right medial frontal gyrus, right parahippocampal gyrus, right anterior cingulate gyrus (P < 0.001 corrected, extent threshold k = 100). 14 VOIs values of brain regions were calculated based on this negative correlation results. The rate of decline across all defined VOIs assessed in the age category of 'more than 70' referenced to the category of '30- 39years' were 7.85% in the entire sample; 7.62% in male and 8.09% in female. Detailed analyses of declines in each age range showed separable patterns of declines across gender. In males, greater decline was observed after the age 60 (20.45%) than the ages of 30 and 50(7.98%). Whereas in females, greater declines were found in age 60s (20.15%) compared to 50s, and in 40(14.84%) compared to 30s. Age-related decline in cerebral glucose metabolism was found in both genders. We further observed that males show a relatively constant pattern of decline across a life span; whereas, females show a pattern of steep changes aging to 60s and to 40s, which may be related to changes in sex hormone levels after menopause.
Medic, Nikola; Young, Bradley W; Starkes, Janet L; Weir, Patricia L; Grove, J Robert
A relative age effect has been identified in Masters sports (Medic, Starkes, & Young, 2007). Since gender, age, and type of sport have been found to influence the relative age effect in youth sports (Musch & Grondin, 2001), we examined how these three variables influenced possible relative age effects among Masters swimmers and track and field athletes. Using archived data between 1996 and 2006, frequency of participation entries and record-setting performances at the US Masters championships were examined as a function of an individual's constituent year within any 5-year age category. Study 1 investigated the frequency of Master athletes who participated; Study 2 examined the frequency of performance records that were set across constituent years within an age category, while accounting for the distribution of participation frequencies. Results showed that a participation-related relative age effect in Masters sports is stronger for males, that it becomes progressively stronger with each successive decade of life, and that it does not differ across track and field and swimming. In addition, a performance-related relative age effect in Masters sport seems to be stronger for swimming than track and field, but it does not differ across gender and decades of life.
Petrini, Laura; Tomczak Matthiesen, Susan; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars
The study investigates the impact of age and gender on (1) experimental pressure pain detection thresholds (PPDT) and pressure pain tolerance thresholds (PPTolT) and (2) participants’self-reports of pain intensity and unpleasantness at suprathreshold and subthreshold levels. Methods: twenty young...... (20–34, mean age = 24.6 ± 3.5 years, ten female) and twenty elderly (65–88, mean age = 73.7 ± 6.6 years, ten female) healthy volunteers were compared. Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE 28–30) assessed intact cognitive functioning. Pain thresholds were assessed together with the sensory intensity...... ratings to 1.3 × PPDT (pain) and 0.2 × PPDT (no pain). Results: PPDT and PPTolT significantly decreased with age and were lower in young females as compared with young males. No gender differences were observed in the elderly group. PPDT decreased significantly with age in males but not in females...
This research analyzes the Department of Highway Safety and Motor Vehicle's (DHSMV) 1993 to 1995 crash data. There are four demographic variables investigated throughout the research, which are age, gender, race, and residency. To show general trends...
Rosanna M. Giaffredo Angrisani
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of gender and weight/gestational age ratio on the Auditory Brainstem Response (ABR in preterm (PT and term (T newborns. METHODS: 176 newborns were evaluated by ABR; 88 were preterm infants - 44 females (22 small and 22 appropriate for gestational age and 44 males (22 small and 22 appropriate for gestational age. The preterm infants were compared to 88 term infants - 44 females (22 small and 22 appropriate for gestational age and 44 males (22 small and 22 appropriate for gestational age. All newborns had bilateral presence of transient otoacoustic emissions and type A tympanometry. RESULTS: No interaural differences were found. ABR response did not differentiate newborns regarding weight/gestational age in males and females. Term newborn females showed statistically shorter absolute latencies (except on wave I than males. This finding did not occur in preterm infants, who had longer latencies than term newborns, regardless of gender. CONCLUSIONS: Gender and gestational age influence term infants' ABR, with lower responses in females. The weight/gestational age ratio did not influence ABR response in either groups.
Pauls, Franz; Petermann, Franz; Lepach, Anja Christina
Analysing the relationship between gender and memory, and examining the effects of age on the overall memory-related functioning, are the ongoing goals of psychological research. The present study examined gender and age group differences in episodic memory with respect to the type of task. In addition, these subgroup differences were also analysed in visual working memory. A sample of 366 women and 330 men, aged between 16 and 69 years of age, participated in the current study. Results indicate that women outperformed men on auditory memory tasks, whereas male adolescents and older male adults showed higher level performances on visual episodic and visual working memory measures. However, the size of gender-linked effects varied somewhat across age groups. Furthermore, results partly support a declining performance on episodic memory and visual working memory measures with increasing age. Although age-related losses in episodic memory could not be explained by a decreasing verbal and visuospatial ability with age, women's advantage in auditory episodic memory could be explained by their advantage in verbal ability. Men's higher level visual episodic memory performance was found to result from their advantage in visuospatial ability. Finally, possible methodological, biological, and cognitive explanations for the current findings are discussed.
Full Text Available The paper presents the result of a spatial analysis considering the effect of demographic ageing and ageing-in-place processes in Germany according to spatially differentiated ageing patterns among urban, sub-urban and rural counties up to 2025. As to the latest official population forecast counties of urban core regions will undergo a slower ageing process than other types of counties, resulting in a reversal of ageing patterns. Urban core areas in this analysis will gain demographically from their net migration surplus while suburban housing locations of the past will be no longer able to attract enough young migrants to compensate for their now rapidly ageing baby boomer generation. The process presented is typical for the fate of (suburban housing areas with homogenous populations under conditions of ageing and shrinking if spatial mobility in ageing population groups is declining.
Szewczyk-Krolikowski, Konrad; Tomlinson, Paul; Nithi, Kannan; Wade-Martins, Richard; Talbot, Kevin; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Hu, Michele T M
Identifying factors influencing phenotypic heterogeneity in Parkinson's Disease is crucial for understanding variability in disease severity and progression. Age and gender are two most basic epidemiological characteristics, yet their effect on expression of PD symptoms is not fully defined. We aimed to delineate effects of age and gender on the phenotype in an incident cohort of PD patients and healthy controls from the Oxford Parkinson Disease Centre (OPDC). Clinical features, including demographic and medical characteristics and non-motor and motor symptoms, were analyzed in a group of PD patients within 3 years of diagnosis and a group of healthy controls from the OPDC cohort. Disease features were stratified according to age and compared between genders, controlling for effects of common covariates. 490 PD patients and 176 healthy controls were analyzed. Stratification by age showed increased disease severity with age on motor scales. Some non-motor features showed similar trend, including cognition and autonomic features. Comparison across genders highlighted a pattern of increased severity and greater symptom symmetricality in the face, neck and arms in men with women having more postural problems. Amongst the non-motor symptoms, men had more cognitive impairment, greater rate of REM behavior disorder (RBD), more orthostatic hypotension and sexual dysfunction. Age in PD is a strong factor contributing to disease severity even after controlling for the effect of disease duration. Gender-related motor phenotype can be defined by a vertical split into more symmetrical upper-body disease in men and disease dominated by postural symptoms in women. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mica, Ladislav; Oesterle, Linda; Werner, Clément M L; Simmen, Hans-Peter
Violent behaviour associated with alcohol consumption is frequently reported by different media. Clinical data analysing the correlation between alcohol intoxication, age, gender and violence are scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of age, gender and blood alcohol content on violent behaviour under the influence of alcohol under central European conditions. Three hundred patients admitted to the emergency department were included into this study in the time period from January 01. to December 31. 2009. The inclusion criteria were a blood alcohol content (BAC) of ≥10 mmol/l, any traumatic injury and an age ≥16 years. Violence was defined as an evitable act committed by others leading to patient's hospitalisation. The data were compared with Wilcoxon and χ2-test for proportions. The data were considered as significant if pviolence with no correlation to blood alcohol content found. Logistic regression analysis revealed male gender and young age as an independent predictor for violence. These results clarify the relationship between alcohol, age, gender and violence and have important implications for municipal-level alcohol policies.
صادق تقی لو
Full Text Available Parenting styles play a major role in determining the life styles of adolescents and that is why they share a special significance. The present study was done with the aim to investigate adolescents’ perceived parenting styles based on their gender and age. The study was conducted by a post-event method and with a sample size of 623 subjects (311 female and 312 male, who were selected by the multistage sampling method. Data were analyzed, after being collected by the Baumrind Parenting Styles Questionnaire, using multivariate analysis of variance. The results indicated that the main effects of gender and age are significant at 0.01 level. Parents’ interaction with boys is more authoritarian and with girls more authoritative; also compared with adolescents less than 17 years, they interact with adolescents 17 years old more permissively. The interaction effects of gender and age were significant at 0.05 level only in the permissive parenting style. This means that unlike the girls, parents use more and more the permissive parenting style along with increasing age of adolescent teenage boys. It was concluded that the interaction patterns of parents with children are not fixed and these patterns vary according to gender and age of the children.
Moser, Rosemarie Scolaro; Olek, Lauren; Schatz, Philip
Little is known regarding gender differences in concussion symptom reporting developmentally across the age span, specifically in pre-adolescent athletes. The present study asks: Do boys and girls differ in symptom reporting across the pre-adolescent to post-adolescent age span? This retrospective study utilized baseline assessments from 11,695 10-22 year-old athletes assigned to 3 independent groups: Pre-adolescent 10-12 year olds (n = 1,367; 12%), Adolescent 13-17 year olds (n = 2,974; 25%), and Late Adolescent 18-22 year olds (n = 7,354; 63%). Males represented 60% of the sample. Baseline ImPACT composite scores and Post-Concussion Symptom Scale scores (Total, Physical, Cognitive, Emotional, Sleep) were analyzed for the effects of age and gender. Statistically significant main effects were found for age and gender on all ImPACT composites, Total Symptoms, and Symptom factors. Significant interaction effects were noted between age and gender for all ImPACT composites, Total Symptoms, and Symptom factors. Total Symptoms and all Symptom factors were highest in adolescents (ages 13-17) for males and females. In the 10-12 age group, females displayed lower Total Symptoms, Physical, and Sleep factors than males. The notion of females being more likely than males to report symptoms does not appear to apply across the developmental age span, particularly prior to adolescence. Females show greater emotional endorsement across the youth age span (10-22 years). Adolescence (13-17 years) appears to be a time of increased symptomatology that may lessen after the age of 18. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Hospitalization for heart failure (HF is associated with high-in-hospital and short- and long-term post discharge mortality. Age and gender are important predictors of mortality in hospitalized HF patients. However, studies assessing short- and long-term risk of death stratified by age and gender are scarce. Methods A nationwide cohort was identified (ICD-9 codes 402, 428 and followed through linkage of national registries. The crude 28-day, 1-year and 5-year mortality was computed by age and gender. Cox regression models were used for each period to study sex differences adjusting for potential confounders (age and comorbidities. Results 14,529 men, mean age 74 ± 11 years and 14,524 women, mean age 78 ± 11 years were identified. Mortality risk after admission for HF increased with age and the risk of death was higher among men than women. Hazard ratio's (men versus women and adjusted for age and co-morbidity were 1.21 (95%CI 1.14 to 1.28, 1.26 (95% CI 1.21 to 1.31, and 1.28 (95%CI 1.24 to 1.31 for 28 days, 1 year and 5 years mortality, respectively. Conclusions This study clearly shows age- and gender differences in short- and long-term risk of death after first hospitalization for HF with men having higher short- and long-term risk of death than women. As our study population includes both men and women from all ages, the estimates we provide maybe a good reflection of 'daily practice' risk of death and therefore be valuable for clinicians and policymakers.
Maria Letizia Zanier
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the phenomenon of increasing gender inequalities that happen at old age regarding women’s pension. Moving from recent life-course theories and studies, this study analyzes the reasons behind gender-biased pension levels and how their cumulative effects result in (continuous significant gender gaps. The article presents a European overview of pension gender gap, focusing on family and work-life issues in Italy. This is one of the first critical reviews of the small but growing literature and national data concerning the effect of gender inequalities related to pension gaps in Italy. In the past, research on the balance of welfare provision between State, family, and market has ignored gender, while more recent studies have barely explored how gender roles, changing over time, interact with the shifts in pension policies. Considering the effects of work-life balance policies since the 2000 Lisbon agenda process and its development, the study especially focuses on the Italian case within the European context. The article examines how the choices in work-life balance policies vary between different national contexts and welfare regimes, by highlighting the Italian case. In this country, welfare and social policy regimes remain very unbalanced, showing a lack of awareness of family and women’s needs, as in many Southern countries, and Italy is not able to give appropriate answers to these problems and to the question of the growing gender gap. This article finally shows the poignancy of structural and cultural reasons for gender differentiated pension levels in Italy, within the European context, according to patterns of employment, marital, and maternal status between earlier and later generations of women.
Hadi, Fazal; Dato, Serena; Carpi, Francesco M; Prontera, Paolo; Crucianelli, Francesca; Renda, Federica; Passarino, Giuseppe; Napolioni, Valerio
Several recent lines of evidence are proving an important role for dopamine in the aging process and in the determination of life span. Components of the dopaminergic system may represent good candidates for longevity studies. Herein, we tested the possible association of the functional SLC6A3/DAT1 40-bp VNTR with life-expectancy in a healthy population of Central Italy (N = 993) by applying a genetic-demographic approach that takes into account the demographic information and different survival rates between sexes for modeling the survival of specific allele carriers in the population. Male carriers of S*/S* genotype showed a lower survival chance across most of the lifespan respect to the survival of DAT1*L-carriers (P = 0.021). The same analyses gave non-significant results in females. Several studies already reported significant sex differences in dopamine metabolism and its related biological pathways. Thus, we can hypothesize that the SLC6A3/DAT1 40 bp-VNTR may affect life expectancy in a sex-specific way. Moreover, it is conceivable that DAT1 S*/S* carriers, who are prone to assume "risk" type behaviors, may be dropped out of the "healthy" population by a sort of "demographic selection".
Full Text Available Depressive disorders are the most typical disease affecting many different factors of humanity. University students may be at increased risk of depression owing to the pressure and stress they encounter. Therefore, the purpose of this study is comparing the level of depression among male and female athletes and non-athletes undergraduate student of private university in Esfahan, Iran. The participants in this research are composed of 400 male and female athletes as well as no-athletes Iranian undergraduate students. The Beck depression test (BDI was employed to measure the degree of depression. T-test was used to evaluate the distinction between athletes and non-athletes at P≤0.05. The ANOVA was conducted to examine whether there was a relationship between level of depression among non-athletes and athletes. The result showed that the prevalence rate of depression among non-athlete male undergraduate students is significantly higher than that of athlete male students. The results also presented that level of depression among female students is much more frequent compared to males. This can be due to the fatigue and lack of energy that are more frequent among female in comparison to the male students. Physical activity was negatively related to the level of depression by severity among male and female undergraduate students. However, there is no distinct relationship between physical activity and level of depression according to the age of athlete and nonathlete male and female undergraduate students. This study has essential implications for clinical psychology due to the relationship between physical activity and prevalence of depression.
Full Text Available Radical declines in fertility and postponement of first reproduction during the recent human demographic transitions have posed a challenge to interpreting human behaviour in evolutionary terms. This challenge has stemmed from insufficient evolutionary insight into individual reproductive decision-making and the rarity of datasets recording individual long-term reproductive success throughout the transitions. We use such data from about 2,000 Finnish mothers (first births: 1880s to 1970s to show that changes in the maternal risk of breeding failure (no offspring raised to adulthood underlay shifts in both fertility and first reproduction. With steady improvements in offspring survival, the expected fertility required to satisfy a low risk of breeding failure became lower and observed maternal fertility subsequently declined through an earlier age at last reproduction. Postponement of the age at first reproduction began when this risk approximated zero-even for mothers starting reproduction late. Interestingly, despite vastly differing fertility rates at different stages of the transitions, the number of offspring successfully raised to breeding per mother remained relatively constant over the period. Our results stress the importance of assessing the long-term success of reproductive strategies by including measures of offspring quality and suggest that avoidance of breeding failure may explain several key features of recent life-history shifts in industrialized societies.
Liu, Jianghua; Rotkirch, Anna; Lummaa, Virpi
Radical declines in fertility and postponement of first reproduction during the recent human demographic transitions have posed a challenge to interpreting human behaviour in evolutionary terms. This challenge has stemmed from insufficient evolutionary insight into individual reproductive decision-making and the rarity of datasets recording individual long-term reproductive success throughout the transitions. We use such data from about 2,000 Finnish mothers (first births: 1880s to 1970s) to show that changes in the maternal risk of breeding failure (no offspring raised to adulthood) underlay shifts in both fertility and first reproduction. With steady improvements in offspring survival, the expected fertility required to satisfy a low risk of breeding failure became lower and observed maternal fertility subsequently declined through an earlier age at last reproduction. Postponement of the age at first reproduction began when this risk approximated zero–even for mothers starting reproduction late. Interestingly, despite vastly differing fertility rates at different stages of the transitions, the number of offspring successfully raised to breeding per mother remained relatively constant over the period. Our results stress the importance of assessing the long-term success of reproductive strategies by including measures of offspring quality and suggest that avoidance of breeding failure may explain several key features of recent life-history shifts in industrialized societies. PMID:22529952
Socio-demographic and lifestyle factors associated with overweight in a representative sample of 11-15 year olds in France: Results from the WHO-Collaborative Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC cross-sectional study
Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of overweight in children and adolescents is high and overweight is associated with poor health outcomes over short- and long-term. Lifestyle factors can interact to influence overweight. Comprehensive studies linking overweight concomitantly with several demographic and potentially-modifiable lifestyle factors and health-risk behaviours are limited in adolescents - an age-group characterized by changes in lifestyle behaviours and high prevalence of overweight. Thus, the objective of the current study was to examine the association of overweight with several socio-demographic and lifestyle variables simultaneously in a representative sample of adolescents. Methods A nationally representative sample of 11-15 year-olds (n = 7154 in France participated as part of the WHO-Collaborative Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC study. Students reported data on their age, height, weight, socio-demographic variables, lifestyle factors including nutrition practices, physical activity at two levels of intensity (moderate and vigorous, sedentary behaviours, as well as smoking and alcohol consumption patterns using standardized HBSC protocols. Overweight (including obesity was defined using the IOTF reference. The multivariate association of overweight with several socio-demographic and lifestyle factors was examined with logistic regression models. Results The adjusted odds ratios for the association with overweight were: 1.80 (95% CI: 1.37-2.36 for low family affluence; 0.73 (0.60-0.88 for eating breakfast daily; 0.69 (0.56-0.84 for moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA; and 0.71 (0.59-0.86 for vigorous physical activity (VPA. Significant interactions between age and gender as well as television (TV viewing and gender were noted: for boys, overweight was not associated with age or TV viewing; in contrast, for girls overweight correlated negatively with age and positively with TV viewing. Fruit and vegetable
Bornstein, Marc H; Putnick, Diane L; Gartstein, Maria A; Hahn, Chun-Shin; Auestad, Nancy; O'Connor, Deborah L
Two complementary studies focused on stability of infant temperament across the 1st year and considered infant age, gender, birth order, term status, and socioeconomic status (SES) as moderators. Study 1 consisted of 73 mothers of firstborn term girls and boys queried at 2, 5, and 13 months of age. Study 2 consisted of 335 mothers of infants of different gender, birth order, term status, and SES queried at 6 and 12 months. Consistent positive and negative affectivity factors emerged at all time points across both studies. Infant temperament proved stable and robust across gender, birth order, term status, and SES. Stability coefficients for temperament factors and scales were medium to large for shorter ( 10 months) intervals. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
Kverneland, Anders H.; Streitz, Mathias; Geissler, Edward
blood flow cytometry. The performance of our protocols was challenged here by profiling samples from healthy volunteers to reveal age- and gender-dependent differences and to establish a standardized reference cohort for use in clinical trials. Whole blood samples from two different cohorts were...... analyzed (first cohort: n = 52, second cohort: n = 46, both 20–84 years with equal gender distribution). The second cohort was run as a validation cohort by a different operator. The “ONE Study” panels were applied to analyze expression of >30 different surface markers to enumerate proportional...... cohort. Thus, we have proven the utility of our strategy and generated reproducible reference ranges accounting for age- and gender-dependent differences, which are crucial for a better patient monitoring and individualized therapy....
