WorldWideScience

Sample records for demographically similar group

  1. Demographic Group Differences in Adolescents' Time Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andretta, James R.; Worrell, Frank C.; Mello, Zena R.; Dixson, Dante D.; Baik, Sharon H.

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, we examined demographic differences in time attitudes in a sample of 293 adolescents. Time attitudes were measured using the Adolescent Time Attitude Scale (Mello & Worrell, 2007; Worrell, Mello, & Buhl, 2011), which assesses positive and negative attitudes toward the past, the present, and the future. Generally, African…

  2. Demographic Data - MDC_BlockGroup

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — A polygon feature class of Miami-Dade County Census 2000 Block Groups. A census Block Group is a statistical subdivision of a census Tract consisting of a cluster of...

  3. Demographic Data - MDC_BlockGroup

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — A polygon feature class of Miami-Dade County Census 2000 Block Groups. A census Block Group is a statistical subdivision of a census Tract consisting of a cluster...

  4. EnviroAtlas - Green Bay, WI - Demographics by Block Group

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset is a summary of key demographic groups for the EnviroAtlas community. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online...

  5. EnviroAtlas - Fresno, CA - Demographics by Block Group

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset is a summary of key demographic groups for the EnviroAtlas community. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online...

  6. EnviroAtlas - New Haven, CT - Demographics by Block Group

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset is a summary of key demographic groups for the EnviroAtlas community. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online...

  7. EnviroAtlas - Phoenix, AZ - Demographics by Block Group

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset is a summary of key demographic groups for the EnviroAtlas community. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online...

  8. EnviroAtlas - Portland, OR - Demographics by Block Group

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset is a summary of key demographic groups for the EnviroAtlas community. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online...

  9. EnviroAtlas - Des Moines, IA - Demographics by Block Group

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset is a summary of key demographic groups for the EnviroAtlas community. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online...

  10. EnviroAtlas - Paterson, NJ - Demographics by Block Group

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset is a summary of key demographic groups for the EnviroAtlas community. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online...

  11. EnviroAtlas - Memphis, TN - Demographics by Block Group

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset is a summary of key demographic groups for the EnviroAtlas community. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online...

  12. What are the odds? How demographic similarity affects the prevalence of perceived employment discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Derek R; McKay, Patrick F; Wilson, David C

    2008-03-01

    Because research is needed to identify the conditions that facilitate or impede the prevalence of perceived workplace discrimination, the authors examined the effects of demographics and demographic similarity on the prevalence of sex- and race/ethnicity-based perceived workplace discrimination. Results from a national survey of 763 full-time, United States employees show perceived sex-based discrimination at work was more prevalent among female than male employees, and perceived race-based discrimination at work was more prevalent among Black and Hispanic than White employees. Additionally, perceived racial/ethnic discrimination was less prevalent among those with same-race/ethnicity supervisors. The effect of employee-coworker sex similarity on perceived sex discrimination was significant only for women, and the effects of supervisor-subordinate racial similarity on the prevalence of perceived racial discrimination varied between Black and White respondents, depending on employee-residential-community racial similarity.

  13. [The indigenous population. Demographic expansion of ethnic groups].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdes De Montano, L M

    1989-01-01

    Analysis of the vital statistics of the 450 Mexican municipios in which 70% or more of the population speak indigenous languages permits a rough analysis of the demographic behavior of 23 different ethnic groups. Statistics of government departments dealing with indigenous affairs and the various indigenous organizations created since the 1970s provide other estimates of the size of the indigenous population. The census indicated a population of 5,181,038 speakers of indigenous languages aged 5 or older in 1980. The public administration estimated the 1980 indigenous population at 10 million, and the indigenous organizations estimated 12 to 18 million in 1980 and 15 million in 1989. Census and vital statistics data indicate that each indigenous group has had unique patterns of mortality and fertility in the past 30 years. Mortality declined significantly in some groups, but fertility overall has not declined to the same extent. In 1970 and 1980 respectively for the sample as a whole, the average crude birth rates were 42.4 and 37.3/1000 and the average crude death rates were 13.8 and 8.2/1000. The average annual growth rate was estimated at 2.9% for both years. 1980 growth rates ranged from 3.5% for the Maya and Mixtec to a low of 0.5% for the Tzotzil.

  14. Similar Symmetries: The Role of Wallpaper Groups in Perceptual Texture Similarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fraser Halley

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Periodic patterns and symmetries are striking visual properties that have been used decoratively around the world throughout human history. Periodic patterns can be mathematically classified into one of 17 different Wallpaper groups, and while computational models have been developed which can extract an image's symmetry group, very little work has been done on how humans perceive these patterns. This study presents the results from a grouping experiment using stimuli from the different wallpaper groups. We find that while different images from the same wallpaper group are perceived as similar to one another, not all groups have the same degree of self-similarity. The similarity relationships between wallpaper groups appear to be dominated by rotations.

  15. Demographics and Motivation of Adult Group Piano Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wristen, Brenda

    2006-01-01

    As people are living longer and enjoying better quality of life, there has been a corresponding increase in interest in recreational music-making by adults. This study examined the demographics and motivations of students enrolled in the Community Piano Experience hosted by the University of Nebraska-Lincoln School of Music. Twenty-six…

  16. Minimal axiom group of similarity-based rough set model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Jian-hua; PAN Yun-he

    2006-01-01

    Rough set axiomatization is one aspect of rough set study to characterize rough set theory using dependable and minimal axiom groups.Thus,rough set theory can be studied by logic and axiom system methods.The classical rough set theory is based on equivalence relation,but the rough set theory based on similarity relation has wide applications in the real world.To characterize similarity-based rough set theory,an axiom group named S,consisting of 3 axioms,is proposed.The reliability of the axiom group,which shows that characterizing of rough set theory based on similarity relation is rational,is proved.Simultaneously,the minimization of the axiom group,which requests that each axiom is an equation and independent,is proved.The axiom group is helpful to research rough set theory by logic and axiom system methods.

  17. CELL FORMATION IN GROUP TECHNOLOGY: A SIMILARITY ORDER CLUSTERING APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godfrey C. Onwubolu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Grouping parts into families which can be produced by a cluster of machine cells is the cornerstone of cellular manufacturing, which in turn is the building block for flexible manufacturing systems. Cellular manufacturing is a group technology (GT concept that has recently attracted the attention of manufacturing firms operating under jobshop environment to consider redesigning their manufacturing systems so as to take advantage of increased throughput, reduction in work-in-progress, set-up time, and lead times; leading to product quality and customer satisfaction. The paper presents a generalised approach for machine cell formation from a jobshop using similarity order clustering technique for preliminary cell grouping and considering machine utilisation for the design of nonintergrouping material handling using the single-pass heuristic. The work addresses the shortcomings of cellular manufacturing systems design and implementations which ignore machine utilisations, group sizes and intergroup moves.

  18. Generalized similarity, renormalization groups, and nonlinear clocks for multiscaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, M; O'Malley, D; Cushman, J H

    2014-04-01

    Fixed points of the renormalization group operator Rp,rX(t)≡X(rt)/rp are said to be p-self-similar. Here X(t) is an arbitrary stochastic process. The concept of a p-self-similar process is generalized via the renormalization group operator RF,GX(t)=F[X(G(t))], where F and G are bijections on (-∞,∞) and [0,∞), respectively. If X(t) is a fixed point of RF,G, then X(t) is said to be (F,G)-self-similar. We say Y(t) is (F,G)-X(t)-similar if RF,GX(t)=Y(t) in distribution. Exit time distributions and finite-size Lyapunov exponents were obtained for these latter processes. A power law multiscaling process is defined with a multipower-law clock. This process is employed to statistically represent diffusion in a nanopore, a monolayer fluid confined between atomically structured surfaces. The tools presented provide a straightforward method to statistically represent any multiscaling process in time.

  19. The Impact of Demographic Characteristics on Awareness and Usage of Support Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Linda Jane; Shah, Nehal; Jain, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    There are support groups established for one's emotional and/or physical health; as a result, marketing has appeared in regards to the needs, benefits, and hesitations regarding these groups. This study addresses several types of individuals and situations that lend themselves to using support groups. The authors conducted a study designed to examine demographic characteristics as they relate to a person's decision to go to support groups for health conditions. Looking at the demographics of users and the types of support groups, the authors discuss diverse opportunities for support groups and their organizations to promote communication, improve marketing strategies, and create influential users.

  20. EnviroAtlas - Minneapolis/St. Paul, MN - Demographics by Block Group

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset is a summary of key demographic groups for the EnviroAtlas community. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online...

  1. Dynamics and applicability of the similarity renormalization group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Launey, K D; Dytrych, T; Draayer, J P [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Popa, G, E-mail: kristina@baton.phys.lsu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ohio University, Zanesville, OH 43701 (United States)

    2012-01-13

    The similarity renormalization group (SRG) concept (or flow equations methodology) is studied with a view toward the renormalization of nucleon-nucleon interactions for ab initio shell-model calculations. For a general flow, we give quantitative measures, in the framework of spectral distribution theory, for the strength of the SRG-induced higher order (many-body) terms of an evolved interaction. Specifically, we show that there is a hierarchy among the terms, with those of the lowest particle rank being the most important. This feature is crucial for maintaining the unitarity of SRG transformations and key to the method's applicability. (paper)

  2. Magnus expansion and in-medium similarity renormalization group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, T. D.; Parzuchowski, N. M.; Bogner, S. K.

    2015-09-01

    We present an improved variant of the in-medium similarity renormalization group (IM-SRG) based on the Magnus expansion. In the new formulation, one solves flow equations for the anti-Hermitian operator that, upon exponentiation, yields the unitary transformation of the IM-SRG. The resulting flow equations can be solved using a first-order Euler method without any loss of accuracy, resulting in substantial memory savings and modest computational speedups. Since one obtains the unitary transformation directly, the transformation of additional operators beyond the Hamiltonian can be accomplished with little additional cost, in sharp contrast to the standard formulation of the IM-SRG. Ground state calculations of the homogeneous electron gas (HEG) and 16O nucleus are used as test beds to illustrate the efficacy of the Magnus expansion.

  3. Demographic Recommendation by means of Group Profile Elicitation Using Speaker Age and Gender Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shepstone, Sven Ewan; Tan, Zheng-Hua; Jensen, Søren Holdt

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we show a new method of using automatic age and gender recognition to recommend a sequence of multimedia items to a home TV audience comprising multiple viewers. Instead of relying on explicitly provided demographic data for each user, we define an audio-based demographic group......, which itself is the input to a recommender system. The recommender system finds the content items whose demographics best match the group profile. We tested the effectiveness of the system for several typical home audience configurations. In a survey, users were given a configuration and asked to rate...... a set of advertisements on how well each advertisement matched the configuration. Unbeknown to the subjects, half of the adverts were recommended using the derived audio demographics and the other half were randomly chosen. The recommended adverts received a significantly higher median rating of 7...

  4. Exploratory Study of MOOC Learners' Demographics and Motivation: The Case of Students Involved in Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayeck, Rebecca Yvonne

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports preliminary findings on students enrolled in a massive open online course, who were also assigned to work in groups. Part of a larger study on the effect of groups on retention and completion in MOOCs, the paper provides students' demographics (i.e., location, gender, education level, and employment status), and motivation for…

  5. Exploration of Similarity Renormalization Group Generators in 1-Dimensional Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, Matthias

    2016-09-01

    The Similarity Renormalization Group (SRG) is used in nuclear theory to decouple high- and low-momentum components of potentials to improve convergence and thus reduce the computational requirements of many-body calculations. The SRG is a series of unitary transformations defined by a differential equation for the Hamiltonian. The user input into the SRG evolution is a matrix called the generator, which determines to what form the Hamiltonian is transformed. As it is currently used, the SRG evolves Hamiltonian into a band diagonal form. However, due to many-body forces induced by the evolution, the SRG introduces errors when used to renormalize many-body potentials. This makes it unfit for calculations with nuclei larger than a certain size. A recent paper suggests that alternate generators may induce smaller many-body forces. Smaller many-body force induction would allow SRG use to be extended to larger nuclei. I use 1-dimensional systems of two, three, and four bosons to further study the SRG evolution and how alternate generators affect many-body forces induced.

  6. Alternative similarity renormalization group generators in nuclear structure calculations

    CERN Document Server

    Dicaire, Nuiok M; Navratil, Petr

    2014-01-01

    The similarity renormalization group (SRG) has been successfully applied to soften interactions for ab initio nuclear calculations. In almost all practical applications in nuclear physics, an SRG generator with the kinetic energy operator is used. With this choice, a fast convergence of many-body calculations can be achieved, but at the same time substantial three-body interactions are induced even if one starts from a purely two-nucleon (NN) Hamiltonian. Three-nucleon (3N) interactions can be handled by modern many-body methods. However, it has been observed that when including initial chiral 3N forces in the Hamiltonian, the SRG transformations induce a non-negligible four-nucleon interaction that cannot be currently included in the calculations for technical reasons. Consequently, it is essential to investigate alternative SRG generators that might suppress the induction of many-body forces while at the same time might preserve the good convergence. In this work we test two alternative generators with oper...

  7. Driven similarity renormalization group: Third-order multireference perturbation theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chenyang; Evangelista, Francesco A

    2017-03-28

    A third-order multireference perturbation theory based on the driven similarity renormalization group (DSRG-MRPT3) approach is presented. The DSRG-MRPT3 method has several appealing features: (a) it is intruder free, (b) it is size consistent, (c) it leads to a non-iterative algorithm with O(N(6)) scaling, and (d) it includes reference relaxation effects. The DSRG-MRPT3 scheme is benchmarked on the potential energy curves of F2, H2O2, C2H6, and N2 along the F-F, O-O, C-C, and N-N bond dissociation coordinates, respectively. The nonparallelism errors of DSRG-MRPT3 are consistent with those of complete active space third-order perturbation theory and multireference configuration interaction with singles and doubles and show significant improvements over those obtained from DSRG second-order multireference perturbation theory. Our efficient implementation of the DSRG-MRPT3 based on factorized electron repulsion integrals enables studies of medium-sized open-shell organic compounds. This point is demonstrated with computations of the singlet-triplet splitting (ΔST=ET-ES) of 9,10-anthracyne. At the DSRG-MRPT3 level of theory, our best estimate of the adiabatic ΔST is 3.9 kcal mol(-1), a value that is within 0.1 kcal mol(-1) from multireference coupled cluster results.

  8. Applications of the Similarity Renormalization Group to the Nuclear Interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Jurgenson, E D

    2009-01-01

    The Similarity Renormalization Group (SRG) is investigated as a powerful yet practical method to modify nuclear potentials so as to reduce computational requirements for calculations of observables. The key feature of SRG transformations that leads to computational benefits is the decoupling of low-energy nuclear physics from high-energy details of the inter-nucleon interaction. We examine decoupling quantitatively for two-body observables and few-body binding energies. The universal nature of this decoupling is illustrated and errors from suppressing high-momentum modes above the decoupling scale are shown to be perturbatively small. To explore the SRG evolution of many-body forces, we use as a laboratory a one-dimensional system of bosons with short-range repulsion and mid-range attraction, which emulates realistic nuclear forces. The free-space SRG is implemented for few-body systems in a symmetrized harmonic oscillator basis using a recursive construction analogous to no-core shell model implementations. ...

  9. Gender Similarities and Differences in Preadolescent Peer Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Hongling; Shi, Bing

    2009-01-01

    The Social Cognitive Mapping procedure was used to identify peer social groups in 26 fifth-grade classrooms from six elementary schools in a northeastern urban school district. Four group structural features were examined: size, the number of subcliques, cohesion, and salience hierarchy. Ethnic diversity index was calculated for each group. An…

  10. Use of Focus Group Data to Develop Recommendations for Demographically Segmented Colorectal Cancer Educational Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Cheryl L.; Shipp, Michele; Eloubeidi, Mohamad; Clay, Kimberly S.; Smith-Janas, Mary Ann; Janas, Michael John; Britt, Kristi; Norena, Maria; Fouad, Mona N.

    2009-01-01

    Screening is available and effective in colorectal cancer (CRC) control, but underutilized. The purpose of this study was to use focus group data to develop recommendations for the development of educational interventions to increase CRC screening, using an audience segmentation strategy. Demographic segments were based on urban-rural residence,…

  11. Subliminal Gestalt grouping: evidence of perceptual grouping by proximity and similarity in absence of conscious perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoro, Pedro R; Luna, Dolores; Ortells, Juan J

    2014-04-01

    Previous studies making use of indirect processing measures have shown that perceptual grouping can occur outside the focus of attention. However, no previous study has examined the possibility of subliminal processing of perceptual grouping. The present work steps forward in the study of perceptual organization, reporting direct evidence of subliminal processing of Gestalt patterns. In two masked priming experiments, Gestalt patterns grouped by proximity or similarity that induced either a horizontal or vertical global orientation of the stimuli were presented as masked primes and followed by visible targets that could be congruent or incongruent with the orientation of the primes. The results showed a reliable priming effect in the complete absence of prime awareness for both proximity and similarity grouping principles. These findings suggest that a phenomenal report of the Gestalt pattern is not mandatory to observe an effect on the response based on the global properties of Gestalt stimuli. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Conflict between work and nonwork roles of employees in the mining industry: Prevalence and differences between demographic groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betsie Steyl

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: International researchers have increasingly recognised the interaction between work and nonwork roles as an interesting and important topic. Research purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of different work–nonwork conflict subscales and differences between demographic groups in work– nonwork conflict.Motivation for the study: Several studies have shown that demographic groups differ in their experiences of the interaction between work and family life. This may also be true of conflict between work and nonwork roles. The prevalence of work–nonwork conflict and nonwork– work conflict is also very important for organisations that may find the results very valuable for developing organisational and individual interventions and performance management in organisations.Research design, approach and method: The researchers chose a random sample of mining employees (n = 245 from a platinum mine in Rustenburg. The researchers used self-developed items similar to items developed in the Work–nonwork Interference Scale of Koekemoer, Mostert and Rothmann (2010 to measure conflict between work and various nonwork roles. The researchers used descriptive statistics, paired-sample t-tests, multivariate analysis of variance and one-way analysis of variance to analyse the data.Main findings: Work–nonwork conflict was more prevalent than nonwork–work conflict. Work–family conflict was more prevalent than work–domestic conflict and work–religion/ spirituality conflict. The researchers found significant differences for marital status and language groups about work–nonwork conflict. Results showed that participants who spoke African languages experienced higher levels of private–work conflict.Practical/managerial implications: Organisations need to recognise the negative interference or conflict between work and nonwork roles for different demographic groups and address the prevalent work

  13. Similarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostol, Tom M. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    In this 'Project Mathematics! series, sponsored by the California Institute for Technology (CalTech), the mathematical concept of similarity is presented. he history of and real life applications are discussed using actual film footage and computer animation. Terms used and various concepts of size, shape, ratio, area, and volume are demonstrated. The similarity of polygons, solids, congruent triangles, internal ratios, perimeters, and line segments using the previous mentioned concepts are shown.

  14. Hierarchical Self-Similarity in Group and Crowd Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivancevic, Vladimir G.; Reid, Darryn J.

    2015-11-01

    In this Chapter, a nonlinear, complex, Hamiltonian description of socio-cognio-physical dynamics at the oscopic, classical, inter-personal crowd level and microscopic, quantum, intra-personal agent level, is presented, uniquely, in the form of the open Liouville equation. At the microscopic level, this can be considered to be a nonlinear extension of the linear correlation and factor dynamics. This implies the arrow of time in both microscopic and oscopic processes and shows the existence of the formal crowd-agent space-time self-similarity. This in itself shows the existence of a unique control law, which acts on different scales of agent functioning. This self-similar socio-cognio-physical control law enables us to use the crowd dynamics simulator (previously developed at Defence Science & Technology Organisation, Australia), for recursive simulation of individual agents' representation spaces on a cluster of computers.

  15. Turnover and heterogeneity in top management networks - A demographic analysis of two Swedish business groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collin, S. & Umans, T.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A theory based on the demography of top management teams is used to explain membership turnover in two Swedish business groups, network analysis being used to define group membership. The results suggest these business groups possess a combination of financial and industrial experience as a group resource and the socialising strategy of control as a force counteracting the conflict-producing force of heterogeneity. An organisational demographic perspective focusing on opposing forces of heterogeneity and homogeneity is developed. It is shown that the perspective can be applied both to formal organisations and to informal ones such as networks.

  16. Being similar versus being equal: intergroup similarity moderates the influence of in-group norms on discrimination and prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabarrot, Fabrice; Falomir-Pichastor, Juan M; Mugny, Gabriel

    2009-06-01

    In two studies, we examined the influence of in-group norms of anti- and pro-discrimination on prejudice and discrimination as a function of intergroup similarity (Studies 1 and 2) and in-group identification (Study 2). In a condition where there was no information about intergroup similarity (Study 1) or intergroup similarity was low (Study 2), prejudice and discrimination were lower when norms prescribe anti-discrimination compared to pro-discrimination. In contrast, when intergroup similarity was high, prejudice and discrimination were higher when the in-group norm represents anti-discrimination compared to pro-discrimination. This pattern was most apparent among highly identified in-group members (Study 2). The paradoxical effect of the anti-discrimination norm in the high similarity condition is interpreted as a response to the threat this situation introduces to in-group distinctiveness.

  17. Ten Thousand Voices on Marine Climate Change in Europe: Different Perceptions among Demographic Groups and Nationalities

    KAUST Repository

    Buckley, Paul J.

    2017-07-11

    Over the past few decades, substantial funding has been directed toward improving scientific understanding and management of impacts of climate change in the marine environment. Following concerns that the key messages from these studies were not reaching the public, a comprehensive opinion poll of 10,000 European citizens in 10 countries was conducted to establish levels of awareness, concern, and trust among different demographic groups (by age, gender, proximity to the coast) and nationalities. Citizens exhibited varying levels of self-declared

  18. Ten Thousand Voices on Marine Climate Change in Europe: Different Perceptions among Demographic Groups and Nationalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul J. Buckley

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few decades, substantial funding has been directed toward improving scientific understanding and management of impacts of climate change in the marine environment. Following concerns that the key messages from these studies were not reaching the public, a comprehensive opinion poll of 10,000 European citizens in 10 countries was conducted to establish levels of awareness, concern, and trust among different demographic groups (by age, gender, proximity to the coast and nationalities. Citizens exhibited varying levels of self-declared “informedness” and concern. Citizens from Germany, Italy and Spain claimed to be the most informed on marine climate change issues; those from Czech Republic, Netherlands and Estonia claimed to be least informed. Respondents were least aware of ocean acidification and most aware of melting sea ice, pollution and overfishing. Citizens of Italy suggested that they were generally most concerned about marine climate change issues. Respondents from coastal areas claimed to be both more informed and more concerned than those living inland, as did females and older age groups (54–64 years. European citizens obtain information about climate change in the seas and ocean from different sources, particularly television and the internet. Trust in the various media sources varies among countries and demographic groups. Television is trusted most in Estonia, Germany and Ireland and least in France. The internet is trusted most in Italy, Czech Republic and Estonia, but least in France and the United Kingdom. 18–24 year olds are the biggest users of the internet, but trust this source less than older age groups. Academic scientists or those working for environmental NGOs are trusted more than scientists working for government or industry. Citizens from France are more trusting of industry than any other country polled. In terms of policy actions, most respondents highlighted mitigation measures as opposed to

  19. The epidemiology of observed temperament: Factor structure and demographic group differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willoughby, Michael T; Stifter, Cynthia A; Gottfredson, Nisha C

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated the factor structure of observational indicators of children's temperament that were collected across the first three years of life in the Family Life Project (N=1205) sample. A four-factor model (activity level, fear, anger, regulation), which corresponded broadly to Rothbart's distinction between reactivity and regulation, provided an acceptable fit the observed data. Tests of measurement invariance demonstrated that a majority of the observational indicators exhibited comparable measurement properties for male vs. female, black vs. white, and poor vs. not-poor children, which improved the generalizability of these results. Unadjusted demographic group comparisons revealed small to moderate sized differences (Cohen ds=|.23-.42|) in temperamental reactivity and moderate to large sized differences (Cohen ds=-.64--.97) in regulation. Collectively, demographic variables explained more of the variation in regulation (R(2)=.25) than in reactivity (R(2)=.02-.06). Follow-up analyses demonstrated that race differences were substantially diminished in magnitude and better accounted for by poverty. These results help to validate the distinction between temperamental reactivity and regulation using observational indicators.

  20. The positive group affect spiral : a dynamic model of the emergence of positive affective similarity in work groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walter, F.; Bruch, H.

    2008-01-01

    This conceptual paper seeks to clarify the process of the emergence of positive collective affect. Specifically, it develops a dynamic model of the emergence of positive affective similarity in work groups. It is suggested that positive group affective similarity and within-group relationship qualit

  1. The positive group affect spiral : a dynamic model of the emergence of positive affective similarity in work groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walter, F.; Bruch, H.

    This conceptual paper seeks to clarify the process of the emergence of positive collective affect. Specifically, it develops a dynamic model of the emergence of positive affective similarity in work groups. It is suggested that positive group affective similarity and within-group relationship

  2. Exposure To Harmful Workplace Practices Could Account For Inequality In Life Spans Across Different Demographic Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Joel; Pfeffer, Jeffrey; Zenios, Stefanos

    2015-10-01

    The existence of important socioeconomic disparities in health and mortality is a well-established fact. Many pathways have been adduced to explain inequality in life spans. In this article we examine one factor that has been somewhat neglected: People with different levels of education get sorted into jobs with different degrees of exposure to workplace attributes that contribute to poor health. We used General Social Survey data to estimate differential exposures to workplace conditions, results from a meta-analysis that estimated the effect of workplace conditions on mortality, and a model that permitted us to estimate the overall effects of workplace practices on health. We conclude that 10-38 percent of the difference in life expectancy across demographic groups can be explained by the different job conditions their members experience.

  3. Demographic Histories, Isolation and Social Factors as Determinants of the Genetic Structure of Alpine Linguistic Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coia, Valentina; Capocasa, Marco; Anagnostou, Paolo; Pascali, Vincenzo; Scarnicci, Francesca; Boschi, Ilaria; Battaggia, Cinzia; Crivellaro, Federica; Ferri, Gianmarco; Alù, Milena; Brisighelli, Francesca; Busby, George B. J.; Capelli, Cristian; Maixner, Frank; Cipollini, Giovanna; Viazzo, Pier Paolo; Zink, Albert; Destro Bisol, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Great European mountain ranges have acted as barriers to gene flow for resident populations since prehistory and have offered a place for the settlement of small, and sometimes culturally diverse, communities. Therefore, the human groups that have settled in these areas are worth exploring as an important potential source of diversity in the genetic structure of European populations. In this study, we present new high resolution data concerning Y chromosomal variation in three distinct Alpine ethno-linguistic groups, Italian, Ladin and German. Combining unpublished and literature data on Y chromosome and mitochondrial variation, we were able to detect different genetic patterns. In fact, within and among population diversity values observed vary across linguistic groups, with German and Italian speakers at the two extremes, and seem to reflect their different demographic histories. Using simulations we inferred that the joint effect of continued genetic isolation and reduced founding group size may explain the apportionment of genetic diversity observed in all groups. Extending the analysis to other continental populations, we observed that the genetic differentiation of Ladins and German speakers from Europeans is comparable or even greater to that observed for well known outliers like Sardinian and Basques. Finally, we found that in south Tyroleans, the social practice of Geschlossener Hof, a hereditary norm which might have favored male dispersal, coincides with a significant intra-group diversity for mtDNA but not for Y chromosome, a genetic pattern which is opposite to those expected among patrilocal populations. Together with previous evidence regarding the possible effects of “local ethnicity” on the genetic structure of German speakers that have settled in the eastern Italian Alps, this finding suggests that taking socio-cultural factors into account together with geographical variables and linguistic diversity may help unveil some yet to be understood

  4. Demographic histories, isolation and social factors as determinants of the genetic structure of Alpine linguistic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coia, Valentina; Capocasa, Marco; Anagnostou, Paolo; Pascali, Vincenzo; Scarnicci, Francesca; Boschi, Ilaria; Battaggia, Cinzia; Crivellaro, Federica; Ferri, Gianmarco; Alù, Milena; Brisighelli, Francesca; Busby, George B J; Capelli, Cristian; Maixner, Frank; Cipollini, Giovanna; Viazzo, Pier Paolo; Zink, Albert; Destro Bisol, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Great European mountain ranges have acted as barriers to gene flow for resident populations since prehistory and have offered a place for the settlement of small, and sometimes culturally diverse, communities. Therefore, the human groups that have settled in these areas are worth exploring as an important potential source of diversity in the genetic structure of European populations. In this study, we present new high resolution data concerning Y chromosomal variation in three distinct Alpine ethno-linguistic groups, Italian, Ladin and German. Combining unpublished and literature data on Y chromosome and mitochondrial variation, we were able to detect different genetic patterns. In fact, within and among population diversity values observed vary across linguistic groups, with German and Italian speakers at the two extremes, and seem to reflect their different demographic histories. Using simulations we inferred that the joint effect of continued genetic isolation and reduced founding group size may explain the apportionment of genetic diversity observed in all groups. Extending the analysis to other continental populations, we observed that the genetic differentiation of Ladins and German speakers from Europeans is comparable or even greater to that observed for well known outliers like Sardinian and Basques. Finally, we found that in south Tyroleans, the social practice of Geschlossener Hof, a hereditary norm which might have favored male dispersal, coincides with a significant intra-group diversity for mtDNA but not for Y chromosome, a genetic pattern which is opposite to those expected among patrilocal populations. Together with previous evidence regarding the possible effects of "local ethnicity" on the genetic structure of German speakers that have settled in the eastern Italian Alps, this finding suggests that taking socio-cultural factors into account together with geographical variables and linguistic diversity may help unveil some yet to be understood

  5. Demographic histories, isolation and social factors as determinants of the genetic structure of Alpine linguistic groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Coia

    Full Text Available Great European mountain ranges have acted as barriers to gene flow for resident populations since prehistory and have offered a place for the settlement of small, and sometimes culturally diverse, communities. Therefore, the human groups that have settled in these areas are worth exploring as an important potential source of diversity in the genetic structure of European populations. In this study, we present new high resolution data concerning Y chromosomal variation in three distinct Alpine ethno-linguistic groups, Italian, Ladin and German. Combining unpublished and literature data on Y chromosome and mitochondrial variation, we were able to detect different genetic patterns. In fact, within and among population diversity values observed vary across linguistic groups, with German and Italian speakers at the two extremes, and seem to reflect their different demographic histories. Using simulations we inferred that the joint effect of continued genetic isolation and reduced founding group size may explain the apportionment of genetic diversity observed in all groups. Extending the analysis to other continental populations, we observed that the genetic differentiation of Ladins and German speakers from Europeans is comparable or even greater to that observed for well known outliers like Sardinian and Basques. Finally, we found that in south Tyroleans, the social practice of Geschlossener Hof, a hereditary norm which might have favored male dispersal, coincides with a significant intra-group diversity for mtDNA but not for Y chromosome, a genetic pattern which is opposite to those expected among patrilocal populations. Together with previous evidence regarding the possible effects of "local ethnicity" on the genetic structure of German speakers that have settled in the eastern Italian Alps, this finding suggests that taking socio-cultural factors into account together with geographical variables and linguistic diversity may help unveil some yet

  6. Phylogeography, genetic diversity and demographic history of the Iranian Kurdish groups based on mtDNA sequences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    FATAH ZAREI; HASSAN RAJABI-MAHAM

    2016-12-01

    Throughout the history of modern humans, the current Kurdish-inhabited area has served as part of a tricontinental crossroad for major human migrations. Also, a significant body of archaeological evidence points to this area as the site of Neolithic transition. To investigate the phylogeography, origins and demographic history, mtDNA D-loop region of individuals representing four Kurdish groups from Iran were analysed. Our data indicated that most of the Kurds mtDNA lineages belong to branches of the haplogroups with the Western Eurasian origin; with small fractions of the Eastern Eurasian and sub-Saharan African lineages. The low level of mtDNA diversity observed in the Havrami group presented a bias towards isolation or increased drift due to small population size; while in the Kurmanji group it indicated a bias towards drift or mass migration events during the 5–18th century AD. The Mantel test showed strong isolation by distance, and AMOVA results for global and regional scales confirmed that the geography had acted as the main driving force in shaping the current pattern of mtDNA diversity, rather than linguistic similarity. The results of demographic analyses, in agreement with archaeological data, revealed a recent expansion of the Kurds (∼9,500 years before present) related to the Neolithic transition from hunting and gathering, to farmingand cattle breeding in the Near East. Further, the high frequencies of typical haplogroups for early farmers (H; 37.1%) and hunter-gatherers (U; 13.8%) in the Kurds may testify the earlier hunter-gatherers in the Kurdish-inhabited area that adopted and admixed the Kurds ancestors following the Neolithic transition.

  7. Exploring Demographic Shifts: Aging and Migration Exploratory Group Model Specification & Simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pruyt, E.; Logtens, T.; Gijsbers, G.

    2011-01-01

    Plausible dynamics of a major demographic shift –(societal) aging– is studied in this paper, both from a global perspective and from a national perspective. Several economic, political and social implications of aging and aging-related demographic shifts are explored using System Dynamics models as

  8. Distribution of health literacy strengths and weaknesses across socio-demographic groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beauchamp, Alison; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Dodson, Sarity

    2015-01-01

    Background: Recent advances in the measurement of health literacy allow description of a broad range of personal and social dimensions of the concept. Identifying differences in patterns of health literacy between population sub-groups will increase understanding of how health literacy contributes...... providers' (ES -1.00 [95 % CI -1.24, -0.75]), and 'Navigating the healthcare system' (ES -0.72 [95 % CI -0.97, -0.48]). Similar patterns and ES were seen for participants born overseas compared with those born in Australia. Smaller ES were seen for sex, age group, private health insurance status, number...

  9. Increased aggression during human group contests when competitive ability is more similar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stulp, Gert; Kordsmeyer, Tobias; Buunk, Abraham P.; Verhulst, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Theoretical analyses and empirical studies have revealed that conflict escalation is more likely when individuals are more similar in resource-holding potential (RHP). Conflicts can also occur between groups, but it is unknown whether conflicts also escalate more when groups are more similar in RHP.

  10. MULTIRESOLUTION ANALYSIS, SELF-SIMILAR TILINGS AND HAAR WAVELETS ON THE HEISENBERG GROUP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Heping; Liu Yu; Wang Haihui

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the properties of multiresolution analysis and self-similar tilings on the Heisenberg group are studied. Moreover, we establish a theory to construct an orthonormal Haar wavelet base in L~2(H~d) by using self-similar tilings for the acceptable dilations on the Heisenberg group.

  11. Perceptual Grouping in Haptic Search: The Influence of Proximity, Similarity, and Good Continuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overvliet, Krista E.; Krampe, Ralf Th.; Wagemans, Johan

    2012-01-01

    We conducted a haptic search experiment to investigate the influence of the Gestalt principles of proximity, similarity, and good continuation. We expected faster search when the distractors could be grouped. We chose edges at different orientations as stimuli because they are processed similarly in the haptic and visual modality. We therefore…

  12. Physical activity locations in Georgia: frequency of use by socio-demographic group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln R. Larson; Jason W. Whiting; Gary T. Green; J. M. Bowker

    2014-01-01

    Active outdoor recreation helps to mitigate health consequences associated with sedentary behavior. Enhanced understanding of socio-demographic differences in physical activity (PA) location preferences could therefore contribute to health promotion.This study examined frequency o fuse fo rvarious PA locations in Georgia,a state with historically high levels of...

  13. Conditional Similarity Reductions of Jimbo-Miwa Equation via the Classical Lie Group Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Xiao-Yan; LIN Ji

    2003-01-01

    Recently, the Clarkson and Kruskal direct method has been modified to find new similarity reductions (conditional similarity reductions) of nonlinear systems and the results obtained by the modified direct method cannot be obtained by the current classical and/or non-classical Lie group approach. In this paper, we show that the conditional similarity reductions of the Jimbo-Miwa equation can be reobtained by adding an additional constraint equation to the original model to form a conditional equation system first and then solving the model system by means of the classical Lie group approach.

  14. Demographic and psycbosocial factors regarding the decision to continue or interrupt a pregnancy in a group of low socioeconomic adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Becerra Heraud, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the demographic and psycho-social characteristics of a sample of 60 adolescents divided in two groups of 30 subjects each one (pregnant adolescents and adolescents with an induced abortion) and compare them. The results indicated the existence of some differences between both groups that may be relevant in the decision to have an abortion, for example the adolescent's age and occupation, her desire to become pregnant, the number of past pregnanci...

  15. Psychometric properties of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale: overall and across demographic groups living within the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Samuel J; Blais, Mark A; Gansler, David A; Sandberg, Elisabeth; Bistis, Kimberly; LoCicero, Alice

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this study was twofold: (a) to evaluate the scaling assumptions and component structure of and present normative data for the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) using a sample of US adults (N = 503), both overall and across demographic subgroups and (b) to provide new data regarding the relationship between the two RSES subcomponents of self-competence (SC) and self-liking (SL), and other demographic and clinical variables. As hypothesized, all psychometric tests supported the underlying structure of the RSES. Overall RSES scores varied significantly across age, racial and ethnic, education, employment status, income, and marital status groups. Furthermore, differences between SC and SL were also found across groups differing in gender, age, employment status, and marital status groups. The implications and limitations of this study are discussed, with an emphasis on clinical relevance.

  16. Perceptual grouping by similarity of surface roughness in haptics: the influence of task difficulty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Aarsen, V; Overvliet, K E

    2016-08-01

    We investigated grouping by similarity of surface roughness in the context of task difficulty. We hypothesized that grouping yields a larger benefit at higher levels of task complexity, because efficient processing is more helpful when more cognitive resources are needed to execute a task. Participants searched for a patch of a different roughness as compared to the distractors in two strips of similar or dissimilar roughness values. We reasoned that if the distractors could be grouped based on similar roughness values, exploration time would be shorter and fewer errors would occur. To manipulate task complexity, we varied task difficulty (high target saliency equalling low task difficulty), and we varied the fingers used to explore the display (two fingers of one hand being more cognitive demanding than two fingers of opposite hands). We found much better performance in the easy condition as compared to the difficult condition (in both error rates and mean search slopes). Moreover, we found a larger effect for the similarity manipulation in the difficult condition as compared to the easy condition. Within the difficult condition, we found a larger effect for the one-hand condition as compared to the two-hand condition. These results show that haptic search is accelerated by the use of grouping by similarity of surface roughness, especially when the task is relatively complex. We conclude that the effect of perceptual grouping is more prominent when more cognitive resources are needed to perform a task.

  17. Increased aggression during human group contests when competitive ability is more similar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stulp, Gert; Kordsmeyer, Tobias; Buunk, Abraham P; Verhulst, Simon

    2012-12-23

    Theoretical analyses and empirical studies have revealed that conflict escalation is more likely when individuals are more similar in resource-holding potential (RHP). Conflicts can also occur between groups, but it is unknown whether conflicts also escalate more when groups are more similar in RHP. We tested this hypothesis in humans, using data from two professional sports competitions: football (the Bundesliga, the German first division of football) and basketball (the NBA, the North American National Basketball Association). We defined RHP based on the league ranks of the teams involved in the competition (i.e. their competitive ability) and measured conflict escalation by the number of fouls committed. We found that in both sports the number of fouls committed increased when the difference in RHP was smaller. Thus, we provide what is to our best knowledge the first evidence that, as in conflicts between individuals, conflicts escalate more when groups are more similar in RHP.

  18. Common marmosets show social plasticity and group-level similarity in personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koski, Sonja E; Burkart, Judith M

    2015-03-06

    The social environment influences animal personality on evolutionary and immediate time scales. However, studies of animal personality rarely assess the effects of the social environment, particularly in species that live in stable groups with individualized relationships. We assessed personality experimentally in 17 individuals of the common marmoset, living in four groups. We found their personality to be considerably modified by the social environment. Marmosets exhibited relatively high plasticity in their behaviour, and showed 'group-personality', i.e. group-level similarity in the personality traits. In exploratory behaviour this was maintained only in the social environment but not when individuals were tested alone, suggesting that exploration tendency is subjected to social facilitation. Boldness, in contrast, showed higher consistency across the social and solitary conditions, and the group-level similarity in trait scores was sustained also outside of the immediate social environment. The 'group-personality' was not due to genetic relatedness, supporting that it was produced by social effects. We hypothesize that 'group-personality' may be adaptive for highly cooperative animals through facilitating cooperation among individuals with similar behavioural tendency.

  19. Risk adjustment models for interhospital comparison of CS rates using Robson's ten group classification system and other socio-demographic and clinical variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colais, Paola; Fantini, Maria P; Fusco, Danilo; Carretta, Elisa; Stivanello, Elisa; Lenzi, Jacopo; Pieri, Giulia; Perucci, Carlo A

    2012-06-21

    Caesarean section (CS) rate is a quality of health care indicator frequently used at national and international level. The aim of this study was to assess whether adjustment for Robson's Ten Group Classification System (TGCS), and clinical and socio-demographic variables of the mother and the fetus is necessary for inter-hospital comparisons of CS rates. The study population includes 64,423 deliveries in Emilia-Romagna between January 1, 2003 and December 31, 2004, classified according to theTGCS. Poisson regression was used to estimate crude and adjusted hospital relative risks of CS compared to a reference category. Analyses were carried out in the overall population and separately according to the Robson groups (groups I, II, III, IV and V-X combined). Adjusted relative risks (RR) of CS were estimated using two risk-adjustment models; the first (M1) including the TGCS group as the only adjustment factor; the second (M2) including in addition demographic and clinical confounders identified using a stepwise selection procedure. Percentage variations between crude and adjusted RRs by hospital were calculated to evaluate the confounding effect of covariates. The percentage variations from crude to adjusted RR proved to be similar in M1 and M2 model. However, stratified analyses by Robson's classification groups showed that residual confounding for clinical and demographic variables was present in groups I (nulliparous, single, cephalic, ≥37 weeks, spontaneous labour) and III (multiparous, excluding previous CS, single, cephalic, ≥37 weeks, spontaneous labour) and IV (multiparous, excluding previous CS, single, cephalic, ≥37 weeks, induced or CS before labour) and to a minor extent in groups II (nulliparous, single, cephalic, ≥37 weeks, induced or CS before labour) and IV (multiparous, excluding previous CS, single, cephalic, ≥37 weeks, induced or CS before labour). The TGCS classification is useful for inter-hospital comparison of CS section rates, but

  20. Similarity renormalization group evolution of N N interactions within a subtractive renormalization scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durães F.O.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available We apply the similarity renormalization group (SRG approach to evolve a nucleon-nucleon (N N interaction in leading-order (LO chiral effective field theory (ChEFT, renormalized within the framework of the subtracted kernel method (SKM. We derive a fixed-point interaction and show the renormalization group (RG invariance in the SKM approach. We also compare the evolution of N N potentials with the subtraction scale through a SKM RG equation in the form of a non-relativistic Callan-Symanzik (NRCS equation and the evolution with the similarity cutoff through the SRG transformation.

  1. Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) dyad monthly association rates by demographic group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber-Meyer, Shannon M.; Mech, L. David

    2015-01-01

    Preliminary data from GPS-collared wolves (Canis lupus) in the Superior National Forest of northeastern Minnesota indicated wolves had low association rates with packmates during summer. However, aerial-telemetry locations of very high frequency (VHF)-radioed wolves in this same area showed high associations among packmates during winter. We analyzed aerial-telemetry-location data from VHF-collared wolves in several packs (n=18 dyads) in this same area from 1994-2012 by month, and found lowest association rates occurred during June. While other studies have found low association among wolf packmates during summer, information on differences in association patterns depending on the wolf associates’ demographics is sparse. During May-July, association rates were greatest for breeding pairs, followed by sibling dyads, and lowest for parent– offspring dyads. Our findings improve our understanding of how individual wolf relationships affect monthly association rates. We highlight some important remaining questions regarding wolf packmate associations.

  2. Individual, demographic, and family correlates of romantic attachments in a group of American young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, Thomas W; Holman, Thomas B; Grandy, Shannon R; Blake, Whitney W

    2008-12-01

    Relationship avoidance and anxiety scores were obtained for 590 American young adults (M age = 23.1 yr.). Canonical correlation yielded two orthogonal patterns between the avoidance and anxiety scores with individual, demographic, and family variables. Relationship avoidance was most parsimoniously related to unresolved issues with one's family of origin, having been sexually abused, and being male (canonical correlation = .33). Relationship anxiety was most parsimoniously related to unresolved issues with one's family of origin, lack of personal income, having a strong libido, being young, and being female (canonical correlation = .25). Relationship avoidance was also correlated with not having affectionate and available parents, not having a secure and loving family, high parental conflict, low parental education and income, not having grown up with both parents, family violence, and low libido. Relationship anxiety was also correlated with low personal education. Marital status, ethnicity, and religious denomination were unrelated to either construct.

  3. Grouping miRNAs of similar functions via weighted information content of gene ontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Chaowang; Chen, Qingfeng; Li, Jinyan

    2016-12-22

    Regulation mechanisms between miRNAs and genes are complicated. To accomplish a biological function, a miRNA may regulate multiple target genes, and similarly a target gene may be regulated by multiple miRNAs. Wet-lab knowledge of co-regulating miRNAs is limited. This work introduces a computational method to group miRNAs of similar functions to identify co-regulating miRNAsfrom a similarity matrix of miRNAs. We define a novel information content of gene ontology (GO) to measure similarity between two sets of GO graphs corresponding to the two sets of target genes of two miRNAs. This between-graph similarity is then transferred as a functional similarity between the two miRNAs. Our definition of the information content is based on the size of a GO term's descendants, but adjusted by a weight derived from its depth level and the GO relationships at its path to the root node or to the most informative common ancestor (MICA). Further, a self-tuning technique and the eigenvalues of the normalized Laplacian matrix are applied to determine the optimal parameters for the spectral clustering of the similarity matrix of the miRNAs. Experimental results demonstrate that our method has better clustering performance than the existing edge-based, node-based or hybrid methods. Our method has also demonstrated a novel usefulness for the function annotation of new miRNAs, as reported in the detailed case studies.

  4. Individualisation of Migration from the East? Comparison of Different Socio-Demographic Groups and their Migration Intentions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarja Saar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies on Eastern European migration argue that moving for self-development reasons is becoming increasingly common among this group. Furthermore, it is suggested that migration from the East is becoming individualised and less dependent on social surroundings. Nevertheless, most such results rely on interviews conducted among certain social groups, such as the young and highly skilled. Hence, the comparison between different social groups and their motivations is rarely provided and, therefore, the claims about increased individualisation might be premature. This article uses the Estonian Household Module Survey, including responses from 620 Estonians intending to migrate, to evaluate if migration flows are indeed becoming more individualised and less dependent on social surroundings. Using cluster analysis, three different groups — self-development, economic and life quality migrants — are formed, which are then tested using regression analysis to check for the influence of socio-demographic variables. The article concludes that socio-demographic variables such as gender, age, ethnicity, family status and socio-economic status are still relevant for migration intentions. Indeed, a new group of Eastern European migrants, mainly oriented towards self-development, is emerging; however, it is small and consists mostly of young, Estonian-speaking females. The results complicate the notions of free mobility and liquid migration from Eastern Europe and illustrate that there is a need to pay attention to the increasing group differences in these societies

  5. [The consequences of the demographic revolution and of the aging of society: restructuring the age groups and modifying intergenerational relations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loriaux, M

    1995-01-01

    The consequences of demographic aging in developed societies are examined. The author notes that "demographic aging has intensified over the last decades, bringing with it a significant modification in relationships between age groups and the sexes.... These changes in demographic structures bring with them the reorganization in intergenerational relations, the most spectacular instance of which...[is] the coexistence at the same time and in the same place of four or five generations of direct descendants." The author develops the hypothesis that a new attitude toward old age is needed in which "the social status of the elderly must be reinstated, and everything must be brought into play to encourage the integration of different age groups and intergenerational solidarity, so as to arrive in the best possible conditions at what [can be termed] the 'era of old age'...which will accompany the coming of the post-industrial society with its orientation toward the mass production of leisure and of services." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND SPA) excerpt

  6. Testing surrogacy assumptions: can threatened and endangered plants be grouped by biological similarity and abundances?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che-Castaldo, Judy P; Neel, Maile C

    2012-01-01

    There is renewed interest in implementing surrogate species approaches in conservation planning due to the large number of species in need of management but limited resources and data. One type of surrogate approach involves selection of one or a few species to represent a larger group of species requiring similar management actions, so that protection and persistence of the selected species would result in conservation of the group of species. However, among the criticisms of surrogate approaches is the need to test underlying assumptions, which remain rarely examined. In this study, we tested one of the fundamental assumptions underlying use of surrogate species in recovery planning: that there exist groups of threatened and endangered species that are sufficiently similar to warrant similar management or recovery criteria. Using a comprehensive database of all plant species listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Act and tree-based random forest analysis, we found no evidence of species groups based on a set of distributional and biological traits or by abundances and patterns of decline. Our results suggested that application of surrogate approaches for endangered species recovery would be unjustified. Thus, conservation planning focused on individual species and their patterns of decline will likely be required to recover listed species.

