WorldWideScience

Sample records for demographics 2009-10 ncaar

  1. Report on the MLA "Job Information List", 2009-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurence, David

    2010-01-01

    In 2009-10, for the second year in a row, hiring in English and other modern languages contracted sharply, as measured by the number of ads and jobs in the MLA "Job Information List" ( "JIL"). This year the "JIL's" English edition announced 1,100 jobs and the foreign language edition 1,022 jobs. At 1,022, the number of jobs in the foreign language…

  2. Burden and characteristics of influenza A and B in Danish intensive care units during the 2009/10 and 2010/11 influenza seasons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gubbels, S; Krause, Tyra Grove; Bragstad, Karoline

    2013-01-01

    . Additional data on microbiological testing, vaccination and death were obtained from national registers. Ninety-six patients with influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 were recorded in 2009/10; 106 with influenza A and 42 with influenza B in 2010/11. The mean age of influenza A patients was higher in 2010/11 than in 2009......SUMMARY Influenza surveillance in Danish intensive care units (ICUs) was performed during the 2009/10 and 2010/11 influenza seasons to monitor the burden on ICUs. All 44 Danish ICUs reported aggregate data for incidence and point prevalence, and case-based demographical and clinical parameters....../10, 53 vs. 44 years (P=0·004). No differences in other demographic and clinical parameters were detected between influenza A and B patients. In conclusion, the number of patients with severe influenza was higher in Denmark during the 2010/11 than the 2009/10 season with a shift towards older age groups...

  3. Update on the Governor's Proposed 2009-10 Budget. Report 09-01

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolfork, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    On December 31, 2008, Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger released the summary of his proposed budget for fiscal year 2009-10, including proposed changes to the current year (2008-09) budget. The complete budget was released on January 9, 2009. The budget plans assume current-year General Fund revenues of $91 billion--down from September's $102 billion…

  4. Update on the 2009-10 State Budget. Report 09-07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolfork, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    On February 20, 2009, Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger signed into law the 2009 Budget Package. This set of bills revised the current year (2008-09) budget and adopted a budget for the upcoming 2009-10 fiscal year. This 17-month spending plan was designed to address a two-year budgetary shortfall of more than $40 billion. The plan contains the…

  5. Hong Kong domestic health spending: financial years 1989/90 to 2009/10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tin, K Y K; Tsoi, P K O; Lee, Y H; Tsui, E L H; Lam, D W S; Chui, A W M; Lo, S V

    2013-04-01

    This report presents the latest estimates of Hong Kong domestic health spending for financial years 1989/90 to 2009/10, cross-stratified and categorised by financing source, provider and function. Total expenditure on health (TEH) was HK$88,721 million in financial year 2009/10, which represents an increase of HK$5031 million or 6.0% over the preceding year. As a result of a slow revival in the economy from the financial tsunami in 2008, TEH grew faster relative to gross domestic product (GDP) leading to a marked increase in TEH as a percentage of GDP from 5.0% in 2008/09 to 5.2% in 2009/10. During the period 1989/90 to 2009/10, total health spending per capita (at constant 2010 prices) grew at an average annual rate of 4.9%, which was faster than the average annual growth rate of per capita GDP by 2.0 percentage points. In 2009/10, public and private expenditure on health increased by 6.2% and 5.8% when compared with 2008/09, reaching HK$43,823 million and HK$44,898 million, respectively. Consequently, public and private shares of total health expenditure stayed at similar levels (49% and 51% respectively) in the 2 years. With respect to private spending, the most important source of health financing was out-of-pocket payments by households (34.9% of TEH), followed by employer-provided group medical benefits (7.4%) and private insurance (6.8%). During the period, a growing number of households (mostly in middle to high income groups) have taken out pre-payment plans to finance health care. As such, private insurance has taken on an increasingly important role in financing private spending. Of the HK$88,721 million total health expenditure in 2009/10, current expenditure comprised HK$84,874 million (95.7%), whereas HK$3847 million (4.3%) was for capital expenses (ie investment in medical facilities). Analysed by health care function, services for curative care accounted for the largest share (66.2%), which was made up of ambulatory services (33.5%), in

  6. Physical and underway data collected aboard the KILO MOANA during cruise KM0923 in the North Pacific Ocean from 2009-10-01 to 2009-10-17 (NODC Accession 0089602)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC accession 0089602 includes physical and underway data collected aboard the KILO MOANA during cruise KM0923 in the North Pacific Ocean from 2009-10-01 to...

  7. A comparative value chain analysis of smallholder burley tobacco production in Malawi – 2003/4 and 2009/10

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prowse, Martin Philip; Moyer-Lee, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Smallholders grow the majority of Malawi’s main export crop – burley tobacco. We analyse this value chain segment for the 2003/4 and 2009/10 seasons. The comparison shows smallholder profits in 2003/4 were limited by two main factors: a cartel of leaf merchants at auction and inefficient marketing...... arrangements. In 2009/10, there was greater competition at auction, improvements in marketing, tighter state regulation (including minimum prices) and much more contract farming.The paper concludes by reflecting on aspects of the political economy of the tobacco industry at national and global levels....

  8. A comparative value chain analysis of burley tobacco in Malawi: 2003/04 and 2009/10

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prowse, Martin

    2011-01-01

    This article conducts a value chain analysis of smallholder burley tobacco production in Malawi for the 2003/04 and 2009/10 agricultural seasons. The comparison suggests in 2003/04 smallholder profits from growing burley were limited by two main factors: first, the practices of leaf merchant...

  9. A comparative value chain analysis of burley tobacco in Malawi: 2003/04 and 2009/10

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prowse, Martin

    2011-01-01

    companies on the auction floors who operated as a cartel (and governed the burley supply thread); and secondly, by inefficient marketing arrangements. By the 2009/10 season the rents, governance and systemic efficiency within the supply thread had changed considerably: there was greater competition...

  10. 75 FR 20897 - Raisins Produced From Grapes Grown in California; Final Free and Reserve Percentages for 2009-10...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-22

    ... helped the industry address its marketing problems by keeping supplies in balance with domestic and... / Thursday, April 22, 2010 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing... Percentages for 2009-10 Crop Natural (Sun-Dried) Seedless Raisins AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service,...

  11. A comparative value chain analysis of smallholder burley tobacco production in Malawi – 2003/4 and 2009/10

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prowse, Martin Philip; Moyer-Lee, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Smallholders grow the majority of Malawi’s main export crop – burley tobacco. We analyse this value chain segment for the 2003/4 and 2009/10 seasons. The comparison shows smallholder profits in 2003/4 were limited by two main factors: a cartel of leaf merchants at auction and inefficient marketing...

  12. College Sports-Related Injuries - United States, 2009-10 Through 2013-14 Academic Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Zachary Y; Marshall, Stephen W; Dompier, Thomas P; Corlette, Jill; Klossner, David A; Gilchrist, Julie

    2015-12-11

    Sports-related injuries can have a substantial impact on the long-term health of student-athletes. The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) monitors injuries among college student-athletes at member schools. In academic year 2013-14, a total of 1,113 member schools fielded 19,334 teams with 478,869 participating student-athletes in NCAA championship sports (i.e., sports with NCAA championship competition) (1). External researchers and CDC used information reported to the NCAA Injury Surveillance Program (NCAA-ISP) by a sample of championship sports programs to summarize the estimated national cumulative and annual average numbers of injuries during the 5 academic years from 2009-10 through 2013-14. Analyses were restricted to injuries reported among student-athletes in 25 NCAA championship sports. During this period, 1,053,370 injuries were estimated to have occurred during an estimated 176.7 million athlete-exposures to potential injury (i.e., one athlete's participation in one competition or one practice). Injury incidence varied widely by sport. Among all sports, men's football accounted for the largest average annual estimated number of injuries (47,199) and the highest competition injury rate (39.9 per 1,000 athlete-exposures). Men's wrestling experienced the highest overall injury rate (13.1 per 1,000) and practice injury rate (10.2 per 1,000). Among women's sports, gymnastics had the highest overall injury rate (10.4 per 1,000) and practice injury rate (10.0 per 1,000), although soccer had the highest competition injury rate (17.2 per 1,000). More injuries were estimated to have occurred from practice than from competition for all sports, with the exception of men's ice hockey and baseball. However, injuries incurred during competition were somewhat more severe (e.g., requiring ≥7 days to return to full participation) than those acquired during practice. Multiple strategies are employed by NCAA and others to reduce the number of injuries in

  13. Assessing systems quality in a changing health care environment: the 2009-10 national survey of children with special health care needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Bonnie B; Jones, Jessica R; Newacheck, Paul W; Bethell, Christina D; Blumberg, Stephen J; Kogan, Michael D

    2015-02-01

    To provide a national, population-based assessment of the quality of the health care system for children and youth with special health care needs using a framework of six health care system quality indicators. 49,242 interviews with parents of children with special health care needs from the 2009-10 National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs (NS-CSHCN) were examined to determine the extent to which CSHCN had access to six quality indicators of a well-functioning system of services. Criteria for determining access to each indicator were established and applied to the survey data to estimate the proportion of CSHCN meeting each quality indicator by socio-demographic status and functional limitations. 17.6% of CSHCN received care consistent with all six quality indicators. Results for each component of the system quality framework ranged from a high of 70.3% of parents reporting that they shared decision-making with healthcare providers to a low of 40% of parents reporting receipt of services needed for transition to adult health care. Attainment rates were lower for CSHCN of minority racial and ethnic groups, those residing in households where English was not the primary language, those in lower income households, and those most impacted by their health condition. Only a small proportion of CSHCN receive all identified attributes of a high-quality system of services. Moreover, significant disparities exist whereby those most impacted by their conditions and those in traditionally disadvantaged groups are served least well by the current system. A small proportion of CSHCN appear to remain essentially outside of the system, having met few if any of the elements studied.

  14. Mapping financial flows for immunisation in Uganda 2009/10 and 2010/11: New insights for methodologies and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, Teresa; Zikusooka, Charlotte; Kwesiga, Brendan; Abewe, Christabel; Lagony, Stephen; Schutte, Carl; Marinda, Edmore; Humphreys, Kerrin; Motlogelwa, Katlego; Nombewu, Zipozihle Chuma; Brenzel, Logan; Kinghorn, Anthony

    2015-05-07

    The Global Vaccine Action Plan highlights the need for immunisation programmes to have sustainable access to predictable funding. A good understanding of current and future funding needs, commitments, and gaps is required to enhance planning, improve resource allocation and mobilisation, and to avoid funding bottlenecks, as well as to ensure that co-funding arrangements are appropriate. This study aimed to map the resource envelope and flows for immunisation in Uganda in 2009/10 and 2010/11. To assess costs and financing of immunisation, the study applied a common methodology as part of the multi-country Expanded Program on Immunisation Costing (EPIC) study (Brenzel et al., 2015). The financial mapping developed a customised extension of the System of Health Accounts (SHA) codes to explore immunisation financing in detail. Data were collected from government and external sources. The mapping was able to assess financing more comprehensively than many studies, and the simultaneous costing of routine immunisation collected detailed data about human resources costs. The Ugandan government contributed 56% and 42% of routine immunisation funds in 2009/10 and 2010/11, respectively, higher than previously estimated, and managed up to 90% of funds. Direct delivery of services used 93% of the immunisation financial resources in 2010/11, while the above service delivery costs were small (7%). Vaccines and supplies (41%) and salaries (38%) absorbed most funding. There were differences in the key cost categories between actual resource flows and the estimates from the comprehensive multi-year plan (cMYP). Results highlight that governments and partners need to improve systems to routinely track immunisation financing flows for enhanced accountability, performance, and sustainability. The modified SHA coding allowed financing to be mapped to specific immunisation activities, and could be used for standardised, resource tracking compatible with National Health Accounts (NHA

  15. Socioeconomic Gradients in Different Types of Tobacco Use in India: Evidence from Global Adult Tobacco Survey 2009-10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ankur; Arora, Monika; English, Dallas R; Mathur, Manu R

    2015-01-01

    Socioeconomic differences in tobacco use have been reported, but there is a lack of evidence on how they vary according to types of tobacco use. This study explored socioeconomic differences associated with cigarette, bidi, smokeless tobacco (SLT), and dual use (smoking and smokeless tobacco use) in India and tested whether these differences vary by gender and residential area. Secondary analysis of Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) 2009-10 (n = 69,296) was conducted. The primary outcomes were self-reported cigarette, bidi smoking, SLT, and dual use. The main explanatory variables were wealth, education, and occupation. Associations were assessed using multinomial logistic regressions. 69,030 adults participated in the study. Positive association was observed between wealth and prevalence of cigarette smoking while inverse associations were observed for bidi smoking, SLT, and dual use after adjustment for potential confounders. Inverse associations with education were observed for all four types after adjusting for confounders. Significant interactions were observed for gender and area in the association between cigarette, bidi, and smokeless tobacco use with wealth and education. The probability of cigarette smoking was higher for wealthier individuals while the probability of bidi smoking, smokeless tobacco use, and dual use was higher for those with lesser wealth and education.

  16. Socioeconomic Gradients in Different Types of Tobacco Use in India: Evidence from Global Adult Tobacco Survey 2009-10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankur Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Socioeconomic differences in tobacco use have been reported, but there is a lack of evidence on how they vary according to types of tobacco use. This study explored socioeconomic differences associated with cigarette, bidi, smokeless tobacco (SLT, and dual use (smoking and smokeless tobacco use in India and tested whether these differences vary by gender and residential area. Secondary analysis of Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS 2009-10 (n=69,296 was conducted. The primary outcomes were self-reported cigarette, bidi smoking, SLT, and dual use. The main explanatory variables were wealth, education, and occupation. Associations were assessed using multinomial logistic regressions. 69,030 adults participated in the study. Positive association was observed between wealth and prevalence of cigarette smoking while inverse associations were observed for bidi smoking, SLT, and dual use after adjustment for potential confounders. Inverse associations with education were observed for all four types after adjusting for confounders. Significant interactions were observed for gender and area in the association between cigarette, bidi, and smokeless tobacco use with wealth and education. The probability of cigarette smoking was higher for wealthier individuals while the probability of bidi smoking, smokeless tobacco use, and dual use was higher for those with lesser wealth and education.

  17. Detection of respiratory viruses using a multiplex real-time PCR assay in Germany, 2009/10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierbaum, Sibylle; Forster, Johannes; Berner, Reinhard; Rücker, Gerta; Rohde, Gernot; Neumann-Haefelin, Dieter; Panning, Marcus

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of respiratory viruses and to prospectively evaluate the performance of the fast-track diagnostics (FTD) respiratory pathogens multiplex PCR assay shortly after the 2009/10 influenza pandemic. Highly sensitive monoplex real-time PCR assays served as references. Discrepant results were further analyzed by the xTAG RVP Fast assay. A total of 369 respiratory samples from children and adults were collected prospectively in Germany from December 2009 until June 2010. The sensitivity and specificity of the FTD assay after resolution of discrepant results was 92.2 % and 99.5 %, respectively. Lowest specificity of the FTD assay was observed for human bocavirus. Multiple detections were recorded in 33/369 (8.9 %) of the samples by monoplex PCR and in 43/369 (11.7 %) using the FTD assay. The most prevalent viruses were respiratory syncytial virus and human metapneumovirus. Only pandemic influenza virus A/H1N1 (2009), and not seasonal influenza virus, was detected. Viruses other than influenza virus accounted for the majority of acute respiratory infections. The FTD assay can be easily implemented in general diagnostic laboratories and facilitate the optimization of patient-management schemes.

  18. Vortex-wide chlorine activation by a mesoscale PSC event in the Arctic winter of 2009/10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, Tobias; Pitts, Michael C.; Poole, Lamont R.; Tritscher, Ines; Grooß, Jens-Uwe; Nakajima, Hideaki

    2016-04-01

    In the Arctic polar vortex of the 2009/10 winter temperatures were low enough to allow widespread formation of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs). These clouds occurred during the initial chlorine activation phase which provided the opportunity to investigate the impact of PSCs on chlorine activation. Satellite observations of gas-phase species and PSCs are used in combination with trajectory modeling to assess this initial activation. The initial activation occurred in association with the formation of PSCs over the east coast of Greenland at the beginning of January 2010. Although this area of PSCs covered only a small portion of the vortex, it was responsible for almost the entire initial activation of chlorine vortex wide. Observations show HCl (hydrochloric acid) mixing ratios decreased rapidly in and downstream of this region. Trajectory calculations and simplified heterogeneous chemistry modeling confirmed that the initial chlorine activation continued until ClONO2 (chlorine nitrate) was completely depleted and the activated air masses were advected throughout the polar vortex. For the calculation of heterogeneous reaction rates, surface area density is estimated from backscatter observations. Modeled heterogeneous reaction rates along trajectories intersecting with the PSCs indicate that the initial phase of chlorine activation occurred in just a few hours. These calculations also indicate that chlorine activation on the binary background aerosol is significantly slower than on the PSC particles and the observed chlorine activation can only be explained by an increase in surface area density due to PSC formation. Furthermore, there is a strong correlation between the magnitude of the observed HCl depletion and PSC surface area density.

  19. Revenues and Expenditures for Public Elementary and Secondary School Districts: School Year 2009-10 (Fiscal Year 2010): First Look. NCES 2013-307

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornman, Stephen Q.

    2013-01-01

    This report presents data from the School District Finance Survey (F-33) of the Common Core of Data (CCD) survey system for school year (SY) 2009-10, fiscal year 2010 (FY 10). The F-33 is a district-level financial survey that consists of data submitted annually to the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) and the Governments Division of…

  20. High School Five-Year Graduation Rates, Wake County Public School System (WCPSS): 2009-10. Measuring Up. E&R Report No. 11.11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynie, Glenda

    2011-01-01

    In 2009-10, the North Carolina Department of Public Instruction was approved to include a five-year graduation rate as well as a four-year rate in determining if schools, districts, and the state made Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) under the NCLB Act. This rate was based on the incoming 9th grade students of 2005-06. The denominator of the cohort…

  1. Laboratory Demographics Lookup Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This website provides demographic information about laboratories, including CLIA number, facility name and address, where the laboratory testing is performed, the...

  2. DEMOGRAPHIC SECURITY: THEORY, METHODOLOGY, EVALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail V. Karmanov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the theoretical aspects of demographic security. Reviewed and analyzed the point of view of various scholars to the definition of demographic security. The main directions of statistical analysis of demographic security.

  3. Demographic changes and nationalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishnevskii, A G

    1995-01-01

    This article examines the different characteristics of the many peoples inhabiting what used to be the Soviet Union and communist Eastern Europe, including Yugoslavia. The differences among these nationalities, or ethnic groups, are illustrated using the example of demographic modernization, showing how different peoples have or have not passed through the demographic transition process. The author looks at ethnic differences in mortality, fertility, natural increase, and migration, as well as economic and social inequalities among ethnic groups. The prospects for inter-ethnic conflict are assessed.

  4. Demographic Change and Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haustein, Sonja; Siren, Anu Kristiina; Framke, Elisabeth

    This report is the literature review on demographic changes and transport of Work Package 1 of the EU project CONSOL, “CONcerns and SOLutions – Road Safety in the Ageing Societies” (contract period: 2011-2013). The report is a state-of-the art report that combines current knowledge with new findi...

  5. Building demographic literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crews, K

    1993-01-01

    Students should get in the habit of seeking out the most current projections, estimates, or rates available. Since demographic measures change over time, publications based on the UN's world population projections from 1980 or 1990 may need to be supplemented using the UN's most current, 1992, projections. A 1989 Census Bureau report on the African American Population will not contain data from the 1990 Census or the 1992 Current Population Survey, conducted by the Census Bureau. Some groups collect data with advocacy in mind, as shown by the range of estimates of participants at the 1993 National March on Washington for Lesbian, Gay and Bi Equal Rights and Liberation. The organizers estimated that 1 million people participated; the US Park Police estimated 300,000; and the Washington Blade, a gay newspaper, reported 750,000. A seemingly innocuous choice of phrasing can change the meaning of demographic data. One commonly misreported concept is population doubling time which is not a prediction, but rather a concept designed to accent how fast a population is growing at the present time. At current rates, the population of India would double in size in 34 years, but it is more likely that growth rates will begin to slow down somewhat during that time. Older students may be encouraged to examine the assumptions behind population projections. The UN's long-range projection that world population will grow to 10 billion by 2050 is based on certain assumption about fertility and mortality during the period. With regard to the fastest growing US minority, Hispanics added the largest number of people to the US population during the 1980s, but Asians had the largest percent increase. The time to initiate demographic literacy is in the early grades of school.

  6. EJSCREEN Version 1, Demographic Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This map service displays demographic data used in EJSCREEN. All demographic data were derived from American Community Survey 2006-2010 estimates. EJSCREEN is an...

  7. Effect of position, time in the season, and playing surface on Achilles tendon ruptures in NFL games: a 2009-10 to 2016-17 review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krill, Michael K; Borchers, James R; Hoffman, Joshua T; Krill, Matthew L; Hewett, Timothy E

    2017-09-01

    Achilles tendon (AT) ruptures are a potentially career-altering and ending injury. Achilles tendon ruptures have a below average return-to-play rate compared to other common orthopaedic procedures for National Football League (NFL) players. The objective of this study was to monitor the incidence and injury rates (IR) of AT ruptures that occurred during the regular season in order to evaluate the influence of player position, time of injury, and playing surface on rupture rates. A thorough online review was completed to identify published injury reports and public information regarding AT ruptures sustained during regular season and post-season games in the National Football League (NFL) during the 2009-10 to 2016-17 seasons. Team schedules, player position details and stadium information was used to determine period of the season of injury and playing surface. IRs were calculated per 100 team games (TG). Injury rate ratios (IRR) were utilized to compare IRs. During eight monitored seasons, there were 44 AT ruptures in NFL games. A majority of AT ruptures were sustained in the first eight games of the regular season (n = 32, 72.7%). There was a significant rate difference for the first and second four-game segments of the regular season compared to the last two four-game segments of the regular season. Defensive players suffered a majority of AT ruptures (n = 32, 72.7%). The IR on grass was 1.00 per 100 TG compared to 1.08 per 100 TG on artificial turf (IRR: 0.93, p = .80). A significant increase in AT ruptures occurred in the first and second four game segments of the regular season compared to the last two-four game segments of the regular season. Defensive players suffered a majority of AT ruptures compared to offensive or specialist players. There was no difference between AT rupture rates and playing surface in games.

  8. The effect of age and recent influenza vaccination history on the immunogenicity and efficacy of 2009-10 seasonal trivalent inactivated influenza vaccination in children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophia Ng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is some evidence that annual vaccination of trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV may lead to reduced vaccine immunogenicity but evidence is lacking on whether vaccine efficacy is affected by prior vaccination history. The efficacy of one dose of TIV in children 6-8 y of age against influenza B is uncertain. We examined whether immunogenicity and efficacy of influenza vaccination in school-age children varied by age and past vaccination history. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a randomized controlled trial of 2009-10 TIV. Influenza vaccination history in the two preceding years was recorded. Immunogenicity was assessed by comparison of HI titers before and one month after receipt of TIV/placebo. Subjects were followed up for 11 months with symptom diaries, and respiratory specimens were collected during acute respiratory illnesses to permit confirmation of influenza virus infections. We found that previous vaccination was associated with reduced antibody responses to TIV against seasonal A(H1N1 and A(H3N2 particularly in children 9-17 y of age, but increased antibody responses to the same lineage of influenza B virus in children 6-8 y of age. Serological responses to the influenza A vaccine viruses were high regardless of vaccination history. One dose of TIV appeared to be efficacious against confirmed influenza B in children 6-8 y of age regardless of vaccination history. CONCLUSIONS: Prior vaccination was associated with lower antibody titer rises following vaccination against seasonal influenza A vaccine viruses, but higher responses to influenza B among individuals primed with viruses from the same lineage in preceding years. In a year in which influenza B virus predominated, no impact of prior vaccination history was observed on vaccine efficacy against influenza B. The strains that circulated in the year of study did not allow us to study the effect of prior vaccination on vaccine efficacy against influenza A.

  9. Demographic trends in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present note, we present the main features of recent trends in vital family-demographic behavior in Sweden. For this purpose, published indices of marriage, divorce, and childbearing risks by calendar year are updated by adding another two or three years of observation to our series. We demonstrate that the latest trend reversal in Swedish birth rates, which occurred at the end of the 1990s, continued to manifest itself in increasing propensities for childbearing during the early years of the 21st century. The rise pertains to all birth orders. Marriage propensities showed an increase as well, however, to a large extent expressed in a short-term development that was prevalent at the turn of the millennium. The previous long-term trend of rising divorce risks leveled off during the first two years of the new century.

  10. Crime, Violence, Discipline, and Safety in U.S. Public Schools. Findings from the School Survey on Crime and Safety: 2009-10. First Look. NCES 2011-320

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiman, Samantha

    2011-01-01

    The National Center for Education Statistics collects data on crime and violence in U.S. public schools through the School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS). This First Look report presents findings from the 2009-10 School Survey on Crime and Safety data collection. Developed and managed by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES)…

  11. Report of the Optional Extended-Day Kindergarten Program for the 2009-10 School Year: Utah Code 53A-1a-902; Enrolled S.B. 49, 2007; Board Rule R277-489

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumway, Larry

    2010-01-01

    Optional Extended-Day Kindergarten benefits students above and beyond non-Optional Extended-Day kindergarten. While OEK students began the 2009-10 school year with significantly lower scores than non-OEK students, by the end of the year OEK students had closed this achievement gap and scored similarly to non-OEK students. In some cases OEK…

  12. Guide for Accredited Private School Education Planning and Results Reporting. Requirements for Three-Year Education Plans for 2007/08-2009/10 and Annual Education Results Reports for November 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Online Submission, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The Guide to Accredited Private School Education Planning and Results Reporting, 2007-2010 provides the provincial requirements for: 1) Private school authority three-year education plans for 2007-2010. These plans cover the 2007/08, 2008/09 and 2009/10 school years. 2) Private school authority annual education results report for the 2006/07…

  13. Epidemiology of National Collegiate Athletic Association men’s and women’s swimming and diving injuries from 2009/10 to 2013/14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Zachary Y.; Baugh, Christine M.; Hibberd, Elizabeth E.; Snook, Erin M.; Hayden, Ross; Dompier, Thomas P.

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aim Recent injury data for collegiate-level swimming and diving is limited. Previous data is limited to single seasons, elite and national team athletes, or emergency department data. This study describes the epidemiology of men’s and women’s swimming and diving injuries reported by the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Injury Surveillance Program (ISP) during the 2009/10-2013/14 academic years. Methods Injuries and athlete-exposure (AE) data reported within nine men’s and 13 women’s swimming and diving programs were analyzed. Injury rates, injury rate ratios (IRR), and injury proportions by body site, diagnosis, and mechanism were reported with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results The ISP captured 149 and 208 injuries for men’s and women’s swimming and diving, respectively, leading to injury rates of 1.54/1000AEs and 1.71/1000AEs. Among females, divers had a higher injury rate (2.49/1000AEs) than swimmers (1.63/1000AEs; IRR=1.53; 95%CI: 1.07, 2.19). Injury rates for male divers (1.94/1000AEs) and swimmers (1.48/1000AEs) did not differ (IRR=1.33; 95%CI: 0.85, 2.31). Most injuries occurred to the shoulder and resulted in strains. Many injuries were classified as overuse or non-contact. Female swimmers had a higher overuse injury rate (1.04/1000AEs) than male swimmers (0.66/1000AEs; IRR=1.58; 95%CI: 1.14, 2.19). Overuse injury rates for female divers (0.54/1000AEs) and male divers (0.46/1000AEs) did not differ (IRR=1.16; 95%CI: 0.40, 3.34). Conclusions Shoulder, strain, and overuse injuries were common in collegiate men’s and women’s swimming and diving. In addition, divers may have higher injury rates than swimmers, although small reported numbers in this study warrant additional research. PMID:25633831

  14. [Demographic profile of Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero, I

    1984-04-01

    Sources of demographic data for Venezuela include 11 population censuses conducted between 1873-1981, birth and death registration statistics, and the household sample survey. The average annual rate of population growth increase from 2.8% between 1920-40 to 3-4% thereafter. The population at the 1961 census was 7.52 million. According to preliminary data from the 1981 census, the population of 14.57 million is growing at an annual rate of 2.8%. 41.2% of the population is under 15 years old, implying a huge demand for educational and health services, housing and employment. The dependency rate in 1980 was 81.3% for the country as a whole, 100.4% in rural areas, and 76.0% in urban areas. The young age structure means that the population will continue to grow even if natality rates decline. The crude natality rate was estimated at 47.3/1000 for 1950-55, 36.0 for 1970-75, and 32.9 for 1980-85. Some rural areas still have natality rates of over 47/1000. The total fertility rate declined from 6.5 in 1950-55 to 4.1 in 1980-85. The decline in the natality rate reflects improving quality of life, availability of family planning services, urbanization, and access of women to productive activities and educational centers. The mortality rate was 12.3/1000 in 1950-55, 9.1 in 1960-65, in 1970-75, and has been estimated at 5.5 for 1980-85. Some rural areas have mortality rates of 8.1. The infant mortality rate was 50.2/1000 in 1971 and 34.3 in 1980. Life expectancy at birth is about 69 years. During the 1920s, Venezuela unerwent expansion in infrastructure and technological utilization, generating rapid urbanization. 39.2% of the population was urban in 1941, compared to 78.8% in 1980. The significance of urbanization in Venezuela is due to the rapidity as well as the diffusion of the process. The household sample survey for the 2nd half of 1980 indicated a total of 8.16 million employed and an activity rate of 32.1% overall, 46.4% for males and 17.7% for females. The

  15. Demographic Trends: Impact on Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Sylvia N. Y.; Cheah, Horn Mun

    2010-01-01

    Background: Singapore is experiencing great demographic change. These demographic trends show fewer young people and declining birth rates, greater longevity for ageing generations and an increase in the number of non-Singaporean residents. Statistics also show that more than half of the total population increase in the last decades was…

  16. Women exposed to second-hand smoke more at home than at workplace: An analysis of GATS Report, India, 2009-10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepika Agrawal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tobacco smoke has adverse health effects on women of the reproductive age group with serious health implications for the next generation. Objectives: This study assessed the prevalence of current active smoking, second-hand smoke (SHS exposure and the factors influencing smoke exposure in females of the reproductive age group. Materials and Methods: Data from the nationally representative Global Adult Tobacco Survey-India (GATS 2009 was analyzed for socio demographic variables, tobacco-related variables and knowledge variables. Results: 50.4% of the women in the reproductive age group had been exposed to SHS at home, though only 2.6% of the women were current active smokers. This was more than the SHS exposure at work (21.7% and elsewhere (32.6%. SHS exposure of the women at home did not vary significantly with knowledge of adverse effects of smoking but was affected by the place of dwelling as the smoke exposure was found to be more among rural women. Conclusion: SHS exposure is more prevalent than current active smoking in women of the reproductive age group and that too at home. Thus, policies need to be framed in order to curb this menace which is a vicious one as women don′t really have an alternative as far as this exposure is concerned.

  17. EJSCREEN Demographic Indicators 2016 Public

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EJSCREEN uses demographic factors as very general indicators of a community's potential susceptibility to the types of environmental factors included in this...

  18. EJSCREEN Demographic Indicators 2015 Internal

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EJSCREEN uses demographic factors as very general indicators of a community's potential susceptibility to the types of environmental factors included in this...

  19. EJSCREEN Demographic Indicators 2015 Public

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EJSCREEN uses demographic factors as very general indicators of a community's potential susceptibility to the types of environmental factors included in this...

  20. DEMOGRAPHIC VULNERABILITIES IN TECUCI PLAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian Adrian ŞORCARU

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The study focuses on analyzing and mapping 8 indicators considered to best reflect the demographic vulnerability in Tecuci Plain in the year 2010 and proposes a model of aggregation which finally allows us to distinguish three major types of demographic vulnerability (low, medium and high. Mapping the final values also shows significant disparities in the territorial administrative units that broadly overlap the plain, the most vulnerable being Tecuci city and the peripheral communes, towards Vrancea and Vaslui Counties.

  1. Tourism Market and Demographic Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Nedelea

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper identifies the major demographic trends and their implications for consumer market. It is important to know how will demographic change influence the tourism market in particularly and how can the tourist industry adapt to these. The advancing ageing of society will result in far reaching changes, particularly on the demand side. To profitably seize the opportunities, managers must understand how senior markets evolve and adapt products and service offerings along multiple dimensions to meet the needs of senior consumers.

  2. Demographic Modelling in Weed Biocontrol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demographic matrix modeling of plant populations can be a powerful tool to identify key life stage transitions that contribute the most to population growth of an invasive plant and hence should be targeted for disruption. Therefore, this approach has the potential to guide the pre-release selection...

  3. Logistics Dynamics and Demographic Change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klumpp, Matthias; Abidi, Hella; Bioly, Sascha; Buchkremer, Rüdiger; Sandhaus, Gregor; Freitag, Michael; Kotzab, Herbert; Pannek, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Change and dynamics in logistics are interestingly driven at the same time by external as well as internal forces. This contribution outlines a big data literature review methodology to overview recognizable external changes and analyzes the interaction of one major trend—demographic change—further

  4. Democratic constraints on demographic policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigsby, J S

    1984-01-01

    The discussion compares the population policies adopted in Sweden during the 1930s to raise fertiity and the policies considered in the US during the 1970s in response to the high fertility experienced in the 1950s. Both sets of policies recommended increased availability of birth control, more liberal abortion laws, and greater employment opportunities for women. It becomes evident that the constraints imposed by a democratic system of government translate into policy recommendations that place individual freedom of choice and equal opportunity for all citizens as higher goals than any specific demographic target. Consequently, the population commissions of Sweden and the US made similar suggestions on how to resolve their opposite demographic problems. The demographic situations in the 2 nations were antipodal, and the countries also had very different social climates. This additional disparity was insufficient to counterbalance the apparently overwhelming influence of the democratic political systems in making virtually identical policy recommendations. Yet, the contrasting social climates of Sweden in 1935 and the US in 1970-72 may explain the different reactions each commission received. In terms of the responses by both citizens and government officials to the commissions' reports, the Swedish commission was more successful. Practically all of their recommendations were enthusiastically received and quickly adopted by the Swedish Riksdag. Yet, when the criterion for success becomes whether or not a demographic target was met, it increased in the 1940s and then dropped again while the same social policies were in effect. Even before the US commission began its study, fertility in the US had fallen and continues to remain low. These findings suggest that commissions in democratic countries will most likely never recommend dramatic measures in population policy. Thus, it is questionable whether such commissions in democratic nations will totally fulfill the

  5. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from METEOR in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 2009-10-26 to 2009-11-23 (NODC Accession 0109918)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0109918 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from METEOR in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 2009-10-26 to...

  6. Relations between Some Anthropometric Characteristics and the Variable for Assess Situation - Motoric Knowledge Smash from the Zone 4 for the Women Volleyball Players in the Age of 14 - 18 in Republic of Macedonia in the Season 2009/10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrijana M ISOVSKI

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The research was made on a sample of 151 female volleyball players in the age of 14 - 18 in Macedonia, which represents the population of players competing in state championships for the young categories in season 2009/10. The study applied 1 variable to assessment situation - motor knowledge and 18 variables for the assessment of the anthropometric characteristics . In order to determine the relationship between anthropometrical characteristics and variables for assessment of the situation - motor knowledge linear regression analysis is applied, were the criteria for assessment situation - motor knowledge is the variabl e smash from the zone 4 and predictors are the anthropometrical variables. Based on the obtained results it can be determined that the predictor system of anthropometrical variables has statistically significant relationships on variable for assessment of the situation - motor knowledge.

  7. ANÁLISIS LONGITUDINAL DE LOS SITIOS WEB DE LAS ESTACIONES DE ESQUÍ Y MONTAÑA DE ESPAÑA, ANDORRA Y PIRINEO DE FRANCIA. TEMPORADAS 2009-10 Y 2013-14

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Óscar García Lastra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente estudio se realiza un análisis longitudinal, entre las temporadas 2009-10 y 2013-14, de los sitios Web de las Estaciones de Esquí y Montaña de España, Andorra y Pirineo de Francia, adaptando el modelo eMICA (Extended Model of Internet Commerce Adoption planteado por los autores Burgess y Cooper (2000 y adaptado por García y Escalera (2008. Un método de carácter exploratorio, que recoge las características y funcionalidades que el sitio Web de una estación de esquí y montaña debe tener. Los resultados son heterogéneos, y siguen mostrando un bajo grado de madurez funcional.

  8. Electrónica, 2009-10

    OpenAIRE

    Martín Martínez, María Jesús; Rengel Estévez, Raúl

    2009-01-01

    I. Materiales de clase: 1.Semiconductores.; 2. Dispositivos electrónicos; 3. Amplificadores y osciladores; 4. Fuentes de alimentación; 5. Circuitos de conmutación; 6. Álgebra de Boole; 7. Familias lógicas integradas; 8. Sistemas combinacionales; 9. Memorias; 10. Circuitos secuenciales; 11. Circuitos aritméticos digitales; 12. Conversores D/A y A/D; 13. Lógica programada. II. Bibliografía. Adquisición por el alumno de conocimientos básicos de Electrónica (tanto teóricos como prácticos, orie...

  9. CSIR Annual report 2009-10

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available , schools and housing together with infrastructure for electricity supply, water and sanitation. built environment A sound and effective built environment is critical for socio-economic development and economic growth in the country. Expanding... and our readiness to enter into partnerships with relevant role players globally. point of a national infrastructure such as the electricity distribution system or the telecommunications system) are being used more and more frequently. africa...

  10. Seasonal influenza immunisation in Europe. Overview of recommendations and vaccination coverage for three seasons: pre-pandemic (2008/09), pandemic (2009/10) and post-pandemic (2010/11).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mereckiene, J; Cotter, S; Nicoll, A; Lopalco, P; Noori, T; Weber, Jt; D'Ancona, F; Levy-Bruhl, D; Dematte, L; Giambi, C; Valentiner-Branth, P; Stankiewicz, I; Appelgren, E; O Flanagan, D

    2014-04-24

    Since 2008, annual surveys of influenza vaccination policies, practices and coverage have been undertaken in 29 European Union (EU)/ European Economic Area (EEA) countries. After 2009, this monitored the impact of European Council recommendation to increase vaccination coverage to 75% among risk groups. This paper summarises the results of three seasonal influenza seasons: 2008/09, 2009/10 and 2010/11. In 2008/09, 27/29 countries completed the survey; in 2009/10 and 2010/11, 28/29 completed it. All or almost all countries recommended vaccination of older people (defined as those aged ≥50, ≥55, ≥59, ≥60 or ≥65 years), and people aged ≥6 months with clinical risk and healthcare workers. A total of 23 countries provided vaccination coverage data for older people, but only 7 and 10 had data for the clinical risk groups and healthcare workers, respectively. The number of countries recommending vaccination for some or all pregnant women increased from 10 in 2008/09 to 22 in 2010/11. Only three countries could report coverage among pregnant women. Seasonal influenza vaccination coverage during and after the pandemic season in older people and clinical groups remained unchanged in countries with higher coverage. However, small decreases were seen in most countries during this period. The results of the surveys indicate that most EU/EEA countries recommend influenza vaccination for the main target groups; however, only a few countries have achieved the target of 75% coverage among risk groups. Coverage among healthcare workers remained low.

  11. Chronological objects in demographic research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans J. Willekens

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Calendar time, age and duration are chronological objects. They represent an instant or a time period. Age and duration are usually expressed in units with varying lengths. The number of days in a month or a year depends on the position on the calendar. The units are also not homogeneous and the structure influences measurement. One solution, common in demography, is to use units that are large enough for the results not to be seriously affected by differences in length and structure. Another approach is to take the idiosyncrasy of calendars into account and to work directly with calendar dates. The technology that enables logical and arithmetic operations on dates is available. OBJECTIVE To illustrate logical and arithmetic operations on dates and conversions between time measurements. METHODS Software packages include utilities to process dates. I use existing and a few new utilities in R to illustrate operations on dates and conversions between calendar dates and elapsed time since a reference moment or a reference event. Three demographic applications are presented. The first is the impact of preferences for dates and days on demographic indicators. The second is event history analysis with time-varying covariates. The third is microsimulation of life histories in continuous time. CONCLUSIONS The technology exists to perform operations directly on dates, enabling more precise calculations of duration and elapsed time in demographic analysis. It eliminates the need for (a approximations and (b transformations of dates, such as Century Month Code, that are convenient for computing durations but are a barrier to interpretation. Operations on dates, such as the computation of age, should consider time units of varying length.

  12. Evolutionary shaping of demographic schedules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachter, Kenneth W.; Steinsaltz, David; Evans, Steven N.

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary processes of natural selection may be expected to leave their mark on age patterns of survival and reproduction. Demographic theory includes three main strands—mutation accumulation, stochastic vitality, and optimal life histories. This paper reviews the three strands and, concentrating on mutation accumulation, extends a mathematical result with broad implications concerning the effect of interactions between small age-specific effects of deleterious mutant alleles. Empirical data from genomic sequencing along with prospects for combining strands of theory hold hope for future progress. PMID:25024186

  13. DEMOGRAPHIC FACTOR OF ECOLOGICAL POLICY

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Demographic factor of ecological policy is analyzed. Анализируется демографическая составляющая экологической политики. Аналізується демографічна складова екологічної політики.

  14. SELECTED DETERMINANTS OF DEMOGRAPHIC SAFETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisława Ostasiewicz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents, in a simplifi ed manner, selected theories of population to explain the current trends of population development in Poland and throughout the world. The aim of the article is to present the demographic threats that have emerged in the last eighty years. Prognosticated age structures have also been predicted. Signifi cant diff erences between the structure of the population now and the future have been indicated, particularly regarding the ageing of the population. Against the background of global transformations analyzes of changes in Poland have been conducted. The comparison shows that changes in Poland are highly analogous to transformations around the world, such as declining birth rates and increasing life expectancy. These changes cause ageing of the population, which could result in the collapse of the functioning of the labor market and the pension system as it currently exists.

  15. Demographic Ageing on Croatian Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Nejašmić

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the changes in the population structure of the Croatian islands by age, warns of the degree of ageing, provides spatial differentiation of this process and presents perspective of ageing at the level of settlement. Typing of population ageing is based on scores and has seven types. The total island population in 2011 belongs to the type 5 – very old population. Almost a half of the settlements (out of 303 have been affected by the highest levels of ageing (types 6 and 7. It was found that a quarter of island settlements will become “dead villages” in a foreseeable future; most of them are on small islands but also in the interior of larger islands. These are villages decaying in every respect, in which the way of life, as we know it, veins and goes out. The present ageing villagers are their last residents in most cases. Eve¬rything suggests that demographic recovery of the islands is not possible with the forces in situ. It is important to strike a balance between the needs and opportunities in order to successfully organize life on the islands, both small and large ones, and the fact is that there is a continuing disparity, which is especially profound in small islands. A sensitive and selective approach is needed to overcome the unfavourable demographic trends. Therefore it is necessary to respect the particularities of indi¬vidual islands and island groups in devising development strategy. Solutions to the problems must come of the local and wider community in synergy with relevant professional and scientific institutions. However, if the solutions are not found or measures do not give results, if the islands are left to desorganisation and senilisation, a part of the islands will become a wasteland. With regard to the value of this area whose wealth are people in the first place, this would be an intolerable civilization decline.

  16. CONSEQUENCES OF THE DEMOGRAPHIC CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIVIU RADU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Major dysfunctionalities can arise from the demographic decline, both on a social level and from the perspective of the economic-financial evolution of the world’s states. The obvious aging of the industrialized states’ population overlapping the import of cheap workforce in the developing countries can start mutations whose consequences are somewhat predictable but discouraging. An accelerated urbanization of the states is foreseen, as well as the decrease of birthrates, negative external migration, increase of mortality and its stagnation in a larger value than that of the birthrate, and not least the population’s aging will hinder a part of the developing countries to sustain a high rhythm of long-term economical increase. The socialeconomic consequences will be reflected in the labor market, the householders’ amount of income as well as in the education’s level. All of these aspects call for a rethinking of the public politics, especially of the social insurance’s system and of the education, a reorientation of the economy based on the increase of specializing in production and productivity, as well as a financial stability unburdened by the politics’ interference in the business environment.

  17. Sequence Analysis in Demographic Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Billari, Francesco C.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available EnglishThis paper examines the salient features of sequence analysis in demogrpahicresearch. The new approach allows a holistic perspective on life course analysis and is based on arepresentation of lives as sequences of states. Some of the methods for analyzing such data aresketched, from complex description to optimal matching ot monoethetic divisive algorithms. Afer ashort ilustration of a demographically-relevant example, the needs in terms of data collection and theopportunities of applying the same aproach to synthetic data are discussed.FrenchOn examine ici les principaux éléments de l’analyse par séquence endémographie. Cette nouvelle technique permet une perspective unifiée del’analyse du cours de la vie, en représentant la vie comme une série d’états.Certaines des méthodes pour de telles analyses sont décrites, en commençant parla description complexe, pour considérer ensuite les alignements optimales, etles algorithmes de division. Après un court exemple en démographie, onconsidère les besoins en données et les possibilités d’application aux donnéessynthétique.

  18. Demographic changes and international factor mobility

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews the extent and policy implications of linkages between demographic changes and international factor mobility. Evidence is found of significant demographic effects on both migration and the current account, but for different reasons neither increased migration nor international transfers of savings is expected to offer much assistance in digesting the variety of demographic transitions expected over the next fifty years. The paper also examines more briefly the effects of de...

  19. Bias and ignorance in demographic perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landy, D; Guay, B; Marghetis, T

    2017-08-31

    When it comes to knowledge of demographic facts, misinformation appears to be the norm. Americans massively overestimate the proportions of their fellow citizens who are immigrants, Muslim, LGBTQ, and Latino, but underestimate those who are White or Christian. Previous explanations of these estimation errors have invoked topic-specific mechanisms such as xenophobia or media bias. We reconsidered this pattern of errors in the light of more than 30 years of research on the psychological processes involved in proportion estimation and decision-making under uncertainty. In two publicly available datasets featuring demographic estimates from 14 countries, we found that proportion estimates of national demographics correspond closely to what is found in laboratory studies of quantitative estimates more generally. Biases in demographic estimation, therefore, are part of a very general pattern of human psychology-independent of the particular topic or demographic under consideration-that explains most of the error in estimates of the size of politically salient populations. By situating demographic estimates within a broader understanding of general quantity estimation, these results demand reevaluation of both topic-specific misinformation about demographic facts and topic-specific explanations of demographic ignorance, such as media bias and xenophobia.

  20. The State Economic, Demographic & Fiscal Handbook 1993.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, David; Cohen, Lee

    This handbook is an easy-to-use reference book for policymakers, public officials, and policy analysts, as well as anyone else who may need up-to-date information about state economic, demographic, and fiscal data. The book includes data on demographics, poverty rates, per capita state personal income, state and local tax rates, and state and…

  1. 5 CFR 841.404 - Demographic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Demographic factors. 841.404 Section 841... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-GENERAL ADMINISTRATION Government Costs § 841.404 Demographic factors. (a) The Office of Personnel Management (OPM) will consider the factors listed below...

  2. Demographic and clinical features of neuromyelitis optica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pandit, L.; Asgari, Nasrin; Apiwattanakul, M.

    2015-01-01

    The comparative clinical and demographic features of neuromyelitis optica (NMO) are not well known. In this review we analyzed peer-reviewed publications for incidence and prevalence, clinical phenotypes, and demographic features of NMO. Population-based studies from Europe, South East and Southe...

  3. A Demographic Perspective on Family Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Suzanne M.

    2014-01-01

    Demographic analysis seeks to understand how individual microlevel decisions about child-bearing, marriage and partnering, geographic mobility, and behaviors that influence health and longevity aggregate to macrolevel population trends and differentials in fertility, mortality and migration. In this review, I first discuss theoretical perspectives—classic demographic transition theory, the perspective of the “second demographic transition,” the spread of developmental idealism—that inform demographers’ understanding of macrolevel population change. Then, I turn to a discussion of the role that demographically informed data collection has played in illuminating family change since the mid-20th century in the United States. Finally, I discuss ways in which demographic theory and data collection might inform future areas of family research, particularly in the area of intergenerational family relationships and new and emerging family forms. PMID:26078785

  4. amily Planning Brings China Demographic Bonus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马瀛通

    2007-01-01

    Editorial note Scholars around the world are voicing their criticisms on China’s family planning policy,which,in their opinions,will lead to an unhealthy population structure.This article reviews the concepts of"rich before old"and"negative demographic bonus",and concludes that with regards to some indicators such as dependency ratio and demographic bonus,there exists a discrepancy between calculations and reality.The author believes that China will continue to witness a surge of demographic bonus in the future.

  5. A unified framework of demographic time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riffe, Tim; Schöley, Jonas; Villavicencio, Francisco

    Demographic thought and practice is largely conditioned by the Lexis diagram, a two-dimensional graphical representation of the identity between age, period, and birth cohort. This relationship does not account for remaining years of life or other related time measures, whose use in demographic...... research is both underrepresented and incompletely situated. We describe a three-dimensional relationship between six different measures of demographic time: chronological age, time to death, lifespan, time of birth, time of death, and period. We describe four identities among subsets of these six measures...

  6. Demographic cycles, cohort size, and earnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, M C

    1989-05-01

    This article examines whether position in the demographic cycle is an important factor in determining earnings and earnings growth. Earnings equations for white males are estimated by using March Current Population Survey data. Position in the demographic cycle is captured by including both measures of own cohort size and the size of surrounding cohorts in the estimated earnings equations. Position in the demographic cycle matters. Increases in own cohort size lead to flatter earnings profiles, whereas increases in the size of surrounding cohorts are associated with steeper earnings profiles. The net effect is that those who enter the labor market before or after the peak of the demographic cycle start out with lower earnings but experience faster earnings growth. This pattern is uniform across all schooling groups: high school dropouts, high school graduates, those with some college, and college graduates.

  7. The demographic work of Sir William Wilde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froggatt, P

    2016-05-01

    This paper argues that Sir William Wilde was indeed a pioneering demographer. It also describes the unveiling of the plaque commemorating Sir William Wilde at his home, 1, Merrion Square, Dublin on the 28 October 1971.

  8. Demographics and presenting clinical features of childhood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Demographics and presenting clinical features of childhood systemic lupus ... and characteristics of children with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). ... Rashes were found to be the commonest clinical feature present at the time of diagnosis, ...

  9. Gender inequalities from the demographic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devedžić Mirjana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the meaning of the phrase "the woman’s status in the society" that is recognized in demography as an important cultural factor of demographic development and transitional changes. The analysis indicates qualitative shifts in the woman’s status and simultaneously reveals its importance at present, not only in traditional, but also in modern and developed societies. On the other hand, it explains the importance of sex as a biodemographic determinant, and introduces the concept of gender that sheds another light on the concepts of sex and woman’s status in the society and integrates them. Gender regimes that subsume the inferiority of women in public and private social structures are examined from demographic perspective, albeit only in those phenomenological aspects that can be supported by demographic research, theories, and analyses. To this end, the paper analyzes the effects of strengthening gender equalities on the fertility and mortality transitions, the gender’s impact on the population distribution by sex in South Asian countries, and highlights the key role of gender in interpreting certain social and economic structures. It also stresses the establishing of gender equality as an important element of population policies. The global dimension of the patriarchal society is illustrated through a series of examples of demographic phenomena from various societies. Gender regimes underlie all of these phenomena. The paper puts foreword certain theoretical hypotheses about gender inequalities, and finds their connections with demographic behaviors and demographic indicators. Finally, it summarizes the role of demography in gender (inequality research and the demographic perspective of the way and the speed the demographic equality is being established. Demography is seen as an irreplaceable discipline in examining gender inequalities, especially at the global level. With the advance of qualitative methods in demography

  10. Demographic heterogeneity, cohort selection, and population growth

    OpenAIRE

    Bruce E. Kendall; Fox, Gordon A.; Fujiwara, Masami; Nogeire, Theresa M.