Green, Melanie C; Sabini, John
The authors used a representative national sample (N = 777) to test the evolutionary hypothesis that men would be more bothered by sexual infidelity and women by emotional infidelity, the Jealousy as a Specific Innate Module (JSIM) effect. Our alternative conceptualization of jealousy suggests that there are distinct emotional components of jealousy that did not evolve differently by gender. The authors looked for effects of age, socioeconomic status (SES), and type of measure (continuous or dichotomous) on jealousy. The authors did not find age or SES effects. Forced-choice items provided support for our alternative view; both genders showed more anger and blame over sexual infidelity but more hurt feelings over emotional infidelity. Continuous measures indicated more emotional response to sexual than emotional infidelity among both genders. 2006 APA, all rights reserved
Yang, Xin-Wei; Wang, Zhi-Ming; Jin, Tai-Yi
This study was conducted to assess occupational stress in different gender, age, work duration, educational level and marital status group. A test of occupational stress in different gender, age, work duration, educational level and marital status group, was carried out with revised occupational stress inventory (OSI-R) for 4278 participants. The results of gender show that there are heavier occupational role, stronger interpersonal and physical strain in male than that in female, and the differences are statistically significant (P 0.05). The occupational stress so as to improve the work ability of different groups. Different measure should be taken to reduce the occupational stress so as to improve the work ability of different groups.
Monteiro, Diogo M; Marinho, Daniel A; Moutão, João M; Vitorino, Anabela P; Antunes, Raúl N; Cid, Luís
This study's main purpose was to analyze reasons for dropout in competitive swimmers and differences between gender and age groups. The influence of dropout on swimmers intentions to return to competition, invariance across gender and validation of Questionnaire of Reasons for Attrition were also analyzed. Study 1 - 366 athletes participated (N.=366; mean age 15.96, SD 5.99) and the data gathered was used for the exploratory analysis, and data gathered on 1008 athletes were used for the confirmatory analysis and the structural equations (N.=1008; mean age 16.26, SD 6.12); Study 2: 1008 athletes participated (N.=1008; mean age 16.26, SD 6.12) on the descriptive and inferential analysis of the reasons behind the practice dropout. The Questionnaire of Reasons Attrition was used in both studies to assess the reasons associated with the practice dropout. In study 1, the results showed an acceptable fit of the measurement model and invariance across gender and also predictive validity regarding swimmers intentions to return to competition (e.g., "demands/pressure" negatively predict intentions). In study 2, the main results showed that the most significant reason for dropout in both genders and all age groups was "dissatisfaction/other priorities"; the study also showed there to be differences between gender and age groups (e.g., female and younger athletes valued "demands/ pressure "more). This study offers useful guidelines for the training process and to support decisions on sports politics to be implemented to overcome the dropout rate. However, it is important to broaden the evidence to other sports and implement programs on identified priority areas based on longitudinal perspectives.
Salvador Sánchez, Javier; David, Mónica Delia; Torrent Setó, Aurora; Martínez Alonso, Montserrat; Portella Moll, Maria J; Pifarré Paredero, Josep; Vieta Pascual, Eduard; Mur Laín, María
The influence of age and gender in the electrical charge delivered in a given population was analysed using an electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) clinical database. An observational, prospective, longitudinal study with descriptive analysis was performed using data from a database that included total bilateral frontotemporal ECT carried out with a Mecta spECTrum 5000Q ® in our hospital over 6 years. From 2006 to 2012, a total of 4,337 ECT were performed on 187 patients. Linear regression using mixed effects analysis was weighted by the inverse of the number of ECT performed on each patient per year of treatment. The results indicate that age is related with changes in the required charge (P=.031), as such that the older the age a higher charge is needed. Gender is also associated with changes in charge (P=.014), with women requiring less charge than men, a mean of 87.3mC less. When the effects of age and gender are included in the same model, both are significant (P=.0080 and P=.0041). Thus, for the same age, women require 99.0mC less charge than men, and in both genders the charge increases by 2.3mC per year. From our study, it is concluded that the effect of age on the dosage of the electrical charge is even more significant when related to gender. It would be of interest to promote the systematic collection of data for a better understanding and application of the technique. Copyright © 2015 SEP y SEPB. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The present study aimed to assess the effect of age and gender on second-grade children’s reading performance. Two hundred and eighty-seven children aged 7.1–8.2 years were divided into two age subgroups (the younger, 85–91 months and the older, 92–98 months and were examined in reading accuracy, fluency, and comprehension tasks. Results showed a significant effect of age in reading performance, with the older children having better scores than younger ones for reading fluency, reading comprehension, and the total reading performance. Gender was not found to play an important role in reading performance. The findings are discussed on the ground of functional brain development and the different rates of cerebral maturation.
Uhrenholt, Lars; Charles, Annie Vesterby; Gregersen, Markil
STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional autopsy study. OBJECTIVE: Quantify histological changes in the lower cervical spine facet joints with regard to age and gender using systematic random sampling of entire joints. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Neck pain is a common debilitating musculoskeletal condition...... and one of the highest ranked causes of years lived with disability. The cause of neck pain is multifactorial and osteoarthritis is one potential cause. The cervical spine facet joints have been implicated in the aetiology of chronic neck pain. Hence, a detailed description of their anatomy and age......- and gender related changes is needed. METHODS: The lower four cervical spine segments (C4-C7 included) were obtained from 72 subjects during autopsy; 29 females (median age 53 years [22-77]) and 43 males (median age 38 years [20-78]). A total of 1132 articular facets were embedded in toto in hard plastic...
Morales Rodriguez, Francisco Manuel; Trianes Torres, Maria Victoria; Miranda Paez, Jesus
Introduction: The study of coping among students accounts for an interesting subject, as having coping skills guarantees a healthy lifestyle and quality of life. The present study aims to analyze the role played by age and gender on the coping strategies used by Andalusian school students to cope with situations of daily stress. These situations…
Talalaj, Izabela Anna; Walery, Maria
Highlights: • An effect of gender and age structure on municipal waste generation was presented. • The waste accumulation index is influenced by a number of unemployed women. • Greater share of women in society contributes to greater waste production. • A model describing the analyzed dependences was determined. - Abstract: In this study the effect of gender and age structure on municipal waste generation was investigated. The data from 10-year period, from 2001 to 2010 year, were taken into consideration. The following parameters of gender and age structure were analyzed: men and woman quantity, female to male ratio, number of working, pre-working and post-working age men/women, number of unemployed men/women. The results have showed a strong correlation of annual per capita waste generation rate with number of unemployed women (r = 0.70) and female to male ratio (r = 0.81). This indicates that waste generation rate is more depended on ratio of men and women that on quantitative size of each group. Using the regression analysis a model describing the dependence between female to male ratio, number of unemployed woman and waste quantity was determined. The model explains 70% of waste quantity variation. Obtained results can be used both to improve waste management and to a fuller understanding of gender behavior
Talalaj, Izabela Anna, E-mail: email@example.com; Walery, Maria, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Highlights: • An effect of gender and age structure on municipal waste generation was presented. • The waste accumulation index is influenced by a number of unemployed women. • Greater share of women in society contributes to greater waste production. • A model describing the analyzed dependences was determined. - Abstract: In this study the effect of gender and age structure on municipal waste generation was investigated. The data from 10-year period, from 2001 to 2010 year, were taken into consideration. The following parameters of gender and age structure were analyzed: men and woman quantity, female to male ratio, number of working, pre-working and post-working age men/women, number of unemployed men/women. The results have showed a strong correlation of annual per capita waste generation rate with number of unemployed women (r = 0.70) and female to male ratio (r = 0.81). This indicates that waste generation rate is more depended on ratio of men and women that on quantitative size of each group. Using the regression analysis a model describing the dependence between female to male ratio, number of unemployed woman and waste quantity was determined. The model explains 70% of waste quantity variation. Obtained results can be used both to improve waste management and to a fuller understanding of gender behavior.
Conclusion: The study findings suggests that tinnitus is not correlated with age, gender and hearing loss. Overall, tinnitus is a complicated clinical condition which its real impact and degree of discomfort are unclear. More investigation is needed to clarify the factors involving in tinnitus annoyance.
Kusurkar, Rashmi; Kruitwagen, Cas; ten Cate, Olle; Croiset, Gerda
The aim of this study was to determine the effects of selection, educational background, age and gender on strength of motivation to attend and pursue medical school. Graduate entry (GE) medical students (having Bachelor's degree in Life Sciences or related field) and Non-Graduate Entry (NGE) medical students (having only completed high school),…
Galster, G.; Andersson, R.; Musterd, S.
This paper analyses the degree to which the mixture of low-, middle- and high-income males in the neighbourhood affects the subsequent earnings of individuals, and aims to test explicitly the degree to which these impacts vary across gender, age, presence of children, employment status or income at
Wadsworth, Martha E.; Gudmundsen, Gretchen R.; Raviv, Tali; Ahlkvist, Jarl A.; McIntosh, Daniel N.; Kline, Galena H.; Rea, Jacqueline; Burwell, Rebecca A.
This study examined age and gender differences and similarities in stress responses to September 11th. Adolescents, young adults, and adults reported using a variety of strategies to cope with the terrorist attacks including acceptance, positive thinking, and emotional expression. In addition, involuntary stress responses such as physiological…
Poyrazli, Senel; Ferrer-Wreder, Laura; Meister, Denise G.; Forthun, Larry; Coatsworth, J. Doug; Grahame, Kamini Maraj
The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to explore associations between academic achievement, employment, gender, and age in relation to students' sense of school membership and perception of adults in school. The sample consisted of 102 secondary, alternative school students. Results indicated that students with a more positive perception…
Onyeaso, Adedamola Olutoyin; Onyeaso, Chukwudi Ochi
Background: The need for training of schoolchildren on cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) as potential bystander CPR providers is growing globally but Nigeria is still behind and lacks basic necessary data. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of age, gender and school class on CPR skills of Nigerian secondary school…
Schripsema, Nienke R.; van Trigt, Anke M.; Borleffs, Jan C. C.; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke
Situational Judgement Tests (SJTs) are increasingly implemented in medical school admissions. In this paper, we investigate the effects of vocational interests, previous academic experience, gender and age on SJT performance. The SJT was part of the selection process for the Bachelor's degree programme in Medicine at University of Groningen, the…
Schripsema, Nienke R.; Trigt, van Anke M.; Borleffs, Jan C. C.; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke
Situational Judgement Tests (SJTs) are increasingly implemented in medical school admissions. In this paper, we investigate the effects of vocational interests, previous academic experience, gender and age on SJT performance. The SJT was part of the selection process for the Bachelor's degree
Braza, Francisco; Azurmendi, Aitziber; Munoz, Jose M.; Carreras, Maria R.; Braza, Paloma; Garcia, Ainhoa; Sorozabal, Aizpea; Sanchez-Martin, Jose R.
In this study we examined the effects of social intelligence, empathy, verbal ability and appearance-reality distinction on the level of peer acceptance, as well as the moderating role of gender. Participants were 98 five-year-old children (43 boys and 55 girls; mean age 5 years 3 months for boys and girls). Our results showed a main effect of…
Bleidorn, Wiebke; Arslan, R.C.; Denissen, J.J.A.; Rentfrow, P.J.; Gebauer, J.E.; Potter, J.; Gosling, S.D.
Research and theorizing on gender and age differences in self-esteem have played a prominent role in psychology over the past 20 years. However, virtually all empirical research has been undertaken in the United States or other Western industrialized countries, providing a narrow empirical base from
Oudshoorn, Nelly E.J.; Neven, Louis; Stienstra, Marcelle
This article adopts an intersectional approach to investigate how age, gender, and diversity are represented, silenced, or prioritized in design. Based on a comparative study of design practices of information and communication technologies (ICTs) for young girls and older people, this article
Studied the relationships among academic achievement, learned helplessness, and psychological adjustment (self-esteem and depression), controlled for gender and age, for 1,580 students with data collected in grades 3 and 4, 6 and 7, and 8 and 9. Results show that academic achievement is directly and indirectly related to the pattern of…
Cetin Gudunz, Hicran; Eksioglu, Subhan; Tarhan, Sinem
Purpose: The aim of this study is to examine the effect of personality traits, gender, age and effects of dispositional hope level in problematic internet usage of university students. Research Methods: This paper is an example of a descriptive study, which presents the relationship between problematic internet usage of university students…
Paul, Christine; Tzelepis, Flora; Parfitt, Nicholas; Girgis, Afaf
Objective: To explore adolescents' self-reported reasons for sun protection, as adolescents as a group continue to have poor sun protection practices. Methods: Seventeen age- and gender-segregated focus groups were conducted in Australian high schools. Results: Reasons for using sun protection included personal comfort, appearance, policies, fear…
Polce-Lynch, Mary; Myers, Barbara J.; Kilmartin, Christopher T.; Forssmann-Falck, Renate; Kliewer, Wendy
Used written narratives to examine gender and age patterns in body image, emotional expression, and self-esteem for 209 students in grades 5, 8, and 12. Results indicate that boys restrict emotional expression in adolescence, whereas girls increase emotional expression in the same period. Girls also are more influenced by body image. (SLD)
Gait impairment is a primary symptom of cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM); however, little is known about specific kinetic and kinematic gait parameters. The objectives of the study were: (1) to compare gait patterns of people with untreated CSM to those of age- and gender-matched healthy controls; (2) to examine the effect of gait speed on kinematic and kinetic parameters.
Jared D. Wolfe; Peter Pyle; C. John. Ralph
Detailed accounts of molt and breeding cycles remain elusive for the majority of resident tropical bird species. We used data derived from a museum review and 12 years of banding data to infer breeding seasonality, molt patterns, and age and gender criteria for 27 common landbird species in northeastern Costa Rica. Prealternate molts appear to be rare, only occurring...
Caine-Bish, Natalie L.; Scheule, Barbara
Background: Schools have the opportunity, through the National School Lunch Program and Local School Wellness Policies, to have a significant impact on healthy eating behaviors. An understanding of children's and adolescents' food preferences in relation to gender and age will facilitate the successful creation of both healthy and financially…
Nguyen, D.; Trieschnigg, D.; Dogruöz, A. Seza; Gravel, Rilana; Theune, Mariët; Meder, Theo; de Jong, Franciska
There is a growing interest in automatically predicting the gender and age of authors from texts. However, most research so far ignores that language use is related to the social identity of speakers, which may be different from their biological identity. In this paper, we combine insights from
Nguyen, Dong-Phuong; Trieschnigg, Rudolf Berend; Dogruoz, A. Seza; Gravel, Rilana; Theune, Mariet; Meder, Theo; de Jong, Franciska M.G.
There is a growing interest in automatically predicting the gender and age of authors from texts. However, most research so far ignores that language use is related to the social identity of speakers, which may be different from their biological identity. In this paper, we combine insights from
Lauridsen, Mette Munk; Grønbæk, Henning; Næser, Esben
Abstract Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) is a metabolic brain disorder occurring in patients with liver cirrhosis. MHE lessens a patient's quality of life, but is treatable when identified. The continuous reaction times (CRT) method is used in screening for MHE. Gender and age effects...
van der Meer, Christianne A. I.; Bakker, Anne; Smit, Annika S.; van Buschbach, Susanne; den Dekker, Melissa; Westerveld, Gré J.; Hutter, Renée C.; Gersons, Berthold P. R.; Olff, Miranda
Little is known about how age and gender are associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and traumatic experiences in treatment-seeking police offers. In this study, we examined 967 diagnostic files of police officers seeking treatment for PTSD. Six hundred twelve (63%) of the
Mello, Zena R.; Worrell, Frank C.
Time perspective is a useful psychological construct associated with educational outcomes (Phalet, Andriessen, & Lens, 2004) and may prove fruitful for research focusing on academically talented adolescents. Thus, the relationship of time perspective to age, gender, and academic achievement was examined among 722 academically talented middle and…
Shagina, N. B.; Degteva, M. O.; Tolstykh, E. I.
This paper presents a development of a new biokinetic model for strontium, which accounts for age and gender differences of metabolism in humans. This model was developed based on the long-term follow-up of the residents living on the banks of the Techa River (Southern Urals, Russia) contaminated with 89,90Sr in 1950-1956. The new model uses the structure of ICRP model for strontium but model parameters have been estimated to account for age, gender and population differences in strontium retention and elimination. Estimates of age- and gender-specific model parameters were derived from (a) the results of long-term measurements of 90Sr-body burden for the Techa River population; (b) experimental studies of calcium and strontium metabolism in humans and (c) non-radiological data regarding bone metabolism (mineral content of the body, bone turnover, etc). As a result, the new model satisfactorily describes data on long-term retention of 90Sr in residents of the Techa River settlements of all ages and both genders and also data from studies during the period of global fallout in the UK and the USA and experimental data on strontium retention in humans. The new model can be used to calculate dose from 89,90Sr for the Techa River residents and also for other populations with similar parameters of skeletal maturation and also for other populations with similar parameters of skeletal maturation and involution. (Author) 27 refs
Syed, Javaid A.
The purpose of the present study was to test the Emotional Stability dimension of the Big Five factors of personality traits theory to predict or explain a relationship with Employee Organizational Commitment, when the relationship between Emotional Stability (ES) and Employee Organizational Commitment (EOC) was moderated by Gender and AgeGroup.…
Ahmad, Tunku Badariah Tunku; Madarsha, Kamal Basha; Zainuddin, Ahmad Marzuki; Ismail, Nik Ahmad Hisham; Khairani, Ahmad Zamri; Nordin, Mohamad Sahari
In this study, we examined the likelihood of a TAME (extended technology acceptance model), in which the interrelationships among computer self-efficacy, perceived usefulness, intention to use and self-reported use of computer-mediated technology were tested. In addition, the gender- and age-invariant of its causal structure were evaluated. The…
May 2, 2011 ... gender and age of the patient had an effect on the pattern of the elemental distribution in their head hair ... were determined in 60 mentally ill patients and 43 healthy individuals (control) ..... as metal analysis of the diet taken by the indivi- ... permanent modifier for direct determination of bismuth in urine and.