  7. Looking Similar Promotes Group Stability in a Game-Based Virtual Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lortie, Catherine L; Guitton, Matthieu J

    2012-08-01

    Online support groups are popular Web-based resources that provide tailored information and peer support through virtual communities and fulfill the users' needs for empowerment and belonging. However, the therapeutic potential of online support groups is at present limited by the lack of systematic research on the cognitive mechanisms underlying social group cohesion in virtual communities. We might increase the benefits of participation in online support groups if we gain more insight into the factors that promote long-term commitment to peer support. One approach to foster the therapeutic potential of online support groups could be to increase social selection based on visual similarity. We performed a case study using the popular virtual setting of "World of Warcraft" (Blizzard Entertainment, Irvine, CA). We monitored the social dynamics of a virtual community composed of avatars whose appearance was identical during a period of 3 months, biweekly, for a total of 24 measures. We observed that this homogeneous community displayed a very high level of group stability over time in terms of the total number of members, the number of members that stayed the same, and the number of arrivals and departures, despite the fact that belonging to a heterogeneous group typically favors the success of the group with respect to game progression. Our results confirm that appearance can trigger social selection in online virtual communities. Displaying a similar appearance could be one way to strengthen social bonds among peers who share various health and well-being issues. Thus, the therapeutic potential of online support groups could be promoted through visual cohesion.

  8. LDA-Based Unified Topic Modeling for Similar TV User Grouping and TV Program Recommendation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyo, Shinjee; Kim, Eunhui; Kim, Munchurl

    2015-08-01

    Social TV is a social media service via TV and social networks through which TV users exchange their experiences about TV programs that they are viewing. For social TV service, two technical aspects are envisioned: grouping of similar TV users to create social TV communities and recommending TV programs based on group and personal interests for personalizing TV. In this paper, we propose a unified topic model based on grouping of similar TV users and recommending TV programs as a social TV service. The proposed unified topic model employs two latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA) models. One is a topic model of TV users, and the other is a topic model of the description words for viewed TV programs. The two LDA models are then integrated via a topic proportion parameter for TV programs, which enforces the grouping of similar TV users and associated description words for watched TV programs at the same time in a unified topic modeling framework. The unified model identifies the semantic relation between TV user groups and TV program description word groups so that more meaningful TV program recommendations can be made. The unified topic model also overcomes an item ramp-up problem such that new TV programs can be reliably recommended to TV users. Furthermore, from the topic model of TV users, TV users with similar tastes can be grouped as topics, which can then be recommended as social TV communities. To verify our proposed method of unified topic-modeling-based TV user grouping and TV program recommendation for social TV services, in our experiments, we used real TV viewing history data and electronic program guide data from a seven-month period collected by a TV poll agency. The experimental results show that the proposed unified topic model yields an average 81.4% precision for 50 topics in TV program recommendation and its performance is an average of 6.5% higher than that of the topic model of TV users only. For TV user prediction with new TV programs, the average

  9. AGGREGATION OF FUZZY OPINIONS UNDER GROUP DECISION-MAKING BASED ON SIMILARITY AND DISTANCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chengguo LU; Jibin LAN; Zhongxing WANG

    2006-01-01

    In this article, a new method for aggregating fuzzy individual opinions into a group consensus opinion is proposed. To obtain the aggregation weights of each individual opinion, a consistency index of each expert with the other experts is introduced based on similarity and distance. The importance of each expert is also taken into consideration in the process of aggregation. Finally, a numerical example is presented to illustrate the efficiency of the procedure.

  10. Similarity Renormalization Group Evolution of Nucleon-Nucleon Interactions in the Subtracted Kernel Method Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szpigel, S. [Centro de Ciencias e Humanidades, Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Timoteo, V.S. [Faculdade de Tecnologia, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Limeira, SP (Brazil); Duraes, F. de O [Centro de Ciencias e Humanidades, Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2010-02-15

    In this work we study the Similarity Renormalization Group (SRG) evolution of effective nucleon-nucleon (NN) interactions derived using the Subtracted Kernel Method (SKM) approach. We present the results for the phaseshifts in the {sup 1}S{sub 0} channel calculated using a SRG potential evolved from an initial effective potential obtained by implementing the SKM scheme for the leading-order NN interaction in chiral effective field theory (ChEFT).

  11. The Magnus expansion and the in-medium similarity renormalization group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, T. D.; Bogner, S. K.

    2014-10-01

    We present a variant of the in-medium similarity renormalization group(IMSRG) based on the Magnus expansion. In this new variant, the unitary transformation of the IMSRG is constructed explicitly, which allows for the transformation of observables quickly and easily. Additionally, the stiffness of equations encountered by the traditional solution of the IMSRG can be alleviated greatly. We present results and comparisons for the 3d electron gas.

  12. CAN AGN FEEDBACK BREAK THE SELF-SIMILARITY OF GALAXIES, GROUPS, AND CLUSTERS?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaspari, M. [Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 1, D-85741 Garching (Germany); Brighenti, F. [Astronomy Department, University of Bologna, Via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Temi, P. [Astrophysics Branch, NASA/Ames Research Center, MS 245-6, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Ettori, S., E-mail: mgaspari@mpa-garching.mpg.de [INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, Via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy)

    2014-03-01

    It is commonly thought that active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback can break the self-similar scaling relations of galaxies, groups, and clusters. Using high-resolution three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations, we isolate the impact of AGN feedback on the L {sub x}-T {sub x} relation, testing the two archetypal and common regimes, self-regulated mechanical feedback and a quasar thermal blast. We find that AGN feedback has severe difficulty in breaking the relation in a consistent way. The similarity breaking is directly linked to the gas evacuation within R {sub 500}, while the central cooling times are inversely proportional to the core density. Breaking self-similarity thus implies breaking the cool core, morphing all systems to non-cool-core objects, which is in clear contradiction with the observed data populated by several cool-core systems. Self-regulated feedback, which quenches cooling flows and preserves cool cores, prevents dramatic evacuation and similarity breaking at any scale; the relation scatter is also limited. The impulsive thermal blast can break the core-included L {sub x}-T {sub x} at T {sub 500} ≲ 1 keV, but substantially empties and overheats the halo, generating a perennial non-cool-core group, as experienced by cosmological simulations. Even with partial evacuation, massive systems remain overheated. We show that the action of purely AGN feedback is to lower the luminosity and heat the gas, perpendicular to the fit.

  13. Sport participation among individuals with acquired physical disabilities: group differences on demographic, disability, and Health Action Process Approach constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrier, Marie-Josée; Shirazipour, Celina H; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E

    2015-04-01

    Despite numerous physical, social, and mental health benefits of engaging in moderate and vigorous intensity physical activities (e.g., sport), few individuals with acquired physical disabilities currently participate in adapted sport. Theory-based sport promotion interventions are one possible way to increase the amount of individuals who engage in sport. The primary objective of this study was to examine the profiles of three different sport participation groups with respect to demographic, injury, and Health Action Process Approach (HAPA) constructs. ANOVAs and Chi-square tests were used to determine group differences on demographic and disability-related constructs. A MANCOVA was conducted to determine differences between three sport participation groups (non-intenders, intenders, and actors) with age, years post-injury, mode of mobility, and sex included as covariates. A cohort of 201 individuals was recruited; 56 (27.9%) were non-intenders, 21 (10.4%) were intenders, and 124 (61.7%) were actors. The MANCOVA revealed significant differences between groups on the HAPA constructs, F(22,370) = 9.02, p health behavior constructs differently based on their sport intentions. These results provide an important framework that adapted sport organizations can use to tailor their sport promotion programs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Differential habitat use by demographic groups of the redfinger rubble crab Eriphia gonagra (Fabricius, 1781

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LS Andrade

    Full Text Available The structurally diverse rocky shores along the northern coast of the state of São Paulo, Brazil, support a varied fauna and provide refuges for many organisms. Some of these environments allow for extensive microhabitats, among them the sand reefs formed by the polychaete Phragmatopoma lapidosa, which occupy much of this area. The beauty of the landscape attracts large numbers of tourists, who contribute to the damage to the sand reef colonies, causing an imbalance in the patterns of population distribution and of this ecosystem. We describe the structure and population biology of the redfinger rubble crab Eriphia gonagra, and investigated the differential occupation of the habitat by each demographic category of this species. Crabs were sampled monthly for two consecutive years on the rocky coast of Grande Beach, Ubatuba, São Paulo, during spring low tides. Sampling was carried out over an area of approximately 1200 m2, during two hours on the rock surface and another two hours on the sand reefs. A total of 1407 crabs were collected; 776 on the sand reef (SR and 631 on the rocky shore (RO. The majority of juvenile crabs inhabited the SR, while adult crabs were equally distributed in both microhabitats. This study showed that the SR is a natural nursery ground for the establishment of the early juvenile stages of E. gonagra, which use the reefs as a refuge and food resource. Many other organisms (mollusks, echinoderms, polychaetes etc. settle on the reefs, and these areas may be among the most important in maintaining benthic diversity in the region.

  15. [Skin cancer: use of preventive measures and demographic profile of a risk group in the city of Botucatu].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popim, Regina Célia; Corrente, José Eduardo; Marino, Jaqueline Aparecida Geromel; de Souza, Carolina Arantes

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to establish the demographic profile of an at-risk group for skin cancer and to assess the preventive measures taken by the studied individuals and by the employer. The methods chosen was a quantitative study with a sample of 33 mail carriers from the Empresa Brasileira de Correios e Telégrafos in Botucatu, Brazil. Information regarding the demographic profile, how long the individual had been working for the company, hours of sun exposure, history of sunburns, family cancer history and skin cancer prevention strategies used by the company was collected by means of a questionnaire. The data were analyzed using Fisher's Exact Test at a 5% probability. The predominant age groups were 26-30 and 31-35 years corresponding to 42,42%. The predominant skin color was white (93,94%) and 81,82% of the studied individuals were working in the company for over five years. 63,63% of the interviewees use sunscreen habitually; those who do not explain this with a lack of habit (in 75% of the cases). As refers to supply of protective equipment by the company, 100% of the subjects answered positively. These findings allow characterizing the studied population as a skin cancer risk group. Prophylactic measures in form of educational actions for awareness building should be adopted and stimulated.

  16. Development of form similarity as a Gestalt grouping principle in infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Paul C; Bhatt, Ramesh S; Brush, Diana; Grimes, Autumn; Sharpnack, Heather

    2002-07-01

    Given evidence demonstrating that infants 3 months of age and younger can utilize the Gestalt principle of lightness similarity to group visually presented elements into organized percepts, four experiments using the familiarization/novelty-preference procedure were conducted to determine whether infants can also organize visual pattern information in accord with the Gestalt principle of form similarity. In Experiments 1 and 2, 6- to 7-month-olds, but not 3- to 4-month-olds, presented with generalization and discrimination tasks involving arrays of X and O elements responded as if they organized the elements into columns or rows based on form similarity. Experiments 3 and 4 demonstrated that the failure of the young infants to use form similarity was not due to insufficient processing time or the inability to discriminate between the individual X and O elements. The results suggest that different Gestalt principles may become functional over different time courses of development, and that not all principles are automatically deployed in the manner originally proposed by Gestalt theorists.

  17. Influences on Peer Evaluation in a Group Project: An Exploration of Leadership, Demographics and Course Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingel, Molly; Wei, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Collaborative learning strategies are widely used in higher education to deepen learning, promote team-building skills and achieve course learning objectives. Using peer evaluation is an important strategy to ensure that engaged and active students are rewarded for their efforts, and to discourage loafing within groups. However, less is known…

  18. Improving the In-Medium Similarity Renormalization Group via approximate inclusion of three-body effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Titus; Bogner, Scott

    2016-09-01

    The In-Medium Similarity Renormalization Group (IM-SRG) has been applied successfully to the ground state of closed shell finite nuclei. Recent work has extended its ability to target excited states of these closed shell systems via equation of motion methods, and also complete spectra of the whole SD shell via effective shell model interactions. A recent alternative method for solving of the IM-SRG equations, based on the Magnus expansion, not only provides a computationally feasible route to producing observables, but also allows for approximate handling of induced three-body forces. Promising results for several systems, including finite nuclei, will be presented and discussed.

  19. Demographics features, clinical findings and functional status in a group of subjects with cervical myofascial pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Nilay; Karataş, Omer; Ozkaya, Murat; Cakmak, Ayşegül; Berker, Ender

    2008-07-01

    Subjects with myofascial pain of muscles of the neck region may present with various clinical symptoms. The aim of this study was to explore the demographics features, clinical findings and functional status in a group of patients presenting with myofascial pain of the cervical muscles. 94 cervical myofascial pain syndrome patients were recruited from the out-patient clinic. Evaluated of patient short form health survey (SF-36), pain, depression, patient demographics and physical examinations. Outcome measures; SF-36 Health Survey, visual analog scale, Beck Depression Inventory, history, physical examination. A total of 82 patients with a diagnosis of cervical myofascial syndrome were included in the study. All patients were in the young age group 37.4+/-9, and 87.8% were females. 53.1% had trigger points in the trapezius muscle with high percentage of autonomic phenomena like skin reddening, lacrimation, tinnitus and vertigo. 58.5% of the series had suffered from former cervical trauma and 40.2% also had fibromyalgia syndrome and 18.5% had benign Joint hypermobility syndrome. Younger female patients presenting with autonomic phenomena and early onset cervical injury should be examined for cervical myofascial pain syndrome and also for fibromyalgia syndrome since this study demonstrated a high percentage of fibromyalgia syndrome in these patients.

  20. Bottle milk feeding and its association with food group consumption, growth and socio-demographic characteristics in Chinese young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Suey; Chan, Ruth; Li, Liz; Leung, Shirley; Woo, Jean

    2017-07-01

    It is recommended that infants from the age of 12 months should be weaned from bottles. However, an overwhelming proportion of young children were still using bottle after the recommended age of bottle-weaning. This cross-sectional study examined the association between utensils for milk drinking and food group consumption, growth and socio-demographic characteristics among young children. Data from the Survey of Infant and Young Child Feeding in Hong Kong were analyzed for 649 children aged 18-48 months old. Dietary outcomes were obtained via 3-day dietary records, while utensils for milk drinking and socio-demographic characteristics were collected from a self-developed questionnaire. Length/height and weight of the children were measured by the nurses. Results showed that daily consumption of formula milk was significantly greater among bottle users or bottle plus cup users than non-bottle users (p socio-economic factors and child's age (p = 0.006). The results showed that the milk drinking utensil was associated with the amount of formula milk and food group consumption as well as BMI z-score. There is a need to actively discourage prolonged bottle use in order to help young children develop good dietary habits. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. The IWG (Interagency Working Group) model for the heterosexual spread of HIV and the demographic impact of the AIDS epidemic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanley, E.A. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Seitz, S.T. (Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (USA)); Way, P.O.; Johnson, P.D. (Bureau of the Census, Washington, DC (USA)); Curry, T.F. (Air Force Academy, CO (USA))

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents the State Department's Interagency Working Group (IWG) model for the spread of HIV. The model is fully operational for Pattern 2 (heterosexual blood transmission) and Pattern 3 (heterosexual, homosexual, and IV drug transmission) countries. This model was developed for various uses, including technical research, policy analysis, and support for decision making. Research uses include studying patterns of HIV spread, assessing the relative effect of different processes on the spread of HIV, examining the demographic impact of HIV infections, and comparing the potential impact of behavioral versus medical intervention strategies. The model will be used in workshops where policy makers and health officials can do hands-on scenario analyses, gain qualitative insights into the possible long-term-epidemiological and demographic impact of HIV, gauge the uncertainties in predictions for the future, and study the impact of HIV, gauge the uncertainties in predictions for the future, and study the impact that intervention strategies are likely to have. The computational model uses a deterministic system of differential equations and runs on a 286- or a 386-based IBM-compatible machine under Microsoft Windows. The program requires an input ASCII (text) file to run; all parameters used by the model are input through this file and, therefore, are user-accessible. The software is user-friendly, mouse-driven, and allows for interactive manipulation of input data and visualization and processing of model outputs. 15 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Toward Universality in Similarity Renormalization Group Evolved Few-body Potential Matrix Elements

    CERN Document Server

    Dainton, Brian

    2015-01-01

    We first examine how T-matrix equivalence drives the flow of similarity renormalization group (SRG) evolved potential matrix elements to a universal form, with the ultimate goal of gaining insight into universality for three-nucleon forces. In agreement with observations made previously for Lee-Suzuki transformations, regions of universal potential matrix elements are restricted to where half-on-shell T-matrix equivalence holds, but the potentials must also reproduce binding energies. We find universality in local energy regions, reflecting a local decoupling by the SRG. To continue the study in the 3-body sector, we create a simple 1-D spinless boson "theoretical laboratory" for a dramatic improvement in computational efficiency. We introduce a basis-transformation, harmonic oscillator (HO) basis, which is used for current many-body calculations and discuss the imposed truncations. When SRG evolving in a HO-basis, we show that the evolved matrix elements, once transformed back into momentum-representation, d...

  3. The In-Medium Similarity Renormalization Group: A Novel Ab Initio Method for Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Hergert, H; Morris, T D; Schwenk, A; Tsukiyama, K

    2015-01-01

    We present a comprehensive review of the In-Medium Similarity Renormalization Group (IM-SRG), a novel ab inito method for nuclei. The IM-SRG employs a continuous unitary transformation of the many-body Hamiltonian to decouple the ground state from all excitations, thereby solving the many-body problem. Starting from a pedagogical introduction of the underlying concepts, the IM-SRG flow equations are developed for systems with and without explicit spherical symmetry. We study different IM-SRG generators that achieve the desired decoupling, and how they affect the details of the IM-SRG flow. Based on calculations of closed-shell nuclei, we assess possible truncations for closing the system of flow equations in practical applications, as well as choices of the reference state. We discuss the issue of center-of-mass factorization and demonstrate that the IM-SRG ground-state wave function exhibits an approximate decoupling of intrinsic and center-of-mass degrees of freedom, similar to Coupled Cluster (CC) wave fun...

  4. Patterns of nucleotide sequence variation in ICAM1 and TNF genes in twelve ethnic groups of India: roles of demographic history and natural selection

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sanghamitra Sengupta; Shabana Farheen; Neelanjana Mukherjee; Partha P. Majumder

    2007-12-01

    We have studied DNA sequence variation in and around the genes ICAM1 and TNF, which play functional and correlated roles in inflammatory processes and immune cell responses, in 12 diverse ethnic groups of India, with a view to investigating the relative roles of demographic history and natural selection in shaping the observed patterns of variation. The total numbers of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) detected at the ICAM1 and TNF loci were 29 and 12, respectively. Haplotype and allele frequencies differed significantly across populations. The site frequency spectra at these loci were significantly different from those expected under neutrality, and showed an excess of intermediate-frequency variants consistent with balancing selection. However, as expected under balancing selection, there was no significant reduction of $F_{ST}$ values compared to neutral autosomal loci. Mismatch distributions were consistent with population expansion for both loci. On the other hand, the phylogenetic network among haplotypes for the TNF locus was similar to expectations under population expansion, while that for the ICAM1 was as expected under balancing selection. Nucleotide diversity at the ICAM1 locus was an order of magnitude lower in the promoter region, compared to the introns or exons, but no such difference was noted for the TNF gene. Thus, we conclude that the pattern of nucleotide variation in these genes has been modulated by both demographic history and selection. This is not surprising in view of the known allelic associations of several polymorphisms in these genes with various diseases, both infectious and noninfectious.

  5. Distribution of causes of maternal mortality among different socio-demographic groups in Ghana; a descriptive study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musinguzi Geofrey

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ghana's maternal mortality ratio remains high despite efforts made to meet Millennium Development Goal 5. A number of studies have been conducted on maternal mortality in Ghana; however, little is known about how the causes of maternal mortality are distributed in different socio-demographic subgroups. Therefore the aim of this study was to assess and analyse the causes of maternal mortality according to socio-demographic factors in Ghana. Methods The causes of maternal deaths were assessed with respect to age, educational level, rural/urban residence status and marital status. Data from a five year retrospective survey was used. The data was obtained from Ghana Maternal Health Survey 2007 acquired from the database of Ghana Statistical Service. A total of 605 maternal deaths within the age group 12-49 years were analysed using frequency tables, cross-tabulations and logistic regression. Results Haemorrhage was the highest cause of maternal mortality (22.8%. Married women had a significantly higher risk of dying from haemorrhage, compared with single women (adjusted OR = 2.7, 95%CI = 1.2-5.7. On the contrary, married women showed a significantly reduced risk of dying from abortion compared to single women (adjusted OR = 0.2, 95%CI = 0.1-0.4. Women aged 35-39years had a significantly higher risk of dying from haemorrhage (aOR 2.6, 95%CI = 1.4-4.9, whereas they were at a lower risk of dying from abortion (aOR 0.3, 95% CI = 0.1-0.7 compared to their younger counterparts. The risk of maternal death from infectious diseases decreased with increasing maternal age, whereas the risk of dying from miscellaneous causes increased with increasing age. Conclusions The study shows evidence of variations in the causes of maternal mortality among different socio-demographic subgroups in Ghana that should not be overlooked. It is therefore recommended that interventions aimed at combating the high maternal mortality in Ghana should be both

  6. In-medium similarity renormalization group for closed and open-shell nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hergert, H.

    2017-02-01

    We present a pedagogical introduction to the in-medium similarity renormalization group (IMSRG) framework for ab initio calculations of nuclei. The IMSRG performs continuous unitary transformations of the nuclear many-body Hamiltonian in second-quantized form, which can be implemented with polynomial computational effort. Through suitably chosen generators, it is possible to extract eigenvalues of the Hamiltonian in a given nucleus, or drive the Hamiltonian matrix in configuration space to specific structures, e.g., band- or block-diagonal form. Exploiting this flexibility, we describe two complementary approaches for the description of closed- and open-shell nuclei: the first is the multireference IMSRG (MR-IMSRG), which is designed for the efficient calculation of nuclear ground-state properties. The second is the derivation of non-empirical valence-space interactions that can be used as input for nuclear shell model (i.e., configuration interaction (CI)) calculations. This IMSRG+shell model approach provides immediate access to excitation spectra, transitions, etc, but is limited in applicability by the factorial cost of the CI calculations. We review applications of the MR-IMSRG and IMSRG+shell model approaches to the calculation of ground-state properties for the oxygen, calcium, and nickel isotopic chains or the spectroscopy of nuclei in the lower sd shell, respectively, and present selected new results, e.g., for the ground- and excited state properties of neon isotopes.

  7. A low-cost approach to electronic excitation energies based on the driven similarity renormalization group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chenyang; Verma, Prakash; Hannon, Kevin P; Evangelista, Francesco A

    2017-08-21

    We propose an economical state-specific approach to evaluate electronic excitation energies based on the driven similarity renormalization group truncated to second order (DSRG-PT2). Starting from a closed-shell Hartree-Fock wave function, a model space is constructed that includes all single or single and double excitations within a given set of active orbitals. The resulting VCIS-DSRG-PT2 and VCISD-DSRG-PT2 methods are introduced and benchmarked on a set of 28 organic molecules [M. Schreiber et al., J. Chem. Phys. 128, 134110 (2008)]. Taking CC3 results as reference values, mean absolute deviations of 0.32 and 0.22 eV are observed for VCIS-DSRG-PT2 and VCISD-DSRG-PT2 excitation energies, respectively. Overall, VCIS-DSRG-PT2 yields results with accuracy comparable to those from time-dependent density functional theory using the B3LYP functional, while VCISD-DSRG-PT2 gives excitation energies comparable to those from equation-of-motion coupled cluster with singles and doubles.

  8. In-Medium Similarity Renormalization Group for Closed and Open-Shell Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Hergert, H

    2016-01-01

    We present a pedagogical introduction to the In-Medium Similarity Renormalization Group (IM-SRG) framework for ab initio calculations of nuclei. The IM-SRG performs continuous unitary transformations of the nuclear many-body Hamiltonian in second-quantized form, which can be implemented with polynomial computational effort. Through suitably chosen generators, it is possible to extract eigenvalues of the Hamiltonian in a given nucleus, or drive the Hamiltonian matrix in configuration space to specific structures, e.g., band- or block-diagonal form. Exploiting this flexibility, we describe two complementary approaches for the description of closed- and open-shell nuclei: The first is the Multireference IM-SRG (MR-IM-SRG), which is designed for the efficient calculation of nuclear ground-state properties. The second is the derivation of nonempirical valence-space interactions that can be used as input for nuclear Shell model (i.e., configuration interaction (CI)) calculations. This IM-SRG+Shell model approach pr...

  9. Ab Initio Excited States from the In-Medium Similarity Renormalization Group

    CERN Document Server

    Parzuchowski, N M; Bogner, S K

    2016-01-01

    We present two new methods for performing \\emph{ab initio} calculations of excited states for closed-shell systems within the in-medium similarity renormalization group (IMSRG) framework. Both are based on combining the IMSRG with simple many-body methods commonly used to target excited states, such as the Tamm-Dancoff approximation (TDA) and equations-of-motion (EOM) techniques. In the first approach, a two-step sequential IMSRG transformation is used to drive the Hamiltonian to a form where a simple TDA calculation (i.e., diagonalization in the space of $1$p$1$h excitations) becomes exact for a subset of eigenvalues. In the second approach, equations-of-motion (EOM) techniques are applied to the ground-state-decoupled IMSRG Hamiltonian to access excited states. We perform proof-of-principle calculations for parabolic quantum dots in two-dimensions and the closed shell nuclei $^{16}$O and $^{22}$O. We find that the TDA-IMSRG approach gives better accuracy than the EOM-IMSRG when calculations converge, but is...

  10. Peer Group Affiliation of Children: The Role of Perceived Popularity, Likeability, and Behavioral Similarity in Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witvliet, Miranda; Olthof, Tjeert; Hoeksma, Jan B.; Goossens, Frits A.; Smits, Marieke S. I.; Koot, Hans M.

    2010-01-01

    To understand children's peer group affiliation, this study examined to what extent children in naturally occurring groups resemble each other on bullying, likeability, and perceived popularity. Participants were fourth- to sixth-grade pupils (N = 461). Peer groups were identified using the social cognitive map procedure. Resemblance on bullying,…

  11. Socio-demographic patterning of physical activity across migrant groups in India: results from the Indian Migration Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Sullivan

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between rural to urban migration and physical activity (PA in India. METHODS: 6,447 (42% women participants comprising 2077 rural, 2,094 migrants and 2,276 urban were recruited. Total activity (MET hr/day, activity intensity (min/day, PA Level (PAL television viewing and sleeping (min/day were estimated and associations with migrant status examined, adjusting for the sib-pair design, age, site, occupation, education, and socio-economic position (SEP. RESULTS: Total activity was highest in rural men whereas migrant and urban men had broadly similar activity levels (p<0.001. Women showed similar patterns, but slightly lower levels of total activity. Sedentary behaviour and television viewing were lower in rural residents and similar in migrant and urban groups. Sleep duration was highest in the rural group and lowest in urban non-migrants. Migrant men had considerably lower odds of being in the highest quartile of total activity than rural men, a finding that persisted after adjustment for age, SEP and education (OR 0.53, 95% CI 0.37, 0.74. For women, odds ratios attenuated and associations were removed after adjusting for age, SEP and education. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that migrants have already acquired PA levels that closely resemble long-term urban residents. Effective public health interventions to increase PA are needed.

  12. Body image and eating disturbances across ethnic groups: more similarities than differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Heather; Ramirez, Lisa; Trost, Ariel; Randall, Pat; Stice, Eric

    2004-03-01

    Sociocultural models of eating pathology posit that ethnic minority groups should show fewer eating disturbances than Whites. Thus, the authors tested whether there were ethnic differences in eating disorder symptoms and risk factors for eating pathology and whether the relations between risk factors and eating pathology differed across ethnic groups, with data from adolescent and adult females (N = 785). Only 1 of the 14 tests of main effect differences between ethnic groups was significant and none of the 49 tests of whether ethnicity moderated the relations of risk factors to eating pathology were significant. Findings provide little support for the hypothesized ethnic differences in eating disturbances and suggest that ethnic minority groups have reached parity with Whites in this domain.

  13. Differences in Graduate School Attainment Patterns across Academic Programs and Demographic Groups. A Research Report of the Minority Graduate Education Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwick, Rebecca

    To identify differences in doctoral student achievement across programs, demographic groups and gender, the graduate careers of nearly 5,000 doctoral students from 11 departments at each of 3 major universities were investigated. Three types of data analysis examined numbers of students entering each department and the proportions of various…

  14. From classical to eclectic psychodrama: conceptual similarities between psychodrama and psychodynamic and interpersonal group treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipper, David A; Matsumoto, Mia

    2002-01-01

    A study was conducted to explore the hypothesis that contemporary U.S. psychodramatists evince a shift from strict adherence to the conceptual frame of reference espoused by classical psychodrama toward a degree of sharing concepts with those valued by psychodynamic and interpersonal group therapists. Sixty-two senior psychodramatists ranked a form comprised of 44 concepts. Their rankings were compared to the results of a study by Dies (1992). In general, the results supported the hypothesis.

  15. Socio-demographic, behavioral and functional characteristics of groups of community and institutionalized elderly Quechua Indians of Peru, and their association with nutritional status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortunato, Laura; Drusini, Andrea G

    2005-06-01

    Socio-demographic, behavioral, functional and anthropometric data for groups of elderly Quechua Indians of Peru were used to investigate the effects of gender and lifestyle patterns on nutritional status. Two community-dwelling samples were selected for study, representative of divergent lifestyles in terms of their combination of socio-economic, demographic and cultural contexts, plus an ad-hoc sample of institutionalized individuals with controlled food intake and reduced physical activity. Results suggest that differences in socio-demographic, behavioral and functional characteristics exist between the sexes and across settings (low- vs. highland) and lifestyles (institutionalized vs. community-dwelling; semi-urban vs. rural). These factors are likely to be related to diverging dietary and physical activity patterns, and have considerable effects on the nutritional status of the respondents.

  16. Gender differences and similarities in medical students' experiences of mistreatment by various groups of perpetrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siller, Heidi; Tauber, Gloria; Komlenac, Nikola; Hochleitner, Margarethe

    2017-08-14

    Mistreatment of medical students during medical education is a widespread concern. Studies have shown that medical students report the most mistreatment compared to students of other study programs and that the prevalence of mistreatment peaks during clinical training. For this reason, a study was conducted to assess prevalence of mistreatment among medical students committed by various groups of people. The focus was to identify whether gender was associated with the experience of mistreatment. Additionally, students' perception of university climate for reporting sexual harassment was assessed. In the study 88 medical students (45 women, 43 men) participated. A modified version of the Questionnaire on Student Abuse was used to assess students' experience of various types of mistreatment and associated distress during medical education. To explore factors that could be associated with this experience the organizational climate for reporting sexual harassment was assessed with the Psychological Climate for Sexual Harassment. The most often cited perpetrators of mistreatment were strangers (79.5%), friends (75.0%) and university staff (68.2%). Strangers mostly committed psychological mistreatment and sexual harassment, whereas friends additionally engaged in physical mistreatment of medical students. The most common form of mistreatment conducted by university staff was humiliation of students. These kinds of psychological mistreatment were reported to be distressing (43%). Gender differences were found in the prevalence of mistreatment. Women experienced more sexual harassment and humiliation than did men. On the other hand, men experienced more physical mistreatment than did women. Women reported experiencing more distress from mistreatment experiences than did men and also more often reported being mistreated by university staff than did men. Women perceived a greater risk in reporting sexual harassment to the organization than did men. Mistreatment of female and

  17. Ensemble attribute profile clustering: discovering and characterizing groups of genes with similar patterns of biological features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bissell MJ

    2006-03-01

    contained groups of genes with the functional properties of membrane receptor biology/signal transduction and nucleic acid binding/transcription. A subset of the luminal markers was associated with metabolic and oxidoreductase activities, whereas a subset of myoepithelial markers was associated with protein hydrolase activity. Conclusion Given a set of genes and/or proteins associated with a phenomenon, process or system of interest, ensemble attribute profile clustering provides a simple method for collating and sythesizing the annotation data pertaining to them that are present in text-based, gene-centered corpora. The results provide information about properties common and unique to subsets of the list and hence insights into the biology of the problem under investigation.

  18. Gender and homosexuality attitudes across religious groups from the 1970s to 2014: Similarity, distinction, and adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnabel, Landon

    2016-01-01

    This study uses General Social Survey data to compare gender and homosexuality across American religious groups from the 1970s to 2014, examining three possible patterns for how evangelical attitudes relate to those of other groups: (1) they are similar; (2) they are different, but move together over time; (3) they are different and converge or diverge over time. Evangelical gender attitudes regarding work and family issues are more conservative than those of all other groups, but are adaptive to broad trends, changing at a rate similar to those of other groups. Evangelical attitudes toward the morality of homosexuality and same-sex marriage are more conservative than those of all other religious groups, and their rate of change is slower over time. Separate trends on the two issues suggest that gender and sexuality attitude change is decoupled, especially among evangelicals who are adapting more on gender while increasingly distinguishing themselves on same-sex relationships. A three-stage process of religious tension appears to characterize evangelical identity-building: (1) similarity, (2) distinction, and (3) adaptation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. One group of genetically similar Listeria monocytogenes strains frequently dominates and persists in several fish slaughter- and smokehouses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulff, Gitte; Gram, Lone; Ahrens, Peter;

    2006-01-01

    Contamination of foods with the human pathogen Listeria monocytogenes may occur during processing, and the purpose of this study was to determine whether genetically similar strains colonize different processing plants or whether specific persistent strains are unique to each processing plant. We...... smokehouses and two slaughterhouses and was predominant in three of these plants. A subset of 35 strains was also analyzed by amplified fragment length polymorphism typing, which confirmed the genetic similarity of the groups. Moreover, strains of the dominant RAPD type were indistinguishable from strains...... related may be especially adapted to colonizing the processing equipment or especially resistant to cleaning and disinfection....

  20. Probing the symmetries of the Dirac Hamiltonian with axially deformed scalar and vector potentials by similarity renormalization group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jian-You; Chen, Shou-Wan; Niu, Zhong-Ming; Li, Dong-Peng; Liu, Quan

    2014-02-14

    Symmetry is an important and basic topic in physics. The similarity renormalization group theory provides a novel view to study the symmetries hidden in the Dirac Hamiltonian, especially for the deformed system. Based on the similarity renormalization group theory, the contributions from the nonrelativistic term, the spin-orbit term, the dynamical term, the relativistic modification of kinetic energy, and the Darwin term are self-consistently extracted from a general Dirac Hamiltonian and, hence, we get an accurate description for their dependence on the deformation. Taking an axially deformed nucleus as an example, we find that the self-consistent description of the nonrelativistic term, spin-orbit term, and dynamical term is crucial for understanding the relativistic symmetries and their breaking in a deformed nuclear system.

  1. A chemical-biological similarity-based grouping of complex substances as a prototype approach for evaluating chemical alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Fabian A; Iwata, Yasuhiro; Sirenko, Oksana; Chappell, Grace A; Wright, Fred A; Reif, David M; Braisted, John; Gerhold, David L; Yeakley, Joanne M; Shepard, Peter; Seligmann, Bruce; Roy, Tim; Boogaard, Peter J; Ketelslegers, Hans B; Rohde, Arlean M; Rusyn, Ivan

    2016-08-21

    Comparative assessment of potential human health impacts is a critical step in evaluating both chemical alternatives and existing products on the market. Most alternatives assessments are conducted on a chemical-by-chemical basis and it is seldom acknowledged that humans are exposed to complex products, not individual substances. Indeed, substances of Unknown or Variable composition, Complex reaction products, and Biological materials (UVCBs) are ubiquitous in commerce yet they present a major challenge for registration and health assessments. Here, we present a comprehensive experimental and computational approach to categorize UVCBs according to global similarities in their bioactivity using a suite of in vitro models. We used petroleum substances, an important group of UVCBs which are grouped for regulatory approval and read-across primarily on physico-chemical properties and the manufacturing process, and only partially based on toxicity data, as a case study. We exposed induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes and hepatocytes to DMSO-soluble extracts of 21 petroleum substances from five product groups. Concentration-response data from high-content imaging in cardiomyocytes and hepatocytes, as well as targeted high-throughput transcriptomic analysis of the hepatocytes, revealed distinct groups of petroleum substances. Data integration showed that bioactivity profiling affords clustering of petroleum substances in a manner similar to the manufacturing process-based categories. Moreover, we observed a high degree of correlation between bioactivity profiles and physico-chemical properties, as well as improved groupings when chemical and biological data were combined. Altogether, we demonstrate how novel in vitro screening approaches can be effectively utilized in combination with physico-chemical characteristics to group complex substances and enable read-across. This approach allows for rapid and scientifically-informed evaluation of health impacts of

  2. Malnutrition in Pre-school Children across Different Geographic Areas and Socio-Demographic Groups in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewusie, J E; Beyene, J; Ahiadeke, C; Hamid, J S

    2016-08-13

    Objective Malnutrition in children pervades all aspects of their health, growth, cognitive and social development and can lead to irreversible and lifelong effects. We examine the prevalence and determinants of malnutrition in children under 5 in the Ghanaian population. Methods Using data from the latest available Ghana Demographic and Health Survey (GDHS), we estimated and compared prevalence of malnutrition in children among the different subgroups of the population. We used multivariable logistic regression to identify potential factors associated with childhood malnutrition in Ghana. Results Overall, 35.6 % (95 % CI: 33.6, 37.6) of Ghanaian children under 5 years of age suffer from some form of malnutrition. Specifically, 27.5 % (95 % CI: 25.1, 28.7), 13.8 % (95 % CI: 12.5, 15.3), 8.9 % (95 % CI: 7.8, 10.2) were stunted, underweight and wasted, respectively. Results from the logistic regression indicate that gender and age of the child, educational and nutritional status of the mother, and financial status of the household are risk factors associated with childhood malnutrition in Ghana. Conclusions for Practice In view of the observed high rate of malnutrition among Ghanaian children despite the interventions that have been in place since the 1990s, there is a need for increased awareness and improved targeted interventions as well as knowledge translation tools including extensive education on infant and young child feeding practices.

  3. Similar Ability of FbaA with M Protein to Elicit Protective Immunity Against Group A Streptococcus Challenge in Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cuiqing Ma; Caihong Li; Xiurong Wang; Ruihong Zeng; Xiaolin Yin; Huidong Feng; Lin Wei

    2009-01-01

    Group A streptococcus (GAS), an important human pathogen, can cause various kinds of infections including superficial infections and potentially lethal infections, and the search for an effective vaccine to prevent GAS infections has been ongoing for many years. This paper compares the immunogenicity and immunoprotection of FbaA (an Fn-binding protein expressed on the surface of GAS) with that of M protein, the best immunogen of GAS. Assay for immune response showed that FbaA, similar to M protein, could induce protein-specific high IgG titer in BALB/c mice. Furthermore, following GAS challenge, the mice immunized with FbaA showed the same protective rate as those with M protein. These results indicate that FbaA is similar in ability to M protein in inducing protective immunity against GAS challenge in mice.

  4. Biogenic oxidized organic functional groups in aerosol particles from a mountain forest site and their similarities to laboratory chamber products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. E. Schwartz

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Submicron particles collected at Whistler, British Columbia, at 1020 masl during May and June 2008 on Teflon filters were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR and X-ray fluorescence (XRF techniques for organic functional groups (OFG and elemental composition. Organic mass (OM ranged from less than 0.5 to 3.1μg m−3, with a project mean and standard deviation of 1.3±1.0 μg m−3 and 0.21±0.16 μg m−3 for OM and sulfate, respectively. On average, organic hydroxyl, alkane, and carboxylic acid groups represented 34%, 33%, and 23% of OM, respectively. Ketone, amine and organosulfate groups constituted 6%, 5%, and <1% of the average organic aerosol composition, respectively. Measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOC, including isoprene and monoterpenes from biogenic VOC (BVOC emissions and their oxidation products (methyl-vinylketone/methacrolein, MVK/MACR, were made using co-located proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS. We present chemically-specific evidence of OFG associated with BVOC emissions. Positive matrix factorization (PMF analysis attributed 65% of the campaign OM to biogenic sources, based on the correlations of one factor to monoterpenes and MVK/MACR. The remaining fraction was attributed to anthropogenic sources based on a correlation to sulfate. The functional group composition of the biogenic factor (consisting of 32% alkane, 25% carboxylic acid, 2% organic hydroxyl, 16% ketone, and 6% amine groups was similar to that of secondary organic aerosol (SOA reported from the oxidation of BVOCs in laboratory chamber studies, providing evidence that the magnitude and chemical composition of biogenic SOA simulated in the laboratory is similar to that found in actual atmospheric conditions. The biogenic factor OM is also correlated to dust elements, indicating that dust may act as a non-acidic SOA sink. This role is supported by the organic functional group composition and

  5. Biogenic oxidized organic functional groups in aerosol particles from a mountain forest site and their similarities to laboratory chamber products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. E. Schwartz

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Submicron particles collected at Whistler, British Columbia, at 1020 m a.s.l. during May and June 2008 on Teflon filters were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR and X-ray fluorescence (XRF techniques for organic functional groups (OFG and elemental composition. Organic mass (OM concentrations ranged from less than 0.5 to 3.1 μg m−3, with a project mean and standard deviation of 1.3±1.0 μg m−3 and 0.21±0.16 μg m−3 for OM and sulfate, respectively. On average, organic hydroxyl, alkane, and carboxylic acid groups represented 34%, 33%, and 23% of OM, respectively. Ketone, amine and organosulfate groups constituted 6%, 5%, and <1% of the average organic aerosol composition, respectively. Measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOC, including isoprene and monoterpenes from biogenic VOC (BVOC emissions and their oxidation products (methyl-vinylketone / methacrolein, MVK/MACR, were made using co-located proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS. We present chemically-specific evidence of OFG associated with BVOC emissions. Positive matrix factorization (PMF analysis attributed 65% of the campaign OM to biogenic sources, based on the correlations of one factor to monoterpenes and MVK/MACR. The remaining fraction was attributed to anthropogenic sources based on a correlation to sulfate. The functional group composition of the biogenic factor (consisting of 32% alkane, 25% carboxylic acid, 21% organic hydroxyl, 16% ketone, and 6% amine groups was similar to that of secondary organic aerosol (SOA reported from the oxidation of BVOCs in laboratory chamber studies, providing evidence that the magnitude and chemical composition of biogenic SOA simulated in the laboratory is similar to that found in actual atmospheric conditions. The biogenic factor OM is also correlated to dust elements, indicating that dust may act as a non-acidic SOA sink. This role is supported by the organic functional

  6. The application of reduced absorption cross section on the identification of the compounds with similar function-groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fei; Zuo, Jian; Mu, Kai-jun; Zhang, Zhen-wei; Zhang, Liang-liang; Zhang, Lei-wei; Zhang, Cun-lin

    2013-08-01

    Terahertz spectroscopy is a powerful tool for materials investigation. The low frequency vibrations were usually investigated by means of absorption coefficient regardless of the refractive index. It leads to the disregard of some inherent low-frequency vibrational information of the chemical compounds. Moreover, due to the scattering inside the sample, there are some distortions of the absorption features, so that the absorption dependent material identification is not valid enough. Here, a statistical parameter named reduced absorption cross section (RACS) is introduced. This can not only help us investigate the molecular dynamics but also distinguish one chemical compound with another which has similar function-groups. Experiments are carried out on L-Tyrosine and L-Phenylalanine and the different mass ratios of their mixtures as an example of the application of RACS. The results come out that the RACS spectrum of L-Tyrosine and L-Phenylalanine reserve the spectral fingerprint information of absorption spectrum. The log plot of RACSs of the two amino acids show power-law behavior σR(~ν) ~ (ν~α), and there is a linear relation between the wavenumber and the RACS in the double logarithmic plot. The exponents α, at the same time, are the slopes of the RACS curves in the double logarithmic plot. The big differences of the exponents α between the two amino acids and their mixtures can be seen visually from the slopes of the RACS curves. So we can use RACS analytical method to distinguish some complex compounds with similar function-groups and mixtures from another which has similar absorption peaks in THz region.

  7. Constructing a Database of Similar Exposure Groups: The Application of the Exporisq-HAP Database from 1995 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Pascal; Bicout, Dominique J; Persoons, Renaud; Bonneterre, Vincent; Barbeau, Damien; Maître, Anne

    2017-05-01

    Similar exposure groups (SEGs) are needed to reliably assess occupational exposures and health risks. However, the construction of SEGs can turn out to be rather challenging because of the multifactorial variability of exposures. The objective of this study is to put forward a semi-empirical approach developed to construct and implement a SEG database for exposure assessments. An occupational database of airborne levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was used as an illustrative and working example. The approach that was developed consisted of four steps. The first three steps addressed the construction and implementation of the occupational Exporisq-HAP database (E-HAP). E-HAP was structured into three hierarchical levels of exposure groups, each of which was based on exposure determinants, along 16 dimensions that represented the sampled PAHs. A fourth step was implemented to identify and generate SEGs using the geometric standard deviation (GSD) of PAH concentrations. E-HAP was restructured into 16 (for 16 sampled PAHs) 3 × 3 matrices: three hierarchical levels of description versus three degrees of dispersion, which included low (the SEG database: GSD ≤ 3), medium (3 6). Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) was the least dispersed particulate PAH with 41.5% of groups that could be considered as SEGs, 48.5% of groups of medium dispersion, and only 8% with high dispersion. These results were comparable for BaP, BaP equivalent toxic, or the sum of all carcinogenic PAHs but were different when individual gaseous PAHs or ∑PAHG were chosen. Within the framework of risk assessment, such an approach, based on groundwork studies, allows for both the construction of an SEG database and the identification of exposure groups that require improvements in either the description level or the homogeneity degree toward SEG.

  8. An integral-factorized implementation of the driven similarity renormalization group second-order multireference perturbation theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, Kevin P; Li, Chenyang; Evangelista, Francesco A

    2016-05-28

    We report an efficient implementation of a second-order multireference perturbation theory based on the driven similarity renormalization group (DSRG-MRPT2) [C. Li and F. A. Evangelista, J. Chem. Theory Comput. 11, 2097 (2015)]. Our implementation employs factorized two-electron integrals to avoid storage of large four-index intermediates. It also exploits the block structure of the reference density matrices to reduce the computational cost to that of second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory. Our new DSRG-MRPT2 implementation is benchmarked on ten naphthyne isomers using basis sets up to quintuple-ζ quality. We find that the singlet-triplet splittings (ΔST) of the naphthyne isomers strongly depend on the equilibrium structures. For a consistent set of geometries, the ΔST values predicted by the DSRG-MRPT2 are in good agreements with those computed by the reduced multireference coupled cluster theory with singles, doubles, and perturbative triples.

  9. Towards numerically robust multireference theories: The driven similarity renormalization group truncated to one- and two-body operators

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Chenyang

    2016-01-01

    The first nonperturbative version of the multireference driven similarity renormalization group (MR-DSRG) theory [C. Li and F. A. Evangelista, J. Chem. Theory Comput. $\\mathbf{11}$, 2097 (2015)] is introduced. The renormalization group structure of the MR-DSRG equations ensures numerical robustness and avoidance of the intruder state problem, while the connected nature of the amplitude and energy equations guarantees size consistency and extensivity. We approximate the MR-DSRG equations by keeping only one- and two-body operators and using a linearized recursive commutator approximation of the Baker--Campbell--Hausdorff expansion [T. Yanai and G. K.-L. Chan, J. Chem. Phys. $\\mathbf{124}$, 194106 (2006)]. The resulting MR-LDSRG(2) equations contain only 39 terms and scales as ${\\cal O}(N^2 N_{\\rm P}^2 N_{\\rm H}^2)$ where $N_{\\rm H}$, $N_{\\rm P}$, and $N$ correspond to the number of hole, particle, and total orbitals, respectively. Benchmark MR-LDSRG(2) computations on the hydrogen fluoride and molecular nitrog...