    2011-01-01

    Demographic heterogeneity—variation among individuals in survival and reproduction—is ubiquitous in natural populations. Structured population models address heterogeneity due to age, size, or major developmental stages. However, other important sources of demographic heterogeneity, such as genetic variation, spatial heterogeneity in the environment, maternal effects, and differential exposure to stressors, are often not easily measured and hence are modeled as stochasticity. Recent research ...

  11. Two centuries of demographic change in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry Edmonston

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available One key aspect of the demographic transition—the shift from high mortality and high fertility to low mortality and low fertility is a major change in the population’s age distribution from a pyramid-shaped young age structure to a pillar-shaped old age structure. This paper discusses two demographic processes affected by changes in age structure. First, there are effects on vital rates, with important differences in the observed crude rates and the implied intrinsic vital rates. Second, changes in age structure influence population momentum. More recently, demographers have noted that older age distributions associated with fertility levels below replacement have negative population momentum. Although the demographic transition has been well-described for many countries, demographers have seldom analyzed intrinsic vital rates and population momentum over time, which are dynamic processes affected by changes in the population age structure and which, in turn, influence future changes in population growth and size. This paper uses new data and methods to analyze intrinsic vital rates and population momentum across two centuries of demographic change in Canada

  12. Demographic and Related Determinants of Recent Cuban Emigration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briquets, Sergio Diaz

    1983-01-01

    Examines principal demographic determinants of recent Cuban emigration and discusses how these demographic variables interact with other social, economic, and political determinants. Suggests that Cuban labor migration is more responsive to demographic factors than some theorists assume. (Author/MJL)

  13. Pregnancy intention, demographic differences, and psychosocial health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxson, Pamela; Miranda, Marie Lynn

    2011-08-01

    We explore the psychosocial, demographic, and maternal characteristics across wanted, mistimed, and unwanted pregnancies. Data from 1321 women from a prospective cohort study of pregnant women in Durham, NC, are analyzed. Psychosocial correlates were obtained through prenatal surveys; electronic medical records were used to ascertain maternal health and pregnancy outcomes. Sixty-two percent of the women indicated an unintended pregnancy, with 44% (578) mistimed and 18% (245) unwanted. Only 38% of the pregnancies were characterized as wanted. Women with unwanted and with mistimed pregnancies were similar demographically, but they differed significantly on psychosocial profiles and maternal characteristics. Women with mistimed and with wanted pregnancies differed in demographics and psychosocial profiles. Wanted pregnancies had the healthiest, mistimed an intermediate, and unwanted the poorest psychosocial profile. Women with unwanted pregnancies had the highest depression, perceived stress, and negative paternal support scores (ppsychosocial profiles had higher odds of being in the unwanted category. Controlling for psychosocial and demographic variables, perceived stress and positive paternal support remained significant predictors of belonging to the unwanted and mistimed groups. Fully characterizing pregnancy intention and its relationship to psychosocial profiles may provide a basis for identifying women with highest risk during pregnancy and early motherhood. Women with unwanted and mistimed pregnancies may appear similar demographically but are different psychosocially. Women with unwanted pregnancies have multiple risk factors and would benefit from targeted interventions.

  14. Demographic aspects of social security in region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alla Gennad'evna Leont'eva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a situational analysis of the level of life safety in the field of demographic regions of the Ural Federal District. The analysis is based on data from the Federal Statistics and covers the period 2000-2010. We have developed a system of indicators for evaluating safety in the demographic sphere. We set the main threats to the social and economic stability in the regions. The system of thresholds includes three blocks: the reproduction of the population, marriage and family relationships and health. We have presented a quantitative description of the main threats. Identified priority areas of social protection, providing increased stability of the regional socio-economic development, reducing the likelihood of social conflicts and improve the demographic situation.

  15. Demographic and affective covariates of pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garron, D C; Leavitt, F

    1979-11-01

    Relationships of four demographic variables and five affective variables to eight attributes of low back pain were investigated in 251 patients by stepwise, multivariate analysis. The demographic variables are age, sex, race, and education. The affective variables are state anxiety, trait anxiety anxiety, hostility, and depression. Seven of the pain variables are from the factorially derived Low Back Pain Questionnaire. The eighth pain variable is a self-estimate of intensity. Relationships among demographic and pain variables are small and unsystematic. Hostility has a small, systematically inverse relation to pain variables, supporting theories relating low back pain to inhibition of anger. Anxiety has a small positive relationship, and depression has no relationship to pain variables. In general, the small relationships indicate that the Low Back Pain Questionnaire provides descriptions of pain that are not confounded by social characteristics or current emotional states of patients.

  16. Febrile Seizure: Demographic Features and Causative Factors

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    How to cite this article: Esmaili Gourabi H, Bidabadi E, Cheraghalipour  F, Aarabi  Y, Salamat F. Febrile Seizure: Demographic Features and Causative Factors. Iran J Child Neurol Autumn 2012; 6(4):33-37.Abstract Objective Because of geographical and periodical variation, we prompted to determine the demographic features and causative factors for febrile seizure in Rasht. Materials & Methods In this cross-sectional study, all 6–month- to 6-year-old children with the diagnosis of febrile s...

  17. Life Potential as a Basic Demographic Indicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goerlich, Francisco J.; Soler, Angel

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes an indicator that integrates life expectancy with the demographic structure of the population for a given society. By doing this, we have a simple indicator of mortality and aging combined, which could be very useful for developed societies. As is widely known, life expectancy at birth is independent of the demographic…

  18. Demographic development in ASEAN: a comparative overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrin, A N; Pardoko, H; Lim, L L; Hongladorom, C

    1981-01-01

    A comparative overview of recent demographic developments in the ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations) region is presented. Countries discussed include Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. Separate consideration is given to mortality; fertility; and migration, spatial distribution, and employment. A final section is concerned with emerging issues and directions for population policy.

  19. Second demographic transition de-blocked?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobić Mirjana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The text is re-examining the previously established dilemma related to whether Serbia (without Kosovo and Metohija is the country of second demographic transition, i.e.: has the transition been de-blocked, under the assumption that this is a worldwide historical process of transformation of industrialized countries. The last thesis, around which there exists a lot of controversy in the contemporary population theory, is however not dealt with in detail; to the contrary, it is used as the general theoretical framework for the exploration of the most recent tendencies in the transformation of nuptiality and fertility regime in Serbia, as well as in the western and countries in post-socialist transformation. Special attention is given to the ideational changes, more precisely to the specific features of the value profile of the Serbian population, which is one of the most important determinants of the societal framework, that acts in the back of the afore mentioned aggregate demographic indicators. Finally, the hypothesis is posed (which should be further investigated by means of in-depth research and complementary approach that the speeding-up of the second demographic transition and intensification of the individualisation not only of the partnership but of the parenthood as well, accompanied with the rise of living standard and social support to balancing work and family, would have produced important emancipating and, concomitantly, positive socioeconomic and demographic effects.

  20. The Demographics of Corporal Punishment in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examined the student discipline policies of 1,025 Texas school districts, as well as data from the Texas Education Agency's Academic Excellence Indicator System in order to identify demographic patterns regarding corporal punishment policies in Texas schools. The study also studied the relationship between a district's…

  1. The Demographics of Corporal Punishment in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examined the student discipline policies of 1,025 Texas school districts, as well as data from the Texas Education Agency's Academic Excellence Indicator System in order to identify demographic patterns regarding corporal punishment policies in Texas schools. The study also studied the relationship between a district's corporal…

  2. Economic and Demographic Predictors of Inclusive Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosier, Meghan E.; Causton-Theoharis, Julie

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated economic and demographic predictors of levels of inclusion of students with disabilities in 129 school districts. Multiple regression analysis was utilized to address the following research questions: (a) Is there a relationship between economic factors and percentage of highly included students with disabilities in general…

  3. Demographic Group Differences in Adolescents' Time Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andretta, James R.; Worrell, Frank C.; Mello, Zena R.; Dixson, Dante D.; Baik, Sharon H.

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, we examined demographic differences in time attitudes in a sample of 293 adolescents. Time attitudes were measured using the Adolescent Time Attitude Scale (Mello & Worrell, 2007; Worrell, Mello, & Buhl, 2011), which assesses positive and negative attitudes toward the past, the present, and the future. Generally, African…

  4. The Macroeconomic Dynamics of Demographic Shocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijdra, B.J.; Ligthart, J.E.

    2004-01-01

    The paper employs an extended Yaari-Blanchard model of overlapping generations to study how the macroeconomy is affected over time by various demographic changes.It is shown that a proportional decline in fertility and death rates has qualitatively similar effects to capital income subsidies; both p

  5. Demographic variables in coal miners’ safety attitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Wen-wen; Wu, Xiang; Ci, Hui-Peng; Qin, Shu-Qi; Liu, Jia-Long

    2017-03-01

    To change unsafe behavior through adjusting people’s safety attitudes has become an important measure to prevent accidents. Demographic variables, as influential factors of safety attitude, are fundamental and essential for the research. This research does a questionnaire survey among coal mine industry workers, and makes variance analysis and correlation analysis of the results in light of age, length of working years, educational level and experiences of accidents. The results show that the coal miners’ age, length of working years and accident experiences correlate lowly with safety attitudes, and those older coal miners with longer working years have better safety attitude, as coal miners without experiences of accident do.However, educational level has nothing to do with the safety attitude. Therefore, during the process of safety management, coal miners with different demographic characteristics should be put more attention to.

  6. Complexity and demographic explanations of cumulative culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrien Querbes

    Full Text Available Formal models have linked prehistoric and historical instances of technological change (e.g., the Upper Paleolithic transition, cultural loss in Holocene Tasmania, scientific progress since the late nineteenth century to demographic change. According to these models, cumulation of technological complexity is inhibited by decreasing--while favoured by increasing--population levels. Here we show that these findings are contingent on how complexity is defined: demography plays a much more limited role in sustaining cumulative culture in case formal models deploy Herbert Simon's definition of complexity rather than the particular definitions of complexity hitherto assumed. Given that currently available empirical evidence doesn't afford discriminating proper from improper definitions of complexity, our robustness analyses put into question the force of recent demographic explanations of particular episodes of cultural change.

  7. Stock vs. Bond Yields, and Demographic Fluctuations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gozluklu, Arie; Morin, Annaïg

    that the slow-evolving time-series covariation due to changing population age structure accounts for the equilibrium relation between stock and bond markets. As a result, by exploiting the demographic information into distant future, the forecasting performance of evaluation models improves. Finally, using...... a cross-country panel, we document the cross-sectional variation of the demographic effect and explain the cross-country differences in comovement between stock and bond markets.......This paper analyzes the strong comovement between real stock and nominal bond yields at generational (low) frequencies. Life-cycle patterns in savings behavior in an overlapping generations model with cash-in-advance constraints explain this persistent comovement between financial yields. We argue...

  8. The AAVSO 2011 Demographic and Background Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Price, C Aaron

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, the AAVSO conducted a survey of 615 people who are or were recently active in the 101-year old organization. The survey included questions about their demographic background and variable star interests. Data are descriptively analyzed and compared with prior surveys. Results show an organization of very highly educated, largely male amateur and professional astronomers distributed across 108 countries. Participants tend to be loyal, with the average time of involvement in the AAVSO reported as 14 years. Most major demographic factors have not changed much over time. However, the average age of new members is increasing. Also, a significant portion of the respondents report being strictly active in a non-observing capacity, reflecting the growing mission of the organization. Motivations of participants are more aligned with scientific contribution than with that reported by other citizen science projects. This may help explain why a third of all respondents are an author or co-author of a paper in an ...

  9. Stock vs. Bond Yields, and Demographic Fluctuations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gozluklu, Arie; Morin, Annaïg

    that the slow-evolving time-series covariation due to changing population age structure accounts for the equilibrium relation between stock and bond markets. As a result, by exploiting the demographic information into distant future, the forecasting performance of evaluation models improves. Finally, using...... a cross-country panel, we document the cross-sectional variation of the demographic effect and explain the cross-country differences in comovement between stock and bond markets.......This paper analyzes the strong comovement between real stock and nominal bond yields at generational (low) frequencies. Life-cycle patterns in savings behavior in an overlapping generations model with cash-in-advance constraints explain this persistent comovement between financial yields. We argue...

  10. New Approaches to Demographic Data Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treiman, Donald J.; Lu, Yao; Qi, Yaqiang

    2013-01-01

    As population scientists have expanded the range of topics they study, increasingly considering the interrelationship between population phenomena and social, economic, and health conditions, they have expanded the kinds of data collected and have brought to bear new data collection techniques and procedures, often borrowed from other fields. These new approaches to demographic data collection are the concern of this essay. We consider three main topics: new developments in sampling procedures; new developments in fieldwork procedures; and new developments in the kind of information collected in demographic and social surveys. We conclude with some comments on data sharing in the social research community and a list of major Chinese surveys publicly available to researchers. Where possible we illustrate our points with Chinese examples. PMID:23844330

  11. The demographic cycle and optimal schooling choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, B P; Berger, M C

    1996-10-01

    A model is developed that enables the authors to estimate the effects of demographic cycles on both earnings and schooling. The model is tested using data from the 1991 Korean Occupational Wage Survey. The results indicate that cohorts following large birth cohorts in the cycle choose relatively less formal schooling compared to pre-peak cohorts, and that post-peak cohorts also have lower incomes. This result concerning South Korea is consistent with findings from previous studies concerning the United States.

  12. Regions of Demographic Dynamism in Haryana

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjeev Goel

    2014-01-01

    There are different types of population structures in different parts of the world, the nature of demographic challenges also differ accordingly. The developed countries like USA, Canada, Japan, Australia and many European countries face a problem of slow or even negative population growth. The main concern of the government in these countries remains on population ageing, decline in working force and increasing dependency ratio. The developing countries like India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and L...

  13. DEMOGRAPHIC PREDICTORS WITHIN LOCAL PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bente Florina Maria

    2014-12-01

    Design/methodology/approach- Using a quantitative methodological approach, a survey based on SERVQUAL instrument was applied in order to evaluate local public communication. Data from a sample of 380 citizens within Western Romanian were analyzed. Specific demographic predictors that can influence citizens' satisfaction regarding the quality of communication are analyzed. Findings-By analyzing data it was possible to determine citizen satisfaction and to assess its relationship with different demographic characteristics. The results illustrate that gender does not significantly affect satisfaction, instead age, marital status, residence location (urban versus rural, income, education and occupational status of the respondents significantly affect satisfaction regarding local public communication. In addition, the findings confirm a relationship between the citizens' satisfaction and the age, income, education and occupational status of the respondents. Research limitations/implications- Owing to the budget and time limits, only a one-shot survey was conducted, therefore the comparison between “before” and “after” analysis could not be performed. In addition, further research should investigate the local public communication within national contexts. Practical implications -The adapted SERVQUAL scale may be used by institution managers to objectively assess communication performance and local authority service quality. Originality/value- There continues to be a lack of research regarding the communication process within local public administration and the effect of demographic predictors of communication satisfaction. This paper examines both the perceptions and the expectations of citizens regarding public communication. The results offer insights into residence location, age, income, education and occupational status effects on evaluations of communication satisfaction. Finally, the study contributes to studies of perceived service quality by bearing out

  14. TEENAGE PREGNANCY: DEMOGRAPHICS, MATERNAL AND FOETAL OUTCOME

    OpenAIRE

    Radhika Gollapudi; Jagadeeshwari Sistla

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Pregnancy though is a physiological event in a woman’s life, it has its own associated complications. In teenage pregnancies, the physical and emotional state of stress coupled with biological immaturity leads to adverse effect both on the health of the mother and the foetus. METHODS This study is a clinical prospective study analysing the demographics, maternal health issues and the foetal outcome in teenage pregnancies. The study was conducted over a period of o...

  15. Demographic Pressure in the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Peeters, Marga; Groot, Loek

    2012-01-01

    On top of the sovereign debt crisis in the European Union, demographic change is exerting enormous pressure on public finances. We analyse four policy options: lowering pension benefits, increasing labour market participation of the native population, immigration and participation of older people. Our results show that the most publically indebted EU economies face the highest increases in public spending on the retiring baby boom generations over the coming decades. Fortunately for these eco...

  16. Mortality versus Morbidity in the Demographic Transition

    OpenAIRE

    Aksan, Anna-Maria; Chakraborty, Shankha

    2014-01-01

    The link between the mortality and epidemiological transitions is used to identify the effect of the former on the fertility transition: a mortality transition that is not accompanied by improving morbidity causes slower demographic and economic change. In a model where children may die from infectious disease, childhood health affects human capital and noninfectious-disease-related adult mortality. When child mortality falls from lower prevalence, as it did in western Europe, labor productiv...

  17. Evolving demographics of advanced dental education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldman, H Barry; Perlman, Steven P; Cinotti, Debra A

    2009-01-01

    The numbers of dental school graduates and students enrolled in post graduate programs have increased. Decreases are noted in the enrollment in Periodontics and Prosthodontics programs and a marked increase in the enrollment in Pediatric Dentistry programs. A review of these changes, by gender and race/ethnicity provides an overview of the future demographics of the profession. Some concerns regarding the future are considered.

  18. [[Demographic characteristics of "business bachelors" in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, C

    1987-01-01

    The demographic characteristics of those obliged to live away from their families because of the distance between their normal homes and places of work or education in Japan are described. Data are from a variety of official and other sources. The author notes that such persons are generally male. Factors affecting the growth of this phenomenon in Japan are the concept of lifetime employment with the same company and the popularity of sending children away to school.

  19. Entropy Based Modelling for Estimating Demographic Trends.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoqi Li

    Full Text Available In this paper, an entropy-based method is proposed to forecast the demographical changes of countries. We formulate the estimation of future demographical profiles as a constrained optimization problem, anchored on the empirically validated assumption that the entropy of age distribution is increasing in time. The procedure of the proposed method involves three stages, namely: 1 Prediction of the age distribution of a country's population based on an "age-structured population model"; 2 Estimation the age distribution of each individual household size with an entropy-based formulation based on an "individual household size model"; and 3 Estimation the number of each household size based on a "total household size model". The last stage is achieved by projecting the age distribution of the country's population (obtained in stage 1 onto the age distributions of individual household sizes (obtained in stage 2. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated by feeding real world data, and it is general and versatile enough to be extended to other time dependent demographic variables.

  20. Rural Household Demographics, Livelihoods and the Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sherbinin, Alex; Vanwey, Leah; McSweeney, Kendra; Aggarwal, Rimjhim; Barbieri, Alisson; Henry, Sabina; Hunter, Lori M; Twine, Wayne

    2008-02-01

    This paper reviews and synthesizes findings from scholarly work on linkages among rural household demographics, livelihoods and the environment. Using the livelihood approach as an organizing framework, we examine evidence on the multiple pathways linking environmental variables and the following demographic variables: fertility, migration, morbidity and mortality, and lifecycles. Although the review draws on studies from the entire developing world, we find the majority of micro-level studies have been conducted in either marginal (mountainous or arid) or frontier environments, especially Amazonia. Though the linkages are mediated by many complex and often context-specific factors, there is strong evidence that dependence on natural resources intensifies when households lose human and social capital through adult morbidity and mortality, and qualified evidence for the influence of environmental factors on household decision-making regarding fertility and migration. Two decades of research on lifecycles and land-cover change at the farm level have yielded a number of insights about how households make use of different land-use and natural resource management strategies at different stages. A thread running throughout the review is the importance of managing risk through livelihood diversification, ensuring future income security, and culture-specific norms regarding appropriate and desirable activities and demographic responses. Recommendations for future research are provided.

  1. Development of reprogenetics and its demographic aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devedžić Mirjana M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of reprogenetics during the last two decades of the XX century has brought a new age of reproduction. The paper surveys different types of reprogenetics in a wider sense, i.e. different assisted reproductive technologies (ART that include manipulation of female reproductive cell out of a woman's womb. Development of reprogenetics is documented by available quantitative indicators of the number and success of ART procedures in developed countries at the beginning of the XXI century. Since 1978, when the first baby was born from in vitro fertilization, the number of children born that way has reached 1% of all children, and in some countries even over 3%. Moreover, existing documentation is incomplete and does not include all forms of assisted reproduction - in reality, the importance of assisted reproduction is even higher and becomes demographically significant. Hence the paper indicates existing and potential effects of the ART development on the demographic development i.e. on specific demographic aspects of this phenomenon. It also points out the effects on the level of fertility, on the changes of direct fertility determinants, and on the levels of mortality and infant mortality, as well as a new understanding of birth control, the possibility of affecting biological structures, and the changes of the fundaments of marriage and family. Development perspectives of reprogenetics are also being raised in the context of bioethical discussions and indicate ethical dilemmas related to assisted reproduction. Solutions to the dilemmas define the scope of applying new reproductive technologies in the future.

  2. Intelligent system to study demographic evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, M. de Fatima; Ramos, Carlos; Henriques, Pedro R.

    1999-02-01

    With three centuries of existence, the study of population's behavior implies the manipulation of large amounts of incomplete and imprecise data with high dimensionality. By virtue of its multidisciplinary character, the work in demography involves at least historicists, statisticians and computer scientists/programmers. Moreover, successful demographic analysis requires qualified experts, who have succeeded in analysing data through many views and relate different sources of information, including their personal knowledge of the epoch or regions under study. In this paper, we present an intelligent system to study demographic evolution (ISSDE). This system has a module based on on-line analytical processing (OLAP), which permits conducting multiple analysis, combining many data dimensions. It has a deductive database system, which allows the execution of elaborated queries through the database. It has another module for date treatment (generalization and/or reduction); and, at last, a data mining module to discover nontrivial relations hidden within data. We discover the data treatment procedure with two phases: data generalization and data reduction. In data generalization, utilizing knowledge about concept hierarchies and relevance of data, aggregation of attribute values is performed. In the data reduction phase, rough set theory is applied to compute the minimal attribute set. We highlight the advantages of combining attribute value generalization with rough set theory, to find a subset of attributes that lets the mining process discover more useful patterns, by providing results from the application of the C5.0 algorithm in a demographic relational database.

  3. Demographic Transformations of the Russian Regional Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Viktorovna Kurushina

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the transformations of the quantitative components of human capital, which is the main driver of economic growth in the material, institutional and mental space. According to the author’s concept of stratified space, the processes of self-reproduction and self-renewal of a system are carried out in the material space. This can be determined by the indicators of fertility, mortality and migration in the demographic subsystem. The process of self-regulation of a system on the basis of legislative acts and behavior patterns is carried out in the institutional space. Institutional transformations are also manifested in the implementation of federal target programs for socio-economic development, affecting the state of the demographic subsystem. The processes of self-reflection, self-determination and self-development are carried out in the mental space. Mental transformations in the demographic subsystem are manifested in the change of value orientations. In accordance with the system of values that are conceptualized in modern development strategies the authors define the following models of Man: Economic Man, Socio-Economic Man (who lives in agglomeration centers and at the periphery, Socio-Natural Man (Environmental Man and Householder Man and Innovative Man. Demographic shifts are investigated in 83 Russian regions on the determinants of birth rate and mortality. The analyzed period of transformation covers 2005 and 2012. Methods of matrix analysis are used to visualize the process of demographic shifts. The assessment of transformation of the stratified regional space spheres is given on the basis of the multifactor models of the population natural growth rate. The paper reveals the reduction in the level and variation of mortality rate, the increasing importance and differentiation of regions according to fertility rate, and the effectiveness of introducing the institution of maternity capital from a perspective of the

  4. Professionals and Power Vacuums on Demographic Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seabrooke, Leonard; Tsingou, Eleni

    Aging populations across advanced industrialized countries are expected to have a great impact on a range of socio-economic policies, ranging from welfare and pensions provision to industrial, labor market and financial policies. While populations are aging there has also been a drop in birth rates....... Demographic change is acknowledged as a policy concern within many advanced industrialize countries, but discussions about low fertility are not explicitly expressed in terms of policy objectives. Governments, sensitive to the authoritarian implications of prescriptive natalist policies, focus instead...

  5. THE PROCESS AND EFFECTS OF DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION IN PENANG, MALAYSIA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Usman Haji Yaakob; Nik Norliati Fitri Md Nor

    2013-01-01

      This article describes the demographic transition in Penang, Malaysia based on the demographic transition theory, which explains the decline of birth and death rates in European countries during the 18th century...

  6. The association of demographic variables and dietary habits on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The association of demographic variables and dietary habits on body mass ... socio-demographic variables, weight, height, frequency of physical activity, and food ... in Korea should focus on reducing the intake of meat and high energy foods.

  7. Demographic Characteristics of World Class Jamaican Sprinters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachael Irving

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The dominance of Jamaican sprinters in international meets remains largely unexplained. Proposed explanations include demographics and favorable physiological characteristics. The aim of this study was to analyze the demographic characteristics of world class Jamaican sprinters. Questionnaires administered to 120 members of the Jamaican national team and 125 controls elicited information on place of birth, language, ethnicity, and distance and method of travel to school. Athletes were divided into three groups based on athletic disciplines: sprint (s: 100–400 m; n=80, jump and throw (j/t: jump and throw; n=25 and, middle distance (md: 800–3000 m; n=15. Frequency differences between groups were assessed using chi-square tests. Regional or county distribution of sprint differed from that of middle distance (P<0.001 but not from that of jump and throw athletes (P=0.24 and that of controls (P=0.59. Sprint athletes predominately originated from the Surrey county (s = 46%, j/t = 37%, md = 17, C = 53%, whilst middle distance athletes exhibited excess from the Middlesex county (md = 60%. The language distribution of all groups showed uniformity with a predominance of English. A higher proportion of middle distance and jump and throw athletes walked to school (md = 80%, j/t = 52%, s = 10%, and C = 12% and travelled greater distances to school. In conclusion, Jamaica’s success in sprinting may be related to environmental and social factors.

  8. Material Stock Demographics: Cars in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera Serrenho, André; Allwood, Julian M

    2016-03-15

    Recent literature on material flow analysis has been focused on quantitative characterization of past material flows. Fewer analyses exist on past and prospective quantification of stocks of materials in-use. Some of these analyses explore the composition of products' stocks, but a focus on the characterization of material stocks and its relation with service delivery is often neglected. We propose the use of the methods of human demography to characterize material stocks, defined herein as stock demographics, exploring the insights that this approach could provide for the sustainable management of materials. We exemplify an application of stock demographics by characterizing the composition and service delivery of iron, steel, and aluminum stocks of cars in Great Britain, 2002-2012. The results show that in this period the stock has become heavier, it is traveling less, and it is idle for more time. The visualization of material stocks' dynamics demonstrates the pace of product replacement as a function of its usefulness and enables the formulation of policy interventions and the exploration of future trends.

  9. Composite likelihood estimation of demographic parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garrigan Daniel

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most existing likelihood-based methods for fitting historical demographic models to DNA sequence polymorphism data to do not scale feasibly up to the level of whole-genome data sets. Computational economies can be achieved by incorporating two forms of pseudo-likelihood: composite and approximate likelihood methods. Composite likelihood enables scaling up to large data sets because it takes the product of marginal likelihoods as an estimator of the likelihood of the complete data set. This approach is especially useful when a large number of genomic regions constitutes the data set. Additionally, approximate likelihood methods can reduce the dimensionality of the data by summarizing the information in the original data by either a sufficient statistic, or a set of statistics. Both composite and approximate likelihood methods hold promise for analyzing large data sets or for use in situations where the underlying demographic model is complex and has many parameters. This paper considers a simple demographic model of allopatric divergence between two populations, in which one of the population is hypothesized to have experienced a founder event, or population bottleneck. A large resequencing data set from human populations is summarized by the joint frequency spectrum, which is a matrix of the genomic frequency spectrum of derived base frequencies in two populations. A Bayesian Metropolis-coupled Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMCMC method for parameter estimation is developed that uses both composite and likelihood methods and is applied to the three different pairwise combinations of the human population resequence data. The accuracy of the method is also tested on data sets sampled from a simulated population model with known parameters. Results The Bayesian MCMCMC method also estimates the ratio of effective population size for the X chromosome versus that of the autosomes. The method is shown to estimate, with reasonable

  10. Chiropractors in Finland – a demographic survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malmqvist Stefan

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Finnish chiropractic profession is young and not fully accepted by Finnish healthcare authorities. The demographic profile and style of practice has not been described to date. However, as the profession seems to be under rapid development, it would be of interest to stakeholders, both chiropractic and political, to obtain a baseline description of this profession with a view to the development of future goals and strategies for the profession. The purpose of this study was to describe the chiropractic profession in Finland in relation to its demographic background, the demographics of their clinics, practice patterns, interactions with other health care practitioners and some of the professions' plans for the future. Methods A structured questionnaire survey was conducted in 2005, in which all 50 members of the Finnish Chiropractic Union were invited to participate. Results In all, 44 questionnaires were returned (response rate 88%. Eighty percent of the respondents were men, and 77% were aged 30 to 44 years old, most of whom graduated after 1990 with either a university-based bachelors' or masters' degree in chiropractic. Solo practice was their main practice pattern. The vast majority described their scope of practice to be based on a musculoskeletal approach, using the Diversified Technique, performing Soft Tissue Therapy and about two-thirds also used an Activator Instrument (mechanical adjusting instrument. The mean number of patient visits reported to have been seen weekly was 59 of which nine were new patients. Most practitioners found this number of patients satisfactory. At the initial consultation, 80% of respondents spent 30–45 minutes with their patients, 75% spent 20–30 minutes with "new old" patients and on subsequent visits 80% of respondents spent 15–30 minutes. Interactions with other health care professions were reasonably good and most of chiropractors intended to remain within the profession

  11. Demographic shifts in the Czech Republic after 1989 : A second demographic transition view

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sobotka, T.; Zeman, K.; Kantorova, V.

    2003-01-01

    A dramatic change in fertility, family formation and living arrangements took place in the Czech Republic over the 1990s. The establishment of democracy, profound social transformation and transition to the market economy affected the values and demographic behaviour of the young Czech generation.

  12. Virtual water controlled demographic growth of nations

    CERN Document Server

    Suweis, Samir; Maritan, Amos; D'Odorico, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Population growth is in general constrained by food production, which in turn depends on the access to water resources. At a country level, some populations use more water than they control because of their ability to import food and the virtual water required for its production. Here, we investigate the dependence of demographic growth on available water resources for exporting and importing nations. By quantifying the carrying capacity of nations based on calculations of the virtual water available through the food trade network, we point to the existence of a global water unbalance. We suggest that current export rates will not be maintained and consequently we question the long-run sustainability of the food trade system as a whole. Water rich regions are likely to soon reduce the amount of virtual water they export, thus leaving import-dependent regions without enough water to sustain their populations. We also investigate the potential impact of possible scenarios that might mitigate these effects throu...

  13. 3D face analysis for demographic biometrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokola, Ryan A [ORNL; Mikkilineni, Aravind K [ORNL; Boehnen, Chris Bensing [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Despite being increasingly easy to acquire, 3D data is rarely used for face-based biometrics applications beyond identification. Recent work in image-based demographic biometrics has enjoyed much success, but these approaches suffer from the well-known limitations of 2D representations, particularly variations in illumination, texture, and pose, as well as a fundamental inability to describe 3D shape. This paper shows that simple 3D shape features in a face-based coordinate system are capable of representing many biometric attributes without problem-specific models or specialized domain knowledge. The same feature vector achieves impressive results for problems as diverse as age estimation, gender classification, and race classification.

  14. Trust and its Relationship to Demographic Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asghar Mirfardi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Social trust is the main theme in the social life. Trust is “the expectation that arises within a community of regular, honest and cooperative behavior, based on commonly shared norms”. Development, social trust and security are intertwined categories and have interaction to each other. Social trust, as a main factor in social capital, provide social context for developmental programs. This study, examine the affect of Demographic factors on the social trust to others. As social trust is a key factor in social relationship, this study is needed to evaluate such factor according to demographic factors. Approach: This study has been done on existing data about Iranian values and attitudes. Some factors such as gender, age, education level, job situation, marital situation have been studied in this study. Some of these variables such as education, correspondence to development level, especially in social development. This study is done via documental method (archive and Documental data about mentioned themes and second analysis of The Iranian National Values and attitudes Survey (2000. Results: Findings of this study indicated that there is significant relationship between all of independent variables (Gender, age, education level, job situation, marital situation and social trust to families and relatives, there is significant relationship between variables such as gender, education level, job situation, marital situation (independent variables and social trust to friends. Analyzing the data showed that, the residents of less and more developed cities have different situation in trust. Conclusion/Recommendations: This study introduces three types of trust upon the development level of societies. Trust in Iran is an example of trust structure in developing societies.

  15. Geriatric trauma: demographics, injuries, and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Julie M; Sciadini, Marcus F; Sinclair, Elizabeth; O'Toole, Robert V

    2012-09-01

    To identify injuries that elderly sustain during high-energy trauma and determine which are associated with mortality. Retrospective review of prospectively collected database. Academic trauma center. Patients selected from database of all trauma admissions from January 2004 through June 2009. Study population consisted of patients directly admitted from scene of injury who sustained high-energy trauma with at least one orthopaedic injury and were 65 years or older (n = 597). Review of demographics, trauma markers, injuries, and disposition statuses. Statistical analysis using χ test, Student t test, and logistic regression analysis. The most common fractures were of the rib, distal radius, pelvic ring, facial bones, proximal humerus, clavicle, ankle, and sacrum. The injuries associated with the highest mortality rates were fractures of the cervical spine with neurological deficit (47%), at the C2 level (44%), and of the proximal femur (25%), pelvic ring (25%), clavicle (24%), and distal humerus (24%). The fractures significantly associated with mortality were fractures of the clavicle (P = 0.001), foot joints (P = 0.001), proximal humerus or shaft and head of the humerus (P = 0.002), sacroiliac joint (P = 0.004), and distal ulna (P = 0.002). Elderly patients present with significantly worse injuries, remain in the hospital longer, require greater use of resources after discharge, and die at 3 times the rate of the younger population. Although the high mortality rates associated with cervical spine, hip, and pelvic ring fractures were not unexpected, the injuries that were statistically associated with mortality were unexpected. Injuries such as clavicle fracture were statistically associated with mortality. As our population ages and becomes more active, the demographic may gain in clinical importance. Prognostic Level II. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  16. Impact of demographic policy on population growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podyashchikh, P

    1968-01-01

    Various bourgeois theories, including the reactionary Malthusianism and its variants, challenge the Marxist-Leninist revolutionary theory on the growth of population. Bourgeois science maintains that unchanging biological laws of proliferation form the foundation of social life. Malthus, in his "An Essay on the Principle of Population," contends that population increases in a geometric rate, while means of subsistence tend to increase only in an arithmetic rate: neither the way of production nor social conditions but this law of nature in control of proliferation had been the cause of overpopulation, which again leads to misery, hunger, and unemployment. From this follows the possible conclusion that the working classes should be concerned not about how to change the social order but how to reduce the number of childbirths. Progressive science views the laws of social life in a totally different way. Marxism-Leninism teaches that population size, despite the markedly important role played by it in historical progress, fails to represent that main force of social progress which determines the mode of production and of the distribution of material goods, but just the reverse: the mode of production determines the growth of population, the changes in its density and composition. Marxism-Leninism teaches that each historical stage of production (slavery, feudalism, capitalism) has its own special, historically valid demographic law. Bourgeois science maintains that humankind faces an absolute overpopulation caused by the means of production lagging behind the growth of population. Actually this is only a relative overpopulation due to the fact that capitalistic production is subjected to the interests of increasing capitalistic profit and not to those of meeting the demands of population. In socialist countries, production is incessantly developing and expanding, and employment of the entire productive population is ensured. Consequently, the problem of relative

  17. Some Demographic Changes in the Population of Montenegro with the Projection of Future Demographic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Rajović

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Dramatic demographic changes through which in recent decade’s passes Montenegrin society, the consequences arising from the new realities require a serious socio-political engagement. Process of population aging, that began the seventies of the 20th century, represents a significant problem. The process of demographic change was accompanied by an internal migration to major urban centers, primarily Podgorica and Montenegrin coast, leading to emptying the interior of Montenegro. Unfortunately, this development of the population structure of Montenegro opens a series of questions and challenges that would the creators of the future you should put high on the scale of its priorities. In this text we will point out on change of total number of citizens of Montenegro according to the base and chain indexes of 1921-2011 and population in Montenegro 2016–2091 (cohort model projections.

  18. Demographic controls of future global fire risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knorr, W.; Arneth, A.; Jiang, L.

    2016-08-01

    Wildfires are an important component of terrestrial ecosystem ecology but also a major natural hazard to societies, and their frequency and spatial distribution must be better understood. At a given location, risk from wildfire is associated with the annual fraction of burned area, which is expected to increase in response to climate warming. Until recently, however, only a few global studies of future fire have considered the effects of other important global environmental change factors such as atmospheric CO2 levels and human activities, and how these influence fires in different regions. Here, we contrast the impact of climate change and increasing atmospheric CO2 content on burned area with that of demographic dynamics, using ensembles of climate simulations combined with historical and projected population changes under different socio-economic development pathways for 1901-2100. Historically, humans notably suppressed wildfires. For future scenarios, global burned area will continue to decline under a moderate emissions scenario, except for low population growth and fast urbanization, but start to increase again from around mid-century under high greenhouse gas emissions. Contrary to common perception, we find that human exposure to wildfires increases in the future mainly owing to projected population growth in areas with frequent wildfires, rather than by a general increase in burned area.

  19. Demographic impact of vaccination: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonanni, P

    1999-10-29

    Vaccination is one of the most powerful means to save lives and to increase the level of health of mankind. However, the impact of immunization against the most threatening infectious agents on life expectancy has been the object of a still open debate. The main issues are: the relative influence of nutrition and infectious diseases on demographic patterns of populations; the possibility that lives saved thanks to vaccination are subsequently lost due to other competing causes of death; the positive indirect effect of immunization on other causes of death. With regard to past evidence, several data from the United Kingdom and Scandinavian countries show that the widespread use of smallpox vaccination starting at the beginning of the nineteenth century resulted in a marked and sustained decline not only of smallpox-related deaths, but also of the overall crude death rate, and contributed greatly to an unprecedented growth of European population. As to the present, it is estimated that 3 million children are saved annually by vaccination, but 2 million still die because they are not immunized. Tetanus, measles and pertussis are the main vaccine-preventable killers in the first years of life. Data from Bangladesh show that full implementation of EPI vaccines has the potential of reducing mortality by almost one half in children aged 1-4 years. Recent progress in the development of vaccines against agents responsible for much mortality in the developing countries make it possible to forecast a further substantial reduction of deaths for infectious diseases in the next century.

  20. The shifting demographic landscape of pandemic influenza.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweta Bansal

    Full Text Available As Pandemic (H1N1 2009 influenza spreads around the globe, it strikes school-age children more often than adults. Although there is some evidence of pre-existing immunity among older adults, this alone may not explain the significant gap in age-specific infection rates.Based on a retrospective analysis of pandemic strains of influenza from the last century, we show that school-age children typically experience the highest attack rates in primarily naive populations, with the burden shifting to adults during the subsequent season. Using a parsimonious network-based mathematical model which incorporates the changing distribution of contacts in the susceptible population, we demonstrate that new pandemic strains of influenza are expected to shift the epidemiological landscape in exactly this way.Our analysis provides a simple demographic explanation for the age bias observed for H1N1/09 attack rates, and suggests that this bias may shift in coming months. These results have significant implications for the allocation of public health resources for H1N1/09 and future influenza pandemics.

  1. Coping behaviour of female teachers: Demographic determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Chaturvedi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The study investigates the role of certain demographic variables in determining stress-coping behavior of female teachers. Materials and Methods: The sample consists of 150 female teachers selected by stratified sampling method from various schools of Bhopal. Stress-coping behavior was measured with the help of a subscale of ′The Occupational Stress Indicator′ (Wendy Lord, 1993 consisting of 28 items encompassing six dimensions of coping strategies i.e. Logics, Involvement, Social Support, Task Strategies, Time Management and Home and Work Relations. The scores of the subjects were compared in terms of marital status, age, and level of teaching with the help of ′t′ test and ′F′ test was used for comparing experience. Results: Marital status, age, and experience were found to be significant determinants of stress-coping, whereas the sores did not differ significantly on the basis of level of teaching. Conclusion: Married teachers in the age range of 40-60 years, with higher experience can cope better with the job stress than their counterparts.

  2. Febrile Seizure: Demographic Features and Causative Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed ESMAILI GOURABI

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available How to cite this article: Esmaili Gourabi H, Bidabadi E, Cheraghalipour  F, Aarabi  Y, Salamat F. Febrile Seizure: Demographic Features and Causative Factors. Iran J Child Neurol Autumn 2012; 6(4:33-37.Abstract Objective Because of geographical and periodical variation, we prompted to determine the demographic features and causative factors for febrile seizure in Rasht. Materials & Methods In this cross-sectional study, all 6–month- to 6-year-old children with the diagnosis of febrile seizure admitted to 17 Shahrivar hospital in Rasht, from August, 2009 to August, 2010 were studied. Age, sex, family history of the disease, seizure types, body temperature upon admission and infectious causes of the fever were recorded. All statistical analysis was performed with SPSS software, version 16. Results Of the 214 children (mean age, 25.24±15.40 months, 124 were boys and 109 had a positive family history. Complex seizures were seen in 39 cases. In patients with a complex febrile seizure, 59% had the repetitive type, 20.5% had the focal type and 20.5% had more than 15 minutes duration of seizures. Most of the repetitive seizures (78.3% occurred in patients under 2 years old; the difference between under and over 2-year-old patients was statistically significant (P=0.02. Study results did not show significant differences between the two genders for simple or complex seizures. The mean body temperature upon admission was 38.2±1.32◦C (38.31±0.82 degrees in boys and 38.04±1.78 in girls. Upper respiratory infections were seen in most patients (74.29%. All cases of lower respiratory infections were boys. There was a statistically significant difference between boys and girls in causes of fever. Conclusion Most of the children had a positive family history and the most common causative factor was upper respiratory infection.  References: Huang MC, Huang CC, Thomas K. Febrile convulsions: development and validation of a questionnaire to measure

  3. Demographics of Resonances in Exoplanetary Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragozzine, Darin; Conaway, James L.; MacDonald, Mariah G.; Sallee, Victor

    2016-10-01

    NASA's Kepler Space Telescope has identified ~700 systems of multiple transiting exoplanets containing ~1700 planets. Most of these multi-transiting systems have 3-5 planets small planets with periods of roughly 5-50 days and are known as Systems with Tightly-spaced Inner Planets (STIPs). These information-rich exoplanetary systems have precisely measured period ratios which allows for the identification and characterization of orbital mean motion resonances. Improved understanding of the resonant populations will reveal much about the formation and evolution of planetary systems. Lissauer, Ragozzine, et al. 2011 found that most Kepler systems were not in resonance, but that there was a small excess of planets wide of resonance. We present new analyses that rigorously identify the frequency of planets in multiple resonances (including three-body resonances) and thus identify many specific new results on the demographics of resonances. We also show that the apparent over-abundance of resonances can be attributed to a difference in inclinations (potentially from dissipation) with implications for the true underlying frequency of resonant systems. We compare the period ratio distribution of Kepler (corrected for inclination biases) to Radial Velocity (RV) surveys and conclude that RV systems are often missing small intermediate planets. This has serious implications for the completeness of RV identification of planets in STIPs.

  4. Demographic evidence for adaptive theories of aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitteldorf, J J

    2012-07-01

    Pleiotropic theories for the evolutionary origins of senescence have been ascendant for forty years (see, for example, G. Williams (1957) Evolution, 11, 398-411; T. Kirkwood (1977) Nature, 270, 301-304), and it is not surprising that interpreters of demographic data seek to frame their results in this context. But some of that evidence finds a much more natural explanation in terms of adaptive aging. Here we re-interpret the 1997 results of the Centenarian Study in Boston, which found in their sample of centenarian women an excess of late childbearing. The finding was originally interpreted as a selection effect: a metabolic link between late menopause and longevity. But we demonstrate that this interpretation is statistically strained, and that the data in fact indicate a causal link: bearing a child late in life induces a metabolic response that promotes longevity. This conclusion directly contradicts some pleiotropic theories of aging that postulate a "cost of reproduction", and it supports theories of aging as an adaptive genetic program.

  5. Student Exchange Programs: Statistical Report. Academic Year, 2009-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Over 55 years ago, the Western states formed the Western Regional Education Compact and agreed to share higher education resources in the West through the Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education (WICHE). Through WICHE's three student exchange programs, nearly 26,000 residents of 15 Western states are enrolled at reduced levels of…

  6. Lógica Matemática, 2009-10

    OpenAIRE

    Manzano, María

    2009-01-01

    I. Materiales de clase: PRIMERA PARTE: LÓGICA PROPOSICIONAL: Tema 1. Introducción: ¿Qué es la lógica?, Consistencia y Consecuencia; Tema 2. El lenguaje de la lógica proposicional: Alfabeto, formalización; Tema 3. Semántica: Prácticas con Tarski’s world; Tema 4. Tableaux semánticos: Formalización y resolución de razonamientos, MAFIA SEGUNDA PARTE: CONJUNTOS Y RAZONAMIENTO CON DIAGRAMAS: Tema único. Razonamiento con diagramas de Venn: SILOGÍSTICA. TERCERA PARTE: LÓGICA DE PRIMER ORDEN: Tema ...

  7. Lógica Matemática, 2009-10

    OpenAIRE

    Manzano, María

    2009-01-01

    I. Materiales de clase: PRIMERA PARTE: LÓGICA PROPOSICIONAL: Tema 1. Introducción: ¿Qué es la lógica?, Consistencia y Consecuencia; Tema 2. El lenguaje de la lógica proposicional: Alfabeto, formalización; Tema 3. Semántica: Prácticas con Tarski’s world; Tema 4. Tableaux semánticos: Formalización y resolución de razonamientos, MAFIA SEGUNDA PARTE: CONJUNTOS Y RAZONAMIENTO CON DIAGRAMAS: Tema único. Razonamiento con diagramas de Venn: SILOGÍSTICA. TERCERA PARTE: LÓGICA DE PRIMER ORDEN: Tema ...

  8. China Textile Industry Report 2009/10 (Part B)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Domestic demands will serve the major factor stimulating development of the textile industry in 2010. Although the textile industry has seen a recovery, international trade environment does not clear up and risks still exist.

  9. Febrile Seizure: Demographic Features and Causative Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed ESMAILI GOURABI

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveBecause of geographical and periodical variation, we prompted to determine the demographic features and causative factors for febrile seizure in Rasht.Materials & MethodsIn this cross-sectional study, all 6–month- to 6-year-old children with the diagnosis of febrile seizure admitted to 17 Shahrivar hospital in Rasht, from August, 2009 to August, 2010 were studied. Age, sex, family history of the disease, seizure types, body temperature upon admission and infectious causes of the fever were recorded. All statistical analysis was performed with SPSS software, version 16.ResultsOf the 214 children (mean age, 25.24±15.40 months, 124 were boys and 109 had a positive family history. Complex seizures were seen in 39 cases. In patients with a complex febrile seizure, 59% had the repetitive type, 20.5% had the focal type and 20.5% had more than 15 minutes duration of seizures. Most of the repetitive seizures (78.3% occurred in patients under 2 years old; the difference between under and over 2-year-old patients was statistically significant (P=0.02. Study results did not show significant differences between the two genders for simple or complex seizures. The mean body temperature upon admission was 38.2±1.32◦C (38.31±0.82 degrees in boys and 38.04±1.78 in girls. Upper respiratory infections were seen in most patients (74.29%. All cases of lower respiratory infections were boys. There was a statistically significant difference between boys and girls in causes of fever.ConclusionMost of the children had a positive family history and the most common causative factor was upper respiratory infection.

  10. The Epidemiology and Demographics of Hip Dysplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loder, Randall T.; Skopelja, Elaine N.