The objective of this work was to investigate the possible correlation between the exposure to selected toxic metals and the behavioural disorder of mentally ill patients. The study also sought to establish if gender and age of the patient had an effect on the pattern of the elemental distribution in their head hair and blood ...
Van Dyck, Delfien; Cerin, Ester; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse
, and curvilinearly in women. Perceived crime safety was related to MVPA only in women. No moderating relationships were found for education. Overall the associations of adults' perceptions of environmental attributes with MVPA were largely independent of the socio-demographic factors examined. These findings......The study's purpose was to examine age, gender, and education as potential moderators of the associations of perceived neighborhood environment variables with accelerometer-based moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Data were from 7273 adults from 16 sites (11 countries) that were part...
Jae Jung Lee
Full Text Available Objective Gender differences are a well-known clinical characteristic of Parkinson’s disease (PD. In-vivo imaging studies demonstrated that women have greater striatal dopamine transporter (DAT activity than do men, both in the normal population and in PD patients. We hypothesize that women exhibit more rapid aging-related striatal DAT reduction than do men, as the potential neuroprotective effect of estrogen wanes with age. Methods This study included 307 de novo PD patients (152 men and 155 women who underwent DAT scans for an initial diagnostic work-up. Gender differences in age-related DAT decline were assessed in striatal sub-regions using linear regression analysis. Results Female patients exhibited greater DAT activity compared with male patients in all striatal sub-regions. The linear regression analysis revealed that age-related DAT decline was greater in the anterior and posterior caudate, and the anterior putamen in women compared with men; we did not observe this difference in other sub-regions. Conclusions This study demonstrated the presence of gender differences in age-related DAT decline in striatal sub-regions, particularly in the antero-dorsal striatum, in patients with PD, presumably due to aging-related decrease in estrogen. Because this difference was not observed in the sensorimotor striatum, this finding also suggests that women may not have a greater capacity to tolerate PD pathogenesis than do men.
Cabello, Rosario; Sorrel, Miguel A; Fernández-Pinto, Irene; Extremera, Natalio; Fernández-Berrocal, Pablo
The goal of the current investigation was to analyze ability emotional intelligence (EI) in a large cross-sectional sample of Spanish adults (N = 12,198; males, 56.56%) aged from 17 to 76 years (M = 37.71, SD = 12.66). Using the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT), which measures ability EI according to the 4 branches of the Mayer and Salovey EI model. The authors examined effects of gender on ability EI, as well as the linear and quadratic effects of age. Results suggest that gender affects the total ability EI score as well as scores on the 4 EI branches. Ability EI was greater in women than men. Ability EI varied with age according to an inverted-U curve: Younger and older adults scored lower on ability EI than middle-aged adults, except for the branch of understanding emotions. These findings strongly support the idea that both gender and age significantly influence ability EI during aging. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Ovbiagele, Bruce; Markovic, Daniela; Towfighi, Amytis
Advancements in diagnosis and treatment have resulted in better clinical outcomes after stroke; however, the influence of age and gender on recent trends in death during stroke hospitalization has not been specifically investigated. We assessed the impact of age and gender on nationwide patterns of in-hospital mortality after stroke. Data were obtained from all US states that contributed to the Nationwide Inpatient Sample. All patients admitted to hospitals between 1997 and 1998 (n=1 351 293) and 2005 and 2006 (n=1 202 449), with a discharge diagnosis of stroke (identified by the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision procedure codes), were included. Time trends for in-hospital mortality after stroke were evaluated by gender and age group based on 10-year age increments (84) using multivariable logistic regression. Between 1997 and 2006, in-hospital mortality rates decreased across time in all sub-groups (all P84 years. In unadjusted analysis, men aged >84 years in 1997-1998 had poorer mortality outcomes than similarly aged women (odds ratio 0·93, 95% confidence interval=0·88-0·98). This disparity worsened by 2005-2006 (odds ratio 0·88, 95% confidence interval=0·84-0·93). After adjusting for confounders, compared with similarly aged women, the mortality outcomes among men aged >84 years were poorer in 1997-1998 (odds ratio 0·97, 95% confidence interval=0·92-1·02) and were poorer in 2005-2006 (odds ratio 0·92, 95% confidence interval=0·87-0·96), P=0·04, for gender × time trend. Over the last decade, in-hospital mortality rates after stroke in the United States have declined for every age/gender group, except men aged >84 years. Given the rapidly ageing US population, avenues for boosting in-hospital survival among very elderly men with stroke need to be explored. © 2011 The Authors. International Journal of Stroke © 2011 World Stroke Organization.
Molanorouzi, Keyvan; Khoo, Selina; Morris, Tony
In recent years, there has been a decline in physical activity among adults. Motivation has been shown to be a crucial factor in maintaining physical activity. The purpose of this study was to examine whether motives for participation could accurately discriminate gender, age, and type of physical activity. A quantitative, cross-sectional descriptive research design was employed. The Physical Activity and Leisure Motivation Scale (PALMS) was used to assess motives for physical activity in 1,360 adults (703 males, 657 females) who had been exercising regularly for at least six months. The PALMS consists of 40 items that constitute eight sub-scales (mastery, enjoyment, psychological condition, physical condition, appearance, others' expectations, affiliation, competition/ego). Respondents were divided into two age groups (young adults aged 20 to 40 years and middle-aged adults 41 to 64 years) and five types of activity (individual racing sports plus bowls, team sports, racquet sports, martial arts, and exercise). The group discriminant function analyses revealed significant canonical functions correctly classifying the cases into gender (82%), age group (83%), team sport players 76%, individual racing sport plus bowls players 91%, racquet sport players 90%, exercisers 84%, and martial art players 91%. The competition/ego, appearance, physical condition, and mastery sub-scales contributed most to gender differences. Five sub-scales (mastery, psychological condition, others' expectations, affiliation, and enjoyment) contributed most to the discriminant function for age. For type of activity, different sub-scales were the strongest contributors to the discriminant function for each type of PA. The findings in this study suggest that strong and important motives for participation in physical activity are different across type of activity, age, and gender in adults. Understanding the motives that influence physical activity participation is critical for developing
Full Text Available Urinary tract infections (UTIs are among the most frequent community-acquired infections worldwide. Escherichia coli is the most common UTI pathogen although underlying host factors such as patients’ age and gender may influence prevalence of causative agents. In this study, 61 273 consecutive urine samples received over a 22-month period from outpatients clinics of an urban area of north Italy underwent microbiological culture with subsequent bacterial identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of positive samples. A total of 13 820 uropathogens were isolated and their prevalence analyzed according to patient’s gender and age group. Overall Escherichia coli accounted for 67.6% of all isolates, followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (8.8%, Enterococcus faecalis (6.3%, Proteus mirabilis (5.2%, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (2.5%. Data stratification according to both age and gender showed E. coli isolation rates to be lower in both males aged ≥60 years (52.2%, E. faecalis and P. aeruginosa being more prevalent in this group (11.6% and 7.8%, resp., as well as in those aged ≤14 years (51.3% in whom P. mirabilis prevalence was found to be as high as 21.2%. Streptococcus agalactiae overall prevalence was found to be 2.3% although it was shown to occur most frequently in women aged between 15 and 59 years (4.1%. Susceptibility of E. coli to oral antimicrobial agents was demonstrated to be as follows: fosfomycin (72.9%, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (72.9%, ciprofloxacin (76.8%, ampicillin (48.0%, and amoxicillin/clavulanate (77.5%. In conclusion, both patients’ age and gender are significant factors in determining UTIs etiology; they can increase accuracy in defining the causative uropathogen as well as providing useful guidance to empiric treatment.
Carlson, J.F.; Roe, L.K.; Williams, C.A.; Swanson, D.A.
This paper describes the methodologies used in the development of a demographic data base established in support of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project Radiological Monitoring Plan (RadMP). It also examines the suitability of a survey-based procedure for estimating population in small, rural areas. The procedure is a variation of the Housing Unit Method. It employs the use of local experts enlisted to provide information about the demographic characteristics of households randomly selected from residential units sample frames developed from utility records. The procedure is nonintrusive and less costly than traditional survey data collection efforts. Because the procedure is based on random sampling, confidence intervals can be constructed around the population estimated by the technique. The results of a case study are provided in which the total population, and age and gender of the population, is estimated for three unincorporated communities in rural, southern Nevada
Schuster, Fabian; Ostermann, Thomas; Emcke, Timo; Schuster, Reinhard
Diagnostic diversity has been in the focus of several studies of health services research. As the fraction of people with statutory health insurance changes with age and gender it is assumed that diagnostic diversity may be influenced by these parameters. We analyze fractions of patients in Schleswig-Holstein with respect to the chapters of the ICD-10 code in outpatient treatment for quarter 2/2016 with respect to age and gender/sex of the patient. In a first approach we analyzed which diagnose chapters are most relevant in dependence of age and gender. To detect diagnostic diversity, we finally applied Shannon's entropy measure. Due to multimorbidity we used different standardizations. Shannon entropy strongly increases for women after the age of 15, reaching a limit level at the age of 50 years. Between 15 and 70 years we get higher values for women, after 75 years for men. This article describes a straight forward pragmatic approach to diagnostic diversity using Shannon's Entropy. From a methodological point of view, the use of Shannon's entropy as a measure for diversity should gain more attraction to researchers of health services research.
This study focused on age-related changes in visual short-term memory using visual stimuli that did not allow verbal encoding. Experiment 1 examined the effects of age and the length of the stimulus presentation period on visual short-term memory function. Experiment 2 examined the effects of age, gender, and the length of the stimulus presentation period on visual short-term memory function. The worst memory performance and the largest performance difference between the age groups were observed in the shortest stimulus presentation period conditions. The performance difference between the age groups became smaller as the stimulus presentation period became longer; however, it did not completely disappear. Although gender did not have a significant effect on d' regardless of the presentation period in the young group, a significant gender-based difference was observed for stimulus presentation periods of 500 ms and 1,000 ms in the older group. This study indicates that the decline in visual short-term memory observed in the older group is due to the interaction of several factors.
Chole, Revant H.; Patil, Ranjitkumar N.; Balsaraf Chole, Swati; Gondivkar, Shailesh; Gadbail, Amol R.; Yuwanati, Monal B.
Introduction. Gonial angle and antegonial region are important landmarks in mandible which is influenced by gender, age, and dental status. The objective of this study was to evaluate the gonial angle, antegonial angle, and antegonial depth and to investigate their relationship to gender, age group, and dental status. Materials and Methods. A total of 1060 panoramic radiographs were evaluated: the dentulous group, 854 subjects and the edentulous group, 206 subjects. The patients were grouped into six age groups of 10-years each. Gonial angle, antegonial angle, and antegonial depth were measured from panoramic radiographs. Results and Discussion. Corelation of age with gonial angle, antegonial angle and antegonial depth was not significant. Significant difference in mandibular angle was found between males and females. Males had significantly smaller antegonial angle and greater antegonial depth than females. Significant difference was found for gonial angle, antegonial angle, and antegonial depth between right and left sides of mandible. Conclusion. Gonial angle, antegonial angle, and antegonial depth can be implicated as a forensic tool for gender determination but not suitable for age determination
Slagsvold, Britt; Sørensen, Annemette
High sense of control is related to benefits in many aspects of life, and education is known to be strongly related to sense of control. In this article we explore why women tend to feel a lower sense of control than men, and why the sense of control tends to be lower among the elderly than among younger people. In particular we explore the role played by education in explaining age- and gender differences in sense of control. The analysis is based on data from the first wave of the Norwegian NorLAG study, with a representative sample of adults aged 40-79 in 30 municipalities. We find that education accounts for some of the age and gender differences in sense of control, but the mediating effects of education are rather modest. We find an increasing gender gap in sense of control with age, and this increasing gap is completely explained by differences in education. Gender differences in sense of control is explained completely by four factors, which are related to resources and power; physical health, education, living with a partner, and leadership experience. Age differences in sense of control are only partially explained. Education, physical health and employment status cuts the age effect on sense of control to half. The effect of education on sense of control is partly mediated through what we suggest are tangible benefits of education, namely health, employment, and leadership experience. Education also influences individuals through socialization mechanisms. We view agentive orientation as a psychological benefit of education, and measure this characteristic with Bem's (1981) sex-role scale on masculinity. Agentive orientation completely explains the remaining effect of education on sense of control.
Haq, I.H.; Tahir, M.
To investigate the age and gender-related differences in mitral cells of the human cadaveric olfactory bulbs. Sixty olfactory bulbs, 30 each from male and female (age 20-76 years) human cadavers divided into six groups of age and gender-wise were collected from the mortuary of the King Edward Medical University, Lahore. Mitral cells were counted and their diameter was calculated from 10 micro m thick cresyl violet stained histological sections. Statistical analysis was done using ANOVA for age-related differences and independent t-test for gender-related differences. There was significant reduction in the number of mitral cells and diameter of their nuclei with age. There was significant decrease in the number of mitral cells in males, between groups I and II (p < 0.001); II and III (p < 0.001); and I and III (p < 0.001); statistically significant decrease also occurred in females, between groups IV and V (p < 0.001); V and VI (p < 0.001); and IV and VI (p < 0.001). In most cases, the distance between individual mitral cells was seen to be much greater than in younger group. In group VI, few mitral cells were observed in the cell layer. There was also significant decrease in the diameter of mitral cell nuclei in males, between groups I and III (p < 0.001); and II and III (p < 0.010); in females, between groups IV and VI (p < 0.001); and V and VI (p < 0.001). No gender-related differences were observed. The number of mitral cells and diameter of their nuclei decreased with advancing age. (author)
Vincent, John; Glamser, Francis D
A large body of research has shown that a disproportionate number of elite youth male soccer players competing in age-segmented competition are born early in the selection year. The advantage of being born early in a cohort has been termed the "relative age effect". Although there has been an exponential growth in women's soccer, few studies have examined the relative age effect in female youth soccer. This study compared the relative age effect of 1,344 female and male youth soccer players considered by the US Olympic Development Program (ODP), in 2001, to be the most talented soccer players born in 1984. The birth dates were taken from the women's state and regional ODP, and national team rosters, and were analysed using basic descriptive statistics and chi-square tests. Results revealed only a marginal relative age effect for female ODP regional and national team players and no relative age effect for female ODP state team players. In comparison, a strong relative age effect was found in male state, regional and national team players. The results suggest that there are gender differences in the relative age effect of 17-year-old elite female and male soccer players. The gender differences may be explained by a complex interaction of biological and maturational differences with socialization influences.
Srinivas, Nisha [ORNL; Rose, Derek C [ORNL; Bolme, David S [ORNL; Mahalingam, Gayathri [ORNL; Atwal, Harleen [ORNL; Ricanek, Karl [ORNL
This paper examines the difficulty associated with performing machine-based automatic demographic prediction on a sub-population of Asian faces. We introduce the Wild East Asian Face dataset (WEAFD), a new and unique dataset to the research community. This dataset consists primarily of labeled face images of individuals from East Asian countries, including Vietnam, Burma, Thailand, China, Korea, Japan, Indonesia, and Malaysia. East Asian turk annotators were uniquely used to judge the age and fine grain ethnicity attributes to reduce the impact of the other race effect and improve quality of annotations. We focus on predicting age, gender and fine-grained ethnicity of an individual by providing baseline results with a convolutional neural network (CNN). Finegrained ethnicity prediction refers to predicting ethnicity of an individual by country or sub-region (Chinese, Japanese, Korean, etc.) of the East Asian continent. Performance for two CNN architectures is presented, highlighting the difficulty of these tasks and showcasing potential design considerations that ease network optimization by promoting region based feature extraction.
Andrew W. Ellis
Full Text Available Two experiments examined the effects of age of acquisition (AoA and the gender of stimulus faces on familiarity decisions (Experiment 1 and gender decisions (Experiment 2 to the same set of famous and unfamiliar faces presented as whole faces, internal features or external features. In Experiment 1, familiarity decisions were faster to whole faces than to internal or external features. Famous faces with early AoA were recognised faster than later acquired faces, though the effect was only reliable for famous male faces, and for whole faces and internal features rather than for external features. In Experiment 2, gender decisions were made more rapidly to whole faces than to internal or external features. Classification was faster to famous than to unfamiliar faces when the faces were presented as internal features or external features, but not when they were presented as whole faces. More gender classification errors were made to famous than to unfamiliar male faces, but there was no effect of familiarity on the accuracy of responses to female faces. AoA had no effect on gender classification of whole faces or external features. Classification from internal features was faster for early than for late acquired male faces, but faster for late than for early female faces. In the light of the anomalous results for female faces, responses to male faces were analysed separately. The results for the male faces form the focus of the discussion.
EJSCREEN uses demographic factors as very general indicators of a community's potential susceptibility to the types of environmental factors included in this screening tool. There are six demographic indicators: Demographic Index, Supplementary Demographic Index, Individuals under Age 5, Individuals over Age 64, Percent Low-Income, Linguistic Isolation, Percent Minority, and Less than High School Education.
Scheinin, Noora M; Wikman, Kristina; Jula, Antti
with the amyloid tracer 11C-PIB, in 64 cognitively healthy subjects (54-89 years). In addition to PET, magnetic resonance imaging, neuropsychological testing, and APOE genotyping was performed. The results were assessed with a statistical general linear model as well as with Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM......). Results: The effects of age (p gender (p = 0.001) on composite cortical 11C-PIB uptake were all significant. The effect of educational level was non-significant (p = 0.37). No significant interactions were found between any of the factors. Cortical 11C....... In this sample of cognitively healthy elderly individuals, men exhibited higher 11C-PIB uptake than women. Possible gender differences in Aβ accumulation have not been addressed in detail in previous studies, and deeper evaluation in the future is warranted....