  10. Demographic, clinical and psychosocial factors identify a high-risk group for depression screening among predominantly Hispanic patients with Type 2 diabetes in safety net care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ell, Kathleen; Katon, Wayne; Lee, Pey-Jiuan; Guterman, Jeffrey; Wu, Shinyi

    2015-01-01

    Identify biopsychosocial factors associated with depression for patients with Type 2 diabetes. A quasi-experimental clinical trial of 1293 patients was predominantly Hispanic (91%) female (62%), mean age 53 and average diabetes duration 10 years; 373 (29%) patients were depressed and assessed by Patient Health Questionnaire-9. Demographic, baseline clinical and psychosocial variables were compared between depressed and nondepressed patients. Bivariate analyses found depression significantly associated (pidentified six key risk factors: greater disability, diabetes symptoms and regimen distress, female gender, less diabetes self-care and lack of A1C. In addition, after controlling for identified six factors, the number of psychosocial stressors significantly associated with increased risk of depression (adjusted odds ratio=1.37, 95% confidence intervals: 1.18-1.58, pidentify a high-risk group of patients needing depression screening. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. An integral-factorized implementation of the driven similarity renormalization group second-order multireference perturbation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Hannon, Kevin P; Evangelista, Francesco A

    2016-01-01

    We report an efficient implementation of a second-order multireference perturbation theory based on the driven similarity renormalization group (DSRG-MRPT2) [C. Li and F. A. Evangelista, J. Chem. Theory Comput. 11, 2097 (2015)]. Our implementation employs factorized two-electron integrals to avoid storage of large four-index intermediates. It also exploits the block structure of the reference density matrices to reduce the computational cost to that of second-order M{\\o}ller$-$Plesset perturbation theory. Our new DSRG-MRPT2 implementation is benchmarked on ten naphthyne isomers using basis sets up to quintuple-$\\zeta$ quality. We find that the singlet-triplet splittings ($\\Delta_\\text{ST}$) of the naphthyne isomers strongly depend on the equilibrium structures. For a consistent set of geometries, the $\\Delta_\\text{ST}$ values predicted by the DSRG-MRPT2 are in good agreements with those computed by the reduced multireference coupled cluster theory with singles, doubles, and perturbative triples.

  12. Demographic changes and nationalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishnevskii, A G

    1995-01-01

    This article examines the different characteristics of the many peoples inhabiting what used to be the Soviet Union and communist Eastern Europe, including Yugoslavia. The differences among these nationalities, or ethnic groups, are illustrated using the example of demographic modernization, showing how different peoples have or have not passed through the demographic transition process. The author looks at ethnic differences in mortality, fertility, natural increase, and migration, as well as economic and social inequalities among ethnic groups. The prospects for inter-ethnic conflict are assessed.

  13. Factors predicting quality of life in a group of Polish subjects with multiple sclerosis: accounting for functional state, socio-demographic and clinical factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papuć, Ewa; Stelmasiak, Zbigniew

    2012-05-01

    Quality of life (QoL) has presently a firmly established position as an important endpoint in medical care. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic neurological disease with considerable effect on patients' QoL. QoL of MS patients from many European countries has already been assessed but little is known on health-related QoL of Polish subjects with MS. Few studies have taken into consideration multiple predictors of QoL. The aim of this study was to elicit the most relevant factors that determine QoL of Polish group of MS patients. Socio-demographic and clinical factors as well as the influence of disability level were analyzed in this study. 173 MS patients and 86 healthy controls underwent assessment using the Mini Mental Status Examination, WHOQOL-100, Beck Depression Inventory and Fatigue Severity Scale. Data were analyzed by a stepwise linear regression analysis. MS patients had significantly worse global QoL and worse QoL in physical and psychological health domains, lower level of independence, worse social relations and were less satisfied with the surrounding environment they lived in compared with healthy controls (pMS subjects had also higher level of depression and fatigue compared to healthy controls (pQoL of Polish MS patients were depression, disability level and fatigue. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Pregnancy intention, demographic differences, and psychosocial health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxson, Pamela; Miranda, Marie Lynn

    2011-08-01

    We explore the psychosocial, demographic, and maternal characteristics across wanted, mistimed, and unwanted pregnancies. Data from 1321 women from a prospective cohort study of pregnant women in Durham, NC, are analyzed. Psychosocial correlates were obtained through prenatal surveys; electronic medical records were used to ascertain maternal health and pregnancy outcomes. Sixty-two percent of the women indicated an unintended pregnancy, with 44% (578) mistimed and 18% (245) unwanted. Only 38% of the pregnancies were characterized as wanted. Women with unwanted and with mistimed pregnancies were similar demographically, but they differed significantly on psychosocial profiles and maternal characteristics. Women with mistimed and with wanted pregnancies differed in demographics and psychosocial profiles. Wanted pregnancies had the healthiest, mistimed an intermediate, and unwanted the poorest psychosocial profile. Women with unwanted pregnancies had the highest depression, perceived stress, and negative paternal support scores (ppsychosocial profiles had higher odds of being in the unwanted category. Controlling for psychosocial and demographic variables, perceived stress and positive paternal support remained significant predictors of belonging to the unwanted and mistimed groups. Fully characterizing pregnancy intention and its relationship to psychosocial profiles may provide a basis for identifying women with highest risk during pregnancy and early motherhood. Women with unwanted and mistimed pregnancies may appear similar demographically but are different psychosocially. Women with unwanted pregnancies have multiple risk factors and would benefit from targeted interventions.

  15. Intergenerational reduction in Helicobacter pylori prevalence is similar between different ethnic groups living in a Western city

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.J. den Hollander (Wouter); I.L. Holster (Ingrid); B. Van Gilst (Bianca); A.J. van Vuuren (Hanneke); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); A. Hofman (Albert); G.I. Perez; E.J. Kuipers (Ernst); H.A. Moll (Henriëtte); M.J. Blaser (Martin J.)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractObjective Helicobacter pylori colonisation rates in childhood have declined in Western populations, but it is unknown whether this trend is similar in children of non-Western ethnic backgrounds, born in a Western country. We aimed to identify H. pylori status in children, and determine m

  16. A review of research on smoking behavior in three demographic groups of veterans: women, racial/ethnic minorities, and sexual orientation minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, Andrea H; Esan, Hannah; Hunt, Marcia G; Hoff, Rani A

    2016-05-01

    Veterans comprise a large segment of the U.S. population and smoke at high rates. One significant way to reduce healthcare costs and improve the health of veterans is to reduce smoking-related illnesses for smokers who have high smoking rates and/or face disproportionate smoking consequences (e.g. women, racial/ethnic minorities, sexual orientation minorities). We reviewed published studies of smoking behavior in three demographic subgroups of veterans - women, racial/ethnic minorities, and sexual orientation minorities - to synthesize current knowledge and identify areas in need of more research. A MEDLINE search identified papers on smoking and veterans published through 31 December 2014. Twenty-five studies were identified that focused on gender (n = 17), race/ethnicity (n = 6), or sexual orientation (n = 2). Female and sexual orientation minority veterans reported higher rates of smoking than non-veteran women and sexual orientation majority veterans, respectively. Veterans appeared to be offered VA smoking cessation services equally by gender and race. Few studies examined smoking behavior by race/ethnicity or sexual orientation. Little information was identified examining the outcomes of specific smoking treatments for any group. There is a need for more research on all aspects of smoking and quit behavior for women, racial/ethnic minorities, and sexual orientation minority veterans. The high rates of smoking by these groups of veterans suggest that they may benefit from motivational interventions aimed at increasing quit attempts and longer and more intense treatments to maximize outcomes. Learning more about these veterans can help reduce costs for those who experience greater consequences of smoking.

  17. Predicting the start and maximum amplitude of solar cycle 24 using similar phases and a cycle grouping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia-Long Wang; Wei-Guo Zong; Gui-Ming Le; Hai-Juan Zhao; Yun-Qiu Tang; Yang Zhang

    2009-01-01

    We find that the solar cycles 9, 11, and 20 are similar to cycle 23 in their respective descending phases. Using this similarity and the observed data of smoothed monthly mean sunspot numbers (SMSNs) available for the descending phase of cycle 23, we make a date calibration for the average time sequence made of the three descending phases of the three cycles, and predict the start of March or April 2008 for cycle 24. For the three cycles, we also find a linear correlation of the length of the descending phase of a cycle with the difference between the maximum epoch of this cycle and that of its next cycle.Using this relationship along with the known relationship between the rise-time and the maximum amplitude of a slowly rising solar cycle, we predict the maximum SMSN of cycle 24 of 100.2±7.5 to appear during the period from May to October 2012.

  18. DNA fingerprinting and anastomosis grouping reveal similar genetic diversity in Rhizoctonia species infecting turfgrasses in the transition zone of USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhizoctonia blight (sensu lato) is a common and serious disease of many turfgrass species. The most widespread causal agent, R. solani, consists of several genetically different subpopulations. Though hyphal anastomosis reactions have been used to group Rhizoctonia species, they are time consuming a...

  19. Localization-Free Detection of Replica Node Attacks in Wireless Sensor Networks Using Similarity Estimation with Group Deployment Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Chao; Yang, Lijun; Wu, Meng

    2017-01-01

    Due to the unattended nature and poor security guarantee of the wireless sensor networks (WSNs), adversaries can easily make replicas of compromised nodes, and place them throughout the network to launch various types of attacks. Such an attack is dangerous because it enables the adversaries to control large numbers of nodes and extend the damage of attacks to most of the network with quite limited cost. To stop the node replica attack, we propose a location similarity-based detection scheme using deployment knowledge. Compared with prior solutions, our scheme provides extra functionalities that prevent replicas from generating false location claims without deploying resource-consuming localization techniques on the resource-constraint sensor nodes. We evaluate the security performance of our proposal under different attack strategies through heuristic analysis, and show that our scheme achieves secure and robust replica detection by increasing the cost of node replication. Additionally, we evaluate the impact of network environment on the proposed scheme through theoretic analysis and simulation experiments, and indicate that our scheme achieves effectiveness and efficiency with substantially lower communication, computational, and storage overhead than prior works under different situations and attack strategies. PMID:28098846

  20. Localization-Free Detection of Replica Node Attacks in Wireless Sensor Networks Using Similarity Estimation with Group Deployment Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Chao; Yang, Lijun; Wu, Meng

    2017-01-15

    Due to the unattended nature and poor security guarantee of the wireless sensor networks (WSNs), adversaries can easily make replicas of compromised nodes, and place them throughout the network to launch various types of attacks. Such an attack is dangerous because it enables the adversaries to control large numbers of nodes and extend the damage of attacks to most of the network with quite limited cost. To stop the node replica attack, we propose a location similarity-based detection scheme using deployment knowledge. Compared with prior solutions, our scheme provides extra functionalities that prevent replicas from generating false location claims without deploying resource-consuming localization techniques on the resource-constraint sensor nodes. We evaluate the security performance of our proposal under different attack strategies through heuristic analysis, and show that our scheme achieves secure and robust replica detection by increasing the cost of node replication. Additionally, we evaluate the impact of network environment on the proposed scheme through theoretic analysis and simulation experiments, and indicate that our scheme achieves effectiveness and efficiency with substantially lower communication, computational, and storage overhead than prior works under different situations and attack strategies.

  1. Demographic and Indication-Specific Characteristics Have Limited Association With Social Network Engagement: Evidence From 24,954 Members of Four Health Care Support Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Background Digital health social networks (DHSNs) are widespread, and the consensus is that they contribute to wellness by offering social support and knowledge sharing. The success of a DHSN is based on the number of participants and their consistent creation of externalities through the generation of new content. To promote network growth, it would be helpful to identify characteristics of superusers or actors who create value by generating positive network externalities. Objective The aim of the study was to investigate the feasibility of developing predictive models that identify potential superusers in real time. This study examined associations between posting behavior, 4 demographic variables, and 20 indication-specific variables. Methods Data were extracted from the custom structured query language (SQL) databases of 4 digital health behavior change interventions with DHSNs. Of these, 2 were designed to assist in the treatment of addictions (problem drinking and smoking cessation), and 2 for mental health (depressive disorder, panic disorder). To analyze posting behavior, 10 models were developed, and negative binomial regressions were conducted to examine associations between number of posts, and demographic and indication-specific variables. Results The DHSNs varied in number of days active (3658-5210), number of registrants (5049-52,396), number of actors (1085-8452), and number of posts (16,231-521,997). In the sample, all 10 models had low R2 values (.013-.086) with limited statistically significant demographic and indication-specific variables. Conclusions Very few variables were associated with social network engagement. Although some variables were statistically significant, they did not appear to be practically significant. Based on the large number of study participants, variation in DHSN theme, and extensive time-period, we did not find strong evidence that demographic characteristics or indication severity sufficiently explain the variability in

  2. Food insecurity and socio-demographic characteristics in two UK ethnic groups: an analysis of women in the Born in Bradford cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Madeleine; Uphoff, Eleonora P; Stewart-Knox, Barbara; Small, Neil; Doherty, Bob; Pickett, Kate E

    2017-03-28

    The use of foodbanks has risen sharply in the UK; however, the epidemiology of UK food insecurity is undeveloped. This study contributes to the field by analysing socio-demographic risk factors for food insecurity in a female, ethnically diverse population. Data from the Born in Bradford (BiB) cohort were matched with data on food insecurity from the nested BiB1000 study (N = 1280). Logistic regression was used to model food insecurity in relation to ethnicity and socio-demographic factors. Food insecurity, reported by 13.98% of the sample, was more likely among White British than Pakistani women (crude Odds Ratio (OR) 1.94, 95% CI: 1.37; 2.74, adjusted OR 2.37, 95% CI: 1.57; 3.59). In fully adjusted analyses, food insecurity was associated with a range of socio-economic measures, particularly the receipt of mean-tested benefits (adjusted OR 2.11, 95% CI: 1.41; 3.15) and perception of financial insecurity (adjusted OR 8.91, 95% CI: 4.14; 19.16 for finding it difficult/very difficult compared to living comfortably). The finding that food insecurity prevalence may be higher than previously thought and that food insecurity is highly associated with socio-economic status, notably benefit receipt, is a cause for concern necessitating an urgent policy response.

  3. Average correlation clustering algorithm (ACCA) for grouping of co-regulated genes with similar pattern of variation in their expression values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Anindya; De, Rajat K

    2010-08-01

    Distance based clustering algorithms can group genes that show similar expression values under multiple experimental conditions. They are unable to identify a group of genes that have similar pattern of variation in their expression values. Previously we developed an algorithm called divisive correlation clustering algorithm (DCCA) to tackle this situation, which is based on the concept of correlation clustering. But this algorithm may also fail for certain cases. In order to overcome these situations, we propose a new clustering algorithm, called average correlation clustering algorithm (ACCA), which is able to produce better clustering solution than that produced by some others. ACCA is able to find groups of genes having more common transcription factors and similar pattern of variation in their expression values. Moreover, ACCA is more efficient than DCCA with respect to the time of execution. Like DCCA, we use the concept of correlation clustering concept introduced by Bansal et al. ACCA uses the correlation matrix in such a way that all genes in a cluster have the highest average correlation values with the genes in that cluster. We have applied ACCA and some well-known conventional methods including DCCA to two artificial and nine gene expression datasets, and compared the performance of the algorithms. The clustering results of ACCA are found to be more significantly relevant to the biological annotations than those of the other methods. Analysis of the results show the superiority of ACCA over some others in determining a group of genes having more common transcription factors and with similar pattern of variation in their expression profiles. Availability of the software: The software has been developed using C and Visual Basic languages, and can be executed on the Microsoft Windows platforms. The software may be downloaded as a zip file from http://www.isical.ac.in/~rajat. Then it needs to be installed. Two word files (included in the zip file) need to

  4. Analysis and comparison. Bd. 1 - Longlife. Report on the analysis of state of technology, administrative and legal procedures, financial situation, demographic needs, similarities and differences in the participating countries Denmark, Germany, Lithuania, Poland and Russia. Formulations and benchmarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rueckert, Klaus (ed.)

    2010-07-01

    Environmental considerations are becoming one of the key features in the design when it comes to constructing modern, sustainable residential buildings. In an effort to streamline procedures and practices, the project Longlife has conducted a comparative review of these among the countries Denmark, Germany, Lithuania, Poland and Russia (associated organizations). The countries involved have shared knowledge and experiences with each other about how their respective building processes operate. These are collated and analysed. There are differences and commonness in the state of technology, administrative and legal procedures, financial situation, demographic needs, and how a 'housing project' functions. With this exercise Longlife has started to ensure that differences across the Baltic Sea Region will be minimised as regards environmentally-friendly residential constructions. This initial comparative stage covers planning, building permit and tendering procedures, practices for developing and operating housing and construction technologies. The report reflects the currently most applicable features of the participating countries' processes. Longlife project partners work in three competence teams to use the special know how and experiences and to cooperate in the public private partnership composition. The report analyses in the competence team 1 - Engineering and building technology, design standards - the engineering and technology standards in the countries Denmark, Germany, Lithuania, Poland and Russia. The report shows for the competence team 2 - Administration procedures, licensing rules, tendering rules, laws - the comparison and investigations of administration procedures, building permit rules, tendering rules and laws in the participating countries. The report provides for competence team 3 - Economical and financial basis - a general and a specific overview about economical and financial issues, sustainability and quality aspects in the

  5. Demographic Data - CENSUS_BLOCKGROUPS_TIGER2011_IN: Census Block Group Areas for Indiana in 2011 (United States Census Bureau, 1:100,000, Polygon Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — CENSUS_BLOCKGROUPS_TIGER2011_IN.SHP is a polygon shapefile that contains 2011 census block group boundaries for the state of Indiana. Census block groups are not...

  6. Building demographic literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crews, K

    1993-01-01

    Students should get in the habit of seeking out the most current projections, estimates, or rates available. Since demographic measures change over time, publications based on the UN's world population projections from 1980 or 1990 may need to be supplemented using the UN's most current, 1992, projections. A 1989 Census Bureau report on the African American Population will not contain data from the 1990 Census or the 1992 Current Population Survey, conducted by the Census Bureau. Some groups collect data with advocacy in mind, as shown by the range of estimates of participants at the 1993 National March on Washington for Lesbian, Gay and Bi Equal Rights and Liberation. The organizers estimated that 1 million people participated; the US Park Police estimated 300,000; and the Washington Blade, a gay newspaper, reported 750,000. A seemingly innocuous choice of phrasing can change the meaning of demographic data. One commonly misreported concept is population doubling time which is not a prediction, but rather a concept designed to accent how fast a population is growing at the present time. At current rates, the population of India would double in size in 34 years, but it is more likely that growth rates will begin to slow down somewhat during that time. Older students may be encouraged to examine the assumptions behind population projections. The UN's long-range projection that world population will grow to 10 billion by 2050 is based on certain assumption about fertility and mortality during the period. With regard to the fastest growing US minority, Hispanics added the largest number of people to the US population during the 1980s, but Asians had the largest percent increase. The time to initiate demographic literacy is in the early grades of school.

  7. Correlates of self-reported offending in children with a first police contact from distinct socio-demographic and ethnic groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geluk Charlotte

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aims to identify risk factors for level of offending among childhood offenders from different socio-economic status (SES neighborhoods and ethnic origins. Method Three groups of childhood first time police arrestees were studied using standardized instruments for individual and parental characteristics: native Dutch offenders from moderate to high SES neighborhoods, native Dutch offenders from low SES neighborhoods, and offenders of non-Western origin from low SES neighborhoods. Results All subgroups showed high rates of externalizing disorders (27.2% to 41.8% and familial difficulties (25.7% to 50.5%. Few differences between neighborhoods were found in the prevalence and impact of risk factors. However, the impact of some family risk factors on offending seemed stronger in the low SES groups. Regarding ethnical differences, family risk factors were more prevalent among non-Western childhood offenders. However, the association of these factors with level of offending seemed lower in the non-Western low SES group, while the association of some individual risk factors were stronger in the non-Western low SES group. Turning to the independent correlation of risk factors within each of the groups, in the Dutch moderate to high SES group, 23.1% of the variance in level of offending was explained by ADHD and behavioral problems; in the Dutch low SES group, 29.0% of the variance was explained by behavioral problems and proactive aggression; and in the non-Western low SES group, 41.2% of the variance was explained by substance use, sensation seeking, behavioral peer problems, and parental mental health problems. Conclusions Thereby, the study indicates few neighborhood differences in the impact of individual and parental risk factors on offending, while individual and parental risk factors may differ between ethnic groups.

  8. State and socio-demographic group variation in out-of-pocket expenditure, borrowings and Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY programme use for birth deliveries in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modugu Hanimi Reddy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High out-of-pocket-expenditure (OOPE deters families from seeking skilled/institutional care. ‘Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY, a conditional cash transfer programme launched in 2005 to mitigate OOPE and to promote institutional deliveries among the poor, is part of Government of India’s efforts to achieve Millennium Development Goals (MDGs 4 and 5. The objective of this study is to estimate variations in OOPE for normal/caesarean-section deliveries, JSY-programme use and delivery associated borrowings - by states and union territories, and socio-demographic profiling of families, in India. Methods Secondary analysis of data from the District Level Household Survey (DLHS-3, 2007–08. Mean and median OOPE, percentage use of JSY and percentage of families needing to borrow money to pay for delivery associated expenditure was estimated for institutional and home deliveries. Results Half (52% of all deliveries in India occurred at home in 2007/08. OOPE for women having institutional deliveries remained high, with considerable variation between states and union territories. Mean OOPE (SD of a normal delivery in public and private institution respectively in India were Rs. 1,624 and Rs. 4,458 and for a caesarean-section it was Rs. 5,935 and Rs. 14,276 respectively. There was considerable state-level variation in use of the JSY programme for normal deliveries (15% nationally; ranging from 0% in Goa to 43% in Madhya Pradesh and the percentage of families having to borrow money to pay for a caesarean-section in a private institution (47% nationally; ranging from 7% in Goa to 69% in Bihar. Increased literacy and wealth were associated with a higher likelihood of an institutional delivery, higher OOPE but no major variations in use of the JSY. Conclusions Our study highlights the ongoing high OOPE and impoverishing impact of institutional care for deliveries in India. Supporting families in financial planning for maternity care

  9. Lie Group Analysis and Similarity Solutions for Mixed Convection Boundary Layers in the Stagnation-Point Flow toward a Stretching Vertical Sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkhosh Seddighi Chaharborj

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An analysis for the mixed convection boundary layers in the stagnation-point flow toward a stretching vertical sheet is carried out via symmetry analysis. By employing Lie group method to the given system of nonlinear partial differential equations, we can obtain information about the invariants and symmetries of these equations. This information can be used to determine the similarity variables that will reduce the number of independent variables in the system. The transformed ordinary differential equations are solved numerically for some values of the parameters involved using fifth-order Improved Runge-Kutta Method (IRK5 coupled with shooting method. The features of the flow and heat transfer characteristics are analyzed and discussed in detail. Both cases of assisting and opposing flows are considered. This paper' results in comparison with known results are excellent.

  10. Web Similarity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, A.R.; Vitányi, P.M.B.

    2015-01-01

    Normalized web distance (NWD) is a similarity or normalized semantic distance based on the World Wide Web or any other large electronic database, for instance Wikipedia, and a search engine that returns reliable aggregate page counts. For sets of search terms the NWD gives a similarity on a scale fr

  11. Major dietary patterns in relation to demographic and socio-economic status and food insecurity in two Iranian ethnic groups living in Urmia, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezazadeh, Arezoo; Omidvar, Nasrin; Eini-Zinab, Hassan; Ghazi-Tabatabaie, Mahmoud; Majdzadeh, Reza; Ghavamzadeh, Saeid; Nouri-Saeidlou, Sakineh

    2016-12-01

    To identify major dietary patterns and their association with socio-economic status (SES) and food insecurity in two major ethnic groups living in Urmia, north-west Iran. A cross-sectional study. All four geographical zones of Urmia city. Participants (n 723; 427 women and 296 men), aged 20-64 years, from two ethnic groups (445 Azeri Turks and 278 Kurds). Three major dietary patterns were extracted: 'Traditional High SES' (THS), 'Traditional Low SES' (TLS) and 'Transitional'. After adjusting for confounders, the THS pattern was positively associated with education level and negatively associated with moderate or severe food insecurity in Azeri Turks; whereas, among Kurds, it was more common in women and positively associated with age. The TLS pattern was more common among men and negatively associated with educational level and all levels of food insecurity in Azeris; while, among Kurds, it was more common among men, positively associated with being married and negatively associated with household income/capita. The 'Transitional' pattern was positively associated with being employed and negatively associated with age and all levels of food insecurity in Azeris; while, among Kurds, it was more common among men and negatively associated with age, being married and physical activity level. Findings suggest that household SES and food insecurity are associated with detrimental dietary patterns and that this effect may be stronger than cultural and ethnic background. These patterns differ by age and gender. Therefore, such characteristics should be considered in planning and formulating diet-related policies and programmes.

  12. Measure of Node Similarity in Multilayer Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Mollgaard, Anders; Dammeyer, Jesper; Jensen, Mogens H; Lehmann, Sune; Mathiesen, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    The weight of links in a network is often related to the similarity of the nodes. Here, we introduce a simple tunable measure for analysing the similarity of nodes across different link weights. In particular, we use the measure to analyze homophily in a group of 659 freshman students at a large university. Our analysis is based on data obtained using smartphones equipped with custom data collection software, complemented by questionnaire-based data. The network of social contacts is represented as a weighted multilayer network constructed from different channels of telecommunication as well as data on face-to-face contacts. We find that even strongly connected individuals are not more similar with respect to basic personality traits than randomly chosen pairs of individuals. In contrast, several socio-demographics variables have a significant degree of similarity. We further observe that similarity might be present in one layer of the multilayer network and simultaneously be absent in the other layers. For a...

  13. Genetic variation and demographic history of the Haplochromis laparogramma group of Lake Victoria-An analysis based on SINEs and mitochondrial DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mzighani, Semvua I; Nikaido, Masato; Takeda, Miyuki; Seehausen, Ole; Budeba, Yohana L; Ngatunga, Benjamin P; Katunzi, Egid F B; Aibara, Mitsuto; Mizoiri, Shinji; Sato, Tetsu; Tachida, Hidenori; Okada, Norihiro

    2010-01-15

    More than 500 endemic haplochromine cichlid species inhabit Lake Victoria. This striking species diversity is a classical example of recent explosive adaptive radiation thought to have happened within the last approximately 15,000 years. In this study, we examined the population structure and historical demography of 3 pelagic haplochromine cichlid species that resemble in morphology and have similar niche, Haplochromis (Yssichromis) laparogramma, Haplochromis (Y.) pyrrhocephalus, and Haplochromis (Y.) sp. "glaucocephalus". We investigated the sequences of the mitochondrial DNA control region and the insertion patterns of short interspersed elements (SINEs) of 759 individuals. We show that sympatric forms are genetically differentiated in 4 of 6 cases, but we also found apparent weakening of the genetic differentiation in areas with turbid water. We estimated the timings of population expansion and species divergence to coincide with the refilling of the lake at the Pleistocene/Holocene boundary. We also found that estimates can be altered significantly by the choice of the shape of the molecular clock. If we employ the nonlinear clock model of evolutionary rates in which the rates are higher towards the recent, the population expansion was dated at around the event of desiccation of the lake ca. 17,000 YBP. Thus, we succeeded in clarifying the species and population structure of closely related Lake Victoria cichlids and in showing the importance of applying appropriate clock calibrations in elucidating recent evolutionary events.

  14. Socio-demographic predictors and reasons for vitamin and/or mineral food supplement use in a group of outpatients in Skopje.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mileva-Peceva, R; Zafirova-Ivanovska, B; Milev, M; Bogdanovska, A; Pawlak, R

    2011-01-01

    Vitamins and/or mineral food supplements (VMS) are mono- or multi-component products prepared in different pharmaceutical forms and categorized as food supplements. Numerous researchers have investigated the epidemiological predictors of use of VMS in population. Data of this kind in our setting are limited. This survey aimed to gain information on the prevalence of use, certain sociodemographic predictors and reasons for VMS use in a group of 256 outpatients in Skopje. This study was designed as an open-ended, cross-sectional survey. Data on VMS use were collected by survey method with a specially designed questionnaire as an instrument for this research. Appropriate statistical tests were used to analyse the data. Data from 256 outpatients from Skopje were analysed. Of them, one hundred and five (41.02%) reported using VMS. Female outpatients (p<0.01) and participants of Macedonian ethnicity (p<0.01), with a higher educational level (p<0.01) and those having their own income (p<0.05) reported significantly higher consumption of VMS. We found a statistically significant difference between the group of users and non-users of VMS regarding smoking status (p<0.05), alcohol consumption (p<0.05) and presence of a chronic disease (p<0.01). Physicians, magazines and friends were the most common source of information on VMS while maintaining good health and prevention of disease was the most common reasons for the use of these products. Only 63% of the users had disclosed the information on taking VMS to their physicians. This research provided an insight into VMS in our setting. Predictors on the use of VMS are of interest since these products contribute to total intake of vitamins and minerals in the population and they represent a source of valuable information when planning public health activities.

  15. Group similarity based algorithm for network community structure detection%基于簇相似度的网络社团结构探测算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁超; 柴毅

    2012-01-01

    Community structure has an important influence on the structural and dynamic characteristics of the complex system. In the present study, a group similarity model is proposed for the measurement of similarity between two communities. So it can help us understand the mechanism of inter action between these communities. Moreover, based on this model, a hierarchical clustering based algorithm for network community structure detection is put forward. By this algorithm, one pair of communities with the largest similarity is merged in each iteration. And then an evaluation function is adopted for choosing the optimal partition. The algorithm gives a higher performance than many state-of-the-art community detection algorithms when tested on a series of real-world and synthetic networks. Especially, it performs better when the edge density of the network is high.%社团结构对复杂系统的结构特性和动力学特性有重要影响. 提出了一个度量社团相似度的模型, 称为簇相似度. 该模型能够度量两个社团的相似度大小, 为研究社团间的作用机制提供帮助. 而且基于该模型, 设计了一个社团划分算法. 算法采用层次聚类的思想, 每次合并两个相似度最大的社团, 并通过一个评价函数选择最优社团划分. 数值实验以及与CNM, GN, EigenMod等主流算法做比较, 表明本算法的精度和效率都比较高, 尤其对于边密度较高的网络, 性能非常理想.

  16. Ab Initio Description of Open-Shell Nuclei: Merging No-Core Shell Model and In-Medium Similarity Renormalization Group

    CERN Document Server

    Gebrerufael, Eskendr; Hergert, Heiko; Roth, Robert

    2016-01-01

    We merge two successful ab initio nuclear-structure methods, the no-core shell model (NCSM) and the multi-reference in-medium similarity renormalization group (IM-SRG) to define a new many-body approach for the comprehensive description of ground and excited states of closed and open-shell nuclei. Building on the key advantages of the two methods---the decoupling of excitations at the many-body level in the IM-SRG and the access to arbitrary nuclei, eigenstates, and observables in the NCSM---their combination enables fully converged no-core calculations for an unprecedented range of nuclei and observables at moderate computational cost. We present applications in the carbon and oxygen isotopic chains, where conventional NCSM calculations are still feasible and provide an important benchmark. The efficiency and rapid convergence of the new approach make it ideally suited for ab initio studies of the complete spectroscopy of nuclei up into the medium-mass regime.

  17. Ab Initio Description of Open-Shell Nuclei: Merging No-Core Shell Model and In-Medium Similarity Renormalization Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebrerufael, Eskendr; Vobig, Klaus; Hergert, Heiko; Roth, Robert

    2017-04-14

    We merge two successful ab initio nuclear-structure methods, the no-core shell model (NCSM) and the multireference in-medium similarity renormalization group (IM-SRG) to define a new many-body approach for the comprehensive description of ground and excited states of closed and open-shell nuclei. Building on the key advantages of the two methods-the decoupling of excitations at the many-body level in the IM-SRG and the access to arbitrary nuclei, eigenstates, and observables in the NCSM-their combination enables fully converged no-core calculations for an unprecedented range of nuclei and observables at moderate computational cost. We present applications in the carbon and oxygen isotopic chains, where conventional NCSM calculations are still feasible and provide an important benchmark. The efficiency and rapid convergence of the new approach make it ideally suited for ab initio studies of the complete spectroscopy of nuclei up into the medium-mass regime.

  18. Similarity Scaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnack, Dalton D.

    In Lecture 10, we introduced a non-dimensional parameter called the Lundquist number, denoted by S. This is just one of many non-dimensional parameters that can appear in the formulations of both hydrodynamics and MHD. These generally express the ratio of the time scale associated with some dissipative process to the time scale associated with either wave propagation or transport by flow. These are important because they define regions in parameter space that separate flows with different physical characteristics. All flows that have the same non-dimensional parameters behave in the same way. This property is called similarity scaling.

  19. The Whole Is Equal to the Sum of Its Parts: A Probabilistic Model of Grouping by Proximity and Similarity in Regular Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubovy, Michael; van den Berg, Martin

    2008-01-01

    The authors investigated whether the gestalt grouping principles can be quantified and whether the conjoint effects of two grouping principles operating at the same time on the same stimuli differ from the sum of their individual effects. After reviewing earlier attempts to discover how grouping principles interact, they developed a probabilistic…

  20. Characterization of a Group B Streptococcus infection based on the demographics, serotypes, antimicrobial susceptibility and genotypes of selected isolates from sterile and non-sterile isolation sites in three major hospitals in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhaimi, Mohd E S; Desa, Mohd N M; Eskandarian, Narges; Pillay, Stella G; Ismail, Zalina; Neela, Vasantha K; Masri, Siti N; Nordin, Syafinaz A

    The purpose of this study is to characterize GBS isolates that were collected from three major hospitals in a densely populated area of Klang Valley for their demographics, serotypes, antibiotic susceptibility patterns and genetic background. Sixty GBS isolates from sterile and non-sterile samples in three major hospitals in the Klang Valley area of Malaysia were collected by convenience sampling from 2012 until March 2014. These isolates were studied for their antimicrobial susceptibilities, serotypes and genotypes. Patients' demographic data and clinical information were collected from lab request forms. Diabetes mellitus was the only underlying condition (7 patients, 23.3%); the remaining samples were from patients who were immunocompromised due to medications. Fifty-nine (98%) isolates were sensitive to penicillin, while 78.3% and 88.3% of the isolates were sensitive to erythromycin and clindamycin, respectively. Serotype Ia was the most common serotype (n=27, 45%), followed by serotype III (n=10, 16.7%), V (n=9, 15%), VI (n=8, 13.3%), VIII (n=2, 3.3%) and VII (n=1, 1.7%). Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) typing showed a diverse genetic pedigree for all isolates, including four major groups that clustered according to geographical location. This preliminary study determines the prevalence of limited common serotypes and antimicrobial resistance in distinct GBS isolates. Nonetheless, the RAPD clustering pattern suggests a close genetic lineage of the GBS isolates based on their isolation sites and location of hospitals. Copyright © 2016 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Democratic constraints on demographic policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigsby, J S

    1984-01-01

    The discussion compares the population policies adopted in Sweden during the 1930s to raise fertiity and the policies considered in the US during the 1970s in response to the high fertility experienced in the 1950s. Both sets of policies recommended increased availability of birth control, more liberal abortion laws, and greater employment opportunities for women. It becomes evident that the constraints imposed by a democratic system of government translate into policy recommendations that place individual freedom of choice and equal opportunity for all citizens as higher goals than any specific demographic target. Consequently, the population commissions of Sweden and the US made similar suggestions on how to resolve their opposite demographic problems. The demographic situations in the 2 nations were antipodal, and the countries also had very different social climates. This additional disparity was insufficient to counterbalance the apparently overwhelming influence of the democratic political systems in making virtually identical policy recommendations. Yet, the contrasting social climates of Sweden in 1935 and the US in 1970-72 may explain the different reactions each commission received. In terms of the responses by both citizens and government officials to the commissions' reports, the Swedish commission was more successful. Practically all of their recommendations were enthusiastically received and quickly adopted by the Swedish Riksdag. Yet, when the criterion for success becomes whether or not a demographic target was met, it increased in the 1940s and then dropped again while the same social policies were in effect. Even before the US commission began its study, fertility in the US had fallen and continues to remain low. These findings suggest that commissions in democratic countries will most likely never recommend dramatic measures in population policy. Thus, it is questionable whether such commissions in democratic nations will totally fulfill the

  2. Laboratory Demographics Lookup Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This website provides demographic information about laboratories, including CLIA number, facility name and address, where the laboratory testing is performed, the...

  3. High similarity of Trypanosoma cruzi kDNA genetic profiles detected by LSSP-PCR within family groups in an endemic area of Chagas disease in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Maria Alkmim-Oliveira

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Determining the genetic similarities among Trypanosoma cruzi populations isolated from different hosts and vectors is very important to clarify the epidemiology of Chagas disease. Methods An epidemiological study was conducted in a Brazilian endemic area for Chagas disease, including 76 chronic chagasic individuals (96.1% with an indeterminate form; 46.1% with positive hemoculture. Results T. cruzi I (TcI was isolated from one child and TcII was found in the remaining (97.1% subjects. Low-stringency single-specific-primer-polymerase chain reaction (LSSP-PCR showed high heterogeneity among TcII populations (46% of shared bands; however, high similarities (80-100% among pairs of mothers/children, siblings, or cousins were detected. Conclusions LSSP-PCR showed potential for identifying similar parasite populations among individuals with close kinship in epidemiological studies of Chagas disease.

  4. DEMOGRAPHIC SECURITY: THEORY, METHODOLOGY, EVALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail V. Karmanov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the theoretical aspects of demographic security. Reviewed and analyzed the point of view of various scholars to the definition of demographic security. The main directions of statistical analysis of demographic security.

  5. Similar group mean scores, but large individual variations, in patient-relevant outcomes over 2 years in meniscectomized subjects with and without radiographic knee osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paradowski, Przemyslaw T; Englund, Martin; Roos, Ewa M.;

    2004-01-01

    or individual levels. Such information is needed for identification of study cohorts and planning of clinical trials. The aim of the study was, thus, to assess the variation in pain and function on group and individual level over 2 years in previously meniscectomized individuals with and without radiographic...

  6. PREVALENCE OF ANEMIA IN PEDIATRIC AGE GROUP PATIENTS AND ITS CO - RELATION WITH SOCIO - DEMOGRAPHIC FACTORS IN PATIENTS PRESENTING AT DEPARTMENT OF PEDIATRICS AT ROHILKHAND MEDICAL COLLEGE AND HOSPITAL, BAREILLLY, U. P.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: About 2 billion people are suffering from iron deficiency anemia. India continues to be one of the countries to have highest prevalence of anemia NFHS 3 estimates reveals the prevalence of anemia to be 73% in children aged 5 - 11 years. Present study was und ertaken to determine the prevalence of anemia in pediatric age group from 6 months to 14 years. Aims and objective: To study prevalence of anemia in pediatric age group patients and its co - relation with socio - demographic factors in patients presenting at p ediatrics department R.M.C.H. Bareilly. MATERIAL METHOD S : Cross sectional study was carried out from July 2013 to December 2014. A total of 215 students (115 boys and 100 girls were studied. Parents of subjects aged less than 8 years and patients aged more than 8 years attendants were interviewed using a pretes ted questionnaire. Blood samples were taken by fingers prick method. Hb estimation was done by cyan - met hemoglobin method using calorimeter. SPSS Version 10.0, proportions were calculated and chi square test was used as a test for significance. RESULTS: Ou t of total 215 subjects, 82 (38% were found anemic. Girls were affected more as comp aired to boys. Prevalence of anemia was maximum in children belonging to lower social classes (100.0% followed by upper - lower (45%, lower middle (26% and upper middle ( 22% and this prevalence of anemia in relation to social class was found to be statistically significant (p<0.001 higher in children of illiterate mothers and working mothers (p<0.001. CONCLUSION: In India major factor responsible for nutritional anemia children is delayed weaning and insufficient semisolid and solid food intake.

  7. Demographic Change and Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haustein, Sonja; Siren, Anu Kristiina; Framke, Elisabeth

    This report is the literature review on demographic changes and transport of Work Package 1 of the EU project CONSOL, “CONcerns and SOLutions – Road Safety in the Ageing Societies” (contract period: 2011-2013). The report is a state-of-the art report that combines current knowledge with new findi...

  8. Measure of Node Similarity in Multilayer Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Mollgaard

    Full Text Available The weight of links in a network is often related to the similarity of the nodes. Here, we introduce a simple tunable measure for analysing the similarity of nodes across different link weights. In particular, we use the measure to analyze homophily in a group of 659 freshman students at a large university. Our analysis is based on data obtained using smartphones equipped with custom data collection software, complemented by questionnaire-based data. The network of social contacts is represented as a weighted multilayer network constructed from different channels of telecommunication as well as data on face-to-face contacts. We find that even strongly connected individuals are not more similar with respect to basic personality traits than randomly chosen pairs of individuals. In contrast, several socio-demographics variables have a significant degree of similarity. We further observe that similarity might be present in one layer of the multilayer network and simultaneously be absent in the other layers. For a variable such as gender, our measure reveals a transition from similarity between nodes connected with links of relatively low weight to dis-similarity for the nodes connected by the strongest links. We finally analyze the overlap between layers in the network for different levels of acquaintanceships.

  9. Measure of Node Similarity in Multilayer Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollgaard, Anders; Zettler, Ingo; Dammeyer, Jesper; Jensen, Mogens H.; Lehmann, Sune; Mathiesen, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    The weight of links in a network is often related to the similarity of the nodes. Here, we introduce a simple tunable measure for analysing the similarity of nodes across different link weights. In particular, we use the measure to analyze homophily in a group of 659 freshman students at a large university. Our analysis is based on data obtained using smartphones equipped with custom data collection software, complemented by questionnaire-based data. The network of social contacts is represented as a weighted multilayer network constructed from different channels of telecommunication as well as data on face-to-face contacts. We find that even strongly connected individuals are not more similar with respect to basic personality traits than randomly chosen pairs of individuals. In contrast, several socio-demographics variables have a significant degree of similarity. We further observe that similarity might be present in one layer of the multilayer network and simultaneously be absent in the other layers. For a variable such as gender, our measure reveals a transition from similarity between nodes connected with links of relatively low weight to dis-similarity for the nodes connected by the strongest links. We finally analyze the overlap between layers in the network for different levels of acquaintanceships. PMID:27300084

  10. Similarities in the structure of the transcriptional repressor AmtR in two different space groups suggest a model for the interaction with GlnK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevvana, Madhumati; Hasselt, Kristin; Grau, Florian C; Burkovski, Andreas; Muller, Yves A

    2017-03-01

    AmtR belongs to the TetR family of transcription regulators and is a global nitrogen regulator that is induced under nitrogen-starvation conditions in Corynebacterium glutamicum. AmtR regulates the expression of transporters and enzymes for the assimilation of ammonium and alternative nitrogen sources, for example urea, amino acids etc. The recognition of operator DNA by homodimeric AmtR is not regulated by small-molecule effectors as in other TetR-family members but by a trimeric adenylylated PII-type signal transduction protein named GlnK. The crystal structure of ligand-free AmtR (AmtRorth) has been solved at a resolution of 2.1 Å in space group P21212. Comparison of its quaternary assembly with the previously solved native AmtR structure (PDB entry 5dy1) in a trigonal crystal system (AmtRtri) not only shows how a solvent-content reduction triggers a space-group switch but also suggests a model for how dimeric AmtR might stoichiometrically interact with trimeric adenylylated GlnK.

  11. Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from dental unit waterlines can be divided in two distinct groups, including one displaying phenotypes similar to isolates from cystic fibrosis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam eOuellet

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa displays broad genetic diversity, giving it an astonishing capacity to adapt to a variety of environments and to infect a wide range of hosts. While many P. aeruginosa isolates of various origins have been analyzed, isolates from cystic fibrosis patients have received the most attention. Less is known about the genetic and phenotypic diversity of P. aeruginosa isolates that colonize other environments where flourishing biofilms can be found. In the present study, 29 P. aeruginosa isolates from dental unit waterlines and cystic fibrosis patients were collected and their genetic and phenotypes profiles were compared to determine whether environmental and clinical isolates are related. The isolates were first classified using the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD method. This made it possible to distribute the isolates into one clinical cluster and two environmental clusters. The isolates in the environmental cluster that were genetically closer to the clinical cluster also displayed phenotypes similar to the clinical isolates. The isolates from the second environmental cluster displayed opposite phenotypes, particularly an increased capacity to form biofilms. The isolates in this cluster were also the only ones harboring genes that encoded specific epimerases involved in the synthesis of lipopolysaccharides, which could explain their increased ability to form biofilms. In conclusion, the isolates from the dental unit waterlines could be distributed into two clusters, with some of the environmental isolates resembled the clinical isolates.

  12. Demographic cycles, cohort size, and earnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, M C

    1989-05-01

    This article examines whether position in the demographic cycle is an important factor in determining earnings and earnings growth. Earnings equations for white males are estimated by using March Current Population Survey data. Position in the demographic cycle is captured by including both measures of own cohort size and the size of surrounding cohorts in the estimated earnings equations. Position in the demographic cycle matters. Increases in own cohort size lead to flatter earnings profiles, whereas increases in the size of surrounding cohorts are associated with steeper earnings profiles. The net effect is that those who enter the labor market before or after the peak of the demographic cycle start out with lower earnings but experience faster earnings growth. This pattern is uniform across all schooling groups: high school dropouts, high school graduates, those with some college, and college graduates.

  13. The Macroeconomic Dynamics of Demographic Shocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijdra, B.J.; Ligthart, J.E.

    2004-01-01

    The paper employs an extended Yaari-Blanchard model of overlapping generations to study how the macroeconomy is affected over time by various demographic changes.It is shown that a proportional decline in fertility and death rates has qualitatively similar effects to capital income subsidies; both p

  14. EJSCREEN Version 1, Demographic Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This map service displays demographic data used in EJSCREEN. All demographic data were derived from American Community Survey 2006-2010 estimates. EJSCREEN is an...

  15. Demographic trends in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present note, we present the main features of recent trends in vital family-demographic behavior in Sweden. For this purpose, published indices of marriage, divorce, and childbearing risks by calendar year are updated by adding another two or three years of observation to our series. We demonstrate that the latest trend reversal in Swedish birth rates, which occurred at the end of the 1990s, continued to manifest itself in increasing propensities for childbearing during the early years of the 21st century. The rise pertains to all birth orders. Marriage propensities showed an increase as well, however, to a large extent expressed in a short-term development that was prevalent at the turn of the millennium. The previous long-term trend of rising divorce risks leveled off during the first two years of the new century.

  16. Perceived Similarity, Proactive Adjustment, and Organizational Socialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammeyer-Mueller, John D.; Livingston, Beth A.; Liao, Hui

    2011-01-01

    The present study explores how perceived demographic and attitudinal similarity can influence proactive behavior among organizational newcomers. We propose that newcomers who perceive themselves as similar to their co-workers will be more willing to seek new information or build relationships, which in turn will lead to better long-term…

  17. Demographic Ageing on Croatian Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Nejašmić

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the changes in the population structure of the Croatian islands by age, warns of the degree of ageing, provides spatial differentiation of this process and presents perspective of ageing at the level of settlement. Typing of population ageing is based on scores and has seven types. The total island population in 2011 belongs to the type 5 – very old population. Almost a half of the settlements (out of 303 have been affected by the highest levels of ageing (types 6 and 7. It was found that a quarter of island settlements will become “dead villages” in a foreseeable future; most of them are on small islands but also in the interior of larger islands. These are villages decaying in every respect, in which the way of life, as we know it, veins and goes out. The present ageing villagers are their last residents in most cases. Eve¬rything suggests that demographic recovery of the islands is not possible with the forces in situ. It is important to strike a balance between the needs and opportunities in order to successfully organize life on the islands, both small and large ones, and the fact is that there is a continuing disparity, which is especially profound in small islands. A sensitive and selective approach is needed to overcome the unfavourable demographic trends. Therefore it is necessary to respect the particularities of indi¬vidual islands and island groups in devising development strategy. Solutions to the problems must come of the local and wider community in synergy with relevant professional and scientific institutions. However, if the solutions are not found or measures do not give results, if the islands are left to desorganisation and senilisation, a part of the islands will become a wasteland. With regard to the value of this area whose wealth are people in the first place, this would be an intolerable civilization decline.