    2011-01-01

    The etiology of developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) is unknown. There are many insights, however, from epidemiologic/demographic information. A systematic medical literature review regarding DDH was performed. There is a predominance of left-sided (64.0%) and unilateral disease (63.4%). The incidence per 1000 live births ranges from 0.06 in Africans in Africa to 76.1 in Native Americans. There is significant variability in incidence within each racial group by geographic location. The incidence of clinical neonatal hip instability at birth ranges from 0.4 in Africans to 61.7 in Polish Caucasians. Predictors of DDH are breech presentation, positive family history, and gender (female). Children born premature, with low birth weights, or to multifetal pregnancies are somewhat protected from DDH. Certain HLA A, B, and D types demonstrate an increase in DDH. Chromosome 17q21 is strongly associated with DDH. Ligamentous laxity and abnormalities in collagen metabolism, estrogen metabolism, and pregnancy-associated pelvic instability are well-described associations with DDH. Many studies demonstrate an increase of DDH in the winter, both in the northern and southern hemispheres. Swaddling is strongly associated with DDH. Amniocentesis, premature labor, and massive radiation exposure may increase the risk of DDH. Associated conditions are congenital muscular torticollis and congenital foot deformities. The opposite hip is frequently abnormal when using rigorous radiographic assessments. The role of acetabular dysplasia and adult hip osteoarthritis is complex. Archeological studies demonstrate that the epidemiology of DDH may be changing. PMID:24977057

  11. Demographic characteristics of patients with pulmonary thromboembolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Duman

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE is a common disease with high mortality and difficult diagnosis.The incidence in our country cannot be calculated because there is no adequate and regular data. In our study,we aimed to investigate the demographic characteristics,risk factors, incidence, Wells and Geneva scores diagnostic and treatment methods of the patients in our emergency department with a diagnosis of PTE. Methods:Files of the 112 patients who were admitted to Erciyes University Medical Faculty Emergency Department between January 2010 - February 2012 were analyzed retrospectively. Data were analyzed with SPSS 17.0 statistical software. Results:The mean age of patients was 65.02 ± 16.23.Forty-one (36.6% of the patients were male and 71 (63.4% were female. The most common complaint of patients was shortness of breath (81.3%, respectively.Immobilization(35.7% and history of previous surgery(19.6% were among the risk factors of the patients. Average troponin levels of the patients was 0.13 ± 0.48 ng/Land average d-dimer levels was 12.698.12 ± 8.779.92 μg/L. Geneva scores of the patients were: 4 patients (3.6% low score, 88 patients (78.6% medium score and 20 patients (17.9% high score. Wells Clinical Probability scores of the patients were; 1 patient (0.9% low probability, 74 patients (66.1% intermediate probability and 37 patients (33% high probability. In the treatmentof patients; heparin infusion (36.6%, enoxaparin sodium(59.8% and tPA (3.6% were used. Conclusion: In spite of improvements in diagnosis and treatment methods, pulmonary embolism diagnosis is stil a problem. The first step to diagnosis in patients with risk factors begin to suspect.J Clin Exp Invest 2015; 6 (1:10-15

  12. Demographics of the European apicultural industry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Pierre Chauzat

    Full Text Available Over the last few years, many European and North American countries have reported a high rate of disorders (mortality, dwindling and disappearance affecting honeybee colonies (Apis mellifera. Although beekeeping has become an increasingly professional activity in recent years, the beekeeping industry remains poorly documented in Europe. The European Union Reference Laboratory for Honeybee Health sent a detailed questionnaire to each Member State, in addition to Kosovo and Norway, to determine the demographics and state of their beekeeping industries. Based on data supplied by the National Reference Laboratory for honeybee diseases in each European country, a European database was created to describe the beekeeping industry including the number and types of beekeepers, operation size, industry production, and health (notifiable diseases, mortalities. The total number of beekeepers in Europe was estimated at 620,000. European honey production was evaluated at around 220,000 tons in 2010. The price of honey varied from 1.5 to 40 €/kg depending on the country and on the distribution network. The estimated colony winter mortality varied from 7 to 28% depending on the country and the origin of the data (institutional survey or beekeeping associations. This survey documents the high heterogeneity of the apicultural industry within the European Union. The high proportion of non-professional beekeepers and the small mean number of colonies per beekeeper were the only common characteristics at European level. The tremendous variation in European apicultural industries has implication for any comprehensive epidemiological or economic analysis of the industry. This variability needs to be taken into account for such analysis as well as for future policy development. The industry would be served if beekeeping registration was uniformly implemented across member states. Better information on the package bee and queen production would help in understanding

  13. Demographics of the European apicultural industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauzat, Marie-Pierre; Cauquil, Laura; Roy, Lise; Franco, Stéphanie; Hendrikx, Pascal; Ribière-Chabert, Magali

    2013-01-01

    Over the last few years, many European and North American countries have reported a high rate of disorders (mortality, dwindling and disappearance) affecting honeybee colonies (Apis mellifera). Although beekeeping has become an increasingly professional activity in recent years, the beekeeping industry remains poorly documented in Europe. The European Union Reference Laboratory for Honeybee Health sent a detailed questionnaire to each Member State, in addition to Kosovo and Norway, to determine the demographics and state of their beekeeping industries. Based on data supplied by the National Reference Laboratory for honeybee diseases in each European country, a European database was created to describe the beekeeping industry including the number and types of beekeepers, operation size, industry production, and health (notifiable diseases, mortalities). The total number of beekeepers in Europe was estimated at 620,000. European honey production was evaluated at around 220,000 tons in 2010. The price of honey varied from 1.5 to 40 €/kg depending on the country and on the distribution network. The estimated colony winter mortality varied from 7 to 28% depending on the country and the origin of the data (institutional survey or beekeeping associations). This survey documents the high heterogeneity of the apicultural industry within the European Union. The high proportion of non-professional beekeepers and the small mean number of colonies per beekeeper were the only common characteristics at European level. The tremendous variation in European apicultural industries has implication for any comprehensive epidemiological or economic analysis of the industry. This variability needs to be taken into account for such analysis as well as for future policy development. The industry would be served if beekeeping registration was uniformly implemented across member states. Better information on the package bee and queen production would help in understanding the ability of

  14. Demographic Estimation from Face Images: Human vs. Machine Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hu; Otto, Charles; Liu, Xiaoming; Jain, Anil K

    2015-06-01

    Demographic estimation entails automatic estimation of age, gender and race of a person from his face image, which has many potential applications ranging from forensics to social media. Automatic demographic estimation, particularly age estimation, remains a challenging problem because persons belonging to the same demographic group can be vastly different in their facial appearances due to intrinsic and extrinsic factors. In this paper, we present a generic framework for automatic demographic (age, gender and race) estimation. Given a face image, we first extract demographic informative features via a boosting algorithm, and then employ a hierarchical approach consisting of between-group classification, and within-group regression. Quality assessment is also developed to identify low-quality face images that are difficult to obtain reliable demographic estimates. Experimental results on a diverse set of face image databases, FG-NET (1K images), FERET (3K images), MORPH II (75K images), PCSO (100K images), and a subset of LFW (4K images), show that the proposed approach has superior performance compared to the state of the art. Finally, we use crowdsourcing to study the human perception ability of estimating demographics from face images. A side-by-side comparison of the demographic estimates from crowdsourced data and the proposed algorithm provides a number of insights into this challenging problem.

  15. China's Demographic Challenge Requires an Integrated Coping Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xizhe

    2013-01-01

    China has entered into a new stage of demographic dynamics whereby population-related challenges are more complicated than ever before. The current one-child policy should be modified. However, the anticipated impacts of such a policy change should not be over-exaggerated. China's demographic challenge requires an integrated coping strategy.…

  16. Making the Case for Demographic Data in Extension Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Katherine J.; Verdoff, Daniel; Rizzo, Bill; Beaudoin, James

    2012-01-01

    Understanding one's community is essential for effective Extension programming across all program areas. The use of current and reliable demographic data is crucial for Extension to develop effective education and programming to track change and to uncover hidden community characteristics. We discuss what demographic data are, present…

  17. Europe at the crossroads: demographic challenges and international migration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nimwegen, N.; van der Erf, R.F.

    2010-01-01

    Two demographic challenges confront Europe today: population ageing and population decline. These challenges are two sides of the same demographic coin. While low fertility and increasing longevity cause populations to rapidly grow older, low fertility also leads to population decline. This paper de

  18. Developing a Global Mindset: Integrating Demographics, Sustainability, Technology, and Globalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Raj

    2011-01-01

    Business schools face a number of challenges in responding to the business influences of demographics, sustainability, and technology--all three of which are also the fundamental driving forces for globalization. Demographic forces are creating global imbalances in worker populations and in government finances; the world economy faces…

  19. Making the Case for Demographic Data in Extension Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Katherine J.; Verdoff, Daniel; Rizzo, Bill; Beaudoin, James

    2012-01-01

    Understanding one's community is essential for effective Extension programming across all program areas. The use of current and reliable demographic data is crucial for Extension to develop effective education and programming to track change and to uncover hidden community characteristics. We discuss what demographic data are, present…

  20. The Impact of Extrinsic Demographic Factors on Cantonese Speech Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, Carol K. S.; Cheung, Pamela S. P.; McLeod, Sharynne

    2013-01-01

    This study modeled the associations between extrinsic demographic factors and children's speech acquisition in Hong Kong Cantonese. The speech of 937 Cantonese-speaking children aged 2;4 to 6;7 in Hong Kong was assessed using a standardized speech test. Demographic information regarding household income, paternal education, maternal education,…

  1. Developing a Global Mindset: Integrating Demographics, Sustainability, Technology, and Globalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Raj

    2011-01-01

    Business schools face a number of challenges in responding to the business influences of demographics, sustainability, and technology--all three of which are also the fundamental driving forces for globalization. Demographic forces are creating global imbalances in worker populations and in government finances; the world economy faces…

  2. Demographic upheavals in the former USSR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haub, C

    1995-01-01

    Fertility and life expectancy have changed since the breakup of the Soviet republics in 1991 and continue to change very rapidly. Before 1991, the USSR was the fastest growing developed country in the world. Annual growth rates in the mid-1980s were 0.9% compared to only 0.1% in Europe or 1.1% in the US. Immigration did not greatly affect the USSR's growth rate. By 1993, the population had declined in 8 of the 15 former republics. Deaths exceeded births in Russia, Belarus, Ukraine, Estonia, and Latvia, followed by Lithuania in 1994. The last census was conducted in 1989. Fertility declined in Russia from 1.9 in 1990 to 1.4 in 1993. Fertility has been low in Lithuania at 1.7, in the Ukraine at 1.6, in Latvia at 1.5, and in Estonia at 1.4. Kazakhstan, Georgia, and Kyrgyzstan have experienced fertility decline, which was affected by emigration to Russia and other countries after 1990. 25 million Russians have resided in the former republics in 1990. In Kazakhstan, the 160,000 more births than deaths were offset by 200,000 emigrants. Central republics with higher fertility experienced declines after 1990; for example, Kyrgyzstan declined from 3.7 in 1990 to 3.3 in 1993. Life expectancy for males in Russia in 1993 was 58.9 years, which was a decline from 63.8 years in 1990. About 50% of the decline in life expectancy was due to circulatory diseases, and about 25% was due to external causes such as accidents, suicide, and alcoholism. Infant mortality has been increasing since 1990; for example, it increased in the Ukraine from 12.9 in 1990 to 14.1 in 1992. Russia's population in 1993 experienced 700,000 more deaths than births. The demographic impact will be declining school enrollments and smaller employment among the working population to support the aged. The change to a market economy has been uneven in Russia, where it has advanced more rapidly than in the republics. It is unclear whether the declining birth rate and increasing mortality rates will continue, but

  3. Revenues & Expenses, 2004-2009. NCAA[R] Division III Intercollegiate Athletics Programs Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulks, Daniel L., Comp.

    2010-01-01

    This report provides summary information concerning revenues and expenses of the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division III athletics programs for the fiscal years 2004 through 2009. It is the result of surveys conducted during the fall of each of those years. Although similar studies have been conducted for the NCAA since 1969,…

  4. Revenues & Expenses, 2004-2009. NCAA[R] Division II Intercollegiate Athletics Programs Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulks, Daniel L., Comp.

    2010-01-01

    This report provides summary information concerning revenues and expenses of the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division II athletics programs for the fiscal years 2004 through 2009. It is the result of surveys conducted during the fall of each of those years. Although similar studies have been conducted for the NCAA since 1969,…

  5. 2004-08 NCAA[R] Revenues and Expenses of Division I Intercollegiate Athletics Programs Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulks, Daniel L., Comp.

    2009-01-01

    This report provides summary information concerning revenues and expenses of National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I athletics programs for the fiscal years 2004 through 2008. It is the result of surveys conducted during the fall of each of those years. Although similar studies have been conducted for the NCAA since 1969,…

  6. Revenues & Expenses, 2004-2009. NCAA[R] Division I Intercollegiate Athletics Programs Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulks, Daniel L., Comp.

    2010-01-01

    This report provides summary information concerning revenues and expenses of the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I athletics programs for the fiscal years 2004 through 2009. It is the result of surveys conducted during the fall of each of those years. Although similar studies have been conducted for the NCAA since 1969,…

  7. TEENAGE PREGNANCY: DEMOGRAPHICS, MATERNAL AND FOETAL OUTCOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhika Gollapudi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Pregnancy though is a physiological event in a woman’s life, it has its own associated complications. In teenage pregnancies, the physical and emotional state of stress coupled with biological immaturity leads to adverse effect both on the health of the mother and the foetus. METHODS This study is a clinical prospective study analysing the demographics, maternal health issues and the foetal outcome in teenage pregnancies. The study was conducted over a period of one year at a government tertiary care center. Pregnant women in the age group of 13-19 years who delivered during the study period were included in the study group. All pregnant women over 20 years of age who delivered during the same period were taken as control group. Women who had medical disorders complicating pregnancy were excluded from the study. Anaemia, pregnancy induced hypertension, antepartum haemorrhage and mode of delivery were the maternal outcomes that were noted. Intrauterine growth retardation, prematurity, low birth weight, APGAR score were analysed with respect to the foetus. RESULTS In this study, the total number of pregnant women who delivered during the study period were 4782, 536 were teenage mothers, constituting 11.2% of the total pregnancies. Of the 536 teenage mothers, 69.78% belonged to the rural areas and 71.64% were found to have inadequate antenatal visits to the hospital. The mean age of teenage pregnancy was 17.18 years. Incidence of anaemia was 44.2% in comparison, the control group had an incidence of 33.02%. In our study, incidence of Pregnancy induced hypertension was 18.64% in teenage mothers and 10.6% in non-teenage mothers. The incidence of Antepartum Haemorrhage in our study was 8.94% in teenage mothers. Incidence of lower segment caesarean section was 22.76% in the teenage group as compared to 14.57% in the non-teenage group. In our study, 13.05% of teenage mothers had preterm deliveries as compared to 6.40% of non-teenage mothers

  8. Spatial extent in demographic research - approach and problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knežević Aleksandar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the starting methodological problems in demographic research is the definition of spatial extent, which mostly doesn’t correspond to spatial extent already defined by different levels of administrative-territorial unitsthat are used for distribution of usable statistical data. That’s why determining the spatial extent of a demographic research is closely tied with administrative-territorial division of the territory that is being researched, wherein the fact that differentiation of demographic phenomena and processes cannot be the only basis of setting the principles of regionalization must be strictly acknowledged. This problem is particularly common in historical demographic analyses of geographically determined wholes, which are in administratively-territorial sense represented by one or more smaller territorial units, with their borders changing through the history, which directly affects comparability of the statistical data, and makes it considerably more difficult to track demographic change through longer time intervals. The result of these efforts is usually a solution based on a compromise which enables us to examine the dynamics of population change with little deviation from already defined borders of regional geographic wholes. For that reason in this paper the problem of defining spatial extent in demographic research is examined trough several different approaches in case of Eastern Serbia, as a geographically determined region, a historic area, a spatially functioning whole and as a statistical unit for demographic research, with no judgment calls in regard to any of the regionalization principles. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 47006

  9. The age demographics of academic librarians a profession apart

    CERN Document Server

    Wilder, Stanley

    2013-01-01

    The Age Demographics of Academic Librarians: A Profession Apart discusses the current demographics of librarianship in North America and examines how a huge retiree rate will affect the profession. With the average age of librarians increasing dramatically since 1990, this book examines the changes that will have to take place in your library, such as recruiting, training, and working with a smaller staff. The Age Demographics of Academic Librarians provides you with insights on how to make your library's transition easier when several of your colleagues leave your library. Valuable and intell

  10. low birthweight babies: socio-demographic and obstetric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2002-10-01

    Oct 1, 2002 ... mothers (aged below 20 years) and older mothers of low birthweight ( ... have unfavourable socio-demographic and obstetric factors like ... having less formal education, being unemployed and having obstetric risks for poor.

  11. Evaluation of Demographic Variables and Socio-economic Status ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Evaluation of Demographic Variables and Socio-economic Status on the Prevalence of. Health Hazards ... management provide food and harbourage for rodents, mosquitoes .... were factors influencing solid waste management in. Abeokuta.

  12. Demographic profile and epidemiology of injury in Mthatha, South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    1997-01-01

    Jan 1, 1997 ... Demographic profile and epidemiology of injury in Mthatha, South. Africa. Dhaffala A1 ... Department of Surgery, Walter Sisulu University, Mthatha, South Africa,. 2. Faculty of Health ..... of concern in nursing science. J Nurs ...

  13. Regional Differentiation of The Demographic Potential in Italy and Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pastuszka Sławomir

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to compare the demographic potential of given Italian and Polish regions. The analysis shows that the demographic situation in Poland, unlike in Italy, is not directly related to the level of development of some regions and their geographical location. In Italy, the unfavorable demographic situation is typical of most of the less-developed southern regions, whereas in Poland it occurs in voivodships with different economic potential, situated in different parts of the country. This is probably the result of the current polycentric development of Poland, characteristic of a centralized economy, and the polar development in Italy. Certain demographic similarities, but of different levels, related to the dynamics of the population, the level of fertility, and net migration are observable in the macro-regions of Mezzogiorno and Eastern Poland.

  14. Socio-demographic determinants of the knowledge of diabetes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socio-demographic determinants of the knowledge of diabetes mellitus in Onitsha-North Local Government Area, Anambra State, ... Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... The instrument used for the collection of data was self-administered ...

  15. Customers Demographics Influence on Usage of Retail Banking Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha GUPTA

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The study presents the usage of retail banking influenced by customers’ demographics of selected Public Sector Banks (PSBs of India. The study was based on primary data collected through structured questionnaire. The simple random sampling technique used for data collection for sample size 692. The study finds that public sector banks need to understand the usage pattern of an individual customer using delivery channel to add greater value to customers. Respondent age groups influence ATMs usage. Internet banking is majorly influenced by the customers’ demographics. Respondents’ age group and qualification influence mobile banking. Branch lobby kiosk is not influenced by any demographics. The identification of most influential demographic variable will help to build strong and effective cross-selling and up-selling of financial products and services. Our study was limited to the customers of PSBs of India. This study may be helpful to PSBs for enhancing effective usage of delivery channels.

  16. EnviroAtlas - Green Bay, WI - Demographics by Block Group

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset is a summary of key demographic groups for the EnviroAtlas community. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online...

  17. EnviroAtlas - Fresno, CA - Demographics by Block Group

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset is a summary of key demographic groups for the EnviroAtlas community. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online...

  18. EnviroAtlas - New Haven, CT - Demographics by Block Group

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset is a summary of key demographic groups for the EnviroAtlas community. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online...

  19. Socio-Demographic Factors Influencing Work-Role Salience Among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socio-Demographic Factors Influencing Work-Role Salience Among ... The findings showed that students from lower socio-economic status homes and those ... The need to involve the students\\' parents in career education programmes and ...

  20. China’s grave demographic challenges in coming decades

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任强; 郑晓瑛

    2009-01-01

    This paper systematically analyzes the uncertainties of major demographic indicators from China’s 2000 census,such as fertility,gender ratio at birth,and age structure,and through a probability demographic forecast gives an assessment of the situation facing the country.Research outcomes suggest that great differences exist in the estimate of China’s fertility,gender ratio at birth and low-age child population.These differences directly affect China’s current and future demographic uncertainties,and have implications for policy and future research.The demographic uncertainties caused by current conditions are of great value to decision-makers and the public alike.

  1. Political demography: Powerful trends under-attended by demographic science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teitelbaum, Michael S

    2015-01-01

    The interconnections between politics and the dramatic demographic changes under way around the world have been neglected by the two research disciplines that could contribute most to their understanding: demography and political science. Instead, this area of 'political demography' has largely been ceded to political activists, pundits, and journalists, leading often to exaggerated or garbled interpretation. The terrain includes some of the most politically sensitive and contested issues: alleged demographically determined shifts in the international balance of power; low fertility, population decline, and demographic ageing; international migration; change in national identity; and compositional shifts in politically sensitive social categories and human rights. Meanwhile many governments and non-governmental actors have actively pursued varieties of 'strategic demography', deploying fertility, mortality, or migration as instruments of domestic or international policy. Political scientists and demographers could and should use their knowledge and analytic techniques to improve understanding and to moderate excessive claims and fears on these topics.

  2. Gender in Science and Engineering Faculties: Demographic Inertia Revisited.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole R Thomas

    Full Text Available The under-representation of women on faculties of science and engineering is ascribed in part to demographic inertia, which is the lag between retirement of current faculty and future hires. The assumption of demographic inertia implies that, given enough time, gender parity will be achieved. We examine that assumption via a semi-Markov model to predict the future faculty, with simulations that predict the convergence demographic state. Our model shows that existing practices that produce gender gaps in recruitment, retention, and career progression preclude eventual gender parity. Further, we examine sensitivity of the convergence state to current gender gaps to show that all sources of disparity across the entire faculty career must be erased to produce parity: we cannot blame demographic inertia.

  3. Gender in Science and Engineering Faculties: Demographic Inertia Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Nicole R; Poole, Daniel J; Herbers, Joan M

    2015-01-01

    The under-representation of women on faculties of science and engineering is ascribed in part to demographic inertia, which is the lag between retirement of current faculty and future hires. The assumption of demographic inertia implies that, given enough time, gender parity will be achieved. We examine that assumption via a semi-Markov model to predict the future faculty, with simulations that predict the convergence demographic state. Our model shows that existing practices that produce gender gaps in recruitment, retention, and career progression preclude eventual gender parity. Further, we examine sensitivity of the convergence state to current gender gaps to show that all sources of disparity across the entire faculty career must be erased to produce parity: we cannot blame demographic inertia.

  4. socio-demographic factors in under five children with acute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-09-01

    Sep 1, 2013 ... Their socio-demographic factors such as age, sex, breastfeeding status, parents ... acute diarrhoea among under five children in Enugu, Nigeria. ... Malnutrition predisposes .... Determinants of the utilization of children's Health.

  5. EnviroAtlas - Phoenix, AZ - Demographics by Block Group

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset is a summary of key demographic groups for the EnviroAtlas community. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online...

  6. Demographic Trends (1970-2010) for Coastal Geographies

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Demographic Trends (1970-2010) were derived from Census Block Group Data for 13 different coastal geographies. For a full listing of the geographies available,...

  7. EnviroAtlas - Portland, OR - Demographics by Block Group

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset is a summary of key demographic groups for the EnviroAtlas community. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online...

  8. EnviroAtlas - Des Moines, IA - Demographics by Block Group

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset is a summary of key demographic groups for the EnviroAtlas community. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online...

  9. EnviroAtlas - Paterson, NJ - Demographics by Block Group

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset is a summary of key demographic groups for the EnviroAtlas community. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online...

  10. EnviroAtlas - Memphis, TN - Demographics by Block Group

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset is a summary of key demographic groups for the EnviroAtlas community. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online...

  11. Socio-Demographic Correlates of Overweight and Obesity among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    demographic factors with increased BMI among Nigeria women aged 20-49 years using secondary data collected for the .... Half (50.2%) of the women were of the Islamic .... South East .... demonstrates evidence of good living, makes them.

  12. [Integration of demographic variables into development plans in the Sahel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wane, H R

    1992-07-01

    A founding principle of the Program of Action of N'Djamena is the interdependence of population and development and the need for development strategies to take demographic factors into account. The concept of integration of population variables into development has evolved since its introduction in the 1974 World Population Plan of Action from a simple description of population size, growth rates, and distribution to a stress on harmonizing population policies and development policies with macroeconomic variables. The essence of the concept is the consideration given by development policies and programs to the interrelations between population, resources, the environment, and development factors. Population variables and goals should ideally be treated as endogenous variables in development planning, but in practice the extreme complexity of such a systematic approach limits its ability to be made operational. Usually the most crucial problems only are included. Integrated planning is composed of explicit or implicit population policies intended to influence demographic variables and of socioeconomic policies intended to adapt to demographic change. In the Sahel, only Senegal, Burkina Faso, and Mali have formal population policies, but around 1980 several countries of the region began to show interest in influencing demographic variables as they did economic variables. Fundamental principles for developing an integration strategy can be applied regardless or whether the plan is based on projections, analysis of interaction of a demographic variable with factors specific to a sector, or a monosectorial or multisectorial demoeconomic planning model. Demographic data is used more frequently in diagnosing problems than in developing projections or formulating objectives. The level of disaggregation of demographic projections and estimates tends to be low, despite the great potential utility of demographic projections in planning. Demographic projections can be useful

  13. Demographic Dynamics and the Empirics of Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Sarel

    1995-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of demographic dynamics on the measured rates of economic growth. First, it develops a model of production with labor productivity that varies with age. Second, it uses macroeconomic and demographic data to estimate the relative productivity of different age groups. Third, it constructs a panel database of effective labor supply in order to reflect the changing age-structure of the population. Fourth, it decomposes the historical measured growth rates into effe...

  14. Pension Reform and Demographic Uncertainty : The Case of Germany

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    The present paper compares the distributional and risk-sharing consequences of two pension reform proposals in Germany which both aim to improve the sustainability of the current system by introducing demographic variables to the benefit calculation. While the first reform proposes a so-called "sustainability factor" which measures the changes in the dependency ratio, the second reform proposes a so-called "demographic factor" which takes into account the changes in life expectancy. Our simul...

  15. Fast demographic traits promote high diversification rates of Amazonian trees

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, Timothy R.; Pennington, R. Toby; Magallon, Susana; Gloor, Emanuel; Laurance, William F.; Alexiades, Miguel; Alvarez, Esteban; Araujo, Alejandro; Arets, Eric J. M. M.; Aymard, Gerardo; de Oliveira, Atila Alves; Amaral, Iêda; Arroyo, Luzmila; Bonal, Damien; Roel J.W. Brienen

    2014-01-01

    The Amazon rain forest sustains the world's highest tree diversity, but it remains unclear why some clades of trees are hyperdiverse, whereas others are not. Using dated phylogenies, estimates of current species richness and trait and demographic data from a large network of forest plots, we show that fast demographic traits - short turnover times - are associated with high diversification rates across 51 clades of canopy trees. This relationship is robust to assuming that diversification rat...

  16. The Gender and Intergenerational Consequences of the Demographic Dividend

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    The demographic transition changes the age composition of a population, potentially affecting resource allocation at the household level and exerting general equilibrium effects at the aggregate level. If age profiles of income, consumption, and savings were stable and estimable for the entire population, they might imply how the demographic transition would affect national savings rates, but there is little agreement on the impact of age composition. These age profiles differ by gender and a...

  17. A Statistical Assessment of Demographic Bonus towards Poverty Alleviation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Abdul Nasir

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The shift of birth and death rates from high to low level in any population is referred as demographic transition. Mechanically, the transition of a society creates more working member of its own population commonly called demographic bonus. This articleempirically explores the realistic soundness of demographic bonus in reducing the poverty level of the society. Three contrasting regions namely Eastern Asia, Central America and Oceania were selected for analytical purposes. The findings indicate that Eastern Asia and Oceania are currently facing the end of their transition whereas theCentral America is lagged behind in transition. Central America due to last runner in transition race is the sustained recipient of its own demographic bonus by the year 2030.On the basis of three mechanisms namely: labour supply, savings and human capital, the Eastern Asian region is found to be successful beneficiary of its own demographic gift which concludes that many million people have escaped from poverty. Under the right policy environment on the above three mechanisms, Eastern Asia experience indicates the realistic contribution of demographic bonus to reduce poverty.

  18. Spatial Associations Between Contaminated Land and Socio Demographics in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Russell; Ericson, Bret; Caravanos, Jack; Grigsby, Patrick; Amoyaw-Osei, Yaw

    2015-10-27

    Associations between contaminated land and socio demographics are well documented in high-income countries. In low- and middle-income countries, however, little is known about the extent of contaminated land and possible demographic correlations. This is an important yet sparsely researched topic with potentially significant public health implications as exposure to pollution remains a leading source of morbidity and mortality in low-income countries. In this study, we review the associations between several socio demographic factors (population, population density, unemployment, education, and literacy) and contaminated sites in Ghana. Within this context, both correlation and association intend to show the relationship between two variables, namely contaminated sites and socio demographics. Aggregated district level 2010 census data from Ghana Statistical Service and contaminated site location data from Pure Earth's Toxic Sites Identification Program (TSIP) were spatially evaluated using the number of sites per kilometer squared within districts as the unit of measurement. We found a low to medium positive correlation (ρ range: 0.285 to 0.478) between contaminated sites and the following socio demographics: higher population density, higher unemployment, greater education, and higher literacy rate. These results support previous studies and suggest that several socio demographic factors may be reasonably accurate predictors of contaminated site locations. More research and targeted data collection is needed to better understand these associations with the ultimate goal of developing a predictive model.

  19. Spatial Associations Between Contaminated Land and Socio Demographics in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell Dowling

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Associations between contaminated land and socio demographics are well documented in high-income countries. In low- and middle-income countries, however, little is known about the extent of contaminated land and possible demographic correlations. This is an important yet sparsely researched topic with potentially significant public health implications as exposure to pollution remains a leading source of morbidity and mortality in low-income countries. In this study, we review the associations between several socio demographic factors (population, population density, unemployment, education, and literacy and contaminated sites in Ghana. Within this context, both correlation and association intend to show the relationship between two variables, namely contaminated sites and socio demographics. Aggregated district level 2010 census data from Ghana Statistical Service and contaminated site location data from Pure Earth’s Toxic Sites Identification Program (TSIP were spatially evaluated using the number of sites per kilometer squared within districts as the unit of measurement. We found a low to medium positive correlation (ρ range: 0.285 to 0.478 between contaminated sites and the following socio demographics: higher population density, higher unemployment, greater education, and higher literacy rate. These results support previous studies and suggest that several socio demographic factors may be reasonably accurate predictors of contaminated site locations. More research and targeted data collection is needed to better understand these associations with the ultimate goal of developing a predictive model.

  20. Demographic model of the Neolithic transition in Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrik Galeta

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Several recent lines of evidence indicate more intensive contact between LBK farmers and indigenous foragers in Central Europe (5600–5400 calBC. Strong continuity has been identified between Mesolithic and Neolithic material cultures; faunal assemblages, and isotopic analyses of diet have revealed a greater role of hunting in LBK communities; genetic analyses have suggested that the modern Central European gene pool is mainly of Palaeolithic origin. Surprisingly little attention has been paid to demographic aspects of the Neolithic transition. In our study, demographic simulations were performed to assess the demographic conditions that would allow LBK farmers to spread across central Europe without any admixture with Mesolithic foragers. We constructed a stochastic demographic model of changes in farming population size. Model parameters were constrained by data from human demography, archaeology, and human ecology. Our results indicate that the establishment of farming communities in Central Europe without an admixture with foragers was highly improbable. The demographic conditions necessary for colonization were beyond the potential of the Neolithic population. Our study supports the integrationists’ view of the Neolithic transition in Central Europe.

  1. Accounting for rate variation among lineages in comparative demographic analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, Andrew G.; Ho, Simon Y. W.; Malaney, Jason L.; Cook, Joseph A.; Talbot, Sandra L.

    2014-01-01

    Genetic analyses of contemporary populations can be used to estimate the demographic histories of species within an ecological community. Comparison of these demographic histories can shed light on community responses to past climatic events. However, species experience different rates of molecular evolution, and this presents a major obstacle to comparative demographic analyses. We address this problem by using a Bayesian relaxed-clock method to estimate the relative evolutionary rates of 22 small mammal taxa distributed across northwestern North America. We found that estimates of the relative molecular substitution rate for each taxon were consistent across the range of sampling schemes that we compared. Using three different reference rates, we rescaled the relative rates so that they could be used to estimate absolute evolutionary timescales. Accounting for rate variation among taxa led to temporal shifts in our skyline-plot estimates of demographic history, highlighting both uniform and idiosyncratic evolutionary responses to directional climate trends for distinct ecological subsets of the small mammal community. Our approach can be used in evolutionary analyses of populations from multiple species, including comparative demographic studies.

  2. Socio-demographic determinants of participation in mammography screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Euler-Chelpin, My; Olsen, Anne Helene; Njor, Sisse

    2008-01-01

    Our objective was to use individual data on socio-demographic characteristics to identify predictors of participation in mammography screening and control to what extent they can explain the regional difference. We used data from mammography screening programmes in Copenhagen, 1991-1999, and Funen......, 1993-2001, Denmark. Target groups were identified from the Population Register, screening data came from the health authority, and socio-demographic data from Statistics Denmark. Included were women eligible for at least 3 screens. The crude RR of never use versus always use was 3.21 (95%CI, 3...... women in Copenhagen, irrespective of their socio-demographic characteristics, had low participation. Screening programmes have to find ways to handle this urbanity factor....

  3. Memory endowed US cities and their demographic interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Hernando, A; Plastino, A; Zambrano, E

    2014-01-01

    A quantitative understanding of cities' demographic dynamics is becoming a potentially useful tool for planning sustainable growth. The concomitant theory should reveal details of the cities' past and also of its interaction with nearby urban conglomerates for providing a reasonably complete picture. Using the exhaustive database of the Census Bureau in a time window of 170 years, we exhibit here empirical evidence for time and space correlations in the demographic dynamics of US counties, with a characteristic memory-time of 25 years and typical distances of interaction of 200 km. These correlations are much larger than those observed in an European country (Spain), giving to the US a more coherent evolution. We also measure the resilience of US cities to historical events, finding a demographical post-traumatic amnesia after wars (as the Civil War) or economic crisis (as the 1929 Stock Market Crash).

  4. Demographic Evolution in Romania – Convergence or Peripherisation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Veronica Litra

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Romania began its demographic transition about one century later than the developed countries. We put the blame of this gap on the delayed economic, social and political development in comparison with the Western Europe. But also, it could not be forgotten the shift from a population forced and subdue by the totalitary regime, to a free people to decide when to have a child or how large should be the family. During transition, Romania has pointed many negative demographic evolutions, as compared with the other european countries. It may be said that the transition in Romania over the period 1990-2004 adjusted the classical pattern of demographic evolution. Not fully felt at this moment, we will probably find ourselves few decades later older, less, deprived of skilled labor force and unbalanced as gender ratio.

  5. Memory-endowed US cities and their demographic interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernando, A; Hernando, R; Plastino, A; Zambrano, E

    2015-01-06

    A quantitative understanding of cities' demographic dynamics is becoming a potentially useful tool for planning sustainable growth. The concomitant theory should reveal details of the cities' past and also of its interaction with nearby urban conglomerates for providing a reasonably complete picture. Using the exhaustive database of the Census Bureau in a time window of 170 years, we exhibit here empirical evidence for time and space correlations in the demographic dynamics of US counties, with a characteristic memory time of 25 years and typical distances of interaction of 200 km. These correlations are much larger than those observed in a European country (Spain), indicating more coherent evolution in US cities. We also measure the resilience of US cities to historical events, finding a demographical post-traumatic amnesia after wars (such as the American Civil War) or economic crisis (such as the 1929 Stock Market Crash).

  6. Demographic Composition of the Online Buyers in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinan NARDALI

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Demographic variables may have an impact on Internet usage patterns. Online buyers’ characteristics keeps changing time along with the shifting dynamics of Turkish consumers’ demographic profile and day by day online shopping becomes a safe and popular option in Turkey. Current study investigates demographic composition of the online buyers that influence consumer attitudes towards online shopping behavior in Izmir, the third largest city in Turkey. This study examines attitudes toward online shopping and provides a better understanding of the potential of online buyers for both researchers and practitioners. The study is based on an empirical research work, and a convenience sample of 400. Frequencies, descriptive statistics, and One-Way ANOVA tests were used in the analysis of data. The study shows that Turkish Internet consumer segment is relatively young, well educated, in mid economic status and professions associated with Internet more than five years.

  7. Demographic potential as a component of life quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Vladimirovna Polkova

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical and methodical reasons for allocation of components of life quality with the particular importance of population quality, including demographic (reproduction potential are provided in the article. The integrated indicators of population quality in Ural federal district regions were calculated and analyzed in dynamics, basing on an author’s technique of integrated index estimation of population quality. Advantages of use the integrated index of population quality (IIKN before the human development index (HDI caused by inclusion in it the major demographic indicators in regional estimates are proved. Peculiarities of HDI and IIKN dynamics in Russia regions for the last decade are demonstrated; their value for efficiency evaluation of realizing state programs in the social and demographic sphere is shown.

  8. ANALYSIS OF THE DEMOGRAPHIC POTENTIAL IN FUNCTION OF TOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijalce Gjorgievski

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Man is the prime mover of the overall social economic and political life of the entire globe and therefore he is studied from various aspects depending on the needs of what we want to obtain information on the demographic potential and its features.In this paper, the subject of study will be processing potential through its demographic characteristics (number condition, age structure, natural increase, economic activity, religious composition, etc. for the tourism economy. We know that the basic elements of tourism are the natural and cultural wealth that detect, evaluate and put into operation in tourism. However, it has its function, the basic factor are the people who need to visit those places, so it is very important to understand the demographic characteristics of people in every region of the globe in order to come to some understanding of the habits, needs and affinities of people depending on age, nationality and religious affiliation, etc. when choosing their travel destination.

  9. THE SECOND DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION THEORY: A Review and Appraisal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Batool; Morgan, S. Philip

    2017-01-01

    References to the second demographic transition (SDT) concept/theoretical framework have increased dramatically in the last two decades. The SDT predicts unilinear change toward very low fertility and a diversity of union and family types. The primary driver of these changes is a powerful, inevitable and irreversible shift in attitudes and norms in the direction of greater individual freedom and self-actualization. First, we describe the origin of this framework and its evolution over time. Second, we review the empirical fit of the framework to major changes in demographic and family behavior in the U.S., the West, and beyond. As has been the case for other unilinear, developmental theories of demographic/family change, the SDT failed to predict many contemporary patterns of change/difference. Finally, we review previous critiques and identify fundamental weaknesses of this perspective, and provide brief comparisons to selected alternative approaches. PMID:28798523

  10. Demographic changes in towns of Central Serbia: Comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipović Marko

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to intensive urbanization, Central Serbia's urban population reached almost 60% in the total population. Despite the fact that the urban residents share in Serbia is still bellow the level of urbanization in developed countries, in which the percentage of urban residents exudes 70% (in majority of cases even more than 80%, it is an impression that demographic "resources" of rural areas have bean rather exhausted and that all demographic revitalization potential of Central Serbia is concentrated in towns. This paper treats the demographic changes which encompassed the towns of Central Serbia since 1981 census onwards, with special emphasis on the population migrations as well as on the natural growth, i.e. age - gender structure formation featuring the towns of Central Serbia. The changes will be analyzed trough a comparative analysis at the level of small, medium sized towns and big cities, while Belgrade will be represent as a special category.

  11. Socio-Demographic Factors Related to Oral Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdoul Hossain Madani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The aim of this study was to identify factors related to cancer of oral cavity considering individual socio-demographic characteristics of a hospital based study in Pune. Approach: A case-control study was conducted. The cases were 350 with squamous-cell carcinoma of oral cavity diagnosed between 2005 and 2006 in Morbai, Narandia, Budharani Cancer Institute, Pune, India. Similar number of controls matched for age and sex selected from the background population. Cases and controls were interviewed for general characteristics; age, gender, education and possible socio-demographic factors. Results: Chi-square test in uni-variate analysis and estimate for risk showed that education, occupation and monthly household income were significantly different between cases and controls (pConclusion/Recommendations: Socio-demographic factors such as education, occupation and income do play an important role in development oral cancer.

  12. Demographic Evolution in Romania – Convergence or Peripherisation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Veronica Litra

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Romania began its demographic transition about one century later than the developed countries. We put the blame of this gap on the delayed economic, social and political development in comparison with the Western Europe. But also, it could not be forgotten the shift from a population forced and subdue by the totalitary regime, to a free people to decide when to have a child or how large should be the family. During transition, Romania has pointed many negative demographic evolutions, as compared with the other european countries. It may be said that the transition in Romania over the period 1990-2004 adjusted the classical pattern of demographic evolution. Not fully felt at this moment, we will probably find ourselves few decades later older, less, deprived of skilled labor force and unbalanced as gender ratio.

  13. Motivating the population to cope with the demographic change

    OpenAIRE

    König, Armin

    2009-01-01

    The effects of the demographic challenge will change the nature of politics and the emphasis of political sectors over the next 20 years, especially on a local level. This calls for new ways of thinking, new social skills and a new frame of awareness to allow for sustainable development. The community of Illingen in the Saarland, a town of 18,000 residents, has not denied the demographic change, but has accepted it. It shows how the populace, politics and administration have been confronted w...

  14. Demographic and labor market in the Chilean countryside Transformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos René Rodríguez Garcés

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on the information provided by the National Socioeconomic Survey of 1990 and 2013, the Chilean countryside reconfigurations are analyzed in terms of their demographic trends and labor market restructuring. A continuous process of depopulation and aging of the rural population is demographically notes. The agricultural activities of the rural labor market charge less important in terms of jobs and income, showing a strong process and favoring deagrarianisation positioning services area. Finally, a growing number of households that hold informal consensual unions and a greater presence of single-parent households, mainly consisting of female-headed households is observed.

  15. Sessile serrated adenomas:Demographic,endoscopic and pathological characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suryakanth; R; Gurudu; Russell; I; Heigh; Giovanni; De; Petris; Evelyn; G; Heigh; Jonathan; A; Leighton; Shabana; F; Pasha; Isaac; B; Malagon; Ananya; Das

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To study the demographic and endoscopic characteristics of patients with sessile serrated adenoma(SSA) in a single center.METHODS:Patients with SSA were identified by review of the pathology database of Mayo Clinic Arizona from 2005 to 2007.A retrospective chart review was performed to extract data on demographics,polyp characteristics,presence of synchronous adenomatous polyps or cancer,polypectomy methods,and related complications.RESULTS:One hundred and seventy-one(2.9%) of all patients undergoing co...

  16. Plague mortality and demographic depression in later medieval England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poos, L R

    1981-01-01

    Both direct and indirect evidence implies that England experienced a lengthy period of stagnant or declining population during the later fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. The Black Death of 1348-1349 had brought about profound changes in England's agrarian economy, and this subsequent demographic depression is most commonly interpreted by historians as the result of plague mortality, recurring in severe outbreaks after the disease's introduction into the country. This paper reviews the evidence and assumptions behind this interpretation, in light of recent research by historical demographers and epidemiologists into bubonic plague epidemics and general mortality crises during the post-medieval period.

  17. Contrasting demographic histories of the neighboring bonobo and chimpanzee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilsom, Christina; Carlsen, Frands; Heller, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    analyzed complete mitochondrial genomes representing all four recognized chimpanzee subspecies and the bonobo to infer the recent demographic history and used simulations to exclude a confounding effect of population structure. Our genus-wide Bayesian coalescent-based analysis revealed surprisingly...... dissimilar demographic histories of the chimpanzee subspecies and the bonobo, despite their overlapping habitat requirements. Whereas the central and eastern chimpanzee subspecies were inferred to have expanded tenfold between around 50,000 and 80,000 years ago and today, the population size...

  18. The demographic transition: an attempt to reformulate a population theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofsten, E

    1981-01-01

    In this effort to reformulate the demographic transition theory, attention is directed to the following: Malthus and Karl Marx's criticism of his principle of population; the 1st stage of transition, i.e., high mortality, high fertility, and slow population growth; the 2nd stage of declining mortality; the 3rd stage of declining fertility; the 4th stage when mortality and fertility are both low; the growth potential; and the demographic transition in the 3rd world countries. The demographic transition theory has become popular among demographers, economists, historians, and others interested in studying the development of population over time since the end of World War 2. This interest has most likely been created by the anxiety over the population explosion in the 3rd world countries. Transition has made demographers believe that the period of rapid population growth will be automatically succeeded by a period of more or less constant population size. The question that arises is whether it is as simple as that. Demographic transition has to a great extent taken the place of Malthus' principle of population as a general theory of population. Demographic transition appears to describe in a satisfactory way the development of population which all currently industrialized countires have passed through, when going from the preindustrial to the present industrialized stage. The objectives to demographic transition as a general theory are considered. Some of the factors which have accounted for the decline in fertility in Europe may also apply to the 3rd world countries. 1 such factor is the effect of reduced infant and child mortality on the individual level. The fertility decline, caused by reduced infant and child mortality may, however, be of limited size. The great amount of unemployment in the 3rd world may affect fertility in a downward direction. The fertility decline in Europe occurred simultaneously with an industrialization process, which gradually covered the

  19. Money attitude of Ukrainian young people: socio-demographic aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIANNA SIMKIV

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of research on social and demographic factors of Ukr health literacy, health culture, young adults, concepts of health and healthy lifestyle, motivations, forms of communication, learning methods ainian youth money attitudes. The aim of the research is to identify dependency between money attitudes of the young people and such social and demographic characteristics as sex, age, education, place of residence, place of employment, employment position and level of income. The research required application of survey and questionnaire methods as well as statistical methods of results processing.

  20. Are We Ready for the Approaching Demographic Tsunami?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Bolgen; Conlon, Jill E.

    2011-01-01

    For those at the high school and college levels who have been tracking the demographic changes occurring throughout the United States during the past few decades, it came as no surprise when recent U.S. Census statistics revealed that the 2010 kindergarten class is 25% Hispanic, up from 19% in 2000, and 5% Asian, up from 4% in 2000. The class is…

  1. Tobacco Sales in Community Pharmacies: Remote Decisions and Demographic Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Cory M.; Peterson, N. Andrew; Schneider, John E.; Smith, Brian J.; Armstead, Theresa L.

    2010-01-01

    This study applied multilevel modeling procedures with data from 678 community pharmacies and 382 residential census tracts in a Midwestern U.S. state to determine if two sets of variables: retail type (e.g., remotely owned, independently owned) and population demographics of the tracts in which outlets were located were associated with retail…

  2. Socio-demographic distribution of vestibular schwannomas in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stepanidis, Karen; Kessel, Marie; Caye-Thomasen, Per

    2014-01-01

    CONCLUSION: Vestibular schwannomas (VSs) are diagnosed less frequently in the remote parts of Denmark, whereas the diagnostic age and tumor size is the same across the different socio-demographic areas of Denmark. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether VSs are diagnosed equally often in different socio-demographic...... of socio-demographic areas elaborated by Demarks Statistic. RESULTS: The mean national incidence increased almost linearly over the time period from 6.1 per million per year in the first period from 1976 to 1984, to 22.1 per million per year in the last period from 2003 to 2012. There was a lower incidence...... at the end of the period in the remote areas compared with the other socio-demographic areas (1976-1984, p = 0.05 and 2003-2011, p = 0.001). The mean age at diagnosis increased during the period, from 52.6 years in the first period to 58.6 years in the last period. There was no significant difference...

  3. Personality, Demographics, and Acculturation in North American Refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smither, Robert; Rodriquez-Giegling, Marta

    This study predicts willingness of refugees to acculturate to North American society based on selected demographic and psychological variables. The hypothesis is that most previous research on refugee adaptation has overemphasized sociological variables such as age, time in the country, and level of education and underemphasized psychological…

  4. socio-demographic correlates of mental and behavioural disorders ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2000-10-01

    Oct 1, 2000 ... (DICA) was used to interview parents of 1,477 children. Main outcome ... Mood and anxiety disorders were not significantly associated with any of the socio- demographic ... The logistic regression method was employed to adjust relative risks for ..... handbook for Diagnosis and Treatment. The Guilford ...

  5. Demographic Factors Affecting Internet Using Purposes of High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Abdullah Faruk; Güzeller, Cem Oktay

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed at determining the impact of demographic factors on the Internet usage purposes of high school students. The population of the study consisted of students between 9th and 12th grades from the Anatolian high schools, science high schools, social sciences high schools, sports high schools and fine arts high schools in Turkey. The…

  6. Leisure Lifestyles: Segmentation by Interests, Needs, Demographics, and Television Viewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Marshall G.; Frank, Ronald E.

    1983-01-01

    Using their own 1978 national survey sample, the authors describe the social and demographic characteristics, psychological needs, and television viewing behaviors of persons who exhibit each of 14 patterns of leisure activities. The patterns were isolated through factor analysis and clustering techniques. (Author/RM)

  7. Higher Order Risk Attitudes, Demographics, and Financial Decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noussair, C.N.; Trautmann, S.T.; van de Kuilen, G.

    2011-01-01

    We conduct an experiment to study the prevalence of the higher order risk attitudes of prudence and temperance, in a large demographically representative sample, as well as in a sample of undergraduate students. Participants make pairwise choices between lotteries of the form proposed by Eeckhoudt a

  8. Demographic Analysis and Planning for the Future. No. 13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efird, Cathy M.

    The basic sources and types of demographic data available for future planning for the developmentally disabled are reviewed and a frame work for data organization is suggested. It is explained that future forecasts may be undertaken by the following principles: trend forecasting or extrapolation; scenario construction; models, games, and…

  9. Fast demographic traits promote high diversification rates of Amazonian trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baker, Timothy R; Pennington, R Toby; Magallon, Susana; Gloor, Emanuel; Laurance, William F; Alexiades, Miguel; Alvarez, Esteban; Araujo, Alejandro; Arets, Eric J M M; Aymard, Gerardo; de Oliveira, Atila Alves; Amaral, Iêda; Arroyo, Luzmila; Bonal, Damien; Brienen, Roel J W; Chave, Jerome; Dexter, Kyle G; Di Fiore, Anthony; Eler, Eduardo; Feldpausch, Ted R; Ferreira, Leandro; Lopez-Gonzalez, Gabriela; van der Heijden, Geertje; Higuchi, Niro; Honorio, Eurídice; Huamantupa, Isau; Killeen, Tim J; Laurance, Susan; Leaño, Claudio; Lewis, Simon L; Malhi, Yadvinder; Marimon, Beatriz Schwantes; Marimon Junior, Ben Hur; Monteagudo Mendoza, Abel; Neill, David; Peñuela-Mora, Maria Cristina; Pitman, Nigel; Prieto, Adriana; Quesada, Carlos A; Ramírez, Fredy; Ramírez Angulo, Hirma; Rudas, Agustin; Ruschel, Ademir R; Salomão, Rafael P; de Andrade, Ana Segalin; Silva, J Natalino M; Silveira, Marcos; Simon, Marcelo F; Spironello, Wilson; ter Steege, Hans|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/075217120; Terborgh, John; Toledo, Marisol; Torres-Lezama, Armando; Vasquez, Rodolfo; Vieira, Ima Célia Guimarães; Vilanova, Emilio; Vos, Vincent A; Phillips, Oliver L; Santos, F.

    2014-01-01

    The Amazon rain forest sustains the world's highest tree diversity, but it remains unclear why some clades of trees are hyperdiverse, whereas others are not. Using dated phylogenies, estimates of current species richness and trait and demographic data from a large network of forest plots, we show

  10. Homeschool Progress Report 2009: Academic Achievement and Demographics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Brian D.

    2009-01-01

    In 2007, the Home School Legal Defense Association commissioned Dr. Brian D. Ray of the National Home Education Research Institute to conduct a nationwide study of homeschooling in America. The study's purpose was to develop a current picture of homeschool students and their families--capturing their demographics and educational background--and…

  11. Social identity patterns and trust in demographically diverse work teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zee, Karen; Vos, Menno; Luijters, Kyra

    The article presents a model that links trust in a demographically diverse work context to three different social-identity patterns. Trust is considered to be beneficial for interpersonal relationships and work outcomes in diverse teams as well as for a healthy work relationship between minority

  12. Genetic population structuring and demographic history of red ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-10-20

    Oct 20, 2008 ... In order to estimate the demographic history and genetic structure of. Epinephelus ... using DNA sequence data from the 5' end of the control region. ... on the aquaculture and biology of E. akaara, and Deng ... evolutionary history of the species. .... at low frequency are more likely to be new, θл is a useful.

  13. Genetic diversity and demographic evolution of baobab (Adansonia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ezedom Theresa

    2013-09-18

    Sep 18, 2013 ... This study evaluated the spatial genetic structure of baobab ... digitata, haplotype, genetic diversity, demographic evolution. ... use in domestication, conservation, management and .... Benin, and inferred some impact of the environment and ... new diploid species from Africa, which co-exists with A.

  14. Tobacco Sales in Community Pharmacies: Remote Decisions and Demographic Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Cory M.; Peterson, N. Andrew; Schneider, John E.; Smith, Brian J.; Armstead, Theresa L.

    2010-01-01

    This study applied multilevel modeling procedures with data from 678 community pharmacies and 382 residential census tracts in a Midwestern U.S. state to determine if two sets of variables: retail type (e.g., remotely owned, independently owned) and population demographics of the tracts in which outlets were located were associated with retail…

  15. Demographic Correlates and Factor Structure of the Family Environment Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boake, Corwin; Salmon, Paul G.

    1983-01-01

    Factor analyzed the Family Environment Scale (FES) subscale scores of 204 families and correlated them with family demographic characteristics. The obtained factor structure showed two major factors similar to "control" and "acceptance-rejection" dimensions in previous research. Results support the FES as part of multimethod…

  16. Fast demographic traits promote high diversification rates of Amazonian trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baker, Timothy R; Pennington, R Toby; Magallon, Susana; Gloor, Emanuel; Laurance, William F; Alexiades, Miguel; Alvarez, Esteban; Araujo, Alejandro; Arets, Eric J M M; Aymard, Gerardo; de Oliveira, Atila Alves; Amaral, Iêda; Arroyo, Luzmila; Bonal, Damien; Brienen, Roel J W; Chave, Jerome; Dexter, Kyle G; Di Fiore, Anthony; Eler, Eduardo; Feldpausch, Ted R; Ferreira, Leandro; Lopez-Gonzalez, Gabriela; van der Heijden, Geertje; Higuchi, Niro; Honorio, Eurídice; Huamantupa, Isau; Killeen, Tim J; Laurance, Susan; Leaño, Claudio; Lewis, Simon L; Malhi, Yadvinder; Marimon, Beatriz Schwantes; Marimon Junior, Ben Hur; Monteagudo Mendoza, Abel; Neill, David; Peñuela-Mora, Maria Cristina; Pitman, Nigel; Prieto, Adriana; Quesada, Carlos A; Ramírez, Fredy; Ramírez Angulo, Hirma; Rudas, Agustin; Ruschel, Ademir R; Salomão, Rafael P; de Andrade, Ana Segalin; Silva, J Natalino M; Silveira, Marcos; Simon, Marcelo F; Spironello, Wilson; ter Steege, Hans; Terborgh, John; Toledo, Marisol; Torres-Lezama, Armando; Vasquez, Rodolfo; Vieira, Ima Célia Guimarães; Vilanova, Emilio; Vos, Vincent A; Phillips, Oliver L; Santos, F.