Pezeshki, Zahra; Maleki, Maryam; Talebi, Ardeshir; Nematbakhsh, Mehdi
Backgrounds: Cisplatin (CDDP) is a choice of anti-cancer drug for cancer chemotherapy with serious side effects such as nephrotoxicity. It seems that age is an important factor influencing the side effects of CDDP. This study was designed to determine the role of age and gender simultaneously in CDDP induced renal toxicity. Methods: 40 Wistar male and female rats were assigned as 6 groups in 3 different age categories (10, 16, and 20 weeks old). The single dose of CDDP (7.5 mg/kg, ip) was administrated, and a week later measurements were performed. Results: Body weight changes in male (not in female) animals aged 16 and 20 weeks were more than 10 weeks old animals (PGender difference in serum level of Cr, BUN and nitrite, and Cr-clearance were observed in animals aged10 weeks (Pgender depended, and may be different at various ages. Creative Commons Attribution License
Toran Pour, Alireza; Moridpour, Sara; Tay, Richard; Rajabifard, Abbas
Every year, about 1.24 million people are killed in traffic crashes worldwide and more than 22% of these deaths are pedestrians. Therefore, pedestrian safety has become a significant traffic safety issue worldwide. In order to develop effective and targeted safety programs, the location- and time-specific influences on vehicle-pedestrian crashes must be assessed. The main purpose of this research is to explore the influence of pedestrian age and gender on the temporal and spatial distribution of vehicle-pedestrian crashes to identify the hotspots and hot times. Data for all vehicle-pedestrian crashes on public roadways in the Melbourne metropolitan area from 2004 to 2013 are used in this research. Spatial autocorrelation is applied in examining the vehicle-pedestrian crashes in geographic information systems (GIS) to identify any dependency between time and location of these crashes. Spider plots and kernel density estimation (KDE) are then used to determine the temporal and spatial patterns of vehicle-pedestrian crashes for different age groups and genders. Temporal analysis shows that pedestrian age has a significant influence on the temporal distribution of vehicle-pedestrian crashes. Furthermore, men and women have different crash patterns. In addition, results of the spatial analysis shows that areas with high risk of vehicle-pedestrian crashes can vary during different times of the day for different age groups and genders. For example, for those between ages 18 and 65, most vehicle-pedestrian crashes occur in the central business district (CBD) during the day, but between 7:00 p.m. and 6:00 a.m., crashes among this age group occur mostly around hotels, clubs, and bars. This research reveals that temporal and spatial distributions of vehicle-pedestrian crashes vary for different pedestrian age groups and genders. Therefore, specific safety measures should be in place during high crash times at different locations for different age groups and genders to
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to analyze the influence of gender and age on the quality of the professional lives of health care professionals at a university hospital. METHOD: a total of 546 professionals completed a general questionnaire that measured sociodemographic variables and evaluated job satisfaction using a scale adopted from the NTP 394 Job Satisfaction scale and translated into Spanish. RESULTS: overall, 77.2% of the professionals surveyed were satisfied with the work they perform. With regards to gender, we found overwhelming evidence of the feminization of practically all health care professions included in the study, with higher levels of job satisfaction among women than men. Regarding age, 20-30-year-olds and professionals over 61 years old showed higher satisfaction levels than did middle-aged professionals. Higher levels of dissatisfaction were reported by professionals between 41 and 50 years old. CONCLUSIONS: we were able to detect the influence of gender and age on the level of job satisfaction, finding significant associations between job satisfaction and both of these variables. Generally, women expressed more satisfaction than men, and elderly professionals showed higher satisfaction compared to younger professionals. Management policies should focus on taking action to correct the conditions that produce dissatisfaction among certain groups of employees.
Carrillo-García, César; Solano-Ruíz, María del Carmen; Martínez-Roche, María Emilia; Gómez-García, Carmen Isabel
to analyze the influence of gender and age on the quality of the professional lives of health care professionals at a university hospital. a total of 546 professionals completed a general questionnaire that measured sociodemographic variables and evaluated job satisfaction using a scale adopted from the NTP 394 Job Satisfaction scale and translated into Spanish. overall, 77.2% of the professionals surveyed were satisfied with the work they perform. With regards to gender, we found overwhelming evidence of the feminization of practically all health care professions included in the study, with higher levels of job satisfaction among women than men. Regarding age, 20-30-year-olds and professionals over 61 years old showed higher satisfaction levels than did middle-aged professionals. Higher levels of dissatisfaction were reported by professionals between 41 and 50 years old. we were able to detect the influence of gender and age on the level of job satisfaction, finding significant associations between job satisfaction and both of these variables. Generally, women expressed more satisfaction than men, and elderly professionals showed higher satisfaction compared to younger professionals. Management policies should focus on taking action to correct the conditions that produce dissatisfaction among certain groups of employees.
Nandrino, Jean-Louis; Baracca, Margaret; Antoine, Pascal; Paget, Virginie; Bydlowski, Sarah; Carton, Solange
The Levels of Emotional Awareness Scale (LEAS) developed by Lane et al. (1990) measures the ability of a subject to discriminate his or her own emotional state and that of others. The scale is based on a cognitive-developmental model in which emotional awareness increases in a similar fashion to intellectual functions. Because studies performed using North American and German populations have demonstrated an effect of age, gender, and level of education on the ability to differentiate emotional states, our study attempts to evaluate whether these factors have the same effects in a general French population. 750 volunteers (506 female, 244 male), who were recruited from three regions of France (Lille, Montpellier, Paris), completed the LEAS. The sample was divided into five age groups and three education levels. The results of the LEAS scores for self and others and the total score showed a difference in the level of emotional awareness for different age groups, by gender and education level. A higher emotional level was observed for younger age groups, suggesting that emotional awareness depends on the cultural context and generational societal teachings. Additionally, the level of emotional awareness was higher in women than in men and lower in individuals with less education. This result might be explained by an educational bias linked to gender and higher education whereby expressive ability is reinforced. In addition, given the high degree of variability in previously observed scores in the French population, we propose a standard based on our French sample.
Smith, D E; Muenchen, R A
The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationships among gender, age, and self-image of adolescents attending three secondary schools in Jamaica. The relatively few studies that have been done regarding self-perceptions of these youth are not only dated but have utilized a unidimensional conceptualization of the self. The Offer Self-Image Questionnaire which employs a multidimensional construct of the self was administered to a sample of 174 Jamaican adolescents ranging in age from 14 to 18 years (M = 15.90 years, SD = 1.21). Results revealed statistically significant effects for both gender and age. Gender was found to be significant on one self-image dimension: Morals, while age differences were evident on six dimensions: Social Relationships, Morals, Sexual Attitudes, Mastery of the External World, Vocational and Educational Goals, and Emotional Health. The results in some instances were contrary to those of past research. Discussion focused on cultural socialization and other factors affecting youth in Jamaican society.
Full Text Available Skin ageing and gender influences on the scalp have been seldom studied. We revisited the changes in the interfollicular scalp. The study was performed on a population of 650 volunteers (300 women and 350 men for over 7 years. Three age groups were selected in both genders, namely, subjects aged 20–35, 50–60, and 60–70 years. The hair status was further considered according to nonalopecic and alopecic patterns and severity (discrete, moderate, and severe. Biopsies from the parietal area were processed for immunohistochemistry. Stromal cells were distinguished according to the presence of vimentin, Factor XIIIa, CD117, and versican. Blood and lymphatic vessels were highlighted by Ulex europaeus agglutinin-1 and human podoplanin immunoreactivities, respectively. Actinic elastosis was identified by the lysozyme coating of elastic fibres. The epidermis was explored using the CD44 variant 3 and Ki67 immunolabellings. Biplot analyses were performed. Immunohistochemistry revealed a prominent gender effect in young adults. Both Factor XIIIa+ dermal dendrocytes and the microvasculature size decreased with scalp ageing. Alopecia changes mimicked stress-induced premature senescence.
Piérard-Franchimont, Claudine; Loussouarn, Geneviève; Panhard, Ségolène; Saint Léger, Didier; Mellul, Myriam; Piérard, Gérald E.
Skin ageing and gender influences on the scalp have been seldom studied. We revisited the changes in the interfollicular scalp. The study was performed on a population of 650 volunteers (300 women and 350 men) for over 7 years. Three age groups were selected in both genders, namely, subjects aged 20–35, 50–60, and 60–70 years. The hair status was further considered according to nonalopecic and alopecic patterns and severity (discrete, moderate, and severe). Biopsies from the parietal area were processed for immunohistochemistry. Stromal cells were distinguished according to the presence of vimentin, Factor XIIIa, CD117, and versican. Blood and lymphatic vessels were highlighted by Ulex europaeus agglutinin-1 and human podoplanin immunoreactivities, respectively. Actinic elastosis was identified by the lysozyme coating of elastic fibres. The epidermis was explored using the CD44 variant 3 and Ki67 immunolabellings. Biplot analyses were performed. Immunohistochemistry revealed a prominent gender effect in young adults. Both Factor XIIIa+ dermal dendrocytes and the microvasculature size decreased with scalp ageing. Alopecia changes mimicked stress-induced premature senescence. PMID:24455724
Rüst, Christoph A; Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Pfeifer, Susanne; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald; Senn, Oliver
The differences in gender- and the age-related changes in triathlon (i.e., swimming, cycling, and running) performances have been previously investigated, but data are missing for duathlon (i.e., running, cycling, and running). We investigated the participation and performance trends and the gender difference and the age-related decline in performance, at the "Powerman Zofingen" long-distance duathlon (10-km run, 150-km cycle, and 30-km run) from 2002 to 2011. During this period, there were 2,236 finishers (272 women and 1,964 men, respectively). Linear regression analyses for the 3 split times, and the total event time, demonstrated that running and cycling times were fairly stable during the last decade for both male and female elite duathletes. The top 10 overall gender differences in times were 16 ± 2, 17 ± 3, 15 ± 3, and 16 ± 5%, for the 10-km run, 150-km cycle, 30-km run and the overall race time, respectively. There was a significant (p triathlons, the age-related decline in the duathlon performance was more pronounced in running than in cycling. Athletes and coaches can use these findings to plan the career in long-distance duathletes with the age of peak performance between 25 and 39 years for both women and men.
Bálint, S; Czobor, P; Komlósi, S; Mészáros, A; Simon, V; Bitter, I
Despite the growing recognition that the clinical symptom characteristics associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) persist into adulthood in a high proportion of subjects, little is known about the persistence of neurocognitive deficits in ADHD. The objective was twofold: (1) to conduct a meta-analysis of neuropsychological studies to characterize attentional performance in subjects with adult ADHD by examining differences in ADHD versus normal control subjects; and (2) to investigate whether these differences vary as a function of age and gender. Twenty-five neuropsychological studies comparing subjects with adult ADHD and healthy controls were evaluated. Statistical effect size was determined to characterize the difference between ADHD and control subjects. Meta-regression analysis was applied to investigate whether the difference between ADHD and control subjects varied as a function of age and gender across studies. Tests measuring focused and sustained attention yielded an effect size with medium to large magnitude whereas tests of simple attention resulted in a small to medium effect size in terms of poorer attention functioning of ADHD subjects versus controls. On some of the measures (e.g. Stroop interference), a lower level of attention functioning in the ADHD group versus the controls was associated with male gender. Adult ADHD subjects display significantly poorer functioning versus healthy controls on complex but not on simple tasks of attention, and the degree of impairment varies with gender, with males displaying a higher level of impairment.
Gonzalez, Jodi M; Alegría, Margarita; Prihoda, Thomas J; Copeland, Laurel A; Zeber, John E
Promoting help-seeking for mental health problems can result in improved treatment rates. For the most impact, social marketing interventions need to be tailored to targeted demographic subgroups. We investigated the influence of interactions between attitudes toward treatment and age, gender, ethnicity/race and education for both general medical and specialty care. Cross-sectional data from the 2001-2003 National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R) were analyzed using multivariate models adjusted for the sampling design and controlled for relevant clinical and sociodemographic factors. Greater comfort talking to a professional was associated with greater past-year specialty care across all demographic groups, while strongest for non-Latino whites and not evident for those 50-64 years old. For all demographic groups, reported willingness to seek professional help was associated with general medical care. However, for specialty care the association was much stronger for men compared to women. For African Americans, but not non-Latino whites, the perceived efficacy of mental health treatment improved the likelihood of past-year specialty use. Our analyses suggest both the importance of understanding demographic differences in relevant attitudes and potential directions for marketing campaigns.
Agcaoglu, O.; Miller, R.; Mayer, A.R.; Hugdahl, K.; Calhoun, V.D.
Brain lateralization is a widely studied topic, however there has been little work focused on lateralization of intrinsic networks (regions showing similar patterns of covariation among voxels) in the resting brain. In this study, we evaluate resting state network lateralization in an age and gender-balanced functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) dataset comprising over 600 healthy subjects ranging in age from 12 to 71. After establishing sample-wide network lateralization properties, we continue with an investigation of age and gender effects on network lateralization. All data was gathered on the same scanner and preprocessed using an automated pipeline (Scott et al., 2011). Networks were extracted via group independent component analysis (gICA) (Calhoun, Adali, Pearlson, & Pekar, 2001). Twenty-eight resting state networks discussed in previous (Allen et al., 2011) work were re-analyzed with a focus on lateralization. We calculated homotopic voxelwise measures of laterality in addition to a global lateralization measure, called the laterality cofactor, for each network. As expected, many of the intrinsic brain networks were lateralized. For example, the visual network was strongly right lateralized, auditory network and default mode networks were mostly left lateralized. Attentional and frontal networks included nodes that were left lateralized and other nodes that were right lateralized. Age was strongly related to lateralization in multiple regions including sensorimotor network regions precentral gyrus, postcentral gyrus and supramarginal gyrus; and visual network regions lingual gyrus; attentional network regions inferior parietal lobule, superior parietal lobule and middle temporal gyrus; and frontal network regions including the inferior frontal gyrus. Gender showed significant effects mainly in two regions, including visual and frontal networks. For example, the inferior frontal gyrus was more right lateralized in males. Significant effects of age
Agcaoglu, O; Miller, R; Mayer, A R; Hugdahl, K; Calhoun, V D
Brain lateralization is a widely studied topic, however there has been little work focused on lateralization of intrinsic networks (regions showing similar patterns of covariation among voxels) in the resting brain. In this study, we evaluate resting state network lateralization in an age and gender-balanced functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) dataset comprising over 600 healthy subjects ranging in age from 12 to 71. After establishing sample-wide network lateralization properties, we continue with an investigation of age and gender effects on network lateralization. All data was gathered on the same scanner and preprocessed using an automated pipeline (Scott et al., 2011). Networks were extracted via group independent component analysis (gICA) (Calhoun et al., 2001). Twenty-eight resting state networks discussed in previous (Allen et al., 2011) work were re-analyzed with a focus on lateralization. We calculated homotopic voxelwise measures of laterality in addition to a global lateralization measure, called the laterality cofactor, for each network. As expected, many of the intrinsic brain networks were lateralized. For example, the visual network was strongly right lateralized, auditory network and default mode networks were mostly left lateralized. Attentional and frontal networks included nodes that were left lateralized and other nodes that were right lateralized. Age was strongly related to lateralization in multiple regions including sensorimotor network regions precentral gyrus, postcentral gyrus and supramarginal gyrus; and visual network regions lingual gyrus; attentional network regions inferior parietal lobule, superior parietal lobule and middle temporal gyrus; and frontal network regions including the inferior frontal gyrus. Gender showed significant effects mainly in two regions, including visual and frontal networks. For example, the inferior frontal gyrus was more right lateralized in males. Significant effects of age were found in
Adarga, Mireya Scarone; Becerril, Leonor Cedillo; Champion, Catalina Denman
This work is part of a qualitative socio-cultural investigation with a group of men and women 40 years and older in the maquila export industry in Nogales, Sonora, Mexico. In 1994, as a result of the North American Free Trade Agreement, maquila plants combined traditional intensive work methods with new "just in time" production norms that impacted work and health conditions, particularly in older, or aging, workers. The workers that were interviewed for this study show a reduction in their functional ability to work starting at 40 years of age. Work organization demands, general health conditions, and a decrease in physical abilities brings these 40-year-old workers to prematurely construct an image of themselves as aging workers and to develop coping strategies that vary by gender.
Tobiasz-Adamczyk, Beata; Galas, Aleksander; Zawisza, Katarzyna; Chatterji, Somnath; Haro, Josep Maria; Ayuso-Mateos, José Luis; Koskinen, Seppo; Leonardi, Matilde
Gender-related differences in life expectancy, prevalence of chronic conditions and level of disability in the process of ageing have been broadly described. Less is known about social determinants, which may have different impacts on quality of life in men and women. The investigation aims to reveal gender-related differences in social determinants on quality of life assessed by a multi-pathway model including health, social, demographic and living place characteristics. The study group consisted of 5099 participants aged 50+ representing general populations of three different European regions (Finland, Poland, Spain) who participated in COURAGE in EUROPE Project. Standardized tools were used to measure quality of life (WHOQOL-AGE) and social determinants (COURAGE Social Network Index, OSLO-3 Social Support Scale, UCLA Loneliness Scale, participation scale and trust). A multipath model considering exogenous predictors (demographic, economic), mediators (social) and endogenous outcome (QOL) was created to reveal the role of determinants. Gender-related differences were investigated across three age categories: 50-64; 65-79 and 80+. The model (RMSEA = 0.058; CFI = 0.939) showed the effects of all of the investigated determinants. Gender-related differences in the association between social constructs and QOL were observed for social networks in the group of 80+, for social support in the group of 50-64 and 65-79 years, and for social participation in the group of 65-79 years. Males benefited more (in QOL) from social networks and social support, and women from social participation. The research provides valuable knowledge about the role of social determinants in QOL considering complex relations between different social constructs. Additionally, the results showed gender-related differences in the associations between social networks, social support, social participation and QOL, suggesting that men might benefit more from the interventions in the first two
Dong, Ruihua; Zhou, Tong; Chen, Jingsi; Zhang, Meiru; Zhang, Han; Wu, Min; Li, Shuguang; Zhang, Liwen; Chen, Bo
Phthalate exposure has been reported to be associated with obesity (measured by body mass index [BMI]) and central obesity (measured by waist circumference [WC]). Yet, reported associations and the potential gender and age differences are inconsistent. We conducted a cross-sectional study involving 2330 participants in the fall of 2012. Urinary metabolites of ten phthalates were measured. Height, body weight, and waist circumference (WC) were measured using standardized methods. We performed logistic regression analyses to estimate the association between each urine phthalate metabolite (categorized into quartiles) and obesity and central obesity and conducted an additional, stratified analysis to explore the gender and age differences. In the overall study population, higher urinary levels of MMP, MEHHP, and MECPP were associated with increased ratios of central obesity. When stratifying by gender and central obesity, higher urinary levels of MMP, MEHHP, and MEOHP were associated with increased odds of central obesity in females, whereas MB z P was significantly associated inversely with central obesity in females. In males, it showed no significant P value for trend (P trend). When stratifying by age in females, higher urinary levels of MEHP, MEOHP, MEHHP, and MECPP were associated with increased odds of central obesity in women aged ≤45 years. In females aged >45 years, it showed no significant P trend. In conclusion, we found that association between phthalates and central obesity was stronger than between phthalates and obesity; association between phthalates and central obesity was stronger in females than in males and was stronger in younger females (aged ≤45 years) than in older females (aged >45 years).