  18. [Demographic profile of Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero, I

    1984-04-01

    Sources of demographic data for Venezuela include 11 population censuses conducted between 1873-1981, birth and death registration statistics, and the household sample survey. The average annual rate of population growth increase from 2.8% between 1920-40 to 3-4% thereafter. The population at the 1961 census was 7.52 million. According to preliminary data from the 1981 census, the population of 14.57 million is growing at an annual rate of 2.8%. 41.2% of the population is under 15 years old, implying a huge demand for educational and health services, housing and employment. The dependency rate in 1980 was 81.3% for the country as a whole, 100.4% in rural areas, and 76.0% in urban areas. The young age structure means that the population will continue to grow even if natality rates decline. The crude natality rate was estimated at 47.3/1000 for 1950-55, 36.0 for 1970-75, and 32.9 for 1980-85. Some rural areas still have natality rates of over 47/1000. The total fertility rate declined from 6.5 in 1950-55 to 4.1 in 1980-85. The decline in the natality rate reflects improving quality of life, availability of family planning services, urbanization, and access of women to productive activities and educational centers. The mortality rate was 12.3/1000 in 1950-55, 9.1 in 1960-65, in 1970-75, and has been estimated at 5.5 for 1980-85. Some rural areas have mortality rates of 8.1. The infant mortality rate was 50.2/1000 in 1971 and 34.3 in 1980. Life expectancy at birth is about 69 years. During the 1920s, Venezuela unerwent expansion in infrastructure and technological utilization, generating rapid urbanization. 39.2% of the population was urban in 1941, compared to 78.8% in 1980. The significance of urbanization in Venezuela is due to the rapidity as well as the diffusion of the process. The household sample survey for the 2nd half of 1980 indicated a total of 8.16 million employed and an activity rate of 32.1% overall, 46.4% for males and 17.7% for females. The

  19. Demographic Trends: Impact on Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Sylvia N. Y.; Cheah, Horn Mun

    2010-01-01

    Background: Singapore is experiencing great demographic change. These demographic trends show fewer young people and declining birth rates, greater longevity for ageing generations and an increase in the number of non-Singaporean residents. Statistics also show that more than half of the total population increase in the last decades was…

  20. Solitary expression of CD7 among T-cell antigens in acute myeloid leukemia: identification of a group of patients with similar T-cell receptor beta and delta rearrangements and course of disease suggestive of poor prognosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, A W; Hokland, M; Jørgensen, H

    1991-01-01

    to the French-American-British type M4, and four were under the age of 40. Despite intensive chemotherapy, four never obtained a complete remission and the fifth died of relapse after an allogenic bone marrow transplantation. While 12 randomly selected T-cell antigen negative AML patients showed only few....... These data suggest that the solitary presence of CD7 among T-cell antigens in otherwise clearcut AML cases identifies a group of patients with similarities in antigen receptor gene configuration as well as outcome. Udgivelsesdato: 1991-Sep-1...

  1. 区间犹豫模糊三角相似度及其多属性群决策%Interval-valued hesitant fuzzy triangle similarity and its application in multi-attribute group decision making

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金飞飞; 裴利丹; 陈华友; 周礼刚

    2015-01-01

    构建了区间犹豫模糊三角相似度公式,并且研究了区间犹豫模糊环境下属性权重信息完全未知的多属性群决策方法。首先基于正弦三角函数构造了区间犹豫模糊三角相似度公式,并证明其满足区间犹豫模糊相似度公理化定义的四个条件;接着给出了区间犹豫模糊交叉熵的公理性定义,同时研究了区间犹豫模糊相似度和区间犹豫模糊交叉熵的关系;最后基于区间犹豫模糊三角相似度,提出了在属性权重信息完全未知条件下的区间犹豫模糊多属性群决策方法,并用实例验证该方法的可行性和有效性。%Interval-valued hesitant fuzzy triangle similarity is constructed, and investigate the multi-attribute group decision making method with attribute weight information is completely unknown under the interval-valued hesitant fuzzy environ-ment. Based on the sine triangle function, the interval-valued hesitant fuzzy triangle similarity formula is developed, and it proves that the interval-valued hesitant fuzzy triangle similarity satisfies four axiomatic requirements of interval-valued hesitant fuzzy similarity. The axiomatic definition of cross-entropy for interval-valued hesitant fuzzy sets is presented, and the relationships between interval-valued hesitant fuzzy similarity measures and interval-valued hesitant fuzzy cross-entropy is studied. According to the interval-valued hesitant fuzzy triangle similarity, a new method for interval-valued hesitant fuzzy multi-attribute group decision making problems with completely unknown attribute weight information is proposed, and an illustrative example is given to demonstrate its practicality and effectiveness.

  2. Demographic Estimation from Face Images: Human vs. Machine Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hu; Otto, Charles; Liu, Xiaoming; Jain, Anil K

    2015-06-01

    Demographic estimation entails automatic estimation of age, gender and race of a person from his face image, which has many potential applications ranging from forensics to social media. Automatic demographic estimation, particularly age estimation, remains a challenging problem because persons belonging to the same demographic group can be vastly different in their facial appearances due to intrinsic and extrinsic factors. In this paper, we present a generic framework for automatic demographic (age, gender and race) estimation. Given a face image, we first extract demographic informative features via a boosting algorithm, and then employ a hierarchical approach consisting of between-group classification, and within-group regression. Quality assessment is also developed to identify low-quality face images that are difficult to obtain reliable demographic estimates. Experimental results on a diverse set of face image databases, FG-NET (1K images), FERET (3K images), MORPH II (75K images), PCSO (100K images), and a subset of LFW (4K images), show that the proposed approach has superior performance compared to the state of the art. Finally, we use crowdsourcing to study the human perception ability of estimating demographics from face images. A side-by-side comparison of the demographic estimates from crowdsourced data and the proposed algorithm provides a number of insights into this challenging problem.

  3. Social axioms among Romanians: Structure and demographic differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guan, Yanjun

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Social axioms are beliefs about the material, social and spiritual world, assessing what the person regards as true. Following a functionalist orientation, we propose that social axioms serve as a reflection of social reality and provide guidance for living to people in different demographic groups. This study investigated the dimensionality of a measure of such beliefs, the Social Axioms Survey (SAS, and demographic differences in the resulting factor scores for groups of Romanians. Results of exploratory factor analyses revealed a new five-factor structure, with four factors remarkably similar to those derived from a pan-cultural solution of 40 cultural groups (Leung & Bond, 2004. A distinctive factor named “Interpersonal Relations” replaced the “Social Complexity” factor found in previous research, and represented beliefs about the impact of interpersonal relations on life events and how to maintain good relations with others. Canonical correlation revealed that people of older age, lower education, and lower income endorsed stronger beliefs in “Social Cynicism” and “Religiosity”. After controlling for the effects of age, education, and income, females reported stronger endorsement of the “Religiosity”, “Interpersonal Relations”, and “Fate Control” dimensions than males; widowed participants scored significantly higher than married, divorced and unmarried groups on both “Religiosity” and “Fate Control”. By reflecting on the characteristics of Romanian society, we discussed these findings in terms of the life experience and social status of different social groups. Based on this analysis, questions were proposed for future research.

  4. Demographic Trends (1970-2010) for Coastal Geographies

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Demographic Trends (1970-2010) were derived from Census Block Group Data for 13 different coastal geographies. For a full listing of the geographies available,...

  5. EJSCREEN Demographic Indicators 2016 Public

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EJSCREEN uses demographic factors as very general indicators of a community's potential susceptibility to the types of environmental factors included in this...

  6. EJSCREEN Demographic Indicators 2015 Internal

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EJSCREEN uses demographic factors as very general indicators of a community's potential susceptibility to the types of environmental factors included in this...

  7. EJSCREEN Demographic Indicators 2015 Public

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EJSCREEN uses demographic factors as very general indicators of a community's potential susceptibility to the types of environmental factors included in this...

  8. DEMOGRAPHIC VULNERABILITIES IN TECUCI PLAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian Adrian ŞORCARU

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The study focuses on analyzing and mapping 8 indicators considered to best reflect the demographic vulnerability in Tecuci Plain in the year 2010 and proposes a model of aggregation which finally allows us to distinguish three major types of demographic vulnerability (low, medium and high. Mapping the final values also shows significant disparities in the territorial administrative units that broadly overlap the plain, the most vulnerable being Tecuci city and the peripheral communes, towards Vrancea and Vaslui Counties.

  9. Demographic-Based Content Analysis of Web-Based Health-Related Social Media

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Background An increasing number of patients from diverse demographic groups share and search for health-related information on Web-based social media. However, little is known about the content of the posted information with respect to the users’ demographics. Objective The aims of this study were to analyze the content of Web-based health-related social media based on users’ demographics to identify which health topics are discussed in which social media by which demographic groups and to he...

  10. Galaxies in x-ray selected clusters and groups in Dark Energy Survey Data I: Stellar mass growth of bright central galaxies since Z similar to 1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Y.; Miller, C.; McKay, T.; Rooney, P.; Evrard, A. E.; Romer, A. K.; Perfecto, R.; Song, J; Desai, S.; Mohr, J. J.; Vikram, V.

    2016-01-10

    Using the science verification data of the Dark Energy Survey for a new sample of 106 X-ray selected clusters and groups, we study the stellar mass growth of bright central galaxies (BCGs) since redshift z similar to 1.2. Compared with the expectation in a semi-analytical model applied to the Millennium Simulation, the observed BCGs become under-massive/under-luminous with decreasing redshift. We incorporate the uncertainties associated with cluster mass, redshift, and BCG stellar mass measurements into an analysis of a redshift-dependent BCG-cluster mass relation, m(*) proportional to (M-200/1.5 x 10(14)M(circle dot))(0.24 +/- 0.08)(1+z)(-0.19 +/- 0.34), and compare the observed relation to the model prediction. We estimate the average growth rate since z = 1.0 for BCGs hosted by clusters of M-200,M-z = 10(13.8)M(circle dot); at z = 1.0: m(*, BCG) appears to have grown by 0.13 +/- 0.11 dex, in tension at the similar to 2.5 sigma significance level with the 0.40 dex growth rate expected from the semi-analytic model. We show that the build-up of extended intracluster light after z = 1.0 may alleviate this tension in BCG growth rates.

  11. Managing demographic risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strack, Rainer; Baier, Jens; Fahlander, Anders

    2008-02-01

    In developed nations, the workforce is aging rapidly. That trend has serious implications. Companies could face severe labor shortages in a few years as workers retire, taking critical knowledge with them. Businesses may also see productivity decline among older employees, especially in physically demanding jobs. The authors, partners at Boston Consulting Group, offer managers a systematic way to assess these dual threats--capacity risk and productivity risk--at their companies. It involves studying the age distribution of their employees to see if large percentages fall within high age brackets and then projecting--by location, unit, and job category--how the distribution will change over the next 15 years. Managers must also factor in both the impact of strategic moves on personnel needs and the future supply of workers in the market. When RWE Power analyzed its trends, the company learned that in 2018 almost 80% of its workers would be over 50. What's more, in certain critical areas its labor surplus was about to become a sizable shortfall. For instance, a shortage of specialized engineers would develop in the company just as their ranks in the job market thinned and competition to hire them intensified. Reversing its downsizing course, RWE Power took steps to increase its supply of workers in those key positions. The authors show how companies that face talent gaps, as RWE Power did, can close them through training, transfers, recruitment, retention, productivity improvements, and outsourcing. They also describe measures that companies can take to keep older workers productive, including workplace accommodations, revised compensation structures, performance incentives, and targeted health care management. The key is to identify and address potential problems early. Firms that do so will gain an edge on rivals that are still relentlessly focused on reducing head count.

  12. Differential Effects on Student Demographic Groups of Using ACT® College Readiness Assessment Composite Score, Act Benchmarks, and High School Grade Point Average for Predicting Long-Term College Success through Degree Completion. ACT Research Report Series, 2013 (5)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radunzel, Justine; Noble, Julie

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the differential effects on racial/ethnic, family income, and gender groups of using ACT® College Readiness Assessment Composite score and high school grade point average (HSGPA) for predicting long-term college success. Outcomes included annual progress towards a degree (based on cumulative credit-bearing hours…

  13. Predator-induced demographic shifts in coral reef fish assemblages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin I Ruttenberg

    Full Text Available In recent years, it has become apparent that human impacts have altered community structure in coastal and marine ecosystems worldwide. Of these, fishing is one of the most pervasive, and a growing body of work suggests that fishing can have strong effects on the ecology of target species, especially top predators. However, the effects of removing top predators on lower trophic groups of prey fishes are less clear, particularly in highly diverse and trophically complex coral reef ecosystems. We examined patterns of abundance, size structure, and age-based demography through surveys and collection-based studies of five fish species from a variety of trophic levels at Kiritimati and Palmyra, two nearby atolls in the Northern Line Islands. These islands have similar biogeography and oceanography, and yet Kiritimati has ∼10,000 people with extensive local fishing while Palmyra is a US National Wildlife Refuge with no permanent human population, no fishing, and an intact predator fauna. Surveys indicated that top predators were relatively larger and more abundant at unfished Palmyra, while prey functional groups were relatively smaller but showed no clear trends in abundance as would be expected from classic trophic cascades. Through detailed analyses of focal species, we found that size and longevity of a top predator were lower at fished Kiritimati than at unfished Palmyra. Demographic patterns also shifted dramatically for 4 of 5 fish species in lower trophic groups, opposite in direction to the top predator, including decreases in average size and longevity at Palmyra relative to Kiritimati. Overall, these results suggest that fishing may alter community structure in complex and non-intuitive ways, and that indirect demographic effects should be considered more broadly in ecosystem-based management.

  14. TEENAGE PREGNANCY: DEMOGRAPHICS, MATERNAL AND FOETAL OUTCOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhika Gollapudi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Pregnancy though is a physiological event in a woman’s life, it has its own associated complications. In teenage pregnancies, the physical and emotional state of stress coupled with biological immaturity leads to adverse effect both on the health of the mother and the foetus. METHODS This study is a clinical prospective study analysing the demographics, maternal health issues and the foetal outcome in teenage pregnancies. The study was conducted over a period of one year at a government tertiary care center. Pregnant women in the age group of 13-19 years who delivered during the study period were included in the study group. All pregnant women over 20 years of age who delivered during the same period were taken as control group. Women who had medical disorders complicating pregnancy were excluded from the study. Anaemia, pregnancy induced hypertension, antepartum haemorrhage and mode of delivery were the maternal outcomes that were noted. Intrauterine growth retardation, prematurity, low birth weight, APGAR score were analysed with respect to the foetus. RESULTS In this study, the total number of pregnant women who delivered during the study period were 4782, 536 were teenage mothers, constituting 11.2% of the total pregnancies. Of the 536 teenage mothers, 69.78% belonged to the rural areas and 71.64% were found to have inadequate antenatal visits to the hospital. The mean age of teenage pregnancy was 17.18 years. Incidence of anaemia was 44.2% in comparison, the control group had an incidence of 33.02%. In our study, incidence of Pregnancy induced hypertension was 18.64% in teenage mothers and 10.6% in non-teenage mothers. The incidence of Antepartum Haemorrhage in our study was 8.94% in teenage mothers. Incidence of lower segment caesarean section was 22.76% in the teenage group as compared to 14.57% in the non-teenage group. In our study, 13.05% of teenage mothers had preterm deliveries as compared to 6.40% of non-teenage mothers

  15. Tourism Market and Demographic Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Nedelea

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper identifies the major demographic trends and their implications for consumer market. It is important to know how will demographic change influence the tourism market in particularly and how can the tourist industry adapt to these. The advancing ageing of society will result in far reaching changes, particularly on the demand side. To profitably seize the opportunities, managers must understand how senior markets evolve and adapt products and service offerings along multiple dimensions to meet the needs of senior consumers.

  16. Unprecedented conformational variability in main group inorganic chemistry: the tetraazidoarsenite and -antimonite salts A+ [M(N3)4]- (A = NMe4, PPh4, (Ph3P)2N; M = As, Sb), five similar salts, five different anion structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haiges, Ralf; Rahm, Martin; Christe, Karl O

    2013-01-07

    A unique example for conformational variability in inorganic main group chemistry has been discovered. The arrangement of the azido ligands in the pseudotrigonal bipyramidal [As(N(3))(4)](-) and [Sb(N(3))(4)](-) anions theoretically can give rise to seven different conformers which have identical MN(4) skeletons but different azido ligand arrangements and very similar energies. We have now synthesized and structurally characterized five of these conformers by subtle variations in the nature of the counterion. Whereas conformational variability is common in organic chemistry, it is rare in inorganic main group chemistry and is usually limited to two. To our best knowledge, the experimental observation of five distinct single conformers for the same type of anion is unprecedented. Theoretical calculations at the M06-2X/cc-pwCVTZ-PP level for all seven possible basic conformers show that (1) the energy differences between the five experimentally observed conformers are about 1 kcal/mol or less, and (2) the free monomeric anions are the energetically favored species in the gas phase and also for [As(N(3))(4)](-) in the solid state, whereas for [Sb(N(3))(4)](-) associated anions are energetically favored in the solid state and possibly in solutions. Raman spectroscopy shows that in the azide antisymmetric stretching region, the solid-state spectra are distinct for the different conformers, and permits their identification. The spectra of solutions are solvent dependent and differ from those of the solids indicating the presence of rapidly exchanging equilibria of different conformers. The only compound for which a solid with a single well-ordered conformer could not be isolated was [N(CH(3))(4)][As(N(3))(4)] which formed a viscous, room-temperature ionic liquid. Its Raman spectrum was identical to that of its CH(3)CN solution indicating the presence of an equilibrium of multiple conformers.

  17. Highly Similar Morphologies Between Chromosomes Bearing U2 snRNA Gene Clusters in the Group Astyanax Baird and Girard, 1854 (Characiformes, Characidae): An Evolutionary Approach in Species with 2n = 36, 46, 48, and 50.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piscor, Diovani; Centofante, Liano; Parise-Maltempi, Patricia Pasquali

    2016-12-01

    Repetitive sequences and their chromosomal locations have been widely studied in species of the Astyanax genus. However, the chromosomal organization of U2 snDNA remains largely unknown. The aims of this study were to examine the chromosomal contexts of U2 snRNA and 5S rRNA genes in Astyanax species and determine the degree of chromosome morphological similarity between species with different diploid numbers. Clusters of U2 snDNA and 5S rDNA were determined in nine species of Astyanax, including two karyomorphs of Astyanax fasciatus Cuvier, 1819. All species exhibited U2 snDNA clusters on two chromosome pairs, except Astyanax mexicanus De Filippi, 1853 (one pair). The 5S rDNA clusters were located on one chromosome pair in Astyanax altiparanae Garutti and Britski, 2000, and Astyanax marionae Eigenmann, 1911, two pairs in Astyanax abramis Jenyns, 1842, Astyanax asuncionensis Géry, 1972, Astyanax bockmanni Vari and Castro, 2007, Astyanax eigenmanniorum Cope, 1894, A. fasciatus (karyomorphs I and II), and Astyanax schubarti Britski, 1964, and four pairs in A. mexicanus. The relationships between the repetitive sequences in different species suggest that A. schubarti and A. mexicanus exhibit an unusual U2 snDNA chromosomal format as a result of events occurring in the evolutionary history of the Astyanax group.

  18. Customers Demographics Influence on Usage of Retail Banking Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha GUPTA

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The study presents the usage of retail banking influenced by customers’ demographics of selected Public Sector Banks (PSBs of India. The study was based on primary data collected through structured questionnaire. The simple random sampling technique used for data collection for sample size 692. The study finds that public sector banks need to understand the usage pattern of an individual customer using delivery channel to add greater value to customers. Respondent age groups influence ATMs usage. Internet banking is majorly influenced by the customers’ demographics. Respondents’ age group and qualification influence mobile banking. Branch lobby kiosk is not influenced by any demographics. The identification of most influential demographic variable will help to build strong and effective cross-selling and up-selling of financial products and services. Our study was limited to the customers of PSBs of India. This study may be helpful to PSBs for enhancing effective usage of delivery channels.

  19. Demographic Modelling in Weed Biocontrol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demographic matrix modeling of plant populations can be a powerful tool to identify key life stage transitions that contribute the most to population growth of an invasive plant and hence should be targeted for disruption. Therefore, this approach has the potential to guide the pre-release selection...

  20. Logistics Dynamics and Demographic Change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klumpp, Matthias; Abidi, Hella; Bioly, Sascha; Buchkremer, Rüdiger; Sandhaus, Gregor; Freitag, Michael; Kotzab, Herbert; Pannek, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Change and dynamics in logistics are interestingly driven at the same time by external as well as internal forces. This contribution outlines a big data literature review methodology to overview recognizable external changes and analyzes the interaction of one major trend—demographic change—further

  1. Demographic Dynamics and the Empirics of Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Sarel

    1995-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of demographic dynamics on the measured rates of economic growth. First, it develops a model of production with labor productivity that varies with age. Second, it uses macroeconomic and demographic data to estimate the relative productivity of different age groups. Third, it constructs a panel database of effective labor supply in order to reflect the changing age-structure of the population. Fourth, it decomposes the historical measured growth rates into effe...

  2. Role of Demographic Dynamics and Conflict in the Population-Area Relationship for Human Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manrubia, Susanna C.; Axelsen, Jacob B.; Zanette, Damián H.

    2012-01-01

    Many patterns displayed by the distribution of human linguistic groups are similar to the ecological organization described for biological species. It remains a challenge to identify simple and meaningful processes that describe these patterns. The population size distribution of human linguistic groups, for example, is well fitted by a log-normal distribution that may arise from stochastic demographic processes. As we show in this contribution, the distribution of the area size of home ranges of those groups also agrees with a log-normal function. Further, size and area are significantly correlated: the number of speakers and the area spanned by linguistic groups follow the allometric relation , with an exponent varying accross different world regions. The empirical evidence presented leads to the hypothesis that the distributions of and , and their mutual dependence, rely on demographic dynamics and on the result of conflicts over territory due to group growth. To substantiate this point, we introduce a two-variable stochastic multiplicative model whose analytical solution recovers the empirical observations. Applied to different world regions, the model reveals that the retreat in home range is sublinear with respect to the decrease in population size, and that the population-area exponent grows with the typical strength of conflicts. While the shape of the population size and area distributions, and their allometric relation, seem unavoidable outcomes of demography and inter-group contact, the precise value of could give insight on the cultural organization of those human groups in the last thousand years. PMID:22815726

  3. Regional Differentiation of The Demographic Potential in Italy and Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pastuszka Sławomir

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to compare the demographic potential of given Italian and Polish regions. The analysis shows that the demographic situation in Poland, unlike in Italy, is not directly related to the level of development of some regions and their geographical location. In Italy, the unfavorable demographic situation is typical of most of the less-developed southern regions, whereas in Poland it occurs in voivodships with different economic potential, situated in different parts of the country. This is probably the result of the current polycentric development of Poland, characteristic of a centralized economy, and the polar development in Italy. Certain demographic similarities, but of different levels, related to the dynamics of the population, the level of fertility, and net migration are observable in the macro-regions of Mezzogiorno and Eastern Poland.

  4. Demographic Characteristics of World Class Jamaican Sprinters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachael Irving

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The dominance of Jamaican sprinters in international meets remains largely unexplained. Proposed explanations include demographics and favorable physiological characteristics. The aim of this study was to analyze the demographic characteristics of world class Jamaican sprinters. Questionnaires administered to 120 members of the Jamaican national team and 125 controls elicited information on place of birth, language, ethnicity, and distance and method of travel to school. Athletes were divided into three groups based on athletic disciplines: sprint (s: 100–400 m; n=80, jump and throw (j/t: jump and throw; n=25 and, middle distance (md: 800–3000 m; n=15. Frequency differences between groups were assessed using chi-square tests. Regional or county distribution of sprint differed from that of middle distance (P<0.001 but not from that of jump and throw athletes (P=0.24 and that of controls (P=0.59. Sprint athletes predominately originated from the Surrey county (s = 46%, j/t = 37%, md = 17, C = 53%, whilst middle distance athletes exhibited excess from the Middlesex county (md = 60%. The language distribution of all groups showed uniformity with a predominance of English. A higher proportion of middle distance and jump and throw athletes walked to school (md = 80%, j/t = 52%, s = 10%, and C = 12% and travelled greater distances to school. In conclusion, Jamaica’s success in sprinting may be related to environmental and social factors.

  5. Comparing the demographic factors of patient with limited and diffuse type of alopecia areata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Daliri

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alopecia areata is a chronic inflammatory disease that involves the hair follicle. Clinically, patients with alopecia areata may have patchy or confluent hair loss on the scalp or body so we conduct a study to compare the demographic aspects of patient with limited and diffuse type of alopecia areata.Materials and Method: We conducted a descriptive-analyzing study in which 306 patient were chosen. The patients were divided into two groups of diffuse and limited Alopecia. Demographic factors including age, gender, disease onset were compared in two groups. Results: Out of 306 patients, 58.8 % were male and 41.2 % were female. 247 patients (80.7% suffered from limited type and 59 patients (19.2% suffered from diffuse type. The mean age of the onset of involvement in limited group was 21.9±12 yr and 15.8±12 yr in diffuse group. The mean duration of involvement in limited group was 18.7 months and 71 months in diffuse group. Conclusion: Diffuse type alopecia areata starts at lower age and has longer duration. Our study results were similar to the others. Like other studies, thyroid disorders and atopic dermatitis are positively correlative to the severity of disease

  6. Similarity transformations of MAPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andersen Allan T.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce the notion of similar Markovian Arrival Processes (MAPs and show that the event stationary point processes related to two similar MAPs are stochastically equivalent. This holds true for the time stationary point processes too. We show that several well known stochastical equivalences as e.g. that between the H 2 renewal process and the Interrupted Poisson Process (IPP can be expressed by the similarity transformations of MAPs. In the appendix the valid region of similarity transformations for two-state MAPs is characterized.

  7. Clustering by Pattern Similarity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-xun Wang; Jian Pei

    2008-01-01

    The task of clustering is to identify classes of similar objects among a set of objects. The definition of similarity varies from one clustering model to another. However, in most of these models the concept of similarity is often based on such metrics as Manhattan distance, Euclidean distance or other Lp distances. In other words, similar objects must have close values in at least a set of dimensions. In this paper, we explore a more general type of similarity. Under the pCluster model we proposed, two objects are similar if they exhibit a coherent pattern on a subset of dimensions. The new similarity concept models a wide range of applications. For instance, in DNA microarray analysis, the expression levels of two genes may rise and fall synchronously in response to a set of environmental stimuli. Although the magnitude of their expression levels may not be close, the patterns they exhibit can be very much alike. Discovery of such clusters of genes is essential in revealing significant connections in gene regulatory networks. E-commerce applications, such as collaborative filtering, can also benefit from the new model, because it is able to capture not only the closeness of values of certain leading indicators but also the closeness of (purchasing, browsing, etc.) patterns exhibited by the customers. In addition to the novel similarity model, this paper also introduces an effective and efficient algorithm to detect such clusters, and we perform tests on several real and synthetic data sets to show its performance.

  8. Judgments of brand similarity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijmolt, THA; Wedel, M; Pieters, RGM; DeSarbo, WS

    This paper provides empirical insight into the way consumers make pairwise similarity judgments between brands, and how familiarity with the brands, serial position of the pair in a sequence, and the presentation format affect these judgments. Within the similarity judgment process both the

  9. New Similarity Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazdani, Hossein; Ortiz-Arroyo, Daniel; Kwasnicka, Halina

    2016-01-01

    In data science, there are important parameters that affect the accuracy of the algorithms used. Some of these parameters are: the type of data objects, the membership assignments, and distance or similarity functions. This paper discusses similarity functions as fundamental elements in membership...

  10. Judgments of brand similarity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijmolt, THA; Wedel, M; Pieters, RGM; DeSarbo, WS

    1998-01-01

    This paper provides empirical insight into the way consumers make pairwise similarity judgments between brands, and how familiarity with the brands, serial position of the pair in a sequence, and the presentation format affect these judgments. Within the similarity judgment process both the formatio

  11. New Similarity Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazdani, Hossein; Ortiz-Arroyo, Daniel; Kwasnicka, Halina

    2016-01-01

    In data science, there are important parameters that affect the accuracy of the algorithms used. Some of these parameters are: the type of data objects, the membership assignments, and distance or similarity functions. This paper discusses similarity functions as fundamental elements in membership...... assignments. The paper introduces Weighted Feature Distance (WFD), and Prioritized Weighted Feature Distance (PWFD), two new distance functions that take into account the diversity in feature spaces. WFD functions perform better in supervised and unsupervised methods by comparing data objects on their feature...... spaces, in addition to their similarity in the vector space. Prioritized Weighted Feature Distance (PWFD) works similarly as WFD, but provides the ability to give priorities to desirable features. The accuracy of the proposed functions are compared with other similarity functions on several data sets...

  12. Demographic Correlates and Factor Structure of the Family Environment Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boake, Corwin; Salmon, Paul G.

    1983-01-01

    Factor analyzed the Family Environment Scale (FES) subscale scores of 204 families and correlated them with family demographic characteristics. The obtained factor structure showed two major factors similar to "control" and "acceptance-rejection" dimensions in previous research. Results support the FES as part of multimethod…

  13. An analysis of the socio-demographic characteristics of sole registered births and infant deaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messer, Julie

    2011-01-01

    Differences in birth characteristics and infant mortality rates by marital status and birth registration type reflect complex underlying factors. In particular, births registered solely by the mother are seen as a disadvantaged group. This article analyses the socio-demographic characteristics of births by registration type and parents' marital status and explores these differences for health outcomes. Birth notifications data from the NHS Numbers for Babies system was linked to birth registration data held by the Office for National Statistics (ONS) for births occurring in 2007 and 2008 in England and Wales. This dataset was further linked to death registration data to identify infants who died before their first birthday.Regression analysis was used to compare factors and health outcomes across marital and registration status groups. Regression models were calculated to determine the main risk factors for poor outcomes. The registration groups differed in the age of the mother at birth, the proportion of young mothers, ethnic group distribution and measures of deprived circumstances. The joint registered-different address and sole registered groups were similar in the proportion of young mothers and the deprivation indices. The groups also differed in the proportion of low birthweight and premature babies. The joint registered-different address and sole registered groups both had higher percentages of 'small for gestational age' babies compared with the within-marriage and joint registered-same address groups. The stillbirth rate was highest in the sole registered group. Both the joint registered-different address and sole registered groups had higher infant mortality rates compared with the within-marriage and joint registered-same address groups. Multivariate analysis indicated that low birthweight was a key factor in infant mortality. Births registered solely by the mother were found to be a disadvantaged group but were also similar to the joint

  14. Chronological objects in demographic research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans J. Willekens

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Calendar time, age and duration are chronological objects. They represent an instant or a time period. Age and duration are usually expressed in units with varying lengths. The number of days in a month or a year depends on the position on the calendar. The units are also not homogeneous and the structure influences measurement. One solution, common in demography, is to use units that are large enough for the results not to be seriously affected by differences in length and structure. Another approach is to take the idiosyncrasy of calendars into account and to work directly with calendar dates. The technology that enables logical and arithmetic operations on dates is available. OBJECTIVE To illustrate logical and arithmetic operations on dates and conversions between time measurements. METHODS Software packages include utilities to process dates. I use existing and a few new utilities in R to illustrate operations on dates and conversions between calendar dates and elapsed time since a reference moment or a reference event. Three demographic applications are presented. The first is the impact of preferences for dates and days on demographic indicators. The second is event history analysis with time-varying covariates. The third is microsimulation of life histories in continuous time. CONCLUSIONS The technology exists to perform operations directly on dates, enabling more precise calculations of duration and elapsed time in demographic analysis. It eliminates the need for (a approximations and (b transformations of dates, such as Century Month Code, that are convenient for computing durations but are a barrier to interpretation. Operations on dates, such as the computation of age, should consider time units of varying length.

  15. The semantic similarity ensemble

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Ballatore

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Computational measures of semantic similarity between geographic terms provide valuable support across geographic information retrieval, data mining, and information integration. To date, a wide variety of approaches to geo-semantic similarity have been devised. A judgment of similarity is not intrinsically right or wrong, but obtains a certain degree of cognitive plausibility, depending on how closely it mimics human behavior. Thus selecting the most appropriate measure for a specific task is a significant challenge. To address this issue, we make an analogy between computational similarity measures and soliciting domain expert opinions, which incorporate a subjective set of beliefs, perceptions, hypotheses, and epistemic biases. Following this analogy, we define the semantic similarity ensemble (SSE as a composition of different similarity measures, acting as a panel of experts having to reach a decision on the semantic similarity of a set of geographic terms. The approach is evaluated in comparison to human judgments, and results indicate that an SSE performs better than the average of its parts. Although the best member tends to outperform the ensemble, all ensembles outperform the average performance of each ensemble's member. Hence, in contexts where the best measure is unknown, the ensemble provides a more cognitively plausible approach.

  16. Evolutionary shaping of demographic schedules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachter, Kenneth W.; Steinsaltz, David; Evans, Steven N.

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary processes of natural selection may be expected to leave their mark on age patterns of survival and reproduction. Demographic theory includes three main strands—mutation accumulation, stochastic vitality, and optimal life histories. This paper reviews the three strands and, concentrating on mutation accumulation, extends a mathematical result with broad implications concerning the effect of interactions between small age-specific effects of deleterious mutant alleles. Empirical data from genomic sequencing along with prospects for combining strands of theory hold hope for future progress. PMID:25024186

  17. Similar component analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hong; WANG Xin; LI Junwei; CAO Xianguang

    2006-01-01

    A new unsupervised feature extraction method called similar component analysis (SCA) is proposed in this paper. SCA method has a self-aggregation property that the data objects will move towards each other to form clusters through SCA theoretically,which can reveal the inherent pattern of similarity hidden in the dataset. The inputs of SCA are just the pairwise similarities of the dataset,which makes it easier for time series analysis due to the variable length of the time series. Our experimental results on many problems have verified the effectiveness of SCA on some engineering application.

  18. Gender similarities and differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Janet Shibley

    2014-01-01

    Whether men and women are fundamentally different or similar has been debated for more than a century. This review summarizes major theories designed to explain gender differences: evolutionary theories, cognitive social learning theory, sociocultural theory, and expectancy-value theory. The gender similarities hypothesis raises the possibility of theorizing gender similarities. Statistical methods for the analysis of gender differences and similarities are reviewed, including effect sizes, meta-analysis, taxometric analysis, and equivalence testing. Then, relying mainly on evidence from meta-analyses, gender differences are reviewed in cognitive performance (e.g., math performance), personality and social behaviors (e.g., temperament, emotions, aggression, and leadership), and psychological well-being. The evidence on gender differences in variance is summarized. The final sections explore applications of intersectionality and directions for future research.

  19. Delineating demographic units of woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou in Ontario: cautions and insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L. Shuter

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Delineating demographic structure across an organism’s range can reveal the extent to which population dynamics in different geographic areas are driven by local or external factors and can be crucial for effective conservation and management. Obtaining optimal data for such analyses can be time and resource-intensive and impending development and resource extraction pressures may necessitate the examination of existing data, even when they are less than ideal. We analyzed a historic telemetry dataset containing satellite radio-collar locations of 73 forest-dwelling woodland caribou in northern Ontario to determine demographic structure. We applied several clustering methods (i.e., agglomerative, divisive and fuzzy k-means to median seasonal locations. Results were used to distinguish demographic units and minimum convex polygons and fixed-kernel density estimates were used to delineate unit boundaries and core areas. For areas where sampling was considered representative of the distribution of caribou on the landscape, we assessed demographic distinctness by evaluating intra-individual variation in cluster membership, membership strength and distance between boundaries and core areas of adjacent units. The number and composition of clusters identified was similar among methods and caribou were grouped into 6 general clusters. The distinctions between the three clusters identified in the central portion of the province (i.e., Lac Seul, Wabakimi, Geraldton and the two clusters identified in the eastern portion of the province (i.e., Cochrane and Cochrane-Quebec were determined to represent demographic structuring. Additional distinctions in other areas (i.e., between The Red Lake and Lac Seul clusters in the west and between the central and eastern clusters may just be artifacts of the original sampling effort. Amongst demographic units, there was no evidence of individual flexibility in cluster membership and average membership strength was

  20. Domain similarity based orthology detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitard-Feildel, Tristan; Kemena, Carsten; Greenwood, Jenny M; Bornberg-Bauer, Erich

    2015-05-13

    Orthologous protein detection software mostly uses pairwise comparisons of amino-acid sequences to assert whether two proteins are orthologous or not. Accordingly, when the number of sequences for comparison increases, the number of comparisons to compute grows in a quadratic order. A current challenge of bioinformatic research, especially when taking into account the increasing number of sequenced organisms available, is to make this ever-growing number of comparisons computationally feasible in a reasonable amount of time. We propose to speed up the detection of orthologous proteins by using strings of domains to characterize the proteins. We present two new protein similarity measures, a cosine and a maximal weight matching score based on domain content similarity, and new software, named porthoDom. The qualities of the cosine and the maximal weight matching similarity measures are compared against curated datasets. The measures show that domain content similarities are able to correctly group proteins into their families. Accordingly, the cosine similarity measure is used inside porthoDom, the wrapper developed for proteinortho. porthoDom makes use of domain content similarity measures to group proteins together before searching for orthologs. By using domains instead of amino acid sequences, the reduction of the search space decreases the computational complexity of an all-against-all sequence comparison. We demonstrate that representing and comparing proteins as strings of discrete domains, i.e. as a concatenation of their unique identifiers, allows a drastic simplification of search space. porthoDom has the advantage of speeding up orthology detection while maintaining a degree of accuracy similar to proteinortho. The implementation of porthoDom is released using python and C++ languages and is available under the GNU GPL licence 3 at http://www.bornberglab.org/pages/porthoda .

  1. Compression-based Similarity

    CERN Document Server

    Vitanyi, Paul M B

    2011-01-01

    First we consider pair-wise distances for literal objects consisting of finite binary files. These files are taken to contain all of their meaning, like genomes or books. The distances are based on compression of the objects concerned, normalized, and can be viewed as similarity distances. Second, we consider pair-wise distances between names of objects, like "red" or "christianity." In this case the distances are based on searches of the Internet. Such a search can be performed by any search engine that returns aggregate page counts. We can extract a code length from the numbers returned, use the same formula as before, and derive a similarity or relative semantics between names for objects. The theory is based on Kolmogorov complexity. We test both similarities extensively experimentally.

  2. Similarity or difference?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Anders Ryom

    2013-01-01

    While the organizational structures and strategies of public organizations have attracted substantial research attention among public management scholars, little research has explored how these organizational core dimensions are interconnected and influenced by pressures for similarity....... In this paper I address this topic by exploring the relation between expenditure strategy isomorphism and structure isomorphism in Danish municipalities. Different literatures suggest that organizations exist in concurrent pressures for being similar to and different from other organizations in their field......-shaped relation exists between expenditure strategy isomorphism and structure isomorphism in a longitudinal quantitative study of Danish municipalities....

  3. Segmentation Similarity and Agreement

    CERN Document Server

    Fournier, Chris

    2012-01-01

    We propose a new segmentation evaluation metric, called segmentation similarity (S), that quantifies the similarity between two segmentations as the proportion of boundaries that are not transformed when comparing them using edit distance, essentially using edit distance as a penalty function and scaling penalties by segmentation size. We propose several adapted inter-annotator agreement coefficients which use S that are suitable for segmentation. We show that S is configurable enough to suit a wide variety of segmentation evaluations, and is an improvement upon the state of the art. We also propose using inter-annotator agreement coefficients to evaluate automatic segmenters in terms of human performance.

  4. Ca-, Al-rich Inclusions in Three New Carbonaceous Chondrites from the Grove Mountains, Antarctica:New Evidence for a Similar Origin of the Objects in Various Groups of Chondrites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Deqiu; LIN Yangting; MIAO Bingkui; SHENG Wenjie; WANG Daode

    2004-01-01

    Three new carbonaceous chondrites (GRV 020025, 021579 and 022459) collected from the Grove Mountains(GRV), Antarctica, have been classified as the CM2, CO3 and CV3 chondrites, respectively. A total of 27 Ca- and Al-rich inclusions have been found in the three meteorites, which are the earliest assemblages formed in the solar nebula. Most of the inclusions are intensively altered, with abundant phyllosilicates in the inclusions from GRV 020025 and FeO enrichment of spinel in those from GRV 022459. Except for one spinel-spherule in each of GRV 020025 and 021579, all the inclusions can be classified as Type A-like or spinel-pyroxene-rich inclusions, and they probably represent the continuum of solar nebular condensation. In addition, most of the inclusions in these meteorites share much similarity in both petrography and mineral chemistry, suggesting a similar origin of Ca-Al-rich inclusions in various chondrites.

  5. Socio-Demographic Factors Related to Oral Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdoul Hossain Madani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The aim of this study was to identify factors related to cancer of oral cavity considering individual socio-demographic characteristics of a hospital based study in Pune. Approach: A case-control study was conducted. The cases were 350 with squamous-cell carcinoma of oral cavity diagnosed between 2005 and 2006 in Morbai, Narandia, Budharani Cancer Institute, Pune, India. Similar number of controls matched for age and sex selected from the background population. Cases and controls were interviewed for general characteristics; age, gender, education and possible socio-demographic factors. Results: Chi-square test in uni-variate analysis and estimate for risk showed that education, occupation and monthly household income were significantly different between cases and controls (pConclusion/Recommendations: Socio-demographic factors such as education, occupation and income do play an important role in development oral cancer.

  6. DEMOGRAPHIC FACTOR OF ECOLOGICAL POLICY

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Demographic factor of ecological policy is analyzed. Анализируется демографическая составляющая экологической политики. Аналізується демографічна складова екологічної політики.

  7. SELECTED DETERMINANTS OF DEMOGRAPHIC SAFETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisława Ostasiewicz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents, in a simplifi ed manner, selected theories of population to explain the current trends of population development in Poland and throughout the world. The aim of the article is to present the demographic threats that have emerged in the last eighty years. Prognosticated age structures have also been predicted. Signifi cant diff erences between the structure of the population now and the future have been indicated, particularly regarding the ageing of the population. Against the background of global transformations analyzes of changes in Poland have been conducted. The comparison shows that changes in Poland are highly analogous to transformations around the world, such as declining birth rates and increasing life expectancy. These changes cause ageing of the population, which could result in the collapse of the functioning of the labor market and the pension system as it currently exists.

  8. Incremental Similarity and Turbulence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole E.; Hedevang, Emil; Schmiegel, Jürgen

    This paper discusses the mathematical representation of an empirically observed phenomenon, referred to as Incremental Similarity. We discuss this feature from the viewpoint of stochastic processes and present a variety of non-trivial examples, including those that are of relevance for turbulence...

  9. Greying at the Temples: Demographics of a Public Service Occupation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, James F.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Presents results of an empirical study of the effects of demographic trends on a local government occupational group--public welfare workers. Considers effects of these trends on managers' abilities to foster new ideas, to achieve affirmative action goals, and to ensure employee motivation, performance, and productivity. (Author/CH)

  10. Students from Australian Universities Studying Abroad: A Demographic Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerlich, Steve

    2015-01-01

    Australia is one of many countries to encourage its students to study abroad and hence develop a global perspective. Traditionally, students who have pursued this option represented a relatively privileged and demographically narrow group. More recently, governments and other agencies have been offering funding support with the aim of…

  11. Comparison of hydrological similarity measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rianna, Maura; Ridolfi, Elena; Manciola, Piergiorgio; Napolitano, Francesco; Russo, Fabio

    2016-04-01

    The use of a traditional at site approach for the statistical characterization and simulation of spatio-temporal precipitation fields has a major recognized drawback. Indeed, the weakness of the methodology is related to the estimation of rare events and it involves the uncertainty of the at-site sample statistical inference, because of the limited length of records. In order to overcome the lack of at-site observations, regional frequency approach uses the idea of substituting space for time to estimate design floods. The conventional regional frequency analysis estimates quantile values at a specific site from multi-site analysis. The main idea is that homogeneous sites, once pooled together, have similar probability distribution curves of extremes, except for a scaling factor. The method for pooling groups of sites can be based on geographical or climatological considerations. In this work the region of influence (ROI) pooling method is compared with an entropy-based one. The ROI is a flexible pooling group approach which defines for each site its own "region" formed by a unique set of similar stations. The similarity is found through the Euclidean distance metric in the attribute space. Here an alternative approach based on entropy is introduced to cluster homogeneous sites. The core idea is that homogeneous sites share a redundant (i.e. similar) amount of information. Homogeneous sites are pooled through a hierarchical selection based on the mutual information index (i.e. a measure of redundancy). The method is tested on precipitation data in Central Italy area.

  12. Lipooligosaccharides (LOS) of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Neisseria meningitidis have components that are immunochemically similar to precursors of human blood group antigens. Carbohydrate sequence specificity of the mouse monoclonal antibodies that recognize crossreacting antigens on LOS and human erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandrell, R E; Griffiss, J M; Macher, B A

    1988-07-01

    We have used mouse mAbs, 3F11 and 06B4, that are specific for highly conserved epitopes of Neisseria gonorrhoeae lipooligosaccharides (LOS) to identify immunochemically similar structures on human erythrocytes. mAb 3F11 agglutinated erythrocytes from all randomly selected adult humans, while mAb 06B4 agglutinated only 80% of the same specimens. The antibodies had an activity with erythrocytes similar to human cold agglutinins in that agglutination occurred at 4 degrees C and decreased with increasing incubation temperature. Human infant erythrocytes were agglutinated less well, but enzymatic treatment of either infant or adult cells resulted in an increase in expression of the 3F11- and 06B4-defined epitopes. Both antibodies bound to a series of neutral glycosphingolipids from human erythrocytes and neutrophils that have a type 2 (Gal beta 1----4GlcNAc) or N-acetyllactosamine structure. Neither antibody bound to glycosphingolipids from human meconium, which have a type 1 (Gal beta 1----3GlcNAc) structure. The antibodies were unable to bind to N-acetyl-lactosamine glycosphingolipids with a nonreducing terminal sialic acid or a Gala1----3Gal disaccharide. Antibody binding also was blocked by the presence of fucose linked to the penultimate glucosamine residue of N-acetyllactosamine glycosphingolipids. Although both antibodies bound to linear and branched-chain N-acetyllactosamine glycosphingolipids, 3F11 had a higher affinity for branched structures than did 06B4. The activity of 3F11 with human adult and infant treated and untreated erythrocytes with N-acetyllactosamine glycosphingolipids, and with LOS was very similar, if not identical, in specificity to 1B2, an mAb prepared from mice inoculated with a linear N-acetyllactosamine glycosphingolipid.

  13. Measurement and Socio-Demographic Variation of Social Capital in a Large Population-Based Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieminen, Tarja; Martelin, Tuija; Koskinen, Seppo; Simpura, Jussi; Alanen, Erkki; Harkanen, Tommi; Aromaa, Arpo

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: The main objective of this study was to describe the variation of individual social capital according to socio-demographic factors, and to develop a suitable way to measure social capital for this purpose. The similarity of socio-demographic variation between the genders was also assessed. Data and methods: The study applied…

  14. More Similar Than Different

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mogens Jin

    2015-01-01

    What role do employee features play into the success of different personnel management practices for serving high performance? Using data from a randomized survey experiment among 5,982 individuals of all ages, this article examines how gender conditions the compliance effects of different...... incentive treatments—each relating to the basic content of distinct types of personnel management practices. The findings show that males and females are more similar than different in terms of the incentive treatments’ effects: Significant average effects are found for three out of five incentive...