    2014-01-01

    The Amazon rain forest sustains the world's highest tree diversity, but it remains unclear why some clades of trees are hyperdiverse, whereas others are not. Using dated phylogenies, estimates of current species richness and trait and demographic data from a large network of forest plots, we show th

  17. France: demographic change and family policy since World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussel, L; Thery, I

    1988-09-01

    Major demographic trends and changes in family policy in France since World War II are analyzed, with a focus on fertility and marriage patterns (including divorce). The effects of political and economic factors on family policy and legislation since 1945 are also discussed. Data are from official and other published sources.

  18. The Demographic Crisis and Global Migration - Selected Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frątczak, Ewa Zofia

    2016-01-01

    Currently the world is undergoing a serious demographic shift, characterised by slowing population growth in developed countries. However, the population in certain less-developed regions of the world is still increasing. According to UN data, as of 2015, (World...2015), 244 million people (or 3.3% of the global population) lived outside their country of birth. While most of these migrants travel abroad looking for better economic and social conditions, there are also those forced to move by political crises, revolutions and war. Such migration is being experienced currently in Europe, a continent which is thus going through both a demographic crisis related to the low fertility rate and population ageing, and a migration crisis. Global migrations link up inseparably with demographic transformation processes taking place globally and resulting in the changing tempo of population growth. Attracting and discouraging migration factors are changing at the same time, as is the scale and range of global migration, and with these also the global consequences. The focus of work addressed in this paper is on global population, the demographic transformation and the role of global migrations, as well as the range and scale of international migration, and selected aspects of global migrations including participation in the global labour market, the scale of monetary transfers (remittances) and the place of global migration in the UN 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development (Transforming...2015) and the Europe of two crises (Domeny 2016).

  19. Doctoral Accounting Candidates: A Profile of Demographics and Perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backmon, Ida Robinson

    1998-01-01

    Presents information on minority doctoral students in accounting, drawing on surveys completed by 47 such students. Outlines demographic characteristics, and identifies respondents' rankings of costs and benefits of pursuing a doctorate in accounting. Most respondents were professionally certified and were interested in academic careers. (SLD)

  20. Russian Federation : From the first to second demographic transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zakharov, Sergei

    2008-01-01

    The demographic transition in Russia was accelerated by several social cataclysms during the "Soviet type" modernization. Frequent changes in the timing of births and marriages engendered a mass "abortion culture". Contraceptive devices of poor quality were produced on a limited scale. The Soviet

  1. Demographic and Behavioral Characteristics of Osher Lifelong Learning Institute Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Robert Jack; Brady, E. Michael; Thaxton, Steven P.

    2016-01-01

    The number of lifelong learning institutes (LLIs) is growing across the United States and it is important for educational planners and administrators to know about current demographic and behavioral characteristics of program participants. A 14-question survey was administered via SurveyMonkey to members who use computers in eight Osher Lifelong…

  2. Predicting Psychiatric Rehabilitation Outcome Using Demographic Characteristics: A Replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, William A.; Buell, Gregory J.

    1974-01-01

    Replication was undertaken of a recent study conducted by Buell and Anthony which had found that recidivism and posthospital employment could be predicted by a single demographic variable, number of previous hospitalizations and employment history, respectively. Results of the replication were consistent for posthospital employment but not for…

  3. Learning Approaches, Demographic Factors to Predict Academic Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tuan Minh

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to predict academic outcome in math and math-related subjects using learning approaches and demographic factors. Design/Methodology/Approach: ASSIST was used as the instrumentation to measure learning approaches. The study was conducted in the International University of Vietnam with 616 participants. An…

  4. Economic and Demographic Factors Impacting Placement of Students with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurth, Jennifer A.; Mastergeorge, Ann M.; Paschall, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Educational placement of students with autism is often associated with child factors, such as IQ and communication skills. However, variability in placement patterns across states suggests that other factors are at play. This study used hierarchical cluster analysis techniques to identify demographic, economic, and educational covariates…

  5. Significance of Demographic Variables for Targeting of Internet Advertisements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Václav Stříteský

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Broad ad targeting options belong among the major advantages of internet advertising. Demographic targeting has become a standard option in most of on-line advertising systems. There are more ways how to target on-line advertisements by using demographic variables. In some cases, e.g., social media, we can use data from user registrations. Modern technologies enable to estimate the demographic profile of internet users using on behavioural data. The traditional approach to the demographic targeting of advertisements based on affinity targeting assumes the existence of internet servers with sufficient homogeneity of visits. The aim of this article is to identify the differences in the internet content consumption habits of Czech internet users based on gender and age. The analysis is based on the data from the extensive research which was carried out by the Netmonitor project, and which was provided for the purposes of this study by the Association for Internet Development (SPIR. The research results show that the traditional affinity-based method of targeting according to gender and age is still suitable on the Czech internet. On the other hand, in some cases, the traditional approach of ad targeting based on affinity leads to wasted ad impressions that miss defined target group.

  6. Global Demographic Change and Its Implications for Military Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    119 APPENDIXES A. Delayed Maternity and Fertility Rates...some during the past decade. The consequence of what has already taken place in the world’s maternity wards (so to speak) will unfold over the next 20...bathing, and dressing . See Spillman, 2004, p. 160. 31 Spillman, 2004, Table 2, pp. 167–168. 32 Bloom, Canning, and Fink, 2008. 74 Global Demographic

  7. Details from the Dashboard: Charter School Race/Ethnicity Demographics

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Alliance for Public Charter Schools, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This "Details from the Dashboard" report examines race/ethnicity breakouts for public charter schools and traditional public schools at the state and the school district level. The data in this report indicate that in the large majority of states, the race/ethnicity student demographics of charter schools are almost identical to those of the…

  8. Demographic, criminal and psychiatric factors related to inmate suicide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaauw, E.; Kerkhof, A.J.F.M.; Hayes, L.M.

    2005-01-01

    A review of 19 studies suggests that it may be feasible to identify prisoners with suicide risk on the basis of demographic, psychiatric, and criminal characteristics. The present study aimed to identify combinations of characteristics that are capable of identifying potential suicide victims. Chara

  9. Hyperstate matrix models : extending demographic state spaces to higher dimensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roth, G.; Caswell, H.

    2016-01-01

    1. Demographic models describe population dynamics in terms of the movement of individuals among states (e.g. size, age, developmental stage, parity, frailty, physiological condition). Matrix population models originally classified individuals by a single characteristic. This was enlarged to two cha

  10. Demographics and Motivation of Adult Group Piano Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wristen, Brenda

    2006-01-01

    As people are living longer and enjoying better quality of life, there has been a corresponding increase in interest in recreational music-making by adults. This study examined the demographics and motivations of students enrolled in the Community Piano Experience hosted by the University of Nebraska-Lincoln School of Music. Twenty-six…

  11. Greying at the Temples: Demographics of a Public Service Occupation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, James F.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Presents results of an empirical study of the effects of demographic trends on a local government occupational group--public welfare workers. Considers effects of these trends on managers' abilities to foster new ideas, to achieve affirmative action goals, and to ensure employee motivation, performance, and productivity. (Author/CH)

  12. The impact of demographic change on intergenerational transfers via bequests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Zagheni

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Transfers in the form of bequests have important implications for the intergenerational transmission of inequality. Demographic change has relevant consequences for the timing and size of bequests. For example, longer life implies that people receive bequests when they are older. Conversely, increasing generational length reduces the average age at which people are given bequests. Objective: We analyze the consequences of demographic change in the United States on timing over the life course when individuals receive an inheritance and on the size of bequests. Methods: We evaluate trends in life expectancy at the mean age at childbearing as a proxy for timing at receipt of bequests. We complement formal demographic analysis with empirical estimates from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID inheritance data for 1987-2010. Results: We find that the long-term trend of increasing age at receipt of bequests might have stalled, mainly because of changes in the timing of fertility. In the long term the upward trend in age at which people receive bequests may resume, as the expected linear gains in life expectancy will more than counteract recent increases in the mean age at childbearing. Conclusions: We showed that demographic change affects the size of bequests and the timing over the life course when people receive them. As the need for economic resources varies over the life cycle, changes in the timing at receipt of bequests may have a differential impact on wealth inequality and affect patterns of multigenerational transfers of resources.

  13. Social identity patterns and trust in demographically diverse work teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zee, Karen; Vos, Menno; Luijters, Kyra

    2009-01-01

    The article presents a model that links trust in a demographically diverse work context to three different social-identity patterns. Trust is considered to be beneficial for interpersonal relationships and work outcomes in diverse teams as well as for a healthy work relationship between minority mem

  14. Students from Australian Universities Studying Abroad: A Demographic Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerlich, Steve

    2015-01-01

    Australia is one of many countries to encourage its students to study abroad and hence develop a global perspective. Traditionally, students who have pursued this option represented a relatively privileged and demographically narrow group. More recently, governments and other agencies have been offering funding support with the aim of…

  15. Are We Ready for the Approaching Demographic Tsunami?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Bolgen; Conlon, Jill E.

    2011-01-01

    For those at the high school and college levels who have been tracking the demographic changes occurring throughout the United States during the past few decades, it came as no surprise when recent U.S. Census statistics revealed that the 2010 kindergarten class is 25% Hispanic, up from 19% in 2000, and 5% Asian, up from 4% in 2000. The class is…

  16. The Russian Market of University Services: Social and Demographic Aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bydanova, Elizaveta; Mushketova, Natalia; Rouet, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyze the impact of demographic, social, economic and international aspects on the market of university services in Russia. It also reminds readers briefly of the evolution of the Russian higher education system during the last 20 years and considers some consequences of the current public policy and…

  17. The Other Languages of Europe: Demographic, Sociolinguistic and Educational Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extra, Guus, Ed.; Gorter, Durk, Ed.

    This book focuses on the minority languages of Europe, those other than the national languages of European Union member states, by looking at the demographic, sociolinguistic, and educational aspects of both regional and immigrant languages. Empirical evidence for the status of these other languages of multicultural Europe is brought together in a…

  18. Demographic Trends in the European Union: Political and Strategic Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-01

    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), in Laxenburg, Austria, concluded that the current...Delays in Childbearing make a Big Difference for the Birth Rate,” International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis , Office of Information, 27 March...its Demographic Evolution, Delays in Childbearing make a Big Difference for the Birth Rate.” International Institute for Applied Systems

  19. Demographic, criminal and psychiatric factors related to inmate suicide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaauw, E.; Kerkhof, A.J.F.M.; Hayes, L.M.

    2005-01-01

    A review of 19 studies suggests that it may be feasible to identify prisoners with suicide risk on the basis of demographic, psychiatric, and criminal characteristics. The present study aimed to identify combinations of characteristics that are capable of identifying potential suicide victims. Chara

  20. Demographic, criminal and psychiatric factors related to inmate suicide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaauw, E.; Kerkhof, A.J.F.M.; Hayes, L.M.

    2005-01-01

    A review of 19 studies suggests that it may be feasible to identify prisoners with suicide risk on the basis of demographic, psychiatric, and criminal characteristics. The present study aimed to identify combinations of characteristics that are capable of identifying potential suicide victims.

  1. Demographic and personality characteristics of Internet Child Pornography Offenders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnen, L.; Bulten, B.H.; Nijman, H.L.I.

    2009-01-01

    This research study was conducted to map out the demographic and psychological aspects of Internet child pornography offenders. The backgrounds, characteristics, and MMPI profiles of 22 Internet child pornography offenders were statistically compared to those of 112 perpetrators of other offenses. I

  2. Disentangling purchasing motives from socio-demographic differences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Laura Mørch

    in a positive effect on their own health. The level of trust in organic products generally increases with level of education, urbanisation and income. Including perception of organic goods in the estimation therefore reduces the effects of these socio-demographics, and thereby demonstrates the strength...

  3. The Boder Test: Neuropsychological and Demographic Features of Dyslexic Subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telzrow, Cathy F.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Investigated the demographic and neuropsychological characteristics of 30 children in reading categories defined by performance on the Boder Test. Provided evidence that the Boder Test may be a nonbiased valid screening test for the identification of dyslexia and dyslexic subtypes. (JAC)

  4. Wildlife value orientations and demographics in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaske, J.J.; Jacobs, M.H.; Sijtsma, M.T.J.

    2011-01-01

    This article identified the Dutch publics’ value orientations toward wildlife and examined differences in value orientations among four demographic characteristics: age, sex, current residence, and education. The two wildlife value orientations—domination and mutualism—were based on prior theorizing

  5. The Russian Market of University Services: Social and Demographic Aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bydanova, Elizaveta; Mushketova, Natalia; Rouet, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyze the impact of demographic, social, economic and international aspects on the market of university services in Russia. It also reminds readers briefly of the evolution of the Russian higher education system during the last 20 years and considers some consequences of the current public policy and…

  6. [The demographic transition in Latin America and Europe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala De Cosio, M E

    1992-12-01

    This work describes and analyzes the "European model of demographic transition" and compares it to the fertility transition in Latin America, arguing that two different types of demographic transition coexist in Latin America. Chesnais has defined 3 principal postulates of the theory of demographic transition that he believes are universally valid: the precedence in time of mortality decline; the occurrence of reproductive transition in 2 phases, limitation of marriages followed by limitation of births; and the influence of economic growth on the initiation of the secular fertiilty decline. This work is largely limited to discussion of the first 2 postulates. In all the European transitions analyzed, mortality has declined before the occurrence of fertility changes. Exceptions cited in the literature have probably been caused by omissions or other problems in the data. The level of mortality at the beginning of the transition and the rate of decline differ, giving unique character to each transition. Imbalances resulting from mortality decline are at the root of modern fertility transitions. The French demographic transition was distinguished by early appearance of birth limitation by married couples, as part of the regulation of population growth. In the rest of Europe, during the pretransitional period, the traditional system of reproduction was regulated primarily by control of nuptiality. Only at a second stage was marital fertiity controlled, when limitation of marriage was no longer sufficient or had exceeded the limits of social acceptability. All countries of Northern and Western Europe recorded increased proportions definitively single as the demographic situation began to change, until the moment when couples began to limit births. The demographic transition in Latin America began at the end of the 19th century, with mortality decline. Fertility increased initially in Latin America as it had in Europe and for the same reasons, but the impact was greater

  7. A Demographic Approach to Evaluating Tree Population Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corey R. Halpin

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative criteria for assessing demographic sustainability of tree populations would be useful in forest conservation, as climate change and a growing complex of invasive pests are likely to drive forests outside their historic range of variability. In this paper, we used CANOPY, a spatially explicit, individual‐tree model, to examine the effects of initial size distributions on sustainability of tree populations for 70 northern hardwood stands under current environmental conditions. A demographic sustainability index was calculated as the ratio of future simulated basal area to current basal area, given current demographic structure and density‐dependent demographic equations. Only steeply descending size distributions were indicated to be moderately or highly sustainable (final basal area/initial basal area ≥0.7 over several tree generations. Five of the six principal species had demographic sustainability index values of <0.6 in 40%–84% of the stands. However, at a small landscape scale, nearly all species had mean index values >1. Simulation experiments suggested that a minimum sapling density of 300 per hectare was required to sustain the initial basal area, but further increases in sapling density did not increase basal area because of coincident increases in mortality. A variable slope with high q‐ratios in small size classes was needed to maintain the existing overstory of mature and old‐growth stands. This analytical approach may be useful in identifying stands needing restoration treatments to maintain existing species composition in situations where forests are likely to have future recruitment limitations.

  8. Demographic patterns and trends in Central Ghana: baseline indicators from the Kintampo Health and Demographic Surveillance System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth Owusu-Agyei

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The dearth of health and demographic data in sub-Saharan Africa from vital registration systems and its impact on effective planning for health and socio-economic development is widely documented. Health and Demographic Surveillance Systems have the capacity to address the dearth of quality data for policy making in resource-poor settings. Objective: This article demonstrates the utility of the Kintampo Health and Demographic Surveillance System (KHDSS by showing the patterns and trends of population change from 2005 to 2009 in the Kintampo North Municipality and Kintampo South districts of Ghana through data obtained from the KHDSS biannual update rounds. Design: Basic demographic rates for fertility, mortality, and migration were computed by year. School enrolment was computed as a percentage in school by age and sex for 6–18 year-olds. Socio-economic status was derived by use of Principal Components Analysis on household assets. Results: Over the period, an earlier fertility decline was reversed in 2009; mortality declined slightly for all age-groups, and a significant share of working-age population was lost through out-migration. Large minorities of children of school-going age are not in school. Socio-economic factors are shown to be important determinants of fertility and mortality. Conclusion : Strengthening the capacity of HDSSs could offer added value to evidence-driven policymaking at local level.

  9. Demographic and Commercial Environments and Building Control Customer Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hope Peter

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple and cost effective business analytics schema developed in this study provides a basis for observing how demographic and commercial environmental impacts affect building control customer services. In order to overlay environmental impacts onto building control services, schematic mapping of resource distributions and services were plotted according to corporate jurisdiction, corporate virtues and customer type characteristics. Quantitative and qualitative surveys were conducted on corporate staff and material resources, business performance measures and targets, building control service manager observations and demographic and commercial environments. Results from this research provide a single view corporate map of people, material resources, and service performance in relation to customer characteristics, while reaching out to better understand the building control customer experience, general public expectation and market influences. In this regard, this research can provide a foundation for realising corporate virtue aspirations.

  10. The SDSS-IV in 2014: A Demographic Snapshot

    CERN Document Server

    Lundgren, Britt; Zasowski, Gail; Lucatello, Sara; Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M; Tremonti, Christy A; Myers, Adam D; Aragon-Salamanca, Alfonso; Gillespie, Bruce; Ho, Shirley; Gallagher, John S

    2015-01-01

    Many astronomers now participate in large international collaborations, and it is important to examine whether these structures foster a scientific climate that is inclusive and diverse. The Committee on the Participation of Women in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (CPWS) was formed to evaluate the demographics and gender climate within SDSS-IV, one of the largest and most geographically distributed astronomical collaborations. In April 2014, the CPWS administered a demographic survey to establish a baseline for the incipient SDSS-IV. We received responses from 250 participants (46% of the active membership). Half of the survey respondents were located in the US or Canada and 30% were based in Europe. Eleven percent of survey respondents considered themselves to be an ethnic minority at their current institution. Twenty-five percent of the SDSS-IV collaboration members are women, a fraction that is consistent with the US astronomical community, but substantially higher than the fraction of women in the IAU (16%)...

  11. Demographic Profile of Older Adults Using Wheeled Mobility Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amol M. Karmarkar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine whether the use of wheeled mobility devices differed with respect to age, gender, residential setting, and health-related factors among older adults. A total of 723 adults ageing 60 and older are representing three cohorts, from nursing homes, the Center for Assistive Technology, and the wheelchair registry from the Human Engineering Research Laboratories. Wheeled mobility devices were classified into three main groups: manual wheelchairs, power wheelchairs, and scooters. Our results found factors including age, gender, diagnosis, and living settings to be associated with differences in use of manual versus powered mobility devices. Differences in use were also noted for subtypes of manual (depot, standard, and customized and powered (scooter, standard, and customized mobility devices, on demographic, living arrangements, and health-related factors. Consideration of demographic, health-related, and environmental factors during the prescription process may help clinicians identify the most appropriate mobility device for the user.

  12. The influence of passenger demographics on airport attribute evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Carstens

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available It is imperative for airport operators and airlines to have a clear understanding of the factors which influence the passenger’s decision with regard to which airport/airline combination to use in a multi-airport scenario. Interactions between demographic variables, such as gender and purpose of travel, and the choice attributes in the decision-making process exist. The extent to which specific attributes influence the passenger’s decision could be invaluable to service providers (airport operators and airlines in allocating and employing limited resources. The purpose of this article is to investigate the extent of the interactions between passenger demographics and attribute evaluation by taking into account the ordinal nature of the measurement scale.

  13. Fast demographic traits promote high diversification rates of Amazonian trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Timothy R; Pennington, R Toby; Magallon, Susana; Gloor, Emanuel; Laurance, William F; Alexiades, Miguel; Alvarez, Esteban; Araujo, Alejandro; Arets, Eric J M M; Aymard, Gerardo; de Oliveira, Atila Alves; Amaral, Iêda; Arroyo, Luzmila; Bonal, Damien; Brienen, Roel J W; Chave, Jerome; Dexter, Kyle G; Di Fiore, Anthony; Eler, Eduardo; Feldpausch, Ted R; Ferreira, Leandro; Lopez-Gonzalez, Gabriela; van der Heijden, Geertje; Higuchi, Niro; Honorio, Eurídice; Huamantupa, Isau; Killeen, Tim J; Laurance, Susan; Leaño, Claudio; Lewis, Simon L; Malhi, Yadvinder; Marimon, Beatriz Schwantes; Marimon Junior, Ben Hur; Monteagudo Mendoza, Abel; Neill, David; Peñuela-Mora, Maria Cristina; Pitman, Nigel; Prieto, Adriana; Quesada, Carlos A; Ramírez, Fredy; Ramírez Angulo, Hirma; Rudas, Agustin; Ruschel, Ademir R; Salomão, Rafael P; de Andrade, Ana Segalin; Silva, J Natalino M; Silveira, Marcos; Simon, Marcelo F; Spironello, Wilson; ter Steege, Hans; Terborgh, John; Toledo, Marisol; Torres-Lezama, Armando; Vasquez, Rodolfo; Vieira, Ima Célia Guimarães; Vilanova, Emilio; Vos, Vincent A; Phillips, Oliver L; Wiens, John

    2014-01-01

    The Amazon rain forest sustains the world's highest tree diversity, but it remains unclear why some clades of trees are hyperdiverse, whereas others are not. Using dated phylogenies, estimates of current species richness and trait and demographic data from a large network of forest plots, we show that fast demographic traits – short turnover times – are associated with high diversification rates across 51 clades of canopy trees. This relationship is robust to assuming that diversification rates are either constant or decline over time, and occurs in a wide range of Neotropical tree lineages. This finding reveals the crucial role of intrinsic, ecological variation among clades for understanding the origin of the remarkable diversity of Amazonian trees and forests. PMID:24589190

  14. ECONOMIC PROBLEMS OF EUROPEAN UNION CAUSED BY THE DEMOGRAPHIC AGEING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulia-Alexandra Percă

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to offer a realistic perspective upon the imminent situation of demographic ageing issue in European Union. The forecasts are not reasons to major concern for the society but rather to become more responsible and not to neglect a problem that could affect our future. The demographic overview of Europe for 2011 – 2060 shows low birth rates, an increase in life expectancy and migration flows having an impact on population. As a result, the parent generation will no longer completely be replaced by the next generation of children and the narrowed active population will have to sustain a large number of persons far advanced in the age. Economic consequences of this social trend, such as increased expenditures on pensions, extended health care costs and the employment problems, are also discussed in order to define the best policy option available.

  15. The changing demographic, legal, and technological contexts of political representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest, Benjamin

    2005-10-25

    Three developments have created challenges for political representation in the U.S. and particularly for the use of territorially based representation (election by district). First, the demographic complexity of the U.S. population has grown both in absolute terms and in terms of residential patterns. Second, legal developments since the 1960s have recognized an increasing number of groups as eligible for voting rights protection. Third, the growing technical capacities of computer technology, particularly Geographic Information Systems, have allowed political parties and other organizations to create election districts with increasingly precise political and demographic characteristics. Scholars have made considerable progress in measuring and evaluating the racial and partisan biases of districting plans, and some states have tried to use Geographic Information Systems technology to produce more representative districts. However, case studies of Texas and Arizona illustrate that such analytic and technical advances have not overcome the basic contradictions that underlie the American system of territorial political representation.

  16. The historical role of demographic change in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Z

    1996-01-01

    In the aftermath of the Opium War, Britain coerced the Manchurian government into signing three treaties under which Britain occupied and leased the territory of Hong Kong and established colonial rule in the region. The rapid development of Hong Kong over the past 30 years has resulted in an increase of the territory's population from 5650 in 1841 to 6,149,000 at the end of 1994. Hong Kong now ranks fourth among the global financial centers, sixth in global foreign exchange reserve, and eighth among the world's trade systems, with per capita output of US$21,760. Demographic change and an exceptional development model were instrumental in building Hong Kong into what it has become. This paper discusses successful demographic transformation as the milestone of Hong Kong's social development, population growth as the basis of the Hong Kong government's economic strategy, and a modernized population management system as an important condition for the smooth transition of Hong Kong.

  17. Latino Electoral Participation: Variations on Demographics and Ethnicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Leighley

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Using the 2012 Latino Immigrant National Election Study, the 2012 American National Election Study, and the 2012 Current Population Survey, we document the demographic factors that influenced Latino (native-born and immigrant voter turnout and participation in the 2012 presidential election. We estimate multivariable models of turnout and participation, including standard demographic characteristics (education, income, age, gender, marital status as explanatory variables. Our findings indicate that the relationships between these characteristics and participation are much less consistent across these datasets than the conventional wisdom would suggest. Understanding these results likely requires survey data—with large sample sizes—including information on the resources (including education and income available to immigrants in their home countries to better understand the lingering influences of immigrants’ experiences in their countries of origin on voter turnout.

  18. Revolution without ideology: demographic transition in East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, T D

    1980-01-01

    The acceleration of demographic transition in East Asia is a process of great potential import for the world. The most rapid and large scale transformation of demographic pattern in world history is being accomplished in this region. Demographic processes in other countries and regions have been viewed in the light of past events. Demographic transition has been accepted as a desirable goal, but its realization was believed subject to certain constraints. These include the need to attain high rates of economic growth in order to stimulate the transition and the longer period of time required to accomplish the transition. It was assumed that at least 2 generations would be subject to gradually diminishing rates of increase and slow cultural modification before transition entered its last phase. This interpretation of the preconditions and specific character of demographic transition has been subject to increasing challenge, and recent events in East Asia accentuate such doubts. Most new views begin with the premises that contemporary pretransition societies are not European in culture and the 1970s are not the 1880s. East Asia also differs culturally from other developing areas, including South and Southeast Asia. The most significant regional features are cultural. Demographic transition in the region began after World War 2 and somewhat differently in each East Asian country. The process began first in Japan. The 3rd phase was accomplished rapidly but not as a specific consequence of the modernization process. The end of World War 2 and the spurt in births accompanying military demobilization contributed to a population surge. The cultural factors of practicality, homogeneity, social discipline, and nearly universial literacy were decisive here. Abortion was legalized in 1948 and other forms of birth control were made readily available. Between 1947 and 1957 the birthrate was halved to 17/1000. In Taiwan and South Korea public concern about high rates of

  19. Crime vs. demographic factors revisited: Application of data mining methods

    OpenAIRE

    Xingan Li; Henry Joutsijoki; Jorma Laurikkala; Martti Juhola

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to inquire about correlations between criminal phenomena and demographic factors. This international-level comparative study used a dataset covering 56 countries and 28 attributes. The data were processed with the Self-Organizing Map (SOM), assisted other clustering methods, and several statistical methods for obtaining comparable results. The article is an exploratory application of the SOM in mapping criminal phenomena through processing of multivariate data. We f...

  20. Surviving the Holocaust: Socio-demographic Differences Among Amsterdam Jews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tammes, Peter

    2017-01-01

    This study determined the victimisation rate among Amsterdam Jews and socio-demographic differences in surviving the Holocaust. After linking a registration list of over 77,000 Jewish inhabitants in 1941 to post-war lists of Jewish victims and survivors, the victimisation rate lies between 74.3 and 75.3 %. Differences in survival chances and risk of being killed are examined by using multivariable logistic and Cox regression analyses. While male Jews had a reduced risk of death, in the end their survival chances hardly differed from females. Though Jews aged 6-14 and 31-50 initially had a lower risk of death, in the end compared with Jews aged 15-30 they had lower survival chances, just as Jews aged 50+. For Jews aged 0-5, it was the other way around. Immigrants showed better survival chances than native Jews. German Jews showed better survival chances than Dutch Jews, but Polish and other Jewish nationals showed highest survival chances. Jews who had abandoned Judaism had better survival chances than Jews belonging to an Israelite congregation. Divorced, widowed and unmarried adult Jews had better survival chances than married Jews and their children; Jews married to non-Jews, however, had one of the highest survival chances. Jews in the two highest social classes had better survival chances than jobless Jews. These findings indicate that survival was not random but related to socio-demographic characteristics. This sheds light on demographic consequences of conflict and violence: Nazi persecution reduced the Amsterdam Jewish community drastically, and socio-demographic differences in survival impacted the post-war Jewish population structure.

  1. [Hereditary spherocytosis: Review. Part I. History, demographics, pathogenesis, and diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donato, Hugo; Crisp, Renée Leonor; Rapetti, María Cristina; García, Eliana; Attie, Myriam

    2015-01-01

    Hereditary spherocytosis is the most frequent hereditary anemia excluding beta thalassemia in Argentina. Historical, demographic, genetic and pathogenic aspects of the disease are reviewed, and confirmatory laboratory tests are described. Special characteristics on the outcome of the disease in our population and prevalent protein deficiencies in our country are described. Emphasis is given on new available laboratory tests, which allow an earlier diagnosis using volume of blood samples significantly smaller than required for conventional tests.

  2. Influence of demographic and individual difference factors on impulse buying

    OpenAIRE

    Mirela Mihić; Ivana Kursan

    2010-01-01

    The main purpose of the paper is to determine the correlation of consumers’ demographic or socioeconomic characteristics and individual difference factors on the impulse buying behavior with respect to a number of single impulsivity indicators and one collective indicator. The paper consists of theoretical and research aspects. The first part encompasses theoretical insights into the secondary research regarding impulse buying while the practical part presents the methodology and primary rese...

  3. INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION, GLOBALIZATION AND DEMOGRAPHIC DEVELOPMENT OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    OpenAIRE

    Aleshkovski, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    In the article, the author analyzes the impact of globalization on the transformation of international migration flows in the Russian Federation. The author considers the features of global trends in international migration in Russia: increasing involvement of Russia and its regions in the international migration, the qualitative changes in the structure of migration flows, the increasing role of international migration as a factor of the country's demographic development.

  4. Preface to the Rostock Debate on Demographic Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Bernardi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The first Rostock Debate on Demographic Change, which took place on February 21, 2006, centered on the following question: Should governments in Europe push much more aggressively for gender equality to raise fertility? The four debaters were Laurent Toulemon from the Institut National d'Etudes Demograhiques (France, Dimiter Philipov from the Vienna Institute of Demography (Austria, Livia Oláh from Stockholm University (Sweden, and Gerda Neyer from the Max Planck Institute (Germany

  5. [Demographic projections for Latin American countries prepared by CELADE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somoza, J L

    1978-04-01

    The CELADE (Centro Latinoamericano de Demografia) prepares population projections for 20 Latin American countries, a difficult task considering the lack of reliable census data on births, deaths, and other demographic information. Nevertheless, the demographic situation can be estimated by distinguishing two states in the process: estimating past and present population history and formulating hypotheses regarding the future trends of demographic variables. In a typical situation for most Latin American countries, the first stage is the most difficult; results are mostly approximations of the reality. Thus, projections based on these data are unreliable. The present demographic situation in Latin America was analyzed by estimating fertility, mortality and international migration. Fertility rate was calculated based on the following data: number of children born to the female population, number of live births during the year prior to the census classified according to mother's age and number of children registered according to age up to 10 or 15 years of age. Fertility was thus calculated within 5 years prior to the census. Mortality was roughly estimated by calculating the annual death distribution by age. This promoted questions relating to orphans and the relative number of children who survived out of total number of children born to a woman. Little data was available on migration due to lack of registries on annual migration. It was estimated based on the number of people who left the country for 5 years, and promoted questions such as which country is one native of and year of entry into the country. The most important task relating to population projection of Latin America is the improvement of knowledge on fertility, mortality and migration.

  6. Demographic correlates of children and adolescents with Autistic disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayyoub Malek

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Comparison of the demographic characteristics of patients provides useful information to their identification. This study aimed to determine the demographic characteristics of children and adolescents with autistic disorder (AD. Methods: In this cross-sectional case-control study, 115 children and adolescents with AD were selected from Autism Society Rehabilitation Center in Tabriz, Iran, and 112 normal children and adolescents from the public schools, in 2014. The participants in both groups were matched regarding age and gender. Diagnosis of AD was performed using diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders-4th edition (DSM-IV criteria and clinical diagnostic interviews by two child and adolescent psychiatrists. The demographic information of children and adolescents and their parents were collected from the medical records of children and interviews with their mothers. Results: Most of the children with autism had second or higher birth order and had families with more than three members. Mothers of children with autism had significantly lower levels of education and were mostly housewives. Fathers of autistic children mostly had high school diploma and fewer had university education, and most of them were employed. However, there was no statistically significant difference between the AD group and the control group regarding the average height and weight of children and the residence (urban or rural and age of parents at childbirth.Conclusion: The demographic characteristics of the two groups of children and adolescents with AD and normal controls were different from each other regarding family size, birth order, parent occupation, and parent education variables.

  7. Turkey's Epidemiological and Demographic Transitions: 1931-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakar, Coşkun; Oymak, Sibel; Maral, Işıl

    2017-08-04

    The causes of death have changed with regard to the epidemiological and demographic events in society. There is no evidence of prior research into the epidemiological transition in Turkey. This transition in Turkey should be observed starting with the Ottoman Empire period (19th to early 20th century). However, information about the Ottoman Empire is quite limited. To discuss the epidemiological and demographic transitions in Turkey, using demographic, educational and urbanization data in our present study. A descriptive archive study. Mortality statistics dating from 1931 and published by the Turkish Statistical Institute were analysed, and the causes of death were coded and classified according to ICD-10. Other data were obtained from the published reports and studies regarding the issue. In the 1930s, Turkey's life expectancy was low (aged 40 years), fertility and mortality rates were high (respectively 45% and 31%), and the main causes of death were infectious diseases. Nowadays, life expectancy is close to 80 years, the total fertility rate has dropped to 2.1 per woman, and the main causes of death are chronic diseases and cancer. The population rate in the urban areas has increased steadily from 24.2% in 1927 to 77.3% in 2012. level of education has also increased during this period. In 1935, less than 10% of women were literate, and in 2013 90% were literate. Qualitative and quantitative increase have been observed in the presentation and access of healthcare services compared to the early years of the Republic. Turkey has been undergoing a modernization period in the last 200 years, and it is believed that the epidemiological and demographic transitions result from this period. This process has led to urbanization and an increase in the level of education, as well as a decrease in premature deaths, lower fertility rates, and an increase in the elderly population and chronic diseases. It is therefore our conclusion that Turkey needs policies regarding the

  8. The changing demographic, legal, and technological contexts of political representation

    OpenAIRE

    Forest, Benjamin

    2005-01-01

    Three developments have created challenges for political representation in the U.S. and particularly for the use of territorially based representation (election by district). First, the demographic complexity of the U.S. population has grown both in absolute terms and in terms of residential patterns. Second, legal developments since the 1960s have recognized an increasing number of groups as eligible for voting rights protection. Third, the growing technical capacities of computer technology...

  9. Demographic responses of Daphnia magna fed transgenic Bt-maize

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    The food/feed quality of a variety of genetically modified (GM) maize expressing Cry1Ab Bt-toxin was tested over the life-cycle of Daphnia magna, an arthropod commonly used as model organism in ecotoxicological studies. Demographic responses were compared between animals fed GM or unmodified (UM) near isogenic maize, with and without the addition of predator smell. Age-specific data on survival and birth rates were integrated and analysed using life tables and Leslie matrices. Survival, fecun...

  10. Disability Prevalence and Correlates in Pakistan: A Demographic Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Afzal

    1992-01-01

    The paper provides a demographic view of disability patterns in Pakistan, and also highlights the inadequacies and inconsistencies of data, especially those provided by the census. Besides assessing the prevalence of disability by age, gender considerations, nature of disability and reasons of disability, the paper examines such features among the disabled population as their work participation, training, self-sufficiency and dependence on the help of the others. Even though the estimates of ...

  11. Socio- Demographic Factors And Non- Immunization In Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh H

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available An Investigation was conducted to evaluate various socio- demographic variables and non- immunization in children of this region. Among all the children brought to well baby clinics, 20% were not immunized against any of the six killer diseases. Eighty two percent these were from social class I and II. Mothers of 50% and fathers of 40% non â€" immunized children were illiterate. Common factors for non- immunization were illness, ignorance and indifference.

  12. Comparative demographics of a Hawaiian forest bird community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillaumet, Alban; Woodworth, Bethany L.; Camp, Richard J.; Paxton, Eben

    2016-01-01

    Estimates of demographic parameters such as survival and reproductive success are critical for guiding management efforts focused on species of conservation concern. Unfortunately, reliable demographic parameters are difficult to obtain for any species, but especially for rare or endangered species. Here we derived estimates of adult survival and recruitment in a community of Hawaiian forest birds, including eight native species (of which three are endangered) and two introduced species at Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge, Hawaiʻi. Integrated population models (IPM) were used to link mark–recapture data (1994–1999) with long-term population surveys (1987–2008). To our knowledge, this is the first time that IPM have been used to characterize demographic parameters of a whole avian community, and provides important insights into the life history strategies of the community. The demographic data were used to test two hypotheses: 1) arthropod specialists, such as the ‘Akiapōlā‘au Hemignathus munroi, are ‘slower’ species characterized by a greater relative contribution of adult survival to population growth, i.e. lower fecundity and increased adult survival; and 2) a species’ susceptibility to environmental change, as reflected by its conservation status, can be predicted by its life history traits. We found that all species were characterized by a similar population growth rate around one, independently of conservation status, origin (native vs non-native), feeding guild, or life history strategy (as measured by ‘slowness’), which suggested that the community had reached an equilibrium. However, such stable dynamics were achieved differently across feeding guilds, as demonstrated by a significant increase of adult survival and a significant decrease of recruitment along a gradient of increased insectivory, in support of hypothesis 1. Supporting our second hypothesis, we found that slower species were more vulnerable species at the global

  13. Demographic characteristics of exploited tropical lutjanids: a comparative analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Heupel, Michelle R.; Williams, Ashley A.; David J. Welch; Campbell R. Davies; Penny, Ann; Jacob P Kritzer; Marriott, Ross J.; Bruce D. Mapstone

    2010-01-01

    Demographic parameters from seven exploited coral reef lutjanid species were compared as a case study of the implications of intrafamily variation in life histories for multispecies harvest management. Modal lengths varied by 4 cm among four species (Lutjanus fulviflamma, L. vitta, L. carponotatus, L. adetii), which were at least 6 cm smaller than the modal lengths of the largest species (L. gibbus, Symphorus nematophorus, Aprion virescens). Modal ages, indicating ages of full selection to...

  14. Laser photogrammetry improves size and demographic estimates for whale sharks

    OpenAIRE

    Rohner, Christoph A.; Richardson, Anthony J.; Prebble, Clare E.M.; Marshall, Andrea D.; Bennett, Michael B.; Weeks, Scarla J.; Geremy Cliff; Wintner, Sabine P.; Pierce, Simon J.

    2015-01-01

    Whale sharks Rhincodon typus are globally threatened, but a lack of biological and demographic information hampers an accurate assessment of their vulnerability to further decline or capacity to recover. We used laser photogrammetry at two aggregation sites to obtain more accurate size estimates of free-swimming whale sharks compared to visual estimates, allowing improved estimates of biological parameters. Individual whale sharks ranged from 432–917 cm total length (TL) (mean ± SD = 673 ± 11...

  15. The Chi Linh Health and Demographic Surveillance System (CHILILAB HDSS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Bich Huu; Nguyen, Ha Thanh; Ho, Hien Thi; Pham, Cuong Viet; Le, Vui Thi; Le, Anh Vu

    2013-06-01

    The Chi Linh Health and Demographic Surveillance System (CHILILAB HDSS) is the only health and demographic surveillance system (HDSS) in an urbanizing area of the Chi Linh district of Hai Duong, a northern province of Vietnam. It is one of the few field laboratories in the world that links operational research and health interventions with field training. The CHILILAB HDSS provides longitudinal data on demographic and health indicators for the community of Chi Linh. In 2012, when the CHILILAB HDSS included 57,561 people from 17 993 households in 3 towns and 4 communes, it used structured questionnaires to collect information on population changes (birth, death, migration, marriage, and pregnancy) in the community. As of December 2012, 5 rounds of a baseline survey and 17 periodic update surveys or re-enumeration surveys had been conducted. In addition, several specialized public-health research projects, focused particularly on adolescent health, have been implemented by the CHILILAB HDSS. The information that the CHILILAB HDSS has gathered provides a picture of the health status of the population and socio-economic situation in Chi Linh district. The contact person for data sharing is the director of the CHILILAB (E-mail: thb@hsph.edu.vn).

  16. Burnout syndrome in physical therapists - demographic and organizational factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pustułka-Piwnik, Urszula; Ryn, Zdzisław Jan; Krzywoszański, Łukasz; Stożek, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    Professional burnout results from prolonged exposure to chronic, job-related stressors. According to Christina Maslach, professional burnout is a syndrome of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and reduced personal accomplishment. Literature includes a number of reports on burnout syndrome within health service, but hardly ever do they make any references to physiotherapists. The purpose of this study is assessment of the level of professional burnout in a group of physiotherapists and investigating relationships between the indices of burnout syndrome and selected demographic as well as organizational variables. The study group consisted of 151 physiotherapists with at least 3 years of experience, employed in various health service outposts in Krakow, Poland. The Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) was used to measure emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and personal accomplishment. A questionnaire for the description of socio-demographic and work characteristics was used as well. Job burnout among the physiotherapists was manifested by an increased emotional exhaustion and decreased sense of personal achievement. Emotional exhaustion was significantly higher among physi cal therapists working with adults and employed in hospitals, depersonalization was higher among men, hospital workers and employees with seniority from 15 to 19 years, personal accomplishment was decreased among men and less-educated therapists. The study confirmed that indicators of burnout in physiotherapists are significantly associated with selected demographic and organizational variables. It is necessary to undertake a more exhaustive study of burnout in this group of employees, and implement elements of prevention.

  17. Demographic and audiological factors as predictors of hearing handicap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leposavić Ljubica

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Currently available evidence reveals comparatively few studies of psychological effects of hearing impairments, in spite of the fact that clinicians have for a long time been aware of a connection between the acquired hearing impairment and mental disorders. They are focused on the investigation of dysfunction in general. Thus, three domains of the auditory imbalance may be distinguished: disorder, disability and handicap. 'Handicap', according to the definition of the World Health Organization, is a hindrance in an individual that results from an impairment or disability and represents psychological response of the individual to the impairment. OBJECTIVE Validation of acquired hearing impairment as a risk factor of psychical disorders as well as an analysis of relation of some demographic factors (sex, age, education and audiological factors (degree and duration of the impairment with the frequency of hearing handicap. METHOD MMPI-201 has been applied in 60 subjects affected with otosclerosis, potential candidates for stapedectomy, before and after the surgery. RESULTS Individuals with acquired hearing impairment manifest more frequent disorders of psychical functioning in comparison with general population, while demographic and audiometric parameters did not correlate with acquired hearing handicap. CONCLUSION It may be assumed that the very recognition of demographic and audio-logical factors can not help much in the understanding of the psychological stress associated with hearing impairment.

  18. Demographic Factors Affecting Internet Using Purposes of High School Students

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    Abdullah Faruk Kılıç

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at determining the impact of demographic factors on the Internet usage purposes of high school students. The population of the study consisted of students between 9th and 12th grades from the Anatolian high schools, science high schools, social sciences high schools, sports high schools and fine arts high schools in Turkey. The sample was chosen through the stratified and cluster sampling procedure. The students were chosen randomly depending on the regions of their school attendance. The sample for this research numbered 3170 students. The research was conducted in the second term of the 2014-2015 academic year. The data were obtained through online forms and the bases of participation are honesty, sincerity, and volunteerism. The data collection tool is a questionnaire and a demographic information form prepared by the researchers. Chi-square Automatic Interaction Detector (CHAID analysis was conducted through SPSS in order to determine the demographic factors affecting the purposes of internet usage among high school students. The results of this research show that 9th grade students in Turkey mostly use the Internet to do homework while students from other grades mostly use the Internet for social networking. The male students use the Internet for playing video games more frequently in comparison with female students. Also, socioeconomic status affects the purpose of Internet usage. Hence it is suggested that teachers talking to male students might use the examples of computers and games and with female students they might relate the topics to social media.

  19. CURRENT DEMOGRAPHIC TRENDS AND THEIR GEOPOLITICAL AND STRATEGIC REPERCUSSIONS

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    Ionel STOICA

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Major worldwide demographic trends impact significantly each aspect of people’s lives. The impact will be favorable for some states and completely unfavorable for others since they will depend not only on the magnitude of these tendencies, but also on the aggregated result of the inherent shifts and developments at political, economic, social and military level Global demographic trends will represent a genuine challenge for the powerful states to maintain the existing global political and economic equilibrium and they will also constitute a genuine shocking force for international security and stability. At the same time, they will represent one of the variables underpinning states’ strategies, and domestic and foreign policies and influencing political and military alliances in the future. It is likely that they will lead to the reassessment of the bases of international relations. This paper analyzes the presumed consequences of future demographic shifts on the economic, political, military field and proposes some possible solutions to efficiently manage the issue.

  20. Socio-demographic factors and edentulism: the Nigerian experience

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    Akeredolu Patricia

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rate of total edentulism is said to be increasing in developing countries and this had been attributed mainly to the high prevalence of periodontal diseases and caries. Several reports have shown that non-disease factors such as attitude, behavior, dental attendance, characteristics of health care systems and socio-demographic factors play important roles in the aetiopathogenesis of edentulism. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between socio-demographic factors and edentulism. Methods A total of 152 patients made up of 80 (52.6% males and 72 (47.4% females who presented in two prosthetic clinics located in an urban and a rural area were included in the study. The relationship between gender, age, socio-economic status and edentulism in this study population was established. Results No significant relationship between gender and denture demand was noted in the study. The demand for complete dentures increased with age while the demand for removable partial dentures also increased with age until the 3rd decade and then started to decline. A significant relationship was found between denture demand and the level of education with a higher demand in lower educational groups (p Conclusions The findings in this study revealed a significant relationship between socio-demographic variables and edentulism with age, educational level and socio-economic status playing vital roles in edentulism and denture demand.

  1. On the Statistical Dependency of Identity Theft on Demographics

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Crescenzo, Giovanni

    An improved understanding of the identity theft problem is widely agreed to be necessary to succeed in counter-theft efforts in legislative, financial and research institutions. In this paper we report on a statistical study about the existence of relationships between identity theft and area demographics in the US. The identity theft data chosen was the number of citizen complaints to the Federal Trade Commission in a large number of US municipalities. The list of demographics used for any such municipality included: estimated population, median resident age, estimated median household income, percentage of citizens with a high school or higher degree, percentage of unemployed residents, percentage of married residents, percentage of foreign born residents, percentage of residents living in poverty, density of law enforcement employees, crime index, and political orientation according to the 2004 presidential election. Our study findings, based on linear regression techniques, include statistically significant relationships between the number of identity theft complaints and a non-trivial subset of these demographics.

  2. Demographics of hip dysplasia in the Maine Coon cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loder, Randall T; Todhunter, Rory J

    2017-04-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to study the demographics of feline hip dysplasia (FHD) in the Maine Coon cat. Methods The complete hip dysplasia registry (public and private) collected by the Orthopedic Foundation for Animals through April 2015 was accessed. There were 2732 unique cats; 2708 (99.1%) were Maine Coons, and only these were studied. Variables analyzed were sex, month/season of birth and hip dysplasia score. Two groups were created: those with and without FHD. P dysplasia were older. The percentage of bilateral FHD was 56%, and bilateral cases had more severe dysplasia than unilateral cases but with no age difference. Month/season of birth or geographic region of origin did not influence the prevalence of FHD. Conclusions and relevance This is the largest demographic study of FHD in the Maine Coon cat. The overall prevalence in the Orthopedic Foundation for Animals registry was 24.9%, and slightly higher in males (27.3%) than females (23.3%). Dysplasia was more severe in bilateral than unilateral cases and with increasing age. Caution should be used when extrapolating these findings to other feline breeds or other groups of Maine Coon cats. Further studies need to be performed among other breeds and geographic locations to better understand the demographics of feline hip dysplasia.

  3. Demographic and psychological correlates of New Zealanders support for euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Carol Hj; Duck, Isabelle M; Sibley, Chris G

    2017-01-13

    To explore the distribution of New Zealanders' support towards the legalisation of euthanasia and examine demographic and psychological factors associated with these attitudes. 15,822 participants responded to the 2014/15 New Zealand Attitudes and Values Study (NZAVS) survey. This survey included an item on people's attitudes towards euthanasia, and information on their demographic and psychological characteristics. The majority of New Zealanders expressed support for euthanasia, which was assessed by asking "Suppose a person has a painful incurable disease. Do you think that doctors should be allowed by law to end the patient's life if the patient requests it?" Non-religious, liberal, younger, employed, non-parents and those living in rural areas were more supportive. Those of Pacific or Asian ethnicity, with lower income and higher deprivation, education and socio-economic status were less supportive. Furthermore, those high on extraversion, conscientiousness and neuroticism showed more support, while those high on agreeableness and honesty-humility exhibited less support. There is strong public support for euthanasia when people are asked whether doctors should be allowed by law to end the life of a patient with a painful incurable disease upon their request. There are reliable demographic and personality differences in support for euthanasia.

  4. Inferring Demographic History Using Two-Locus Statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragsdale, Aaron P; Gutenkunst, Ryan N

    2017-06-01

    Population demographic history may be learned from contemporary genetic variation data. Methods based on aggregating the statistics of many single loci into an allele frequency spectrum (AFS) have proven powerful, but such methods ignore potentially informative patterns of linkage disequilibrium (LD) between neighboring loci. To leverage such patterns, we developed a composite-likelihood framework for inferring demographic history from aggregated statistics of pairs of loci. Using this framework, we show that two-locus statistics are more sensitive to demographic history than single-locus statistics such as the AFS. In particular, two-locus statistics escape the notorious confounding of depth and duration of a bottleneck, and they provide a means to estimate effective population size based on the recombination rather than mutation rate. We applied our approach to a Zambian population of Drosophila melanogaster Notably, using both single- and two-locus statistics, we inferred a substantially lower ancestral effective population size than previous works and did not infer a bottleneck history. Together, our results demonstrate the broad potential for two-locus statistics to enable powerful population genetic inference. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  5. Who Enters Campus Recreation Facilities: A Demographic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Rohe Milton

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine student entry into a campus recreation center based on seven demographics (gender, ethnicity, age, class standing, intercollegiate athlete vs. non-athlete, students with self-reported disability vs. non-disability, and campus residence in order to determine who would be most likely to enter the recreation center. Subjects were from a mid-western, four year state-assisted institution with combined enrollment of 23,932 undergraduate and graduate students. Of the 23,932 enrolled, 14,032 students were examined in this study. Information on student entry to the recreation center was collected through the university’s student information system. Data was analyzed and interpreted using chi-square analysis. Results of the study show statistically significant differences in the demographics except the student disability demographic. More males than females, more African Americans than other ethnicities, more traditionally aged (18-25 students than non-traditional students, more underclassmen than seniors, more athletes and non-athletes, more residents than commuters were likely to enter the campus recreation center. The findings in this study could be used by collegiate recreational sport directors and administrators, in the United States and internationally, for future ideas about programming in similar recreation settings.