Kalak, Nadeem; Brand, Serge; Beck, Johannes; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Wollmer, M Axel
Poor sleep is a major health concern, and there is evidence that young adults are at increased risk of suffering from poor sleep. There is also evidence that sleep duration can vary as a function of gender and body mass index (BMI). We sought to replicate these findings in a large sample of young adults, and also tested the hypothesis that a smaller gap between subjective sleep duration and subjective sleep need is associated with a greater feeling of being restored. A total of 2,929 university students (mean age 23.24±3.13 years, 69.1% female) took part in an Internet-based survey. They answered questions related to demographics and subjective sleep patterns. We found no gender differences in subjective sleep duration, subjective sleep need, BMI, age, or feeling of being restored. Nonlinear associations were observed between subjective sleep duration, BMI, and feeling of being restored. Moreover, a larger discrepancy between subjective actual sleep duration and subjective sleep need was associated with a lower feeling of being restored. The present pattern of results from a large sample of young adults suggests that males and females do not differ with respect to subjective sleep duration, BMI, or feeling of being restored. Moreover, nonlinear correlations seemed to provide a more accurate reflection of the relationship between subjective sleep and demographic variables.
Mankus, Annette M.; Boden, Matthew Tyler; Thompson, Renee J.
The present study examined associations between emotional awareness facets (type clarity, source clarity, negative emotion differentiation, voluntary attention, involuntary attention) and sociodemographic characteristics (age, gender, and socioeconomic status (SES)) in a large US sample (N = 919). Path analyses—controlling for variance shared between sociodemographic variables and allowing emotional awareness facets to correlate—demonstrated that (a) age was positively associated with type clarity and source clarity, and inversely associated with involuntary attention; (b) gender was associated with all facets but type clarity, with higher source clarity, negative emotion differentiation, voluntary attention, and involuntary attention reported by women then men; and (c) SES was positively associated with type clarity with a very small effect. These findings extend our understanding of emotional awareness and identify future directions for research to elucidate the causes and consequences of individual differences in emotional awareness. PMID:26500384
Rosati, Francesco; Calabrese, Armando; Costa, Roberta
their employees' CSR attitudes. In this regard, many studies show that individual characteristics can influence CSR attitudes. This research aims to identify the influence of three sociodemographic characteristics such as gender, educational level and age on three employee CSR attitudes, such as CSR demandingness...... and satisfied than female colleagues. Educational level differences also have a significant influence on CSR trust and CSR satisfaction, with graduated employees generally more trustful and satisfied than not graduated colleagues. However, employee gender and education do not influence CSR demandingness......, and employee age does not have a significant effect on any CSR attitude. This research indicates that the banks under study need to improve the effectiveness of their internal CSR communication, especially with women and not graduated employees, who show the lowest levels of CSR trust and satisfaction...
Dhar, Sohini; Gor, Beverly; Banerjee, Deborah; Krishnan, Sunil; Dorai, V K; Jones, Lovell; Kabad, Kanchan; Naik, Lakshmi Rai; Legha, Sewa S; Pande, Mala
Identify health perspectives among Asian Indians in greater Houston area, to guide a tailored community wide survey. Four focus groups of different ages, gender, and nativity were conducted at which participants were asked for their opinions about specific health topics. Key informant interviews were conducted with ten community leaders to validate focus group responses. Recordings from focus groups and key informant interviews were transcribed and analyzed. Diabetes, cancer, and hypertension were primary health concerns. Common themes were sedentary lifestyle and poor health literacy. Older participants were more accepting of having familial hypertension and high cholesterol. Women were more concerned about health of family members and dietary habits. Perspectives differed on eating habits, physical activity, use of Western medicine, and smoking based on nativity. Responses from key informant interviews validated focus group findings. Perspectives on health may differ among Asian Indians depending on gender, age, and nativity.
Moksnes, Unni K; Espnes, Geir A
The present paper investigates possible gender and age differences on emotional states (depression and anxiety) and self-esteem as well as the association between self-esteem and emotional states. The cross-sectional sectional sample consists of 1,209 adolescents 13-18 years from public elementary and secondary schools in mid-Norway. The results showed that girls reported higher scores on state anxiety and state depression, whereas boys consistently scored higher on self-esteem in all age groups. Self-esteem was strongly and inversely associated with both state depression and state anxiety. An interaction effect of gender by self-esteem was found on state depression, where the association was stronger for girls than for boys. The associations found give support for the positive role of self-esteem in relation to adolescents' emotional health and well-being. © 2012 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2012 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.
Fagan, Abigail A.; Van Horn, M. Lee; Antaramian, Susan; Hawkins, J. David
Parenting practices, age, and gender all influence adolescent delinquency and drug use, but few studies have examined how these factors interact to affect offending. Using data from 18,512 students in Grades 6, 8, 10 and 12, this study found that across grades, parents treated girls and boys differently, but neither sex received preferential treatment for all practices assessed, and younger children reported more positive parenting than older students. Family factors were significantly related to delinquency and drug use for both sexes and for all grades. However, particular parenting practices showed gender and age differences in the degree to which they were related to outcomes, which indicates complexities in parent/child interactions that must be taken into account when investigating the causes of adolescent offending and when planning strategies to prevent the development of problem behaviors. PMID:21499537
Langston, Randall; Scheid, Jamie
Ever since the beginning of the Great Recession, higher education has braced for the impending age of austerity and changing demographics. Now a reality, these conditions threaten the ability of institutions of higher education to remain competitive in an ever growing global marketplace. This article presents several core SEM strategies that can…
Komosinska-Vassev, Katarzyna; Olczyk, Pawel; Winsz-Szczotka, Katarzyna; Kuznik-Trocha, Kornelia; Klimek, Katarzyna; Olczyk, Krystyna
The authors studied the role of increased oxidative stress in the development of oxidative protein damage and extracellular matrix (ECM) components in ageing. The age- and gender-associated disturbances in connective tissue metabolism were evaluated by the plasma chondroitin sulphated glycosaminoglycans (CS-GAG) and non-sulphated GAG-hyaluronan (HA) measurements. Plasma concentration of advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) was analysed in order to assess oxidative protein damage and evaluate the possible deleterious role of oxidative phenomenon on tissue proteoglycans' metabolism during the physiological ageing process. Sulphated and non-sulphated GAGs as well as AOPP were quantified in plasma samples from 177 healthy volunteers. A linear age-related decline of plasma CS-GAG level was found in this study (r=-0.46; page (r=0.44; page-dependent relationship has been shown in regard to AOPP. AOPP levels significantly increased with age (r=0.63; pphysiological ageing. A significant correlation was found between the concentrations of AOPP and both CS-GAG (r=-0.31; page changes in the ECM are reflected by CS-GAG and HA plasma levels. Strong correlations between AOPP and ECM components indicate that oxidative stress targets protein and non-protein components of the connective tissue matrix during human ageing.
Biological and social factors determines human personality. Birth order and its influence rank among strong phenotype forming factors. Practical application of the knowledge is complicated due the lack of evidence in this area in the Czech Republic. In our study, we focused on the role of age-gap between siblings and the role of gender on the birth order in education. Proportion of firstborns in various group of biology students were analysed. We found significantly higher proportions of firs...
Sacco, Paul; Torres, Luis R.; Cunningham-Williams, Renee M.; Woods, Carol; Unick, G. Jay
This study tested for the presence of differential item functioning (DIF) in DSM-IV Pathological Gambling Disorder (PGD) criteria based on gender, race/ethnicity and age. Using a nationally representative sample of adults from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC), indicating current gambling (n = 10,899), Multiple Indicator-Multiple Cause (MIMIC) models tested for DIF, controlling for income, education, and marital status. Compared to the reference grou...
The third versions of the guideline for treatment of people with gender identity disorder (GID) of the Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology does not include puberty-delaying hormone therapy. It is recommended that feminizing/masculinizing hormone therapy and genital surgery should not be carried out until 18 year old and 20 year old, respectively. On the other hand, the sixth (2001) and the seventh (2011) versions of the standards of care for the health of transsexual, transgender, and gender nonconforming people of World Professional Association for Transgender Health (WPATH) recommend that transsexual adolescents (Tanner stage 2, [mainly 12-13 years of age]) are treated by the endocrinologists to suppress puberty with gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists until age 16 years old, after which cross-sex hormones may be given. A questionnairing on 181 people with GID diagnosed in the Okayama University Hospital (Japan) showed that female to male (FTM) transsexuals hoped to begin masculinizing hormone therapy at age of 15.6 +/- 4.0 (mean +/- S.D.) whereas male to female (MTF) transsexuals hoped to begin feminizing hormone therapy as early as age 12.5 +/- 4.0, before presenting secondary sex characters. After confirmation of strong and persistent cross-gender identification, adolescents with GID should be treated with cross-gender hormone or puberty-delaying hormone to prevent developing undesired sex characters. These treatments may prevent transsexual adolescents from attempting suicide, being depressive, and refusing to attend school. Subsequent early breast and genital surgery may help being employed in desired sexuality.
Jovi?i?, Ana ?.
ABSTRACT The purpose of the study is to examine healthy eating habits of the population of Serbia through three dimensions: knowledge, problems, and feelings as well as to determine whether there are any differences between genders and among different age-groups. The research instrument was an Eating Habits Questionnaire (EHQ) which consisted of 35 items. There were 382 respondents involved in the study. The reliability and factor structure of the questionnaire were verified by using factor a...
Kusurkar, Rashmi; Kruitwagen, Cas; ten Cate, Olle; Croiset, Gerda
The aim of this study was to determine the effects of selection, educational background, age and gender on strength of motivation to attend and pursue medical school. Graduate entry (GE) medical students (having Bachelor's degree in Life Sciences or related field) and Non-Graduate Entry (NGE) medical students (having only completed high school), were asked to fill out the Strength of Motivation for Medical School (SMMS) questionnaire at the start of medical school. The questionnaire measures the willingness of the medical students to pursue medical education even in the face of difficulty and sacrifice. GE students (59.64 ± 7.30) had higher strength of motivation as compared to NGE students (55.26 ± 8.33), so did females (57.05 ± 8.28) as compared to males (54.30 ± 8.08). 7.9% of the variance in the SMMS scores could be explained with the help of a linear regression model with age, gender and educational background/selection as predictor variables. Age was the single largest predictor. Maturity, taking developmental differences between sexes into account, was used as a predictor to correct for differences in the maturation of males and females. Still, the gender differences prevailed, though they were reduced. Pre-entrance educational background and selection also predicted the strength of motivation, but the effect of the two was confounded. Strength of motivation appears to be a dynamic entity, changing primarily with age and maturity and to a small extent with gender and experience.
Byles, Julie E; Gallienne, Lucy; Blyth, Fiona M; Banks, Emily
As populations age, psychological distress in late life will become of increasing public health and social importance. This study seeks to bridge the gap in information that exists about psychological distress in late life, by exploring the prevalence of psychological distress among a very large sample of older adults to determine the impact of age and gender, and the modifying effect of these factors on the associations between measures of psychological distress and sociodemographic and comorbid conditions. We analyzed self-reported data from 236,508 men and women in the New South Wales 45 and Up Study, to determine the impact of age and gender, and the modifying effects of these factors on associations between psychological distress and sociodemographic and comorbid conditions. Higher education, married status, and higher income were associated with lower risk of psychological distress. Although overall prevalence of psychological distress is lower at older ages, this increases after age 80, and is particularly associated with physical disabilities. Some older people (such as those requiring help because of disability and those with multiple comorbid health conditions) are at increased risk of psychological distress. These findings have implications for both healthcare providers and policy-makers in identifying and responding to the needs of older people in our aging society.
Rodrigues-Barbosa, Aline; de Miranda, Leticia Miranda; Vieira-Guimarães, Alexsander; Xavier-Corseuil, Herton; Weber-Corseuil, Marui
Presenting physical performance tests' (PPTs) descriptive reference values and prevalence according to gender and age-group regarding a representative sample of non-institutionalised older adults (aged 60 and over) living in Bridgetown (Barbados) and Havana (Cuba). This was a cross-sectional, population-based household survey. In Bridgetown and Havana, respectively, 1,508 and 1,905 subjects were examined who had been selected by probabilistic sampling. PPTs included handgrip strength, standing balance, timed repeated "chair stand" and "pick up a pen." The results from Bridgetown and Havana showed that values (mean ± standard deviations and percentiles) for men were greater than women in handgrip strength and "chair stand" tests (p≤0.01). Increasing age led to both genders having reduced (p≤0.001) prevalence of people having better results for each test (based on chi-square). Men had proportionately better scores than women in the four tests. The data suggested that younger people and men had better physical performance. Men and women in both countries had differences regarding the prevalence of people unable to perform the tests and better test results, according to the test and age-group. The data provided information about the range of performance that can be expected from people in different ages and helped understand usual rates of change in age-groups.
Garm, Christian; Moreno-Villanueva, Maria; Bürkle, Alexander
Exogenous and endogenous damage to DNA is constantly challenging the stability of our genome. This DNA damage increase the frequency of errors in DNA replication, thus causing point mutations or chromosomal rearrangements and has been implicated in aging, cancer, and neurodegenerative diseases...... in a study population consisting of 216 individuals from a population-based sample of twins aged 40-77 years. Age in this range did not seem to have any effect on the SSB parameters. However, γ-H2AX response and DSB repair capacity decreased with increasing age, although the associations did not reach...... statistical significance after adjustment for batch effect across multiple experiments. No gender differences were observed for any of the parameters analyzed. Our findings suggest that in PBMCs, the repair of SSBs is maintained until old age, whereas the response to and the repair of DSBs decrease....
Mehrotra, R.; Anderson, A.; Diaz, F.; Sharma, A.; Wallach, H. M.; Yilmaz, E.
Many online services, such as search engines, social media platforms, and digital marketplaces, are advertised as being available to any user, regardless of their age, gender, or other demographic factors. However, there are growing concerns that these services may systematically underserve some groups of users. In this paper, we present a framework for internally auditing such services for differences in user satisfaction across demographic groups, using search engines as a case study. We fi...
Monica Pregnolato; Mark H.R. Bussin; Anton F. Schlechter
Orientation: Changing workplace demographics and a dearth of employees with scarce skills have forced employers to better understand the various factors that retain talented employees. Research purpose: In this empirical study, the reward preferences and ideal combination of total reward elements (based on an estimation of their relative importance) that retain employees from various demographic groups, including employees of different race, gender and age groups, were investigated. M...
Al-Turk, Walid; Al-Dujaili, Emad A S
There has been a lot of effort by scientists to elucidate the multi functions of the naturally occurring hormone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). However, to plan research experiments optimally, it is important first to characterize the diurnal rhythm in healthy individuals. The aim of this research was to investigate the daily circadian rhythms of DHEA among the 2 genders, and the effect of age and exercise on salivary DHEA circadian rhythms. Volunteers (20-39 and 40-60 years) were recruited for 2 studies investigating the salivary DHEA circadian rhythm. The first study looked at the effect of gender and age on DHEA levels on 2 non-consecutive days, and the second study explored the effect of exercise on DHEA circadian rhythm in males. DHEA levels were estimated by a sensitive and specific ELISA method. The results showed a clear daily circadian rhythm in salivary DHEA in all participants groups, however the profile was flatter in the older female group. There was a significant difference between age and gender groups particularly at 8.00 h. In young males DHEA reduced from 541.1 ± 101.3 (mean ± sd) at 8.00 h to 198.9 ± 90.7 pg/mL at 18.00 h; pcircadian rhythm in salivary DHEA in all participants was observed, but the profile was flatter in the older groups. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Sang Hui Chu
Full Text Available Objectives: Controlling blood pressure is a key step in reducing cardiovascular mortality in older adults. Gender differences in patients’ attitudes after disease diagnosis and their management of the disease have been identified. However, it is unclear whether gender differences exist in hypertension management among older adults. We hypothesized that gender differences would exist among factors associated with hypertension diagnosis and control among community-dwelling, older adults. Methods: This cross-sectional study analyzed data from 653 Koreans aged ≥60 years who participated in the Korean Social Life, Health, and Aging Project. Multiple logistic regression was used to compare several variables between undiagnosed and diagnosed hypertension, and between uncontrolled and controlled hypertension. Results: Diabetes was more prevalent in men and women who had uncontrolled hypertension than those with controlled hypertension or undiagnosed hypertension. High body mass index was significantly associated with uncontrolled hypertension only in men. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that in women, awareness of one’s blood pressure level (odds ratio [OR], 2.86; p=0.003 and the number of blood pressure checkups over the previous year (OR, 1.06; p=0.011 might influence the likelihood of being diagnosed with hypertension. More highly educated women were more likely to have controlled hypertension than non-educated women (OR, 5.23; p=0.013. Conclusions: This study suggests that gender differences exist among factors associated with hypertension diagnosis and control in the study population of community-dwelling, older adults. Education-based health promotion strategies for hypertension control might be more effective in elderly women than in elderly men. Gender-specific approaches may be required to effectively control hypertension among older adults.
Debra L Foley
Full Text Available Individuals with psychosis are more likely than the general community to develop obesity and to die prematurely from heart disease. Interventions to improve cardiovascular outcomes are best targeted at the earliest indicators of risk, at the age they first emerge. We investigated which cardiometabolic risk indicators distinguished those with psychosis from the general population, by age by gender, and whether obesity explained the pattern of observed differences. Data was analyzed from an epidemiologically representative sample of 1,642 Australians with psychosis aged 18-64 years and a national comparator sample of 8,866 controls aged 25-64 years from the general population. Cubic b-splines were used to compare cross sectional age trends by gender for mean waist circumference, body mass index [BMI], blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, triglycerides, LDL, HDL, and total cholesterol in our psychosis and control samples. At age 25 individuals with psychosis had a significantly higher mean BMI, waist circumference, triglycerides, glucose [women only], and diastolic blood pressure and significantly lower HDL-cholesterol than controls. With the exception of triglycerides at age 60+ in men, and glucose in women at various ages, these differences were present at every age. Differences in BMI and waist circumference between samples, although dramatic, could not explain all differences in diastolic blood pressure, HDL-cholesterol or triglycerides but did explain differences in glucose. Psychosis has the hallmarks of insulin resistance by at least age 25. The entire syndrome, not just weight, should be a focus of intervention to reduce mortality from cardiovascular disease.