  15. Socio-demographic determinants of participation in mammography screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Euler-Chelpin, My; Olsen, Anne Helene; Njor, Sisse

    2008-01-01

    Our objective was to use individual data on socio-demographic characteristics to identify predictors of participation in mammography screening and control to what extent they can explain the regional difference. We used data from mammography screening programmes in Copenhagen, 1991-1999, and Funen......, 1993-2001, Denmark. Target groups were identified from the Population Register, screening data came from the health authority, and socio-demographic data from Statistics Denmark. Included were women eligible for at least 3 screens. The crude RR of never use versus always use was 3.21 (95%CI, 3...... women in Copenhagen, irrespective of their socio-demographic characteristics, had low participation. Screening programmes have to find ways to handle this urbanity factor....

  16. CONSEQUENCES OF THE DEMOGRAPHIC CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIVIU RADU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Major dysfunctionalities can arise from the demographic decline, both on a social level and from the perspective of the economic-financial evolution of the world’s states. The obvious aging of the industrialized states’ population overlapping the import of cheap workforce in the developing countries can start mutations whose consequences are somewhat predictable but discouraging. An accelerated urbanization of the states is foreseen, as well as the decrease of birthrates, negative external migration, increase of mortality and its stagnation in a larger value than that of the birthrate, and not least the population’s aging will hinder a part of the developing countries to sustain a high rhythm of long-term economical increase. The socialeconomic consequences will be reflected in the labor market, the householders’ amount of income as well as in the education’s level. All of these aspects call for a rethinking of the public politics, especially of the social insurance’s system and of the education, a reorientation of the economy based on the increase of specializing in production and productivity, as well as a financial stability unburdened by the politics’ interference in the business environment.

  17. Sequence Analysis in Demographic Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Billari, Francesco C.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available EnglishThis paper examines the salient features of sequence analysis in demogrpahicresearch. The new approach allows a holistic perspective on life course analysis and is based on arepresentation of lives as sequences of states. Some of the methods for analyzing such data aresketched, from complex description to optimal matching ot monoethetic divisive algorithms. Afer ashort ilustration of a demographically-relevant example, the needs in terms of data collection and theopportunities of applying the same aproach to synthetic data are discussed.FrenchOn examine ici les principaux éléments de l’analyse par séquence endémographie. Cette nouvelle technique permet une perspective unifiée del’analyse du cours de la vie, en représentant la vie comme une série d’états.Certaines des méthodes pour de telles analyses sont décrites, en commençant parla description complexe, pour considérer ensuite les alignements optimales, etles algorithmes de division. Après un court exemple en démographie, onconsidère les besoins en données et les possibilités d’application aux donnéessynthétique.

  18. Similar dissection of sets

    CERN Document Server

    Akiyama, Shigeki; Okazaki, Ryotaro; Steiner, Wolfgang; Thuswaldner, Jörg

    2010-01-01

    In 1994, Martin Gardner stated a set of questions concerning the dissection of a square or an equilateral triangle in three similar parts. Meanwhile, Gardner's questions have been generalized and some of them are already solved. In the present paper, we solve more of his questions and treat them in a much more general context. Let $D\\subset \\mathbb{R}^d$ be a given set and let $f_1,...,f_k$ be injective continuous mappings. Does there exist a set $X$ such that $D = X \\cup f_1(X) \\cup ... \\cup f_k(X)$ is satisfied with a non-overlapping union? We prove that such a set $X$ exists for certain choices of $D$ and $\\{f_1,...,f_k\\}$. The solutions $X$ often turn out to be attractors of iterated function systems with condensation in the sense of Barnsley. Coming back to Gardner's setting, we use our theory to prove that an equilateral triangle can be dissected in three similar copies whose areas have ratio $1:1:a$ for $a \\ge (3+\\sqrt{5})/2$.

  19. Befriending Risky Peers: Factors Driving Adolescents' Selection of Friends with Similar Marijuana Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Haye, Kayla; Green, Harold D; Pollard, Michael S; Kennedy, David P; Tucker, Joan S

    2015-10-01

    Adolescents often befriend peers who are similar to themselves on a range of demographic, behavioral, and social characteristics, including substance use. Similarities in lifetime history of marijuana use have even been found to predict adolescent friendships, and we examine whether this finding is explained by youth's selection of friends who are similar on a range of more proximate, observable characteristics that are risk factors for marijuana use. Using two waves of individual and social network data from two high schools that participated in Add Health (N = 1,612; 52.7% male), we apply longitudinal models for social networks to test whether or not several observable risky attributes (psychological, behavioral, and social) predict adolescent friendship choices, and if these preferences explain friend's similarities on lifetime marijuana use. Findings show that similarities on several risk factors predict friendship choices, however controlling for this, the preference to befriend peers with a similar history of marijuana use largely persists. The results highlight the range of social selection processes that lead to similarities in marijuana use among friends and larger peer groups, and that also give rise to friendship groups whose members share similar risk factors for substance use. Friends with high "collective risk" are likely to be important targets for preventing the onset and social diffusion of substance use in adolescents.

  20. Demographic changes and international factor mobility

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews the extent and policy implications of linkages between demographic changes and international factor mobility. Evidence is found of significant demographic effects on both migration and the current account, but for different reasons neither increased migration nor international transfers of savings is expected to offer much assistance in digesting the variety of demographic transitions expected over the next fifty years. The paper also examines more briefly the effects of de...

  1. Role of demographic dynamics and conflict in the population-area relationship for human languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manrubia, Susanna C; Axelsen, Jacob B; Zanette, Damián H

    2012-01-01

    Many patterns displayed by the distribution of human linguistic groups are similar to the ecological organization described for biological species. It remains a challenge to identify simple and meaningful processes that describe these patterns. The population size distribution of human linguistic groups, for example, is well fitted by a log-normal distribution that may arise from stochastic demographic processes. As we show in this contribution, the distribution of the area size of home ranges of those groups also agrees with a log-normal function. Further, size and area are significantly correlated: the number of speakers p and the area a spanned by linguistic groups follow the allometric relation a proportional to p2, with an exponent z varying accross different world regions. The empirical evidence presented leads to the hypothesis that the distributions of p and a, and their mutual dependence, rely on demographic dynamics and on the result of conflicts over territory due to group growth. To substantiate this point, we introduce a two-variable stochastic multiplicative model whose analytical solution recovers the empirical observations. Applied to different world regions, the model reveals that the retreat in home range is sublinear with respect to the decrease in population size, and that the population-area exponent z grows with the typical strength of conflicts. While the shape of the population size and area distributions, and their allometric relation, seem unavoidable outcomes of demography and inter-group contact, the precise value of z could give insight on the cultural organization of those human groups in the last thousand years.

  2. Similarity transformed semiclassical dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Voorhis, Troy; Heller, Eric J.

    2003-12-01

    In this article, we employ a recently discovered criterion for selecting important contributions to the semiclassical coherent state propagator [T. Van Voorhis and E. J. Heller, Phys. Rev. A 66, 050501 (2002)] to study the dynamics of many dimensional problems. We show that the dynamics are governed by a similarity transformed version of the standard classical Hamiltonian. In this light, our selection criterion amounts to using trajectories generated with the untransformed Hamiltonian as approximate initial conditions for the transformed boundary value problem. We apply the new selection scheme to some multidimensional Henon-Heiles problems and compare our results to those obtained with the more sophisticated Herman-Kluk approach. We find that the present technique gives near-quantitative agreement with the the standard results, but that the amount of computational effort is less than Herman-Kluk requires even when sophisticated integral smoothing techniques are employed in the latter.

  3. Demographic and fertility characteristics of 4 squatter settlements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusof, K; Zulkifli, S N

    1985-01-01

    The demographic and fertility profiles of 4 squatter areas, 2 with Sang Kancil, a community development project designed specifically for squatter settlements in Kuala Lumpur, are described. Data were taken from a census conducted in 1982. Figure 1 maps out the location of the study areas in the Federal Territory. The squatter household (5.4 members) varied little from the average Malaysian household. The average age of the male head of household was 40 years, i.e., not within the high fertility group; the mean duration of stay was 10 years. Household income/month averaged M$760, falling between estimates for urban and rural mean. Comparing the data on the 2 squatter areas, the non-Sang Kancil head of household was, on average, slightly older and had stayed about 2 years longer than his Sang Kancil counterpart. These differences were statistically significant. Both areas were comparable with regard to household income and size. Ethnically, the Sang Kancil areas were predominantly Malay, comprising 86% of total households. The control areas had a more mixed ethnic structure. From 1978-81, annual increases in total population had been fairly uniform, at around 2%, in non-Sang Kancil Areas. Yet, the Sang Kancil population experienced a growth spurt in 1980, which subsequently declined and appeared to level off. 1982 figures were disregarded in this analysis as they were based on a 1/2 year enumeration only. The age distribution pattern of all squatter areas combined was fairly similar to the national distribution pyramid but for a higher proportion of people in the 15-44 age group than national figures. The proportion of dependents, 0-14 years, was comparable despite having more people in this fertile age group. The proportion of infants (0-11 months) in the control population was constant, but there was a decline down to control values by the end of the surveyed period in the Sang Kancil group. In the toddler group, decreases were evident for both populations

  4. Bias and ignorance in demographic perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landy, D; Guay, B; Marghetis, T

    2017-08-31

    When it comes to knowledge of demographic facts, misinformation appears to be the norm. Americans massively overestimate the proportions of their fellow citizens who are immigrants, Muslim, LGBTQ, and Latino, but underestimate those who are White or Christian. Previous explanations of these estimation errors have invoked topic-specific mechanisms such as xenophobia or media bias. We reconsidered this pattern of errors in the light of more than 30 years of research on the psychological processes involved in proportion estimation and decision-making under uncertainty. In two publicly available datasets featuring demographic estimates from 14 countries, we found that proportion estimates of national demographics correspond closely to what is found in laboratory studies of quantitative estimates more generally. Biases in demographic estimation, therefore, are part of a very general pattern of human psychology-independent of the particular topic or demographic under consideration-that explains most of the error in estimates of the size of politically salient populations. By situating demographic estimates within a broader understanding of general quantity estimation, these results demand reevaluation of both topic-specific misinformation about demographic facts and topic-specific explanations of demographic ignorance, such as media bias and xenophobia.

  5. The State Economic, Demographic & Fiscal Handbook 1993.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, David; Cohen, Lee

    This handbook is an easy-to-use reference book for policymakers, public officials, and policy analysts, as well as anyone else who may need up-to-date information about state economic, demographic, and fiscal data. The book includes data on demographics, poverty rates, per capita state personal income, state and local tax rates, and state and…

  6. 5 CFR 841.404 - Demographic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Demographic factors. 841.404 Section 841... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-GENERAL ADMINISTRATION Government Costs § 841.404 Demographic factors. (a) The Office of Personnel Management (OPM) will consider the factors listed below...

  7. Demographic and clinical features of neuromyelitis optica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pandit, L.; Asgari, Nasrin; Apiwattanakul, M.

    2015-01-01

    The comparative clinical and demographic features of neuromyelitis optica (NMO) are not well known. In this review we analyzed peer-reviewed publications for incidence and prevalence, clinical phenotypes, and demographic features of NMO. Population-based studies from Europe, South East and Southe...

  8. A Demographic Perspective on Family Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Suzanne M.

    2014-01-01

    Demographic analysis seeks to understand how individual microlevel decisions about child-bearing, marriage and partnering, geographic mobility, and behaviors that influence health and longevity aggregate to macrolevel population trends and differentials in fertility, mortality and migration. In this review, I first discuss theoretical perspectives—classic demographic transition theory, the perspective of the “second demographic transition,” the spread of developmental idealism—that inform demographers’ understanding of macrolevel population change. Then, I turn to a discussion of the role that demographically informed data collection has played in illuminating family change since the mid-20th century in the United States. Finally, I discuss ways in which demographic theory and data collection might inform future areas of family research, particularly in the area of intergenerational family relationships and new and emerging family forms. PMID:26078785

  9. Prevalence and clinical demographics of cerebral salt wasting in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Lily; Al-Lawati, Zahraa; Vavao, Joli; Steinberg, Gary K; Katznelson, Laurence

    2009-01-01

    Hyponatremia is a frequent complication following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), and is commonly attributed either to the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) or cerebral salt wasting syndrome (CSW). The object of this study is to elucidate the clinical demographics and sequelae of hyponatremia due to CSW in subjects with aneurysmal SAH. Retrospective chart review of patients >18 years with aneurysmal SAH admitted between January 2004 and July 2007 was performed. Subjects with moderate to severe hyponatremia (serum sodium <130 mmol l(-1)) were divided into groups consistent with CSW and SIADH based on urine output, fluid balance, natriuresis, and response to saline infusion. Clinical demographics were compared. Of 316 subjects identified, hyponatremia (serum sodium <135 mmol l(-1)) was detected in 187 (59.2%) subjects and moderate to severe hyponatremia in 48 (15.2%). Of the latter group, 35.4% were categorized with SIADH and 22.9% with CSW. Compared to eunatremic subjects, hyponatremia was associated with significantly longer hospital stay (15.7 +/- 1.9 vs. 9.6 +/- 1.1 days, p < 0.001). Subjects with CSW had similar mortality and duration of hospital stay vs. those with SIADH. Though less common than SIADH, CSW was detected in approximately 23% of patients with history of aneurysmal SAH and was not clearly associated with enhanced morbidity and mortality compared to subjects with SIADH. Further studies regarding the pathogenesis and management, along with the medical consequences, of CSW are important.

  10. Mechanisms for similarity based cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traulsen, A.

    2008-06-01

    Cooperation based on similarity has been discussed since Richard Dawkins introduced the term “green beard” effect. In these models, individuals cooperate based on an aribtrary signal (or tag) such as the famous green beard. Here, two different models for such tag based cooperation are analysed. As neutral drift is important in both models, a finite population framework is applied. The first model, which we term “cooperative tags” considers a situation in which groups of cooperators are formed by some joint signal. Defectors adopting the signal and exploiting the group can lead to a breakdown of cooperation. In this case, conditions are derived under which the average abundance of the more cooperative strategy exceeds 50%. The second model considers a situation in which individuals start defecting towards others that are not similar to them. This situation is termed “defective tags”. It is shown that in this case, individuals using tags to cooperate exclusively with their own kind dominate over unconditional cooperators.

  11. Roget's Thesaurus and Semantic Similarity

    CERN Document Server

    Jarmasz, Mario

    2012-01-01

    We have implemented a system that measures semantic similarity using a computerized 1987 Roget's Thesaurus, and evaluated it by performing a few typical tests. We compare the results of these tests with those produced by WordNet-based similarity measures. One of the benchmarks is Miller and Charles' list of 30 noun pairs to which human judges had assigned similarity measures. We correlate these measures with those computed by several NLP systems. The 30 pairs can be traced back to Rubenstein and Goodenough's 65 pairs, which we have also studied. Our Roget's-based system gets correlations of .878 for the smaller and .818 for the larger list of noun pairs; this is quite close to the .885 that Resnik obtained when he employed humans to replicate the Miller and Charles experiment. We further evaluate our measure by using Roget's and WordNet to answer 80 TOEFL, 50 ESL and 300 Reader's Digest questions: the correct synonym must be selected amongst a group of four words. Our system gets 78.75%, 82.00% and 74.33% of ...

  12. Active browsing using similarity pyramids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jau-Yuen; Bouman, Charles A.; Dalton, John C.

    1998-12-01

    In this paper, we describe a new approach to managing large image databases, which we call active browsing. Active browsing integrates relevance feedback into the browsing environment, so that users can modify the database's organization to suit the desired task. Our method is based on a similarity pyramid data structure, which hierarchically organizes the database, so that it can be efficiently browsed. At coarse levels, the similarity pyramid allows users to view the database as large clusters of similar images. Alternatively, users can 'zoom into' finer levels to view individual images. We discuss relevance feedback for the browsing process, and argue that it is fundamentally different from relevance feedback for more traditional search-by-query tasks. We propose two fundamental operations for active browsing: pruning and reorganization. Both of these operations depend on a user-defined relevance set, which represents the image or set of images desired by the user. We present statistical methods for accurately pruning the database, and we propose a new 'worm hole' distance metric for reorganizing the database, so that members of the relevance set are grouped together.

  13. Two Models for Semi-Supervised Terrorist Group Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozgul, Fatih; Erdem, Zeki; Bowerman, Chris

    Since discovery of organization structure of offender groups leads the investigation to terrorist cells or organized crime groups, detecting covert networks from crime data are important to crime investigation. Two models, GDM and OGDM, which are based on another representation model - OGRM are developed and tested on nine terrorist groups. GDM, which is basically depending on police arrest data and “caught together” information and OGDM, which uses a feature matching on year-wise offender components from arrest and demographics data, performed well on terrorist groups, but OGDM produced high precision with low recall values. OGDM uses a terror crime modus operandi ontology which enabled matching of similar crimes.

  14. Crime vs. demographic factors revisited: Application of data mining methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingan Li

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to inquire about correlations between criminal phenomena and demographic factors. This international-level comparative study used a dataset covering 56 countries and 28 attributes. The data were processed with the Self-Organizing Map (SOM, assisted other clustering methods, and several statistical methods for obtaining comparable results. The article is an exploratory application of the SOM in mapping criminal phenomena through processing of multivariate data. We found out that SOM was able to group efficiently the present data and characterize these different groups. Other machine learning methods were applied to ensure groups computed with SOM. The correlations obtained between attributes were chiefly weak.

  15. amily Planning Brings China Demographic Bonus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马瀛通

    2007-01-01

    Editorial note Scholars around the world are voicing their criticisms on China’s family planning policy,which,in their opinions,will lead to an unhealthy population structure.This article reviews the concepts of"rich before old"and"negative demographic bonus",and concludes that with regards to some indicators such as dependency ratio and demographic bonus,there exists a discrepancy between calculations and reality.The author believes that China will continue to witness a surge of demographic bonus in the future.

  16. A unified framework of demographic time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riffe, Tim; Schöley, Jonas; Villavicencio, Francisco

    Demographic thought and practice is largely conditioned by the Lexis diagram, a two-dimensional graphical representation of the identity between age, period, and birth cohort. This relationship does not account for remaining years of life or other related time measures, whose use in demographic...... research is both underrepresented and incompletely situated. We describe a three-dimensional relationship between six different measures of demographic time: chronological age, time to death, lifespan, time of birth, time of death, and period. We describe four identities among subsets of these six measures...

  17. Significance of Demographic Variables for Targeting of Internet Advertisements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Václav Stříteský

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Broad ad targeting options belong among the major advantages of internet advertising. Demographic targeting has become a standard option in most of on-line advertising systems. There are more ways how to target on-line advertisements by using demographic variables. In some cases, e.g., social media, we can use data from user registrations. Modern technologies enable to estimate the demographic profile of internet users using on behavioural data. The traditional approach to the demographic targeting of advertisements based on affinity targeting assumes the existence of internet servers with sufficient homogeneity of visits. The aim of this article is to identify the differences in the internet content consumption habits of Czech internet users based on gender and age. The analysis is based on the data from the extensive research which was carried out by the Netmonitor project, and which was provided for the purposes of this study by the Association for Internet Development (SPIR. The research results show that the traditional affinity-based method of targeting according to gender and age is still suitable on the Czech internet. On the other hand, in some cases, the traditional approach of ad targeting based on affinity leads to wasted ad impressions that miss defined target group.

  18. Demographic correlates of children and adolescents with Autistic disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayyoub Malek

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Comparison of the demographic characteristics of patients provides useful information to their identification. This study aimed to determine the demographic characteristics of children and adolescents with autistic disorder (AD. Methods: In this cross-sectional case-control study, 115 children and adolescents with AD were selected from Autism Society Rehabilitation Center in Tabriz, Iran, and 112 normal children and adolescents from the public schools, in 2014. The participants in both groups were matched regarding age and gender. Diagnosis of AD was performed using diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders-4th edition (DSM-IV criteria and clinical diagnostic interviews by two child and adolescent psychiatrists. The demographic information of children and adolescents and their parents were collected from the medical records of children and interviews with their mothers. Results: Most of the children with autism had second or higher birth order and had families with more than three members. Mothers of children with autism had significantly lower levels of education and were mostly housewives. Fathers of autistic children mostly had high school diploma and fewer had university education, and most of them were employed. However, there was no statistically significant difference between the AD group and the control group regarding the average height and weight of children and the residence (urban or rural and age of parents at childbirth.Conclusion: The demographic characteristics of the two groups of children and adolescents with AD and normal controls were different from each other regarding family size, birth order, parent occupation, and parent education variables.

  19. The changing demographic, legal, and technological contexts of political representation

    OpenAIRE

    Forest, Benjamin

    2005-01-01

    Three developments have created challenges for political representation in the U.S. and particularly for the use of territorially based representation (election by district). First, the demographic complexity of the U.S. population has grown both in absolute terms and in terms of residential patterns. Second, legal developments since the 1960s have recognized an increasing number of groups as eligible for voting rights protection. Third, the growing technical capacities of computer technology...

  20. Why not a Nurse Demographer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.W.W Coetzer

    1985-09-01

    Full Text Available Populations of school children can be utilised for the screening of ill health such as ophthalmic (Kohler et al, 1981: 369-77 and aural (Me Dermott, 1982: 462-8 conditions, heart disease (Okuni, 1982: 1250- 4, scoliosis (Lonstein et al, 1982: 481-8 or dental caries (Rebich et al, 1982: 50-53, with the sole object of clinical intervention. The target population is aimed at all belonging to a defined risk group, usually described in terms of age, sex, ethnicity and occupation.

  1. User Demographics for Embodiment Customization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowell, Andrew J.; Stanney, Kay M.

    2002-11-15

    Attempts at interface agent personalization are usually aimed at helping the user perform a task or service. For example,scheduling of appointments, inspection of messages, discovering items of interest and different forms of negotiation. While this is very noble undertaking, it makes assumptions about the level of trust and credibility a user may place in such an agent in a realworld setting. If Microsoft's experiments in social user interfaces teach us anything, it is that a ''one size fits all'' solution does not truly engage the user and encourage reuse. This ''relationship management'' between the user and the character begins when the two first meet. As with human-human relationships, first impressions are essential. Instead of looking at the functional aspects of the relationship, we believe the characters embodiment is the best place to start the personalization process. We describe a study in which participants from several different age ranges,genders and ethnic groups were asked their preference of anthropomorphic character, based on a cooperative computer task. We found that participants generally selected characters from the same ethic group as themselves and that almost all participants selected a young character (instead of a middle aged or elderly character). No significant preference was found for character gender.

  2. Burnout syndrome in physical therapists - demographic and organizational factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pustułka-Piwnik, Urszula; Ryn, Zdzisław Jan; Krzywoszański, Łukasz; Stożek, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    Professional burnout results from prolonged exposure to chronic, job-related stressors. According to Christina Maslach, professional burnout is a syndrome of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and reduced personal accomplishment. Literature includes a number of reports on burnout syndrome within health service, but hardly ever do they make any references to physiotherapists. The purpose of this study is assessment of the level of professional burnout in a group of physiotherapists and investigating relationships between the indices of burnout syndrome and selected demographic as well as organizational variables. The study group consisted of 151 physiotherapists with at least 3 years of experience, employed in various health service outposts in Krakow, Poland. The Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) was used to measure emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and personal accomplishment. A questionnaire for the description of socio-demographic and work characteristics was used as well. Job burnout among the physiotherapists was manifested by an increased emotional exhaustion and decreased sense of personal achievement. Emotional exhaustion was significantly higher among physi cal therapists working with adults and employed in hospitals, depersonalization was higher among men, hospital workers and employees with seniority from 15 to 19 years, personal accomplishment was decreased among men and less-educated therapists. The study confirmed that indicators of burnout in physiotherapists are significantly associated with selected demographic and organizational variables. It is necessary to undertake a more exhaustive study of burnout in this group of employees, and implement elements of prevention.

  3. [The demographic transition in Latin America and Europe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala De Cosio, M E

    1992-12-01

    in Latin America because of the much more rapid mortality decline. In Latin America, in the face of the fertility increase of the mid-20th century, there was no attempt to control nuptiality, as in traditional European populations, to limit family size. Nuptiality control as a mechanism of demographic regulation was never socially acceptable in Latin America. The beginning of the Latin American transition occurred in urban areas, among more educated women who were over 20 years old at marriage. The fertility transition in these privileged sectors was quite similar to that in Europe. But a second transition has occurred among impoverished women conserving traditional reproductive patterns of early marriage and numerous closely spaced births. Availability of modern contraception among rural and marginal urban women has allowed termination of childbearing, but usually at relatively high levels of fertility. Fertility decline, in this case, does not reflect improvements in living conditions.

  4. The demographic work of Sir William Wilde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froggatt, P

    2016-05-01

    This paper argues that Sir William Wilde was indeed a pioneering demographer. It also describes the unveiling of the plaque commemorating Sir William Wilde at his home, 1, Merrion Square, Dublin on the 28 October 1971.

  5. Demographics and presenting clinical features of childhood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Demographics and presenting clinical features of childhood systemic lupus ... and characteristics of children with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). ... Rashes were found to be the commonest clinical feature present at the time of diagnosis, ...

  6. SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES BETWEEN COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NAGY CRISTINA MIHAELA

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available act: Similarities between the accounting of companies and territorial administrative units accounting are the following: organizing double entry accounting; accounting method both in terms of fundamental theoretical principles and specific practical tools. The differences between the accounting of companies and of territorial administrative units refer to: the accounting of territorial administrative units includes besides general accounting (financial also budgetary accounting, and the accounts system of the budgetary accounting is completely different from that of companies; financial statements of territorial administrative units to which leaders are not main authorizing officers are submitted to the hierarchically superior body (not at MPF; the accounts of territorial administrative units are opened at treasury and financial institutions, accounts at commercial banks being prohibited; equity accounts in territorial administrative units are structured into groups of funds; long term debts have a specific structure in territorial administrative units (internal local public debt and external local public debt.

  7. Demographic patterns and trends in Central Ghana: baseline indicators from the Kintampo Health and Demographic Surveillance System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth Owusu-Agyei

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The dearth of health and demographic data in sub-Saharan Africa from vital registration systems and its impact on effective planning for health and socio-economic development is widely documented. Health and Demographic Surveillance Systems have the capacity to address the dearth of quality data for policy making in resource-poor settings. Objective: This article demonstrates the utility of the Kintampo Health and Demographic Surveillance System (KHDSS by showing the patterns and trends of population change from 2005 to 2009 in the Kintampo North Municipality and Kintampo South districts of Ghana through data obtained from the KHDSS biannual update rounds. Design: Basic demographic rates for fertility, mortality, and migration were computed by year. School enrolment was computed as a percentage in school by age and sex for 6–18 year-olds. Socio-economic status was derived by use of Principal Components Analysis on household assets. Results: Over the period, an earlier fertility decline was reversed in 2009; mortality declined slightly for all age-groups, and a significant share of working-age population was lost through out-migration. Large minorities of children of school-going age are not in school. Socio-economic factors are shown to be important determinants of fertility and mortality. Conclusion : Strengthening the capacity of HDSSs could offer added value to evidence-driven policymaking at local level.

  8. Gender inequalities from the demographic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devedžić Mirjana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the meaning of the phrase "the woman’s status in the society" that is recognized in demography as an important cultural factor of demographic development and transitional changes. The analysis indicates qualitative shifts in the woman’s status and simultaneously reveals its importance at present, not only in traditional, but also in modern and developed societies. On the other hand, it explains the importance of sex as a biodemographic determinant, and introduces the concept of gender that sheds another light on the concepts of sex and woman’s status in the society and integrates them. Gender regimes that subsume the inferiority of women in public and private social structures are examined from demographic perspective, albeit only in those phenomenological aspects that can be supported by demographic research, theories, and analyses. To this end, the paper analyzes the effects of strengthening gender equalities on the fertility and mortality transitions, the gender’s impact on the population distribution by sex in South Asian countries, and highlights the key role of gender in interpreting certain social and economic structures. It also stresses the establishing of gender equality as an important element of population policies. The global dimension of the patriarchal society is illustrated through a series of examples of demographic phenomena from various societies. Gender regimes underlie all of these phenomena. The paper puts foreword certain theoretical hypotheses about gender inequalities, and finds their connections with demographic behaviors and demographic indicators. Finally, it summarizes the role of demography in gender (inequality research and the demographic perspective of the way and the speed the demographic equality is being established. Demography is seen as an irreplaceable discipline in examining gender inequalities, especially at the global level. With the advance of qualitative methods in demography

  9. Demographic heterogeneity, cohort selection, and population growth

    OpenAIRE

    Bruce E. Kendall; Fox, Gordon A.; Fujiwara, Masami; Nogeire, Theresa M.

    2011-01-01

    Demographic heterogeneity—variation among individuals in survival and reproduction—is ubiquitous in natural populations. Structured population models address heterogeneity due to age, size, or major developmental stages. However, other important sources of demographic heterogeneity, such as genetic variation, spatial heterogeneity in the environment, maternal effects, and differential exposure to stressors, are often not easily measured and hence are modeled as stochasticity. Recent research ...

  10. Socioeconomic, psychological and demographic determinants of Australian baby boomers' financial planning for retirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noone, Jack; O'Loughlin, Kate; Kendig, Hal

    2012-09-01

    Research from around the Western World has shown that psychological, socioeconomic and demographic factors can influence levels of financial planning. This study aims to determine how these factors interrelate to predict planning outcomes. Data from the Ageing Baby Boomers in Australia Study were used to examine the effects of multiple factors on financial planning for 709 employed Australians nearing retirement. The results showed that higher income, future time perspective (FTP) and financial knowledge independently predicted levels of retirement planning. The effects of FTP and financial knowledge on financial planning were consistent across levels of socioeconomic status. While similar issues in financial planning appeared across socioeconomic status, a 'one size fits all' approach to retirement policy may not be effective. Instead, policy should be targeted towards the diverse needs of different groups. Raising public awareness of FTP and financial knowledge may provide a useful starting point. © 2012 The Authors. Australasian Journal on Ageing © 2012 ACOTA.

  11. Two centuries of demographic change in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry Edmonston

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available One key aspect of the demographic transition—the shift from high mortality and high fertility to low mortality and low fertility is a major change in the population’s age distribution from a pyramid-shaped young age structure to a pillar-shaped old age structure. This paper discusses two demographic processes affected by changes in age structure. First, there are effects on vital rates, with important differences in the observed crude rates and the implied intrinsic vital rates. Second, changes in age structure influence population momentum. More recently, demographers have noted that older age distributions associated with fertility levels below replacement have negative population momentum. Although the demographic transition has been well-described for many countries, demographers have seldom analyzed intrinsic vital rates and population momentum over time, which are dynamic processes affected by changes in the population age structure and which, in turn, influence future changes in population growth and size. This paper uses new data and methods to analyze intrinsic vital rates and population momentum across two centuries of demographic change in Canada

  12. Estimating similarity of XML Schemas using path similarity measure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veena Trivedi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an attempt has been made to develop an algorithm which estimates the similarity for XML Schemas using multiple similarity measures. For performing the task, the XML Schema element information has been represented in the form of string and four different similarity measure approaches have been employed. To further improve the similarity measure, an overall similarity measure has also been calculated. The approach used in this paper is a distinguished one, as it calculates the similarity between two XML schemas using four approaches and gives an integrated values for the similarity measure. Keywords-componen

  13. ANALYSIS OF PUBLIC SCHOOL TEACHERS’ PERSONALITY TRAITS ACCORDING TO DEMOGRAPHIC VARIABLES

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    Nurhayat ÇELEBİ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to demonstrate the relations and differences between personality traits of teachers and some demographic variables. This research is designed in a descriptive survey model. The study group is composed of 407 teachers who are working in 22 public high schools from Ataşehir, Beşiktaş, Güngören and Ümraniye districts of Istanbul. Big Five Inventory, which is developed by Benet-Martinez and John (1998 and adapted to Turkish by Sümer and Sümer (2005, is used in order to assess the teacher personality traits. The scale of Alpha coefficient is, .699. As a result, teachers the highest average is in openness to experience and the lowest average is in neuroticism. Also it is found that significant differences exist between teachers’ personality traits and demographic variables. In accordance to this, significant differences are observed between gender variable and conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, neuroticism. There are similar differences between marital status variable and openness to experience, conscientiousness, agreeableness. The differences between branch variable and openness to experience, extraversion are also significant.

  14. Demographic tensions in Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-08-01

    This discussion of Central America focuses on the rapid growth of its population, its stagnating economy, and those countries that are socioeconomically advanced. Between 1950-85 the population of Central America tripled, from 9.1 million to 26. 4 million, due to marked mortality declines and the absence of off-setting fertility declines. The distribution of Central Americas's growing populations sets its population growth apart from that of other developing regions. Currently, almost half of all Central Americans live in cities. Although the average growth rate for Central American countries has fallen and is expected to drop further, the decline does not counterbalance the effect of the absolute rise in population numbers. The average annual growth rate of more than 3% annually in the 1960s fell to about 2.6% in recent years, but this decline is due primarily to socioeconomically advanced Costa Rica and Panama. Central America's age structure further complicates the population crisis. About 43% of Central Americans are under the age of 15. When the increasingly larger young population group enters it reproductive years, the potential for future growth (albeit the falling rate of population increase) is unparalleled. UN population projections show the region's population at 40 million by the year 2000. The 1973 oil crisis began a downward spiral for the buoyant post World War II Central American economy. Between 1950-79, real per capita income growth in Central America doubled, with Central American economies growing an average of 5.3% annually. By the early 1980s, overseas markets of the trade-dependent countries of Central America had dried up due to protectionism abroad and slumping basic commodity prices. These and other factors plunged Central America into its current economic malaise of falling real per capita income, rising unemployment, curtailed export led economic growth, and a rising cost of living. In general, economic growth in Central America

  15. Gender related differences in demographic and clinical manifestations in patients suffering from various subtypes of schizophrenia

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    Gorana Sulejmanpašić Arslanagić

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Schizophrenia is devastating neuropsychiatric disorder that has no clearly identified etiology. The subtypes of schizophrenia are distinguished by the prevalent symptomatology. The aim of this study was to determine gender related differences in demographic and clinical manifestations in patients suffering from various subtypes of schizophrenia.Methods: A longitudinal, prospective,original,clinical investigation first in our local area, with application of Structured Clinical Interview for DSM IV Axis I Disorders (SCID I was used in this work. The study included 121 patients during five years period. Patients were recruited as consecutive admissions to the Psychiatric clinic, from all parts of Bosnia and Herzegovina, mostly Sarajevo region.Results: The study was conducted on a group of schizophrenic patients which consisted of 52.1% male and 47.9% female patients. Average duration of the episode was about a month. Majority of patients (male were in the group of disorganized (hebephrenic schizophrenia. The duration of current psychotic episode was similar in all three groups regarding subtypes of schizophrenia. Psychotic episodes appear equally in both gender (higher in disorganized group with a statistically significant difference between all groups (p<0.001.Conclusions: Male group patients showed tendency to be younger than women. Most of the schizophrenic individuals start to suffer from this disease between age of 20 and 39 years. Male group patients suffered mostly of disorganized (hebephrenic type of schizophrenia. Duration of psychotic episode was proportionally the same in both groups while in male group the highest number of episodes was found in group of disorganized schizophrenia.

  16. The Epidemiology and Demographics of Hip Dysplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loder, Randall T.; Skopelja, Elaine N.

    2011-01-01

    The etiology of developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) is unknown. There are many insights, however, from epidemiologic/demographic information. A systematic medical literature review regarding DDH was performed. There is a predominance of left-sided (64.0%) and unilateral disease (63.4%). The incidence per 1000 live births ranges from 0.06 in Africans in Africa to 76.1 in Native Americans. There is significant variability in incidence within each racial group by geographic location. The incidence of clinical neonatal hip instability at birth ranges from 0.4 in Africans to 61.7 in Polish Caucasians. Predictors of DDH are breech presentation, positive family history, and gender (female). Children born premature, with low birth weights, or to multifetal pregnancies are somewhat protected from DDH. Certain HLA A, B, and D types demonstrate an increase in DDH. Chromosome 17q21 is strongly associated with DDH. Ligamentous laxity and abnormalities in collagen metabolism, estrogen metabolism, and pregnancy-associated pelvic instability are well-described associations with DDH. Many studies demonstrate an increase of DDH in the winter, both in the northern and southern hemispheres. Swaddling is strongly associated with DDH. Amniocentesis, premature labor, and massive radiation exposure may increase the risk of DDH. Associated conditions are congenital muscular torticollis and congenital foot deformities. The opposite hip is frequently abnormal when using rigorous radiographic assessments. The role of acetabular dysplasia and adult hip osteoarthritis is complex. Archeological studies demonstrate that the epidemiology of DDH may be changing. PMID:24977057

  17. Demographics of hip dysplasia in the Maine Coon cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loder, Randall T; Todhunter, Rory J

    2017-04-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to study the demographics of feline hip dysplasia (FHD) in the Maine Coon cat. Methods The complete hip dysplasia registry (public and private) collected by the Orthopedic Foundation for Animals through April 2015 was accessed. There were 2732 unique cats; 2708 (99.1%) were Maine Coons, and only these were studied. Variables analyzed were sex, month/season of birth and hip dysplasia score. Two groups were created: those with and without FHD. P dysplasia were older. The percentage of bilateral FHD was 56%, and bilateral cases had more severe dysplasia than unilateral cases but with no age difference. Month/season of birth or geographic region of origin did not influence the prevalence of FHD. Conclusions and relevance This is the largest demographic study of FHD in the Maine Coon cat. The overall prevalence in the Orthopedic Foundation for Animals registry was 24.9%, and slightly higher in males (27.3%) than females (23.3%). Dysplasia was more severe in bilateral than unilateral cases and with increasing age. Caution should be used when extrapolating these findings to other feline breeds or other groups of Maine Coon cats. Further studies need to be performed among other breeds and geographic locations to better understand the demographics of feline hip dysplasia.

  18. Demographic Profile of Older Adults Using Wheeled Mobility Devices

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    Amol M. Karmarkar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine whether the use of wheeled mobility devices differed with respect to age, gender, residential setting, and health-related factors among older adults. A total of 723 adults ageing 60 and older are representing three cohorts, from nursing homes, the Center for Assistive Technology, and the wheelchair registry from the Human Engineering Research Laboratories. Wheeled mobility devices were classified into three main groups: manual wheelchairs, power wheelchairs, and scooters. Our results found factors including age, gender, diagnosis, and living settings to be associated with differences in use of manual versus powered mobility devices. Differences in use were also noted for subtypes of manual (depot, standard, and customized and powered (scooter, standard, and customized mobility devices, on demographic, living arrangements, and health-related factors. Consideration of demographic, health-related, and environmental factors during the prescription process may help clinicians identify the most appropriate mobility device for the user.

  19. The changing demographic, legal, and technological contexts of political representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest, Benjamin

    2005-10-25

    Three developments have created challenges for political representation in the U.S. and particularly for the use of territorially based representation (election by district). First, the demographic complexity of the U.S. population has grown both in absolute terms and in terms of residential patterns. Second, legal developments since the 1960s have recognized an increasing number of groups as eligible for voting rights protection. Third, the growing technical capacities of computer technology, particularly Geographic Information Systems, have allowed political parties and other organizations to create election districts with increasingly precise political and demographic characteristics. Scholars have made considerable progress in measuring and evaluating the racial and partisan biases of districting plans, and some states have tried to use Geographic Information Systems technology to produce more representative districts. However, case studies of Texas and Arizona illustrate that such analytic and technical advances have not overcome the basic contradictions that underlie the American system of territorial political representation.

  20. Hemodialysis versus peritoneal dialysis: epidemiologic and demographic characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hekmat R

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: The preferred modality of dialysis is a controversial issue in nephrology. In this study we compare some demographic and epidemiological characteristics of hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis patients in an attempt to analyze this issue."n"n Methods: The results of the research protocol "A survey of the epidemiological characteristics of chronic dialyzed patients in Khorassan province", was used to compare some demographic and epidemiological aspects of chronic hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis patients in search of any statistically significant difference."n"n Results: A total of 836 chronic dialysis patients entered this study, 802 (95.9% of which were under chronic hemodialysis, and 34 (4.1% patients were undergoing peritoneal dialysis, with 339 (42.3% and 12 (35.3% being female, respectively. The mean age for each group was 47.57 and 46.75 years, respectively. The causes of end-stage renal disease in hemodialzed patients were most commonly hypertension (32.2%, followed by diabetes mellitus (22.3%, unknown causes (19.6% and chronic glomeru-lonephritis (10.2%. In the peritoneal dialysis group, chronic glomerulonephritis (32.4% was the most common reason for dialysis, followed by diabetes mellitus (26

  1. Demographic and Related Determinants of Recent Cuban Emigration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briquets, Sergio Diaz

    1983-01-01

    Examines principal demographic determinants of recent Cuban emigration and discusses how these demographic variables interact with other social, economic, and political determinants. Suggests that Cuban labor migration is more responsive to demographic factors than some theorists assume. (Author/MJL)

  2. Who Enters Campus Recreation Facilities: A Demographic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Rohe Milton

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine student entry into a campus recreation center based on seven demographics (gender, ethnicity, age, class standing, intercollegiate athlete vs. non-athlete, students with self-reported disability vs. non-disability, and campus residence in order to determine who would be most likely to enter the recreation center. Subjects were from a mid-western, four year state-assisted institution with combined enrollment of 23,932 undergraduate and graduate students. Of the 23,932 enrolled, 14,032 students were examined in this study. Information on student entry to the recreation center was collected through the university’s student information system. Data was analyzed and interpreted using chi-square analysis. Results of the study show statistically significant differences in the demographics except the student disability demographic. More males than females, more African Americans than other ethnicities, more traditionally aged (18-25 students than non-traditional students, more underclassmen than seniors, more athletes and non-athletes, more residents than commuters were likely to enter the campus recreation center. The findings in this study could be used by collegiate recreational sport directors and administrators, in the United States and internationally, for future ideas about programming in similar recreation settings.

  3. Revolution without ideology: demographic transition in East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, T D

    1980-01-01

    population increase was initially expressed in the early 1960s. The government of Taiwan designed a 10-year plan of action to reduce the rate of increase from 2.9% to 1.9% by 1975, a goal that was reached on schedule. The South Korean experience was similar. The birthrate decreased from 2.9% to about 2.0% between 1960-70. Demographic conditions in North Korea are known only poorly. Decreased growth rates in all of these countries would not be of major significance if the demographic situation within China remained unchanged, but marked alterations in birthrate have occurred in China. These reductions in average family size were realized in essentially similar ways. The basic mechanisms were delayed marriage, increased use of contraceptive devices, abortion, and sterilization. More fundamental to the success of family planning programs than mere access to the techniques have been the ability of different countries to provide incentives for birth limitation. A vital element in the success of family planning programs in East Asia has been a marked drop in mortality. Overall, a rising level of prosperity appears less essential than does provision of basic subsistence and a broadened range of occupational options for both sexes and all classes.

  4. Quantifying the Search Behaviour of Different Demographics Using Google Correlate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Letchford

    Full Text Available Vast records of our everyday interests and concerns are being generated by our frequent interactions with the Internet. Here, we investigate how the searches of Google users vary across U.S. states with different birth rates and infant mortality rates. We find that users in states with higher birth rates search for more information about pregnancy, while those in states with lower birth rates search for more information about cats. Similarly, we find that users in states with higher infant mortality rates search for more information about credit, loans and diseases. Our results provide evidence that Internet search data could offer new insight into the concerns of different demographics.

  5. Comparative demographics of a Hawaiian forest bird community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillaumet, Alban; Woodworth, Bethany L.; Camp, Richard J.; Paxton, Eben

    2016-01-01

    Estimates of demographic parameters such as survival and reproductive success are critical for guiding management efforts focused on species of conservation concern. Unfortunately, reliable demographic parameters are difficult to obtain for any species, but especially for rare or endangered species. Here we derived estimates of adult survival and recruitment in a community of Hawaiian forest birds, including eight native species (of which three are endangered) and two introduced species at Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge, Hawaiʻi. Integrated population models (IPM) were used to link mark–recapture data (1994–1999) with long-term population surveys (1987–2008). To our knowledge, this is the first time that IPM have been used to characterize demographic parameters of a whole avian community, and provides important insights into the life history strategies of the community. The demographic data were used to test two hypotheses: 1) arthropod specialists, such as the ‘Akiapōlā‘au Hemignathus munroi, are ‘slower’ species characterized by a greater relative contribution of adult survival to population growth, i.e. lower fecundity and increased adult survival; and 2) a species’ susceptibility to environmental change, as reflected by its conservation status, can be predicted by its life history traits. We found that all species were characterized by a similar population growth rate around one, independently of conservation status, origin (native vs non-native), feeding guild, or life history strategy (as measured by ‘slowness’), which suggested that the community had reached an equilibrium. However, such stable dynamics were achieved differently across feeding guilds, as demonstrated by a significant increase of adult survival and a significant decrease of recruitment along a gradient of increased insectivory, in support of hypothesis 1. Supporting our second hypothesis, we found that slower species were more vulnerable species at the global

  6. Demographic aspects of social security in region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alla Gennad'evna Leont'eva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a situational analysis of the level of life safety in the field of demographic regions of the Ural Federal District. The analysis is based on data from the Federal Statistics and covers the period 2000-2010. We have developed a system of indicators for evaluating safety in the demographic sphere. We set the main threats to the social and economic stability in the regions. The system of thresholds includes three blocks: the reproduction of the population, marriage and family relationships and health. We have presented a quantitative description of the main threats. Identified priority areas of social protection, providing increased stability of the regional socio-economic development, reducing the likelihood of social conflicts and improve the demographic situation.

  7. Demographic and affective covariates of pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garron, D C; Leavitt, F

    1979-11-01

    Relationships of four demographic variables and five affective variables to eight attributes of low back pain were investigated in 251 patients by stepwise, multivariate analysis. The demographic variables are age, sex, race, and education. The affective variables are state anxiety, trait anxiety anxiety, hostility, and depression. Seven of the pain variables are from the factorially derived Low Back Pain Questionnaire. The eighth pain variable is a self-estimate of intensity. Relationships among demographic and pain variables are small and unsystematic. Hostility has a small, systematically inverse relation to pain variables, supporting theories relating low back pain to inhibition of anger. Anxiety has a small positive relationship, and depression has no relationship to pain variables. In general, the small relationships indicate that the Low Back Pain Questionnaire provides descriptions of pain that are not confounded by social characteristics or current emotional states of patients.

  8. Unfolding the resident-invader dynamics of similar strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dercole, Fabio; Geritz, Stefan A H

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the competition between two groups of similar agents in the restricted, but classical context of unstructured populations varying in continuous time in an isolated, homogeneous, and constant abiotic environment. Individual behavioral and phenotypic traits are quantified by one-dimensional strategies and intra- as well as inter-specific interactions are described in the vicinity of a stationary regime. Some known results are revisited: invasion by a new strategy generically implies the substitution of the former resident; and resident-invader coexistence is possible close to singular strategies-the stationary points of the invasion fitness-and is generically protected-each of the two competing groups can invade the other. An (almost known) old conjecture is shown true: competition close to a singular strategy is "essentially Lotka-Volterra"-dominance of one strategy, protected coexistence at an intermediate equilibrium, and mutual exclusion are the generic outcomes. And the unfolding of the competition scenarios is completed with the analysis of three degenerate singular strategies-characterized by vanishing second-order fitness derivatives-near which resident-invader coexistence can be unprotected. Our approach is based on the series expansion of a generic demographic model, w.r.t. the small strategy difference between the two competing groups, and on known results on time-scale separation and bifurcation theories. The analysis is carried out up to third order and is extendable to any order. For each order, explicit genericity conditions under which higher orders can be neglected are derived and, interestingly, they are known prior to invasion. An important result is that degeneracies up to third-order are required to have more than one stable way of coexistence. Such degeneracies can be due to particular symmetries in the model formulation, and breaking the genericity conditions provides a direct way to draw biological interpretations. The developed

  9. Febrile Seizure: Demographic Features and Causative Factors

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    How to cite this article: Esmaili Gourabi H, Bidabadi E, Cheraghalipour  F, Aarabi  Y, Salamat F. Febrile Seizure: Demographic Features and Causative Factors. Iran J Child Neurol Autumn 2012; 6(4):33-37.Abstract Objective Because of geographical and periodical variation, we prompted to determine the demographic features and causative factors for febrile seizure in Rasht. Materials & Methods In this cross-sectional study, all 6–month- to 6-year-old children with the diagnosis of febrile s...