  6. Demographic Risks of the Pension Reform in the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkady Konstantinovich Solovyev

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to analyze the impact of the demographic crisis in the country’s fiscal system. In the article, the pension system for the first time is considered as a multifactorial model, which during the different historical periods corrects the degree of its dependence on the interdependent complex of macroeconomic and demographic factors. The economically sound and socially correct accounting of the interference of retirement age and the specified development factors of pension system requires a fundamental change in the methodological approaches to the problem of raising the retirement age by using the actuarial methods of forecasting. The actuarial analysis of the problem of retirement age shows that the perception of the linear dependence on demographic parameters of the age when the national pension is awarded cannot be considered as a tool for regulating the efficiency of the pension system. For the science-based solution to the problem of rising the retirement age, along with the dynamics of demographic parameters, it is necessary to take into account the whole range of macroeconomic conditions for the state development as well as the long-term socio-economic consequences. Another significant result of the study are the specific parameters of the actuarial assessments of the impact of demographic and macroeconomic conditions of increasing the retirement age in Russia, conducted using the state statistical data. The practical proposals to mitigate the negative economic consequences are formulated. The key conclusion reached is that the raising of the retirement age should be aimed exclusively at the economic stimulation of the formation of the pension rights of the insured in the long term, rather than to the short-term savings of the state budget. The methodological approaches grounded in the work, and the quantitative results of the actuarial calculations may be applied in the shaping the public pension policy when

  7. [Demographic approach to populations without writing: the Dogon example].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown-demonet, E

    1989-01-01

    Anthropologists, geneticists, and epidemiologists need clear and detailed descriptions of the demographic situation of the populations they study in order to stratify their samples and calculate their degrees of significance as well as to evaluate the impact of particular traits on their field of investigation. Census and other available demographic data are usually not sufficiently precise, especially in illiterate populations. Establishing the genealogies of all families, conducting a census of all residents to verify and complete the genealogies, and designing 1 or more specific surveys of fertility, marriage, infant mortality, migration, or other topics are recommended to satisfy the needs of a multidisciplinary research team. Data collection is the most delicate phase of a demographer's work. The quality of contacts with the study population will determine response rates and the efforts of the population to give exact and precise information. Establishment of genealogies requires a good knowledge of the kinship system and the exact meaning of kinship terms. Surveys will be necessary to establish fertility and mortality rates, which will be greatly underestimated by the genealogies and census. Specific surveys may be retrospective, prospective, or a combination, depending on available time and budget. In addition to the classic omissions that are often increased in illiterate populations by lapses of memory, the problems may arise of misunderstanding of demographic concepts and tabus against reporting of certain events or practices or against directly mentioning certain names such as those of deceased husbands. Variables lending themselves to misunderstanding and false interpretations may include such socioeconomic features as principal occupation, educational level, marital status, and even age. The greatest source of error in a demographic analysis not based on a reliable civil registration system is undoubtedly omission, some of which is voluntary and not

  8. The demographic effects of technological change and capitalist transformation--a re-interpretation of the demographic transition theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maitra, P

    1992-06-01

    The interrelationship between demographic transition, capitalist transformation, and technological change in the 2 contrasting cases of the UK and India is explored. In the UK, technological change evolved from the extensive to the intensive phase, while technological change was introduced in India from the UK and other developed economies. The Demographic Transition Model is re-examined for these cases while the extensive and intensive phases of technological change with their effects on labor demand and consequent effects on fertility rate are analyzed. Changes in economic structure, demography, and factor pricing systems are presented as indicators of capitalist transformation of an economy. At the onset of capitalist transformation, population growth tends to decline as a result of increasing demand for labor in productive activities. Accordingly, the pattern of population growth depends upon the growth of demand for labor in productive activities which in turn depends upon the nature of the source of technological change; Demographic Transition theory ignores this point. Debate remains over whether imported technology, once reaching maturity, may effect capitalist transformation of economies toward true integrated development.

  9. Sitting too much: A hierarchy of socio-demographic correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakerveld, Jeroen; Loyen, Anne; Schotman, Nina; Peeters, Carel F W; Cardon, Greet; van der Ploeg, Hidde P; Lien, Nanna; Chastin, Sebastien; Brug, Johannes

    2017-08-01

    Too much sitting (extended sedentary time) is recognized as a public health concern in Europe and beyond. Time spent sedentary is influenced and conditioned by clusters of individual-level and contextual (upstream) factors. Identifying population subgroups that sit too much could help to develop targeted interventions to reduce sedentary time. We explored the relative importance of socio-demographic correlates of sedentary time in adults across Europe. We used data from 26,617 adults who participated in the 2013 Special Eurobarometer 412 "Sport and physical activity". Participants from all 28 EU Member States were randomly selected and interviewed face-to-face. Self-reported sedentary time was dichotomized into sitting less or >7.5h/day. A Chi-squared Automatic Interaction Detection (CHAID) algorithm was used to create a tree that hierarchically partitions the data on the basis of the independent variables (i.e., socio-demographic factors) into homogeneous (sub)groups with regard to sedentary time. This allows for the tentative identification of population segments at risk for unhealthy sedentary behaviour. Overall, 18.5% of the respondents reported sitting >7.5h/day. Occupation was the primary discriminator. The subgroup most likely to engage in extensive sitting were higher educated, had white-collar jobs, reported no difficulties with paying bills, and used the internet frequently. Clear socio-demographic profiles were identified for adults across Europe who engage in extended sedentary time. Furthermore, physically active participants were consistently less likely to engage in longer daily sitting times. In general, those with more indicators of higher wealth were more likely to spend more time sitting. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Socio-demographic determinants of participation in mammography screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Euler-Chelpin, My; Olsen, Anne Helene; Njor, Sisse; Vejborg, Ilse; Schwartz, Walter; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2008-01-15

    Our objective was to use individual data on socio-demographic characteristics to identify predictors of participation in mammography screening and control to what extent they can explain the regional difference. We used data from mammography screening programmes in Copenhagen, 1991-1999, and Funen, 1993-2001, Denmark. Target groups were identified from the Population Register, screening data came from the health authority, and socio-demographic data from Statistics Denmark. Included were women eligible for at least 3 screens. The crude RR of never use versus always use was 3.21 (95%CI, 3.07-3.35) for Copenhagen versus Funen, and the adjusted RR was 2.55 (95%CI, 2.43-2.67). The adjusted RR for never use among women without contact to a primary care physician was 2.50 (95% CI, 2.31-2.71) and 2.89 (95% CI, 2.66-3.14), and for women without dental care 2.94 (95% CI, 2.77-3.12) and 2.88 (95% CI, 2.68-3.10) for Copenhagen and Funen, respectively. Other important predictive factors for nonparticipation were not being married and not being Danish. In conclusion, to enhance participation in mammography screening programmes special attention needs to be given to women not using other primary health care services. All women in Copenhagen, irrespective of their socio-demographic characteristics, had low participation. Screening programmes have to find ways to handle this urbanity factor. Copyright 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Robust demographic inference from genomic and SNP data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Excoffier

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a flexible and robust simulation-based framework to infer demographic parameters from the site frequency spectrum (SFS computed on large genomic datasets. We show that our composite-likelihood approach allows one to study evolutionary models of arbitrary complexity, which cannot be tackled by other current likelihood-based methods. For simple scenarios, our approach compares favorably in terms of accuracy and speed with ∂a∂i, the current reference in the field, while showing better convergence properties for complex models. We first apply our methodology to non-coding genomic SNP data from four human populations. To infer their demographic history, we compare neutral evolutionary models of increasing complexity, including unsampled populations. We further show the versatility of our framework by extending it to the inference of demographic parameters from SNP chips with known ascertainment, such as that recently released by Affymetrix to study human origins. Whereas previous ways of handling ascertained SNPs were either restricted to a single population or only allowed the inference of divergence time between a pair of populations, our framework can correctly infer parameters of more complex models including the divergence of several populations, bottlenecks and migration. We apply this approach to the reconstruction of African demography using two distinct ascertained human SNP panels studied under two evolutionary models. The two SNP panels lead to globally very similar estimates and confidence intervals, and suggest an ancient divergence (>110 Ky between Yoruba and San populations. Our methodology appears well suited to the study of complex scenarios from large genomic data sets.

  12. The effect of age and demographics on rib shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcombe, Sven A; Wang, Stewart C; Grotberg, James B

    2017-08-01

    Elderly populations have a higher risk of rib fractures and other associated thoracic injuries than younger adults, and the changes in body morphology that occur with age are a potential cause of this increased risk. Rib centroidal path geometry for 20 627 ribs was extracted from computed tomography (CT) scans of 1042 live adult subjects, then fitted to a six-parameter mathematical model that accurately characterizes rib size and shape, and a three-parameter model of rib orientation within the body. Multivariable regression characterized the independent effect of age, height, weight, and sex on the rib shape and orientation across the adult population, and statistically significant effects were seen from all demographic factors (P rib end-to-end separation and rib aspect ratio are seen to increase with age, producing elongated and flatter overall rib shapes in elderly populations, with age alone explaining up to 20% of population variability in the aspect ratio of mid-level ribs. Age was not strongly associated with overall rib arc length, indicating that age effects were related to shape change rather than overall bone length. The rib shape effect was found to be more strongly and directly associated with age than previously documented age-related changes in rib angulation. Other demographic results showed height and sex being most strongly associated with rib size, and weight most strongly associated with rib pump-handle angle. Results from the study provide a statistical model for building rib shapes typical of any given demographic by age, height, weight, and sex, and can be used to help build population-specific computational models of the thoracic rib cage. Furthermore, results also quantify normal population ranges for rib shape parameters which can be used to improve the assessment and treatment of rib skeletal deformity and disease. © 2017 Anatomical Society.

  13. Burnout syndrome in physical therapists – Demographic and organizational factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urszula Pustułka-Piwnik

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Professional burnout results from prolonged exposure to chronic, job-related stressors. According to Christina Maslach, professional burnout is a syndrome of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and reduced personal accomplishment. Literature includes a number of reports on burnout syndrome within health service, but hardly ever do they make any references to physiotherapists. The purpose of this study is assessment of the level of professional burnout in a group of physiotherapists and investigating relationships between the indices of burnout syndrome and selected demographic as well as organizational variables. Material and Methods: The study group consisted of 151 physiotherapists with at least 3 years of experience, employed in various health service outposts in Krakow, Poland. The Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI was used to measure emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and personal accomplishment. A questionnaire for the description of socio-demographic and work characteristics was used as well. Results: Job burnout among the physiotherapists was manifested by an increased emotional exhaustion and decreased sense of personal achievement. Emotional exhaustion was significantly higher among physical therapists working with adults and employed in hospitals, depersonalization was higher among men, hospital workers and employees with seniority from 15 to 19 years, personal accomplishment was decreased among men and less-educated therapists. Conclusions: The study confirmed that indicators of burnout in physiotherapists are significantly associated with selected demographic and organizational variables. It is necessary to undertake a more exhaustive study of burnout in this group of employees, and implement elements of prevention. Med Pr 2014;65(4:453–462

  14. Demographic Costs Associated with Differences in Habitat Space Occupancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Kelly A; Miles, Donald B

    2016-01-01

    Delimiting the habitat characteristics describing the environmental conditions required by a species has become a critical tool for predicting organismal responses to environmental change. Grinnell emphasized the effects of environmental factors on the ability of a population to maintain a positive growth rate, yet few studies have included demographic or reproductive data in analyses of the Grinnellian niche. Identifying differences in habitat exploitation patterns in response to structural variation in the environment presents an incomplete description of the ability of species to adapt to changing habitats if demographic traits are not included. We estimated the vegetation characteristics used by individuals within a population of hooded warblers (Setophaga citrina) across a spatial transect that includes three structurally different forest habitats. We predicted individuals should select similar structural characteristics within each habitat and have similar reproductive success across sample sites. In the two years post burn, adults were present but no young fledged indicating the habitat requirements necessary for reproduction were absent in this habitat. We found significant differences in habitat space occupied by individuals in unaltered and harvested habitats. Nesting habitats used by female warblers differed from available habitat. Fledging success was lower in the harvested habitat 10 to 12 years post-harvest. In the harvested habitat, fledging success was greater on mesic slopes but decreased along a habitat gradient to xeric ridgetops, suggesting compensation in habitat use does not ameliorate fitness costs. In contrast, there was no difference in the number of fledged young along this gradient in the unaltered habitat. Based solely on occupancy data, traditional ecological niche models would incorrectly conclude the environmental characteristics found across the three forested habitats are included in the Grinnellian niche of the hooded warbler

  15. Empathy, Burnout, Demographic Variables and their Relationships in Oncology Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taleghani, Fariba; Ashouri, Elaheh; Saburi, Morteza

    2017-01-01

    Development of nurse-patient empathic communication in the oncology ward is of great importance for the patients to relieve their psychological stress, however, nursing care of cancer patients is accompanied with high stress and burnout. The present study aimed to define the level of empathy and its association with burnout and some demographic characteristics of oncology nurses. This descriptive/correlation study was conducted in a professional cancer treatment center in Isfahan. Through census sampling, 67 oncology nurses were selected. The data collection tools were Jefferson Scale of Nursing Empathy, Maslach Burnout Inventory, and demographic characteristics questionnaire. Mean nurses' empathy and overall burnout scores were 62.28 out of 100 and 38.8 out of 100, respectively. Score of empathy showed an inverse correlation with overall burnout score (r = -0.189, P = 0.04), depersonalization (r = -0.218, P = 0.02), and personal accomplishment (r = -0.265, P = 0.01). Multiple regression test was used to detect which dimension of burnout was a better predictor for the reduction of empathy score. Results showed that the best predictors were lack of personal accomplishment (P = 0.02), depersonalization (P = 0.04), and emotional exhaustion (P = 0.14), respectively. The most influential demographic factor on empathy was work experience (r = 0.304, P = 0.004). One-way analysis of variance showed that official staff had a higher empathy score (f = 2.39, P = 0.045) and their burnout was lower (f = 2.56, P = 0.04). Results showed a negative relationship between empathy and burnout in oncology nurses. Therefore, nursing support from managers to reduce burnout increases empathic behavior of nurses.

  16. Crime vs. demographic factors revisited: Application of data mining methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingan Li

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to inquire about correlations between criminal phenomena and demographic factors. This international-level comparative study used a dataset covering 56 countries and 28 attributes. The data were processed with the Self-Organizing Map (SOM, assisted other clustering methods, and several statistical methods for obtaining comparable results. The article is an exploratory application of the SOM in mapping criminal phenomena through processing of multivariate data. We found out that SOM was able to group efficiently the present data and characterize these different groups. Other machine learning methods were applied to ensure groups computed with SOM. The correlations obtained between attributes were chiefly weak.

  17. Analytical properties of a three-compartmental dynamical demographic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postnikov, E. B.

    2015-07-01

    The three-compartmental demographic model by Korotaeyv-Malkov-Khaltourina, connecting population size, economic surplus, and education level, is considered from the point of view of dynamical systems theory. It is shown that there exist two integrals of motion, which enables the system to be reduced to one nonlinear ordinary differential equation. The study of its structure provides analytical criteria for the dominance ranges of the dynamics of Malthus and Kremer. Additionally, the particular ranges of parameters enable the derived general ordinary differential equations to be reduced to the models of Gompertz and Thoularis-Wallace.

  18. The quality of demographic data on older Africans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Randall

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Developing appropriate and equitable policies for older people in Africa requires accurate and reliable data. It is unclear whether existing data can accurately assess older African population structures, let alone provide the detailed information needed to inform policy decision-making. Objective: To evaluate the quality of nationally representative data on older Africans through examining the accuracy of age data collected from different sources. Methods: To measure the accuracy of age reporting overall we calculate Whipple's Index, and a modified Whipple's Index for older adults, using the single year age-sex distributions from (a the household roster of 17 Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS, (b the censuses of 12 of these countries, and (c the Living Standards Measurement Study (LSMS for Ethiopia and Niger. We compare reported sex ratios by age. Results: The quality of age data is very poor for most countries outside Southern Africa, especially for older adults. In some Sahelian countries DHS surveys appear to omit a considerable proportion of older women. Data on population structure of older people by age and sex produced by the DHS and the census are inconsistent and contradictory. Conclusions: Different field methodological approaches generate contradictory data on older Africans. With the exception of Southern Africa, it is impossible to assess accurately the basic demographic structure of the older population. The data available are so problematic that any conclusions about age-related health and welfare and their evolution over time and space are potentially compromised. This has ramifications for policymakers and practitioners who demand, fund, and depend on large-scale demographic data sources. Contribution: The paper highlights a number of problems with data on older Africans, beyond the well-known issues of age heaping. In doing so it contributes to general understanding of the limitations of existing demographic data

  19. Demographics of paediatric renal replacement therapy in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chesnaye, Nicholas; Bonthuis, Marjolein; Schaefer, Franz;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The ESPN/ERA-EDTA Registry collects data on European children with end-stage renal disease receiving renal replacement therapy (RRT) who are listed on national and regional renal registries in Europe. In this paper we report on the analysis of demographic data collected from 2009...... to 2011. METHODS: Data on primary renal disease, incidence, prevalence, 4-year survival, transplantation rate and causes of death in paediatric patients receiving RRT were extracted from the ESPN/ERA-EDTA Registry for 37 European countries. RESULTS: The incidence of RRT in paediatric patients in Europe...

  20. New developments in demographic targeting--the implications of 1991.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humby, C R

    1989-01-01

    This paper examines benefits that systems such as ACORN, a demographic marketing system that classifies neighborhoods, offer today and monitors some of the trends. It then considers the impact of the 1992 UK census and gives a view of what marketeers can expect in the next 5 years. Neighborhood classifications represent a summary of the consumption patterns of a set of neighbors. If we could reach individuals based on the current life stage the gains to be had would be as great again as that offered by the neighborhood classifications themselves. The greatest weakness of all the neighborhood-based systems is their inability to target at life stage or age.

  1. Demographic growth and development of spa places in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurđev Branislav S.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with analysis of population growth and components of demographic growth in five most important spa settlements in Serbia: Vrnjacka banja, Niska banj, Banja Koviljaca. As indices of demographic development, we have analyzed: natural and mechanical movement of population, age and sex, activity and sex, households and apartments in spa places. The finding is that demographic development of spa places in Serbia has been politically influenced. Due to dismantling state territory of former Yugoslavia, the choice of domestic tourist destination for Serbian population became smaller. Because of that, spas became more important tourist destination which fostered demographic growth of those places. The data analysis demonstrated that during the last six decades, population in all spa places increased with higher insensitive compare with the rest of Serbia. This is the result of high inmigration, particularly in the last decade, when the share of this movement was over 90%. The pacing of population ageing in spa places, did not follow ageing of total population in Serbia. Average age in Serbia between 1961-2002. increased for 31.8%, while in spas population ageing was more intensify with 36.4% increase. The number of household showed constant increase from census to census, as well as in Serbia as in each of spa places with no exception. Average size of household in spas in 1948. was smaller than the average in Serbia for almost one member. By the year 2002. the average sizes of households in spas and in Serbia was almost equalized. Spa places suffered sortage of apartments in 1948. By the year 2002. the evidence showed considerable surplus which as the biggest in Vrnjacka Banja spa. The amount of surplus was 15%, which is higher than the average in Serbia. The purpose of this surplus is rent and accommodation of spa visitors. Overall results point out that despite of population decrease of Serbia, spa places enjoy more and more permanent

  2. Demographic implications of the New United States certificates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunde, A S; Grove, R D

    1966-06-01

    To assist in developing uniform reporting of vital events among the fifty states, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands, the United States government prepares standard certificates of birth, fetal death, death, marriage, and divorce. These model forms are revised, with the assistance of the states, approximately every ten years. Revisions are now being prepared by the National Center for Health Statistics which will become effective beginning January 1, 1968. Important new source material for demography will be introduced.Most changes will appear in the Standard Certificate of Live Birth and in the Standard Certificate of Fetal Death. An item on education of father and mother will provide detailed national data on education and fertility. The date of the last live birth to the mother and the date of the last fetal death will provide information on previous pregnancy outcome and on child-spacing. The recording of state file numbers for mates born alive and dead in the same delivery will make it easier to match live birth and fetal death certificates for the preparation of detailed tabulations on multiple births. Several new items related to maternal and child health have also been added. No significent changes were planned for the Standard Certificate of Death.The Standard Certificate of Marriage will include as new items the education of the bride and groom, the date on which the last marriage, if any, ended, and specification of the officiant as a religious or civil official. The Standard Certificate of Divorce or Annulment will obtain information on the education of husband and wife, the approximate date on which the couple separated, the mode of dissolution of the previous marriage, and the total number of living children. It is anticipated that most of the new items will be included in the certificates of all the states. The National Center for Health Statistics will provide detailed tabulations related to these items, beginning with data year 1968.Demographers

  3. Demographics of mass customization: a global study of manufacturing plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovani José Caetano da Silveira

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study explores the demographic configuration of mass customization (MC manufacturing plants. It uses cluster analysis, ANOVA and correspondence analysis to test for differences in business unit size, location, and supply chain structure between MC and non-MC producers across the globe. The analysis uses data from an international survey of manufacturers of metal products, machinery, and instruments from 21 countries. Results indicate no significant differences in size, but significant differences in location and supply chain indicators between MC and non-MC plants. We also find renewed evidence of the positioning of MC plants in Hayes & Wheelwright's (1979 product and process matrix.

  4. The long goodbye: Age, demographics, and flexibility in retirement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David K. Foot

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The current literature on retirement decisions has given inadequate attention to the impacts of increasing life expectancy. This paper examines workforce aging and retirement within a framework that not only includes age, but also integrates increasing life expectancy into the discussion. Employee preference surveys regarding choice in retirement are supported by the demographic and by work-time compression arguments for retirement flexibility. We outlinearguments why partial-retirement policies would be a practical and timely transition strategy for organizations and societies in a world of increasing life expectancies and aging workforces,especially when facing the imminent retirement of the large post-war baby-boom generation.

  5. The long goodbye: Age, demographics, and flexibility in retirement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemary A. Venne

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The current literature on retirement decisions has given inadequate attention to the impacts of increasing life expectancy. This paper examines workforce aging and retirement within a framework that not only includes age, but also integrates increasing life expectancy into the discussion. Employee preference surveys regarding choice in retirement are supported by the demographic and by work-time compression arguments for retirement flexibility. We outlinearguments why partial-retirement policies would be a practical and timely transition strategy for organizations and societies in a world of increasing life expectancies and aging workforces,especially when facing the imminent retirement of the large post-war baby-boom generation.

  6. Quantifying the Search Behaviour of Different Demographics Using Google Correlate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Letchford

    Full Text Available Vast records of our everyday interests and concerns are being generated by our frequent interactions with the Internet. Here, we investigate how the searches of Google users vary across U.S. states with different birth rates and infant mortality rates. We find that users in states with higher birth rates search for more information about pregnancy, while those in states with lower birth rates search for more information about cats. Similarly, we find that users in states with higher infant mortality rates search for more information about credit, loans and diseases. Our results provide evidence that Internet search data could offer new insight into the concerns of different demographics.

  7. SOCIO DEMOGRAPHIC VARIABLES’ IMPACT ON HOSPITALIZED PATIENT SATISFACTION IN ALBANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezarta Kalaja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Patient satisfaction is one of the several ways to evaluate quality of health service, composing an effective indicator to measure the success of hospitals. In this context determining main factors that contributes in patient satisfaction is crucial to improve quality in healthcare delivery. Respective literature suggest that socio-demographic factors serve as main drivers for patient satisfaction, therefore through this article based on the ground survey methodology it is measure the existing linkages between gender, age, level of education and incomes and patient satisfaction in Albania.

  8. Birth tourism: socio-demographic and statistical aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoly V. Korotkov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to research birth tourism issue. The article gives the socio-demographic and statistical aspects of research problems of birth inbound tourism in the Russian Federation. Following the literature analysis, the degree of study for birth tourism lags behind its actual size. Currently, the media has accumulated a significant amount of information on birth tourism in Russia, that requires processing, systematization and understanding that can and should become an independent area of study of sociologists and demographers to develop recommendations for the management of socio-demographic processes in birth tourism in our country. It is necessary to identify the problems that will inevitably arise. At present, this process is almost not regulated.These problems are complex, it requires the joint efforts of sociologists and demographers. However, it is impossible to obtain reliable results and to develop management decisions without attention to the statistical aspect of this problem. It is necessary to create methodological support for collecting and information processing and model development of the birth tourism. At the initial stage it is necessary to identify the direction and objectives of the analysis to determine the factors in the development of this process, to develop a hierarchical system of statistical indicators, to receive the information, needed for calculating of specific indicators.The complex research of the birth tourism issues should be based on the methodology of sociology, demography and statistics, including statistical observation, interviews with residents, structure analysis and birth tourism concentration in the country, the analysis of the dynamics, classification of factors and reasons, the grouping of regions for the development of the studied processes and, of course, the development of economic-statistical indicators.The article reveals the problem of the significant influence of the

  9. Growth-Maximizing Public Debt under Changing Demographics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bokan, Nikola; Hougaard Jensen, Svend E.; Hallett, Andrew Hughes

    2016-01-01

    parameters, but not if the government is not allowed to borrow to cover revenue shortfalls for current age-related spending. In that context, balanced budget rules are not an approriate form of fiscal rule. The implication is that a government facing demograhic change or demands for more welfare spending...... will have to adjust its fiscal plans to accommodate those changes, most likely downward, if growth is to be preserved. An advantage of this model is that it allows us to determine in advance the way in which fiscal policies need to adjust as demographic parameters change....

  10. How attitude certainty tempers the effects of faultlines in demographically diverse teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grow, Andre; Flache, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Lau and Murnighan's faultline theory suggests that strong demographic faultlines can undermine cohesion in work teams. A strong faultline splits a team into internally homogeneous but mutually dissimilar subgroups based on demographic characteristics. Social influence processes within these subgroup

  11. How attitude certainty tempers the effects of faultlines in demographically diverse teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grow, Andre; Flache, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Lau and Murnighan's faultline theory suggests that strong demographic faultlines can undermine cohesion in work teams. A strong faultline splits a team into internally homogeneous but mutually dissimilar subgroups based on demographic characteristics. Social influence processes within these subgroup

  12. Distribution and Demographics of Marine Mammals in SOCAL Through Photo-Identification, Genetics, and Satellite Telemetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    DEMOGRAPHICS OF MARINE MAMMALS IN SOCAL THROUGH PHOTO-IDENTIFICATION, GENETICS, AND SATELLITE TELEMETRY by Erin A. Falcone and Gregory S. Schorr...Provost This report entitled “Distribution and demographics of marine ...GREGORY S. SCHORR Biologist

  13. Economic Growth, Demographic Change and Rural-Urban Migration in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Fu-ning; LI Qing; XIANG Jing; ZHU Jing

    2013-01-01

    Is China able to maintain fast growth after three decades? This paper tries to answer this question by:1) arguing that factors contributed to sustained long-run growth at supply side; 2) focusing on contributions of demographic dividend especially that of rural-urban migration; and 3) analyzing rural demographic change with information collected through village-wide household survey. Policy alternatives to realize remaining potential demographic dividend are proposed based on the analysis of changing rural demographic structure.

  14. Demographic-Based Content Analysis of Web-Based Health-Related Social Media

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Background An increasing number of patients from diverse demographic groups share and search for health-related information on Web-based social media. However, little is known about the content of the posted information with respect to the users’ demographics. Objective The aims of this study were to analyze the content of Web-based health-related social media based on users’ demographics to identify which health topics are discussed in which social media by which demographic groups and to he...

  15. Demographic Component-Support of Regional Economic Development. Case Study: Tecuci Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian Sorcaru

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Regional economic development is strongly conditioned by the demographic component,the analysis of demographic trends and demographicprojections serving to substantiate properdevelopment plans and strategies. This study aims to determine the demographic trend of humansettlements in the Tecuci Plain, a space that can get the future status of micro-region, to identify thefavorability and/or restriction factors, to draw upuseful demographic projections for policy makers atlocal and regional level.

  16. Conversion of Verbal Response Scales: Robustness Across Demographic Categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJonge, Tineke; Veenhoven, Ruut; Moonen, Linda; Kalmijn, Wim; van Beuningen, Jacqueline; Arends, Lidia

    Happiness and life satisfaction have traditionally been measured using verbal response scales, however, these verbal scales have not kept up with the present trend to use numerical response scales. A switch from a verbal scale to a numerical scale, however, causes a severe problem for trend analyses, due to the incomparability of the old and new measurements. The Reference Distribution Method is a method that has been developed recently to deal with this comparison problem. In this method use is made of a reference distribution based on responses to a numerical scale which is used to decide at which point verbally labelled response options transit from one state to another, for example from 'happy' to 'very happy'. Next, for each wave of the time series in which the verbal scale is used, a population mean is estimated for the beta distribution that fits best to these transition points and the responses in this wave. These estimates are on a level that is comparable to that of the mean of the reference distribution and are appropriate for use in an extended time series based on the responses measured using a verbal and a numerical scale. In this paper we address the question of whether the transition points derived for the general population can be used for demographic categories to produce reliable, extended time series to monitor differences in trends among these categories. We conclude that this is possible and that it is not necessary to derive transition points for each demographic category separately.

  17. Demographic increase in the context of divorce and extramarital partnership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polovina Nada

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic goal of this paper is to point to the scope and significance of the share of divorce and extramarital partnership in the issues related to demographic increase. The paper consists of three parts. The first part discusses the relevant demographic data which - through the increase of the divorce rates and the rates of children born extramaritally, as well as through the specification of general indicators within these categories of population (age, marriage length, education, job - indirectly point to the reduction and impoverishment of the reproductive potentials in this subpopulation. The second part of the paper presents contemporary theoretical-research argumentation which tends to explain the dynamics of the functioning of the pattern of family and heterosexual partnership (postulates of evolution psychology, psychology of sex roles, psychology of reproductive behaviour and sociology of family. The third part presents the concluding remarks and the standpoints of the author herself about the need to construct a new thinking area and discourse which would follow the created changes and processes, as well as to preserve in them the idea of longstanding co-operative relations in which man and woman, in new life conditions and realities, contribute to the benefit of the descendents.

  18. Socio-demographic predictors of person-organization fit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merecz-Kot, Dorota; Andysz, Aleksandra

    2017-02-21

    The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between socio-demographic characteristics and the level of complementary and supplementary person-organization fit (P-O fit). The study sample was a group of 600 Polish workers, urban residents aged 19-65. Level of P-O fit was measured using the Subjective Person-Organization Fit Questionnaire by Czarnota-Bojarska. The binomial multivariate logistic regression was applied. The analyzes were performed separately for the men and women. Socio-demographic variables explained small percentage of the outcome variability. Gender differences were found. In the case of men shift work decreased complementary and supplementary fit, while long working hours decreased complementary fit. In the women, age was a stimulant of a complementary fit, involuntary job losses predicted both complementary and supplementary misfit. Additionally, relational responsibilities increased probability of supplementary P-O fit in the men. Going beyond personality and competences as the factors affecting P-O fit will allow development of a more accurate prediction of P-O fit. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2017;30(1):133-139.

  19. IUD Expulsion and its Socio-demographic Determinants in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Objective To identify the determinant of the occurrence of IUD expulsionMaterials & Methods Based on 25 733 IUD uses from the Chinese Two-per-Thou-sand Fertility Survey data, this study examines the patterns and differentials of IUDexpulsion rate by characteristics of women, and identifies the socio-demographic deter-minants of IUD expulsion. A Life Table method was used to calculate the cumulativeexpulsion rate and a random-effects discrete-time survival model was employed to as-sess the impact of potential determinants simultaneously on the risk of expelling anIUD.Results Three major findings are observed in this study. First, IUD expulsion wasthe second main reason, after pregnancy during IUD use, for IUD discontinuationduring the first four years of IUD insertion; the expulsion rates were 6. 4%, 9. 1%,10. 8 %, and 12. 0% at 12, 24, 36and 48months, respectively. Second, there was aclustering of IUD expulsion: some women experienced repeated IUD expulsions.Third, some socio-demographic characteristics and fertility history were associatedwith the occurrence of IUD expulsion. In particular, the expulsion rate was highamong young women, among those with two or more children and among those livingin rural areas.Conclusion The above mentioned factors shoald be addressed in order to decrease theIUD expulsion rate and enhance the reprocluctive he alth of women.

  20. Socio-Demographic Predictors of EFL Teacher Efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şenay YAVUZ

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Research on teachers’ beliefs and their impact on teacher cognition has been arelevant topic for educational inquiry for some decades. Teachers’ actions are tied totheir beliefs, perceptions, assumptions and motivation levels. Thus, research on teachers’beliefs is crucial in determining the way teachers understand and organize instruction.One important belief that appears to be an important influence on teacher and studentoutcomes is teacher efficacy. In accordance with this view and due to the increasingdemand for English as a foreign language education, the present study aimed to assessEFL teachers’ efficacy level and explore the socio-demographic predictors of teacherefficacy in an EFL setting, i.e., Turkey. 226 EFL teachers working at the preparatoryschools of public and private universities in Istanbul participated in this study. Data werecollected by means of quantitative methods; i.e., the Ohio State Teacher Efficacy Scale(adapted from Tschannen-Moran & Hoy, 2001 and the School-Level EnvironmentQuestionnaire (Fisher & Fraser, 1990.Data collected by means of these instruments weresubmitted to correlation and regression analysis and independent samples t-tests. Resultsof the study showed that the number of professional activities teachers were involved in,average number of students in teachers’ classes, working position, type of institution, andgender were the socio-demographic factors that predicted variations in EFL teachers’efficacy in this study.

  1. Illuminating Free-floating Planet Demographics with Keck AO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Calen B.

    2017-01-01

    The frequency and mass function of free-floating planets (FFPs) are unknown. Gravitational microlensing is able to explore the demographics of FFPs, which are identifiable as short-timescale microlensing events, lasting of-order 1 day for Jupiter-mass planets. In 2011, the MOA ground-based microlensing survey group announced the discovery of an excess of short-timescale microlensing events over what was expected from Galactic models that incorporate stellar densities and kinematics. They account for this excess by positing a population of Jupiter-mass FFPs that outnumbers stars by a ratio of nearly 2:1. However, there are several other possible astrophysical explanations for short-timescale microlensing events, including bound planets on wide orbits and high-velocity stars. Although the specific events identified by MOA lack mass measurements, high-resolution imaging can determine whether the lens systems are luminous, which would exclude the FFP conclusion through proof by contradiction. We have taken H-band adaptive optics (AO) observations of the MOA FFP candidates using NIRC2 on Keck II in order to test this result. Here I will present preliminary results from these AO observations, which will help inform our understanding of the demographics of FFPs.

  2. Status competition, inequality, and fertility: implications for the demographic transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenk, Mary K; Kaplan, Hillard S; Hooper, Paul L

    2016-04-19

    The role that social status plays in small-scale societies suggests that status may be important for understanding the evolution of human fertility decisions, and for understanding how such decisions play out in modern contexts. This paper explores whether modelling competition for status--in the sense of relative rank within a society--can help shed light on fertility decline and the demographic transition. We develop a model of how levels of inequality and status competition affect optimal investment by parents in the embodied capital (health, strength, and skills) and social status of offspring, focusing on feedbacks between individual decisions and socio-ecological conditions. We find that conditions similar to those in demographic transition societies yield increased investment in both embodied capital and social status, generating substantial decreases in fertility, particularly under conditions of high inequality and intense status competition. We suggest that a complete explanation for both fertility variation in small-scale societies and modern fertility decline will take into account the effects of status competition and inequality. © 2016 The Author(s).

  3. Demographic analysis from summaries of an age-structured population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, William A.; Royle, J. Andrew; Hatfield, Jeff S.

    2003-01-01

    Demographic analyses of age-structured populations typically rely on life history data for individuals, or when individual animals are not identified, on information about the numbers of individuals in each age class through time. While it is usually difficult to determine the age class of a randomly encountered individual, it is often the case that the individual can be readily and reliably assigned to one of a set of age classes. For example, it is often possible to distinguish first-year from older birds. In such cases, the population age structure can be regarded as a latent variable governed by a process prior, and the data as summaries of this latent structure. In this article, we consider the problem of uncovering the latent structure and estimating process parameters from summaries of age class information. We present a demographic analysis for the critically endangered migratory population of whooping cranes (Grus americana), based only on counts of first-year birds and of older birds. We estimate age and year-specific survival rates. We address the controversial issue of whether management action on the breeding grounds has influenced recruitment, relating recruitment rates to the number of seventh-year and older birds, and examining the pattern of variation through time in this rate.

  4. Germ banks affect the inference of past demographic events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Živković, Daniel; Tellier, Aurélien

    2012-11-01

    Continuous progress in empirical population genetics based on the whole-genome polymorphism data requires the theoretical analysis of refined models in order to interpret the evolutionary history of populations with adequate accuracy. Recent studies focus prevalently on the aspects of demography and adaptation, whereas age structure (for example, in plants via the maintenance of seed banks) has attracted less attention. Germ banking, that is, seed or egg dormancy, is a prevalent and important life-history trait in plants and invertebrates, which buffers against environmental variability and modulates species extinction in fragmented habitats. Within this study, we investigate the combined effect of germ banking and time-varying population size on the neutral coalescent and particularly derive the allele frequency spectrum under some simplifying assumptions. We then perform an ABC analysis using two simple demographic scenarios-a population expansion and an instantaneous decline. We demonstrate the appreciable influence of seed banks on the estimation of demographic parameters depending on the germination rate with biases scaled by the square of the germination rate. In the more complex case of a population bottleneck, which comprises an instantaneous decline and an expansion phase, ignoring information on the germination rate denies reliable estimates of the bottleneck parameters via the allelic spectrum. In particular, when seeds remain in the bank over several generations, recent expansions may remain invisible in the frequency spectrum, whereas ancient declines leave signatures much longer than in the absence of seed bank.

  5. Evacuee Compliance Behavior Analysis using High Resolution Demographic Information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Wei [ORNL; Han, Lee [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Liu, Cheng [ORNL; Tuttle, Mark A [ORNL; Bhaduri, Budhendra L [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine whether evacuee compliance behavior with route assignments from different resolutions of demographic data would impact the evacuation performance. Most existing evacuation strategies assume that travelers will follow evacuation instructions, while in reality a certain percent of evacuees do not comply with prescribed instructions. In this paper, a comparison study of evacuation assignment based on Traffic Analysis Zones (TAZ) and high resolution LandScan USA Population Cells (LPC) were conducted for the detailed road network representing Alexandria, Virginia. A revised platform for evacuation modeling built on high resolution demographic data and activity-based microscopic traffic simulation is proposed. The results indicate that evacuee compliance behavior affects evacuation efficiency with traditional TAZ assignment, but it does not significantly compromise the efficiency with high resolution LPC assignment. The TAZ assignment also underestimates the real travel time during evacuation, especially for high compliance simulations. This suggests that conventional evacuation studies based on TAZ assignment might not be effective at providing efficient guidance to evacuees. From the high resolution data perspective, traveler compliance behavior is an important factor but it does not impact the system performance significantly. The highlight of evacuee compliance behavior analysis should be emphasized on individual evacuee level route/shelter assignments, rather than the whole system performance.

  6. Genealogy and Demographic History of a Widespread Amphibian throughout Indochina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Christopher; Davy, Christina M; Ngo, Andre; Orlov, Nikolai L; Shi, Hai-tao; Lu, Shun-qing; Gao, Lan; Rao, Ding-qi; Murphy, Robert W

    2013-01-01

    Relatively little is known about spatial patterns of cryptic diversity in tropical species and the processes that generate them. Few studies examine the geographic distribution of genetic lineages in Southeast Asia, an area hypothesized to harbor substantial cryptic diversity. We investigated the evolutionary history of Asian tree frogs of the Polypedates leucomystax complex (n = 172) based on 1800 bp of the mtDNA genes ND1 and cytochrome b and tested hypotheses pertaining to climate, geology, and dispersal patterns. Analyses revealed substantial genetic diversity and lineage divergence throughout the region with evidence for widespread sympatric lineages and a general north versus south clustering. Relaxed molecular clock analysis and tests for demographic expansion identified an initial cladogenesis during the Miocene with subsequent Plio-Pleistocene diversification, with the former corresponding to periods of increased aridity and the onset of monsoonal weather systems. Rates of diversification were relatively constant until the Early Pleistocene when rates increased exponentially. We found equivocal evidence for isolation-by-distance and a potential role of some landscape features as partial barriers to dispersal. Finally, our analyses showed that divergence between insular and mainland populations occurred before Homo sapiens colonized Southeast Asia, suggesting that historical human-mediated dispersal did not drive insular diversification. Our results suggested that demographic expansion in the Late Pleistocene resulted in widespread sympatric lineages in the P. leucomystax complex throughout southern China and Indochina and further clarified the evolutionary history of lineages within P. leucomystax.

  7. Socio-demographic predictors of person–organization fit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Merecz-Kot

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between socio-demographic characteristics and the level of complementary and supplementary person–organization fit (P–O fit. Material and Methods: The study sample was a group of 600 Polish workers, urban residents aged 19–65. Level of P–O fit was measured using the Subjective Person–Organization Fit Questionnaire by Czarnota-Bojarska. The binomial multivariate logistic regression was applied. The analyzes were performed separately for the men and women. Results: Socio-demographic variables explained small percentage of the outcome variability. Gender differences were found. In the case of men shift work decreased complementary and supplementary fit, while long working hours decreased complementary fit. In the women, age was a stimulant of a complementary fit, involuntary job losses predicted both complementary and supplementary misfit. Additionally, relational responsibilities increased probability of supplementary P–O fit in the men. Conclusions: Going beyond personality and competences as the factors affecting P–O fit will allow development of a more accurate prediction of P–O fit. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2017;30(1:133–149

  8. Demographic data of thyroiditis from a south Indian city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramila Kalra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Thyroiditis involves thyroid gland inflammation due to a wide variety of causes. The common varieties are subacute, silent and postpartum thyroiditis. Aims and Objectives: To retrospectively collect demographic data of thyroiditis from Bangalore over the past 5 years. Materials and Methods: Data were collected from three major nuclear medicine centers in Bangalore of the patients who came for technetium (Tc 99m pertechnetate scan of the thyroid. The diagnosis was based on the Tc 99 scan evidence of thyroiditis in these patients and biochemical evidence of thyrotoxicosis. Results: The total number of cases recorded were 2513. The females were more commonly affected compared with males with sex distribution of 1698 females and 815 females (2:1. The mean age of females was 32.5 ± 11.3 years whereas the mean age of males was 37.2 ± 12.4 years. The highest numbers of cases were recorded in the months of June and August. Conclusions: The females developed thyroiditis frequently and at an earlier age when compared with males. This data could give us an insight into the demographic pattern of thyroiditis in our country and may help in planning future preventive strategies.

  9. Epidemiology of adult congenital heart disease: demographic variations worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, B J M

    2012-12-01

    The population of adults with a congenital heart defect (CHD) is increasing, due to improved survival after cardiac surgery. To accommodate the specialised care for these patients, a profound interest in the epidemiology of CHD is required. The exact size of the current population of adults with CHD is unknown, but the best available evidence suggests that currently overall prevalence of CHD in the adult population is about 3000 per million. Regional differences in CHD prevalence have been described, due to both variations in incidence and in mortality. Knowledge of demographic variations of CHD may lead to new aetiological insights and may be useful for preventive therapies. Socioeconomic status, education, urbanisation, climatological factors, ethnicity and patient-related factors, such as comorbidity, lifestyle and healthcare-seeking behaviour, may play a role in CHD incidence and mortality. The higher risk of several major cardiac outcomes in males with CHD might well explain at least partly the increased mortality rate in men. Regional differences in quality of life among CHD patients have been reported and although methodological differences may play a role, sociocultural differences warrant further attention. Socioeconomic outcomes in CHD patients, such as lower education, more unemployment and less relationships, might have a different impact on quality of life in different cultures. To gain more insight into demographic differences around the world large international multicentre studies on the epidemiology of CHD are needed.

  10. Association between Social and Demographic Factors with Feeding Methods in

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Gholamalizadeh

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Healthy Nutrition has an important role in childhood. Food habits of a child probably will continue to adulthood and increase the risk of many chronic diseases. Role of parents in child nutrition as a food producer and eating pattern has recognized to most important factor of child nutrition. Recent studies have shown that the methods used by parents to child feeding have an important role in the child’s diet and BMI. This paper aimed to investigate which parents use which types of parenting control practices to manage their children’s nutrition. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 208 parents with children aged 3-6 years was carried out in 30 primary schools. Measures included demographic and social factors and aspects of child feeding practices.Results: Results showed that stay at home mothers used more modeling practices. Mothers of sons used more pressure to eat than others. Older mothers used less pressure to eat. Mothers with higher BMI used more emotion regulation strategy and less modeling. And mothers with more education used more modeling.Conclusion: The results showed a significant relationship between demographic and social factors with aspects of the feeding practices.

  11. Demographics of orofacial clefts in Canada from 2002 to 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavri, Sabrina; Forrest, Christopher R

    2013-03-01

    Objective : Orofacial clefts such as cleft lip, cleft palate, and cleft lip and palate are the most frequent congenital anomalies of the head and neck. The purpose of this study was to determine the current demographics for orofacial clefts in Canada. Methods : A request for data from all Canadian provinces (excluding Quebec due to incompatibilities with provincial coding systems) for the fiscal years 2002-2003 to 2007-2008 was submitted to the Canadian Institute for Health Information. Variables evaluated included gender, cleft type, gestational age, birth weight, income quintile, and institution health region. Results : Over the period studied, the prevalence of orofacial clefts ranged from 11.0 to 15.3 per 10,000 live births (1 in 654 to 1 in 909 live births). The distribution of cleft types for live births with orofacial clefts was 17% for cleft lip, 41% for cleft palate, and 42% for cleft lip and palate, of which cleft lip and cleft lip and palate were male dominant (62% and 66% male, respectively) and cleft palate was female dominant (56% female). Saskatchewan and Manitoba had significantly higher cleft birthrates (P orofacial clefting compared with those with no cleft. Conclusions : Canada has one of the highest orofacial cleft birthrates in the world (prevalence of 12.7 per 10,000 live births, approximately 1 in 790 live births). This study presents an updated demographic of orofacial clefts in Canadian newborns and may be useful in predicting the burden of anticipated health care.

  12. Socio-demographic influences on food purchasing among Canadian households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricciuto, L; Tarasuk, V; Yatchew, A

    2006-06-01

    To characterize the relationships between selected socio-demographic factors and food selection among Canadian households. A secondary analysis of data from the 1996 Family Food Expenditure survey was conducted (n=10,924). Household food purchases were classified into one of the five food groups from Canada's Food Guide to Healthy Eating. Parametric and non-parametric modelling techniques were employed to analyse the effects of household size, composition, income and education on the proportion of income spent on each food group and the quantity purchased from each food group. Household size, composition, income and education together explained 21-29% of the variation in food purchasing. Households with older adults spent a greater share of their income on vegetables and fruit (Pfood groups (Pfoods (Psocio-demographic characteristics have a strong influence on food purchasing, with the purchase of vegetables and fruit being particularly sensitive. Results reinforce concerns about constraints on food purchasing among lower income households. Furthermore, the differential effects of income and education on food choice need to be considered in the design of public health interventions aimed at altering dietary behaviour.

  13. Demographic history of the Tibetan antelope Pantholops hodgsoni(chiru)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Rong DU; Song-Chang GUO; Zhao-Feng WANG; Hai-Xing CI; Zhen-Yuan CAI; Qian ZHANG; Jian-Ping SU; Jian-Quan LIU

    2010-01-01

    The Tibetan antelope(chiru,Pantholops hodgsoni),a heavily poached species and symbol of the QinghaiTibetan Plateau(QTP),is noted worldwide for its special calving migration.This species originated in the early Quaternary and it is interesting to know how the following climatic oscillations affected its demographic dynamics in the climate-sensitive QTP.In this study,we analyzed the mitochondrial D-loop region from 312 individuals sampled in all of the six major populations.We found high rates of gene flow and little genetic differentiation between populations,suggesting that the calving migration may have homogenized the genetic pool of this species.Both mismatch distribution analyses and coalescent simulations suggested that this species experienced a demographic expansion approximately 600-200 Kyt following the retreat of the large glaciers developed in the QTP at 800-600 Kyr,rather than at the end of the last glacial age,as previously suggested based on a limited sample size.In addition,we found evidence of a chiru population decrease probably related to the human settings at the QTP during the middle Holocene.

  14. [The demographic development in Germany : challenge and chances for urology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, A W; Fichtner, J

    2014-08-01

    Urology is affected by the demographic development in Germany more than any other medical discipline. Despite a relatively stable total population, by the year 2040 there will be an absolute and relevant increase in urological diseases caused only by the demographic development in the population. This is particularly true for the increase in oncological treatment just in the field of the discipline of urology. Even now the current numbers for tumor development in Germany (RKI 2014) in the urological oncology segment of all tumor diseases show an increasing trend with more than 23 %. This significant increase in performance is in contrast to the age development of the specialists in this discipline. In total but especially due to the significantly over-aged specialist medical profession in urology, this leads to a substantial bottleneck of specialists in the discipline of urology. This deficiency of personnel resources in urology is aggravated by the requirements of Generation Y for a well-adjusted work-life balance and the associated feminization of the medical profession. This requires intelligent strategies for.

  15. Socio-Demographic and Cognitive Determinants of Breast Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Mirzaei-Alavijeh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is one of the causes of cancer death among women. In developed countries, one out of every nine women is diagnosed with this type of cancer. The purpose of this study was to determine the socio-demographic and cognitive determinants related to breast cancer screening among Iranian women’s based on the protection motivation theory (PMT. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 385 women’s aged 35 to 50 years old referred to health centers in Abadan city, the southwest of Iran, during 2016. Participants filled out a self-administered questionnaire. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 21 using bivariate correlation, and logistic regression statistical tests at 95% significant level. The mean age of respondents was 39.12 years [95% CI: 38.72, 39.53], ranged from 35 to 50 years. Almost 7.5% and 19.1% of the participants had mammography and self-breast examination during last year. Age, education and positive history of breast cancer among family were the best socio-demographic predictive factors of breast cancer screening. Also among theoretical constructs of PMT, perceived severity and self-efficacy were the best predictors on breast cancer screening. Based on our result, it seems that designing and implementation of educational programs to increase seriousness about side effect of breast cancer and increase self-efficacy toward breast cancer screening behavior may be usefulness of the results in order to prevent of breast cancer.