Veronika Olegovna Mokhova
Full Text Available The main purpose of this article is to analyze the main ideas of the Medieval Period authors in Europe and in Russia, in terms of identifying the most important theses of this historical period for the formation and development of the ideas of gender psychology. It is being considered the role of Christianity and the emergence of the women's education issue in the formation of gender stereotypes. In this article the Middle Ages period is being considered as a separate historical phase for the basic ideas formation in the gender psychology, which is a new approach to the history of gender science. To estimate medieval texts - European and Russian, the method of qualitative content analysis is used, by means of which the most relevant to the period ideas associated with the sexes are identified. For Europe, it inter-sexual features, for Russia - different behavioral requirements of the society associated with sexes. Conclusions contain ideas of the Middle Ages in Europe and in Russia that are relevant to the development and establishment of gender psychology. In Europe: the continuation of the ancient thesis of the initial androgyny of a human being; impact of the woman's education on her ability for development; consideration of sexuality as sinful; the issue of women's emancipation, the declining value of the large numerous families despite of a ban on interference in the reproductive cycle in the middle of the Medieval period. In Russia: the perception of inter-sexual characteristics as defined by the God; unconditional obedience of a woman to her husband; androgyny in the distribution of the farmers’ responsibilities.Objective: To analyze the main ideas of the authors of the Middle Ages in Europe and in Russia, in terms of identifying the significant theses of this historical period for the formation and development of the ideas of the gender psychology.Method of the research work: A qualitative content analysis of the texts by the authors
Full Text Available Introduction: With progressive development in the growth and function of the jaws, changes are observed in size as well as shape of the mandible, which vary on the basis of age, gender, and dental status. The objective of this study was to evaluate and assess the morphological changes of the mandible, with varying age, gender, and dental status, using panoramic radiographs. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was conducted using digital panoramic radiographs taken by Kodak 8000c digital panoramic and cephalometric system on 150 patients, comprising fifty edentulous individuals (above 50 years of age, fifty old dentate individuals (above 50 years of age, and fifty young dentate individuals (below 25 years of age. All the mandibular measurements (gonial angle, ramus length, condylar length (CL, ramus notch depth, and cortical bone thickness were carried out using RadiAnt DICOM VIEWER 2.2.9 (32-bit software. The measurements were then subjected to paired t-test, Tukey's multiple post hoc procedures, and multiple linear regression analysis. Results: Descriptive statistics for all the parameters on the right and left sides of the mandible in both males and females were analyzed. A statistical significance of P < 0.05 was observed for all the variables except one variable (CL. Conclusion: In the present study, all the variables showed increased measurements in males except gonial angle, which was found to be wider in females, indicating that women tend to get affected by varying dental statuses than men. Hence, the parameters used in this study may act as good indicators for the assessment of the effect of age, gender, and dental status on mandibular morphology.
О. В. Іващенко
Full Text Available The objective is to determine the gender-specific peculiarities of motor preparedness of children aged 6-10. Materials and methods: the participants in the study were girls aged 6 (n = 36, aged 7 (n = 48, aged 8 (n = 57, aged 9 (n = 38, aged 10 (n = 46; boys aged 6 (n = 48, aged 7 (n = 45, aged 8 (n = 60, aged 9 (n = 47, aged 10 (n = 40. To achieve the tasks set, the study relied on the following research methods: analysis of scientific literature, pedagogical testing and methods of mathematical statistics of research data reduction. The study used discriminant analysis as the modeling method. Results: the classification results of motor preparedness of girls and boys aged 6-10 indicate that the study has correctly classified 81.9-100% of the initial observations. The graphic material demonstrates the density of objects within each class and a clear distinction between the classes. This allows to maintain that there is a significant difference between girls and boys aged 6-10 in their motor preparedness. Conclusions. The girls aged 6-10 show the best results in movement coordination related to combinations of movements of arms and legs, as well as flexibility. The girls aged 10 show the best results in test No. 10 “300-m Race”. The boys aged 6-10, unlike the girls, show the best results in the development of general coordination of movements, strength, speed strength, strength and general endurance. It is possible to argue with a high level of reliability that by their classification characteristics girls and boys belong to different classes, and significantly differ in motor preparedness.
Ramzan, M.; Razzaq, A.; Kiyani, A.N.
To determine the frequency of hypoglycemia in small for gestational age neonates based on gestational age, gender, birth weight and mode of delivery. Study Design: Cross sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU), Military Hospital Rawalpindi, from Dec 2011 to Jul 2012. Material and Methods: We included 383 small for gestational age (SGA) neonates admitted in NICU. Blood glucose levels were checked in all neonates. Variables included in study were gestational age, gender, birth weight and mode of delivery. Results: Out of 383 SGA neonates enrolled by non-probability consecutive sampling, 191 (49.87%) were males and 192 (50.13%) were females. Out of these 203 (53%) were preterm, 165 (43.08%) were delivered at term and 15 (3.92%) were post-term SGA neonates with mean gestational age of 34 weeks 5 days. Out of the total 383 SGA neonates 208 (54.31%) developed hypoglycemia during stay in NICU and 175 (45.69%) remained euglycemic. Extremely low birth weight (ELBW) neonates were at highest risk to develop hypoglycemia (82.35%). It was seen that SGA neonates delivered by instrumental vaginal delivery had highest risk of developing hypoglycemia i.e. 20 (76.92) out of 26 neonates. Out of 103 vaginal deliveries 41 (39.81%) had hypoglycemia and out of 254 Caesarean section 147 (57.87%) had hypoglycemia. Conclusion: Low birth weight neonates delivered by instrumental vaginal delivery were found to be at a higher risk of developing hypoglycemia. (author)
Trocino, A; Birolo, M; Dabbou, S; Gratta, F; Rigo, N; Xiccato, G
A total of 48 sub-adult hares and adult reproducing farmed hares were used to characterize carcass and meat traits according to the age and gender of animals. With respect to carcass traits, when age increased, the carcass weight significantly increased (2022 to 3391 g; Pcarcass traits. In conclusion, farmed hares have favourable slaughter results (high dressing percentage), carcass traits (high hind legs and loins rates), and meat nutritional value (high-protein, low-fat meat). This fact would offer additional commercial opportunities, in addition to restocking, to hare farmers.
Marek, Ryan J; Ben-Porath, Yossef S; Sellbom, Martin; McNulty, John L; Heinberg, Leslie J
Presurgical psychological screening is used to identify factors that may impact postoperative adherence and surgical outcomes in bariatric surgery candidates. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory - 2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) findings have demonstrated utility for this task. To explore whether there are clinically meaningful gender, ethnicity, or age differences in presurgical MMPI-2-RF scores and the validity of these scores in bariatric surgery candidates. The sample was composed of 872 men and 2337 women. Ethnicity/race groups included 2,204 Caucasian, 744 African American, and 96 Hispanic individuals. A sample of 165 were not included in the ethnicity/race analyses because they were of another descent. Ages groups included 18-35 year olds (n = 454), 36-49 year olds (n = 1154), 50-64 year olds, (n = 1246), and 65 years old or older (n = 355). Validity data, obtained via a retrospective chart review, were available for a subset patients (n = 1,268) who were similarly distributed. Step-down hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to assess for differential validity. Bariatric surgery candidates produced comparable MMPI-2-RF scores in all subsamples, indicating that the test norms generalize across demographic groups. Validity findings were also generally comparable, indicating that MMPI-2-RF scores have the same interpretive implications in demographically diverse subgroups of bariatric surgery candidates. The MMPI-2-RF can assist in presurgical psychological screening of demographically diverse bariatric surgery candidates. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Irena Colić Barić
Besides traditional nutrients, milk and dairy products contain some health promoting components. The aim of this study was to detect the frequency and preferences among dairy products in school children according to age and gender. The subjects were 234 healthy children at age 10-11 years and 14-15 years from two primary schools in Zagreb. Number of participants was well balanced according to age and gender. Dietary data were collected using specially designed food frequency questionnaire (FF...
Full Text Available A primary societal goal for aging is enabling older people to continue to live well as long as possible. The evidence base around aging well (‘healthy’, ‘active’ and ‘successful’ aging has been constructed mainly from academic and professional conceptualizations of mortality, morbidity, functioning, and psychological well-being with some attention to lay views. Our study aims to inform action on health promotion to achieve aging well as conceptualized by qualitative research identifying what older Australians themselves value most: continuing to live as long as possible in the community with independence in daily living, and good self-rated health and psychological well-being. Multivariate survival analyses from the Melbourne Longitudinal Studies on Healthy Ageing (MELSHA program found that important threats to aging well for the total sample over a 12 year period were chronological age, multi-morbidity, low perceived social support, low nutritional score, and being underweight. For men, threats to aging well were low strain, perceived inadequacy of social activity, and being a current smoker. For women, urinary incontinence, low physical activity and being underweight were threats to aging well. The findings indicate that healthy lifestyles can assist aging well, and suggest the value of taking gender into account in health promotion strategies.
Kendig, Hal; Browning, Colette J; Thomas, Shane A; Wells, Yvonne
A primary societal goal for aging is enabling older people to continue to live well as long as possible. The evidence base around aging well ("healthy," "active," and "successful" aging) has been constructed mainly from academic and professional conceptualizations of mortality, morbidity, functioning, and psychological well-being with some attention to lay views. Our study aims to inform action on health promotion to achieve aging well as conceptualized by qualitative research identifying what older Australians themselves value most: continuing to live as long as possible in the community with independence in daily living, and good self-rated health and psychological well-being. Multivariate survival analyses from the Melbourne longitudinal studies on healthy aging program found that important threats to aging well for the total sample over a 12-year period were chronological age, multi-morbidity, low perceived social support, low nutritional score, and being under-weight. For men, threats to aging well were low strain, perceived inadequacy of social activity, and being a current smoker. For women, urinary incontinence, low physical activity and being under-weight were threats to aging well. The findings indicate that healthy lifestyles can assist aging well, and suggest the value of taking gender into account in health promotion strategies.
Full Text Available Introduction: Nutrient canals are anatomic structures of the alveolar bone through which neurovascular elements transit to supply teeth and supporting structures. Dental identification using nutrient canal of the mandibular alveolar process as the most compelling anatomic feature for antemortem–postmortem radiographic comparison can be potentially used in forensic identification. Aim: The aim of the present study was to investigate the correlation between the appearance of nutrient canals as a potential clue to age and gender determination. Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty patients, 60 males and 60 females, were selected in the 11–60-year age group. Systemic disease, especially hypertension, was ruled out in the patients. Periapical radiographs were taken from mandibular anterior cuspid central incisor region because nutrient canals are commonly observed in this area. Data obtained was analyzed by SPSS software and various statistical analysis were carried out. Results: Study revealed nutrient canals to be commonly seen in females compared to males. Males had maximum canals in the age group of 21–30-year whereas females in the age group of 31–40 years had the maximum canals. Conclusion: Significant correlation was seen between the gender and nutrient canals whereas no significant correlation existed between the age and presence of nutrient canals.
Andrew A Lover
Full Text Available Anemia is a significant risk factor for poor health outcomes for both the mother and neonate; however, the determinants of anemia in many epidemiological settings are poorly understood. Using a subset of a nationally representative cluster survey (2010 Demographic and Health Survey in combination with other non-contemporaneous survey data, the epidemiology of anemia among women of reproductive age in Timor-Leste has been explored. Logistic regression was used to identify risk factors, population-level impacts were estimated as population attributable fractions and spatial analytics were used to identify regions of highest risk. The DHS survey found that ∼ 21% of adult women in Timor-Leste are anemic (49,053; 95% CI: 37,095 to 61,035, with hemoglobin <12.0 g/dL. In this population, the main risk factors (adjusted odds ratio; 95% CI are: currently abstaining from sex for any reason (2.25; 1.50 to 3.38; illiteracy (2.04; 1.49 to 2.80; giving birth within the previous year (1.80; 1.29 to 2.51; consumption of fruits/vegetables low in vitamin A (1.57; 1.13 to 2.20; and the district-level confirmed malaria incidence (1.31; 1.15 to 1.49. A review of prior soil-transmitted helminth surveys in Timor-Leste indicates low-to-moderate prevalence with generally low egg counts, suggesting a limited impact on anemia in this setting, although comprehensive survey data are lacking. Examination of the population-level effects highlights the impacts of both recent births and malaria on anemia, with more limited impacts from diet; the evidence does not suggest a large contribution from geohelminths within Timor-Leste. These patterns are divergent from some other settings in the Asia-Pacific region and highlight the need for further focused research. Targeting high-burden districts and by increasing access to pre/postnatal care, raising literacy levels, increasing access to family planning, and improving malaria control should be prioritized to maximize inherently
Talkad Subbaiah Mahesh Kumar
Full Text Available Introduction: Sella turcica is a saddle-shaped concavity located in the middle cranial fossa of the skull. The exact dimensions of sella turcica are an important consideration in the diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of diseases related to the pituitary gland and brain. The sella turcica size and morphology is different from person to person. Thus, obtaining any data in this regard will be a great help in detecting abnormalities within this anatomic area. Aim: The objective of this study was to find out the correlation between the morphological variations of sella turcica with age and gender. Materials and Methods: Study sample consisted of 311 cephalograms of patients with age ranging 6–40 years. The contour of the sella turcica was traced and the linear measurements – length, depth, and diameter of sella turcica – were measured according to Silverman. Results: Morphology of sella turcica appeared to be normal shape in 27.3% of the study population followed by combination (26.7%, irregular (15.8%, pyramidal (10.6%, bridge (10%, oblique anterior wall (5.5%, and double contour (4.2%. Gender-wise comparison of the linear measurement was not statistically significant. Among the linear measurement, the parameter depth and diameter were statistically significant (P < 0.001 when correlated with age. On comparison of shape of sella turcica with linear measurements, the parameter length was statistically significant (P < 0.001. Conclusion: There is no significant relationship between the linear measurements and gender. There exists a significant relationship between the mean depth and mean diameter with age. That is, as age increases, the depth and diameter increase. There is a significant relationship between the length and the different shapes of sella turcica.
Dorman, David C.; McManus, Brian E.; Marshall, Marianne W.; James, R. Arden; Struve, Melanie F.
In this study, we examined whether gender or age influences the pharmacokinetics of manganese sulfate (MnSO 4 ) or manganese phosphate (as the mineral form hureaulite). Young male and female rats and aged male rats (16 months old) were exposed 6 h day -1 for 5 days week -1 to air, MnSO 4 (at 0.01, 0.1, or 0.5 mg Mn m -3 ), or hureaulite (0.1 mg Mn m -3 ). Tissue manganese concentrations were determined in all groups at the end of the 90-day exposure and 45 days later. Tissue manganese concentrations were also determined in young male rats following 32 exposure days and 91 days after the 90-day exposure. Intravenous 54 Mn tracer studies were also performed in all groups immediately after the 90-day inhalation to assess whole-body manganese clearance rates. Gender and age did not affect manganese delivery to the striatum, a known target site for neurotoxicity in humans, but did influence manganese concentrations in other tissues. End-of-exposure olfactory bulb, lung, and blood manganese concentrations were higher in young male rats than in female or aged male rats and may reflect a portal-of-entry effect. Old male rats had higher testis but lower pancreas manganese concentrations when compared with young males. Young male and female rats exposed to MnSO 4 at 0.5 mg Mn m -3 had increased 54 Mn clearance rates when compared with air-exposed controls, while senescent males did not develop higher 54 Mn clearance rates. Data from this study should prove useful in developing dosimetry models for manganese that consider age or gender as potential sensitivity factors
Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the values of selected haematological indices of the Polbar breed of chickens by gender and age. There was a significant WBC difference in cocks and hens with age. In each of the periods, cocks were characterized by a lower than hens number of LY. LY and NE declined with increasing age. Most values showed significant (P ≤ 0.05 differences for birds at different ages. These results of the haematological indices from consolidated Polbar breed can be used for comparisons with other breeds of poultry. The study deepens and organizes the knowledge within the possibilities of using and interpreting levels of haematological indicators for monitoring health of hens. In this paper, we managed to obtain information on the level of indicators rarely determined in chickens.
Barton, B K; Ulrich, T; Lyday, B
Thousands of American children under the age of 10 years are injured annually as pedestrians. Despite the scope of this public health problem, knowledge about behavioural control and developmental factors involved in the aetiology of child pedestrian safety is limited. The present study examined the roles of gender, age and two aspects of cognitive development (visual search and efficiency of processing) in children's safe pedestrian route selection. Measures of cognitive functioning (visual search and efficiency) and selections of risky pedestrian routes were collected from 65 children aged 5-9 years. Boys, younger children and those with less developed cognitive functioning selected riskier pedestrian routes. Cognitive functioning also subsumed age as a predictor of risky route selections. Our findings suggest developmental differences, specifically less developed cognitive functioning, play important roles in children's pedestrian decision making. Directions for future examination are discussed. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Glozah, Franklin N; Pevalin, David J
Little is known about the role of age and gender in the association between psychosomatic symptoms and common mental illness in Ghanaian adolescents. This cross-sectional study examined age and gender as moderators between psychosomatic symptoms and common mental illness using data from a school-based survey ( N = 770). Males reported higher psychosomatic symptoms and common mental illness, while younger adolescents reported higher common mental illness only. Psychosomatic symptoms were positively associated with common mental illness, but age and gender did not moderate this association. Interventions aimed at reducing the prevalence rate in psychosomatic symptoms are crucial in decreasing common mental illness in Ghanaian adolescents.
Full Text Available ApoE gene polymorphism has been reportedly associated with serum lipids and cognition. However, very few studies have explored the combined effects of ApoE gene polymorphism and gender on serum lipid profile with subsequent impacts on cognition in Chinese population. A total of 1,000 Chinese community dwellers aged 55 years and above were recruited in this cross-sectional study. Demographic information of the participants was collected using well designed self-administered questionnaires. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA test was employed to evaluate the cognitive status of the participants. Semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ was used to obtain the dietary intake information. Fasting venous blood samples were taken for ApoE genotyping and serum lipid measurements. Significant gender differences in cognition, serum lipid profile and dietary fat-rich foods consumption were observed (p < 0.05. Cognition of the subjects was found to be associated with ApoE genotypes (p < 0.05. ApoE rs429358 and rs7412 variants demonstrated a significant effect on cognitive performance in the male subjects; especially within the attention and language cognitive domains as well as the total MoCA score (p < 0.05, respectively. Serum lipid profile and cognition of Chinese adults are significantly linked with gender and ApoE genetic polymorphism. The ApoE variant rs429358 is found to be notably associated with cognition in aging male Chinese population.
Zhen, Jie; Huang, Xiaochen; Van Halm-Lutterodt, Nicholas; Dong, Shengqi; Ma, Weiwei; Xiao, Rong; Yuan, Linhong
ApoE gene polymorphism has been reportedly associated with serum lipids and cognition. However, very few studies have explored the combined effects of ApoE gene polymorphism and gender on serum lipid profile with subsequent impacts on cognition in Chinese population. A total of 1,000 Chinese community dwellers aged 55 years and above were recruited in this cross-sectional study. Demographic information of the participants was collected using well designed self-administered questionnaires. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) test was employed to evaluate the cognitive status of the participants. Semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was used to obtain the dietary intake information. Fasting venous blood samples were taken for ApoE genotyping and serum lipid measurements. Significant gender differences in cognition, serum lipid profile and dietary fat-rich foods consumption were observed ( p < 0.05). Cognition of the subjects was found to be associated with ApoE genotypes ( p < 0.05). ApoE rs429358 and rs7412 variants demonstrated a significant effect on cognitive performance in the male subjects; especially within the attention and language cognitive domains as well as the total MoCA score ( p < 0.05), respectively. Serum lipid profile and cognition of Chinese adults are significantly linked with gender and ApoE genetic polymorphism. The ApoE variant rs429358 is found to be notably associated with cognition in aging male Chinese population.