  10. Similarity measures for protein ensembles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindorff-Larsen, Kresten; Ferkinghoff-Borg, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    Analyses of similarities and changes in protein conformation can provide important information regarding protein function and evolution. Many scores, including the commonly used root mean square deviation, have therefore been developed to quantify the similarities of different protein conformatio...

  11. Felicidade, bem-estar subjetivo e variáveis sociodemográficas, em grupos de estudantes universitários Felicidad, bienestar subjetivo y variables sociodemográficas, en grupos de estudiantes universitarios Happiness, subjective well-being and socio-demographic variables in groups of college students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Augusto Dela Coleta

    2012-04-01

    padres, con más altos niveles socioeconómicos se mostraron significativamente más populares, menos solitarios, más satisfechos con la vida y más felices.This study was developed with 388 college students using a set of scales to measure variables associated to happiness, subjective well-being, social behavior and some questions on demographic data. The results showed that the scales usually present high levels of reliability, average results superior to those expected in the subjective well-being measures and multiple correlation coefficient of 0.79 on the prediction of total happiness. When testing the differences among the several groups, it was verified that women, young people, those married or dating, those who had a religion, studied the first grade in a private school or the college in a public institution, those who know other languages with higher family income, having parents with high level of education or social-economic status, showed to be significantly more popular, less solitaires, more satisfied with their lives and happier.

  12. Socio-demographic influences on food purchasing among Canadian households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricciuto, L; Tarasuk, V; Yatchew, A

    2006-06-01

    To characterize the relationships between selected socio-demographic factors and food selection among Canadian households. A secondary analysis of data from the 1996 Family Food Expenditure survey was conducted (n=10,924). Household food purchases were classified into one of the five food groups from Canada's Food Guide to Healthy Eating. Parametric and non-parametric modelling techniques were employed to analyse the effects of household size, composition, income and education on the proportion of income spent on each food group and the quantity purchased from each food group. Household size, composition, income and education together explained 21-29% of the variation in food purchasing. Households with older adults spent a greater share of their income on vegetables and fruit (Pfood groups (Pfoods (Psocio-demographic characteristics have a strong influence on food purchasing, with the purchase of vegetables and fruit being particularly sensitive. Results reinforce concerns about constraints on food purchasing among lower income households. Furthermore, the differential effects of income and education on food choice need to be considered in the design of public health interventions aimed at altering dietary behaviour.

  13. The Evaluation Clinical and Demographic Characteristics of 115 Patients Diagnosed with Herpes Zoster in Eeastern Turkey

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    Hatice Uce Özkol

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical and demographic characteristics of patients diagnosed with herpes zoster and to explore the similarities and differences with other epidemiological studies from Turkey and the world. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 115 patients diagnosed with herpes zoster in the Yuzuncu Yıl University Medical Faculty Dermatology Department between January 2007 and December 2010. Results: The mean age of the patients was 42.21±23.88 years. 115 patients, -47 female (40.9%, 68 male (59.1%- aged between 2 and 93 years were assessed. Pediatric age group, 20 (17.4%, adult age group, 95 (82.6% patients, respectively. The incidence of HZ was found to be 0.43%. HZ was observed winter rarely (13.04%. Is mostly seen in the months of March (17.39% The affected dermatome were thorasic (49 patient, 42.6%, servical (21 patient, 18.3%, ophtalmic (22 patient, 19.1%, lomber (16 patient, 13.9%, sacral (7 patient, 6.1% respectively. Complications developed in 13% of patients. Conclusion: We observed that our findings were more or less similar to the findings of the literature data. Cases of HZ in our study was very rare during the winter season. Multi-center studies are needed to the emergence of clinical and epidemiological characteristics of HZ in Turkey.

  14. Functional Similarity and Interpersonal Attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neimeyer, Greg J.; Neimeyer, Robert A.

    1981-01-01

    Students participated in dyadic disclosure exercises over a five-week period. Results indicated members of high functional similarity dyads evidenced greater attraction to one another than did members of low functional similarity dyads. "Friendship" pairs of male undergraduates displayed greater functional similarity than did…

  15. Functional Similarity and Interpersonal Attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neimeyer, Greg J.; Neimeyer, Robert A.

    1981-01-01

    Students participated in dyadic disclosure exercises over a five-week period. Results indicated members of high functional similarity dyads evidenced greater attraction to one another than did members of low functional similarity dyads. "Friendship" pairs of male undergraduates displayed greater functional similarity than did "nominal" pairs from…

  16. Socio-demographic factors and edentulism: the Nigerian experience

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    Akeredolu Patricia

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rate of total edentulism is said to be increasing in developing countries and this had been attributed mainly to the high prevalence of periodontal diseases and caries. Several reports have shown that non-disease factors such as attitude, behavior, dental attendance, characteristics of health care systems and socio-demographic factors play important roles in the aetiopathogenesis of edentulism. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between socio-demographic factors and edentulism. Methods A total of 152 patients made up of 80 (52.6% males and 72 (47.4% females who presented in two prosthetic clinics located in an urban and a rural area were included in the study. The relationship between gender, age, socio-economic status and edentulism in this study population was established. Results No significant relationship between gender and denture demand was noted in the study. The demand for complete dentures increased with age while the demand for removable partial dentures also increased with age until the 3rd decade and then started to decline. A significant relationship was found between denture demand and the level of education with a higher demand in lower educational groups (p Conclusions The findings in this study revealed a significant relationship between socio-demographic variables and edentulism with age, educational level and socio-economic status playing vital roles in edentulism and denture demand.

  17. DETERMINING HABITUAL DEMOGRAPHIC COORDINATES AND HEALTH FOR PRIMARY SCHOOL CHILDREN

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    Toma G.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available An important aspect is social learning involves acquisition of knowledge, skills, abilities, habits over from friends, colleagues, social group they belong to.Purpose and research hypothesisSmall school activities is more effective if concrete terms of reference that would bring back to memory certain knowledge that to suggest solutions to solve and give him the opportunity to correct by comparing statements reality, this is why the main method of conducting educational process is observation.Working methodResearch group consisted of children of school age (7-12 years. Demographic information about the subjects covered: health, family composition and housing.Research resultsThe vast majority of children had good health, with no differences between the control group and the experimental group (p = 0.428. Regarding housing conditions, over half (57.1% in the control group and 51.4% in control group live in two rooms, no child lives in a studio and two children in the experimental group live at home with yard. In both groups, two children did not provide information regarding their housing situation. Of children included in the study, a very high percentage (82.9% in the control group and 68.6% in the experimental group is single copies: only six children in the control group and 10 in the control group have brothers or sisters. Under these conditions, more than half of the children have their own room (65.7% in the control group and 57.1% in the experimental group, the rest sharing a room with a brother or sister, or parents (in the case of two children experimental group.ConclusionsWe conclude that in terms of demographic variables (health status, family composition, housing, there are no differences between children in the two groups. Optimal integration in a social environment is based not only on the correct development of intellectual faculties, namely, the possibility of natural evolution on the moral values, scientific and so on, but

  18. How to get the timing right. A computational model of the effects of the timing of contacts on team cohesion in demographically diverse teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flache, Andreas; Mäs, Michael

    Lau and Murnighan’s faultline theory explains negative effects of demographic diversity on team performance as consequence of strong demographic faultlines. If demographic differences between group members are correlated across various dimensions, the team is likely to show a “subgroup split” that

  19. Identifying socio-demographic and socioeconomic determinants of health inequalities in a diverse London community: the South East London Community Health (SELCoH study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatch Stephani L

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Responses to public health need require information on the distribution of mental and physical ill health by demographic and socioeconomic factors at the local community level. Methods The South East London Community Health (SELCoH study is a community psychiatric and physical morbidity survey. Trained interviewers conducted face-to-face computer assisted interviews with 1698 adults aged 16 years and over, from 1076 randomly selected private households in two south London boroughs. We compared the prevalence of common mental disorders, hazardous alcohol use, long standing illness and general physical health by demographic and socioeconomic indicators. Unadjusted and models adjusted for demographic and socioeconomic indicators are presented for all logistic regression models. Results Of those in the sample, 24.2% reported common mental disorder and 44.9% reported having a long standing illness, with 15.7% reporting hazardous alcohol consumption and 19.2% rating their health as fair or poor. The pattern of indicators identifying health inequalities for common mental disorder, poor general health and having a long term illness is similar; individuals who are socioeconomically disadvantaged have poorer health and physical health worsens as age increases for all groups. The prevalence of poor health outcomes by ethnic group suggests that there are important differences between groups, particularly for common mental disorder and poor general health. Higher socioeconomic status was protective for common mental disorder, fair or poor health and long standing illness, but those with higher socioeconomic status reported higher levels of hazardous alcohol use. The proportion of participants who met the criteria for common mental disorder with co-occurring functional limitations was similar or greater to those with poor physical health. Conclusions Health service providers and policy makers should prioritise high risk, socially defined

  20. Demographic Costs Associated with Differences in Habitat Space Occupancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Kelly A; Miles, Donald B

    2016-01-01

    Delimiting the habitat characteristics describing the environmental conditions required by a species has become a critical tool for predicting organismal responses to environmental change. Grinnell emphasized the effects of environmental factors on the ability of a population to maintain a positive growth rate, yet few studies have included demographic or reproductive data in analyses of the Grinnellian niche. Identifying differences in habitat exploitation patterns in response to structural variation in the environment presents an incomplete description of the ability of species to adapt to changing habitats if demographic traits are not included. We estimated the vegetation characteristics used by individuals within a population of hooded warblers (Setophaga citrina) across a spatial transect that includes three structurally different forest habitats. We predicted individuals should select similar structural characteristics within each habitat and have similar reproductive success across sample sites. In the two years post burn, adults were present but no young fledged indicating the habitat requirements necessary for reproduction were absent in this habitat. We found significant differences in habitat space occupied by individuals in unaltered and harvested habitats. Nesting habitats used by female warblers differed from available habitat. Fledging success was lower in the harvested habitat 10 to 12 years post-harvest. In the harvested habitat, fledging success was greater on mesic slopes but decreased along a habitat gradient to xeric ridgetops, suggesting compensation in habitat use does not ameliorate fitness costs. In contrast, there was no difference in the number of fledged young along this gradient in the unaltered habitat. Based solely on occupancy data, traditional ecological niche models would incorrectly conclude the environmental characteristics found across the three forested habitats are included in the Grinnellian niche of the hooded warbler

  1. Personality, mental health and demographic correlates of hoarding behaviours in a midlife sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spittlehouse, Janet K; Vierck, Esther; Pearson, John F; Joyce, Peter R

    2016-01-01

    We describe the Temperament and Character Inventory personality traits, demographic features, physical and mental health variables associated with hoarding behaviour in a random community sample of midlife participants in New Zealand. A sample of 404 midlife participants was recruited to a study of ageing. To assess hoarding behaviours participants completed the Savings Inventory-Revised (SI-R), personality was assessed by the Temperament and Character Inventory and self-reported health was measured by the Short Form-36v2 (SF-36v2). Other measures were used to assess socio-demographic variables and current mental disorders. Participants were split into four groups by SI-R total score (scores: 0-4, 5-30, 31-41 and >41). Those who scored >41 on the SI-R were classified as having pathological hoarding. Trend tests were calculated across the four hoarding groups for socio-demographic, personality, mental and physical health variables. SI-R scores ranged from 0 to 58. The prevalence of pathological hoarding was 2.5% and a further 4% reported sub-clinical symptoms of hoarding. Higher hoarding behaviour scores were related to higher Temperament and Character Inventory scores for Harm Avoidance and lower scores for Self-directedness. Persistence and Cooperativeness scores were lower too but to a lesser extent. Trend analysis revealed that those with higher hoarding behaviour scores were more likely to be single, female, unemployed, receive income support, have a lower socio-economic status, lower household income and have poorer self-reported mental health scores. Current depression rates were considerably higher in the pathological hoarding group. Increasing SI-R hoarding behaviour scores were associated with higher scores of negative affect (Harm Avoidance) and lower scores of autonomy (Self-directedness). Those with pathological hoarding or sub-clinical symptoms of hoarding also reported widespread mental and socio-economic problems. In this study it is clear to see the

  2. Personality, mental health and demographic correlates of hoarding behaviours in a midlife sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet K. Spittlehouse

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We describe the Temperament and Character Inventory personality traits, demographic features, physical and mental health variables associated with hoarding behaviour in a random community sample of midlife participants in New Zealand. A sample of 404 midlife participants was recruited to a study of ageing. To assess hoarding behaviours participants completed the Savings Inventory-Revised (SI-R, personality was assessed by the Temperament and Character Inventory and self-reported health was measured by the Short Form-36v2 (SF-36v2. Other measures were used to assess socio-demographic variables and current mental disorders. Participants were split into four groups by SI-R total score (scores: 0–4, 5–30, 31–41 and >41. Those who scored >41 on the SI-R were classified as having pathological hoarding. Trend tests were calculated across the four hoarding groups for socio-demographic, personality, mental and physical health variables. SI-R scores ranged from 0 to 58. The prevalence of pathological hoarding was 2.5% and a further 4% reported sub-clinical symptoms of hoarding. Higher hoarding behaviour scores were related to higher Temperament and Character Inventory scores for Harm Avoidance and lower scores for Self-directedness. Persistence and Cooperativeness scores were lower too but to a lesser extent. Trend analysis revealed that those with higher hoarding behaviour scores were more likely to be single, female, unemployed, receive income support, have a lower socio-economic status, lower household income and have poorer self-reported mental health scores. Current depression rates were considerably higher in the pathological hoarding group. Increasing SI-R hoarding behaviour scores were associated with higher scores of negative affect (Harm Avoidance and lower scores of autonomy (Self-directedness. Those with pathological hoarding or sub-clinical symptoms of hoarding also reported widespread mental and socio-economic problems. In this study

  3. Life Potential as a Basic Demographic Indicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goerlich, Francisco J.; Soler, Angel

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes an indicator that integrates life expectancy with the demographic structure of the population for a given society. By doing this, we have a simple indicator of mortality and aging combined, which could be very useful for developed societies. As is widely known, life expectancy at birth is independent of the demographic…

  4. Demographic development in ASEAN: a comparative overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrin, A N; Pardoko, H; Lim, L L; Hongladorom, C

    1981-01-01

    A comparative overview of recent demographic developments in the ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations) region is presented. Countries discussed include Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. Separate consideration is given to mortality; fertility; and migration, spatial distribution, and employment. A final section is concerned with emerging issues and directions for population policy.

  5. Second demographic transition de-blocked?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobić Mirjana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The text is re-examining the previously established dilemma related to whether Serbia (without Kosovo and Metohija is the country of second demographic transition, i.e.: has the transition been de-blocked, under the assumption that this is a worldwide historical process of transformation of industrialized countries. The last thesis, around which there exists a lot of controversy in the contemporary population theory, is however not dealt with in detail; to the contrary, it is used as the general theoretical framework for the exploration of the most recent tendencies in the transformation of nuptiality and fertility regime in Serbia, as well as in the western and countries in post-socialist transformation. Special attention is given to the ideational changes, more precisely to the specific features of the value profile of the Serbian population, which is one of the most important determinants of the societal framework, that acts in the back of the afore mentioned aggregate demographic indicators. Finally, the hypothesis is posed (which should be further investigated by means of in-depth research and complementary approach that the speeding-up of the second demographic transition and intensification of the individualisation not only of the partnership but of the parenthood as well, accompanied with the rise of living standard and social support to balancing work and family, would have produced important emancipating and, concomitantly, positive socioeconomic and demographic effects.

  6. The Demographics of Corporal Punishment in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examined the student discipline policies of 1,025 Texas school districts, as well as data from the Texas Education Agency's Academic Excellence Indicator System in order to identify demographic patterns regarding corporal punishment policies in Texas schools. The study also studied the relationship between a district's…

  7. The Demographics of Corporal Punishment in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examined the student discipline policies of 1,025 Texas school districts, as well as data from the Texas Education Agency's Academic Excellence Indicator System in order to identify demographic patterns regarding corporal punishment policies in Texas schools. The study also studied the relationship between a district's corporal…

  8. Economic and Demographic Predictors of Inclusive Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosier, Meghan E.; Causton-Theoharis, Julie

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated economic and demographic predictors of levels of inclusion of students with disabilities in 129 school districts. Multiple regression analysis was utilized to address the following research questions: (a) Is there a relationship between economic factors and percentage of highly included students with disabilities in general…

  9. The influence of selected socio-demographic variables on symptoms occurring during the menopause

    OpenAIRE

    Marta Makara-Studzińska; Karolina Kryś-Noszczyką; Grzegorz Jakiel

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: It is considered that the lifestyle conditioned by socio-demographic or socio-economic factors determines the health condition of people to the greatest extent. The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of selected socio-demographic factors on the kinds of symptoms occurring during menopause. Material and methods : The study group consisted of 210 women aged 45 to 65, not using hormone replacement therapy, staying at healthcare centers for rehabilitation treatment...

  10. An Empirical Analysis of Socio-Demographic Stratification in Sweetened Carbonated Soft-Drink Purchasing

    OpenAIRE

    Rhodes, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Caloric soft drinks are the number one source of added sugars in U.S. diets, and are associated with many health problems. Three recent years of household purchase, household demographic, and industry advertising data allow Heckit estimation to identify how specific demographic groups vary in their purchase response to marketing of sweetened carbonated soft drinks (sCSDs) at the product category level. Empirical results reveal unique non-linear patterns of household purchase response to sCSD-...

  11. Burnout syndrome in physical therapists – Demographic and organizational factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urszula Pustułka-Piwnik

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Professional burnout results from prolonged exposure to chronic, job-related stressors. According to Christina Maslach, professional burnout is a syndrome of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and reduced personal accomplishment. Literature includes a number of reports on burnout syndrome within health service, but hardly ever do they make any references to physiotherapists. The purpose of this study is assessment of the level of professional burnout in a group of physiotherapists and investigating relationships between the indices of burnout syndrome and selected demographic as well as organizational variables. Material and Methods: The study group consisted of 151 physiotherapists with at least 3 years of experience, employed in various health service outposts in Krakow, Poland. The Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI was used to measure emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and personal accomplishment. A questionnaire for the description of socio-demographic and work characteristics was used as well. Results: Job burnout among the physiotherapists was manifested by an increased emotional exhaustion and decreased sense of personal achievement. Emotional exhaustion was significantly higher among physical therapists working with adults and employed in hospitals, depersonalization was higher among men, hospital workers and employees with seniority from 15 to 19 years, personal accomplishment was decreased among men and less-educated therapists. Conclusions: The study confirmed that indicators of burnout in physiotherapists are significantly associated with selected demographic and organizational variables. It is necessary to undertake a more exhaustive study of burnout in this group of employees, and implement elements of prevention. Med Pr 2014;65(4:453–462

  12. A Similarity Search Using Molecular Topological Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshifumi Fukunishi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A molecular similarity measure has been developed using molecular topological graphs and atomic partial charges. Two kinds of topological graphs were used. One is the ordinary adjacency matrix and the other is a matrix which represents the minimum path length between two atoms of the molecule. The ordinary adjacency matrix is suitable to compare the local structures of molecules such as functional groups, and the other matrix is suitable to compare the global structures of molecules. The combination of these two matrices gave a similarity measure. This method was applied to in silico drug screening, and the results showed that it was effective as a similarity measure.

  13. A COMPARISON OF SEMANTIC SIMILARITY MODELS IN EVALUATING CONCEPT SIMILARITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. X. Xu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The semantic similarities are important in concept definition, recognition, categorization, interpretation, and integration. Many semantic similarity models have been established to evaluate semantic similarities of objects or/and concepts. To find out the suitability and performance of different models in evaluating concept similarities, we make a comparison of four main types of models in this paper: the geometric model, the feature model, the network model, and the transformational model. Fundamental principles and main characteristics of these models are introduced and compared firstly. Land use and land cover concepts of NLCD92 are employed as examples in the case study. The results demonstrate that correlations between these models are very high for a possible reason that all these models are designed to simulate the similarity judgement of human mind.

  14. a Comparison of Semantic Similarity Models in Evaluating Concept Similarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Q. X.; Shi, W. Z.

    2012-08-01

    The semantic similarities are important in concept definition, recognition, categorization, interpretation, and integration. Many semantic similarity models have been established to evaluate semantic similarities of objects or/and concepts. To find out the suitability and performance of different models in evaluating concept similarities, we make a comparison of four main types of models in this paper: the geometric model, the feature model, the network model, and the transformational model. Fundamental principles and main characteristics of these models are introduced and compared firstly. Land use and land cover concepts of NLCD92 are employed as examples in the case study. The results demonstrate that correlations between these models are very high for a possible reason that all these models are designed to simulate the similarity judgement of human mind.

  15. Role-based similarity in directed networks

    CERN Document Server

    Cooper, Kathryn

    2010-01-01

    The widespread relevance of increasingly complex networks requires methods to extract meaningful coarse-grained representations of such systems. For undirected graphs, standard community detection methods use criteria largely based on density of connections to provide such representations. We propose a method for grouping nodes in directed networks based on the role of the nodes in the network, understood in terms of patterns of incoming and outgoing flows. The role groupings are obtained through the clustering of a similarity matrix, formed by the distances between feature vectors that contain the number of in and out paths of all lengths for each node. Hence nodes operating in a similar flow environment are grouped together although they may not themselves be densely connected. Our method, which includes a scale factor that reveals robust groupings based on increasingly global structure, provides an alternative criterion to uncover structure in networks where there is an implicit flow transfer in the system...

  16. Learning Multi-modal Similarity

    CERN Document Server

    McFee, Brian

    2010-01-01

    In many applications involving multi-media data, the definition of similarity between items is integral to several key tasks, e.g., nearest-neighbor retrieval, classification, and recommendation. Data in such regimes typically exhibits multiple modalities, such as acoustic and visual content of video. Integrating such heterogeneous data to form a holistic similarity space is therefore a key challenge to be overcome in many real-world applications. We present a novel multiple kernel learning technique for integrating heterogeneous data into a single, unified similarity space. Our algorithm learns an optimal ensemble of kernel transfor- mations which conform to measurements of human perceptual similarity, as expressed by relative comparisons. To cope with the ubiquitous problems of subjectivity and inconsistency in multi- media similarity, we develop graph-based techniques to filter similarity measurements, resulting in a simplified and robust training procedure.

  17. Renewing the Respect for Similarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimon eEdelman

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In psychology, the concept of similarity has traditionally evoked a mixture of respect, stemmingfrom its ubiquity and intuitive appeal, and concern, due to its dependence on the framing of the problemat hand and on its context. We argue for a renewed focus on similarity as an explanatory concept, bysurveying established results and new developments in the theory and methods of similarity-preservingassociative lookup and dimensionality reduction — critical components of many cognitive functions, aswell as of intelligent data management in computer vision. We focus in particular on the growing familyof algorithms that support associative memory by performing hashing that respects local similarity, andon the uses of similarity in representing structured objects and scenes. Insofar as these similarity-basedideas and methods are useful in cognitive modeling and in AI applications, they should be included inthe core conceptual toolkit of computational neuroscience.

  18. Similarity Learning of Manifold Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Si-Bao; Ding, Chris H Q; Luo, Bin

    2015-09-01

    Without constructing adjacency graph for neighborhood, we propose a method to learn similarity among sample points of manifold in Laplacian embedding (LE) based on adding constraints of linear reconstruction and least absolute shrinkage and selection operator type minimization. Two algorithms and corresponding analyses are presented to learn similarity for mix-signed and nonnegative data respectively. The similarity learning method is further extended to kernel spaces. The experiments on both synthetic and real world benchmark data sets demonstrate that the proposed LE with new similarity has better visualization and achieves higher accuracy in classification.

  19. Dynamic similarity in erosional processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheidegger, A.E.

    1963-01-01

    A study is made of the dynamic similarity conditions obtaining in a variety of erosional processes. The pertinent equations for each type of process are written in dimensionless form; the similarity conditions can then easily be deduced. The processes treated are: raindrop action, slope evolution and river erosion. ?? 1963 Istituto Geofisico Italiano.

  20. Wavelet transform in similarity paradigm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Z.R. Struzik; A.P.J.M. Siebes (Arno)

    1998-01-01

    textabstract[INS-R9802] Searching for similarity in time series finds still broader applications in data mining. However, due to the very broad spectrum of data involved, there is no possibility of defining one single notion of similarity suitable to serve all applications. We present a powerful

  1. Demographic variables in coal miners’ safety attitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Wen-wen; Wu, Xiang; Ci, Hui-Peng; Qin, Shu-Qi; Liu, Jia-Long

    2017-03-01

    To change unsafe behavior through adjusting people’s safety attitudes has become an important measure to prevent accidents. Demographic variables, as influential factors of safety attitude, are fundamental and essential for the research. This research does a questionnaire survey among coal mine industry workers, and makes variance analysis and correlation analysis of the results in light of age, length of working years, educational level and experiences of accidents. The results show that the coal miners’ age, length of working years and accident experiences correlate lowly with safety attitudes, and those older coal miners with longer working years have better safety attitude, as coal miners without experiences of accident do.However, educational level has nothing to do with the safety attitude. Therefore, during the process of safety management, coal miners with different demographic characteristics should be put more attention to.

  2. Complexity and demographic explanations of cumulative culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrien Querbes

    Full Text Available Formal models have linked prehistoric and historical instances of technological change (e.g., the Upper Paleolithic transition, cultural loss in Holocene Tasmania, scientific progress since the late nineteenth century to demographic change. According to these models, cumulation of technological complexity is inhibited by decreasing--while favoured by increasing--population levels. Here we show that these findings are contingent on how complexity is defined: demography plays a much more limited role in sustaining cumulative culture in case formal models deploy Herbert Simon's definition of complexity rather than the particular definitions of complexity hitherto assumed. Given that currently available empirical evidence doesn't afford discriminating proper from improper definitions of complexity, our robustness analyses put into question the force of recent demographic explanations of particular episodes of cultural change.

  3. Stock vs. Bond Yields, and Demographic Fluctuations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gozluklu, Arie; Morin, Annaïg

    that the slow-evolving time-series covariation due to changing population age structure accounts for the equilibrium relation between stock and bond markets. As a result, by exploiting the demographic information into distant future, the forecasting performance of evaluation models improves. Finally, using...... a cross-country panel, we document the cross-sectional variation of the demographic effect and explain the cross-country differences in comovement between stock and bond markets.......This paper analyzes the strong comovement between real stock and nominal bond yields at generational (low) frequencies. Life-cycle patterns in savings behavior in an overlapping generations model with cash-in-advance constraints explain this persistent comovement between financial yields. We argue...

  4. The AAVSO 2011 Demographic and Background Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Price, C Aaron

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, the AAVSO conducted a survey of 615 people who are or were recently active in the 101-year old organization. The survey included questions about their demographic background and variable star interests. Data are descriptively analyzed and compared with prior surveys. Results show an organization of very highly educated, largely male amateur and professional astronomers distributed across 108 countries. Participants tend to be loyal, with the average time of involvement in the AAVSO reported as 14 years. Most major demographic factors have not changed much over time. However, the average age of new members is increasing. Also, a significant portion of the respondents report being strictly active in a non-observing capacity, reflecting the growing mission of the organization. Motivations of participants are more aligned with scientific contribution than with that reported by other citizen science projects. This may help explain why a third of all respondents are an author or co-author of a paper in an ...

  5. Stock vs. Bond Yields, and Demographic Fluctuations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gozluklu, Arie; Morin, Annaïg

    that the slow-evolving time-series covariation due to changing population age structure accounts for the equilibrium relation between stock and bond markets. As a result, by exploiting the demographic information into distant future, the forecasting performance of evaluation models improves. Finally, using...... a cross-country panel, we document the cross-sectional variation of the demographic effect and explain the cross-country differences in comovement between stock and bond markets.......This paper analyzes the strong comovement between real stock and nominal bond yields at generational (low) frequencies. Life-cycle patterns in savings behavior in an overlapping generations model with cash-in-advance constraints explain this persistent comovement between financial yields. We argue...

  6. New Approaches to Demographic Data Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treiman, Donald J.; Lu, Yao; Qi, Yaqiang

    2013-01-01

    As population scientists have expanded the range of topics they study, increasingly considering the interrelationship between population phenomena and social, economic, and health conditions, they have expanded the kinds of data collected and have brought to bear new data collection techniques and procedures, often borrowed from other fields. These new approaches to demographic data collection are the concern of this essay. We consider three main topics: new developments in sampling procedures; new developments in fieldwork procedures; and new developments in the kind of information collected in demographic and social surveys. We conclude with some comments on data sharing in the social research community and a list of major Chinese surveys publicly available to researchers. Where possible we illustrate our points with Chinese examples. PMID:23844330

  7. ALS Multicenter Cohort Study of Oxidative Stress (ALS COSMOS): study methodology, recruitment, and baseline demographic and disease characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsumoto, Hiroshi; Factor-Litvak, Pam; Andrews, Howard; Goetz, Raymond R; Andrews, Leslie; Rabkin, Judith G; McElhiney, Martin; Nieves, Jeri; Santella, Regina M; Murphy, Jennifer; Hupf, Jonathan; Singleton, Jess; Merle, David; Kilty, Mary; Heitzman, Daragh; Bedlack, Richard S; Miller, Robert G; Katz, Jonathan S; Forshew, Dallas; Barohn, Richard J; Sorenson, Eric J; Oskarsson, Bjorn; Fernandes Filho, J Americo M; Kasarskis, Edward J; Lomen-Hoerth, Catherine; Mozaffar, Tahseen; Rollins, Yvonne D; Nations, Sharon P; Swenson, Andrea J; Shefner, Jeremy M; Andrews, Jinsy A; Koczon-Jaremko, Boguslawa A

    2014-06-01

    Abstract In a multicenter study of newly diagnosed ALS patients without a reported family history of ALS, we are prospectively investigating whether markers of oxidative stress (OS) are associated with disease progression. Methods utilize an extensive structured telephone interview ascertaining environmental, lifestyle, dietary and psychological risk factors associated with OS. Detailed assessments were performed at baseline and at 3-6 month intervals during the ensuing 30 months. Our biorepository includes DNA, plasma, urine, and skin. Three hundred and fifty-five patients were recruited. Subjects were enrolled over a 36-month period at 16 sites. To meet the target number of subjects, the recruitment period was prolonged and additional sites were included. Results showed that demographic and disease characteristics were similar between 477 eligible/non-enrolled and enrolled patients, the only difference being type of health insurance among enrolled patients. Sites were divided into three groups by the number of enrolled subjects. Comparing these three groups, the Columbia site had fewer 'definite ALS' diagnoses. This is the first prospective, interdisciplinary, in-depth, multicenter epidemiological investigation of OS related to ALS progression and has been accomplished by an aggressive recruitment process. The baseline demographic and disease features of the study sample are now fully characterized.

  8. The demographic cycle and optimal schooling choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, B P; Berger, M C

    1996-10-01

    A model is developed that enables the authors to estimate the effects of demographic cycles on both earnings and schooling. The model is tested using data from the 1991 Korean Occupational Wage Survey. The results indicate that cohorts following large birth cohorts in the cycle choose relatively less formal schooling compared to pre-peak cohorts, and that post-peak cohorts also have lower incomes. This result concerning South Korea is consistent with findings from previous studies concerning the United States.

  9. Regions of Demographic Dynamism in Haryana

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjeev Goel

    2014-01-01

    There are different types of population structures in different parts of the world, the nature of demographic challenges also differ accordingly. The developed countries like USA, Canada, Japan, Australia and many European countries face a problem of slow or even negative population growth. The main concern of the government in these countries remains on population ageing, decline in working force and increasing dependency ratio. The developing countries like India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and L...

  10. DEMOGRAPHIC PREDICTORS WITHIN LOCAL PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bente Florina Maria

    2014-12-01

    Design/methodology/approach- Using a quantitative methodological approach, a survey based on SERVQUAL instrument was applied in order to evaluate local public communication. Data from a sample of 380 citizens within Western Romanian were analyzed. Specific demographic predictors that can influence citizens' satisfaction regarding the quality of communication are analyzed. Findings-By analyzing data it was possible to determine citizen satisfaction and to assess its relationship with different demographic characteristics. The results illustrate that gender does not significantly affect satisfaction, instead age, marital status, residence location (urban versus rural, income, education and occupational status of the respondents significantly affect satisfaction regarding local public communication. In addition, the findings confirm a relationship between the citizens' satisfaction and the age, income, education and occupational status of the respondents. Research limitations/implications- Owing to the budget and time limits, only a one-shot survey was conducted, therefore the comparison between “before” and “after” analysis could not be performed. In addition, further research should investigate the local public communication within national contexts. Practical implications -The adapted SERVQUAL scale may be used by institution managers to objectively assess communication performance and local authority service quality. Originality/value- There continues to be a lack of research regarding the communication process within local public administration and the effect of demographic predictors of communication satisfaction. This paper examines both the perceptions and the expectations of citizens regarding public communication. The results offer insights into residence location, age, income, education and occupational status effects on evaluations of communication satisfaction. Finally, the study contributes to studies of perceived service quality by bearing out

  11. TEENAGE PREGNANCY: DEMOGRAPHICS, MATERNAL AND FOETAL OUTCOME

    OpenAIRE

    Radhika Gollapudi; Jagadeeshwari Sistla

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Pregnancy though is a physiological event in a woman’s life, it has its own associated complications. In teenage pregnancies, the physical and emotional state of stress coupled with biological immaturity leads to adverse effect both on the health of the mother and the foetus. METHODS This study is a clinical prospective study analysing the demographics, maternal health issues and the foetal outcome in teenage pregnancies. The study was conducted over a period of o...

  12. Demographic Pressure in the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Peeters, Marga; Groot, Loek

    2012-01-01

    On top of the sovereign debt crisis in the European Union, demographic change is exerting enormous pressure on public finances. We analyse four policy options: lowering pension benefits, increasing labour market participation of the native population, immigration and participation of older people. Our results show that the most publically indebted EU economies face the highest increases in public spending on the retiring baby boom generations over the coming decades. Fortunately for these eco...

  13. Mortality versus Morbidity in the Demographic Transition

    OpenAIRE

    Aksan, Anna-Maria; Chakraborty, Shankha

    2014-01-01

    The link between the mortality and epidemiological transitions is used to identify the effect of the former on the fertility transition: a mortality transition that is not accompanied by improving morbidity causes slower demographic and economic change. In a model where children may die from infectious disease, childhood health affects human capital and noninfectious-disease-related adult mortality. When child mortality falls from lower prevalence, as it did in western Europe, labor productiv...

  14. Evolving demographics of advanced dental education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldman, H Barry; Perlman, Steven P; Cinotti, Debra A

    2009-01-01

    The numbers of dental school graduates and students enrolled in post graduate programs have increased. Decreases are noted in the enrollment in Periodontics and Prosthodontics programs and a marked increase in the enrollment in Pediatric Dentistry programs. A review of these changes, by gender and race/ethnicity provides an overview of the future demographics of the profession. Some concerns regarding the future are considered.

  15. [[Demographic characteristics of "business bachelors" in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, C

    1987-01-01

    The demographic characteristics of those obliged to live away from their families because of the distance between their normal homes and places of work or education in Japan are described. Data are from a variety of official and other sources. The author notes that such persons are generally male. Factors affecting the growth of this phenomenon in Japan are the concept of lifetime employment with the same company and the popularity of sending children away to school.

  16. Linking Professional, School, Demographic, and Motivational Factors to Desire for Principalship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Allan; Kwan, Paula

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study attempts to link four groups of contextual factors to vice principals' desire for principalship using regression analysis. Relevant items representing context are grouped under professional, school, demographic, and motivational factors. The findings aim to provide greater understanding of the desire, or lack thereof, of vice…

  17. Entropy Based Modelling for Estimating Demographic Trends.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoqi Li

    Full Text Available In this paper, an entropy-based method is proposed to forecast the demographical changes of countries. We formulate the estimation of future demographical profiles as a constrained optimization problem, anchored on the empirically validated assumption that the entropy of age distribution is increasing in time. The procedure of the proposed method involves three stages, namely: 1 Prediction of the age distribution of a country's population based on an "age-structured population model"; 2 Estimation the age distribution of each individual household size with an entropy-based formulation based on an "individual household size model"; and 3 Estimation the number of each household size based on a "total household size model". The last stage is achieved by projecting the age distribution of the country's population (obtained in stage 1 onto the age distributions of individual household sizes (obtained in stage 2. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated by feeding real world data, and it is general and versatile enough to be extended to other time dependent demographic variables.

  18. Rural Household Demographics, Livelihoods and the Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sherbinin, Alex; Vanwey, Leah; McSweeney, Kendra; Aggarwal, Rimjhim; Barbieri, Alisson; Henry, Sabina; Hunter, Lori M; Twine, Wayne

    2008-02-01

    This paper reviews and synthesizes findings from scholarly work on linkages among rural household demographics, livelihoods and the environment. Using the livelihood approach as an organizing framework, we examine evidence on the multiple pathways linking environmental variables and the following demographic variables: fertility, migration, morbidity and mortality, and lifecycles. Although the review draws on studies from the entire developing world, we find the majority of micro-level studies have been conducted in either marginal (mountainous or arid) or frontier environments, especially Amazonia. Though the linkages are mediated by many complex and often context-specific factors, there is strong evidence that dependence on natural resources intensifies when households lose human and social capital through adult morbidity and mortality, and qualified evidence for the influence of environmental factors on household decision-making regarding fertility and migration. Two decades of research on lifecycles and land-cover change at the farm level have yielded a number of insights about how households make use of different land-use and natural resource management strategies at different stages. A thread running throughout the review is the importance of managing risk through livelihood diversification, ensuring future income security, and culture-specific norms regarding appropriate and desirable activities and demographic responses. Recommendations for future research are provided.

  19. Development of reprogenetics and its demographic aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devedžić Mirjana M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of reprogenetics during the last two decades of the XX century has brought a new age of reproduction. The paper surveys different types of reprogenetics in a wider sense, i.e. different assisted reproductive technologies (ART that include manipulation of female reproductive cell out of a woman's womb. Development of reprogenetics is documented by available quantitative indicators of the number and success of ART procedures in developed countries at the beginning of the XXI century. Since 1978, when the first baby was born from in vitro fertilization, the number of children born that way has reached 1% of all children, and in some countries even over 3%. Moreover, existing documentation is incomplete and does not include all forms of assisted reproduction - in reality, the importance of assisted reproduction is even higher and becomes demographically significant. Hence the paper indicates existing and potential effects of the ART development on the demographic development i.e. on specific demographic aspects of this phenomenon. It also points out the effects on the level of fertility, on the changes of direct fertility determinants, and on the levels of mortality and infant mortality, as well as a new understanding of birth control, the possibility of affecting biological structures, and the changes of the fundaments of marriage and family. Development perspectives of reprogenetics are also being raised in the context of bioethical discussions and indicate ethical dilemmas related to assisted reproduction. Solutions to the dilemmas define the scope of applying new reproductive technologies in the future.

  20. Intelligent system to study demographic evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, M. de Fatima; Ramos, Carlos; Henriques, Pedro R.

    1999-02-01

    With three centuries of existence, the study of population's behavior implies the manipulation of large amounts of incomplete and imprecise data with high dimensionality. By virtue of its multidisciplinary character, the work in demography involves at least historicists, statisticians and computer scientists/programmers. Moreover, successful demographic analysis requires qualified experts, who have succeeded in analysing data through many views and relate different sources of information, including their personal knowledge of the epoch or regions under study. In this paper, we present an intelligent system to study demographic evolution (ISSDE). This system has a module based on on-line analytical processing (OLAP), which permits conducting multiple analysis, combining many data dimensions. It has a deductive database system, which allows the execution of elaborated queries through the database. It has another module for date treatment (generalization and/or reduction); and, at last, a data mining module to discover nontrivial relations hidden within data. We discover the data treatment procedure with two phases: data generalization and data reduction. In data generalization, utilizing knowledge about concept hierarchies and relevance of data, aggregation of attribute values is performed. In the data reduction phase, rough set theory is applied to compute the minimal attribute set. We highlight the advantages of combining attribute value generalization with rough set theory, to find a subset of attributes that lets the mining process discover more useful patterns, by providing results from the application of the C5.0 algorithm in a demographic relational database.

  1. Robust demographic inference from genomic and SNP data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Excoffier

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a flexible and robust simulation-based framework to infer demographic parameters from the site frequency spectrum (SFS computed on large genomic datasets. We show that our composite-likelihood approach allows one to study evolutionary models of arbitrary complexity, which cannot be tackled by other current likelihood-based methods. For simple scenarios, our approach compares favorably in terms of accuracy and speed with ∂a∂i, the current reference in the field, while showing better convergence properties for complex models. We first apply our methodology to non-coding genomic SNP data from four human populations. To infer their demographic history, we compare neutral evolutionary models of increasing complexity, including unsampled populations. We further show the versatility of our framework by extending it to the inference of demographic parameters from SNP chips with known ascertainment, such as that recently released by Affymetrix to study human origins. Whereas previous ways of handling ascertained SNPs were either restricted to a single population or only allowed the inference of divergence time between a pair of populations, our framework can correctly infer parameters of more complex models including the divergence of several populations, bottlenecks and migration. We apply this approach to the reconstruction of African demography using two distinct ascertained human SNP panels studied under two evolutionary models. The two SNP panels lead to globally very similar estimates and confidence intervals, and suggest an ancient divergence (>110 Ky between Yoruba and San populations. Our methodology appears well suited to the study of complex scenarios from large genomic data sets.

  2. Similarity of samples and trimming

    CERN Document Server

    Álvarez-Esteban, Pedro C; Cuesta-Albertos, Juan A; Matrán, Carlos; 10.3150/11-BEJ351

    2012-01-01

    We say that two probabilities are similar at level $\\alpha$ if they are contaminated versions (up to an $\\alpha$ fraction) of the same common probability. We show how this model is related to minimal distances between sets of trimmed probabilities. Empirical versions turn out to present an overfitting effect in the sense that trimming beyond the similarity level results in trimmed samples that are closer than expected to each other. We show how this can be combined with a bootstrap approach to assess similarity from two data samples.

  3. The demographics of human and malaria movement and migration patterns in East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The quantification of parasite movements can provide valuable information for control strategy planning across all transmission intensities. Mobile parasite carrying individuals can instigate transmission in receptive areas, spread drug resistant strains and reduce the effectiveness of control strategies. The identification of mobile demographic groups, their routes of travel and how these movements connect differing transmission zones, potentially enables limited resources for interventions to be efficiently targeted over space, time and populations. Methods National population censuses and household surveys provide individual-level migration, travel, and other data relevant for understanding malaria movement patterns. Together with existing spatially referenced malaria data and mathematical models, network analysis techniques were used to quantify the demographics of human and malaria movement patterns in Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania. Movement networks were developed based on connectivity and magnitudes of flow within each country and compared to assess relative differences between regions and demographic groups. Additional malaria-relevant characteristics, such as short-term travel and bed net use, were also examined. Results Patterns of human and malaria movements varied between demographic groups, within country regions and between countries. Migration rates were highest in 20–30 year olds in all three countries, but when accounting for malaria prevalence, movements in the 10–20 year age group became more important. Different age and sex groups also exhibited substantial variations in terms of the most likely sources, sinks and routes of migration and malaria movement, as well as risk factors for infection, such as short-term travel and bed net use. Conclusion Census and survey data, together with spatially referenced malaria data, GIS and network analysis tools, can be valuable for identifying, mapping and quantifying regional connectivities

  4. Demographic Transformations of the Russian Regional Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Viktorovna Kurushina

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the transformations of the quantitative components of human capital, which is the main driver of economic growth in the material, institutional and mental space. According to the author’s concept of stratified space, the processes of self-reproduction and self-renewal of a system are carried out in the material space. This can be determined by the indicators of fertility, mortality and migration in the demographic subsystem. The process of self-regulation of a system on the basis of legislative acts and behavior patterns is carried out in the institutional space. Institutional transformations are also manifested in the implementation of federal target programs for socio-economic development, affecting the state of the demographic subsystem. The processes of self-reflection, self-determination and self-development are carried out in the mental space. Mental transformations in the demographic subsystem are manifested in the change of value orientations. In accordance with the system of values that are conceptualized in modern development strategies the authors define the following models of Man: Economic Man, Socio-Economic Man (who lives in agglomeration centers and at the periphery, Socio-Natural Man (Environmental Man and Householder Man and Innovative Man. Demographic shifts are investigated in 83 Russian regions on the determinants of birth rate and mortality. The analyzed period of transformation covers 2005 and 2012. Methods of matrix analysis are used to visualize the process of demographic shifts. The assessment of transformation of the stratified regional space spheres is given on the basis of the multifactor models of the population natural growth rate. The paper reveals the reduction in the level and variation of mortality rate, the increasing importance and differentiation of regions according to fertility rate, and the effectiveness of introducing the institution of maternity capital from a perspective of the

  5. A demographic survey of unwanted horses in Ireland 2005-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leadon DP

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Irish Horse Industry expanded during the Celtic Tiger boom years, then contracted in the current economic recession. High value horses were traditionally controlled through sale at public auction, private sales and sales to dealers; these are now also being reduced by decreases in production (> 40%, and increases in retirement, re-homing, euthanasia and disposal through Category 2 plants and abattoirs. The absence or banning of horse abattoirs has been shown to have very significant welfare social and economic consequences in the USA. This study described the currently available data on the demographics of unwanted horses in Ireland from 2005 to 2010. Results The majority of horses euthanised by practicing veterinarians are destroyed on medical grounds but the number euthanised at the request of welfare groups and the state, as well as welfare related calls and the number of horses involved in these calls and subsequent visits is increasing reflecting the increasing involvement of the veterinary profession in equine welfare. Welfare groups have limited resources and do not have a tradition of recording data, but they too have reported increasing calls, visits and numbers of horses per visit. Welfare groups provide significant service to equine welfare and the community. Local Authorities report similar trends. Over 300 horses were found dead or required immediate or subsequent euthanasia following welfare group and local authority visits in 2010, which is of national concern. The majority of local authority interfaces with unwanted horses are with urban (60% rather than rural (40% horses. Mortality figures are poor indicators of non-fatal neglect. More horses were admitted into the care of local authorities than welfare groups, reflecting significant state and taxpayer investment in the control of low value horses. Category 2 plants and abattoirs represent a significant state investment in licensing and control in the

  6. Contextual Bandits with Similarity Information

    CERN Document Server

    Slivkins, Aleksandrs

    2009-01-01

    In a multi-armed bandit (MAB) problem, an online algorithm makes a sequence of choices. In each round it chooses from a time-invariant set of alternatives and receives the payoff associated with this alternative. While the case of small strategy sets is by now well-understood, a lot of recent work has focused on MAB problems with exponentially or infinitely large strategy sets, where one needs to assume extra structure in order to make the problem tractable. In particular, recent literature considered information on similarity between arms. We consider similarity information in the setting of "contextual bandits", a natural extension of the basic MAB problem where before each round an algorithm is given the "context" -- a hint about the payoffs in this round. Contextual bandits are directly motivated by placing advertisements on webpages, one of the crucial problems in sponsored search. A particularly simple way to represent similarity information in the contextual bandit setting is via a "similarity distance...

  7. Self-similar aftershock rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidsen, Jörn; Baiesi, Marco

    2016-08-01

    In many important systems exhibiting crackling noise—an intermittent avalanchelike relaxation response with power-law and, thus, self-similar distributed event sizes—the "laws" for the rate of activity after large events are not consistent with the overall self-similar behavior expected on theoretical grounds. This is particularly true for the case of seismicity, and a satisfying solution to this paradox has remained outstanding. Here, we propose a generalized description of the aftershock rates which is both self-similar and consistent with all other known self-similar features. Comparing our theoretical predictions with high-resolution earthquake data from Southern California we find excellent agreement, providing particularly clear evidence for a unified description of aftershocks and foreshocks. This may offer an improved framework for time-dependent seismic hazard assessment and earthquake forecasting.

  8. Unmixing of spectrally similar minerals

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Debba, Pravesh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available -bearing oxide/hydroxide/sulfate minerals in complex mixtures be obtained using hyperspectral data? Debba (CSIR) Unmixing of spectrally similar minerals MERAKA 2009 3 / 18 Method of spectral unmixing Old method: problem Linear Spectral Mixture Analysis (LSMA...