  16. Sessile serrated adenomas: Demographic, endoscopic and pathological characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurudu, Suryakanth R; Heigh, Russell I; Petris, Giovanni De; Heigh, Evelyn G; Leighton, Jonathan A; Pasha, Shabana F; Malagon, Isaac B; Das, Ananya

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To study the demographic and endoscopic characteristics of patients with sessile serrated adenoma (SSA) in a single center. METHODS: Patients with SSA were identified by review of the pathology database of Mayo Clinic Arizona from 2005 to 2007. A retrospective chart review was performed to extract data on demographics, polyp characteristics, presence of synchronous adenomatous polyps or cancer, polypectomy methods, and related complications. RESULTS: One hundred and seventy-one (2.9%) of all patients undergoing colonoscopy had a total of 226 SSAs. The mean (SE) size of the SSAs was 8.1 (0.4) mm; 42% of SSAs were ≤ 5 mm, and 69% were ≤ 9 mm. Fifty-one per cent of SSAs were located in the cecum or ascending colon. Approximately half of the patients had synchronous polyps of other histological types, including hyperplastic and adenomatous polyps. Synchronous adenocarcinoma was present in seven (4%) cases. Ninety-seven percent of polyps were removed by colonoscopy. CONCLUSION: Among patients with colon polyps, 2.9% were found to have SSAs. Most of the SSAs were located in the right side and were safely managed by colonoscopy. PMID:20632442

  17. Newer Demographic Development of the Settlement of Murter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Podgorelec

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available Murter is the largest settlement on the same-named island and also in the entire Šibenik archipelago. As opposed to most of the settlements on the island, its population was less involved in earlier emigration flows, whereas newer emigration began to effect Murter only after the sixties. The effect of the depopulation period is visible in the changes of the age-sex structure, where can be seen primarily in ageing of the population and a disproportion in the sex ratio. Yet it can be confirmed that the settlement of Murter has not such an unfavourable demographic situation as do most Dalmatian islands. A slightly falling birth rate can be noticed, as well as a slight increase in the death rate. The demographic perspective of this population is relatively favourable (due to an expected development of tourism, development of agriculture and trades, nautical infrastructures etc., if addition emigration factors will not come into play. Based on a multiple-criteria evaluation of developmental levels, the island of Murter, primarily due to the central position of the settlement Murter, is ranked 11th out of 47 Croatian islands. The reason is that all higher ranked islands also have a significantly larger area.

  18. Diversity and Demographics of Zooarchaeologists: Results from a Digital Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne E. Pilaar Birch

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nearly 25 years ago, a “Zooarchaeology Practitioner Survey” was distributed via conventional mail to individuals in the USA and Canada and received 122 responses over a period of several months in 1991. Now, a revised “Demographics in Zooarchaeology Survey” provides an update to  those data and assesses the current state of the field. The 2014 survey remained open for 3 months and received 288 responses from practitioners worldwide. Global participation was made possible by hosting the survey online. Key findings of the 1991 survey included disparities in employment rank for women despite similar levels of degree level attainment as men, a point which the 2014 survey sought to investigate. This trend appears to persist for those without the PhD and at the highest levels of income for those holding a PhD. In addition, the recent survey asked participants about their racial or ethnic identity in order to evaluate the demographic diversity of the discipline beyond sex, age, and nationality. Data regarding topical and geographic research area were also collected and reflect a subtle bias towards working with mammals and a focus on research questions grounded in prehistory in Europe and North America, followed by Australia and Southwest Asia. Results are compared with those of the earlier survey and membership information from the International Council for Archaeozoology.

  19. 23 CFR 1340.4 - Population, demographic, and time/day requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Population, demographic, and time/day requirements. 1340... TRANSPORTATION UNIFORM CRITERIA FOR STATE OBSERVATIONAL SURVEYS OF SEAT BELT USE § 1340.4 Population, demographic... following minimum population, demographic, and time/day requirements: (a) Population of interest. (1...

  20. 77 FR 31028 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Collection of Customer Service, Demographic, and Smoking...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-24

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Collection of Customer Service, Demographic, and Smoking/Tobacco Use Information...: Collection of Customer Service, Demographic, and Smoking/Tobacco Use Information from the National Cancer... clients at the end of usual service--a survey that includes three customer service and twelve demographic...

  1. Demographic and Marketing Data for the Marketable Preschool Education Program. Technical Report Number 26.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepp, Ermel, Jr.

    Demographic and marketing data was collected to justify the development of a television series for preschool children. The terms "demographic" and "marketing" have been constricted in meaning for pertinence to educational program development. Demographic points were made pertaining to population, family income, percent of families below poverty…

  2. Total rewards that retain: A study of demographic preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Pregnolato

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Changing workplace demographics and a dearth of employees with scarce skills have forced employers to better understand the various factors that retain talented employees.Research purpose: In this empirical study, the reward preferences and ideal combination of total reward elements (based on an estimation of their relative importance that retain employees from various demographic groups, including employees of different race, gender and age groups, were investigated.Motivation for study: Organisations are competing for talented employees and to benefit from the value these individuals add, it is required of them to stay at the respective businesses. Previous studies have indicated that employees who are offered a reward package that is aligned to their personal preferences are prone to stay longer at the organisation and to be more engaged at work. However, new and novel ways need to be found to identify the reward preferences of employees.Research design, approach and method: A quantitative approach and descriptive research design was employed to estimate the individual reward preferences and identify an ideal mix of total reward elements that retain different cohorts of employees. Three questionnaires were distributed, including a Remuneration Managers Questionnaire (n = 7, a Remuneration Preference Questionnaire (n = 368 and a Choice-based Conjoint Task Questionnaire (n = 368. The latter two questionnaires were distributed as an online questionnaire to South African businesses and consisted of eight choice-based conjoint tasks, as well as a field survey.Main findings: The results of the choice-based conjoint analysis revealed that all respondents considered financial rewards (Benefits, Performance and Recognition, Remuneration, Career, in that order as relatively speaking, the most important components in their total rewards package that would lead to their retention. For most demographic groups, the remaining three places (i

  3. The SDSS-IV in 2014: A Demographic Snapshot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, Britt; Kinemuchi, Karen; Zasowski, Gail; Lucatello, Sara; Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M.; Tremonti, Christy A.; Myers, Adam D.; Aragón-Salamanca, Alfonso; Gillespie, Bruce; Ho, Shirley; Gallagher, John S.

    2015-08-01

    Many astronomers now participate in large international scientific collaborations, and it is important to examine whether these structures foster a healthy scientific climate that is inclusive and diverse. The Committee on the Participation of Women in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (CPWS) was formed to evaluate the demographics and gender climate within SDSS-IV, one of the largest and most geographically distributed astronomical collaborations. In 2014 April, the CPWS administered a voluntary demographic survey to establish a baseline for the incipient SDSS-IV, which began observations in 2014 July. We received responses from 250 participants (46% of the active membership). Half of the survey respondents were located in the United States or Canada and 30% were based in Europe. Approximately 65% were faculty or research scientists and 31% were postdocs or graduate students. Eleven percent of survey respondents considered themselves to be an ethnic minority at their current institution. Twenty-five percent of the SDSS-IV collaboration members are women, a fraction that is consistent with the U.S. astronomical community, but substantially higher than the fraction of women in the International Astronomical Union (16%). Approximately equal fractions of men and women report holding positions of leadership in the collaboration. When binned by academic age and career level, men and women also assume leadership roles at approximately equal rates, in a way that increases steadily for both genders with increasing seniority. In this sense, SDSS-IV has been successful in recruiting leaders that are representative of the collaboration. That said, it is clear that more progress needs to be made toward achieving gender balance and increasing diversity in the field of astronomy, and there is still room for improvement in the membership and leadership of SDSS-IV. For example, at the highest level of SDSS-IV leadership, women disproportionately assume roles related to education and

  4. Quality of demographic data in GGS Wave 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorik Vergauwen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: A key feature of the Generations & Gender Programme (GGP is that longitudinal micro-data from the Generations and Gender Surveys (GGS can be combined with indicators from the Contextual Database (CDB that provide information on the macro-level context in which people live. This allows researchers to consider the impact of socio-cultural, economic, and policy contexts on changing demographic behaviour since the 1970s. The validity of longitudinal analyses combining individual-level and contextual data depends, however, on whether the micro-data give a correct account of demographic trends after 1970. Objective: This article provides information on the quality of retrospective longitudinal data on first marriage and fertility in the first wave of the GGS. Methods: Using the union and fertility histories recorded in the GGS, we compare period indicators of women's nuptiality and fertility behaviour for the period 1970-2005 and cohort indicators of nuptiality and fertility for women born after 1925 to population statistics. Results: Results suggest that, in general, period indicators estimated retrospectively from the GGS are fairly accurate from the 1970s onwards, allowing exceptions for specific indicators in specific countries. Cohort indicators, however, were found to be less accurate for cohorts born before 1945, suggesting caution when using the GGS to study patterns of union and family formation in these older cohorts. Conclusions: The assessment of the validity of demographic data in the GGS provides country-specific information on time periods and birth cohorts for which GGS estimates deviate from population statistics. Researchers may use this information to decide on the observation period or cohorts to include in their analysis, or use the results as a starting point for a more detailed analysis of item nonresponse in union and fertility histories, which may further improve the quality of GGS estimates, particularly for these

  5. [Demographic information in crisis: one point of view].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelos, J B

    1990-01-01

    This work argues that doubts concerning the reliability of demographic information in Mexico from censuses and other sources should prompt a search for ways of improving existing data rather than developing new data sources and measurement techniques. The example of labor force data is used to illustrate the achievements of past data collection efforts and to suggest a framework for reconciling statistics from diverse sources and exploiting existing sources more fully. From a practical perspective, it would be difficult to identify a nontraditional source of information, statistical procedure, or conceptual framework for collection of labor force and other demographic data that has not been tried somewhere, at some time. Economists and other social scientists who have analyzed the adequacy of existing data sources have pointed to the financial implications of extensive alterations in them and have suggested new questions to be added to censuses and surveys to fill gaps in information. Studies based on census data have been particularly effective in furthering understanding of the supply of labor in Mexico and the factors affecting behavior of the economically active population. Economic surveys have contributed to analysis of employment in the different sectors and the characteristics of workers in different types of establishments and activities. Surveys, both specialized and multipurpose, have also contributed to knowledge of employment and the labor market, especially in urban areas and in aspects related to migration. To classify the different potential sources of labor force data, 2 tables are presented. The 1st lists continuous, periodic, and sporadic sources of data produced in the public, social, and private sectors. The listing of different data sources suggests the rich potential for combining findings from different sources, e.g., correlating deaths occurring in a certain time period to working age adults with information derived from the census to

  6. The ethno-demographic status of the Baltic States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezs, I; Bunkse, E; Rasa, K

    1994-05-01

    "The essay examines historic and current ethnodemographic trends in spatial and cultural contexts in the Baltic States. Fifty years of Soviet rule, with deliberate policies to dilute the relative homogeneity of the Balts through ethnocide, in-migration, and political dominance by Moscow, has left tensions between citizens of the Baltic States and illegal immigrants, mostly Russians. Estonians, and Latvians, in particular, fear ethnic and cultural extinction. The process of ethnic dilution and mixing under the Soviets is examined in terms of rural-urban contexts, the workplace, employment, housing, and education. Europe's smallest ethnic group, the Livs of Latvia, is also examined. Current demographic trends are analysed and prospects for ethnic harmony in these multi-ethnic societies are interpreted. A recurrent theme is that Latvia, with 52% of the population Latvian, is facing the most difficulties; Lithuania, with 80% Lithuanians, the least."

  7. KIR gene content in amerindians indicates influence of demographic factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danillo Gardenal Augusto

    Full Text Available Although the KIR gene content polymorphism has been studied worldwide, only a few isolated or Amerindian populations have been analyzed. This extremely diverse gene family codifies receptors that are expressed mainly in NK cells and bind HLA class I molecules. KIR-HLA combinations have been associated to several diseases and population studies are important to comprehend their evolution and their role in immunity. Here we analyzed, by PCR-SSP (specific sequencing priming, 327 individuals from four isolated groups of two of the most important Brazilian Amerindian populations: Kaingang and Guarani. The pattern of KIR diversity among these and other ten Amerindian populations disclosed a wide range of variation for both KIR haplotypes and gene frequencies, indicating that demographic factors, such as bottleneck and founder effects, were the most important evolutionary factors in shaping the KIR polymorphism in these populations.

  8. Forecasting societies' adaptive capacities through a demographic metabolism model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Wolfgang; Muttarak, Raya

    2017-03-01

    In seeking to understand how future societies will be affected by climate change we cannot simply assume they will be identical to those of today, because climate and societies are both dynamic. Here we propose that the concept of demographic metabolism and the associated methods of multi-dimensional population projections provide an effective analytical toolbox to forecast important aspects of societal change that affect adaptive capacity. We present an example of how the changing educational composition of future populations can influence societies' adaptive capacity. Multi-dimensional population projections form the human core of the Shared Socioeconomic Pathways scenarios, and knowledge and analytical tools from demography have great value in assessing the likely implications of climate change on future human well-being.

  9. Demographic and medical consequences of the postponement of parenthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Lone; Sobotka, Tomas; Bentzen, Janne Gasseholm;

    2012-01-01

    of involuntary childlessness and smaller families than desired due to increased infertility and fetal death with higher female and male age. For women, the increased risk of prolonged TTP, infertility, spontaneous abortions, ectopic pregnancies and trisomy 21 starts at around 30 years of age with a more......BACKGROUND Across the developed world couples are postponing parenthood. This review assesses the consequences of delayed family formation from a demographic and medical perspective. One main focus is on the quantitative importance of pregnancy postponement. METHODS Medical and social science...... databases were searched for publications on relevant subjects such as delayed parenthood, female and male age, fertility, infertility, time to pregnancy (TTP), fetal death, outcome of medically assisted reproduction (MAR) and mental well-being. RESULTS Postponement of parenthood is linked to a higher rate...

  10. Demographic controls of aboveground forest biomass across North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderwel, Mark C; Zeng, Hongcheng; Caspersen, John P; Kunstler, Georges; Lichstein, Jeremy W

    2016-04-01

    Ecologists have limited understanding of how geographic variation in forest biomass arises from differences in growth and mortality at continental to global scales. Using forest inventories from across North America, we partitioned continental-scale variation in biomass growth and mortality rates of 49 tree species groups into (1) species-independent spatial effects and (2) inherent differences in demographic performance among species. Spatial factors that were separable from species composition explained 83% and 51% of the respective variation in growth and mortality. Moderate additional variation in mortality (26%) was attributable to differences in species composition. Age-dependent biomass models showed that variation in forest biomass can be explained primarily by spatial gradients in growth that were unrelated to species composition. Species-dependent patterns of mortality explained additional variation in biomass, with forests supporting less biomass when dominated by species that are highly susceptible to competition (e.g. Populus spp.) or to biotic disturbances (e.g. Abies balsamea).

  11. Bolivia 1998: results from the Demographic and Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-09-01

    This document presents the results of the Bolivia Demographic and Health Survey (DHS), or Encuesta Nacional de Demografia y Salud 1998, conducted by the Instituto Nacional de Estadistica, La Paz, Bolivia, within the framework of the DHS Program of Macro International. Data were collected from 12,109 households and complete interviews were conducted with 11,187 women aged 15-49. A male survey was also conducted, which collected data from 3780 men aged 15-64. The information collected include the following: 1) general characteristics of the population, 2) fertility, 3) fertility preferences, 4) current contraceptive use, 5) contraception, 6) marital and contraceptive status, 7) postpartum variables, 8) infant mortality, 9) health: disease prevention and treatment, and 10) nutritional status: anthropometric measures.

  12. Nicaragua 1998: results from the Demographic and Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-06-01

    This article presents summary statistics gathered from the 1998 Nicaragua Demographic and Health Survey (Encuesta Nicaraguense de Demografia y Salud 1998, ENDESA-98). Data from the nationally representative ENDESA-98 were collected from 11,528 households. Interviews were conducted with 13,634 women aged 15-49 years and 2912 men aged 15-59 years between December 1, 1997, and May 31, 1998. The statistics presented were on fertility trends, fertility differentials, age-specific fertility, fertility preferences, current contraceptive use, contraception, marital and contraceptive status, differentials in median age at first birth, postpartum variables, and infant mortality. In addition, statistical data on the health and nutritional status of children were also presented.

  13. EXPLORING BRAND PREFERENCES OF SLOVAK CONSUMERS ACROSS DEMOGRAPHIC FEATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Vilčeková

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes brand buying behavior of Slovak consumers across different demographic features with emphasis on domestic versus foreign brands. First, the introduction to brands and branding is provided, followed by description of purchase decision process and finally, research results are presented. The representative research was conducted in year 2013 on a sample of 1067 Slovak consumers older than 16 years of age. A relationship between age and attitudes toward brands was determined. Young people prefer foreign brands and country of origin is more important for them as for older consumers. The size of a city where people live does not have any influence on their brand preferences. Differences within gender were found, men prefer domestic products and women think foreign brands are more available. Women buy Slovak products because they want to support the economy.

  14. Demographics, societal aging, and meat consumption in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MIN Shi; BAI Jun-fei; James Seale Jr; Thomas Wahl

    2015-01-01

    Drawn on the data col ected by surveying 1 340 urban households from six cities in China, this paper estimates the impacts of demographic structure and population aging on household meat consumption, by jointly considering meat consumed at home and away from home. Based on the trajectories of population, a simple simulation on meat demand trend in China is conducted subsequently. The results suggest:1) Meat consumed away from home averagely accounts for near 30%of household total meat consumption in terms of quantity, so that its omission likely leads to a signiifcant underestimate of total meat consumption and misunderstanding the driving forces;2) population aging signiifcantly and negatively affects per capita meat consumption, suggesting that the expected meat demand in China without considering population aging wil be overestimated. The ifndings from this study have important implications for better understanding the relative issues on China’s meat consumption under the situation of population aging.

  15. Demographic, criminogenic, and psychiatric factors that predict competency restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colwell, Lori H; Gianesini, Julie

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has investigated the characteristics of competent and incompetent defendants and restorable and nonrestorable defendants. However, less is known about the influence of current treatment variables and other systemic factors on restorability. In the present study, we sought to examine the impact of demographic, criminogenic, historical clinical, and current treatment variables on the restorability and length of stay (LOS) of incompetent defendants. We reviewed the records of 71 male patients who had been court ordered for competency restoration and subsequently discharged from a maximum-security forensic hospital. Results indicated that nonrestorable patients had more prior hospitalizations, incarcerations, and episodes of incompetence, had lower level charges, were diagnosed with a psychotic and cognitive disorder, were prescribed more medications, and had lower global assessment of functioning (GAF) scores. Nonrestorable patients were hospitalized nearly twice as long as those eventually found competent, and patients with lower IQs and lower GAFs and who spent more days on special observations had longer LOS.

  16. New Mexico rattlesnake bites: demographic review and guidelines for treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, D J; Omer, G E; Moneim, M S

    1991-10-01

    The demographic features, treatment, and outcome of 36 rattlesnake envenomation cases are reviewed. Two populations at special risk are identified: (1) young children (12/36) who sustain lower extremity bites, and (2) adults who consume alcohol and handle snakes (10/36) who sustain upper extremity bites. Antivenin was used in 22 cases with only one serious case of serum sickness. Three definite diagnoses of compartment syndrome were made on the basis of elevated compartment pressures. Hand bites accounted for 20 of the 36 cases. The greatest functional disability followed digit bites in that 11 patients developed decreased motion and sensation. The indications for fasciotomy and debridement are discussed, both for digit and non-digit envenomations. General treatment recommendations are given.

  17. [Keys to demographic changes in the new millennium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solsona, Montse; Viciana, Francisco

    2004-05-01

    This article describes the main features of the dynamics of demographic change in the population of Spain during the twentieth century, emphasizing the most recent developments: population ageing, the establishment of a very low fertility regime and the increasing importance of foreign immigration as well as the impact which all these have on the composition of households. Those aspects most directly related to the provision of health and social services is discussed, such as the impact of increased life expectancy on the incidence of illness and handicap in the population, the role of foreign immigration in providing personal services within the family and the health implications of the new model of delayed fertility. Finally, the health implications of population projections for the next 50 years are discussed.

  18. Environmental versus demographic variability in stochastic predator-prey models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobramysl, U.; Täuber, U. C.

    2013-10-01

    In contrast to the neutral population cycles of the deterministic mean-field Lotka-Volterra rate equations, including spatial structure and stochastic noise in models for predator-prey interactions yields complex spatio-temporal structures associated with long-lived erratic population oscillations. Environmental variability in the form of quenched spatial randomness in the predation rates results in more localized activity patches. Our previous study showed that population fluctuations in rare favorable regions in turn cause a remarkable increase in the asymptotic densities of both predators and prey. Very intriguing features are found when variable interaction rates are affixed to individual particles rather than lattice sites. Stochastic dynamics with demographic variability in conjunction with inheritable predation efficiencies generate non-trivial time evolution for the predation rate distributions, yet with overall essentially neutral optimization.

  19. A demographic portrait of Romanian immigrants In California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Valeriu Voinea

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The most numerous Romanian community in the United States of America is in the "Golden State", California – a state that is a traditional immigration state since the beginning of the gold rush. Officially, there are currently over 60.000 people of Romanian origin established in California, although that number might be much higher because of two factors: undocumented migration and the loss of gradual loss of identity through each generation. Starting from as little as 15-16 families back in 1912 (Alecse, n.d., Romanians established in California make up 14.5% of the 449,928 immigrants of Romanian origin living in the the United States of America (Voinea, 2014, 62. The aim of this paper is to analyze the current demographic portrait of Romanian immigrants in California, using data from the 2013 American Community Survey.

  20. Demographic analysis reveals gradual senescence in the flatworm Macrostomum lignano

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    Braeckman Bart P

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Free-living flatworms ("Turbellaria" are appropriate model organisms to gain better insight into the role of stem cells in ageing and rejuvenation. Ageing research in flatworms is, however, still scarce. This is partly due to culture difficulties and the lack of a complete set of demographic data, including parameters such as median lifespan and age-specific mortality rate. In this paper, we report on the first flatworm survival analysis. We used the species Macrostomum lignano, which is an emerging model for studying the reciprocal influence between stem cells, ageing and rejuvenation. This species has a median lifespan of 205 ± 13 days (average ± standard deviation [SD] and a 90th percentile lifespan of 373 ± 32 days. The maximum lifespan, however, is more than 745 days, and the average survival curve is characterised by a long tail because a small number of individuals lives twice as long as 90% of the population. Similar to earlier observations in a wide range of animals, in M. lignano the age-specific mortality rate increases exponentially, but levels off at the oldest ages. To compare the senescence of M. lignano with that of other ageing models, we determined the mortality rate doubling time, which is 0.20 ± 0.02 years. As a result, we can conclude that M. lignano shows gradual senescence at a rate similar to the vertebrate ageing models Rattus norvegicus and Mus musculus. We argue that M. lignano is a suitable model for ageing and rejuvenation research, and especially for the role of stem cells in these processes, due to its accessible stem cell system and regeneration capacity, and the possibility of combining stem cell studies with demographic analyses.

  1. Genomic control of neuronal demographics in the retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Benjamin E; Keeley, Patrick W

    2016-11-01

    The mature retinal architecture is composed of various types of neuron, each population differing in size and constrained to particular layers, wherein the cells achieve a characteristic patterning in their local organization. These demographic features of retinal nerve cell populations are each complex traits controlled by multiple genes affecting different processes during development, and their genetic determinants can be dissected by correlating variation in these traits with their genomic architecture across recombinant-inbred mouse strains. Using such a resource, we consider how the variation in the numbers of twelve different types of retinal neuron are independent of one another, including those sharing transcriptional regulation as well as those that are synaptically-connected, each mapping to distinct genomic loci. Using the populations of two retinal interneurons, the horizontal cells and the cholinergic amacrine cells, we present in further detail examples where the variation in neuronal number, as well as the variation in mosaic patterning or in laminar positioning, each maps to discrete genomic loci where allelic variants modulating these features must be present. At those loci, we identify candidate genes which, when rendered non-functional, alter those very demographic properties, and in turn, we identify candidate coding or regulatory variants that alter protein structure or gene expression, respectively, being prospective contributors to the variation in phenotype. This forward-genetic approach provides an alternative means for dissecting the molecular genetic control of neuronal population dynamics, with each genomic locus serving as a causal anchor from which we may ultimately understand the developmental principles responsible for the control of those traits.

  2. Trauma-associated tinnitus: audiological, demographic and clinical characteristics.

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    Peter M Kreuzer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tinnitus can result from different etiologies. Frequently, patients report the development of tinnitus after traumatic injuries. However, to which extent this specific etiologic factor plays a role for the phenomenology of tinnitus is still incompletely understood. Additionally, it remains a matter of debate whether the etiology of tinnitus constitutes a relevant criterion for defining tinnitus subtypes. OBJECTIVE: By investigating a worldwide sample of tinnitus patients derived from the Tinnitus Research Initiative (TRI Database, we aimed to identify differences in demographic, clinical and audiological characteristics between tinnitus patients with and without preceding trauma. MATERIALS: A total of 1,604 patients were investigated. Assessment included demographic data, tinnitus related clinical data, audiological data, the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory, the Tinnitus Questionnaire, the Beck Depression Inventory, various numeric tinnitus rating scales, and the World Health Organisation Quality of Life Scale (WHOQoL. RESULTS: Our data clearly indicate differences between tinnitus patients with and without trauma at tinnitus onset. Patients suffering from trauma-associated tinnitus suffer from a higher mental burden than tinnitus patients presenting with phantom perceptions based on other or unknown etiologic factors. This is especially the case for patients with whiplash and head trauma. Patients with posttraumatic noise-related tinnitus experience more frequently hyperacousis, were younger, had longer tinnitus duration, and were more frequently of male gender. CONCLUSIONS: Trauma before tinnitus onset seems to represent a relevant criterion for subtypization of tinnitus. Patients with posttraumatic tinnitus may require specific diagnostic and therapeutic management. A more systematic and - at best - standardized assessment for hearing related sequelae of trauma is needed for a better understanding of the underlying pathophysiology and

  3. The Second Demographic Transition in Israel: One for All?

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    Evgenia Bystrov

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This article explores family behaviours and attitudes in Israel over the last decades through the lens of the Second Demographic Transition (SDT. Israel is divided by religious affiliation, the level of religiosity, ethnic origin and timing of immigration. Although fertility transition to replacement level among certain societal groups has been previously shown, the question of how the transition unfolds in other domains remains open. The goal of this paper is to highlight the diversity of marital and fertility transitions and non-transitions among various groups of this heterogeneous society, and to compare Israel's transitions to European ones. The data sources which are used are cross-national large scale surveys, national representative surveys, and Population Register data. The data were disaggregated by religion, religiousness and ethnic origin. Emancipative value change, postponement of marriage, alternative living arrangements and a growing variety of fertility regimes were analyzed. A full range of pre-transitional, transitional, and post-transitional elements was found among the groups. Such sign of the SDT as growing childlessness was not found, and the spread of other features as unmarried cohabitation and non-marital childbearing was found limited. Population composition effects were isolated. It was found that the level of religiosity and the country of origin are important factors which differentiate family behaviours and attitudes. The connection between value orientation of the groups within Israel and their family behaviours is discussed. The socio-structural and institutional constraints that might impede further progression of the Second Demographic Transition in Israel are also discussed. Further research directions are suggested.

  4. Predator-induced demographic shifts in coral reef fish assemblages.

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    Benjamin I Ruttenberg

    Full Text Available In recent years, it has become apparent that human impacts have altered community structure in coastal and marine ecosystems worldwide. Of these, fishing is one of the most pervasive, and a growing body of work suggests that fishing can have strong effects on the ecology of target species, especially top predators. However, the effects of removing top predators on lower trophic groups of prey fishes are less clear, particularly in highly diverse and trophically complex coral reef ecosystems. We examined patterns of abundance, size structure, and age-based demography through surveys and collection-based studies of five fish species from a variety of trophic levels at Kiritimati and Palmyra, two nearby atolls in the Northern Line Islands. These islands have similar biogeography and oceanography, and yet Kiritimati has ∼10,000 people with extensive local fishing while Palmyra is a US National Wildlife Refuge with no permanent human population, no fishing, and an intact predator fauna. Surveys indicated that top predators were relatively larger and more abundant at unfished Palmyra, while prey functional groups were relatively smaller but showed no clear trends in abundance as would be expected from classic trophic cascades. Through detailed analyses of focal species, we found that size and longevity of a top predator were lower at fished Kiritimati than at unfished Palmyra. Demographic patterns also shifted dramatically for 4 of 5 fish species in lower trophic groups, opposite in direction to the top predator, including decreases in average size and longevity at Palmyra relative to Kiritimati. Overall, these results suggest that fishing may alter community structure in complex and non-intuitive ways, and that indirect demographic effects should be considered more broadly in ecosystem-based management.

  5. Social axioms among Romanians: Structure and demographic differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guan, Yanjun

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Social axioms are beliefs about the material, social and spiritual world, assessing what the person regards as true. Following a functionalist orientation, we propose that social axioms serve as a reflection of social reality and provide guidance for living to people in different demographic groups. This study investigated the dimensionality of a measure of such beliefs, the Social Axioms Survey (SAS, and demographic differences in the resulting factor scores for groups of Romanians. Results of exploratory factor analyses revealed a new five-factor structure, with four factors remarkably similar to those derived from a pan-cultural solution of 40 cultural groups (Leung & Bond, 2004. A distinctive factor named “Interpersonal Relations” replaced the “Social Complexity” factor found in previous research, and represented beliefs about the impact of interpersonal relations on life events and how to maintain good relations with others. Canonical correlation revealed that people of older age, lower education, and lower income endorsed stronger beliefs in “Social Cynicism” and “Religiosity”. After controlling for the effects of age, education, and income, females reported stronger endorsement of the “Religiosity”, “Interpersonal Relations”, and “Fate Control” dimensions than males; widowed participants scored significantly higher than married, divorced and unmarried groups on both “Religiosity” and “Fate Control”. By reflecting on the characteristics of Romanian society, we discussed these findings in terms of the life experience and social status of different social groups. Based on this analysis, questions were proposed for future research.

  6. Demographics and frequency of the intermittently upturned omentum at CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penn, Alex; Wang, Wilbur; Wang, Zhen Jane; Yee, Judy; Webb, Emily M.; Yeh, Benjamin M., E-mail: ben.yeh@ucsf.edu

    2013-11-01

    Objectives: To describe the demographics and frequency of the intermittently upturned omentum at CT. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed abdominal CT scans of 336 consecutive patients (189 men and 147 women) who were imaged between June 1 and June 17, 2010 and who had prior comparison scans. Readers recorded the presence or absence of an intermittently upturned omentum, defined as a thick rind of fat interposed between the liver and the anterior abdominal wall seen on one but not the other scan. At chart review, we recorded patient demographics and other clinical characteristics (prior surgical history, presence of cirrhosis). Results: An intermittently upturned omentum was found in 10 of 336 (3.0%) patients. An intermittently upturned omentum was seen more commonly in men than in women (9 of 189 men, or 4.8% versus 1 of 147 women, or 0.7%, p = 0.047) and in cirrhotics (4 of 37 cirrhotics, or 10.8% versus 6 of 299 non-cirrhotics, or 2.0%, p = 0.023). In a sub-analysis of patients without prior abdominal surgery, this finding was again seen more commonly in men than women (7 of 163 men, or 4.3% versus 0 of 134 women, or 0%, p = 0.018) and in cirrhotics (3 of 33 cirrhotics, or 9.1% versus 4 of 264 non-cirrhotics, or 1.5%, p = 0.032). Conclusions: An intermittently upturned omentum is not uncommon and is more frequently seen in men and in patients with cirrhosis who may have a larger anterior hepatic space.

  7. Demographic side effects of selective hunting in ungulates and carnivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Jos M; Nilsen, Erlend B; Andreassen, Harry P

    2007-02-01

    Selective harvesting regimes are often implemented because age and sex classes contribute differently to population dynamics and hunters show preferences associated with body size and trophy value. We reviewed the literature on how such cropping regimes affect the demography of the remaining population (here termed demographic side effects). First, we examined the implications of removing a large proportion of a specific age or sex class. Such harvesting strategies often bias the population sex ratio toward females and reduce the mean age of males, which may consequently delay birth dates, reduce birth synchrony, delay body mass development, and alter offspring sex ratios. Second, we reviewed the side effects associated with the selective removal of relatively few specific individuals, often large trophy males. Such selective harvesting can destabilize social structures and the dominance hierarchy and may cause loss of social knowledge, sexually selected infanticide, habitat changes among reproductive females, and changes in offspring sex ratio. A common feature of many of the reported mechanisms is that they ultimately depress recruitment and in some extreme cases even cause total reproductive collapse. These effects could act additively and destabilize the dynamics of populations, thus having a stronger effect on population growth rate than first anticipated. Although more experimental than observational studies reported demographic side effects, we argue that this may reflect the quite subtle mechanisms involved, which are unlikely to be detected in observational studies without rigorous monitoring regimes. We call for more detailed studies of hunted populations with marked individuals that address how the expression of these effects varies across mating systems, habitats, and with population density. Theoretical models investigating how strongly these effects influence population growth rates are also required.

  8. Demographic future of Serbia from a different angle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikitović Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the assessment of the empirical errors in the official population forecasts of Serbia, the paper shows why forecast users might want a change of the current official concept. The article consists of three parts. The first gives a brief chronological overview of the methods and hypotheses in the official population forecasts of Serbia during the last 60 years. The second refers to the quantification of the past forecast errors in projecting total fertility rate, life expectancy at birth and total population aiming at assessment of the empirical variability. The third part shows the probabilistic population forecast of Serbia based on Bayesian hierarchical models of vital components, as implemented in the 2012 revision of United Nations World population prospects. The empirical error served as an evaluation tool of the probabilistic distributions of total population. In spite of the increased availability and quality of input data and developing of advanced projection techniques during the period, there was no obvious improvement noted neither in accuracy nor in the expression of the uncertainty inherent to forecasting in the official population forecasts in Serbia up to date. In general, fertility has been overestimated while improvements in mortality have been underestimated. It has been shown that accuracy largely depends on the stability of demographic processes throughout the projection horizon, which confirms findings from similar studies in other countries. The uncertainty in the demographic trends remains a major challenge for forecasters. A typical judgment that the smallest error will be made if a recently observed trend is assumed to continue has been linked to the low fertility variant in the past Serbian forecasts. The target level of the medium fertility, interpreted as "most likely" outcome, was firmly bound to replacement fertility until recently thus reflecting desirable rather than realistic future. Therefore, the

  9. Socio-demographic factors and cervical length in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrović, Dorde; Novakov-Mikić, Aleksandra; Mandić, Vesna

    2008-01-01

    The cervical length is an important factor in the risk evaluation of preterm delivery. The aim of this work was to determine the correlation between the cervical length and the demographic characteristics. A transversal type prospective study was done on a sample of 579 pregnant women at various gestational age of low risk mono-fetal pregnancy. The cervical length was measured by trans-vaginal ultrasound procedure within the regular pregnancy monitoring process. The following data were taken into consideration: the woman's age, her body mass at the beginning of the pregnancy and her height in order to calculate the body mass index as well as her smoking habit at the moment of conception. The mean cervical length was 34.3 mm and 35 mm in the group of women aged 30 and less and 31 and over, respectively. The cervix was insignificantly shorter in younger women (being 34.9 mm/35.9 mm in the 1st trimester, 34.5 mm/35.1 mm in the 2nd one and 33.9 mm/34.7 mm in the 3rd trimester). The sample of 579 pregnant women consisted of 448 non-smokers and 131 smokers. The difference in the length of the cervix in smokers and nonsmokers was not significant (being 32.2 mm/35.9 mm; 35 mm/34 mm and 34.4 mm/33.5 mm in the 1st, 2nd and 3rd trimester, respectively). The correlation between the body mass index and the cervical length was analyzed by trimesters. In the first trimester the increase in the body mass index was followed by the shortening of the cervix; the cervical length was not affected by the BAI in the second trimester, whereas the higher the body mass index the longer the cervix in the third trimester. Our study has shown that the cervical length is affected neither by the age of the woman nor her smoking habit but it is affected by the body mass index at the moment of conception, that linear trend being negative in the 1st trimester but positive in the 3rd one. Since the cervical length may be affected not only by the socio-demographic characteristics but the gynecologic

  10. Demographic response of northern spotted owls to barred owl removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diller, V. Lowell; Hamm, Keith A; Early, Desiree A; Lamphear, David W; Katie Dugger,; Yackulic, Charles B.; Schwarz, Carl J.; Carlson, Peter C.; McDonald, Trent L.

    2016-01-01

    Federally listed as threatened in 1990 primarily because of habitat loss, the northern spotted owl (Strix occidentalis caurina) has continued to decline despite conservation efforts resulting in forested habitat being reserved throughout its range. Recently, there is growing evidence the congeneric invasive barred owl (Strix varia) may be responsible for the continued decline primarily by excluding spotted owls from their preferred habitat. We used a long-term demographic study for spotted owls in coastal northern California as the basis for a pilot barred owl removal experiment. Our demography study used capture–recapture, reproductive output, and territory occupancy data collected from 1990 to 2013 to evaluate trends in vital rates and populations. We used a classic before-after-control-impact (BACI) experimental design to investigate the demographic response of northern spotted owls to the lethal removal of barred owls. According to the best 2-species dynamic occupancy model, there was no evidence of differences in barred or northern spotted owl occupancy prior to the initiation of the treatment (barred owl removal). After treatment, barred owl occupancy was lower in the treated relative to the untreated areas and spotted owl occupancy was higher relative to the untreated areas. Barred owl removal decreased spotted owl territory extinction rates but did not affect territory colonization rates. As a result, spotted owl occupancy increased in the treated area and continued to decline in the untreated areas. Prior to and after barred owl removal, there was no evidence that average fecundity differed on the 2 study areas. However, the greater number of occupied spotted owl sites on the treated areas resulted in greater productivity in the treated areas based on empirical counts of fledged young. Prior to removal, survival was declining at a rate of approximately 0.2% per year for treated and untreated areas. Following treatment, estimated survival was 0.859 for

  11. Pesticides and Arthropods: Sublethal Effects and Demographic Toxicology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Marčić

    2007-01-01

    refers to an evaluation of individuals, rather than populations, and it is the latter that are required for a more reliable evaluation of effectiveness of pesticides in real life. A demographic-toxicologicalapproach has been proposed therefore as a way of integrating the effects that a toxicant may cause at population level, which includes the construction of life tables and computation of population growth parameters, including intrinsic rate of increase (rm as a crucialparameter. Compared to other laboratory toxicity tests, the demographic-toxicological bioassay has been found superior in terms of a capacity to evaluate overall effects of pesticides, and such approach in evaluating pesticide effects is crucial for environmentally-based programmes of integrated plant protection and a competent evaluation of ecotoxicological risks of pesticide applications.

  12. DETERMINING HABITUAL DEMOGRAPHIC COORDINATES AND HEALTH FOR PRIMARY SCHOOL CHILDREN

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    Toma G.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available An important aspect is social learning involves acquisition of knowledge, skills, abilities, habits over from friends, colleagues, social group they belong to.Purpose and research hypothesisSmall school activities is more effective if concrete terms of reference that would bring back to memory certain knowledge that to suggest solutions to solve and give him the opportunity to correct by comparing statements reality, this is why the main method of conducting educational process is observation.Working methodResearch group consisted of children of school age (7-12 years. Demographic information about the subjects covered: health, family composition and housing.Research resultsThe vast majority of children had good health, with no differences between the control group and the experimental group (p = 0.428. Regarding housing conditions, over half (57.1% in the control group and 51.4% in control group live in two rooms, no child lives in a studio and two children in the experimental group live at home with yard. In both groups, two children did not provide information regarding their housing situation. Of children included in the study, a very high percentage (82.9% in the control group and 68.6% in the experimental group is single copies: only six children in the control group and 10 in the control group have brothers or sisters. Under these conditions, more than half of the children have their own room (65.7% in the control group and 57.1% in the experimental group, the rest sharing a room with a brother or sister, or parents (in the case of two children experimental group.ConclusionsWe conclude that in terms of demographic variables (health status, family composition, housing, there are no differences between children in the two groups. Optimal integration in a social environment is based not only on the correct development of intellectual faculties, namely, the possibility of natural evolution on the moral values, scientific and so on, but

  13. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2009-10-01 to 2009-10-31 (NODC Accession 0060954)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  14. Demographics, Microbiology and Outcome in Necrotizing Soft Tissue Infections

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    Chance Witt

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Necrotizing soft tissue infections (NSTI are potentially severe infections that have a high morbidity and mortality even with modern medical care. This study examines factors associated with outcomes in patients with NSTI in an academic tertiary care hospital. Design: This is a retrospective cohort study of patients admitted with NSTI between 2003 and 2008. Baseline demographics and comorbid conditions, laboratory and clinical parameters, timing of surgery, and outcomes, including length of stay and mortality, were compared with univariate analysis; significant factors were then analyzed for their effects on mortality using binary logistic regression analysis. Results: Sixty-nine patients with NSTI were analyzed; 61% were men. Diabetes (39% was the most common comorbid condition. Most infections (55% were polymicrobial. The most common organism in monomicrobial infections was Staphylococcus aureus, and 50 % of these isolates were methicillin resistant. Nine patients (13% required amputation. Mortality was 20%, and the most significant predictor of mortality was a higher respiratory rate on admission (p=0.02. Conclusion: Patients in this series frequently had diabetes, usually had polymicrobial infections, and had a 20% mortality rate.

  15. Demographic and Citation Trends in Astrophysical Journal papers and Reports

    CERN Document Server

    Schwarz, G J

    2004-01-01

    We have used data from ADS, AAS, and astro-ph, to study the publishing, preprint posting, and citation patterns for papers published in the ApJ in 1999 and 2002. This allowed us to track statistical trends in author demographics, preprint posting habits, and citation rates for ApJ papers as a whole and across various subgroups and types of ApJ papers. The most interesting results are the frequencies of use of the astro-ph server across various subdisciplines of astronomy, and the impact that such posting has on the citation history of the subsequent ApJ papers. By 2002 72% of ApJ papers were posted as astro-ph preprints, but this fraction varies from 22-95% among the subfields studied. A majority of these preprints (61%) were posted after the papers were accepted at ApJ, and 88% were posted or updated after acceptance. On average, ApJ papers posted on astro-ph are cited more than twice as often as those that are not posted on astro-ph. This difference can account for a number of other, secondary citation tren...

  16. Postpartum depression and psycho-socio-demographic predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahi, Fatemeh; Sazlina, Shariff-Ghazali; Zain, Azhar Md; Zarghami, Mehran; Asghari Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Lye, Munn-Sann

    2014-12-01

    There appears to be a growing international recognition of postpartum depression as a significant public health concern. This paper determined the prevalence and psycho-socio-demographic predictors of postpartum depression symptomatology and its constancy over 12-week postpartum in Mazandaran province Iranian women. Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and General Health Questionnaire were used to identify possible health and depression status in a cohort of 1,950 eligible pregnant women who attended primary health centers from January to June 2010, at 2 and 12 weeks postpartum. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the predictors of postpartum depression among women. Prevalence of continued depression was found to be 9.9% on all three assessments. A mother's psychological distress, experience of depression, and anxiety in the first and second trimester of pregnancy and a family history of depression were the characteristics that had the strongest significant association with the development of postpartum depression. Women who married at a younger age also were more prone to postpartum depression development. One in ten depressed women in this study continued to be depressed over the 12-week postpartum period. Interventions should target women with the greatest risk, especially those with psychological distress during pregnancy. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  17. Demographic, physical, and radiographic factors associated with functional flatfoot deformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibuya, Naohiro; Kitterman, Ryan T; LaFontaine, Javier; Jupiter, Daniel C

    2014-01-01

    In 1 of our previous studies, the occurrence of self-reported flatfoot was associated with self-reported increased age, male gender, Asian and African American races, veteran status, poor health, increased body mass index, callus, bunion, hammertoe, and arthritis. However, we had to rely on survey data to identify these risk factors, and the accuracy of the survey results was unknown. Therefore, we decided to identify the risk factors associated with flatfeet using objectively and more accurately measured data. A total of 94 patients were enrolled in the present study. The demographic data and physical and radiographic examination results were recorded by the investigators in the clinic. The data were then analyzed to identify the factors unique to flatfoot, measured and defined using a plantar pressure measurement system during natural gait. We learned that a painful tibialis posterior tendon was associated with flatfoot. The calcaneal inclination angle was also decreased in the flatfoot group. The talar declination, intermetatarsal, hallux abductus, and calcaneal cuboid angles, and static calcaneal stance eversion were elevated in the flatfoot group compared with the non-flatfoot group. Systematic evaluation of these associated factors will help in the understanding of the functional status of the flatfoot deformity.

  18. Impact of Demographic Structure on Paddy and Forestland Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Tiehua; XIANG Wenhua; XU Guozhen; ZENG Guangzheng

    2006-01-01

    In order to understand the impact of demographic structure on paddy and forestland management after the convening of the Third Plenary Session of the 11"1 CPC (Communist Party of China) Central Committee and the implementation of the Household Responsibility System (the government divided up land among peasants for cultivating and the peasants sell a set part of their produced goods to the government at stipulated prices by contract in the countryside of China), 147 households in 6 villages, belonging to Xiangtan County and Zhuzhou County in Hunan Province, were selected as research samples, and interview, questionnaire survey and second hand data analyzing were used as the methods. The results showed: Persons with different ages had different ideas, and young peasants would like to work in towns or cities for more income, so they used and depended on land less; In terms of sex, the male was still the main user of land, and therefore the ability, idea and activity of male played an important role in land management; Generally, the labors with better educational background grasped more knowledge and technologies, and they had more opportunity to get jobs and had better working condition and more income in town or cities, so they depended on and used land less.

  19. Osteosarcoma of the jaws: demographic and CT imaging features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S; Shi, H; Yu, Q

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the patient demographic and CT imaging findings of primary osteosarcoma of the jaws. Methods 88 primary osteosarcomas of the jaws histopathologically diagnosed during 1997–2007 were reviewed. 21 cases of CT images were reviewed. Results Of 88 patients, 51 (58%) had tumours in the mandible and 37 (42%) in the maxilla. The mean age was 37.8 years (range 9–80 years). The male-to-female ratio was 1.32:1. The mean age of patients with mandibular lesions was 41.04 years and in those with maxillary lesions it was 33.3 years. CT imaging findings were available in 21 patients. In the maxilla (n = 9), all tumours (100%) arose from the alveolar ridge. In the mandible (n = 12), most tumours (9 cases, 75%), arose from the ramus and/or condyle. All except two lesions had the epicentrum within the medullary cavity of the involved bone. The presence of periosteal reaction was demonstrated in 13 cases (62%). Soft-tissue extension was present in 18 lesions (86%), with calcification identified in 13 (72%). Conclusions This study provides age, sex distribution, location and CT imaging features of primary osteosarcoma of the jaws. PMID:22074870

  20. The demographic response to Holocene climate change in the Sahara

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Katie; Timpson, Adrian

    2014-10-01

    The timing and development of Holocene human occupation in the now hyperarid Sahara has major implications for understanding links between climate change, demography and cultural adaptation. Here we use summed probability distributions from 3287 calibrated 14C dates from 1011 archaeological sites to demonstrate a major and rapid demographic shift between 10,500 and 5500 years BP. This event corresponds with the African Humid Period (AHP) and is sub-continental in scale, indicating climate as the prime factor driving broad-scale population dynamics in northern Africa. Furthermore, by providing a high temporal resolution proxy for effective carrying capacity our population curve offers an independent estimate of environmental change in northern Africa, indicating a temporal delay in the terrestrial response to atmospheric climate change. These results highlight the degree to which human demography is a function of environment at the appropriate scale of observation in both time and space and sheds important new light on the social response to global environmental change.

  1. [The indigenous population. Demographic expansion of ethnic groups].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdes De Montano, L M

    1989-01-01

    Analysis of the vital statistics of the 450 Mexican municipios in which 70% or more of the population speak indigenous languages permits a rough analysis of the demographic behavior of 23 different ethnic groups. Statistics of government departments dealing with indigenous affairs and the various indigenous organizations created since the 1970s provide other estimates of the size of the indigenous population. The census indicated a population of 5,181,038 speakers of indigenous languages aged 5 or older in 1980. The public administration estimated the 1980 indigenous population at 10 million, and the indigenous organizations estimated 12 to 18 million in 1980 and 15 million in 1989. Census and vital statistics data indicate that each indigenous group has had unique patterns of mortality and fertility in the past 30 years. Mortality declined significantly in some groups, but fertility overall has not declined to the same extent. In 1970 and 1980 respectively for the sample as a whole, the average crude birth rates were 42.4 and 37.3/1000 and the average crude death rates were 13.8 and 8.2/1000. The average annual growth rate was estimated at 2.9% for both years. 1980 growth rates ranged from 3.5% for the Maya and Mixtec to a low of 0.5% for the Tzotzil.

  2. Examination of recreational motives of individuals: Demographic differences

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    Hamdi Alper Güngörmüş

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare the motivational factors that motivate individuals to the recreational exercise participation with regard to demographic variables. 302 male (55,1% and 246 female (44,9% with a total of 548 recreational exercise participants from 9 health and fitness centers, in Ankara, participated voluntarily to this study. “Recreational Exercise Motivation Measure” was used as means of data collection instrument. Independent Samples t-test was used to examine the mean differences with regard to gender and marital status considering 5 subscales. The results of independent samples t-test indicated that, there was a significant mean difference between males and females in “health” and status” (p<0,05. Results of the ANOVA analyses demonstrated statistically mean differences with “competition” subscales (p<0,05. Furthermore, there was a significant mean difference in 4 subscales except “health” with the effect of “marital regard to age (p<0,05. (competition, body shape/appearance, education (health (p<0,05, As a result of this study, “health”, “skill development” and ”body shape/appearance” were found to be the top three factors which motivate individuals to participate recreational exercise.

  3. Changing demographics of pulmonary arterial hypertension in congenital heart disease

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    B.J.M. Mulder

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH is a serious complication of congenital heart disease (CHD. Without early surgical repair, around one-third of paediatric CHD patients develop significant PAH. Recent data from the Netherlands suggest that >4% of adult CHD patients have PAH, with higher rates in those with septal defects. A spectrum of cardiac defects is associated with PAH-CHD, although most cases develop as a consequence of large systemic-to-pulmonary shunts. Eisenmenger's syndrome, characterised by reversed pulmonary-to-systemic (right-to-left shunt, represents the most advanced form of PAH-CHD and affects as many as 50% of those with PAH and left-to-right shunts. It is associated with the poorest outcome among patients with PAH-CHD. 40 yrs ago, ∼50% of children with CHD requiring intervention died within the first year, and <15% survived to adulthood. Subsequent advances in paediatric cardiology have seen most patients with CHD survive to adulthood, with resulting shifts in the demographics of CHD and PAH-CHD. The number of adults presenting with CHD is increasing and, although mortality is decreasing, morbidity is increasing as older patients are at increased risk of arrhythmia, heart failure, valve regurgitation and PAH. Data show that probability of PAH increases with age in patients with cardiac defects.

  4. Study identifies socio-cultural factors affecting demographic behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    The United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) is undertaking a project that will produce a state-of-the-art paper on sociocultural factors affecting demographic behavior. Particular emphasis will be placed on reproductive behavior in Africa, Asia, Latin America, and the Arab states region. The extent to which this information is incorporated in current population policies and programs will also be examined, and recommendations will be made. The factors to be studied include family and kinship structure; gender status and role; patterns of sexual relations and procreation in general and adolescent sexual behavior and fertility; religion, beliefs, customs, and traditions concerned with sexual relations and procreation; child rearing, socialization, and education; status and role of women; and sociocultural change, change agents, and influentials. The literature search will provide an inventory of methodologies. Guidelines on the use of the methodologies will be drafted for use by project personnel. These will later be tested in pilot studies in rural and urban communities in selected developing countries. The goal is to design programs that will accelerate contraceptive acceptance and sustain contraceptive practice by being sensitive to the sociocultural influences on the reproductive behavior of different subpopulations.