D'Souza, Sonia; Rasmussen, John; Schwirtz, Ansgar
and valuable ergonomic tool. Objective: To investigate age and gender effects on the torque-producing ability in the knee and elbow in older adults. To create strength scaled equations based on age, gender, upper/lower limb lengths and masses using multiple linear regression. To reduce the number of dependent...... flexors. Results: Males were signifantly stronger than females across all age groups. Elbow peak torque (EPT) was better preserved from 60s to 70s whereas knee peak torque (KPT) reduced significantly (PGender, thigh mass and age best...... predicted KPT (R2=0.60). Gender, forearm mass and age best predicted EPT (R2=0.75). Good crossvalidation was established for both elbow and knee models. Conclusion: This cross-sectional study of muscle strength created and validated strength scaled equations of EPT and KPT using only gender, segment mass...
Kim, Seong Yi; Kim, Myoung-Hee; Kawachi, Ichiro; Cho, Youngtae
Suicide is one of the leading causes of mortality in both South Korea and Japan. The study aims to compare the descriptive epidemiology of suicide over the last two decades (1985-2006) and to explore the conditions associated with the different distribution of suicides in both countries. Age-standardized suicide rates were obtained from the OECD Health Data 2009. Age-specific suicide rates for the age groups were calculated from the WHO Mortality Database. Suicide methods were identified based on ICD-10. Through 1980-2000, Japan showed consistently higher suicide rates compared to Korea. However, from the mid-1990s, Korea showed an acute increase of suicides and finally surpassed Japan; the age-standardized suicide rate of Korea increased from 10.2 (per 100,000) in 1985 to 21.5 in 2006, while it slightly increased from 18.4 to 19.1 in Japan. The highest age-specific suicide rate was observed among Japanese men aged 45-64 years and Korean men aged over 64 years. The increase of elderly suicides among Korean women was notable. The gender ratio increased in Japan and decreased in Korea, respectively. The preferred suicide methods were hanging and pesticide poisoning in Korea and hanging in Japan. Because of the limited number of observations, hypothesis testing of specific risk factors was not possible. Age and gender distribution of suicide rates differed considerably between the two countries. Welfare protection throughout the life course in both countries, and pesticide regulation in Korea would be helpful in reducing the burden of suicide mortality in both countries, even if the social values could not be changed in a short time.
Hon, K L E; Leung, T F; Wong, K Y; Chow, C M; Chuh, A; Ng, P C
Quality of life (QoL) is impaired in children with atopic dermatitis (AD) but the various aspects of QoL may not be equally affected. Aim. To evaluate if age and gender affect some aspects of QoL in children with AD. The Children's Dermatology Life Quality Index (CDLQI) was used for all children with AD seen at a paediatric dermatology clinic over a 3-year period. Disease severity was assessed using the SCORing Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD) and Nottingham Eczema Severity Score (NESS) tools. We reviewed CDLQI in 133 children (70 male and 63 female; age range 5-16 years) with AD. Itch, sleep disturbance, treatment and swimming/sports were the four aspects of QoL issues that were most commonly affected, in 50%, 47%, 38% and 29% of patients, respectively. Problems with interpersonal issues (friendship, school/holidays, and teasing/bullying) occurred in only a minority of children (genders similarly but were generally more common in children gender are relevant factors in QoL, with the issue of clothes/shoes being more troublesome for girls. itch and sleep disturbance seem to be a problem mainly in younger children.
Singh-Manoux, Archana; Guéguen, Alice; Ferrie, Jane; Shipley, Martin; Martikainen, Pekka; Bonenfant, Sébastien; Goldberg, Marcel; Marmot, Michael
We examined gender differences in mortality, morbidity, and the association between the 2. We used health data from 2 studies of middle-aged men and women: the British Whitehall II cohort of employees from 20 civil service departments in London and the 1989 French GAZEL (this acronym refers to the French gas and electric companies) of employees of France's national gas and electricity company. Participants were aged 35 to 55 years when assessed for morbidity and followed up for mortality over 17 years. Male mortality was higher than female mortality in Whitehall II (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.56; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.28, 1.91) and the GAZEL cohort (HR = 1.99; CI = 1.66, 2.40). Female excess morbidity was observed for some measures in the Whitehall II data and for 1 measure in the GAZEL data. Only self-reported sickness absence in the Whitehall II data was more strongly associated with mortality among men (P = .01). Mortality was lower among women than among men, but morbidity was not consistently higher. The lack of gender differences in the association between morbidity and mortality suggests that this is not a likely explanation for the gender paradox, which refers to higher morbidity but lower mortality among women than among men.
Bennett, Rachel; Chepngeno-Langat, Gloria; Evandrou, Maria; Falkingham, Jane
This paper examines gender differentials in survival amongst older people (50+ years) in the Nairobi slums and to the best of our knowledge is the first study of its kind in an urban African setting. The results provide evidence contrary to the expected paradox of poorer self-rated health yet better survival amongst older women. Older women in the Nairobi slums have poorer self-rated health and poorer circumstances across other factors, including disability and socio-economic status. Further, older women in the slums do not have better survival. The conventional female advantage in mortality only becomes apparent after accounting for the cumulative influence of individual characteristics, social networks, health and socio-economic status, suggesting the female advantage in unadjusted old-age mortality does not apply to contexts where women experience significant disadvantage across multiple life domains. This highlights the urgent need to redress the support, status and opportunities available for women across the life course in contexts such as the Nairobi slums. In addition, a greater number of factors differentiate mortality risk amongst men than amongst women, suggesting inequality amongst slum dwelling older men and highlighting the need for gender sensitive interventions which account for the particular needs of both genders in old age. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background In Pakistan, preference for boys over girls is deeply culturally embedded. From birth, many women experience gendered disadvantages; less access to scarce resources, poorer health care, higher child mortality, limited education, less employment outside of the home and circumscribed autonomy. The prevalence of psychological morbidity is exceptionally high among women. We hypothesise that, among women of childbearing age, gender disadvantage is an independent risk factor for psychological morbidity Methods A cross-sectional catchment area survey of 525 women aged 18 to 35 years living in Islamabad and Rawalpindi. The effect of gender disadvantage was assessed as a latent variable using structural equation modelling. Indicators were parental gender preference, low parental care, parental overprotection, limited education, early age at marriage, marital dissatisfaction and low autonomy. Psychological morbidity was assessed using the 20 item Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ. Results Gender disadvantage was independently predictive of psychological morbidity. Among married women, socio-economic status did not predict psychological morbidity, and the effect of education was mediated through gender disadvantage rather than socioeconomic status (SES. The women's own preference for a male child was strongly predicted by their perceptions of having been disadvantaged by their gender in their families of origin. Conclusions The high prevalence of psychological morbidity among women in Pakistan is concerning given recently reported strong associations with low birth weight and infant stunting. Social action, public policies and legislation are indicated to reduce culturally embedded preferences. Neglect of these fundamentals will entrench consequent inequities including gender bias in access to education, a key millennium development goal.
Pothisiri, Wiraporn; Quashie, Nekehia T
Data from the 2011 Survey of Older Persons in Thailand examines the association between preparations for old age (financial, health, caregiving, living arrangements, and spiritual) and three measures of well-being: financial satisfaction, life satisfaction, and physical health. The study further explores the role of social stratification and the gendered nature of these relationships. The sample ( N = 10,235) is restricted to adults 60 years and above, who are retired and answered the survey independently. Multivariate logistic regression analyses indicate that different forms of preparation are positively associated with post-retirement well-being for men and women but socioeconomic resources are positively associated with all three well-being outcomes. Furthermore, for women, there are significant negative interaction effects of income and financial preparation on life satisfaction, as well as negative interaction effects of disability and caregiver preparation on self-rated health. Implications for long-term care, socioeconomic inequality, and gender inequality in paid labor are discussed.
Kortman, Hans G J; Wilder, Sarah C; Geisbush, Tom R; Narayanaswami, Pushpa; Rutkove, Seward B
Electrical impedance measurements of skeletal muscle may be sensitive to age-associated declines in muscle health. In an effort to evaluate this concept further, we performed electrical impedance myography (EIM) using a handheld array on 38 individuals aged 19–50 years and 41 individuals aged 60–85 years. Individuals either had seven upper extremity or seven lower extremity muscles measured. The 50 kHz reactance, resistance and phase were used as the major outcome variables. Although the phase values were similar in both groups, both reactance and resistance values were lower in the lower extremities of the older individuals as compared to the younger (−23 ± 6%, p = 0.001 for reactance and −27 ± 7%, p = 0.005 for resistance), whereas changes in upper extremity values were not significantly different (−9 ± 5%, p = 0.096 for reactance and +5 ± 9%, p = 0.55 for resistance). When analyzing the genders separately, it became clear that this reduction in lower extremity values was most pronounced in men and less consistently present in women. These findings suggest that age- and gender-associated differences in muscle condition are detectable using EIM. The relationship of these easily obtained parameters to standard functional, imaging, and pathological markers of sarcopenia deserves further study. (paper)
Wang, Jianshe; Zhang, Yating; Zhang, Fang; Yeung, Leo W.Y.; Taniyasu, Sachi; Yamazaki, Eriko; Wang, Renping; Lam, Paul K.S.; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi; Dai, Jiayin
Fourteen perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were measured in serum of the highly endangered captive Chinese alligators, whole body homogenates of six kinds of fish (alligator prey species), and pond water (alligator habitat) in the Anhui Research Center for Chinese Alligator Reproduction. Six PFASs, including PFOS and five perfluorinated carboxylates, were detected in all alligator samples. The most dominant PFAS was PFUnDA, with a mean value of 31.4 ng/mL. Significant positive correlations were observed among the six PFASs, suggesting that they shared similar sources of contamination. Significantly higher PFOS and PFUnDA levels were observed in males, but the other four PFCAs did not differ between genders. An age related PFAS bioaccumulation analysis showed a significant negative correlation of the concentrations for five PFCAs to age, which means that higher concentrations were found in younger animals. Bioaccumulation factors (BAF) in fish for PFASs ranged from 21 to 28,000, with lower BAF for PFOA than that for longer carbon chain PFCAs, including PFUnDA, PFDA, and PFNA. Highlights: •The most dominant PFAS was PFUnDA, followed by PFOS and PFDA in all alligator samples. •Significantly higher PFOS and PFUnDA levels were observed in males. •The concentrations of the five PFCAs showed significant negative correlation to age. -- Age- and gender-related accumulation of perfluoroalkyl substances in captive Chinese alligators
Romeo, Domenico M; Brogna, Claudia; Sini, Francesca; Romeo, Mario G; Cota, Francesco; Ricci, Daniela
The influence of gestational age and gender in the neurodevelopment of infants during the first year of age is not yet fully elucidated. The purpose of this study was to identify the early occurrence of neurodevelopmental differences, between very preterm, late preterm and term born infants and the possible influence of the gender on the neurodevelopment in early infancy. A total of 188 low-risk infants, 69 very preterms, 71 late-preterms, and 48 term infants were assessed at 3, 6, 9, 12 months corrected age using the Hammersmith Infant Neurological Examination (HINE). At two years of age infants performed the Mental Developmental Index (MDI) of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development. The main results indicate that both very preterms and late-preterms showed significant lower global scores than term born infants at each evaluation (p development of infants assessed during the first 2 years of life. Copyright © 2016 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Basic data on the resting energy expenditure (REE of healthy populations are currently rare, especially for developing countries. The aims of the present study were to describe gender- and age-specific REE distributions and to evaluate the relationships among glycolipid metabolism, eating behaviors, and REE in healthy Chinese adults. This cross-sectional survey included 540 subjects (343 women and 197 men, 20–79 years old. REE was measured by indirect calorimetry and expressed as kcal/day/kg total body weight. The data were presented as the means and percentiles for REE and the REE to fat-free mass (FFM ratio; differences were described by gender and age. Partial correlation analysis was used to analyze the correlations between REE, tertiles of REE/FFM, and glycolipid metabolism and eating behaviors. In this study, we confirmed a decline in REE with age in women (p = 0.000 and men (p = 0.000, and we found that men have a higher REE (p = 0.000 and lower REE/FFM (p = 0.021 than women. Furthermore, we observed no associations among glycolipid metabolism, eating behaviors, and REE in healthy Chinese adults. In conclusion, the results presented here may be useful to clinicians and nutritionists for comparing healthy and ill subjects and identifying changes in REE that are related to aging, malnutrition, and chronic diseases.
Cheng, Yu; Yang, Xue; Na, Li-Xin; Li, Ying; Sun, Chang-Hao
Basic data on the resting energy expenditure (REE) of healthy populations are currently rare, especially for developing countries. The aims of the present study were to describe gender- and age-specific REE distributions and to evaluate the relationships among glycolipid metabolism, eating behaviors, and REE in healthy Chinese adults. This cross-sectional survey included 540 subjects (343 women and 197 men, 20-79 years old). REE was measured by indirect calorimetry and expressed as kcal/day/kg total body weight. The data were presented as the means and percentiles for REE and the REE to fat-free mass (FFM) ratio; differences were described by gender and age. Partial correlation analysis was used to analyze the correlations between REE, tertiles of REE/FFM, and glycolipid metabolism and eating behaviors. In this study, we confirmed a decline in REE with age in women (p = 0.000) and men (p = 0.000), and we found that men have a higher REE (p = 0.000) and lower REE/FFM (p = 0.021) than women. Furthermore, we observed no associations among glycolipid metabolism, eating behaviors, and REE in healthy Chinese adults. In conclusion, the results presented here may be useful to clinicians and nutritionists for comparing healthy and ill subjects and identifying changes in REE that are related to aging, malnutrition, and chronic diseases.
Gunawardene, Piumali; Al Saedi, Ahmed; Singh, Lakshman; Bermeo, Sandra; Vogrin, Sara; Phu, Steven; Suriyaarachchi, Pushpa; Pignolo, Robert J; Duque, Gustavo
Circulating osteoprogenitor (COP) cells are blood-borne cells which express a variety of osteoblastic markers and are able to form bone nodules in vivo. Whereas a high percentage of COP cells (%COP) is associated with vascular calcification, low %COP has been associated with disability and frailty. However, the reference range of %COP in age- and gender-matching populations, and the age-related changes in %COP remain unknown. A cross-sectional study was undertaken in 144 healthy volunteers in Western Sydney (20-90year-old, 10 male and 10 female subjects per decade). %COP was quantified by flow cytometry. A high inter-and intra-rater reliability was found. In average, in this healthy population average of %COP was 0.42. There was no significant difference in %COP among the age groups. Similarly, no significant difference was found in %COP with gender, weight, height or BMI. In addition, we identified a normal reference range of %COP of 0.1-3.8%. In conclusion, in addition to the identification of steady levels of COP cells with age, we also identified a normal reference range of %COP, which could be used in future studies looking at musculoskeletal diseases in older populations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Small, G.W.; Kuhl, D.E.; Riege, W.H.; Fujikawa, D.G.; Ashford, J.W.; Metter, E.J.; Mazziotta, J.C.
No previous study of Alzheimer's disease has, to our knowledge, assessed the effect of both age at dementia onset and gender on cerebral glucose metabolic patterns. To this end, we used positron emission tomography (fludeoxyglucose F 18 method) to study 24 patients with clinical diagnoses of probable Alzheimer's disease. Comparisons of the 13 patients with early-onset dementia (less than 65 years of age) with the 11 patients with late-onset dementia (greater than 65 years of age) revealed significantly lower left parietal metabolic ratios (left posterior parietal region divided by the hemispheric average) in the early-onset group. The metabolic ratio of posterior parietal cortex divided by the relatively disease-stable average of caudate and thalamus also separated patients with early-onset dementia from those with late-onset dementia, but not men from women. Further comparisons between sexes showed that, in all brain regions studied, the 9 postmenopausal women had higher nonweighted mean metabolic rates than the 15 men from the same age group, with hemispheric sex differences of 9% on the right and 7% on the left. These results demonstrate decreased parietal ratios in early-onset dementia of Alzheimer's disease, independent of a gender effect
Kvarstein, Elfrida Hartveit; Nordviste, Ola; Dragland, Lone; Wilberg, Theresa
Outpatient group psychotherapy is frequent within specialist services, recruits a mixed population, but effects are poorly documented. This study investigates long-term outcomes for patients with personality disorder (PD) treated in outpatient, psychodynamic groups within secondary mental health service. A naturalistic study (N = 103) with repeated assessments of process and clinical outcomes. Longitudinal statistics are linear mixed models. The main PDs were avoidant, borderline and NOS PD, mean number of PDs 1.4(SD0.7), 60% females and mean initial age 38(SD10) years. Mean treatment duration was 1.5(SD 0.9) years. Therapist alliance and experienced group climate was satisfactory and stable. Improvements were significant (symptom distress, interpersonal problems, occupational functioning and additional mental health services), irrespective of general PD-severity, but not of PD-type, age or gender. The study demonstrates PD NOS benefits across all outcomes, occupational improvements for avoidant PD, despite prevailing symptoms, but generally poorer outcomes for males and age >38 years. For borderline PD, experienced conflict was stronger, treatment duration shorter and outcomes poor for early drop-outs (28%). Psychodynamic group psychotherapy is a recommendable treatment for moderate PDs, which may address avoidant strategies, but may not meet clinical challenges of borderline PD. The outcome differences related to gender and age are noteworthy. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Looker, A C; Melton, L J; Harris, T; Borrud, L; Shepherd, J; McGowan, J
Total body bone density of adults from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2004 differed as expected for some groups (men>women and blacks>whites) but not others (whites>Mexican Americans). Cross-sectional age patterns in bone mineral density (BMD) of older adults differed at skeletal sites that varied by degree of weight-bearing. Total body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) data offer the opportunity to compare bone density of demographic groups across the entire skeleton. The present study uses total body DXA data (Hologic QDR 4500A, Hologic, Bedford MA, USA) from the NHANES 1999-2004 to examine BMD of the total body and selected skeletal subregions in a wide age range of adult men and women from three race/ethnic groups. Total body, lumbar spine, pelvis, right leg, and left arm BMD and lean mass from 13,091 adults aged 20 years and older were used. The subregions were chosen to represent sites with different degrees of weight-bearing. Mean BMD varied in expected ways for some demographic characteristics (men>women and non-Hispanic blacks>non-Hispanic whites) but not others (non-Hispanic whites>Mexican Americans). Differences in age patterns in BMD also emerged for some characteristics (sex) but not others (race/ethnicity). Differences in cross-sectional age patterns in BMD and lean mass by degree of weight-bearing in older adults were observed for the pelvis, leg, and arm. This information may be useful for generating hypotheses about age, race, and sex differences in fracture risk in the population.