  9. Self-similar aftershock rates

    CERN Document Server

    Davidsen, Jörn

    2016-01-01

    In many important systems exhibiting crackling noise --- intermittent avalanche-like relaxation response with power-law and, thus, self-similar distributed event sizes --- the "laws" for the rate of activity after large events are not consistent with the overall self-similar behavior expected on theoretical grounds. This is in particular true for the case of seismicity and a satisfying solution to this paradox has remained outstanding. Here, we propose a generalized description of the aftershock rates which is both self-similar and consistent with all other known self-similar features. Comparing our theoretical predictions with high resolution earthquake data from Southern California we find excellent agreement, providing in particular clear evidence for a unified description of aftershocks and foreshocks. This may offer an improved way of time-dependent seismic hazard assessment and earthquake forecasting.

  10. Community Detection by Neighborhood Similarity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xu; XIE Zheng; YI Dong-Yun

    2012-01-01

    Detection of the community structure in a network is important for understanding the structure and dynamics of the network.By exploring the neighborhood of vertices,a local similarity metric is proposed,which can be quickly computed.The resulting similarity matrix retains the same support as the adjacency matrix.Based on local similarity,an agglomerative hierarchical clustering algorithm is proposed for community detection.The algorithm is implemented by an efficient max-heap data structure and runs in nearly linear time,thus is capable of dealing with large sparse networks with tens of thousands of nodes.Experiments on synthesized and real-world networks demonstrate that our method is efficient to detect community structures,and the proposed metric is the most suitable one among all the tested similarity indices.%Detection of the community structure in a network is important for understanding the structure and dynamics of the network. By exploring the neighborhood of vertices, a local similarity metric is proposed, which can be quickly computed. The resulting similarity matrix retains the same support as the adjacency matrix. Based on local similarity, an agglomerative hierarchical clustering algorithm is proposed for community detection. The algorithm is implemented by an efficient max-heap data structure and runs in nearly linear time, thus is capable of dealing with large sparse networks with tens of thousands of nodes. Experiments on synthesized and real-world networks demonstrate that our method is efficient to detect community structures, and the proposed metric is the most suitable one among all the tested similarity indices.

  11. Similarity measures for protein ensembles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindorff-Larsen, Kresten; Ferkinghoff-Borg, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    Analyses of similarities and changes in protein conformation can provide important information regarding protein function and evolution. Many scores, including the commonly used root mean square deviation, have therefore been developed to quantify the similarities of different protein conformations...... a synthetic example from molecular dynamics simulations. We then apply the algorithms to revisit the problem of ensemble averaging during structure determination of proteins, and find that an ensemble refinement method is able to recover the correct distribution of conformations better than standard single...

  12. Status competition, inequality, and fertility: implications for the demographic transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenk, Mary K; Kaplan, Hillard S; Hooper, Paul L

    2016-04-19

    The role that social status plays in small-scale societies suggests that status may be important for understanding the evolution of human fertility decisions, and for understanding how such decisions play out in modern contexts. This paper explores whether modelling competition for status--in the sense of relative rank within a society--can help shed light on fertility decline and the demographic transition. We develop a model of how levels of inequality and status competition affect optimal investment by parents in the embodied capital (health, strength, and skills) and social status of offspring, focusing on feedbacks between individual decisions and socio-ecological conditions. We find that conditions similar to those in demographic transition societies yield increased investment in both embodied capital and social status, generating substantial decreases in fertility, particularly under conditions of high inequality and intense status competition. We suggest that a complete explanation for both fertility variation in small-scale societies and modern fertility decline will take into account the effects of status competition and inequality. © 2016 The Author(s).

  13. Diversity and Demographics of Zooarchaeologists: Results from a Digital Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne E. Pilaar Birch

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nearly 25 years ago, a “Zooarchaeology Practitioner Survey” was distributed via conventional mail to individuals in the USA and Canada and received 122 responses over a period of several months in 1991. Now, a revised “Demographics in Zooarchaeology Survey” provides an update to  those data and assesses the current state of the field. The 2014 survey remained open for 3 months and received 288 responses from practitioners worldwide. Global participation was made possible by hosting the survey online. Key findings of the 1991 survey included disparities in employment rank for women despite similar levels of degree level attainment as men, a point which the 2014 survey sought to investigate. This trend appears to persist for those without the PhD and at the highest levels of income for those holding a PhD. In addition, the recent survey asked participants about their racial or ethnic identity in order to evaluate the demographic diversity of the discipline beyond sex, age, and nationality. Data regarding topical and geographic research area were also collected and reflect a subtle bias towards working with mammals and a focus on research questions grounded in prehistory in Europe and North America, followed by Australia and Southwest Asia. Results are compared with those of the earlier survey and membership information from the International Council for Archaeozoology.

  14. Variation in School Health Policies and Programs by Demographic Characteristics of US Schools, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaji, Alexandra B.; Brener, Nancy D.; McManus, Tim

    2010-01-01

    Background: To identify whether school health policies and programs vary by demographic characteristics of schools, using data from the School Health Policies and Programs Study (SHPPS) 2006. This study updates a similar study conducted with SHPPS 2000 data and assesses several additional policies and programs measured for the first time in SHPPS…

  15. The Second Demographic Transition in Israel: One for All?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgenia Bystrov

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This article explores family behaviours and attitudes in Israel over the last decades through the lens of the Second Demographic Transition (SDT. Israel is divided by religious affiliation, the level of religiosity, ethnic origin and timing of immigration. Although fertility transition to replacement level among certain societal groups has been previously shown, the question of how the transition unfolds in other domains remains open. The goal of this paper is to highlight the diversity of marital and fertility transitions and non-transitions among various groups of this heterogeneous society, and to compare Israel's transitions to European ones. The data sources which are used are cross-national large scale surveys, national representative surveys, and Population Register data. The data were disaggregated by religion, religiousness and ethnic origin. Emancipative value change, postponement of marriage, alternative living arrangements and a growing variety of fertility regimes were analyzed. A full range of pre-transitional, transitional, and post-transitional elements was found among the groups. Such sign of the SDT as growing childlessness was not found, and the spread of other features as unmarried cohabitation and non-marital childbearing was found limited. Population composition effects were isolated. It was found that the level of religiosity and the country of origin are important factors which differentiate family behaviours and attitudes. The connection between value orientation of the groups within Israel and their family behaviours is discussed. The socio-structural and institutional constraints that might impede further progression of the Second Demographic Transition in Israel are also discussed. Further research directions are suggested.

  16. Contact and contagion: Probability of transmission given contact varies with demographic state in bighorn sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manlove, Kezia R.; Cassirer, E. Frances; Plowright, Raina K.; Cross, Paul C.; Hudson, Peter J.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding both contact and probability of transmission given contact are key to managing wildlife disease. However, wildlife disease research tends to focus on contact heterogeneity, in part because the probability of transmission given contact is notoriously difficult to measure. Here, we present a first step towards empirically investigating the probability of transmission given contact in free-ranging wildlife.We used measured contact networks to test whether bighorn sheep demographic states vary systematically in infectiousness or susceptibility to Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae, an agent responsible for bighorn sheep pneumonia.We built covariates using contact network metrics, demographic information and infection status, and used logistic regression to relate those covariates to lamb survival. The covariate set contained degree, a classic network metric describing node centrality, but also included covariates breaking the network metrics into subsets that differentiated between contacts with yearlings, ewes with lambs, and ewes without lambs, and animals with and without active infections.Yearlings, ewes with lambs, and ewes without lambs showed similar group membership patterns, but direct interactions involving touch occurred at a rate two orders of magnitude higher between lambs and reproductive ewes than between any classes of adults or yearlings, and one order of magnitude higher than direct interactions between multiple lambs.Although yearlings and non-reproductive bighorn ewes regularly carried M. ovipneumoniae, our models suggest that a contact with an infected reproductive ewe had approximately five times the odds of producing a lamb mortality event of an identical contact with an infected dry ewe or yearling. Consequently, management actions targeting infected animals might lead to unnecessary removal of young animals that carry pathogens but rarely transmit.This analysis demonstrates a simple logistic regression approach for testing

  17. The Clinical and Demographic Characteristics of Pediatric Behçet’s Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayriye Sarıcaoğlu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: In this study, we aimed to compare the clinical and demographic features of pediatric Behçet’s patients with those of adult age.Materials and Method: We examined the clinical and demographic features of the 18 and under 18-year-old children who were followed-up in the Behçet's Center of Uludağ University Medical Faculty between 1992 and 2007, retrospectively. The information of age, sex, presence of oral aphthous ulcers, genital ulcers, erythema nodosum, papulopustular eruption, pathergy test positivity, ocular, articular, neurological, gastrointestinal, renal involvements and HLA-B5 positivity were obtained from the medical charts of the patients.Results: There were 30 pediatric Behçet diagnosed according to the diagnostic criteria of International Study Group for Behçet's Disease. The mean age of the patients was 15.9. At the time of the diagnosis, most of the patients were aged between 17-18 (43.3%. There was only one patient under 10. Oral aphthae was observed in all, and genital ulceration or the scar of the ulcer was observed in 23 patients; 15 females, 8 males (76.6%. Ocular involvement was present in 18 patients; 8 females, 10 males (60%; erythema nodosum in 13 patients; 8 females, 5 males (43.3%, papulopustular eruption in 16 patients; 10 females, 6 males and pathergy test positivity in 12 patients; 7 females, 5 males (36.6%. Vascular symptoms were observed in 2 patients, arthralgia-arthritis in 15 patients and neurological involvement in 4 patients.Conclusion: In this study, it was concluded that ocular involvement was more frequent in Behçet’s patients aged between 0-18 than adult Behçet’s patients, but mucocutaneous findings had similar frequency. (Journal of Current Pediatrics 2008; 6: 89-93

  18. Similarity of atoms in molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cioslowski, J.; Nanayakkara, A. (Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States))

    1993-12-01

    Similarity of atoms in molecules is quantitatively assessed with a measure that employs electron densities within respective atomic basins. This atomic similarity measure does not rely on arbitrary assumptions concerning basis functions or 'atomic orbitals', is relatively inexpensive to compute, and has straightforward interpretation. Inspection of similarities between pairs of carbon, hydrogen, and fluorine atoms in the CH[sub 4], CH[sub 3]F, CH[sub 2]F[sub 2], CHF[sub 3], CF[sub 4], C[sub 2]H[sub 2], C[sub 2]H[sub 4], and C[sub 2]H[sub 6] molecules, calculated at the MP2/6-311G[sup **] level of theory, reveals that the atomic similarity is greatly reduced by a change in the number or the character of ligands (i.e. the atoms with nuclei linked through bond paths to the nucleus of the atom in question). On the other hand, atoms with formally identical (i.e. having the same nuclei and numbers of ligands) ligands resemble each other to a large degree, with the similarity indices greater than 0.95 for hydrogens and 0.99 for non-hydrogens. 19 refs., 6 tabs.

  19. Quantifying Similarity in Seismic Polarizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, D. W. S.; Jones, J. P.; Caffagni, E.

    2015-12-01

    Measuring similarity in seismic attributes can help identify tremor, low S/N signals, and converted or reflected phases, in addition to diagnosing site noise and sensor misalignment in arrays. Polarization analysis is a widely accepted method for studying the orientation and directional characteristics of seismic phases via. computed attributes, but similarity is ordinarily discussed using qualitative comparisons with reference values. Here we introduce a technique for quantitative polarization similarity that uses weighted histograms computed in short, overlapping time windows, drawing on methods adapted from the image processing and computer vision literature. Our method accounts for ambiguity in azimuth and incidence angle and variations in signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio. Using records of the Mw=8.3 Sea of Okhotsk earthquake from CNSN broadband sensors in British Columbia and Yukon Territory, Canada, and vertical borehole array data from a monitoring experiment at Hoadley gas field, central Alberta, Canada, we demonstrate that our method is robust to station spacing. Discrete wavelet analysis extends polarization similarity to the time-frequency domain in a straightforward way. Because histogram distance metrics are bounded by [0 1], clustering allows empirical time-frequency separation of seismic phase arrivals on single-station three-component records. Array processing for automatic seismic phase classification may be possible using subspace clustering of polarization similarity, but efficient algorithms are required to reduce the dimensionality.

  20. E-cigarette Use Related to Demographic Factors in Hawai‘i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, James W; Taira, Deborah A

    2016-01-01

    E-cigarette use is rapidly expanding in the United States and is projected to be a $3 billion industry by the end of this year. E-cigarette use in Hawai‘i is significantly higher than national averages. The goal of this study was to examine the relationship in Hawai‘i between demographic characteristics and several aspects of e-cigarette use including percentage of residents trying e-cigarettes, reasons for use, and perceived effects on health. Survey data were collected from a random sample of Hawai‘i residents via the telephone in the summer of 2015, using methodology similar to that of the Hawai‘i Health Survey. Chi-squared tests found e-cigarette use to be significantly associated with age (P =.001), gender (P =.03), ethnicity (P e-cigarettes, 21% said their use of regular cigarettes did not change, 6% said they reduced use of regular cigarettes, and 20% said they completely stopped smoking regular cigarettes. Multivariable logistic regression results suggest Native Hawaiians (OR=29.1, P =.01) and Filipinos (OR=24.3, P =.01) were significantly more likely to report perceived improved health due to e-cigarette use compared to Caucasians. Given existing health disparities for Native Hawaiians and Filipinos, the fact that these groups are significantly more likely than other ethnic/racial groups to report that e-cigarettes improved their health bears notice and highlights the need for additional research in this area. PMID:27738563

  1. Sitting too much: A hierarchy of socio-demographic correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakerveld, Jeroen; Loyen, Anne; Schotman, Nina; Peeters, Carel F W; Cardon, Greet; van der Ploeg, Hidde P; Lien, Nanna; Chastin, Sebastien; Brug, Johannes

    2017-08-01

    Too much sitting (extended sedentary time) is recognized as a public health concern in Europe and beyond. Time spent sedentary is influenced and conditioned by clusters of individual-level and contextual (upstream) factors. Identifying population subgroups that sit too much could help to develop targeted interventions to reduce sedentary time. We explored the relative importance of socio-demographic correlates of sedentary time in adults across Europe. We used data from 26,617 adults who participated in the 2013 Special Eurobarometer 412 "Sport and physical activity". Participants from all 28 EU Member States were randomly selected and interviewed face-to-face. Self-reported sedentary time was dichotomized into sitting less or >7.5h/day. A Chi-squared Automatic Interaction Detection (CHAID) algorithm was used to create a tree that hierarchically partitions the data on the basis of the independent variables (i.e., socio-demographic factors) into homogeneous (sub)groups with regard to sedentary time. This allows for the tentative identification of population segments at risk for unhealthy sedentary behaviour. Overall, 18.5% of the respondents reported sitting >7.5h/day. Occupation was the primary discriminator. The subgroup most likely to engage in extensive sitting were higher educated, had white-collar jobs, reported no difficulties with paying bills, and used the internet frequently. Clear socio-demographic profiles were identified for adults across Europe who engage in extended sedentary time. Furthermore, physically active participants were consistently less likely to engage in longer daily sitting times. In general, those with more indicators of higher wealth were more likely to spend more time sitting. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Socio-demographic determinants of participation in mammography screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Euler-Chelpin, My; Olsen, Anne Helene; Njor, Sisse; Vejborg, Ilse; Schwartz, Walter; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2008-01-15

    Our objective was to use individual data on socio-demographic characteristics to identify predictors of participation in mammography screening and control to what extent they can explain the regional difference. We used data from mammography screening programmes in Copenhagen, 1991-1999, and Funen, 1993-2001, Denmark. Target groups were identified from the Population Register, screening data came from the health authority, and socio-demographic data from Statistics Denmark. Included were women eligible for at least 3 screens. The crude RR of never use versus always use was 3.21 (95%CI, 3.07-3.35) for Copenhagen versus Funen, and the adjusted RR was 2.55 (95%CI, 2.43-2.67). The adjusted RR for never use among women without contact to a primary care physician was 2.50 (95% CI, 2.31-2.71) and 2.89 (95% CI, 2.66-3.14), and for women without dental care 2.94 (95% CI, 2.77-3.12) and 2.88 (95% CI, 2.68-3.10) for Copenhagen and Funen, respectively. Other important predictive factors for nonparticipation were not being married and not being Danish. In conclusion, to enhance participation in mammography screening programmes special attention needs to be given to women not using other primary health care services. All women in Copenhagen, irrespective of their socio-demographic characteristics, had low participation. Screening programmes have to find ways to handle this urbanity factor. Copyright 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Similarity measures for face recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Vezzetti, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    Face recognition has several applications, including security, such as (authentication and identification of device users and criminal suspects), and in medicine (corrective surgery and diagnosis). Facial recognition programs rely on algorithms that can compare and compute the similarity between two sets of images. This eBook explains some of the similarity measures used in facial recognition systems in a single volume. Readers will learn about various measures including Minkowski distances, Mahalanobis distances, Hansdorff distances, cosine-based distances, among other methods. The book also summarizes errors that may occur in face recognition methods. Computer scientists "facing face" and looking to select and test different methods of computing similarities will benefit from this book. The book is also useful tool for students undertaking computer vision courses.

  4. Professionals and Power Vacuums on Demographic Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seabrooke, Leonard; Tsingou, Eleni

    Aging populations across advanced industrialized countries are expected to have a great impact on a range of socio-economic policies, ranging from welfare and pensions provision to industrial, labor market and financial policies. While populations are aging there has also been a drop in birth rates....... Demographic change is acknowledged as a policy concern within many advanced industrialize countries, but discussions about low fertility are not explicitly expressed in terms of policy objectives. Governments, sensitive to the authoritarian implications of prescriptive natalist policies, focus instead...

  5. THE PROCESS AND EFFECTS OF DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION IN PENANG, MALAYSIA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Usman Haji Yaakob; Nik Norliati Fitri Md Nor

    2013-01-01

      This article describes the demographic transition in Penang, Malaysia based on the demographic transition theory, which explains the decline of birth and death rates in European countries during the 18th century...

  6. The association of demographic variables and dietary habits on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The association of demographic variables and dietary habits on body mass ... socio-demographic variables, weight, height, frequency of physical activity, and food ... in Korea should focus on reducing the intake of meat and high energy foods.

  7. Demographic analysis reveals gradual senescence in the flatworm Macrostomum lignano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braeckman Bart P

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Free-living flatworms ("Turbellaria" are appropriate model organisms to gain better insight into the role of stem cells in ageing and rejuvenation. Ageing research in flatworms is, however, still scarce. This is partly due to culture difficulties and the lack of a complete set of demographic data, including parameters such as median lifespan and age-specific mortality rate. In this paper, we report on the first flatworm survival analysis. We used the species Macrostomum lignano, which is an emerging model for studying the reciprocal influence between stem cells, ageing and rejuvenation. This species has a median lifespan of 205 ± 13 days (average ± standard deviation [SD] and a 90th percentile lifespan of 373 ± 32 days. The maximum lifespan, however, is more than 745 days, and the average survival curve is characterised by a long tail because a small number of individuals lives twice as long as 90% of the population. Similar to earlier observations in a wide range of animals, in M. lignano the age-specific mortality rate increases exponentially, but levels off at the oldest ages. To compare the senescence of M. lignano with that of other ageing models, we determined the mortality rate doubling time, which is 0.20 ± 0.02 years. As a result, we can conclude that M. lignano shows gradual senescence at a rate similar to the vertebrate ageing models Rattus norvegicus and Mus musculus. We argue that M. lignano is a suitable model for ageing and rejuvenation research, and especially for the role of stem cells in these processes, due to its accessible stem cell system and regeneration capacity, and the possibility of combining stem cell studies with demographic analyses.

  8. Value Orientations and the Second Demographic Transition (SDT in Northern, Western and Southern Europe: An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-04-01

    Scandinavia precedes that in the Iberian countries by roughly twenty years. Moreover, the profile similarity remains intact when the comparison is extended to an extra group of seven formerly communist countries in central and Eastern Europe. Such pattern robustness is supportive of the contention that the ideational or "cultural" factor is indeed a non-redundant and necessary (but not a sufficient element in the explanation of the demographic changes of the SDT. Moreover, the profile similarity also points in the direction of the operation of comparable mechanisms of selection and adaptation in the contrasting European settings.

  9. Distance learning for similarity estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, J.; Amores, J.; Sebe, N.; Radeva, P.; Tian, Q.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present a general guideline to find a better distance measure for similarity estimation based on statistical analysis of distribution models and distance functions. A new set of distance measures are derived from the harmonic distance, the geometric distance, and their generalized

  10. Distance learning for similarity estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jie; Amores, Jaume; Sebe, Nicu; Radeva, Petia; Tian, Qi

    2008-03-01

    In this paper, we present a general guideline to find a better distance measure for similarity estimation based on statistical analysis of distribution models and distance functions. A new set of distance measures are derived from the harmonic distance, the geometric distance, and their generalized variants according to the Maximum Likelihood theory. These measures can provide a more accurate feature model than the classical Euclidean and Manhattan distances. We also find that the feature elements are often from heterogeneous sources that may have different influence on similarity estimation. Therefore, the assumption of single isotropic distribution model is often inappropriate. To alleviate this problem, we use a boosted distance measure framework that finds multiple distance measures which fit the distribution of selected feature elements best for accurate similarity estimation. The new distance measures for similarity estimation are tested on two applications: stereo matching and motion tracking in video sequences. The performance of boosted distance measure is further evaluated on several benchmark data sets from the UCI repository and two image retrieval applications. In all the experiments, robust results are obtained based on the proposed methods.

  11. Revisiting Inter-Genre Similarity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sturm, Bob L.; Gouyon, Fabien

    2013-01-01

    We revisit the idea of ``inter-genre similarity'' (IGS) for machine learning in general, and music genre recognition in particular. We show analytically that the probability of error for IGS is higher than naive Bayes classification with zero-one loss (NB). We show empirically that IGS does...

  12. Work–home interference: Examining socio-demographic predictors in the South African context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marissa de Klerk

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The focus of this study was to investigate the relationship between socio-demographic characteristics and the work–home interaction in different occupational groups in South Africa.Research purpose: The main research aim of the study was to investigate the socio-demographic predictors of negative and positive work–home interaction of South African employees.Motivation for the study: Little information is known about the prevalence of work–home interaction within groups. This study is aimed at enabling the researcher and organisations to identify those groups that are at risk of negative interference and which are prone to positive interaction, to allow for the development of appropriate strategies and intervention programmes.Research design, approach and method: A cross-sectional survey design was used in the study. A sample (N = 2040 was taken from four South African industries (i.e. the police service, the earthmoving equipment industry, mining and nursing. A socio-demographic questionnaire and the Survey Work–Home Interaction-Nijmegen (SWING were used.Main findings: The results indicated that robust predictors included occupation, gender and language for negative work–home interference; occupation, age and language for positive work–home interference; occupation and language for negative home–work interference; and occupation, age, education and language for positive home–work interference.Practical/managerial implications: The implications of the study are that negative and positive work–home interaction is uniquely associated with socio-demographic characteristics. Work–life balance initiatives should, therefore, be carefully tailored to address the needs of each socio-demographic group.Contribution/value-add: The findings of the study suggest answers to the management of the work–home interaction among various socio-demographic groups in organisations.

  13. Web Search Results Summarization Using Similarity Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawant V.V.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Now day’s internet has become part of our life, the WWW is most important service of internet because it allows presenting information such as document, imaging etc. The WWW grows rapidly and caters to a diversified levels and categories of users. For user specified results web search results are extracted. Millions of information pouring online, users has no time to surf the contents completely .Moreover the information available is repeated or duplicated in nature. This issue has created the necessity to restructure the search results that could yield results summarized. The proposed approach comprises of different feature extraction of web pages. Web page visual similarity assessment has been employed to address the problems in different fields including phishing, web archiving, web search engine etc. In this approach, initially by enters user query the number of search results get stored. The Earth Mover's Distance is used to assessment of web page visual similarity, in this technique take the web page as a low resolution image, create signature of that web page image with color and co-ordinate features .Calculate the distance between web pages by applying EMD method. Compute the Layout Similarity value by using tag comparison algorithm and template comparison algorithm. Textual similarity is computed by using cosine similarity, and hyperlink analysis is performed to compute outward links. The final similarity value is calculated by fusion of layout, text, hyperlink and EMD value. Once the similarity matrix is found clustering is employed with the help of connected component. Finally group of similar web pages i.e. summarized results get displayed to user. Experiment conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of four methods to generate summarized result on different web pages and user queries also.

  14. HOW DISSIMILARLY SIMILAR ARE BIOSIMILARS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramshankar Vijayalakshmi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Recently Biopharmaceuticals are the new chemotherapeutical agents that are called as “Biosimilars” or “follow on protein products” by the European Medicines Agency (EMA and the American regulatory agencies (Food and Drug Administration respectively. Biosimilars are extremely similar to the reference molecule but not identical, however close their similarities may be. A regulatory framework is therefore in place to assess the application for marketing authorisation of biosimilars. When a biosimilar is similar to the reference biopharmaceutical in terms of safety, quality, and efficacy, it can be registered. It is important to document data from clinical trials with a view of similar safety and efficacy. If the development time for a generic medicine is around 3 years, a biosimilar takes about 6-9 years. Generic medicines need to demonstrate bioequivalence only unlike biosimilars that need to conduct phase I and Phase III clinical trials. In this review, different biosimilars that are already being used successfully in the field on Oncology is discussed. Their similarity, differences and guidelines to be followed before a clinically informed decision to be taken, is discussed. More importantly the regulatory guidelines that are operational in India with a work flow of making a biosimilar with relevant dos and dont’s are discussed. For a large populous country like India, where with improved treatments in all sectors including oncology, our ageing population is increasing. For the health care of this sector, we need more newer, cheaper and effective biosimilars in the market. It becomes therefore important to understand the regulatory guidelines and steps to come up with more biosimilars for the existing population and also more information is mandatory for the practicing clinicians to translate these effectively into clinical practice.

  15. Birth tourism: socio-demographic and statistical aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoly V. Korotkov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to research birth tourism issue. The article gives the socio-demographic and statistical aspects of research problems of birth inbound tourism in the Russian Federation. Following the literature analysis, the degree of study for birth tourism lags behind its actual size. Currently, the media has accumulated a significant amount of information on birth tourism in Russia, that requires processing, systematization and understanding that can and should become an independent area of study of sociologists and demographers to develop recommendations for the management of socio-demographic processes in birth tourism in our country. It is necessary to identify the problems that will inevitably arise. At present, this process is almost not regulated.These problems are complex, it requires the joint efforts of sociologists and demographers. However, it is impossible to obtain reliable results and to develop management decisions without attention to the statistical aspect of this problem. It is necessary to create methodological support for collecting and information processing and model development of the birth tourism. At the initial stage it is necessary to identify the direction and objectives of the analysis to determine the factors in the development of this process, to develop a hierarchical system of statistical indicators, to receive the information, needed for calculating of specific indicators.The complex research of the birth tourism issues should be based on the methodology of sociology, demography and statistics, including statistical observation, interviews with residents, structure analysis and birth tourism concentration in the country, the analysis of the dynamics, classification of factors and reasons, the grouping of regions for the development of the studied processes and, of course, the development of economic-statistical indicators.The article reveals the problem of the significant influence of the

  16. Socio-demographic predictors of person-organization fit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merecz-Kot, Dorota; Andysz, Aleksandra

    2017-02-21

    The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between socio-demographic characteristics and the level of complementary and supplementary person-organization fit (P-O fit). The study sample was a group of 600 Polish workers, urban residents aged 19-65. Level of P-O fit was measured using the Subjective Person-Organization Fit Questionnaire by Czarnota-Bojarska. The binomial multivariate logistic regression was applied. The analyzes were performed separately for the men and women. Socio-demographic variables explained small percentage of the outcome variability. Gender differences were found. In the case of men shift work decreased complementary and supplementary fit, while long working hours decreased complementary fit. In the women, age was a stimulant of a complementary fit, involuntary job losses predicted both complementary and supplementary misfit. Additionally, relational responsibilities increased probability of supplementary P-O fit in the men. Going beyond personality and competences as the factors affecting P-O fit will allow development of a more accurate prediction of P-O fit. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2017;30(1):133-139.

  17. Illuminating Free-floating Planet Demographics with Keck AO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Calen B.

    2017-01-01

    The frequency and mass function of free-floating planets (FFPs) are unknown. Gravitational microlensing is able to explore the demographics of FFPs, which are identifiable as short-timescale microlensing events, lasting of-order 1 day for Jupiter-mass planets. In 2011, the MOA ground-based microlensing survey group announced the discovery of an excess of short-timescale microlensing events over what was expected from Galactic models that incorporate stellar densities and kinematics. They account for this excess by positing a population of Jupiter-mass FFPs that outnumbers stars by a ratio of nearly 2:1. However, there are several other possible astrophysical explanations for short-timescale microlensing events, including bound planets on wide orbits and high-velocity stars. Although the specific events identified by MOA lack mass measurements, high-resolution imaging can determine whether the lens systems are luminous, which would exclude the FFP conclusion through proof by contradiction. We have taken H-band adaptive optics (AO) observations of the MOA FFP candidates using NIRC2 on Keck II in order to test this result. Here I will present preliminary results from these AO observations, which will help inform our understanding of the demographics of FFPs.

  18. Socio-demographic predictors of person–organization fit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Merecz-Kot

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between socio-demographic characteristics and the level of complementary and supplementary person–organization fit (P–O fit. Material and Methods: The study sample was a group of 600 Polish workers, urban residents aged 19–65. Level of P–O fit was measured using the Subjective Person–Organization Fit Questionnaire by Czarnota-Bojarska. The binomial multivariate logistic regression was applied. The analyzes were performed separately for the men and women. Results: Socio-demographic variables explained small percentage of the outcome variability. Gender differences were found. In the case of men shift work decreased complementary and supplementary fit, while long working hours decreased complementary fit. In the women, age was a stimulant of a complementary fit, involuntary job losses predicted both complementary and supplementary misfit. Additionally, relational responsibilities increased probability of supplementary P–O fit in the men. Conclusions: Going beyond personality and competences as the factors affecting P–O fit will allow development of a more accurate prediction of P–O fit. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2017;30(1:133–149

  19. Measure of Node Similarity in Multilayer Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møllgaard, Anders; Zettler, Ingo; Dammeyer, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    The weight of links in a network is often related to the similarity of thenodes. Here, we introduce a simple tunable measure for analysing the similarityof nodes across different link weights. In particular, we use the measure toanalyze homophily in a group of 659 freshman students at a large...... university.Our analysis is based on data obtained using smartphones equipped with customdata collection software, complemented by questionnaire-based data. The networkof social contacts is represented as a weighted multilayer network constructedfrom different channels of telecommunication as well as data...... might bepresent in one layer of the multilayer network and simultaneously be absent inthe other layers. For a variable such as gender, our measure reveals atransition from similarity between nodes connected with links of relatively lowweight to dis-similarity for the nodes connected by the strongest...

  20. Material Stock Demographics: Cars in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera Serrenho, André; Allwood, Julian M

    2016-03-15

    Recent literature on material flow analysis has been focused on quantitative characterization of past material flows. Fewer analyses exist on past and prospective quantification of stocks of materials in-use. Some of these analyses explore the composition of products' stocks, but a focus on the characterization of material stocks and its relation with service delivery is often neglected. We propose the use of the methods of human demography to characterize material stocks, defined herein as stock demographics, exploring the insights that this approach could provide for the sustainable management of materials. We exemplify an application of stock demographics by characterizing the composition and service delivery of iron, steel, and aluminum stocks of cars in Great Britain, 2002-2012. The results show that in this period the stock has become heavier, it is traveling less, and it is idle for more time. The visualization of material stocks' dynamics demonstrates the pace of product replacement as a function of its usefulness and enables the formulation of policy interventions and the exploration of future trends.

  1. Composite likelihood estimation of demographic parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garrigan Daniel

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most existing likelihood-based methods for fitting historical demographic models to DNA sequence polymorphism data to do not scale feasibly up to the level of whole-genome data sets. Computational economies can be achieved by incorporating two forms of pseudo-likelihood: composite and approximate likelihood methods. Composite likelihood enables scaling up to large data sets because it takes the product of marginal likelihoods as an estimator of the likelihood of the complete data set. This approach is especially useful when a large number of genomic regions constitutes the data set. Additionally, approximate likelihood methods can reduce the dimensionality of the data by summarizing the information in the original data by either a sufficient statistic, or a set of statistics. Both composite and approximate likelihood methods hold promise for analyzing large data sets or for use in situations where the underlying demographic model is complex and has many parameters. This paper considers a simple demographic model of allopatric divergence between two populations, in which one of the population is hypothesized to have experienced a founder event, or population bottleneck. A large resequencing data set from human populations is summarized by the joint frequency spectrum, which is a matrix of the genomic frequency spectrum of derived base frequencies in two populations. A Bayesian Metropolis-coupled Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMCMC method for parameter estimation is developed that uses both composite and likelihood methods and is applied to the three different pairwise combinations of the human population resequence data. The accuracy of the method is also tested on data sets sampled from a simulated population model with known parameters. Results The Bayesian MCMCMC method also estimates the ratio of effective population size for the X chromosome versus that of the autosomes. The method is shown to estimate, with reasonable

  2. Total rewards that retain: A study of demographic preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Pregnolato

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Changing workplace demographics and a dearth of employees with scarce skills have forced employers to better understand the various factors that retain talented employees.Research purpose: In this empirical study, the reward preferences and ideal combination of total reward elements (based on an estimation of their relative importance that retain employees from various demographic groups, including employees of different race, gender and age groups, were investigated.Motivation for study: Organisations are competing for talented employees and to benefit from the value these individuals add, it is required of them to stay at the respective businesses. Previous studies have indicated that employees who are offered a reward package that is aligned to their personal preferences are prone to stay longer at the organisation and to be more engaged at work. However, new and novel ways need to be found to identify the reward preferences of employees.Research design, approach and method: A quantitative approach and descriptive research design was employed to estimate the individual reward preferences and identify an ideal mix of total reward elements that retain different cohorts of employees. Three questionnaires were distributed, including a Remuneration Managers Questionnaire (n = 7, a Remuneration Preference Questionnaire (n = 368 and a Choice-based Conjoint Task Questionnaire (n = 368. The latter two questionnaires were distributed as an online questionnaire to South African businesses and consisted of eight choice-based conjoint tasks, as well as a field survey.Main findings: The results of the choice-based conjoint analysis revealed that all respondents considered financial rewards (Benefits, Performance and Recognition, Remuneration, Career, in that order as relatively speaking, the most important components in their total rewards package that would lead to their retention. For most demographic groups, the remaining three places (i

  3. GENDER DIFFERENCES IN DEMOGRAPHIC AND CLINICAL FEATURES OF PHYSICIANS ADMITTED TO A PROGRAM FOR MEDICAL PROFESSIONALS WITH MENTAL DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Dolores Braquehais

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine the demographic and clinical differences between men and women admitted to a Physicians’ Health Programme (PHP. Method: Retrospective chart-review of 778 medical records of physicians admitted to the Barcelona PHP from February 1st 1998 until December 31st 2015. Results: Women admitted to the Barcelona PHP were younger than men, were more likely to be self-referred and to be admitted forfor a non-addictive mental disorder. Prevalence of unipolar affective disorders (60.1% vs. 37.6%, adjustment disorders (62.4% vs. 37.6% and obsessive-compulsive disorder (61.1% vs. 38.9% was significantly higher among women while prevalence of alcohol use disorders was lower (32.7% vs. 67.3%. Nevertheless, both groups were similar with regards to medical specialty, working status, length of their first treatment episode, and presence of hospitalization during that episode. After multivariate analysis, age, type of referral and main diagnosis (addictive disorders vs. other mental disorders discriminated the differences between groups. Conclusions: Women physicians seem to be more prone to voluntarily ask for help from PHPs and are more likely to suffer from mood and anxiety disorders compared to men. However, mental disorders’ severity may be similar in both groups. More studies are needed to clarify the gender factors related to this behavior.

  4. Whose Experience Is Measured?: A Pilot Study of Patient Satisfaction Demographics in Pediatric Otolaryngology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieman, Carrie L.; Benke, James R.; Ishman, Stacey L.; Smith, David F.; Boss, Emily F.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives/Hypothesis Despite a national emphasis on patient-centered care and cultural competency, minority and low-income children continue to experience disparities in health care quality. Patient satisfaction scores are a core quality indicator. The objective of this study was to evaluate race and insurance-related disparities in parent participation with pediatric otolaryngology satisfaction surveys. Study Design Observational analysis of patient satisfaction survey respondents from a tertiary pediatric otolaryngology division. Methods Demographics of survey respondents (Press Ganey Medical Practice Survey©) between January and July 2012 were compared to a clinic comparison group using t test and chi-square analyses. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to assess likelihood to complete a survey based on race or insurance status. Results A total of 130 survey respondents were compared to 1,251 patients in the comparison group. The mean patient age for which the parent survey was completed was 5.7 years (6.1 years for the comparison group, P =0.18); 59.2% of children were ≤5 years old. Relative to the comparison group, survey respondents were more often white (77.7% vs. 58.1%; P <0.001) and privately insured (84.6% vs. 60.8%; P <0.001). Similarly, after controlling for confounding variables, parents of children who were white (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.13–2.78, P =0.013) or privately insured (OR 2.9, 95% CI 1.74–4.85, P <0.001) were most likely to complete a survey. Conclusion Methods to evaluate satisfaction did not capture the racial or socioeconomic patient distribution within this pediatric division. These findings challenge the validity of applying patient satisfaction scores, as currently measured, to indicate health care quality. Future efforts to measure and improve patient experience should be inclusive of a culturally diverse population. Level of Evidence 2c. PMID:23853050

  5. Self-similarity Driven Demosaicking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Buades

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Digital cameras record only one color component per pixel, red, green or blue. Demosaicking is the process by which one can infer a whole color matrix from such a matrix of values, thus interpolating the two missing color values per pixel. In this article we propose a demosaicking method based on the property of non-local self-similarity of images.

  6. Sparse Similarity-Based Fisherfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagertun, Jens; Gomez, David Delgado; Hansen, Mads Fogtmann;

    2011-01-01

    In this work, the effect of introducing Sparse Principal Component Analysis within the Similarity-based Fisherfaces algorithm is examined. The technique aims at mimicking the human ability to discriminate faces by projecting the faces in a highly discriminative and easy interpretative way. Pixel...... obtain the same recognition results as the technique in a dense version using only a fraction of the input data. Furthermore, the presented results suggest that using SPCA in the technique offers robustness to occlusions....

  7. Self-Similar Collisionless Shocks

    CERN Document Server

    Katz, B; Waxman, E; Katz, Boaz; Keshet, Uri; Waxman, Eli

    2006-01-01

    Observations of gamma-ray burst afterglows suggest that the correlation length of magnetic field fluctuations downstream of relativistic non-magnetized collisionless shocks grows with distance from the shock to scales much larger than the plasma skin depth. We argue that this indicates that the plasma properties are described by a self-similar solution, and derive constraints on the scaling properties of the solution. For example, we find that the scaling of the characteristic magnetic field amplitude with distance from the shock is B \\propto D^{s_B} with -1 \\propto x^{2s_B} (for x>>D). We show that the plasma may be approximated as a combination of two self-similar components: a kinetic component of energetic particles and an MHD-like component representing "thermal" particles. We argue that the latter may be considered as infinitely conducting, in which case s_B=0 and the scalings are completely determined (e.g. dn/dE \\propto E^{-2} and B \\propto D^0). Similar claims apply to non- relativistic shocks such a...

  8. Demographic Data, U.S. Census 1990 Rhode Island Data; Sample Count, Calculated Percentages; s44dbm92; U.S. Census 1990 pop, housing, economic, education, ethnic origin, and employment information by town, tract, and block group level as derived from U.S. Census STF3a, Published in 1991, 1:100000 (1in=8333ft) scale, State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Demographic Data dataset, published at 1:100000 (1in=8333ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 1991. It is described as 'U.S....

  9. Demographic Data, U.S. Census 1990 Rhode Island Data; Sample Count & Source Data ;s44dbs92; U.S. Census 1990 pop, housing, economic, education, ethnic origin, and employment information by town, tract, and block group level as derived from U.S. Census STF3a, Published in 1992, 1:100000 (1in=8333ft) scale, State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Demographic Data dataset, published at 1:100000 (1in=8333ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 1992. It is described as 'U.S....

  10. Earthquake detection through computationally efficient similarity search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Clara E.; O’Reilly, Ossian; Bergen, Karianne J.; Beroza, Gregory C.

    2015-01-01

    Seismology is experiencing rapid growth in the quantity of data, which has outpaced the development of processing algorithms. Earthquake detection—identification of seismic events in continuous data—is a fundamental operation for observational seismology. We developed an efficient method to detect earthquakes using waveform similarity that overcomes the disadvantages of existing detection methods. Our method, called Fingerprint And Similarity Thresholding (FAST), can analyze a week of continuous seismic waveform data in less than 2 hours, or 140 times faster than autocorrelation. FAST adapts a data mining algorithm, originally designed to identify similar audio clips within large databases; it first creates compact “fingerprints” of waveforms by extracting key discriminative features, then groups similar fingerprints together within a database to facilitate fast, scalable search for similar fingerprint pairs, and finally generates a list of earthquake detections. FAST detected most (21 of 24) cataloged earthquakes and 68 uncataloged earthquakes in 1 week of continuous data from a station located near the Calaveras Fault in central California, achieving detection performance comparable to that of autocorrelation, with some additional false detections. FAST is expected to realize its full potential when applied to extremely long duration data sets over a distributed network of seismic stations. The widespread application of FAST has the potential to aid in the discovery of unexpected seismic signals, improve seismic monitoring, and promote a greater understanding of a variety of earthquake processes. PMID:26665176

  11. Chiropractors in Finland – a demographic survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malmqvist Stefan

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Finnish chiropractic profession is young and not fully accepted by Finnish healthcare authorities. The demographic profile and style of practice has not been described to date. However, as the profession seems to be under rapid development, it would be of interest to stakeholders, both chiropractic and political, to obtain a baseline description of this profession with a view to the development of future goals and strategies for the profession. The purpose of this study was to describe the chiropractic profession in Finland in relation to its demographic background, the demographics of their clinics, practice patterns, interactions with other health care practitioners and some of the professions' plans for the future. Methods A structured questionnaire survey was conducted in 2005, in which all 50 members of the Finnish Chiropractic Union were invited to participate. Results In all, 44 questionnaires were returned (response rate 88%. Eighty percent of the respondents were men, and 77% were aged 30 to 44 years old, most of whom graduated after 1990 with either a university-based bachelors' or masters' degree in chiropractic. Solo practice was their main practice pattern. The vast majority described their scope of practice to be based on a musculoskeletal approach, using the Diversified Technique, performing Soft Tissue Therapy and about two-thirds also used an Activator Instrument (mechanical adjusting instrument. The mean number of patient visits reported to have been seen weekly was 59 of which nine were new patients. Most practitioners found this number of patients satisfactory. At the initial consultation, 80% of respondents spent 30–45 minutes with their patients, 75% spent 20–30 minutes with "new old" patients and on subsequent visits 80% of respondents spent 15–30 minutes. Interactions with other health care professions were reasonably good and most of chiropractors intended to remain within the profession

  12. Demographic shifts in the Czech Republic after 1989 : A second demographic transition view

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sobotka, T.; Zeman, K.; Kantorova, V.

    2003-01-01

    A dramatic change in fertility, family formation and living arrangements took place in the Czech Republic over the 1990s. The establishment of democracy, profound social transformation and transition to the market economy affected the values and demographic behaviour of the young Czech generation.

  13. The ethno-demographic status of the Baltic States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezs, I; Bunkse, E; Rasa, K

    1994-05-01

    "The essay examines historic and current ethnodemographic trends in spatial and cultural contexts in the Baltic States. Fifty years of Soviet rule, with deliberate policies to dilute the relative homogeneity of the Balts through ethnocide, in-migration, and political dominance by Moscow, has left tensions between citizens of the Baltic States and illegal immigrants, mostly Russians. Estonians, and Latvians, in particular, fear ethnic and cultural extinction. The process of ethnic dilution and mixing under the Soviets is examined in terms of rural-urban contexts, the workplace, employment, housing, and education. Europe's smallest ethnic group, the Livs of Latvia, is also examined. Current demographic trends are analysed and prospects for ethnic harmony in these multi-ethnic societies are interpreted. A recurrent theme is that Latvia, with 52% of the population Latvian, is facing the most difficulties; Lithuania, with 80% Lithuanians, the least."

  14. KIR gene content in amerindians indicates influence of demographic factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danillo Gardenal Augusto

    Full Text Available Although the KIR gene content polymorphism has been studied worldwide, only a few isolated or Amerindian populations have been analyzed. This extremely diverse gene family codifies receptors that are expressed mainly in NK cells and bind HLA class I molecules. KIR-HLA combinations have been associated to several diseases and population studies are important to comprehend their evolution and their role in immunity. Here we analyzed, by PCR-SSP (specific sequencing priming, 327 individuals from four isolated groups of two of the most important Brazilian Amerindian populations: Kaingang and Guarani. The pattern of KIR diversity among these and other ten Amerindian populations disclosed a wide range of variation for both KIR haplotypes and gene frequencies, indicating that demographic factors, such as bottleneck and founder effects, were the most important evolutionary factors in shaping the KIR polymorphism in these populations.

  15. Demographic controls of aboveground forest biomass across North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderwel, Mark C; Zeng, Hongcheng; Caspersen, John P; Kunstler, Georges; Lichstein, Jeremy W

    2016-04-01

    Ecologists have limited understanding of how geographic variation in forest biomass arises from differences in growth and mortality at continental to global scales. Using forest inventories from across North America, we partitioned continental-scale variation in biomass growth and mortality rates of 49 tree species groups into (1) species-independent spatial effects and (2) inherent differences in demographic performance among species. Spatial factors that were separable from species composition explained 83% and 51% of the respective variation in growth and mortality. Moderate additional variation in mortality (26%) was attributable to differences in species composition. Age-dependent biomass models showed that variation in forest biomass can be explained primarily by spatial gradients in growth that were unrelated to species composition. Species-dependent patterns of mortality explained additional variation in biomass, with forests supporting less biomass when dominated by species that are highly susceptible to competition (e.g. Populus spp.) or to biotic disturbances (e.g. Abies balsamea).

  16. Mortality-fertility synergies during the demographic transition in the developed world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Barricarte, Jesús J

    2017-07-01

    The classic theory used to explain the demographic transition assumes that mortality is the key explanatory variable influencing the decline in fertility. However, the empirical results obtained in what is known as the Princeton European Fertility Project have led many specialists to question this assumption. Using both national and provincial aggregated data for 25 countries over a long time span, the analysis reported in this paper found that mortality does indeed play a fundamental role in accounting for the main demographic changes that occurred both before and during the transitional period. Others' research based on individual data has shown clearly that the number of surviving children was indeed an important factor for reproductive decisions. My analysis, using aggregated data, reached largely similar conclusions regarding the role of mortality in changing reproductive trends, via its impact on nuptiality and marital fertility at different stages of the demographic transition.

  17. Virtual water controlled demographic growth of nations

    CERN Document Server

    Suweis, Samir; Maritan, Amos; D'Odorico, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Population growth is in general constrained by food production, which in turn depends on the access to water resources. At a country level, some populations use more water than they control because of their ability to import food and the virtual water required for its production. Here, we investigate the dependence of demographic growth on available water resources for exporting and importing nations. By quantifying the carrying capacity of nations based on calculations of the virtual water available through the food trade network, we point to the existence of a global water unbalance. We suggest that current export rates will not be maintained and consequently we question the long-run sustainability of the food trade system as a whole. Water rich regions are likely to soon reduce the amount of virtual water they export, thus leaving import-dependent regions without enough water to sustain their populations. We also investigate the potential impact of possible scenarios that might mitigate these effects throu...

  18. 3D face analysis for demographic biometrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokola, Ryan A [ORNL; Mikkilineni, Aravind K [ORNL; Boehnen, Chris Bensing [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Despite being increasingly easy to acquire, 3D data is rarely used for face-based biometrics applications beyond identification. Recent work in image-based demographic biometrics has enjoyed much success, but these approaches suffer from the well-known limitations of 2D representations, particularly variations in illumination, texture, and pose, as well as a fundamental inability to describe 3D shape. This paper shows that simple 3D shape features in a face-based coordinate system are capable of representing many biometric attributes without problem-specific models or specialized domain knowledge. The same feature vector achieves impressive results for problems as diverse as age estimation, gender classification, and race classification.