  5. A Life Space Perspective to Approach Individual Demographic Processes

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    Robette, Nicolas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe concept of life space refers to the different locations with which individualsinteract along their life course. In this article we present several methodologicalproposals to describe and measure various territories to which individualsrelate over time, taking advantage of a rich data source, the Biographies etentourage survey. We produce relevant indicators which can be used in thestudy of different demographic processes and demonstrate how this perspectiveelegantly formalizes the linked dynamics of interactive non-independenttrajectories in the case of the couples’ activity space.RésuméLe concept d’espace de vie désigne l’ensemble des lieux avec lesquels unindividu est en relation au cours de sa vie. Dans cet article, plusieurs méthodessont proposées pour décrire et mesurer les différents territoires auxquels lesindividus sont attachés au fil du temps, en mettant pour cela à profit la richessedes données de l’enquête Biographies et entourage. Plusieurs indicateurs sontconstruits, qui peuvent être utilisés pour l’étude de processus démographiquesvariés. La pertinence d’une perspective en termes d’espace de vie est enfinvalidée par l’analyse des interactions dynamiques entre trajectoires nonindépendantes,appliquée aux espaces d’activité des couples.

  6. Clinical and demographic characteristics of 165 patients with lichen planus

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    Bilge Bülbül Şen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Lichen planus (LP, is a papulosquamous inflammatory disease, which involves the skin, mucous membranes, nails and scalp. The incidence varies according to geographical regions. In this study, it was aimed to detect the clinical and demographic characteristics of the patients with LP who have been under follow-up at our clinic. Methods: One hundred sixty five patients, who were diagnosed as LP in our clinic between 2010 and 2013, were enrolled to the study. The age, gender, disease duration, time of onset of disease, characteristics of involvement, associated systemic diseases, laboratory findings and treatment were recorded retrospectively. Results: In our study, 0.6% of all patients admitted to our clinic were diagnosed as LP. A total of 165 patients included in the study, 92 women (56% and 73 men (44%, respectively. Patients’ ages ranged 8-78 (mean 44.7±16.7. Disease duration ranged from 1 month to 20 years (mean 15.6±29.7. One hundred thirty four patients (81.2% had skin involvement, 51 (31% had oral mucosal involvement, and 15 (9% had genital involvement. Five (4.5% of 111 patients with viral hepatitis tests were positive for hepatitis C virus. Hepatitis B virus positivity was seen in 4 (4% patients. Conclusion: There is a need for further studies with more patients to better understand the epidemiological, clinical and pathological characteristics of LP. We believe that our study will contribute to the determination of our country’s data.

  7. ron Intake in Adults from Medellin According to Demographics, 2012

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    Carmen Yulieth Mantilla Gutiérrez

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To analyze the iron intake in healthy adults of Medellín according to demographics, and to determine the association between the consumption of iron and hemoglobin in this popula¬tion. Materials and methods: Cross-sectional study in 109 subjects. We applied a semiquantitative survey of food consumption frequency source of iron given the frequency of consumption and portion. Summary measures, frequencies, Mann Whitney, Kruskal Wallis ANOVA and Spearman correlation were calculated. We used SPSS version 20.0, considering a significance level of 0.05. Results: The mean age subjects was 32, 64.2 % were female, 81.6 % with technical or university studies, 29.3 % students and 43.9 % of low socioeconomic status. We found a daily intake of 12.3 mg/day on average, 61 % from non-heme iron. The total iron consumed was statistically higher in unemployed subjects than in workers, students and housewives. The heme iron intake was statistically higher in individuals with graduate. No statistically significant differences were observed when comparing iron consumption by sex, age group and hemoglobin. Conclusions: The low intake of iron is not influenced by sex or age group, but by occupation and education, and is a factor that cannot reduce the prevalence of iron and other micronutrients deficiencies. It requires to implement more and better strategies for nutrition education and increased avail¬ability, production and consumption of safe food

  8. Storefront Cigarette Advertising Differs by Community Demographic Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidenberg, Andrew B.; Caughey, Robert W.; Rees, Vaughan W.; Connolly, Gregory N.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Tobacco manufacturers have targeted youth and ethnic/racial minorities with tailored advertising. Less is known about how characteristics of storefront tobacco advertisements, such as location, position, size, and content, are used to appeal to demographic subgroups. Design The occurrence and characteristics of storefront cigarette advertising were observed for all licensed tobacco retailers in two defined communities. Setting Measures were taken in two Boston, Massachusetts, area urban communities: a low-income, minority community and a high-income, nonminority community. Subjects No human subjects were involved in this study. Measures Advertisement position (attached or separated from storefront), size (small, medium, or large), mentholation, and price were recorded. Geographic coordinates of tobacco retailers and schools were mapped using ArcGIS 9.2. Analysis Differences between the communities in advertisement number and characteristics were assessed using bivariate analyses. Logistic regression was used to ascertain the odds of specific advertising features occurring in the low-income/minority community. Results The low-income/minority community had more tobacco retailers, and advertisements were more likely to be larger, promote menthol products, have a lower mean advertised price, and occur within 1000 feet of a school. Conclusion Storefront cigarette advertising characteristics that increase exposure and promote youth initiation were more prominent in a low-income/minority community. The findings emphasize the need for more effective regulation of storefront tobacco advertising. PMID:20594091

  9. Demographic differences in sport performers' experiences of organizational stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, R; Fletcher, D; Daniels, K

    2016-03-01

    Organizational stressors are particularly prevalent across sport performers' experiences and can influence their performance, health, and well-being. Research has been conducted to identify which organizational stressors are encountered by sport performers, but little is known about how these experiences vary from athlete to athlete. The purpose of this study was to examine if the frequency, intensity, and duration of the organizational stressors that sport performers encounter vary as a function of gender, sport type, and performance level. Participants (n = 1277) completed the Organizational Stressor Indicator for Sport Performers (OSI-SP; Arnold et al., 2013), and the resultant data were analyzed using multivariate analyses of covariance. The findings show that demographic differences are apparent in the dimensions of the goals and development, logistics and operations, team and culture, coaching, and selection organizational stressors that sport performers encounter. More specifically, significant differences were found between males and females, between team and individual-based performers, and between performers competing at national or international, regional or university, and county or club levels. These findings have important implications for theory and research on organizational stress, and for the development of stress management interventions with sport performers.

  10. Donor demographic and laboratory predictors of single donor platelet yield

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    R. Arun

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Platelet transfusions are essential to prevent morbidity and mortality in patients who are severely thrombocytopenic and are at risk of spontaneous bleeding. Platelets are currently obtained either by fractionation of whole blood or by platelet apheresis. The quality of single donor platelets (SDP in terms of yield influences platelet recovery in the recipient and allows prolonging intervals between transfusions. Material and Methods: Donor demographic and laboratory data were analyzed prior to performing plateletpheresis to identify donor factors that influence platelet yield. The study was conducted on 130 healthy, first-time plateletpheresis donors over a period of 4 years. The plateletpheresis procedures were performed using Fresenius Kabi COM.TEC and Hemonetics MCS plus separator. A relationship between pre-donation donor variables and yield of platelets was studied using the Pearson correlation. Results: The mean platelet yield was 3.160.62x1011 per unit. A positive correlation was observed between platelet yield and pre-donation platelet count, body mass index (BMI; Kg/m2 of the donor, while a negative correlation was observed between age and the platelet yield. Conclusion: Donor pre-donation platelet count, BMI and donor age influence platelet yield. Young healthy donors with a high platelet count and better BMI can give a better platelet yield in the SDP.

  11. The Demographic and Political Composition of Mechanical Turk Samples

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    Kevin E. Levay

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the most notable recent developments in survey research is the increased usage of online convenience samples drawn from Amazon’s Mechanical Turk (MTurk. While scholars have noted various social and political differences (e.g., age, partisanship between MTurk and population-based samples, the breadth and depth of these variations remain unclear. We investigate the extent to which MTurk samples differ from population samples, and the underlying nature of these differences. We do so by replicating items from the population-based American National Election Studies (ANES 2012 Time Series Study in a survey administered to a sample of MTurk respondents. With few exceptions, we not only find that MTurk respondents differ significantly from respondents completing the 2012 ANES via the Web but also that most differences are reduced considerably when controlling for easily measurable sample features. Thus, MTurk respondents do not appear to differ fundamentally from population-based respondents in unmeasurable ways. This suggests that MTurk data can be used to advance research programs, particularly if researchers measure and account for a range of political and demographic variables as needed.

  12. Transgender Demographics: A Household Probability Sample of US Adults, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Mitchell B.; Graham, Louis F.; Dalton, Vanessa K.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives. To estimate the proportion of US adults who identify as transgender and to compare the demographics of the transgender and nontransgender populations. Methods. We conducted a secondary analysis of data from states and territories in the 2014 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System that asked about transgender status. The proportion of adults identified as transgender was calculated from affirmative and negative responses (n = 151 456). We analyzed data with a design-adjusted χ2 test. We also explored differences between male-to-female and nontransgender females and female-to-male and nontransgender males. Results. Transgender individuals made up 0.53% (95% confidence interval = 0.46, 0.61) of the population and were more likely to be non-White (40.0% vs 27.3%) and below the poverty line (26.0% vs 15.5%); as likely to be married (50.5% vs 47.7%), living in a rural area (28.7% vs 22.6%), and employed (54.3% vs 57.7%); and less likely to attend college (35.6% vs 56.6%) compared with nontransgender individuals. Conclusions. Our findings suggest that the transgender population is a racially diverse population present across US communities. Inequalities in the education and socioeconomic status have negative implications for the health of the transgender population. PMID:27997239

  13. Common Mental Disorders: socio-demographic and pharmacotherapy profile

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    Viviane Ferrari Gomes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: this study reports an association between Common Mental Disorders and the socio-demographic and pharmacotherapy profiles of 106 patients cared for by a Primary Health Care unit in the interior of São Paulo, Brazil. METHOD: this is a cross-sectional descriptive exploratory study with a quantitative approach. Structured interviews and validated instruments were used to collect data. The Statistical Package for Social Science was used for analysis. RESULTS: The prevalence of Common Mental Disorders was 50%. An association was found between Common Mental Disorders and the variables occupation, family income, number of prescribed medications and number of pills taken a day. Greater therapy non-adherence was observed among those who tested positive for Common Mental Disorders. CONCLUSION: this study's results show the importance of health professionals working in PHC to be able to detect needs of a psychological nature among their patients and to support the implementation of actions to prevent the worsening of Common Mental Disorders.

  14. Demographic Patterns from the 1960s in France, Italy, Spain and Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Rydell, Ingrid

    2002-01-01

    Demographic behaviour has changed dramatically in the industrialised world after World War II. This literature review describes the demographic development in France, Italy, Spain and Portugal from the 1960s. The general pattern is delayed transition to adulthood and first birth, fertility and marriage-rates have declined, while divorce-rates have increased. But demographic behaviour differs between the countries. In France, cohabitation and births outside marriage are common and the divorce ...

  15. The importance of socio-demographic indicators in regional disparities in turkey, 1990-1994

    OpenAIRE

    Gedik, Ayse; Sahin, Nihan; Suer, Sibel

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study is to test the relative importance of the socio-demographic versus economic variables in discriminating the inter-regional differences in Turkey in 1990-94. Our findings show that the "socio-demographic" variables are much more significant than the "economic" variables. Among the socio-demographic variables, especially those variables related with the fertility and the size of household, and the female education such as the "female literacy ratio" and "female schooling r...

  16. MALAYSIAN FINE DINING RESTAURANTS: PROFILING OF CONSUMERS’ DEMOGRAPHICS AND DINING-OUT BEHAVIOR AND DETERMINATION OF PURCHASING ORIENTATION VIA DEMOGRAPHIC FEATURES

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul Talib, Salim; Hashim, Rahmat; Karuthan, Chinna; Kumar, Mukesh

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the association of the demographic profiles and dining out behavior of Malaysian fine dining restaurant consumers’ with their purchasing orientation. Additionally, consumers’ purchasing orientation via their demographic features was determined. Surveys were conducted using self-administered questionnaire at 8 fine dining restaurants. 1200 questionnaires were distributed and 419 useable questionnaires were collected. Data were analyzed using the SPSS employing cross-tabulat...

  17. Hemodialysis versus peritoneal dialysis: epidemiologic and demographic characteristics

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    Hekmat R

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: The preferred modality of dialysis is a controversial issue in nephrology. In this study we compare some demographic and epidemiological characteristics of hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis patients in an attempt to analyze this issue."n"n Methods: The results of the research protocol "A survey of the epidemiological characteristics of chronic dialyzed patients in Khorassan province", was used to compare some demographic and epidemiological aspects of chronic hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis patients in search of any statistically significant difference."n"n Results: A total of 836 chronic dialysis patients entered this study, 802 (95.9% of which were under chronic hemodialysis, and 34 (4.1% patients were undergoing peritoneal dialysis, with 339 (42.3% and 12 (35.3% being female, respectively. The mean age for each group was 47.57 and 46.75 years, respectively. The causes of end-stage renal disease in hemodialzed patients were most commonly hypertension (32.2%, followed by diabetes mellitus (22.3%, unknown causes (19.6% and chronic glomeru-lonephritis (10.2%. In the peritoneal dialysis group, chronic glomerulonephritis (32.4% was the most common reason for dialysis, followed by diabetes mellitus (26

  18. Demographic Characteristics of Our Patients with Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

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    Ebru Umay

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Carpal tunnel (CTS is the most common trap neuropathy but, still fully understood the cause of this and effective factors. In this study was aimed to the evaluation demographic features of the cases with CTS admitted to our electroneuromyography (ENMG laboratory. Material and Methods: In the study, 119 patients with CTS to evaluate our ENMG laboratory were received. All patients age, sex, dominant and affected hand, duration of education, marital status, height, weight, additional diseases, occupational, hand and wrist repetitive motion made, use of computer and smoking status was assessed. Patients’ body mass index (BMI was calculated. Results: 102 cases (85.7% females, mean age was 46.32 years ± 12: 18. While in 115 (96.6% cases using the right hand is dominant, in 85 cases (76.6% with bilateral involvement were at hand. While the rate of patient who between five to eight year duration of education had was 47.1%, 84% patients were married. Also, BMI were determined as 29.33± 3.01. According to the state in 22 patients with additional diseases, diabetes mellitus in 22, hypothyroidism in 4, also 1 patient had arthritis. The majority of our patients (70.6% housewives formed. The 67.2% rate of repetetive activities as making crafts, the computer usage at a rate of 11.8% had history. The rate of smoking was 19.3%.  Conclusions:  As a result, CTS, especially in middle-aged housewives and obese is a common syndrome. Despite many reasons to be reported in the etiology of idiopathic 85%. At a rate of 25.4% of women in our society is considered paid work, especially in terms of determining the etiology of the more detailed studies are needed to ousewives.

  19. Socio-economic and demographic determinants of childhood anemia

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    Sankar Goswmai

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To evaluate socio-economic and demographic determinants of anemia among Indian children aged 6-59 months. METHODS: Statistical analysis was performed on the cross-sectional weighted sample of 40,885 children from 2005 to 2006 National Family Health Survey by using multinomial logistic regression to assess the significance of some risk factors in different degrees of child anemia. Anemia was diagnosed by World Health Organization (WHO cut-off points on hemoglobin level. Pearson's chi-squared test was applied to justify the associations of anemia with different categories of the study population. RESULTS: The prevalence of anemia was 69.5%; 26.2% mild, 40.4% moderate, and 2.9% severe anemia. Overall prevalence rate, along with mild and moderate cases, showed an increasing trend up to 2 years of age and then decreased. Rural children had a higher prevalence rate. Of 28 Indian states in the study, 10 states showed very high prevalence, the highest being Bihar (77.9%. Higher birth order, high index of poverty, low level of maternal education, mother's anemia, non-intake of iron supplements during pregnancy, and vegetarian mother increased the risks of all types of anemia among children (p < 0.05. Christian population was at lower risk; and Scheduled Caste, Scheduled Tribe, and Other Backward Class categories were at higher risk of anemia. CONCLUSION: The results suggest a need for proper planning and implementation of preventive measures to combat child anemia. Economically under-privileged groups, maternal nutrition and education, and birth control measures should be priorities in the programs.

  20. Socio-demographic and clinical aspects of rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owino, B O; Oyoo, G O; Otieno, C F

    2009-05-01

    To determine the socio-demographic profiles and some clinical aspects of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Prospective, cross-sectional study. Ambulatory out- patient clinics of Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), a public national and referral hospital. Out of 180 patients interviewed and examined, 60 met American College of Rheumatology (ACR) diagnostic criteria of RA. Of the 60 patients recruited 52 (87%) were females with male: female ratio of 1: 6.5. The mean age of patients was 41.38(+/- 16.8) years. There were two peaks of age of occurrence, 20-29 and 40-49 years. In 75% of the study patients, one or more of metacarpophalangeal joints of the hand were involved in the disease. Other frequently involved sites were--wrists, elbows, knees, ankles and glenohumeral joints of shoulders in a symmetrical manner. Serum rheumatoid factor was positive in 78.9% while rheumatoid nodules were present in 13.3% of the study patients. A large majority of patients (88%) had active disease with 18% having mild disease, 38% moderate activity and 32% having severe disease. Only 12% of patients had disease in remission. Forty six point seven per cent (46.7%) of the study patients were on at least one Disease Modifying anti Rheumatic Drugs (DMARD) from a selection of methotrexate, sulphasalazine, hydroxychloroquine and leflunamide. The most frequent drug combination was methotrexate plus prednisolone at 30% of the study population; while 66.7% were on oral prednisolone with 25% of the study patients taking only Non-Steroidal anti Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDS). A large majority of ambulatory patients with RA had active disease. Most of them were sub-optimally treated, especially the use of DMARDS. About two thirds were on oral steroids. Sub-optimal therapy in relatively young patients, peak 20-29 and 40-49 years is likely to impact negatively on their disease control and quality of life.

  1. Self-reported halitosis and associated demographic and behavioral factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanesi, Fernanda Carpes; Kauer, Bruno; Wagner, Tassiane Panta; Daudt, Luciana Dondonis; Haas, Alex Nogueira

    2016-08-22

    Halitosis is still poorly studied in young adults. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of self-reported halitosis and associate it with demographic and behavioral factors in young adult dental students. This cross-sectional study was designed as a census of students enrolled in three initial and three final semesters of a dental course in a Brazilian public university. Of 284 eligible students, 257 (90.5%) completed a self-administered questionnaire. Self-reported halitosis was the primary study outcome, and was assessed with the question "do you feel you have bad breath?". Data on age, gender, frequency of tooth brushing and interproximal cleaning, tongue cleaning, mouth rinse use and dry mouth were collected using the questionnaire, and were considered independent variables. Of the students surveyed, 26.5% reported as never, 51.7% as rarely, 21.4% as sometimes, and 0.4% as always feeling they had halitosis. Morning halitosis was reported by 90.6% of those who reported halitosis. In the final multiple model, last semester students had a 55% lower chance of reporting halitosis, compared with students from the first semesters [odds ratio (OR) 0.46; 95%CI 0.24-0.89]. Women had a 2.57fold higher chance of reporting halitosis (OR = 2.57; 95%CI 1.12-5.93). Dry mouth increased the chance of self-reported halitosis 3.95-fold, compared with absence of dry mouth (OR = 3.95; 95%CI 2.03-7.68). It can be concluded that self-reports of halitosis were low among dental students, but may represent an important complaint. Gender, dry mouth and level of college education of the dentist were factors significantly associated with self-reported halitosis.

  2. Demographic Profile and Pathological Patterns of Head Injury in Albania

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    Sabri Hoxha

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Head injury (HI is a serious morbid state caused by structural changes of the scalp, skull, and/or its contents, due to mechanical forces. Generally, the most frequent cause of HI is road traffic accident (RTA, followed by homicidal and falling injuries. The aim of present study is to assess epidemiology data, causes and patterns responsible for HI among Albanian subjects. Methodology: All HI cases (1000 are collected by the Forensic Institute of Albania, based on medical and forensic records of traumatized subjects between 2007- 2012. The prospectively-collected and descriptive information is focused on demographic data, responsible factors, type and level of cranial and brain injury, as well as their outcome. Results: The majority of HI victims were male (84% of age range of 15yrs -35yrs (70%. RTA was the HI cause in 88%, followed by homicides (3.8%, falling (3% etc. With respect to injury mechanisms, extra-dural hematoma was found in 93% of cases, followed by cerebral edema (61%, cerebral contusion (37%, skull bone fractures (35%, etc. Severe alteration of the consciousness was observed in 57% of the cases, while amnesia lasted longer than 4 weeks in 44% of the subjects included in our study. Discussion: This survey demonstrates that the majority of HI victims' is young and middle age males target group exposed to RTA. The increase of vehicles' use in placecountry-regionAlbania is more evident than RTA-related HI, indicating that driving newer vehicles with safer technology or helmets use while motorcycling can potentially decline the fatal outcome.

  3. DEMOGRAPHIC STUDY OF PSORIASIS IN EASTERN UTTAR PRADESH INDIA

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    Mrityunjay Kumar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Psoriasis is a chronic, immune - mediated inflammatory skin disease. It ranges in severity from a few scattered red, scaly plaques to involvement of almost the entire body surface. OBJECTIVE: Demographic study of psoriasis in Eastern Uttar Pradesh. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients of both gender and age diagnosed with psoriasis were enrolled for the study. Apart from the onset, duration, symptoms, lesion’s location, aggravating factors and association with other diseases were noted. Routine investigations were done in each and every patient. RESULT: There were 342 patients (207 males and 135 females, with ages between 1 and 74 years. Disease was more prevalent in house hold workers as seen in 99 (28.94% patients. The most common type of psoriasis was chronic p laque psoriasis found in 255 (74.56% patients. The scalp was the most common site of involvement seen in 243( 79.82% patients. Nails were also affected in psoriasis and finger nail involvement (132 patients was more than toe nails (82 patients. Most com mon aggravating factor for psoriasis was winter followed by trauma. Psoriasis was associated with other diseases in 138 patients. Disease was cleared spontaneously in 30(8.77% patients and with proper treatment in in159 (46.49% of cases while disease per sisted in 153(44.73% cases. LIMITATION: Limitation includes case series study design from one tertiary center. CONCLUSION: Psoriasis is a chronic relapsing and remitting dermatosis that can affect any age group and sex with different clinical presentation s and influenced by environmental factors.

  4. The family and demographic change in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, B

    1996-01-01

    Sri Lanka has almost completed the demographic transition with low mortality rates and fertility rates approaching replacement levels. Sri Lanka shares these characteristics with the South Indian states of Kerala and Tamil Nadu in contrast to elsewhere in South Asia where mortality and especially fertility rates remain much higher. A key part of the explanation for these differences lies in the nature of the family. The Sri Lankan family is essentially the conjugal unit of husband, wife and dependent children whereas in northern South Asia agnatic relations between son and parents are central to family structure. Related to this family system the position of women in Sri Lankan society was relatively high in South Asian terms. Consequently women had a strong say in health and fertility behaviour. When required, for example, mothers take the initiative in seeking health care for themselves and their children. Importantly family structure has facilitated female education which is associated with both mortality and fertility decline. There are few concerns that the values imparted by secular education are contrary to the values of the family or to women's roles within it. The egalitarian family structure has also contributed to fertility decline by raising the costs of children and reducing the long-run benefits to be gained from them. Sri Lanka is particularly distinctive in the contribution of changes in female age at marriage to its fertility decline, marriage age having risen six years this century. This change has been accompanied in recent times by a shift from family-arranged to self-selected (love) marriage. The explanation lies in changes in the socio-economic system which have reduced the centrality of the family in wider social and economic relations, and placed a greater premium on an individual's own abilities and attributes.

  5. Demographic and clinical profiles in patients with acute urticaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Borges, M; Capriles-Hulett, A; Caballero-Fonseca, F

    2015-01-01

    Urticaria is a common cause for consultation in general and specialised medical practices. There is scarce information on the characteristics of patients suffering acute urticaria in Latin America. To investigate demographic and clinical features of patients with acute urticaria attending two allergy clinics in Caracas, Venezuela. A prospective study of all new patients who consulted during a three-year period because of acute urticaria. Information on age, gender, symptom duration, previous medical history, body distribution of wheals and angio-oedema, laboratory investigations, skin prick tests, and pharmacological treatment, was collected. Patients were classified according to their age as children/adolescents and adults. Two hundred and forty eight patients (177 adults and 71 children) were studied. Acute urticaria was more frequent in middle-aged atopic female patients. Lesions more often involved upper and lower limbs and head, and 31% of patients exhibited generalised urticaria. Laboratory investigations, performed only in selected cases, did not contribute to the final diagnosis. Most frequent subtypes of acute urticaria were spontaneous, dermographic, papular, and drug-induced urticaria. Most patients were treated with non-sedating antihistamines, with increased use of cetirizine and levocetirizine in children, while 5.6% of children and 20.3% of adults required the addition of short courses of systemic corticosteroids. Acute urticaria is a frequent cause of consultation for allergists, affecting more often middle-aged female atopic patients. The use of extensive complementary tests does not seem to be cost-effective for this clinical condition. Spontaneous, dermographic, papular and drug-induced urticaria are the most common subtypes. Copyright © 2014 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. Historical sampling reveals dramatic demographic changes in western gorilla populations

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    Guschanski Katerina

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Today many large mammals live in small, fragmented populations, but it is often unclear whether this subdivision is the result of long-term or recent events. Demographic modeling using genetic data can estimate changes in long-term population sizes while temporal sampling provides a way to compare genetic variation present today with that sampled in the past. In order to better understand the dynamics associated with the divergences of great ape populations, these analytical approaches were applied to western gorillas (Gorilla gorilla and in particular to the isolated and Critically Endangered Cross River gorilla subspecies (G. g. diehli. Results We used microsatellite genotypes from museum specimens and contemporary samples of Cross River gorillas to infer both the long-term and recent population history. We find that Cross River gorillas diverged from the ancestral western gorilla population ~17,800 years ago (95% HDI: 760, 63,245 years. However, gene flow ceased only ~420 years ago (95% HDI: 200, 16,256 years, followed by a bottleneck beginning ~320 years ago (95% HDI: 200, 2,825 years that caused a 60-fold decrease in the effective population size of Cross River gorillas. Direct comparison of heterozygosity estimates from museum and contemporary samples suggests a loss of genetic variation over the last 100 years. Conclusions The composite history of western gorillas could plausibly be explained by climatic oscillations inducing environmental changes in western equatorial Africa that would have allowed gorilla populations to expand over time but ultimately isolate the Cross River gorillas, which thereafter exhibited a dramatic population size reduction. The recent decrease in the Cross River population is accordingly most likely attributable to increasing anthropogenic pressure over the last several hundred years. Isolation of diverging populations with prolonged concomitant gene flow, but not secondary admixture, appears

  7. Socio Demographic Factors Related to Smoking among Rural Adolescent

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    Farzana Islam Khan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Smoking is one of the leading preventable causes of premature death, disease, and disability. Adolescence is the period of physical, psychological and social maturation from childhood to adulthood and adolescent smoking is a continuous process which is related to many disease factors. Objective: To find out the factors related to smoking among rural adolescents. Materials and method: One hundred and fifty one male adolescent aged 13 to 19 years from rural areas were interviewed with a semi-structured questionnaire during January to June 2013, at Dhamrai Upazilla Health Complex, Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh. The socio demographic details, smoking and depression history were recorded. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D Scale was used to measure the presence of depression. Smoking behavior was measured by a number of questions. Results: Mean(±SD age of the study subjects was 16.8(±1.9 years. Most of the respondents started smoking around the average age of 14.3 years. The study shows that 64% respondents were smokers. Among smokers 80% were influenced by their friends about smoking. Seventy eight percent of the smokers were suffering from depression while 22% of nonsmokers were depressed (p<0.001. Majority (72% of the issues of the smoker parents were smoker (p<0.5. Domestic violence (p<0.001 and stressful events in life (p<0.05 also played significant roles for smoking. Conclusion: Depression, parent smoking and peer smoking, domestic violence, and stressful life events are important factors to start smoking in rural adolescents.

  8. The Retrospective Evaluation of Childhood Psoriasis Clinically and Demographic Features

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    Ayşe Serap Karadağ

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was aimed to define the clinical and demographic findings of psoriasis in childhood. Methods: In this retrospective study, the data from 64 children with psoriasis admitted at the our dermatology clinic between January 2007 and January 2011 were included whose data were fully. Results: Of the patients, 37 (57.8% were boys and 27 (42.2% were girls. Mean age of the children was 10.08 ±3.98 years (3-16. In 10 (15% cases, a positive family history was detected. The most frequent localizations at onset were trunk (46.9%, scalp (28.1%, knee-elbow (10.9% and extremities (7.9%, respectively. The most commonly seen clinical types were plaque (68.8%, guttate (20.3%, palmoplantar (9.4%, pustular (1.6%, respectively. Nine children had nail involvement. Out of all patients, 21.9% had upper respiratory tract infections and 9.4% had emotional stres. Four cases were diagnosed with depression. Of the cases, two cases were on non-steroid anti-inflammatory medication, and 4 of them were on antibiotics. Systemic treatments were given to 21.9% of the cases besides topical treatments. Conclusion: The epidemiological studies of psoriasis during childhood period for different countries have been reported. In this study, the ratio shows differences when compared to those previous studies. There are few epidemiologic studies for Turkey. We believe that further epidemiological studies including large number of patients' groups will contribute the diagnosis and treatment of the disease.

  9. Demographic Characteristics of Syphilis Patients Followed Between 1994 and 2006

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    Esra Adışen

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Backgorund and Design: We undertook this retrospective study to analyze demographics of patients with syphilis that had attended to Gazi University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Dermatology between 1994 and 2006. Material and Method: In this retrospective study, data including age, sex, stage of the disease, clinical finding at the time of presentation, transmission route and source, and serology results of 53 patients with syphilis were recorded. Positive VDRL test and TPHA was essential in the diagnosis of the disease. Results: Fifty-three patients (43 male, 10 female were evaluated in the study. Male/female ratio was 4.3. Patients’ age ranged between 19-58 (mean, 32.92±8.7. Forty-two (80.6%; 34 male, 8 female of 53 patients were married. Of 53 patients 50 (94.3% was Turkish, 3 (5.6% was foreigner. The source of the transmission was not defined in 26 patients (49.1% while all of married women defined their husbands as source of the infection. Of 53 patients, 40 (75.47% were primary syphilis, 7 (12.8% were secondary syphilis, 6 (11.32% were latent syphilis. 14 had (++++, 20 had (+++, one had (++ and 18 had (+ VDRL. All patients were positive for TPHA. In 1994, syphilis patients attending to outpatient clinic constituted 0.027% of the total visits of the outpatient clinic, whereas it was 0.004% in 2006.Conclusion: Syphilis is still an epidemiologic problem in our country. Prevalence is higher in some other countries. This disease may mimic almost every disease, therefore it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of disorders affecting oral and genital mucosal surfaces. Our study shows that syphilis have a tendency to decrease in Ankara and patients’ preference regarding the health services have changed during past years, in our country. (Turkderm 2008; 42: 9-12

  10. Psychosocial and demographic predictors of pediatric psychotropic medication use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, S H; Shepherd, M D

    1996-08-15

    The effects of age, gender, and family background on children's use of prescription psychoactive medications were studied. Patient and prescribing information was obtained for children enrolled as dependents in any of five prescription drug benefit plans during the period from December 29, 1992, through December 28, 1993. A binary response model was specified under the assumption of logistic distribution of probabilities of psychotropic drug use. The independent variables were family size, parenting type (single- or two-parent family), parental use of psychotropic medications, and child's age, gender, and the interaction between age and gender. Logistic regression analysis was conducted not only for overall psychotropic drug use but also for antidepressants, antianxiety drugs, and CNS stimulants. The sample included 3144 children; 3.9% received psychotropic drugs. Family size and parenting type had no effect on overall use of psychotropic drugs by children, but children were more likely to receive psychotropic drugs if the parents took them. The study showed an interaction between age and gender. At younger ages, boys were more likely than girls to receive psychotropic drugs; the opposite was true at older ages. For particular subcategories of drugs the study showed that (1) boys were more likely than girls, and young children were more likely than older children, to receive CNS stimulants, (2) children from single-parent families were less likely to use antidepressants than children from two-parent households, and (3) the influence of mothers' psychotropic drug use extended to all three drug classes, but the influence of fathers' psychotropic drug use existed for antidepressants only. The effects of demographic and familial factors on children's use of psychotropic drugs varied according to the drug class.

  11. Demographic history and rare allele sharing among human populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravel, Simon; Henn, Brenna M.; Gutenkunst, Ryan N.; Indap, Amit R.; Marth, Gabor T.; Clark, Andrew G.; Yu, Fuli; Gibbs, Richard A.; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Altshuler, David L.; Durbin, Richard M.; Abecasis, Gonçalo R.; Bentley, David R.; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Clark, Andrew G.; Collins, Francis S.; De La Vega, Francisco M.; Donnelly, Peter; Egholm, Michael; Flicek, Paul; Gabriel, Stacey B.; Gibbs, Richard A.; Knoppers, Bartha M.; Lander, Eric S.; Lehrach, Hans; Mardis, Elaine R.; McVean, Gil A.; Nickerson, Debbie A.; Peltonen, Leena; Schafer, Alan J.; Sherry, Stephen T.; Wang, Jun; Wilson, Richard K.; Gibbs, Richard A.; Deiros, David; Metzker, Mike; Muzny, Donna; Reid, Jeff; Wheeler, David; Wang, Jun; Li, Jingxiang; Jian, Min; Li, Guoqing; Li, Ruiqiang; Liang, Huiqing; Tian, Geng; Wang, Bo; Wang, Jian; Wang, Wei; Yang, Huanming; Zhang, Xiuqing; Zheng, Huisong; Lander, Eric S.; Altshuler, David L.; Ambrogio, Lauren; Bloom, Toby; Cibulskis, Kristian; Fennell, Tim J.; Gabriel, Stacey B.; Jaffe, David B.; Shefler, Erica; Sougnez, Carrie L.; Bentley, David R.; Gormley, Niall; Humphray, Sean; Kingsbury, Zoya; Koko-Gonzales, Paula; Stone, Jennifer; McKernan, Kevin J.; Costa, Gina L.; Ichikawa, Jeffry K.; Lee, Clarence C.; Sudbrak, Ralf; Lehrach, Hans; Borodina, Tatiana A.; Dahl, Andreas; Davydov, Alexey N.; Marquardt, Peter; Mertes, Florian; Nietfeld, Wilfiried; Rosenstiel, Philip; Schreiber, Stefan; Soldatov, Aleksey V.; Timmermann, Bernd; Tolzmann, Marius; Egholm, Michael; Affourtit, Jason; Ashworth, Dana; Attiya, Said; Bachorski, Melissa; Buglione, Eli; Burke, Adam; Caprio, Amanda; Celone, Christopher; Clark, Shauna; Conners, David; Desany, Brian; Gu, Lisa; Guccione, Lorri; Kao, Kalvin; Kebbel, Andrew; Knowlton, Jennifer; Labrecque, Matthew; McDade, Louise; Mealmaker, Craig; Minderman, Melissa; Nawrocki, Anne; Niazi, Faheem; Pareja, Kristen; Ramenani, Ravi; Riches, David; Song, Wanmin; Turcotte, Cynthia; Wang, Shally; Mardis, Elaine R.; Wilson, Richard K.; Dooling, David; Fulton, Lucinda; Fulton, Robert; Weinstock, George; Durbin, Richard M.; Burton, John; Carter, David M.; Churcher, Carol; Coffey, Alison; Cox, Anthony; Palotie, Aarno; Quail, Michael; Skelly, Tom; Stalker, James; Swerdlow, Harold P.; Turner, Daniel; De Witte, Anniek; Giles, Shane; Gibbs, Richard A.; Wheeler, David; Bainbridge, Matthew; Challis, Danny; Sabo, Aniko; Yu, Fuli; Yu, Jin; Wang, Jun; Fang, Xiaodong; Guo, Xiaosen; Li, Ruiqiang; Li, Yingrui; Luo, Ruibang; Tai, Shuaishuai; Wu, Honglong; Zheng, Hancheng; Zheng, Xiaole; Zhou, Yan; Li, Guoqing; Wang, Jian; Yang, Huanming; Marth, Gabor T.; Garrison, Erik P.; Huang, Weichun; Indap, Amit; Kural, Deniz; Lee, Wan-Ping; Leong, Wen Fung; Quinlan, Aaron R.; Stewart, Chip; Stromberg, Michael P.; Ward, Alistair N.; Wu, Jiantao; Lee, Charles; Mills, Ryan E.; Shi, Xinghua; Daly, Mark J.; DePristo, Mark A.; Altshuler, David L.; Ball, Aaron D.; Banks, Eric; Bloom, Toby; Browning, Brian L.; Cibulskis, Kristian; Fennell, Tim J.; Garimella, Kiran V.; Grossman, Sharon R.; Handsaker, Robert E.; Hanna, Matt; Hartl, Chris; Jaffe, David B.; Kernytsky, Andrew M.; Korn, Joshua M.; Li, Heng; Maguire, Jared R.; McCarroll, Steven A.; McKenna, Aaron; Nemesh, James C.; Philippakis, Anthony A.; Poplin, Ryan E.; Price, Alkes; Rivas, Manuel A.; Sabeti, Pardis C.; Schaffner, Stephen F.; Shefler, Erica; Shlyakhter, Ilya A.; Cooper, David N.; Ball, Edward V.; Mort, Matthew; Phillips, Andrew D.; Stenson, Peter D.; Sebat, Jonathan; Makarov, Vladimir; Ye, Kenny; Yoon, Seungtai C.; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Clark, Andrew G.; Boyko, Adam; Degenhardt, Jeremiah; Gravel, Simon; Gutenkunst, Ryan N.; Kaganovich, Mark; Keinan, Alon; Lacroute, Phil; Ma, Xin; Reynolds, Andy; Clarke, Laura; Flicek, Paul; Cunningham, Fiona; Herrero, Javier; Keenen, Stephen; Kulesha, Eugene; Leinonen, Rasko; McLaren, William M.; Radhakrishnan, Rajesh; Smith, Richard E.; Zalunin, Vadim; Zheng-Bradley, Xiangqun; Korbel, Jan O.; Stütz, Adrian M.; Humphray, Sean; Bauer, Markus; Cheetham, R. Keira; Cox, Tony; Eberle, Michael; James, Terena; Kahn, Scott; Murray, Lisa; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Ye, Kai; De La Vega, Francisco M.; Fu, Yutao; Hyland, Fiona C. L.; Manning, Jonathan M.; McLaughlin, Stephen F.; Peckham, Heather E.; Sakarya, Onur; Sun, Yongming A.; Tsung, Eric F.; Batzer, Mark A.; Konkel, Miriam K.; Walker, Jerilyn A.; Sudbrak, Ralf; Albrecht, Marcus W.; Amstislavskiy, Vyacheslav S.; Herwig, Ralf; Parkhomchuk, Dimitri V.; Sherry, Stephen T.; Agarwala, Richa; Khouri, Hoda M.; Morgulis, Aleksandr O.; Paschall, Justin E.; Phan, Lon D.; Rotmistrovsky, Kirill E.; Sanders, Robert D.; Shumway, Martin F.; Xiao, Chunlin; McVean, Gil A.; Auton, Adam; Iqbal, Zamin; Lunter, Gerton; Marchini, Jonathan L.; Moutsianas, Loukas; Myers, Simon; Tumian, Afidalina; Desany, Brian; Knight, James; Winer, Roger; Craig, David W.; Beckstrom-Sternberg, Steve M.; Christoforides, Alexis; Kurdoglu, Ahmet A.; Pearson, John V.; Sinari, Shripad A.; Tembe, Waibhav D.; Haussler, David; Hinrichs, Angie S.; Katzman, Sol J.; Kern, Andrew; Kuhn, Robert M.; Przeworski, Molly; Hernandez, Ryan D.; Howie, Bryan; Kelley, Joanna L.; Melton, S. Cord; Abecasis, Gonçalo R.; Li, Yun; Anderson, Paul; Blackwell, Tom; Chen, Wei; Cookson, William O.; Ding, Jun; Kang, Hyun Min; Lathrop, Mark; Liang, Liming; Moffatt, Miriam F.; Scheet, Paul; Sidore, Carlo; Snyder, Matthew; Zhan, Xiaowei; Zöllner, Sebastian; Awadalla, Philip; Casals, Ferran; Idaghdour, Youssef; Keebler, John; Stone, Eric A.; Zilversmit, Martine; Jorde, Lynn; Xing, Jinchuan; Eichler, Evan E.; Aksay, Gozde; Alkan, Can; Hajirasouliha, Iman; Hormozdiari, Fereydoun; Kidd, Jeffrey M.; Sahinalp, S. Cenk; Sudmant, Peter H.; Mardis, Elaine R.; Chen, Ken; Chinwalla, Asif; Ding, Li; Koboldt, Daniel C.; McLellan, Mike D.; Dooling, David; Weinstock, George; Wallis, John W.; Wendl, Michael C.; Zhang, Qunyuan; Durbin, Richard M.; Albers, Cornelis A.; Ayub, Qasim; Balasubramaniam, Senduran; Barrett, Jeffrey C.; Carter, David M.; Chen, Yuan; Conrad, Donald F.; Danecek, Petr; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T.; Hu, Min; Huang, Ni; Hurles, Matt E.; Jin, Hanjun; Jostins, Luke; Keane, Thomas M.; Le, Si Quang; Lindsay, Sarah; Long, Quan; MacArthur, Daniel G.; Montgomery, Stephen B.; Parts, Leopold; Stalker, James; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Walter, Klaudia; Zhang, Yujun; Gerstein, Mark B.; Snyder, Michael; Abyzov, Alexej; Balasubramanian, Suganthi; Bjornson, Robert; Du, Jiang; Grubert, Fabian; Habegger, Lukas; Haraksingh, Rajini; Jee, Justin; Khurana, Ekta; Lam, Hugo Y. K.; Leng, Jing; Mu, Xinmeng Jasmine; Urban, Alexander E.; Zhang, Zhengdong; Li, Yingrui; Luo, Ruibang; Marth, Gabor T.; Garrison, Erik P.; Kural, Deniz; Quinlan, Aaron R.; Stewart, Chip; Stromberg, Michael P.; Ward, Alistair N.; Wu, Jiantao; Lee, Charles; Mills, Ryan E.; Shi, Xinghua; McCarroll, Steven A.; Banks, Eric; DePristo, Mark A.; Handsaker, Robert E.; Hartl, Chris; Korn, Joshua M.; Li, Heng; Nemesh, James C.; Sebat, Jonathan; Makarov, Vladimir; Ye, Kenny; Yoon, Seungtai C.; Degenhardt, Jeremiah; Kaganovich, Mark; Clarke, Laura; Smith, Richard E.; Zheng-Bradley, Xiangqun; Korbel, Jan O.; Humphray, Sean; Cheetham, R. Keira; Eberle, Michael; Kahn, Scott; Murray, Lisa; Ye, Kai; De La Vega, Francisco M.; Fu, Yutao; Peckham, Heather E.; Sun, Yongming A.; Batzer, Mark A.; Konkel, Miriam K.; Walker, Jerilyn A.; Xiao, Chunlin; Iqbal, Zamin; Desany, Brian; Blackwell, Tom; Snyder, Matthew; Xing, Jinchuan; Eichler, Evan E.; Aksay, Gozde; Alkan, Can; Hajirasouliha, Iman; Hormozdiari, Fereydoun; Kidd, Jeffrey M.; Chen, Ken; Chinwalla, Asif; Ding, Li; McLellan, Mike D.; Wallis, John W.; Hurles, Matt E.; Conrad, Donald F.; Walter, Klaudia; Zhang, Yujun; Gerstein, Mark B.; Snyder, Michael; Abyzov, Alexej; Du, Jiang; Grubert, Fabian; Haraksingh, Rajini; Jee, Justin; Khurana, Ekta; Lam, Hugo Y. K.; Leng, Jing; Mu, Xinmeng Jasmine; Urban, Alexander E.; Zhang, Zhengdong; Gibbs, Richard A.; Bainbridge, Matthew; Challis, Danny; Coafra, Cristian; Dinh, Huyen; Kovar, Christie; Lee, Sandy; Muzny, Donna; Nazareth, Lynne; Reid, Jeff; Sabo, Aniko; Yu, Fuli; Yu, Jin; Marth, Gabor T.; Garrison, Erik P.; Indap, Amit; Leong, Wen Fung; Quinlan, Aaron R.; Stewart, Chip; Ward, Alistair N.; Wu, Jiantao; Cibulskis, Kristian; Fennell, Tim J.; Gabriel, Stacey B.; Garimella, Kiran V.; Hartl, Chris; Shefler, Erica; Sougnez, Carrie L.; Wilkinson, Jane; Clark, Andrew G.; Gravel, Simon; Grubert, Fabian; Clarke, Laura; Flicek, Paul; Smith, Richard E.; Zheng-Bradley, Xiangqun; Sherry, Stephen T.; Khouri, Hoda M.; Paschall, Justin E.; Shumway, Martin F.; Xiao, Chunlin; McVean, Gil A.; Katzman, Sol J.; Abecasis, Gonçalo R.; Blackwell, Tom; Mardis, Elaine R.; Dooling, David; Fulton, Lucinda; Fulton, Robert; Koboldt, Daniel C.; Durbin, Richard M.; Balasubramaniam, Senduran; Coffey, Allison; Keane, Thomas M.; MacArthur, Daniel G.; Palotie, Aarno; Scott, Carol; Stalker, James; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Gerstein, Mark B.; Balasubramanian, Suganthi; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Knoppers, Bartha M.; Abecasis, Gonçalo R.; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Gharani, Neda; Gibbs, Richard A.; Jorde, Lynn; Kaye, Jane S.; Kent, Alastair; Li, Taosha; McGuire, Amy L.; McVean, Gil A.; Ossorio, Pilar N.; Rotimi, Charles N.; Su, Yeyang; Toji, Lorraine H.; TylerSmith, Chris; Brooks, Lisa D.; Felsenfeld, Adam L.; McEwen, Jean E.; Abdallah, Assya; Juenger, Christopher R.; Clemm, Nicholas C.; Collins, Francis S.; Duncanson, Audrey; Green, Eric D.; Guyer, Mark S.; Peterson, Jane L.; Schafer, Alan J.; Abecasis, Gonçalo R.; Altshuler, David L.; Auton, Adam; Brooks, Lisa D.; Durbin, Richard M.; Gibbs, Richard A.; Hurles, Matt E.; McVean, Gil A.

    2011-01-01

    High-throughput sequencing technology enables population-level surveys of human genomic variation. Here, we examine the joint allele frequency distributions across continental human populations and present an approach for combining complementary aspects of whole-genome, low-coverage data and targeted high-coverage data. We apply this approach to data generated by the pilot phase of the Thousand Genomes Project, including whole-genome 2–4× coverage data for 179 samples from HapMap European, Asian, and African panels as well as high-coverage target sequencing of the exons of 800 genes from 697 individuals in seven populations. We use the site frequency spectra obtained from these data to infer demographic parameters for an Out-of-Africa model for populations of African, European, and Asian descent and to predict, by a jackknife-based approach, the amount of genetic diversity that will be discovered as sample sizes are increased. We predict that the number of discovered nonsynonymous coding variants will reach 100,000 in each population after ∼1,000 sequenced chromosomes per population, whereas ∼2,500 chromosomes will be needed for the same number of synonymous variants. Beyond this point, the number of segregating sites in the European and Asian panel populations is expected to overcome that of the African panel because of faster recent population growth. Overall, we find that the majority of human genomic variable sites are rare and exhibit little sharing among diverged populations. Our results emphasize that replication of disease association for specific rare genetic variants across diverged populations must overcome both reduced statistical power because of rarity and higher population divergence. PMID:21730125

  12. Laser photogrammetry improves size and demographic estimates for whale sharks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Anthony J.; Prebble, Clare E.M.; Marshall, Andrea D.; Bennett, Michael B.; Weeks, Scarla J.; Cliff, Geremy; Wintner, Sabine P.; Pierce, Simon J.

    2015-01-01

    Whale sharks Rhincodon typus are globally threatened, but a lack of biological and demographic information hampers an accurate assessment of their vulnerability to further decline or capacity to recover. We used laser photogrammetry at two aggregation sites to obtain more accurate size estimates of free-swimming whale sharks compared to visual estimates, allowing improved estimates of biological parameters. Individual whale sharks ranged from 432–917 cm total length (TL) (mean ± SD = 673 ± 118.8 cm, N = 122) in southern Mozambique and from 420–990 cm TL (mean ± SD = 641 ± 133 cm, N = 46) in Tanzania. By combining measurements of stranded individuals with photogrammetry measurements of free-swimming sharks, we calculated length at 50% maturity for males in Mozambique at 916 cm TL. Repeat measurements of individual whale sharks measured over periods from 347–1,068 days yielded implausible growth rates, suggesting that the growth increment over this period was not large enough to be detected using laser photogrammetry, and that the method is best applied to estimating growth rates over longer (decadal) time periods. The sex ratio of both populations was biased towards males (74% in Mozambique, 89% in Tanzania), the majority of which were immature (98% in Mozambique, 94% in Tanzania). The population structure for these two aggregations was similar to most other documented whale shark aggregations around the world. Information on small (<400 cm) whale sharks, mature individuals, and females in this region is lacking, but necessary to inform conservation initiatives for this globally threatened species. PMID:25870776

  13. Laser photogrammetry improves size and demographic estimates for whale sharks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph A. Rohner

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Whale sharks Rhincodon typus are globally threatened, but a lack of biological and demographic information hampers an accurate assessment of their vulnerability to further decline or capacity to recover. We used laser photogrammetry at two aggregation sites to obtain more accurate size estimates of free-swimming whale sharks compared to visual estimates, allowing improved estimates of biological parameters. Individual whale sharks ranged from 432–917 cm total length (TL (mean ± SD = 673 ± 118.8 cm, N = 122 in southern Mozambique and from 420–990 cm TL (mean ± SD = 641 ± 133 cm, N = 46 in Tanzania. By combining measurements of stranded individuals with photogrammetry measurements of free-swimming sharks, we calculated length at 50% maturity for males in Mozambique at 916 cm TL. Repeat measurements of individual whale sharks measured over periods from 347–1,068 days yielded implausible growth rates, suggesting that the growth increment over this period was not large enough to be detected using laser photogrammetry, and that the method is best applied to estimating growth rates over longer (decadal time periods. The sex ratio of both populations was biased towards males (74% in Mozambique, 89% in Tanzania, the majority of which were immature (98% in Mozambique, 94% in Tanzania. The population structure for these two aggregations was similar to most other documented whale shark aggregations around the world. Information on small (<400 cm whale sharks, mature individuals, and females in this region is lacking, but necessary to inform conservation initiatives for this globally threatened species.