Shen, Sijun; Neyens, David M
There are many studies that evaluate the effects of age, gender, and crash types on crash related injury severity. However, few studies investigate the effects of those crash factors on the crash related health care costs for drivers that are transported to hospital. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationships between drivers' age, gender, and the crash types, as well as other crash characteristics (e.g., not wearing a seatbelt, weather condition, and fatigued driving), on the crash related health care costs. The South Carolina Crash Outcome Data Evaluation System (SC CODES) from 2005 to 2007 was used to construct six separate hierarchical linear regression models based on drivers' age and gender. The results suggest that older drivers have higher health care costs than younger drivers and male drivers tend to have higher health care costs than female drivers in the same age group. Overall, single vehicle crashes had the highest health care costs for all drivers. For males older than 64-years old sideswipe crashes are as costly as single vehicle crashes. In general, not wearing a seatbelt, airbag deployment, and speeding were found to be associated with higher health care costs. Distraction-related crashes are more likely to be associated with lower health care costs in most cases. Furthermore this study highlights the value of considering drivers in subgroups, as some factors have different effects on health care costs in different driver groups. Developing an understanding of longer term outcomes of crashes and their characteristics can lead to improvements in vehicle technology, educational materials, and interventions to reduce crash-related health care costs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Blood is a commonly used biofluid for biomarker discovery. Although blood lipid metabolites are considered to be potential biomarker candidates, their fundamental properties are not well characterized. We aimed to (1 investigate the matrix type (serum vs. plasma that may be preferable for lipid biomarker exploration, (2 elucidate age- and gender-associated differences in lipid metabolite levels, and (3 examine the stability of lipid metabolites in matrix samples subjected to repeated freeze-thaw cycles. Using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, we performed lipidomic analyses for fasting plasma and serum samples for four groups (15 subjects/group of young and elderly (25-34 and 55-64 years old, respectively males and females and for an additional aliquot of samples from young males, which were subjected to repeated freeze-thaw cycles. Lysophosphatidylcholine and diacylglycerol levels were higher in serum than in plasma samples, suggesting that the clotting process influences serum lipid metabolite levels. Gender-associated differences highlighted that the levels of many sphingomyelin species were significantly higher in females than in males, irrespective of age and matrix (plasma and serum. Age-associated differences were more prominent in females than in males, and in both matrices, levels of many triacylglycerols were significantly higher in elderly females than in young females. Plasma and serum levels of most lipid metabolites were reduced by freeze-thawing. Our results indicate that plasma is an optimal matrix for exploring lipid biomarkers because it represents the original properties of an individual's blood sample. In addition, the levels of some blood lipid species of healthy adults showed gender- and age-associated differences; thus, this should be considered during biomarker exploration and its application in diagnostics. Our fundamental findings on sample selection and handling procedures for measuring blood lipid metabolites
Judith Jiménez Díaz
Full Text Available Fundamental motor skills are the basis for participation in more advanced lifetime activities. Whereas considerable research has been reported on motor behavior of children, much less is known about performance in later years, especially adulthood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine age and gender differences on fundamental motor skills (FMS ability across three age groups: children (M = 9.37 yr., SD = 1.26, adolescents (M = 14.80 yr., SD = 2.04 and young-adults (M = 19.88 yr., SD = 2.72. Participants (n = 114 were assessed on five locomotor skills (run, gallop, slide, hop, and distance jump and five object control skills (bounce, catch, overhand throw, strike and kick using the Test for Fundamental Motor Skills, which is a process-oriented instrument. ANOVA results comparing gender and group revealed no significant interactions. Moreover, main effects for group were found for three individual skills: galloping –adolescents and young-adults performed better than children (p < .01–, throwing –children and adolescents performed better than young-adults (p < .01 –, and kicking –young-adults performed better than children and adolescents (p < .05–. Also, we found main effects for gender for total FMS ability (p < .01, locomotor subscale (p < .05 and object control subscale (p < .01, and for six individual motor skills: run (p < .05, jump (p < .05, throw (p < .01, kick (p < .01, bounce (p < .01 and strike (p < .01; males outperformed females for all the skills. However, in view of total FMS ability, locomotor skills and object control skills results suggest similar performance across ages. Therefore, it is important to enhance fundamental motor skills at all ages, as an option to help individuals engage in physical activities.
Hawkes, Colin P
Background: There is increasing evidence that in utero growth has both immediate and far-reaching influence on health. Birth weight and length are used as surrogate measures of in utero growth. However, these measures poorly reflect neonatal adiposity. Air-displacement plethysmography has been validated for the measurement of body fat in the neonatal population. Objective: The goal of this study was to show the normal reference values of percentage body fat (%BF) in infants during the first 4 days of life. Methods: As part of a large population-based birth cohort study, fat mass, fat-free mass, and %BF were measured within the first 4 days of life using air-displacement plethsymography. Infants were grouped into gestational age and gender categories. Results: Of the 786 enrolled infants, fat mass, fat-free mass, and %BF were measured in 743 (94.5%) infants within the first 4 days of life. %BF increased significantly with gestational age. Mean (SD) %BF at 36 to 37 weeks\\' gestation was 8.9% (3.5%); at 38 to 39 weeks\\' gestation, 10.3% (4%); and at 40 to 41 weeks\\' gestation, 11.2% (4.3%) (P < .001). Female infants had significantly increased mean (SD) %BF at 38 to 39(11.1% [3.9%] vs 9.8% [3.9%]; P = .012) and at 40 to 41 (12.5% [4.4%] vs 10% [3.9%]; P < .001) weeks\\' gestation compared with male infants. Gender- and gestational age-specific centiles were calculated, and a normative table was generated for reference. Conclusion: %BF at birth is influenced by gestational age and gender. We generated accurate %BF centiles from a large population-based cohort.
Information on age, gender, stroke laterality, time after stroke and motor function assessed using modified motor assessment scale were also documented. Prevalence of USN was determined while differences in prevalence by demographic and clinical variables were analyzed using Chi-square and Mann Whitney U tests ...
Lipford, Kristie J; McPherson, Laura; Hamoda, Reem; Browne, Teri; Gander, Jennifer C; Pastan, Stephen O; Patzer, Rachel E
Racial/ethnic, gender, and age disparities in access to renal transplantation among end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients have been well documented, but few studies have explored health care staff attitudes towards these inequalities. Staff perceptions can influence patient care and outcomes, and identifying staff perceptions on disparities could aid in the development of potential interventions to address these health inequities. The objective of this study was to investigate dialysis staff (n = 509), primarily social workers and nurse managers, perceptions of renal transplant disparities in the Southeastern United States. This is a mixed methods study that uses both deductive and inductive qualitative analysis of a dialysis staff survey conducted in 2012 using three open-ended questions that asked staff to discuss their perceptions of factors that may contribute to transplant disparities among African American, female, and elderly patients. Study results suggested that the majority of staff (n = 255, 28%) perceived patients' low socioeconomic status as the primary theme related to why renal transplant disparities exist between African Americans and non-Hispanic whites. Staff cited patient perception of old age as a primary contributor (n = 188, 23%) to the disparity between young and elderly patients. The dialysis staff responses on gender transplant disparities suggested that staff were unaware of differences due to limited experience and observation (n = 76, 14.7%) of gender disparities. These findings suggest that dialysis facilities should educate staff on existing renal transplantation disparities, particularly gender disparities, and collaboratively work with transplant facilities to develop strategies to actively address modifiable patient barriers for transplant.
Full Text Available Gender and age have been found to affect adults’ audio-visual (AV speech perception. However, research on adult aging focuses on adults over 60 years, who have an increasing likelihood for cognitive and sensory decline, which may confound positive effects of age-related AV-experience and its interaction with gender. Observed age and gender differences in AV speech perception may also depend on measurement sensitivity and AV task difficulty. Consequently both AV benefit and visual influence were used to measure visual contribution for gender-balanced groups of young (20-30 years and middle-aged adults (50-60 years with task difficulty varied using AV syllables from different talkers in alternative auditory backgrounds. Females had better speech-reading performance than males. Whereas no gender differences in AV benefit or visual influence were observed for young adults, visually influenced responses were significantly greater for middle-aged females than middle-aged males. That speech-reading performance did not influence AV benefit may be explained by visual speech extraction and AV integration constituting independent abilities. Contrastingly, the gender difference in visually influenced responses in middle adulthood may reflect an experience-related shift in females’ general AV perceptual strategy. Although young females’ speech-reading proficiency may not readily contribute to greater visual influence, between young and middle-adulthood recurrent confirmation of the contribution of visual cues induced by speech-reading proficiency may gradually shift females AV perceptual strategy towards more visually dominated responses.
This : study : examines : the : travel : behaviour : and : attitudes : of : recently : resettled : refugees : in : Chittenden : County, : Vermont, : with : particular : attention : to : distinctions : based : on : gender : and : age. : It : is : base...
Bozdag, G; Sener, S
The aim of this study was to measure the mandibular cortical index (MCI), mental index (MI), panoramic mandibular index (PMI) and cortical bone thickness in the zone of the gonial angle (GT) in panoramic radiographies from a large sample of males and females and to determine how they relate to patients' age, gender and dental status. 910 panoramic radiographs were obtained and grouped into age, dental status and gender. The MCI, MI, PMI and GT were analysed. Remarkable differences were observed for MCI and GT regarding gender, age groups and dental status on both sides (p PMI in females, dental status had an effect on the MI and PMI in males (p PMI (p PMI and MI measurements. The effects of age and tooth loss in the GT and MCI measurements are similar, and these indices can be accepted as more reliable in studies including both genders.
Daniel Monteiro de Vilhena e Santos
Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to analyze the influence of gender, age, physicalactivity (PA and overweight/obesity on health-related physical fitness (HRPF passing rates. Asample of 581 boys and 529 girls, aged 6 to 10 years and enrolled in first cycle primary schoolsin Albergaria-a-Velha, Portugal, was studied. Weight and height were measured and BMI wascalculated. The FITNESSGRAM test battery was applied. The cut-off values of Cole et al.(2000 for overweight and obesity were used. PA levels were estimated using the questionnaireof Godin and Shephard. A high prevalence of overweight and obesity was found. No positiveassociation was observed between PA and HRPF. Age does not seem to have an impact onHRPF passing rates.
Mboya, M M
This study examines gender and age differences in parenting practices among African adolescents in South Africa. The Perceived Parent Behavior Inventory (PPBI) was administered to 274 students (14 through 18 years of age) in Standards 6 through 10 who attended one public coeducational high school in Cape Town. The results indicate that for the three scales of the PPBI, girls score higher than boys, and that on the total score and two of the PPBI scales, the level of perceived parental behaviors decreases with age. These findings support the hypotheses that competence in social interaction is a more significant factor for girls than for boys and that younger adolescents have a closer association with their parents than do their older counterparts. The findings have important implications for the study of adolescent development in an African context.
Scott, Jennifer; Hacker, Michele; Averbach, Sarah; Modest, Anna M; Cornish, Sarah; Spencer, Danielle; Murphy, Maureen; Parmar, Parveen
Prolonged conflict in South Sudan exacerbated gender disparities and inequities. This study assessed differences in attitudes towards gender inequitable norms and practices by sex, age and education to inform programming. Applying community-based participatory research methodology, 680 adult respondents, selected by quota sampling, were interviewed in seven South Sudanese communities from 2009 to 2011. The verbally administered survey assessed attitudes using the Gender Equitable Men scale. Data were stratified by sex, age and education. Of 680 respondents, 352 were female, 326 were male and two did not report their sex. The majority of respondents agreed with gender inequitable household roles, but the majority disagreed with gender inequitable practices (i.e., early marriage, forced marriage and inequitable education of girls). Respondents who reported no education were more likely than those who reported any education to agree with gender inequitable practices (all p gender inequitable norms in the household but an overall disagreement with gender inequitable practices in sampled communities. The findings support that education of both women and men may promote gender equitable norms and practices.
Gur, R.C.; Mozley, P.D.; Resnick, S.M.; Gottlieb, G.L.; Kohn, M.; Zimmerman, R.; Herman, G.; Atlas, S.; Grossman, R.; Berretta, D.; Erwin, R.; Gur, R.E.
A prospective sample of 69 healthy adults, age range 18-80 years, was studied with magnetic resonance imaging scans of the entire cranium. Volumes were obtained by a segmentation algorithm that uses proton density and T 2 pixel values to correct field inhomogeneities (shading). Average (±SD) brain volume, excluding cerebellum, was 1090.91 ml and cerebrospinal fluid (DSF) volume was 127.91 ml. Brain volume was higher (by 5 ml) in the right hemisphere. Men had 91 ml higher brain and 20 ml higher CSF volume than women. Age was negatively correlated with brain volume and positively correlated with CSF volume. The slope fo the regression line with age for CSF was steeper for men than women. This difference in slopes was significant for sulca but not ventricular, CSF. The greatest amount of atrophy in elderly men was in the left hemisphere, whereas is women age effects were symmetric. The findings may point to neuroanatomic substrates of hemispheric specialization and gender differences in age-related changes in brain function. They suggest that women are less vulnerable to age-related changes in mental abilities, whereas men are particularly susceptible to aging effects on left hemispheric functions
Nielsen, Nina Odgaard; Soborg, Bolette; Børresen, Malene
To evaluate the cytokine response pattern in Inuit in Greenland in relation to age, gender, body mass index (BMI), Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (MTI), and otitis media (OM) to assess whether Inuit may have signs of impaired immune responsiveness to infection.......To evaluate the cytokine response pattern in Inuit in Greenland in relation to age, gender, body mass index (BMI), Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (MTI), and otitis media (OM) to assess whether Inuit may have signs of impaired immune responsiveness to infection....
Volden, C; Langemo, D; Adamson, M; Oechsle, L
A study of 478 adults from a rural-urban region was conducted to determine differences in health and life-style measures based on age, gender, and exercise involvement that would provide data to incorporate in healthy-living programs. Pender's Health Promotion Model provided the framework for the study. Significant results related to age, gender, exercise, and initiation and maintenance of health-promoting practices were found.
Chang, Kathryn J.; Liz Thach, MW; Olsen, Janeen
This study explores U.S. wine consumers’ perception of wine and health by gender, age, and ethnic background. An extensive body of epidemiological studies suggests that there are health benefits from moderate wine drinking. In light of an increased consumer preference over healthier foods and beverages, it is important to understand the health orientation of wine consumers and the effect of gender, age, or ethnicity on their perceptions of wine and health. An online survey was used to collect...
Pan, Yuanyi; Wu, Jianhong
With the world's largest population, HIV spread in China has been closely watched and widely studied by its government and the international community. One important factor that might contribute to the epidemic is China's numerous surplus of men, due to its imbalanced sex ratio in newborns. However, the sex ratio in the human population is often assumed to be 1:1 in most studies of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Here, a mathematical model is proposed to estimate the population size in each gender and within different stages of reproduction and sexual activities. This population profiling by age and gender will assist in more precise prediction of HIV incidences. The total population is divided into 6 subgroups by gender and age. A deterministic compartmental model is developed to describe birth, death, age and the interactions among different subgroups, with a focus on the preference for newborn boys and its impact for the sex ratios. Data from 2003 to 2007 is used to estimate model parameters, and simulations predict short-term and long-term population profiles. The population of China will go to a descending track around 2030. Despite the possible underestimated number of newborns in the last couple of years, model-based simulations show that there will be about 28 million male individuals in 2055 without female partners during their sexually active stages. The birth rate in China must be increased to keep the population viable. But increasing the birth rate without balancing the sex ratio in newborns is problematic, as this will generate a large number of surplus males. Besides other social, economic and psychological issues, the impact of this surplus of males on STD incidences, including HIV infections, must be dealt with as early as possible.
Background With the world's largest population, HIV spread in China has been closely watched and widely studied by its government and the international community. One important factor that might contribute to the epidemic is China's numerous surplus of men, due to its imbalanced sex ratio in newborns. However, the sex ratio in the human population is often assumed to be 1:1 in most studies of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Here, a mathematical model is proposed to estimate the population size in each gender and within different stages of reproduction and sexual activities. This population profiling by age and gender will assist in more precise prediction of HIV incidences. Method The total population is divided into 6 subgroups by gender and age. A deterministic compartmental model is developed to describe birth, death, age and the interactions among different subgroups, with a focus on the preference for newborn boys and its impact for the sex ratios. Data from 2003 to 2007 is used to estimate model parameters, and simulations predict short-term and long-term population profiles. Results The population of China will go to a descending track around 2030. Despite the possible underestimated number of newborns in the last couple of years, model-based simulations show that there will be about 28 million male individuals in 2055 without female partners during their sexually active stages. Conclusion The birth rate in China must be increased to keep the population viable. But increasing the birth rate without balancing the sex ratio in newborns is problematic, as this will generate a large number of surplus males. Besides other social, economic and psychological issues, the impact of this surplus of males on STD incidences, including HIV infections, must be dealt with as early as possible. PMID:19922693
Goncy, Elizabeth A; Mrug, Sylvie
This study examined the location and time of adolescent use of cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana. Age, gender, and racial differences in location and time of use were studied for each substance. Using cross-sectional data collected through the schoolwide Pride Survey, 20,055 students between the ages of 10 and 19 years (53.6% female, 55.1% Black, 44.9% White) in one metropolitan area reported on their frequency of cigarette, alcohol, and marijuana use, as well as the location and time of use of each substance. Chi-square tests compared the rates, locations, and times for each substance across boys and girls; Black and White students; and early, middle, and late adolescents. Older adolescents reported higher rates of substance use at friends' homes, at school, and in cars and lower rates of alcohol use at home compared with younger youth. Males were more likely to report alcohol and marijuana use at school and on weeknights and alcohol use in cars, whereas females were more likely to report alcohol and marijuana use on the weekends. No gender differences emerged for times and locations of cigarette use. Compared with Black youth, White adolescents were more likely to use all substances at friends' homes and on weekends; to smoke cigarettes at school, in the car, and on weeknights; and to use alcohol at home. Black adolescents were more likely to report using alcohol at home, at school, in cars, during and after school, and on weeknights and were more likely to report using marijuana at school. The location and time of adolescent substance use vary substantially by age, gender, and race. These differences may help tailor substance use prevention and intervention programs to specific subgroups of youth to improve program effectiveness.
Mester, Anita; Magyar, Zsuzsanna; Molnar, Akos; Somogyi, Viktoria; Tanczos, Bence; Peto, Katalin; Nemeth, Norbert
Intestinal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) is a life-threatening clinical disorder. During I/R, the microrheological parameters of blood (red blood cell deformability and aggregation) worsen, which may contribute to microcirculatory deterioration. Age and gender also have a great influence on hemorheological parameters. We aimed to investigate the gender and age-related microrheological alterations during intestinal I/R. After the cannulation of the left femoral artery, median laparotomy was performed in Crl:WI rats under general anesthesia. In the young control animals there were no other interventions (female n = 7; male n = 7). In the young (female n = 7; male n = 7) and older I/R groups (female n = 6; male n = 6), the superior mesenteric artery was clipped for 30 min, and a 120-min reperfusion period was observed afterward. Blood samples were taken before and at the 30-min ischemia, in the 30th, 60th, and 120th min of the reperfusion. Hematological parameters, erythrocyte deformability, and aggregation were determined. Hematocrit increased significantly in the younger female I/R group. Red blood cell count was higher in male and older animals. In case of white blood cell count, male animals had higher values compared with females. Platelet count elevated in the younger male and older female I/R animals. Red blood cell deformability worsened, mainly in the male and older I/R groups. Enhanced erythrocyte aggregation was seen in all groups, being more expressed in the female I/R groups. Microrheological parameters show gender and age-related differences during intestinal I/R. These observations have importance in the planning and evaluation of experimental data. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.