  14. Laser photogrammetry improves size and demographic estimates for whale sharks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohner, Christoph A; Richardson, Anthony J; Prebble, Clare E M; Marshall, Andrea D; Bennett, Michael B; Weeks, Scarla J; Cliff, Geremy; Wintner, Sabine P; Pierce, Simon J

    2015-01-01

    Whale sharks Rhincodon typus are globally threatened, but a lack of biological and demographic information hampers an accurate assessment of their vulnerability to further decline or capacity to recover. We used laser photogrammetry at two aggregation sites to obtain more accurate size estimates of free-swimming whale sharks compared to visual estimates, allowing improved estimates of biological parameters. Individual whale sharks ranged from 432-917 cm total length (TL) (mean ± SD = 673 ± 118.8 cm, N = 122) in southern Mozambique and from 420-990 cm TL (mean ± SD = 641 ± 133 cm, N = 46) in Tanzania. By combining measurements of stranded individuals with photogrammetry measurements of free-swimming sharks, we calculated length at 50% maturity for males in Mozambique at 916 cm TL. Repeat measurements of individual whale sharks measured over periods from 347-1,068 days yielded implausible growth rates, suggesting that the growth increment over this period was not large enough to be detected using laser photogrammetry, and that the method is best applied to estimating growth rates over longer (decadal) time periods. The sex ratio of both populations was biased towards males (74% in Mozambique, 89% in Tanzania), the majority of which were immature (98% in Mozambique, 94% in Tanzania). The population structure for these two aggregations was similar to most other documented whale shark aggregations around the world. Information on small (<400 cm) whale sharks, mature individuals, and females in this region is lacking, but necessary to inform conservation initiatives for this globally threatened species.

  15. Germany's future electors : developments of the German electorate in times of demographic change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sánchez Gassen, N.E.

    2015-01-01

    Nora E. Sánchez Gassen analyses how demographic trends and electoral law have influenced the German electorate in the past and projects their future impact. A set of population projections illustrates how the size and age structure of the electorate will change until 2030 due to ongoing demographic

  16. Environmental Literacy in Madeira Island (Portugal): The Influence of Demographic Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinola, Hélder

    2016-01-01

    Demographic factors are among those that influence environmental literacy and, particularly, environmentally responsible behaviours, either directly or due to an aggregation effect dependent on other types of variables. Present study evaluates a set of demographic variables as predictors for environmental literacy among 9th grade students from…

  17. Socio-demographic factors related to functional limitations and care dependency among older Egyptians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boggatz, Thomas; Farid, Tamer; Mohammedin, Ahmed; Dijkstra, Ate; Lohrmann, Christa; Dassen, Theo

    P>Title. Socio-demographic factors related to functional limitations and care dependency among older Egyptians. Aim. This paper is a report of a study determining the relationship of socio-demographic factors to functional limitations and care dependency among older care recipients and non-care

  18. Socio-demographic Determinants of Compliance among Type 2 Diabetic Patients in Abha, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Salam, Mohammad Abdul; Siddiqui, Aesha Farheen

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Saudi Arabia has one of the highest prevalence of diabetes. This study was conducted with the following objectives: (1) To study the socio-demographic profile of diabetic patients in Abha. (2) To find the socio-demographic determinants of compliance among diabetic patients in Abha.

  19. Socio-Demographic and Economic Correlates of Overweight Status in Chinese Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Bin; Chou, Chih-Ping; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Reynolds, Kim; Clark, Florence; Palmer, Paula H.; Gallaher, Peggy; Sun, Ping; Guo, Qian; Johnson, C. Anderson

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate overweight prevalence and socio-demographic and economic correlates in Chinese adolescents. Methods: Weight, height, waist circumference, and socio-demographic and economic variables of 6863 middle and high school students were measured. Results: 10% of girls and 17% of boys were overweight. Waist circumference and…

  20. Measurement and Socio-Demographic Variation of Social Capital in a Large Population-Based Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieminen, Tarja; Martelin, Tuija; Koskinen, Seppo; Simpura, Jussi; Alanen, Erkki; Harkanen, Tommi; Aromaa, Arpo

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: The main objective of this study was to describe the variation of individual social capital according to socio-demographic factors, and to develop a suitable way to measure social capital for this purpose. The similarity of socio-demographic variation between the genders was also assessed. Data and methods: The study applied…

  1. The Challenges of Changing Demographics in a Midwestern School District: Administrative Interventions and Teachers' Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreinbring, Heather Hyatt

    2010-01-01

    America's school-age population is experiencing a demographic shift. In 1972, students of color represented 22% of the school-age population; in 2005, minority students accounted for 33% of public school enrollment (Statistics, 2007 Villegas, 2002). This study sought to explore how these changing demographics affected University Town Community…

  2. 77 FR 50138 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request: Collection of Customer Service, Demographic, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-20

    ... Customer Service, Demographic, and Smoking/Tobacco Use Information From the National Cancer Institute's... displays a currently valid OMB control number. Proposed Collection: Title: Collection of Customer Service... three customer service and twelve demographic questions (age, sex, race, ethnicity, education, household...

  3. Demographic change and the supply of physicians, hospitals, and hospital beds: marketing implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pol, L G; Tymkiw, D R

    1990-01-01

    Demographic conditions are a major component of the business environment in which health care marketers must compete. The following study assesses the impact of demographic factors on health care supply and finds that population size, population change, age structure, and income are important predictors of physician, hospital, and hospital bed supply. The results are discussed in the context of marketing implications.

  4. Demographic changes underpinning the population decline of Starlings Sturnus vulgaris in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versluijs, M.; Van Turnhout, C.; Kleijn, David; van der Jeugd, H.P.

    2016-01-01

    Declines in farmland bird populations are often linked to changes in agricultural practices, but little is known about the demographic changes underlying these adverse trends. Identifying the demographic drivers of population change is critical for understanding why populations are declining. In

  5. Demographic Changes Underpinning the Population Decline of Starlings Sturnus vulgaris in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versluijs, Martijn; Turnhout, van Chris A.M.; Kleijn, David; Jeugd, van der Henk P.

    2016-01-01

    Declines in farmland bird populations are often linked to changes in agricultural practices, but little is known about the demographic changes underlying these adverse trends. Identifying the demographic drivers of population change is critical for understanding why populations are declining. In

  6. Population Composition, Migration and Inequality: The Influence of Demographic Changes on Disaster Risk and Vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donner, William; Rodriguez, Havidan

    2008-01-01

    The changing demographic landscape of the United States calls for a reassessment of the societal impacts and consequences of so called "natural" and technological disasters. An increasing trend towards greater demographic and socio-economic diversity (in part due to high rates of international immigration), combined with mounting…

  7. Demographics, Psychiatric Diagnoses, and Other Characteristics of North American Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Inpatients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Patricia A.; Glickman, Neil S.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined demographic and clinical data from a specialty deaf inpatient unit so as to better understand characteristics of severely and chronically mentally ill deaf people. The study compares deaf and hearing psychiatric inpatients on demographic variables, psychiatric discharge diagnoses, a language assessment measure, a cognitive…

  8. Innovative tools and OpenHDS for health and demographic surveillance on Rusinga Island, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homan, T.; Pasquale, di A.; Kiche, I.; Onoka, K.; Hiscox, A.F.; Mweresa, C.K.; Mukabana, W.R.; Takken, W.; Maire, N.

    2015-01-01

    Background Health in low and middle income countries is on one hand characterized by a high burden associated with preventable communicable diseases and on the other hand considered to be under-documented due to improper basic health and demographic record-keeping. health and demographic surveillanc

  9. Exploring Demographic Shifts: Aging and Migration Exploratory Group Model Specification & Simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pruyt, E.; Logtens, T.; Gijsbers, G.

    2011-01-01

    Plausible dynamics of a major demographic shift –(societal) aging– is studied in this paper, both from a global perspective and from a national perspective. Several economic, political and social implications of aging and aging-related demographic shifts are explored using System Dynamics models as

  10. Family demographic profiles and their relationship with the quality of executive functioning subcomponents in kindergarten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenbroucke, Loren; Verschueren, Karine; Ceulemans, Eva; De Smedt, Bert; De Roover, Kim; Baeyens, Dieter

    2016-06-01

    Executive functioning (EF), needed for goal-oriented behaviour, thoughts, and emotions, is important for various life domains. This study examined the relationship between family demographics and EF subcomponents. A kindergarten sample was tested on subcomponents of working memory, inhibition, and cognitive flexibility. Parents provided information on demographic variables. For 78 children both EF and demographic data were available. First, demographic profiles were identified within the sample. Two profiles were found: A low-risk profile of mainly two-biological-parent, high-income families with a highly educated mother who did not smoke during pregnancy and a high-risk profile of low-income families with a young, low-educated mother who more often smoked during pregnancy. Second, children with different demographic profiles were compared on EF subcomponents. Results indicate differential relations between family demographics and EF subcomponents: Whereas for most EF subcomponents no association with family demographics was found, high-risk children performed better on response shifting and tended to perform worse on verbal memory than low-risk children. Parenting stress decreased performance only for high-risk children. Although this study found limited impact of family demographics for EF, further longitudinal research can provide nuanced insights about which factors influence specific EF subcomponents during which developmental periods and guide targeted prevention of EF difficulties.

  11. The effects of demographic changes and supply constraints on Dutch housing prices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Francke, M.; van de Minne, A.

    2013-01-01

    Even though supply constraints are an important factor in explaining housing prices, it has not yet been implemented in research on demographics in real estate literature. The aim of this paper is to analyze the effects of demographic changes on housing prices for housing markets (municipalities) wi

  12. Impact of environmental factors on the demographic characteristics in Tomsk Oblast (Russia, 1980-2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugacheva, E.; Mezhibor, A.; Makarenko, T.

    2016-09-01

    The research represents the analysis of essential demographic indexes in Tomsk Oblast (Russia): birth-rate, death-rate, natural increase (1980-2015), migration increase (19972014), and child mortality (1990-2015). Environmental factors were determined as influencing the health and as a consequence, having the impact on the demographic characteristics of the studied region.

  13. Population Composition, Migration and Inequality: The Influence of Demographic Changes on Disaster Risk and Vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donner, William; Rodriguez, Havidan

    2008-01-01

    The changing demographic landscape of the United States calls for a reassessment of the societal impacts and consequences of so called "natural" and technological disasters. An increasing trend towards greater demographic and socio-economic diversity (in part due to high rates of international immigration), combined with mounting…

  14. Socio-demographic factors related to functional limitations and care dependency among older Egyptians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boggatz, Thomas; Farid, Tamer; Mohammedin, Ahmed; Dijkstra, Ate; Lohrmann, Christa; Dassen, Theo

    2010-01-01

    P>Title. Socio-demographic factors related to functional limitations and care dependency among older Egyptians. Aim. This paper is a report of a study determining the relationship of socio-demographic factors to functional limitations and care dependency among older care recipients and non-care reci

  15. Effect of Demographic Factors on Empowerment Attributions of Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Ashley H.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of demographic factors on empowerment attributions of parents of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Data were collected to determine differences between demographic factors of participants and self-reported empowerment attributions. A quantitative research design was employed in…

  16. STATISTICAL EVALUATION OF THE IMPACT OF ECONOMIC FACTORS ON SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHICS OF THE COUNTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Evseenko

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In theory made a case the necessity of modeling economic and demographic indicators. The influences of economic, social and environmental indicators on social and demographic factors of development country are researeched. Given statistical evaluation of relationships based on correlation and regression analysis method.

  17. Making Comparisons of Demographic Aggregates more Meaningful: A Case of Life Expectancies and Total Fertility Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Udaya S.

    2006-01-01

    With the recent emphasis on human development, development researchers are making frequent use of aggregate demographic measures in describing development experiences and more so while linking health and development. And it is often seen that comparison of these demographic aggregates across space and time is naive given their complex construct on…

  18. General Economic and Demographic Background and Projections for Indiana Library Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foust, James D.; Tower, Carl B.

    Before future library needs can be estimated, economic and demographic variables that influence the demand for library services must be projected and estimating equations relating library needs to economic and demographic parameters developed. This study considers the size, location and age-sex characteristics of Indiana's current population and…

  19. The Relationship of Parental Military Background to the Demographic Characteristics of 11,195 Navy Recruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-04-19

    listed in this table. All chisquares are signficant at p < .01. Nonsignficant changes in multivariate odds for specific demographic subgroups are noted...demographic variables identifying subgroups with significantly different percentages of CONFs among them are listed in this table. All chisquares are

  20. A demographic approach to firm dynamics: formation of new firms and survival of old ones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijkamp, P.; Geenhuizen, van M.

    1995-01-01

    This paper introduces a new approach to firm dynamics, named demography of firms. It is the study of demographic events in a population of firms. Thepaper argues that withina demographic approach, attention should be paid to a broad range of firm dynamics, including both new firm formation and survi

  1. Long term demographic monitoring of wader populations in non-breeding areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robinson, Robert A.; Clark, Nigel A.; Lanctot, Richard; Nebel, Silke; Harrington, Brian; Clark, Jacquie A.; Gill, Jennifer A.; Meltofte, Hans; Rogers, Danny I.; Rogers, Ken G.; Ens, Bruno J.; Reynolds, Christopher M.; Ward, Robin M.; Piersma, Theunis; Atkinson, Philip W.

    2005-01-01

    Understanding numeric changes in wader populations requires knowledge of the demographic parameters underlying such changes, i.e. survival and recruitment. Data from long-term monitoring programmes are crucial for obtaining these parameters. Following discussions held at a workshop on demographic mo

  2. Peculiarities of gender and demographically targeted advertising texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Teletov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The article highlightes the individual components in the total advertising by gender. Examples of typical advertising products for men, women, youth, children, the elderly are given. The classification of objects advertising by gender is made. It is analyzed the specific drafting advertising copy, including headlines and slogans. The basic provisions for advertising of products segmented by demographic principle. The results of the analysis. The analysis of consumer advertising texts revealed some gender peculiarities. It is confirmed that advertising for female audience is informative headlines, because it usually knows what the needed product is at the moment. It shows that an important psychological feature for women is the attention to detail that is normally ignored by men; text ads feature women is the use of a large number of emotionally charged, interrogative and incentive offers. Grounded in advertising to appeal to men innovations more often than other types of uses is provocative headlines. Semantic orientation lexicon in advertising for men focuses on external data and character traits a man on his professionalism. A small number of adjectives emphasizes restraint and courage recipient. Relative adjectives in texts predominate in advertising addressed to men and more qualitative adjectives containing the emotional evaluation of the advertised product – for women. It is proposed to take into account the physiological differences between male (analytical and female (figurative thinking: men do not like when they are run, so do not use verbs in the imperative mood, and women often act as wingmen, they need advice, call to action, so the imperative verb form is more appropriate. It is confirmed that promotional texts baby goods semantics vocabulary related to the development, nutrition, child health and feelings to it, because advertising is designed for parents and other adults. It is better to use verbs in the

  3. Demographic Features in Patients with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berat Meryem Alkan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary Özet Orijinal Araştırma / Original Investigation 77 Aim: Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS is characterized by pain, vasomotor and sudomotor changes and trophic disturbances. It may develop as a result of trauma, especially extremity fractures and surgery. Although the pathogenesis of CRPS is not exactly clear explained, it has been suggested that central and periferal mechanisms play role and neurogenic inflamatuar and microvasculer functional impairmensts are accompanying to the process. Not all but some of the patients with past trauma or with other possible etiological factors develop CRPS. This suggests the presence of an individual predisposition. In this article, we searched post fractüred CRPS-I patients demographic characteristics, current systemic diseases and symptoms that accompany a CRPS in our records. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study conducted in Ankara Atatürk Education and Research Hospital, medical records of 356 patients admitted to physical medicine and rehabilitation outpatient clinics with fractures between January 2011 and June 2011 were evaluated and 34 patients diagnosed as CRPS-1 were included in the study. Results: 34 of 356 patients (9.56% with fractures were diagnosed as CRPS-1 in our outpatient clinics. Mean age of the patients was 46.05 years and 10 patients were females (29.4% and 24 patients (70.6% were males. Fractures were in upper extremities in 18 patients (52.9% and in lower extremities in 16 (47.1% patients. Neuropsychiatric disorders and other systemic diseases that may have a role in etiology of CRPS were found in lower rates in medical records of our patients. Conclusion: CRPS does not develop in every patients after travma who has etiologic risk factors, so it reminds that there exists a tendency to CRPS. We have observed that CRPS-1 risk was increased in male patients and in upper extremity fractures. We did not observe any other impertant factor which increases

  4. Climate change threatens polar bear populations: a stochastic demographic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Christine M; Caswell, Hal; Runge, Michael C; Regehr, Eric V; Amstrup, Steve C; Stirling, Ian

    2010-10-01

    The polar bear (Ursus maritimus) depends on sea ice for feeding, breeding, and movement. Significant reductions in Arctic sea ice are forecast to continue because of climate warming. We evaluated the impacts of climate change on polar bears in the southern Beaufort Sea by means of a demographic analysis, combining deterministic, stochastic, environment-dependent matrix population models with forecasts of future sea ice conditions from IPCC general circulation models (GCMs). The matrix population models classified individuals by age and breeding status; mothers and dependent cubs were treated as units. Parameter estimates were obtained from a capture-recapture study conducted from 2001 to 2006. Candidate statistical models allowed vital rates to vary with time and as functions of a sea ice covariate. Model averaging was used to produce the vital rate estimates, and a parametric bootstrap procedure was used to quantify model selection and parameter estimation uncertainty. Deterministic models projected population growth in years with more extensive ice coverage (2001-2003) and population decline in years with less ice coverage (2004-2005). LTRE (life table response experiment) analysis showed that the reduction in lambda in years with low sea ice was due primarily to reduced adult female survival, and secondarily to reduced breeding. A stochastic model with two environmental states, good and poor sea ice conditions, projected a declining stochastic growth rate, log lambdas, as the frequency of poor ice years increased. The observed frequency of poor ice years since 1979 would imply log lambdas approximately - 0.01, which agrees with available (albeit crude) observations of population size. The stochastic model was linked to a set of 10 GCMs compiled by the IPCC; the models were chosen for their ability to reproduce historical observations of sea ice and were forced with "business as usual" (A1B) greenhouse gas emissions. The resulting stochastic population

  5. Demographic and fertility characteristics of 4 squatter settlements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusof, K; Zulkifli, S N

    1985-01-01

    The demographic and fertility profiles of 4 squatter areas, 2 with Sang Kancil, a community development project designed specifically for squatter settlements in Kuala Lumpur, are described. Data were taken from a census conducted in 1982. Figure 1 maps out the location of the study areas in the Federal Territory. The squatter household (5.4 members) varied little from the average Malaysian household. The average age of the male head of household was 40 years, i.e., not within the high fertility group; the mean duration of stay was 10 years. Household income/month averaged M$760, falling between estimates for urban and rural mean. Comparing the data on the 2 squatter areas, the non-Sang Kancil head of household was, on average, slightly older and had stayed about 2 years longer than his Sang Kancil counterpart. These differences were statistically significant. Both areas were comparable with regard to household income and size. Ethnically, the Sang Kancil areas were predominantly Malay, comprising 86% of total households. The control areas had a more mixed ethnic structure. From 1978-81, annual increases in total population had been fairly uniform, at around 2%, in non-Sang Kancil Areas. Yet, the Sang Kancil population experienced a growth spurt in 1980, which subsequently declined and appeared to level off. 1982 figures were disregarded in this analysis as they were based on a 1/2 year enumeration only. The age distribution pattern of all squatter areas combined was fairly similar to the national distribution pyramid but for a higher proportion of people in the 15-44 age group than national figures. The proportion of dependents, 0-14 years, was comparable despite having more people in this fertile age group. The proportion of infants (0-11 months) in the control population was constant, but there was a decline down to control values by the end of the surveyed period in the Sang Kancil group. In the toddler group, decreases were evident for both populations

  6. Baby boomers' food shopping habits. Relationships with demographics and personal values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worsley, Anthony; Wang, Wei C; Hunter, Wendy

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine baby boomers' food shopping behaviours and to investigate their relationships with demographics and personal values. A questionnaire concerning food shopping behaviours, personal values and demographics was mailed to a random sample of 2975 people aged 40-70 years in Victoria, Australia. Usable questionnaires of 1031 were obtained. Structural equation modelling was employed for data analyses. The analyses revealed that demographics and personal values influenced shopping behaviours via different pathways among male and female baby boomers. For example, self-direction positively impacted on shopping planning for men but negatively influenced price minimization for women. Among women only, age was positively related to shopping planning and negatively to price minimization. Thus, both personal values and demographics influenced baby boomers' shopping behaviours. Since values are more likely to be amenable to change than demographics, segmentation of the population via value orientations would facilitate targeted interventions to promote healthy food shopping.

  7. Future demographic dividend——tapping the source of China’s economic growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡昉

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the demographic dividend in China’s economic growth or the contribution of the demographic factor to China’s rapid economic growth over the past 30 years. Based on this review, it explores how China has sustained high-speed economic growth in the midst of a slowdown in working age population growth, surplus labor depletion and population aging. This study intends to demonstrate that the second demographic dividend may still arise after the decline and even disappearance of the first demographic dividend to avoid demographic debt by boosting labor productivity through the furtherance of education, extending the competitive advantage of China’s industry, tapping new sources of savings through institutional arrangements of pension security, and expanding labor resource and human capital stock in the aging era through the institutional arrangements in the labor market.

  8. The neolithic demographic transition in Europe: correlation with juvenility index supports interpretation of the summed calibrated radiocarbon date probability distribution (SCDPD as a valid demographic proxy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean S Downey

    Full Text Available Analysis of the proportion of immature skeletons recovered from European prehistoric cemeteries has shown that the transition to agriculture after 9000 BP triggered a long-term increase in human fertility. Here we compare the largest analysis of European cemeteries to date with an independent line of evidence, the summed calibrated date probability distribution of radiocarbon dates (SCDPD from archaeological sites. Our cemetery reanalysis confirms increased growth rates after the introduction of agriculture; the radiocarbon analysis also shows this pattern, and a significant correlation between both lines of evidence confirms the demographic validity of SCDPDs. We analyze the areal extent of Neolithic enclosures and demographic data from ethnographically known farming and foraging societies and we estimate differences in population levels at individual sites. We find little effect on the overall shape and precision of the SCDPD and we observe a small increase in the correlation with the cemetery trends. The SCDPD analysis supports the hypothesis that the transition to agriculture dramatically increased demographic growth, but it was followed within centuries by a general pattern of collapse even after accounting for higher settlement densities during the Neolithic. The study supports the unique contribution of SCDPDs as a valid demographic proxy for the demographic patterns associated with early agriculture.

  9. Recreational road runners: injuries, training, demographics and physical characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisiane Schilling Poeta,

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to study recreational road runners in order to identify: their physical characteristics, demographics, running profile (training distance, frequency, duration, and experience and the prevalence of injuries and their association with age, running profile, and other sports practiced. Body mass, height (from which BMI was calculated and waist circumference were also measured. The sample of runners was composed of 115 men who participated in two events organized in Santa Catarina State, Brazil, in 2006: 22nd Maratona de Blumenau and 5th Desafio Praias e Trilhas (Florianópolis. The data were analyzed with descriptive statistics and the chi-square test to identify associations between injury prevalence and other variables (pResumoO objetivo deste estudo foi: identificar características físicas, demográficas, de treinamento e a prevalência de lesões musculares/osteoarticulares em corredores de rua amadores. Verificar também o grau de associação entre lesões com a idade, freqüência do treinamento diário e semanal, distância percorrida por semana, orientação especializada, prática de outra atividade física e tempo de prática da corrida. Além disso, mediu-se o perímetro da cintura, massa corporal e estatura e, assim, também se determinou o índice de massa corporal (IMC dos corredores. O grupo estudado foi composto por 115 homens, participantes de provas realizadas em Santa Catarina, no ano de 2006: 22ª Maratona de Blumenau e 5º Desafio Praias e Trilhas (Florianópolis. A estatística descritiva e o teste do Qui-quadrado foram utilizados para caracterização do grupo e para verificar a associação da prevalência de lesões com as variáveis estudadas, tendo como referência p<0,05. Os corredores de rua apresentaram as seguintes características: 63,2% com idade entre 18-50 anos e 36,8% acima de 50 anos; 24,3% cursaram ensino fundamental, 35,4% o ensino médio e 40% o superior; a renda familiar de R

  10. Demographic transition and potential for development: the case of Iraqi Kurdistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hadithi, T S; Shabila, N R; Al-Tawil, N G; Othman, S M

    2010-10-01

    The effect of population growth and demographic transitionon economic developmenthas been well documented. The population growth in Iraqi Kurdistan is passing through a critical stage of demographic transition. It is, in fact, extremely likely that the region will fail to efficiently move through the demographic transition and will experience a long period in the demographic trap, i.e. the population will grow steadily and rapidly owing to the high fertility and low mortality rates. With correct government policies in terms of promoting family planning programmes, should the political context allow, demographic transition can pass smoothly through this critical stage. Furthermore, if demographic transition in Kurdistan moves to the next stage, it will provide an important window of opportunity for economic development. Proper exploitation of this demographic window through investment in education, on-the-job training and health services, in addition to proper and appropriate exploitation of economic resources and suitable and productive use of the labour force, will result in significant economic development over the next few decades.

  11. Demographic screening for MRSA may compromise the effectiveness of ring fencing on a joint replacement unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, H-M A; Izon, C; Maley, M W

    2012-11-01

    Ring fencing of joint replacement (JR) units has been reported to reduce infections and is recommended by health authorities in Australia and the UK. It has not been determined whether a demographic risk assessment is adequate to prevent the admission of patients colonized with meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) to ring-fenced units. As such, 250 admissions to the JR unit of a suburban Sydney hospital were screened, and MRSA colonization was identified in 2.8% of patients complying with the demographic risk assessment. Demographic risk assessment is not an adequate substitute for physical MRSA screening, and undermines the effectiveness of ring-fencing procedures.

  12. Whole blood and apheresis donors in Quebec, Canada: Demographic differences and motivations to donate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbonneau, Johanne; Cloutier, Marie-Soleil; Carrier, Élianne

    2015-12-01

    This study sought to compare demographics and donation motivations among plasma/platelet donors (PPDs) and whole blood donors (WBDs), in a voluntary and non-remunerated context. Motives to donate blood and demographic characteristics were collected through questionnaires completed by 795 WBDs and 473 PPDs. Comparison of WBDs and PPDs under chi-square tests showed that 17 out of 23 motivators were statistically different according to various demographic variables. These results demonstrate the existence of specific donor profiles both for WBDs and PPDs. Agencies should develop new recruitment strategies tailored to these donors, especially if they wish to convince WBDs to convert to apheresis donation.

  13. Temporal, spatial, and environmental influences on the demographics of grizzly bears in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Charles C.; Haroldson, Mark A.; White, Gary C.; Harris, Richard B.; Cherry, Steve; Keating, Kim A.; Moody, Dave; Servheen, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    During the past 2 decades, the grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) population in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) has increased in numbers and expanded in range. Understanding temporal, environmental, and spatial variables responsible for this change is useful in evaluating what likely influenced grizzly bear demographics in the GYE and where future management efforts might benefit conservation and management. We used recent data from radio-marked bears to estimate reproduction (1983–2002) and survival (1983–2001); these we combined into models to evaluate demographic vigor (lambda [λ]). We explored the influence of an array of individual, temporal, and spatial covariates on demographic vigor.

  14. Demographic Data, (Note: Describe as available) Full selection of demographic data available to join with related boundary area GIS files, Published in Not Provided, 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, Indiana University (IU).

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — Demographic Data dataset current as of unknown. (Note: Describe as available) Full selection of demographic data available to join with related boundary area GIS...

  15. Demographic rates and population viability of black bears in Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laufenberg, Jared S.; Clark, Joseph D.; Hooker, Michael J.; Lowe, Carrie L.; O'Connell-Goode, Kaitlin C.; Troxler, Jesse C.; Davidson, Maria M.; Chamberlain, Michael J.; Chandler, Richard B.

    2015-01-01

    The Louisiana black bear (Ursus americanus luteolus) was reduced to a few small, fragmented, and isolated subpopulations in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley by the mid-twentieth century resulting from loss and fragmentation of habitat. In 1992, the United States Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) granted the Louisiana black bear threatened status under the United States Endangered Species Act of 1973. Since that time, a recovery plan was developed, a reintroduced population was established, and habitat recovery has occurred. The Recovery Plan states that a minimum of 2 populations must be viable (i.e., persistence probabilities over 100 years >0.95), 1 in the Tensas River Basin and 1 in the Atchafalaya River Basin. Consequently, our objectives were to 1) estimate demographic rates of Louisiana black bear subpopulations, 2) develop data-driven stochastic population projection models, and 3) determine how different projection model assumptions affect population trajectories and predictions about long-term persistence. Our overall goal was to assess long-term persistence of the bear subpopulations in Louisiana, individually and as a whole. We collected data using varying combinations of non-invasive DNA sampling, live capture, winter den visits, and radio monitoring from 2002 to 2012 in the 4 areas currently supporting breeding subpopulations in Louisiana: Tensas River Basin (TRB), Upper Atchafalaya River Basin (UARB), Lower Atchafalaya River Basin (LARB), and a recently reintroduced population at the Three Rivers Complex (TRC). From 2002 to 2012, we radio monitored fates of 86 adult females within the TRB and 43 in the TRC. Mean estimates of annual adult survival for the TRB and TRC were 0.997 and 0.990, respectively, when unknown fates were assumed alive and 0.970 and 0.926 when unknown fates were assumed dead. From 2003 to 2013, we observed 130 cub litters from 74 females in the TRB, and 74 cub litters from 45 females in the TRC. During the same period, we

  16. Direct Measurements of Smartphone Screen-Time: Relationships with Demographics and Sleep

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Christensen, Matthew A; Bettencourt, Laura; Kaye, Leanne; Moturu, Sai T; Nguyen, Kaylin T; Olgin, Jeffrey E; Pletcher, Mark J; Marcus, Gregory M

    2016-01-01

      Background Smartphones are increasingly integrated into everyday life, but frequency of use has not yet been objectively measured and compared to demographics, health information, and in particular, sleep quality...

  17. Socio-demographic determinants and access to prenatal care in Italy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chiavarini, Manuela; Lanari, Donatella; Minelli, Liliana; Salmasi, Luca

    2014-01-01

    Many governments have made commitments to examine inequalities in healthcare access based on studies assessing the association between several socio-demographic factors and late initiation or fewer prenatal examinations...

  18. Depression among Chinese university students: prevalence and socio-demographic correlates

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chen, Lu; Wang, Lin; Qiu, Xiao Hui; Yang, Xiu Xian; Qiao, Zheng Xue; Yang, Yan Jie; Liang, Yuan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of depression in Chinese university students, and to identify the socio-demographic factors associated with depression in this population...

  19. Demographics and limiting factors of tundra nesting birds at the Canning River products

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Products resulting from the Arctic NWR project "Demographics and limiting factors of tundra nesting birds at the Canning River" (PRIMR survey FF07RARC00-010).

  20. Linking functional traits and demographic rates in a subtropical tree community: the importance of size dependency

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Iida, Yoshiko; Kohyama, Takashi S; Swenson, Nathan G; Su, Sheng‐Hsin; Chen, Chien‐Teh; Chiang, Jyh‐Min; Sun, I‐Fang; Zuidema, Pieter

    2014-01-01

    .... Several functional traits have been shown to correlate with growth and mortality rates in trees, but less is known about how the relationships between functional traits and demographic rates change with tree size...

  1. The demographic system of a Mediterranean island: Mykonos, Greece 1859-1959.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hionidou, V

    1995-12-01

    "This paper is an attempt to examine the demographic distinctiveness of island populations. The population of the Greek island of Mykonos in the period 1859 to 1959 is used. Using the results obtained from family reconstitution and inverse projection the inter-relations of the major demographic components are described. The pre-transitional demographic system of Mykonos was found to have been characterised by the combination of low mortality and low marital though moderately high overall fertility. The resulting high population growth was counterbalanced by high emigration which kept the island population almost constant. Mortality and fertility experienced parallel and rapid decline. In both pre- and transitional Mykonos fertility rather than mortality seems to have been the main factor responsible for the changes in population growth. The findings point to a demographic distinctiveness of Mediterranean island populations."

  2. Demographic Recommendation by means of Group Profile Elicitation Using Speaker Age and Gender Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shepstone, Sven Ewan; Tan, Zheng-Hua; Jensen, Søren Holdt

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we show a new method of using automatic age and gender recognition to recommend a sequence of multimedia items to a home TV audience comprising multiple viewers. Instead of relying on explicitly provided demographic data for each user, we define an audio-based demographic group......, which itself is the input to a recommender system. The recommender system finds the content items whose demographics best match the group profile. We tested the effectiveness of the system for several typical home audience configurations. In a survey, users were given a configuration and asked to rate...... a set of advertisements on how well each advertisement matched the configuration. Unbeknown to the subjects, half of the adverts were recommended using the derived audio demographics and the other half were randomly chosen. The recommended adverts received a significantly higher median rating of 7...

  3. Demographics of implant placement and complications of a patient subgroup in a dental hospital population.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Brennan, Maire

    2011-03-14

    Little has been reported about the demographics of implant placement in the Irish population and the complications that occur. This is important in terms of service planning and providing patient information.

  4. Does Financial Literacy Moderate the Relationship among Demographic Characteristics and Financial Risk Tolerance? Evidence from Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Ali Shusha

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Financial risk tolerance is certainly an important topic for researchers, investors and personal financial planners or consultants. This study purposed to investigate the effect of demographic characteristics on financial risk tolerance among Egyptians. A literature review of demographic determinants of financial risk tolerance showed dialectical results. Therefore, this study attempts to clarify the debatable issues in these results by studying the moderating role of financial literacy in relationships among demographic characteristics and financial risk tolerance. The study sample included 386 respondents representing different segments of Egyptian people. Using the hierarchical regression analysis, the results demonstrated that there were significant effects of gender, age, educational level and annual income on financial risk tolerance. Moreover, the financial literacy moderates the relationships among demographic characteristics of individuals and their tendency to take a risk.

  5. Demographic, clinical and radiological characteristics of seronegative spondyloarthritis Egyptian patients: A rheumatology clinic experience in Mansoura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Abdelsalam

    2017-04-01

    Conclusion: The demographic, clinical and radiological characteristics of Egyptian SpA patients are comparable to those from other countries except for the lower prevalence of extra-articular manifestations.

  6. Comparison of the Five Danish Regions Regarding Demographic Characteristics, Healthcare Utilization, and Medication Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Daniel Pilsgaard; Rasmussen, Lotte; Hansen, Morten Rix;

    2015-01-01

    nationwide registers: The Danish National Patient Register, The Danish Civil Registration System, The Danish Register of Medicinal Product Statistics, and The Danish National Health Service Register for Primary Care. We compared the Danish regions regarding demographic and socioeconomic characteristics...

  7. Comparing demographic, health status and psychosocial strategies of audience segmentation to promote physical activity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boslaugh, Sarah E; Kreuter, Matthew W; Nicholson, Robert A; Naleid, Kimberly

    2005-01-01

    .... This study compares the results of audience segmentation for physical activity that is based on either demographic, health status or psychosocial variables alone, or a combination of all three types of variables...

  8. Modeling of budgetary funding influence on socio-demographic processes of a region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Vladimirovna Vasil'eva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a method of modeling socio-demographic processes in a region based on the minimax approach. In this method, the simulated socio-demographic processes reflect the performance of a population fertility age model, reproductive systems and the structure of mortality, as management impact tools of fiscal spending on socially significant budget items (health, physical culture and sport, social policy, education, environmental protection are considered. Testing methodology on the examples of the Russian Federation subjects included in the Ural Federal District is presented. Peculiarities of influence of funding of each socially important item on the social and demographic processes in the regions of the Ural Federal District are shown. Priorities of distribution of funds based on the level of budgetary provision in the region to ensure optimization of socio-demographic development of the region are shaped.

  9. Socioeconomic and demographic factors are associated with dietary patterns in a cohort of young Brazilian adults

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arruda, Soraia Pinheiro Machado; da Silva, Antônio Augusto Moura; Kac, Gilberto; Goldani, Marcelo Zubaran; Bettiol, Heloisa; Barbieri, Marco Antônio

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify the main dietary patterns among young adults and to investigate the association of socioeconomic and demographic factors, and social mobility with dietary patterns...

  10. Demographics of implant placement and complications of a patient subgroup in a dental hospital population.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Brennan, Maire

    2010-05-01

    Little has been reported about the demographics of implant placement in the Irish population and the complications that occur. This is important in terms of service planning and providing patient information.

  11. The influence of socio-demographic factors on the nutritional status ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition ... Objectives: To determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity, as well as socio-demographic risk factors associated with childhood overweight and obesity in the Stellenbosch area, Western ...

  12. The demographic picture of Belgrade at the beginning of the 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rašević Mirjana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The central part of this paper is devoted to establishing the demographic picture of the City of Belgrade at the beginning of the 21st century. The authors discuss the number of inhabitants and the components of demographic growth through natural increase (fertility and mortality on the one hand and net migration on the other. Special attention was paid to the problem of refugees (the number and special distribution of refugees. Age and sex structure, the structure by marital status, as well as educational, and economic structures were analyzed. Current ethnic structure, as well as the changes in this structure since the early 1990s, were also presented. The analysis of the demographic picture has made it possible, first of all, to show the implications for the future of the established population trends, and second of all, to single out the basic demographic problems that need to be addressed strategically by the City of Belgrade and by the State.

  13. EnviroAtlas - Minneapolis/St. Paul, MN - Demographics by Block Group

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset is a summary of key demographic groups for the EnviroAtlas community. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online...

  14. Cardiovascular drugs : discrepancies in demographics between pre- and post-registration use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, NF; de Graeff, PA; van der Werf, GT; Vos, R

    1999-01-01

    Objectives: To study discrepancies in demographic characteristics between patients participating in pre-registration phase III trials of cardiovascular drugs, registered in the Netherlands, and patient populations in daily practice representing the actual users of the drugs after registration. Metho

  15. Socio-demographic characteristics as determinants of differences in perception of local gastronomy

    OpenAIRE

    Vuksanović Nikola; Tešanović Dragan; Kalenjuk Bojana; Portić Milijanko; Knežević Marija

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to research differences in socio-demographic characteristics of foreign tourists in consumption of local food in the city centres Belgrade and Novi Sad, Republic of Serbia. The research was conducted on a sample of 673 respondents. The results of this study point out the importance of socio-demographic variables in research of local gastronomy as a significant component of tourism product. The research included the determining of the impact of the city the tourists stayed at. ...

  16. A study of clinical correlates and socio-demographic profile in conversion disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Deka, Kamala; Chaudhury, Pranit K.; Bora, Kavery; Kalita, Pranab

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To study the clinical presentations and relationship of socio-demographic variables with conversion disorder. Methods: Forty patients admitted to the department of psychiatry, Assam Medical College and Hospital, Dibrugarh, during November 2004 to August 2005 who fulfilled the inclusion criteria of the study were evaluated for socio-demographic variables and clinical presentations on a semi-structured pro forma. Results: Conversion disorder is more common in young adults (57.5%), females ...

  17. The influence of selected socio-demographic variables on symptoms occurring during the menopause

    OpenAIRE

    Marta Makara-Studzińska; Karolina Kryś-Noszczyką; Grzegorz Jakiel

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: It is considered that the lifestyle conditioned by socio-demographic or socio-economic factors determines the health condition of people to the greatest extent. The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of selected socio-demographic factors on the kinds of symptoms occurring during menopause. Material and methods : The study group consisted of 210 women aged 45 to 65, not using hormone replacement therapy, staying at healthcare centers for rehabilitation treatment...

  18. Attitudes Toward Seeking Professional Psychological Help: Factor Structure and Socio-Demographic Predictors

    OpenAIRE

    Picco, Louisa; Abdin, Edimanysah; Chong, Siow Ann; Pang, Shirlene; Shafie, Saleha; Chua, Boon Yiang; Vaingankar, Janhavi A; Ong, Lue Ping; Tay, Jenny; Subramaniam, Mythily

    2016-01-01

    Attitudes toward seeking professional psychological help (ATSPPH) are complex. Help seeking preferences are influenced by various attitudinal and socio-demographic factors and can often result in unmet needs, treatment gaps, and delays in help-seeking. The aims of the current study were to explore the factor structure of the ATSPPH short form (-SF) scale and determine whether any significant socio-demographic differences exist in terms of help-seeking attitudes. Data were extracted from a pop...

  19. Predicting U.S. Army Reserve Unit Manning Using Market Demographics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    11  1.  USAREC Market Supportability Study ..........................................12  2.  Unit Positioning and Quality Assessment Model...ARMY RESERVE UNIT MANNING USING MARKET DEMOGRAPHICS by Nathan L. Parker June 2015 Thesis Advisor: Samuel E. Buttrey Co-Advisor: Jonathan...2015 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE PREDICTING U.S. ARMY RESERVE UNIT MANNING USING MARKET DEMOGRAPHICS 5

  20. A micro simulation model of demographic development and households' economic behavior in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Albert Ando; Sergio Nicoletti-Altimari

    2004-01-01

    The relationship between the demographic structure and the saving rate of a society is the reflection of the aggregation of the behaviour of heterogeneous households, differing from one another in the type of living arrangements and in the characteristics of their members. In order to contribute to the understanding of this relationship, we construct a dynamic micro model capable of simulating the demographic development of a population, including the creation, destruction, dimension and vari...

  1. An Empirical Analysis of Socio-Demographic Stratification in Sweetened Carbonated Soft-Drink Purchasing

    OpenAIRE

    Rhodes, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Caloric soft drinks are the number one source of added sugars in U.S. diets, and are associated with many health problems. Three recent years of household purchase, household demographic, and industry advertising data allow Heckit estimation to identify how specific demographic groups vary in their purchase response to marketing of sweetened carbonated soft drinks (sCSDs) at the product category level. Empirical results reveal unique non-linear patterns of household purchase response to sCSD-...

  2. Demographical and Psychological Determinants of Depression, Among a Sample of Iranian Male Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Fazlollah Ghofranipour; Mohsen Saffari; Mahmoud Mahmoudi; Ali Montazeri

    2013-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of depression especially among youths is increasingly high. The present study is aimed to identify some demographic and psychological factors such as self-efficacy and perceived stress that may be related to depression among male adolescents. Methods: Overall, 402 adolescent were selected for participation in the study using multistage sampling method. The participants completed a questionnaire including demographic, depression, self-efficacy, and perceived stre...

  3. From First Demographic Transition to Second Demographic Transition: Reflections on the Modern Demographic Transition%从一次人口转变到二次人口转变——现代人口转变及其启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘爽; 卫银霞; 任慧

    2012-01-01

    Based on a brief analysis of the narrowly-defined demographic transition and the classical model, this paper argues that the proposed theory of the second demographic transition broadly interprets the internal motivation and mechanism of action of the demographic changes by drawing upon the demographic "intermediate variables", reflecting on the relationship between modern demographic transition and social changes at the macro, meso and micro levels. Demographic transition is a multidimensional dynamic historical process, involving a set of transitions on marriage, reproduction, family, health, population control etc. Demographic transition is not only demographic change, but more importantly, is its nested social change. The unprecedented close relationship between the two reflects the social changes and social needs. Over the past 30 years China has made its population be adapted to economic development through family planning. In the next 30 to 50 years or even longer, China should make economic and social development be adapted to the changes and needs of the population. The end of development is to improve population survival and enhance life quality.%在扼要解析狭义人口转变及其经典模型的基础上,认为第二次人口转变的提出,是结合人口“中间变量”从广义上阐释了入口变化的内在动因与作用机理,进而在宏观、中观和微观三个层面引入了对现代人口转变与社会变迁关系的思考。主张人口转变是一个多维的动态历史过程,蕴涵着婚姻、生育、家庭、健康、人口调控等系列转变。提出第二次人口转变在中国的城市地区已露端倪。最后特别指出人口转变不仅仅是入口变化,更重要的是将其嵌套的社会变迁,两者关系的空前紧密折射着社会变化与社会需求。过去30年中国通过计划生育让人口“适应”了经济腾飞,而今后三、五十年以至更长时间,应使人口的“主

  4. Population Dynamics and Air Pollution: The Impact of Demographics on Health Impact Assessment of Air Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esben Meulengracht Flachs

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To explore how three different assumptions on demographics affect the health impact of Danish emitted air pollution in Denmark from 2005 to 2030, with health impact modeled from 2005 to 2050. Methods. Modeled air pollution from Danish sources was used as exposure in a newly developed health impact assessment model, which models four major diseases and mortality causes in addition to all-cause mortality. The modeling was at the municipal level, which divides the approximately 5.5 M residents in Denmark into 99 municipalities. Three sets of demographic assumptions were used: (1 a static year 2005 population, (2 morbidity and mortality fixed at the year 2005 level, or (3 an expected development. Results. The health impact of air pollution was estimated at 672,000, 290,000, and 280,000 lost life years depending on demographic assumptions and the corresponding social costs at 430.4 M€, 317.5 M€, and 261.6 M€ through the modeled years 2005–2050. Conclusion. The modeled health impact of air pollution differed widely with the demographic assumptions, and thus demographics and assumptions on demographics played a key role in making health impact assessments on air pollution.

  5. The demographic transition influences variance in fitness and selection on height and BMI in rural Gambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtiol, Alexandre; Rickard, Ian J; Lummaa, Virpi; Prentice, Andrew M; Fulford, Anthony J C; Stearns, Stephen C

    2013-05-20

    Recent human history is marked by demographic transitions characterized by declines in mortality and fertility. By influencing the variance in those fitness components, demographic transitions can affect selection on other traits. Parallel to changes in selection triggered by demography per se, relationships between fitness and anthropometric traits are also expected to change due to modification of the environment. Here we explore for the first time these two main evolutionary consequences of demographic transitions using a unique data set containing survival, fertility, and anthropometric data for thousands of women in rural Gambia from 1956-2010. We show how the demographic transition influenced directional selection on height and body mass index (BMI). We observed a change in selection for both traits mediated by variation in fertility: selection initially favored short females with high BMI values but shifted across the demographic transition to favor tall females with low BMI values. We demonstrate that these differences resulted both from changes in fitness variance that shape the strength of selection and from shifts in selective pressures triggered by environmental changes. These results suggest that demographic and environmental trends encountered by current human populations worldwide are likely to modify, but not stop, natural selection in humans. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The second demographic transition and the development level of Colombia departments, 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel C. Grajales A

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to analyze the behavior of some demographic characteristics for each department to identify the state of demographic transition and its relationship to the development level. Methodology: descriptive study based on secondary information sources published by the National Statistics Department and the National Planning Department. Results: the global fertility rate of the country was 2.5 in 2005. Chocó reported the highest rate whereas Bogotá reported the lowest. A total of 67% of Colombian states registered higher rates than the average rate in the country. Mortality rate of children in the country was 24.5, with the lowest rates registered in El Valle, Caldas, and Bogotá. The highest rates were registered in Arauca and Chocó. 26.6% of Colombian states show some advance in the demographic transition process. By contrast, 67% of the states are classified as lagged behind. There is a relation between the demographic transition index and the development indicators. Conclusion: Although some departments reach an advanced level of demographic transition, most of them still show high rates of infant mortality or fecundity which keep them behind in this process. Inequalities in living conditions of the country’s departments could be influencing the behavior of the demographic components analyzed.

  7. Molecular evidence for a recent demographic expansion in the puma (Puma concolor (Mammalia, Felidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice M. Matte

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The puma is an iconic predator that ranges throughout the Americas, occupying diverse habitats. Previous phylogeographic analyses have revealed that it exhibits moderate levels of genetic structure across its range, with few of the classically recognized subspecies being supported as distinct demographic units. Moreover, most of the species' molecular diversity was found to be in South America. To further investigate the phylogeographic structure and demographic history of pumas we analyzed mtDNA sequences from 186 individuals sampled throughout their range, with emphasis on South America. Our objectives were to refine the phylogeographic assessment within South America and to investigate the demographic history of pumas using a coalescent approach. Our results extend previous phylogeographic findings, reassessing the delimitation of historical population units in South America and demonstrating that this species experienced a considerable demographic expansion in the Holocene, ca. 8,000 years ago. Our analyses indicate that this expansion occurred in South America, prior to the hypothesized re-colonization of North America, which was therefore inferred to be even more recent. The estimated demographic history supports the interpretation that pumas suffered a severe demographic decline in the Late Pleistocene throughout their distribution, followed by population expansion and re-colonization of the range, initiating from South America.

  8. ADOPTING SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS IN PROFILING GREEN CONSUMERS: A REVIEW OF HYPOTHESES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Hartono

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available In the last three decades worldwide environmental consciousness has increased dramatically as well as profiling green consumers have gained tremendous attention in the past. Segmenting and targeting markets base on pro-environmental purchase behavior are essential when companies positioning their green products. Socio-demographic characteristics have gained a lot of attention as the key profiling variables. Such characteristics have been employed by many scholars more frequently for the bases of segmenting and profiling green consumers. However, most existing studies of green consumers’ socio-demographic were US based. The present article attempts to review the common hypotheses of socio-demographic characteristics in profiling green consumers. The present article reviews five general hypotheses relating to socio-demographics and environmental consciousness of green consumers, namely the gender, age, education level, income, and occupation hypotheses, as well as the theoretical explanation for each hypothesis. Most previous studies tend to have the same conclusion in the gender, age, education level, and  income characteristics. Critics to socio-demographic characteristics and a need to conduct green marketing research in Indonesia was also reviewed.Key words: profiling, socio-demographic, green consumer, hypotheses.

  9. San Francisco Bay ecotone vegetation restoration & management : 2009-10 grant report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a report on vegetation restoration and management at Don Edwards San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge. Restoring vegetation adjacent to the tidal...

  10. H12050: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Central Puget Sound, Washington, 2009-10-10

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  11. H12051: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Central Puget Sound, Washington, 2009-10-10

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  12. H11968: NOS Hydrographic Survey , California Coastal Mapping Program, California, 2009-10-22

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  13. Changes in Hispanic-Serving Institution (HSI) Lists: 2009-10 and 2010-11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, D.

    2012-01-01

    As the Latino population continues to grow, so will the number of Latino college students, and the concentration of these students at Hispanic-Serving Institutions (HSIs). In federal legislation the definition of an HSI is predicated on enrollment, institution type and control, and degree-granting status. As any of these characteristics of an…

  14. H12015: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Block Island Sound, Rhode Island, 2009-10-14

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  15. H12023: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Block Island Sound, Rhode Island, 2009-10-14

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  16. Ciencia y Tecnología de los Materiales, 2009-10

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    I. Materiales de clase: Tema 1. Las rocas en la Construcción; Tema 2. La Cal; Tema 3. El Yeso; Tema 4. Materiales Cerámicos; Tema 5. El Cemento; Tema 6. El hormigón; Tema 7. Materiales Bituminosos. II. Bibliografía. El curso Ciencia y Tecnología de los Materiales pretende que el alumno se familiarice con los materiales de construcción mas importantes, determinado sus características, propiedades, procesos de obtención y sus aplicaciones mas significativas. El curso se estructura en sie...

  17. H12140: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Northern Glacier Bay, Alaska, 2009-10-11

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  18. Juvenile Justice in Australia 2009-10. Juvenile Justice Series. Number 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalders, Rachel; Morgan, Kirsten

    2011-01-01

    In Australia, the state and territory governments are responsible for dealing with young people who are involved in crime. One major aspect of the juvenile justice system is the supervision of children and young people who have committed or are alleged to have committed an offence. This report presents information on the young people under…

  19. INCOME INEQUALITY AND ECONOMIC GROWTH: THE CASE OF INDIAN STATES 1980-2009-10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross Stewart

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Beginning in the 1980s, India has experienced an acceleration of economic growth by way of a promotion of a more efficient pro business and market oriented model. Following the rapid growth of the 1980s, the 1990s brought continued deregulation through market liberalization policies and additional progressive strides by way of a financial crisis in the spring of 1991. These happenings and others have had significant impacts on India's income inequality; therefore, this study endeavors to investigate primarily the relationship between income inequality and economic growth, while surveying other relevant macroeconomic variables.

  20. H11976: NOS Hydrographic Survey , California Coastal Mapping Program, California, 2009-10-08

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...