  19. Socioeconomic and demographic diversity in the health status of elderly people in a transitional society, Kerala, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mini, G K

    2009-07-01

    Kerala State in India is the most advanced in terms of demographic and epidemiological transition and has the highest proportion of elderly population. The study examines the socio-demographic correlates of health status of elderly persons in Kerala in terms of three components: perceived health status, physical mobility and morbidity level. Overall health status was measured by combining the above three components of health status. Data from the 60th National Sample Survey Organization (NSSO) on Condition and Health Care of the Aged in Kerala in 2004 was used for the study. Significant socio-demographic differentials in health status were noted. While women report less morbidity, perceived well-being and physical mobility was better for men. This anomaly can be explained by variations in the components of socio-demographic factors. The findings call for urgent health care strategies for elderly persons in different socio-demographic groups in transitional Indian states like Kerala.

  20. Trust and its Relationship to Demographic Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asghar Mirfardi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Social trust is the main theme in the social life. Trust is “the expectation that arises within a community of regular, honest and cooperative behavior, based on commonly shared norms”. Development, social trust and security are intertwined categories and have interaction to each other. Social trust, as a main factor in social capital, provide social context for developmental programs. This study, examine the affect of Demographic factors on the social trust to others. As social trust is a key factor in social relationship, this study is needed to evaluate such factor according to demographic factors. Approach: This study has been done on existing data about Iranian values and attitudes. Some factors such as gender, age, education level, job situation, marital situation have been studied in this study. Some of these variables such as education, correspondence to development level, especially in social development. This study is done via documental method (archive and Documental data about mentioned themes and second analysis of The Iranian National Values and attitudes Survey (2000. Results: Findings of this study indicated that there is significant relationship between all of independent variables (Gender, age, education level, job situation, marital situation and social trust to families and relatives, there is significant relationship between variables such as gender, education level, job situation, marital situation (independent variables and social trust to friends. Analyzing the data showed that, the residents of less and more developed cities have different situation in trust. Conclusion/Recommendations: This study introduces three types of trust upon the development level of societies. Trust in Iran is an example of trust structure in developing societies.

  1. Geriatric trauma: demographics, injuries, and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Julie M; Sciadini, Marcus F; Sinclair, Elizabeth; O'Toole, Robert V

    2012-09-01

    To identify injuries that elderly sustain during high-energy trauma and determine which are associated with mortality. Retrospective review of prospectively collected database. Academic trauma center. Patients selected from database of all trauma admissions from January 2004 through June 2009. Study population consisted of patients directly admitted from scene of injury who sustained high-energy trauma with at least one orthopaedic injury and were 65 years or older (n = 597). Review of demographics, trauma markers, injuries, and disposition statuses. Statistical analysis using χ test, Student t test, and logistic regression analysis. The most common fractures were of the rib, distal radius, pelvic ring, facial bones, proximal humerus, clavicle, ankle, and sacrum. The injuries associated with the highest mortality rates were fractures of the cervical spine with neurological deficit (47%), at the C2 level (44%), and of the proximal femur (25%), pelvic ring (25%), clavicle (24%), and distal humerus (24%). The fractures significantly associated with mortality were fractures of the clavicle (P = 0.001), foot joints (P = 0.001), proximal humerus or shaft and head of the humerus (P = 0.002), sacroiliac joint (P = 0.004), and distal ulna (P = 0.002). Elderly patients present with significantly worse injuries, remain in the hospital longer, require greater use of resources after discharge, and die at 3 times the rate of the younger population. Although the high mortality rates associated with cervical spine, hip, and pelvic ring fractures were not unexpected, the injuries that were statistically associated with mortality were unexpected. Injuries such as clavicle fracture were statistically associated with mortality. As our population ages and becomes more active, the demographic may gain in clinical importance. Prognostic Level II. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  2. Assessing protein kinase target similarity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Osman A; Thakkar, Balmukund; Narayanan, Dilip

    2015-01-01

    : focussed chemical libraries, drug repurposing, polypharmacological design, to name a few. Protein kinase target similarity is easily quantified by sequence, and its relevance to ligand design includes broad classification by key binding sites, evaluation of resistance mutations, and the use of surrogate......" of sequence and crystal structure information, with statistical methods able to identify key correlates to activity but also here, "the devil is in the details." Examples from specific repurposing and polypharmacology applications illustrate these points. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled...

  3. Patterns of reported problems in women and men with back and neck pain: similarities and differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenberg, Gunilla; Lundquist, Anders; Fjellman-Wiklund, Anncristine; Ahlgren, Christina

    2014-07-01

    To examine similarities and differences in problem areas reported by women and men who seek physiotherapy for back or neck pain. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to analyse questionnaire data including demographics, pain, domestic work, stress, health status, physical disability, psychosocial and physical workload, kinesiophobia and self- efficacy. Most of the questions were recruited from a number of scales, e.g. EuroQol (EQ-5D), Neck Disability Index (NDI), Oswestry Disability Questionnaire (ODQ), Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia, and Functional-Efficacy-Scale. A total of 118 patients (84 women, 34 men) completed the questionnaire. Men and women scored similarly on physical disability, functional self-efficacy and kinesiophobia, but women scored higher on stress reactions and pain intensity. PCA showed that questions about physical disability and functional self-efficacy comprised the first component and explained most of the variance in this patient group. Questions about stress and social support at work constituted the second component. Questions about domestic workload and pain comprised the third component. Gender differences were found in the second and third components. In general, women and men answered questions similarly, but there were differences: more women reported stress, pain and low support at work and more men reported a lower domestic workload.

  4. Simulating free-roaming cat population management options in open demographic environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip S Miller

    Full Text Available Large populations of free-roaming cats (FRCs generate ongoing concerns for welfare of both individual animals and populations, for human public health, for viability of native wildlife populations, and for local ecological damage. Managing FRC populations is a complex task, without universal agreement on best practices. Previous analyses that use simulation modeling tools to evaluate alternative management methods have focused on relative efficacy of removal (or trap-return, TR, typically involving euthanasia, and sterilization (or trap-neuter-return, TNR in demographically isolated populations. We used a stochastic demographic simulation approach to evaluate removal, permanent sterilization, and two postulated methods of temporary contraception for FRC population management. Our models include demographic connectivity to neighboring untreated cat populations through natural dispersal in a metapopulation context across urban and rural landscapes, and also feature abandonment of owned animals. Within population type, a given implementation rate of the TR strategy results in the most rapid rate of population decline and (when populations are isolated the highest probability of population elimination, followed in order of decreasing efficacy by equivalent rates of implementation of TNR and temporary contraception. Even low levels of demographic connectivity significantly reduce the effectiveness of any management intervention, and continued abandonment is similarly problematic. This is the first demographic simulation analysis to consider the use of temporary contraception and account for the realities of FRC dispersal and owned cat abandonment.

  5. Explaining socio-demographic differences in disengagement from sports in adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, R.G.; Kamphuis, C.B.M.; Empelen, P. van; Beenackers, M.A.; Brug, J.; Mackenbach, J.P.; Oenema, A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this longitudinal study is to identify risk groups for disengagement from sports during adolescence. In addition, it will be explored whether cognitive and environmental factors can explain socio-demographic differences in disengagement from sports. METHODS: Data were

  6. Comparison of the Physical Education and Sports School Students' Multiple Intelligence Areas According to Demographic Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Cem Sinan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the multiple intelligence areas of a group of physical education and sports students according to their demographic features. In the study, "Multiple Intelligence Scale", consisting of 27 items, whose Turkish validity and reliability study have been done by Babacan (2012) and which is originally owned…

  7. Religious Differences in Modernization of the Family: Family Demographics Trends in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaton, Tim B.; Darkwah, Akosua

    2011-01-01

    This research examines trends in a broad set of reproductive and marital behaviors in Ghana, focusing on religious group differences. These comparisons provide evidence of how family trends are constrained by religious identity in a less developed country. Three waves of the Ghana Demographic and Health Surveys are used to track trends in the age…

  8. Demographic Profiling--A Determination of Academic Performance in a Postgraduate Diploma in Marketing Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beneke, J.; Beeming, C.

    2011-01-01

    This article analyses the direct effect of demographic variables on academic outcomes. The study concludes that ethnic group plays a pivotal role in determining the academic performance of students registered for the Postgraduate Diploma in Marketing Management at the University of Cape Town. White students (presumed to emanate from a privileged…

  9. Who We Really Are: Demographic Factors that Predict Student Service Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Paul P.; Welch, Marshall

    2007-01-01

    Demographic data were collected from 38 program directors in a university-based community service center and a control group of 62 other students not engaged in any service activity randomly selected at a large, urban, research university. A series of multiple regression analysis were conducted to identify significant predictors of students likely…

  10. Religious Differences in Modernization of the Family: Family Demographics Trends in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaton, Tim B.; Darkwah, Akosua

    2011-01-01

    This research examines trends in a broad set of reproductive and marital behaviors in Ghana, focusing on religious group differences. These comparisons provide evidence of how family trends are constrained by religious identity in a less developed country. Three waves of the Ghana Demographic and Health Surveys are used to track trends in the age…

  11. A Demographic Profile of Incoming Matriculated Students, Fall, 1977. Research Report: BCC 3-77.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronx Community Coll., NY.

    Demographic data were compiled on incoming fall 1977 freshmen at Bronx Community College (BCC), including sex, age, ethnic group, veteran status, satisfaction with BCC curriculum, highest expected educational level, number living in household, parental education, total household income, counseling requests, marital status, employment status, and…

  12. A Tale of Two Factions : Why and When Factional Demographic Faultlines Hurt Board Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltrop, Dennis; Hermes, Cornelis; Postma, Theodorus; de Haan, Jakob

    Research Question/Issue The authors posit that to understand the effects of board demographic diversity on board performance, it is critical to recognize that board members often do not come to a board as independent entities but rather as delegates of specific interest groups so that the board has

  13. Interneurons targeting similar layers receive synaptic inputs with similar kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossart, Rosa; Petanjek, Zdravko; Dumitriu, Dani; Hirsch, June C; Ben-Ari, Yehezkel; Esclapez, Monique; Bernard, Christophe

    2006-01-01

    GABAergic interneurons play diverse and important roles in controlling neuronal network dynamics. They are characterized by an extreme heterogeneity morphologically, neurochemically, and physiologically, but a functionally relevant classification is still lacking. Present taxonomy is essentially based on their postsynaptic targets, but a physiological counterpart to this classification has not yet been determined. Using a quantitative analysis based on multidimensional clustering of morphological and physiological variables, we now demonstrate a strong correlation between the kinetics of glutamate and GABA miniature synaptic currents received by CA1 hippocampal interneurons and the laminar distribution of their axons: neurons that project to the same layer(s) receive synaptic inputs with similar kinetics distributions. In contrast, the kinetics distributions of GABAergic and glutamatergic synaptic events received by a given interneuron do not depend upon its somatic location or dendritic arborization. Although the mechanisms responsible for this unexpected observation are still unclear, our results suggest that interneurons may be programmed to receive synaptic currents with specific temporal dynamics depending on their targets and the local networks in which they operate.

  14. Similarity Measurement of Web Sessions Based on Sequence Alignment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Chaofeng; LU Yansheng

    2007-01-01

    The task of clustering Web sessions is to group Web sessions based on similarity and consists of maximizing the intra-group similarity while minimizing the inter-group similarity.The first and foremost question needed to be considered in clustering Web sessions is how to measure the similarity between Web sessions. However, there are many shortcomings in traditional measurements. This paper introduces a new method for measuring similarities between Web pages that takes into account not only the URL but also the viewing time of the visited Web page. Then we give a new method to measure the similarity of Web sessions using sequence alignment and the similarity of Web page access in detail.Experiments have proved that our method is valid and efficient.

  15. Similarity in romantic couples' drinking motivations and drinking behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehayes, Ivy-Lee L; Mackinnon, Sean P; Sherry, Simon B; Leonard, Kenneth E; Stewart, Sherry H

    2017-07-20

    Research suggests that enhancement, conformity, social, coping-with-anxiety, and coping-with-depression drinking motives are linked to specific drinking outcomes in a theoretically expected manner. Social learning theory suggests that people who spend more time together emulate each other's behavior to acquire reinforcing outcomes. The present study sought to integrate drinking motives theory and social learning theory to investigate similarity in drinking behaviors and drinking motives in romantic couples. We hypothesized that couples would be more similar than chance in their drinking behaviors and motives. We also hypothesized that demographics reflecting time around and interactions with romantic partners (e.g., days spent drinking together) would positively correlate with similarity in drinking behaviors and motivations. The present study tested hypotheses in 203 romantic couples. Participants completed a Timeline Follow-Back measure and the Modified Drinking Motives Questionnaire-Revised to track their alcohol use and drinking motives. Similarity profiles were calculated using McCrae's (J Pers Assess. 2008;90:105-109) coefficient of profile agreement, rpa. Couples were more similar in their drinking behavioral and motivational profiles than could be explained by chance. Days spent drinking together and days with face-to-face contact predicted increased similarity in drinking behavior profiles, but not similarity in drinking motives profiles. Results are partially consistent with social learning theory and suggest that social influences within couples could be important intervention targets to prevent escalations in drinking.

  16. Semantically enabled image similarity search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casterline, May V.; Emerick, Timothy; Sadeghi, Kolia; Gosse, C. A.; Bartlett, Brent; Casey, Jason

    2015-05-01

    Georeferenced data of various modalities are increasingly available for intelligence and commercial use, however effectively exploiting these sources demands a unified data space capable of capturing the unique contribution of each input. This work presents a suite of software tools for representing geospatial vector data and overhead imagery in a shared high-dimension vector or embedding" space that supports fused learning and similarity search across dissimilar modalities. While the approach is suitable for fusing arbitrary input types, including free text, the present work exploits the obvious but computationally difficult relationship between GIS and overhead imagery. GIS is comprised of temporally-smoothed but information-limited content of a GIS, while overhead imagery provides an information-rich but temporally-limited perspective. This processing framework includes some important extensions of concepts in literature but, more critically, presents a means to accomplish them as a unified framework at scale on commodity cloud architectures.

  17. Performance Indexes: Similarities and Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Machado Caldeira

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The investor of today is more rigorous on monitoring a financial assets portfolio. He no longer thinks only in terms of the expected return (one dimension, but in terms of risk-return (two dimensions. Thus new perception is more complex, since the risk measurement can vary according to anyone’s perception; some use the standard deviation for that, others disagree with this measure by proposing others. In addition to this difficulty, there is the problem of how to consider these two dimensions. The objective of this essay is to study the main performance indexes through an empirical study in order to verify the differences and similarities for some of the selected assets. One performance index proposed in Caldeira (2005 shall be included in this analysis.

  18. Features Based Text Similarity Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Kent, Chow Kok

    2010-01-01

    As the Internet help us cross cultural border by providing different information, plagiarism issue is bound to arise. As a result, plagiarism detection becomes more demanding in overcoming this issue. Different plagiarism detection tools have been developed based on various detection techniques. Nowadays, fingerprint matching technique plays an important role in those detection tools. However, in handling some large content articles, there are some weaknesses in fingerprint matching technique especially in space and time consumption issue. In this paper, we propose a new approach to detect plagiarism which integrates the use of fingerprint matching technique with four key features to assist in the detection process. These proposed features are capable to choose the main point or key sentence in the articles to be compared. Those selected sentence will be undergo the fingerprint matching process in order to detect the similarity between the sentences. Hence, time and space usage for the comparison process is r...

  19. PubChem3D: Similar conformers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolton Evan E

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background PubChem is a free and open public resource for the biological activities of small molecules. With many tens of millions of both chemical structures and biological test results, PubChem is a sizeable system with an uneven degree of available information. Some chemical structures in PubChem include a great deal of biological annotation, while others have little to none. To help users, PubChem pre-computes "neighboring" relationships to relate similar chemical structures, which may have similar biological function. In this work, we introduce a "Similar Conformers" neighboring relationship to identify compounds with similar 3-D shape and similar 3-D orientation of functional groups typically used to define pharmacophore features. Results The first two diverse 3-D conformers of 26.1 million PubChem Compound records were compared to each other, using a shape Tanimoto (ST of 0.8 or greater and a color Tanimoto (CT of 0.5 or greater, yielding 8.16 billion conformer neighbor pairs and 6.62 billion compound neighbor pairs, with an average of 253 "Similar Conformers" compound neighbors per compound. Comparing the 3-D neighboring relationship to the corresponding 2-D neighboring relationship ("Similar Compounds" for molecules such as caffeine, aspirin, and morphine, one finds unique sets of related chemical structures, providing additional significant biological annotation. The PubChem 3-D neighboring relationship is also shown to be able to group a set of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, despite limited PubChem 2-D similarity. In a study of 4,218 chemical structures of biomedical interest, consisting of many known drugs, using more diverse conformers per compound results in more 3-D compound neighbors per compound; however, the overlap of the compound neighbor lists per conformer also increasingly resemble each other, being 38% identical at three conformers and 68% at ten conformers. Perhaps surprising is that the average

  20. [Growth, employment and "necessary" immigration: a debate with demographic data on Emiglia-Romagna].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliani, L; Manfredini, M

    1997-08-01

    "In Emiglia-Romagna [Italy] and in Central and Northern Italy the reduction in the number of young people, caused by the falling birth rate, has started to involve individuals in working and reproductive age groups.... With demographic data for the Emiglia-Romagna region six scenarios are constructed concerning the effects of an increase in fertility rates (to levels of equilibrium) and workforce participation (to European levels) and the demographic differences between younger and older generations on the job market. Estimates are calculated concerning the size of immigration flows deemed necessary for immediate production needs and for re-balancing the population's age structure in the future." (EXCERPT)

  1. The Demographic Situation in the Northern Economic Region of the Republic of Moldova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SERGIU BACIU

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The demographic situation within the Northern Economic Region is worse than the national average. This fact is determined by the decrease of the birth rate values, the increase of the mortality values and the negative natural and migration growth. They also lead to a change of the rate between age groups, in favour of the elderly. In order to diminish such a situation, urgent measures should be taken (policies for economic increase and income increase at local, department and regional level, to stop the deep demographic crisis of the region.

  2. Demographic, physical, and radiographic factors associated with functional flatfoot deformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibuya, Naohiro; Kitterman, Ryan T; LaFontaine, Javier; Jupiter, Daniel C

    2014-01-01

    In 1 of our previous studies, the occurrence of self-reported flatfoot was associated with self-reported increased age, male gender, Asian and African American races, veteran status, poor health, increased body mass index, callus, bunion, hammertoe, and arthritis. However, we had to rely on survey data to identify these risk factors, and the accuracy of the survey results was unknown. Therefore, we decided to identify the risk factors associated with flatfeet using objectively and more accurately measured data. A total of 94 patients were enrolled in the present study. The demographic data and physical and radiographic examination results were recorded by the investigators in the clinic. The data were then analyzed to identify the factors unique to flatfoot, measured and defined using a plantar pressure measurement system during natural gait. We learned that a painful tibialis posterior tendon was associated with flatfoot. The calcaneal inclination angle was also decreased in the flatfoot group. The talar declination, intermetatarsal, hallux abductus, and calcaneal cuboid angles, and static calcaneal stance eversion were elevated in the flatfoot group compared with the non-flatfoot group. Systematic evaluation of these associated factors will help in the understanding of the functional status of the flatfoot deformity.

  3. Similarity and Modeling in Science and Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Kuneš, Josef

    2012-01-01

    The present text sets itself in relief to other titles on the subject in that it addresses the means and methodologies versus a narrow specific-task oriented approach. Concepts and their developments which evolved to meet the changing needs of applications are addressed. This approach provides the reader with a general tool-box to apply to their specific needs. Two important tools are presented: dimensional analysis and the similarity analysis methods. The fundamental point of view, enabling one to sort all models, is that of information flux between a model and an original expressed by the similarity and abstraction. Each chapter includes original examples and ap-plications. In this respect, the models can be divided into several groups. The following models are dealt with separately by chapter; mathematical and physical models, physical analogues, deterministic, stochastic, and cybernetic computer models. The mathematical models are divided into asymptotic and phenomenological models. The phenomenological m...

  4. Impact of demographic policy on population growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podyashchikh, P

    1968-01-01

    Various bourgeois theories, including the reactionary Malthusianism and its variants, challenge the Marxist-Leninist revolutionary theory on the growth of population. Bourgeois science maintains that unchanging biological laws of proliferation form the foundation of social life. Malthus, in his "An Essay on the Principle of Population," contends that population increases in a geometric rate, while means of subsistence tend to increase only in an arithmetic rate: neither the way of production nor social conditions but this law of nature in control of proliferation had been the cause of overpopulation, which again leads to misery, hunger, and unemployment. From this follows the possible conclusion that the working classes should be concerned not about how to change the social order but how to reduce the number of childbirths. Progressive science views the laws of social life in a totally different way. Marxism-Leninism teaches that population size, despite the markedly important role played by it in historical progress, fails to represent that main force of social progress which determines the mode of production and of the distribution of material goods, but just the reverse: the mode of production determines the growth of population, the changes in its density and composition. Marxism-Leninism teaches that each historical stage of production (slavery, feudalism, capitalism) has its own special, historically valid demographic law. Bourgeois science maintains that humankind faces an absolute overpopulation caused by the means of production lagging behind the growth of population. Actually this is only a relative overpopulation due to the fact that capitalistic production is subjected to the interests of increasing capitalistic profit and not to those of meeting the demands of population. In socialist countries, production is incessantly developing and expanding, and employment of the entire productive population is ensured. Consequently, the problem of relative

  5. Some Demographic Changes in the Population of Montenegro with the Projection of Future Demographic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Rajović

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Dramatic demographic changes through which in recent decade’s passes Montenegrin society, the consequences arising from the new realities require a serious socio-political engagement. Process of population aging, that began the seventies of the 20th century, represents a significant problem. The process of demographic change was accompanied by an internal migration to major urban centers, primarily Podgorica and Montenegrin coast, leading to emptying the interior of Montenegro. Unfortunately, this development of the population structure of Montenegro opens a series of questions and challenges that would the creators of the future you should put high on the scale of its priorities. In this text we will point out on change of total number of citizens of Montenegro according to the base and chain indexes of 1921-2011 and population in Montenegro 2016–2091 (cohort model projections.

  6. [Demographic information in crisis: one point of view].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelos, J B

    1990-01-01

    assess socioeconomic mortality differentials. The 2nd table presents a classification of processes of creation, survival, and extinction of the labor force from the perspective of the individual, domestic unit, and institution. High priority should be given to establishment of an interinstitutional group that would study the congruence of the 3 major sources of demographic information: censuses, vital statistics, and surveys.

  7. The impact of demographic change on energy use and greenhouse gas emissions in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kronenberg, Tobias [Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany)

    2009-08-15

    This paper estimates the impact of demographic change on energy use and greenhouse gas emissions in Germany. Since old people display different consumption patterns than young people, an increase in the proportion of old people affects overall consumption patterns. Micro data from a household survey are used to identify age-specific consumption patterns and to project the impact of demographic change on the structure of total consumption expenditure up to the year 2030. The resulting final demand vectors are entered into an environmental input-output model, which allows the calculation of sectoral production, energy use and greenhouse gas emissions. The model results suggest that until 2030, demographic change raises the share of methane in total greenhouse gas emissions and does not contribute to reducing energy use and greenhouse gas emissions in Germany. The model is also used to explore the effects of redistributing income between age groups and a policy-induced switch from motor vehicle use to public transport. (author)

  8. Changing demographics and state fiscal outlook: the case of sales taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, D R; Wallace, S

    1996-04-01

    "Broad-scale demographic changes have implications for state and local finance in terms of the composition of the base of revenue sources and their yields. This article examines the effect of such changes on the potential future yield of consumption-based taxes. The effect of household characteristics and composition on the consumption of selected groups of goods subject to ad valorem retail sales taxes is estimated, generating demographic elasticities of consumption. These elasticities are applied to projected demographic changes in eight states through the year 2000. The results show rather wide variation in expected consumption shifts and potential tax bases across the states, with income growth having the greatest effect...." The geographical focus is on the United States.

  9. Do sedentary behaviors mediate associations between socio-demographic characteristics and BMI in women living in socio-economically disadvantaged neighborhoods?

    OpenAIRE

    Compernolle, Sofie; De Cocker, Katrien; Abbott, Gavin; Verloigne, Maïté; Cardon, Greet; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Ball, Kylie

    2015-01-01

    Background: Women living in deprived neighborhoods are a risk group for overweight and obesity, particularly during the childbearing years. Several socio-demographic characteristics may compound this risk, but little is known about why this might be the case. Sedentary behaviors are emerging as a socio-demographically patterned risk factor for obesity. The purpose of the present study was to assess socio-demographic differences in sedentary behaviors, and to examine whether these behaviors co...

  10. Maternal socioeconomic and demographic factors associated with the sex ratio at birth in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Bang Nguyen; Adair, Timothy; Hill, Peter S

    2010-11-01

    In recent years Vietnam has experienced a high sex ratio at birth (SRB) amidst rapid socioeconomic and demographic changes. However, little is known about the differentials in SRB between maternal socioeconomic and demographic groups. The paper uses data from the annual Population Change Survey (PCS) in 2006 to examine the relationship of the sex ratio of the most recent birth with maternal socioeconomic and demographic characteristics and the number of previous female births. The SRB of Vietnam was significantly high at 111.4 (95% CI 109.7-113.1) for the period 1st April 2000 to 31st March 2006. Multivariate analysis reveals that sex of the most recent birth is strongly related with the number of previous female births. This association is consistent across different socioeconomic and demographic groups of women. Given the high SRB in Vietnam, further research into the reasons for high SRB in these groups is required, as are intervention programmes such as those raising the public awareness of its negative consequences.

  11. Demographic controls of future global fire risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knorr, W.; Arneth, A.; Jiang, L.

    2016-08-01

    Wildfires are an important component of terrestrial ecosystem ecology but also a major natural hazard to societies, and their frequency and spatial distribution must be better understood. At a given location, risk from wildfire is associated with the annual fraction of burned area, which is expected to increase in response to climate warming. Until recently, however, only a few global studies of future fire have considered the effects of other important global environmental change factors such as atmospheric CO2 levels and human activities, and how these influence fires in different regions. Here, we contrast the impact of climate change and increasing atmospheric CO2 content on burned area with that of demographic dynamics, using ensembles of climate simulations combined with historical and projected population changes under different socio-economic development pathways for 1901-2100. Historically, humans notably suppressed wildfires. For future scenarios, global burned area will continue to decline under a moderate emissions scenario, except for low population growth and fast urbanization, but start to increase again from around mid-century under high greenhouse gas emissions. Contrary to common perception, we find that human exposure to wildfires increases in the future mainly owing to projected population growth in areas with frequent wildfires, rather than by a general increase in burned area.

  12. Demographic impact of vaccination: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonanni, P

    1999-10-29

    Vaccination is one of the most powerful means to save lives and to increase the level of health of mankind. However, the impact of immunization against the most threatening infectious agents on life expectancy has been the object of a still open debate. The main issues are: the relative influence of nutrition and infectious diseases on demographic patterns of populations; the possibility that lives saved thanks to vaccination are subsequently lost due to other competing causes of death; the positive indirect effect of immunization on other causes of death. With regard to past evidence, several data from the United Kingdom and Scandinavian countries show that the widespread use of smallpox vaccination starting at the beginning of the nineteenth century resulted in a marked and sustained decline not only of smallpox-related deaths, but also of the overall crude death rate, and contributed greatly to an unprecedented growth of European population. As to the present, it is estimated that 3 million children are saved annually by vaccination, but 2 million still die because they are not immunized. Tetanus, measles and pertussis are the main vaccine-preventable killers in the first years of life. Data from Bangladesh show that full implementation of EPI vaccines has the potential of reducing mortality by almost one half in children aged 1-4 years. Recent progress in the development of vaccines against agents responsible for much mortality in the developing countries make it possible to forecast a further substantial reduction of deaths for infectious diseases in the next century.

  13. The shifting demographic landscape of pandemic influenza.

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    Shweta Bansal

    Full Text Available As Pandemic (H1N1 2009 influenza spreads around the globe, it strikes school-age children more often than adults. Although there is some evidence of pre-existing immunity among older adults, this alone may not explain the significant gap in age-specific infection rates.Based on a retrospective analysis of pandemic strains of influenza from the last century, we show that school-age children typically experience the highest attack rates in primarily naive populations, with the burden shifting to adults during the subsequent season. Using a parsimonious network-based mathematical model which incorporates the changing distribution of contacts in the susceptible population, we demonstrate that new pandemic strains of influenza are expected to shift the epidemiological landscape in exactly this way.Our analysis provides a simple demographic explanation for the age bias observed for H1N1/09 attack rates, and suggests that this bias may shift in coming months. These results have significant implications for the allocation of public health resources for H1N1/09 and future influenza pandemics.

  14. Coping behaviour of female teachers: Demographic determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Chaturvedi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The study investigates the role of certain demographic variables in determining stress-coping behavior of female teachers. Materials and Methods: The sample consists of 150 female teachers selected by stratified sampling method from various schools of Bhopal. Stress-coping behavior was measured with the help of a subscale of ′The Occupational Stress Indicator′ (Wendy Lord, 1993 consisting of 28 items encompassing six dimensions of coping strategies i.e. Logics, Involvement, Social Support, Task Strategies, Time Management and Home and Work Relations. The scores of the subjects were compared in terms of marital status, age, and level of teaching with the help of ′t′ test and ′F′ test was used for comparing experience. Results: Marital status, age, and experience were found to be significant determinants of stress-coping, whereas the sores did not differ significantly on the basis of level of teaching. Conclusion: Married teachers in the age range of 40-60 years, with higher experience can cope better with the job stress than their counterparts.

  15. Febrile Seizure: Demographic Features and Causative Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed ESMAILI GOURABI

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available How to cite this article: Esmaili Gourabi H, Bidabadi E, Cheraghalipour  F, Aarabi  Y, Salamat F. Febrile Seizure: Demographic Features and Causative Factors. Iran J Child Neurol Autumn 2012; 6(4:33-37.Abstract Objective Because of geographical and periodical variation, we prompted to determine the demographic features and causative factors for febrile seizure in Rasht. Materials & Methods In this cross-sectional study, all 6–month- to 6-year-old children with the diagnosis of febrile seizure admitted to 17 Shahrivar hospital in Rasht, from August, 2009 to August, 2010 were studied. Age, sex, family history of the disease, seizure types, body temperature upon admission and infectious causes of the fever were recorded. All statistical analysis was performed with SPSS software, version 16. Results Of the 214 children (mean age, 25.24±15.40 months, 124 were boys and 109 had a positive family history. Complex seizures were seen in 39 cases. In patients with a complex febrile seizure, 59% had the repetitive type, 20.5% had the focal type and 20.5% had more than 15 minutes duration of seizures. Most of the repetitive seizures (78.3% occurred in patients under 2 years old; the difference between under and over 2-year-old patients was statistically significant (P=0.02. Study results did not show significant differences between the two genders for simple or complex seizures. The mean body temperature upon admission was 38.2±1.32◦C (38.31±0.82 degrees in boys and 38.04±1.78 in girls. Upper respiratory infections were seen in most patients (74.29%. All cases of lower respiratory infections were boys. There was a statistically significant difference between boys and girls in causes of fever. Conclusion Most of the children had a positive family history and the most common causative factor was upper respiratory infection.  References: Huang MC, Huang CC, Thomas K. Febrile convulsions: development and validation of a questionnaire to measure

  16. Demographics of Resonances in Exoplanetary Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragozzine, Darin; Conaway, James L.; MacDonald, Mariah G.; Sallee, Victor

    2016-10-01

    NASA's Kepler Space Telescope has identified ~700 systems of multiple transiting exoplanets containing ~1700 planets. Most of these multi-transiting systems have 3-5 planets small planets with periods of roughly 5-50 days and are known as Systems with Tightly-spaced Inner Planets (STIPs). These information-rich exoplanetary systems have precisely measured period ratios which allows for the identification and characterization of orbital mean motion resonances. Improved understanding of the resonant populations will reveal much about the formation and evolution of planetary systems. Lissauer, Ragozzine, et al. 2011 found that most Kepler systems were not in resonance, but that there was a small excess of planets wide of resonance. We present new analyses that rigorously identify the frequency of planets in multiple resonances (including three-body resonances) and thus identify many specific new results on the demographics of resonances. We also show that the apparent over-abundance of resonances can be attributed to a difference in inclinations (potentially from dissipation) with implications for the true underlying frequency of resonant systems. We compare the period ratio distribution of Kepler (corrected for inclination biases) to Radial Velocity (RV) surveys and conclude that RV systems are often missing small intermediate planets. This has serious implications for the completeness of RV identification of planets in STIPs.

  17. Demographic evidence for adaptive theories of aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitteldorf, J J

    2012-07-01

    Pleiotropic theories for the evolutionary origins of senescence have been ascendant for forty years (see, for example, G. Williams (1957) Evolution, 11, 398-411; T. Kirkwood (1977) Nature, 270, 301-304), and it is not surprising that interpreters of demographic data seek to frame their results in this context. But some of that evidence finds a much more natural explanation in terms of adaptive aging. Here we re-interpret the 1997 results of the Centenarian Study in Boston, which found in their sample of centenarian women an excess of late childbearing. The finding was originally interpreted as a selection effect: a metabolic link between late menopause and longevity. But we demonstrate that this interpretation is statistically strained, and that the data in fact indicate a causal link: bearing a child late in life induces a metabolic response that promotes longevity. This conclusion directly contradicts some pleiotropic theories of aging that postulate a "cost of reproduction", and it supports theories of aging as an adaptive genetic program.

  18. Estimating demographic parameters from large-scale population genomic data using Approximate Bayesian Computation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Sen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC approach has been used to infer demographic parameters for numerous species, including humans. However, most applications of ABC still use limited amounts of data, from a small number of loci, compared to the large amount of genome-wide population-genetic data which have become available in the last few years. Results We evaluated the performance of the ABC approach for three 'population divergence' models - similar to the 'isolation with migration' model - when the data consists of several hundred thousand SNPs typed for multiple individuals by simulating data from known demographic models. The ABC approach was used to infer demographic parameters of interest and we compared the inferred values to the true parameter values that was used to generate hypothetical "observed" data. For all three case models, the ABC approach inferred most demographic parameters quite well with narrow credible intervals, for example, population divergence times and past population sizes, but some parameters were more difficult to infer, such as population sizes at present and migration rates. We compared the ability of different summary statistics to infer demographic parameters, including haplotype and LD based statistics, and found that the accuracy of the parameter estimates can be improved by combining summary statistics that capture different parts of information in the data. Furthermore, our results suggest that poor choices of prior distributions can in some circumstances be detected using ABC. Finally, increasing the amount of data beyond some hundred loci will substantially improve the accuracy of many parameter estimates using ABC. Conclusions We conclude that the ABC approach can accommodate realistic genome-wide population genetic data, which may be difficult to analyze with full likelihood approaches, and that the ABC can provide accurate and precise inference of demographic parameters from

  19. Horton Law in Self-Similar Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovchegov, Yevgeniy; Zaliapin, Ilya

    2016-04-01

    Self-similarity of random trees is related to the operation of pruning. Pruning ℛ cuts the leaves and their parental edges and removes the resulting chains of degree-two nodes from a finite tree. A Horton-Strahler order of a vertex v and its parental edge is defined as the minimal number of prunings necessary to eliminate the subtree rooted at v. A branch is a group of neighboring vertices and edges of the same order. The Horton numbers 𝒩k[K] and 𝒩ij[K] are defined as the expected number of branches of order k, and the expected number of order-i branches that merged order-j branches, j > i, respectively, in a finite tree of order K. The Tokunaga coefficients are defined as Tij[K] = 𝒩ij[K]/𝒩j[K]. The pruning decreases the orders of tree vertices by unity. A rooted full binary tree is said to be mean-self-similar if its Tokunaga coefficients are invariant with respect to pruning: Tk := Ti,i+k[K]. We show that for self-similar trees, the condition limsupk→∞Tk1/k 0 and every k ≥ 1. This work is a step toward providing rigorous foundations for the Horton law that, being omnipresent in natural branching systems, has escaped so far a formal explanation.

  20. Open Groups: Adaptations in Implementing a Parent Training Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna-Jean P. Brock

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Programs that focus on positive parenting have been shown to improve parental attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors, and increase parent and child bonding. These programs are typically conducted in a closed group format. However, when individual or community needs are more immediate, programmers sometimes opt for an open group format. To determine the effectiveness of this adaptation to an open group format, the present study compared both groups on parental outcomes. Methods: Both closed and open group formats were offered and implemented between January 2009 and December 2012. Participants for both formats were recruited through similar means and the format placement for each family was determined by the immediacy of the need for an intervention, the time lapse until a new cycle would begin, and scheduling flexibility. Chi-Square analyses were conducted to determine demographic differences between the two groups and gain scores were calculated from the pre- and post-test AAPI-2 scales within a mixed MANOVA to determine group for-mat effectiveness. Results: Though open groups contained higher risk families; parental out-come improvements were significant for both groups. All participants, regardless of group membership, demonstrated the same statistically significant improvements following completion of the program. Conclusion: Findings provide support for adapting group formats when necessary to fit community and individual needs.

  1. Febrile Seizure: Demographic Features and Causative Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed ESMAILI GOURABI

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveBecause of geographical and periodical variation, we prompted to determine the demographic features and causative factors for febrile seizure in Rasht.Materials & MethodsIn this cross-sectional study, all 6–month- to 6-year-old children with the diagnosis of febrile seizure admitted to 17 Shahrivar hospital in Rasht, from August, 2009 to August, 2010 were studied. Age, sex, family history of the disease, seizure types, body temperature upon admission and infectious causes of the fever were recorded. All statistical analysis was performed with SPSS software, version 16.ResultsOf the 214 children (mean age, 25.24±15.40 months, 124 were boys and 109 had a positive family history. Complex seizures were seen in 39 cases. In patients with a complex febrile seizure, 59% had the repetitive type, 20.5% had the focal type and 20.5% had more than 15 minutes duration of seizures. Most of the repetitive seizures (78.3% occurred in patients under 2 years old; the difference between under and over 2-year-old patients was statistically significant (P=0.02. Study results did not show significant differences between the two genders for simple or complex seizures. The mean body temperature upon admission was 38.2±1.32◦C (38.31±0.82 degrees in boys and 38.04±1.78 in girls. Upper respiratory infections were seen in most patients (74.29%. All cases of lower respiratory infections were boys. There was a statistically significant difference between boys and girls in causes of fever.ConclusionMost of the children had a positive family history and the most common causative factor was upper respiratory infection.

  2. Demographic characteristics of patients with pulmonary thromboembolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Duman

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE is a common disease with high mortality and difficult diagnosis.The incidence in our country cannot be calculated because there is no adequate and regular data. In our study,we aimed to investigate the demographic characteristics,risk factors, incidence, Wells and Geneva scores diagnostic and treatment methods of the patients in our emergency department with a diagnosis of PTE. Methods:Files of the 112 patients who were admitted to Erciyes University Medical Faculty Emergency Department between January 2010 - February 2012 were analyzed retrospectively. Data were analyzed with SPSS 17.0 statistical software. Results:The mean age of patients was 65.02 ± 16.23.Forty-one (36.6% of the patients were male and 71 (63.4% were female. The most common complaint of patients was shortness of breath (81.3%, respectively.Immobilization(35.7% and history of previous surgery(19.6% were among the risk factors of the patients. Average troponin levels of the patients was 0.13 ± 0.48 ng/Land average d-dimer levels was 12.698.12 ± 8.779.92 μg/L. Geneva scores of the patients were: 4 patients (3.6% low score, 88 patients (78.6% medium score and 20 patients (17.9% high score. Wells Clinical Probability scores of the patients were; 1 patient (0.9% low probability, 74 patients (66.1% intermediate probability and 37 patients (33% high probability. In the treatmentof patients; heparin infusion (36.6%, enoxaparin sodium(59.8% and tPA (3.6% were used. Conclusion: In spite of improvements in diagnosis and treatment methods, pulmonary embolism diagnosis is stil a problem. The first step to diagnosis in patients with risk factors begin to suspect.J Clin Exp Invest 2015; 6 (1:10-15

  3. Demographics of the European apicultural industry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Pierre Chauzat

    Full Text Available Over the last few years, many European and North American countries have reported a high rate of disorders (mortality, dwindling and disappearance affecting honeybee colonies (Apis mellifera. Although beekeeping has become an increasingly professional activity in recent years, the beekeeping industry remains poorly documented in Europe. The European Union Reference Laboratory for Honeybee Health sent a detailed questionnaire to each Member State, in addition to Kosovo and Norway, to determine the demographics and state of their beekeeping industries. Based on data supplied by the National Reference Laboratory for honeybee diseases in each European country, a European database was created to describe the beekeeping industry including the number and types of beekeepers, operation size, industry production, and health (notifiable diseases, mortalities. The total number of beekeepers in Europe was estimated at 620,000. European honey production was evaluated at around 220,000 tons in 2010. The price of honey varied from 1.5 to 40 €/kg depending on the country and on the distribution network. The estimated colony winter mortality varied from 7 to 28% depending on the country and the origin of the data (institutional survey or beekeeping associations. This survey documents the high heterogeneity of the apicultural industry within the European Union. The high proportion of non-professional beekeepers and the small mean number of colonies per beekeeper were the only common characteristics at European level. The tremendous variation in European apicultural industries has implication for any comprehensive epidemiological or economic analysis of the industry. This variability needs to be taken into account for such analysis as well as for future policy development. The industry would be served if beekeeping registration was uniformly implemented across member states. Better information on the package bee and queen production would help in understanding

  4. Demographics of the European apicultural industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauzat, Marie-Pierre; Cauquil, Laura; Roy, Lise; Franco, Stéphanie; Hendrikx, Pascal; Ribière-Chabert, Magali

    2013-01-01

    Over the last few years, many European and North American countries have reported a high rate of disorders (mortality, dwindling and disappearance) affecting honeybee colonies (Apis mellifera). Although beekeeping has become an increasingly professional activity in recent years, the beekeeping industry remains poorly documented in Europe. The European Union Reference Laboratory for Honeybee Health sent a detailed questionnaire to each Member State, in addition to Kosovo and Norway, to determine the demographics and state of their beekeeping industries. Based on data supplied by the National Reference Laboratory for honeybee diseases in each European country, a European database was created to describe the beekeeping industry including the number and types of beekeepers, operation size, industry production, and health (notifiable diseases, mortalities). The total number of beekeepers in Europe was estimated at 620,000. European honey production was evaluated at around 220,000 tons in 2010. The price of honey varied from 1.5 to 40 €/kg depending on the country and on the distribution network. The estimated colony winter mortality varied from 7 to 28% depending on the country and the origin of the data (institutional survey or beekeeping associations). This survey documents the high heterogeneity of the apicultural industry within the European Union. The high proportion of non-professional beekeepers and the small mean number of colonies per beekeeper were the only common characteristics at European level. The tremendous variation in European apicultural industries has implication for any comprehensive epidemiological or economic analysis of the industry. This variability needs to be taken into account for such analysis as well as for future policy development. The industry would be served if beekeeping registration was uniformly implemented across member states. Better information on the package bee and queen production would help in understanding the ability of

  5. ron Intake in Adults from Medellin According to Demographics, 2012

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    Carmen Yulieth Mantilla Gutiérrez

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To analyze the iron intake in healthy adults of Medellín according to demographics, and to determine the association between the consumption of iron and hemoglobin in this popula¬tion. Materials and methods: Cross-sectional study in 109 subjects. We applied a semiquantitative survey of food consumption frequency source of iron given the frequency of consumption and portion. Summary measures, frequencies, Mann Whitney, Kruskal Wallis ANOVA and Spearman correlation were calculated. We used SPSS version 20.0, considering a significance level of 0.05. Results: The mean age subjects was 32, 64.2 % were female, 81.6 % with technical or university studies, 29.3 % students and 43.9 % of low socioeconomic status. We found a daily intake of 12.3 mg/day on average, 61 % from non-heme iron. The total iron consumed was statistically higher in unemployed subjects than in workers, students and housewives. The heme iron intake was statistically higher in individuals with graduate. No statistically significant differences were observed when comparing iron consumption by sex, age group and hemoglobin. Conclusions: The low intake of iron is not influenced by sex or age group, but by occupation and education, and is a factor that cannot reduce the prevalence of iron and other micronutrients deficiencies. It requires to implement more and better strategies for nutrition education and increased avail¬ability, production and consumption of safe food

  6. [The relationship between gingival condition and socio-demographic factors of adolescents living in a Brazilian region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Emilio Prado; Ferreira, Efigênia Ferreira E; Abreu, Mauro Henrique Nogueira Guimarães; Palmier, Andréa Clemente; Vargas, Andréa Maria Duarte

    2015-11-01

    The scope of this study is to correlate the gingival condition and sociodemographic status of adolescents living in an economically disadvantaged Brazilian region. The survey was conducted with a random sample of 450 adolescents in 13 cities selected in the Jequitinhonha Valley (State of Minas Gerais). The gingival condition was evaluated using a calibrated examiner (Kappa ≥ 0.85). The oral exam was based on the Community Periodontal Index (CPI). The frequencies of individuals were calculated and sextants subsequently assessed using Multiple Correspondence Analysis (ANACOR) to reveal the relationship between CPI and sociodemographic characteristics. The results showed that: 16 (3.6%) were healthy; 235 (52.2%) had gingival bleeding; 36 (8%) had dental calculus and 163 (36.2%) had both bleeding and calculus. ANACOR identified two groups with similarities in relation to periodontal disease. Group one featured 19-year-olds with healthy CPI who work and have higher family income. Group two included 15- and 16-year-olds of both sexes with CPI and gingival bleeding in elementary school with lower family income, who declared themselves to be of mixed or Afro-descendant race. The presence of gingivitis was related to the socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of adolescents in the region.

  7. Socio-Demographic Moderators of Environment-Physical Activity Associations: Results From the International Prevalence Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Lilian G; Conway, Terry L; Bauman, Adrian; Kerr, Jacqueline; Elder, John P; Arredondo, Elva M; Sallis, Jim F

    2017-08-03

    Associations between the built environment and physical activity (PA) may vary by socio-demographic factors. However, such evidence from international studies is limited. This study tested moderating effects of socio-demographic factors on associations between perceived environment and self-report total PA among adults from the International Prevalence Study. Between 2002-2003, adults from nine countries (N=10,258) completed surveys assessing total PA (IPAQ-short), perceived environment, and socio-demographics (age, gender, and education). Total PA was dichotomized as meeting/not meeting a) high PA levels and b) minimum PA guidelines (PAG). Logistic models tested environment by socio-demographic interactions (24 total). Education and gender moderated the association between safety from crime and meeting high PA levels (interaction p<0.05), with inverse associations found only among the high-education group and men. Education and gender also moderated associations of safety from crime and the presence of transit stops with meeting minimum PAG (interaction p<0.05), with positive associations found for safety from crime only among women and presence of transit stops only among men and the high-education group. The limited number of moderating effects found provides support for population-wide environment-PA associations. International efforts to improve built environments are needed to promote health-enhancing PA, and maintain environmental sustainability.

  8. Mate choice and friendship in twins: evidence for genetic similarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushton, J Philippe; Bons, Trudy Ann

    2005-07-01

    This study examined the genetic and environmental contribution to people's preference for spouses and friends to be similar to themselves. In their responses to 130 personality, attitude, and demographic questions, 174 pairs of monozygotic (MZ) twins resembled each other (r= .53) more than did 148 pairs of dizygotic (DZ) twins (r= .32), 322 pairs of spouses (r= .32), and 563 pairs of best friends (r= .20). It was not previously recognized that spouses and friends are as similar as DZ twins. MZ twins also chose spouses and best friends more similar to their co-twins' friends and spouses than did DZ twins (mean rs = .22 vs. .14). The twins' preference for spouses and friends similar to themselves was about 34% due to the twins' genes, 12% due to the twins' common environment, and 54% due to the twins' unique (nonshared) environment. Similarity to partners was more pronounced on the more heritable items than the less heritable items. It is concluded that people are genetically inclined to choose as social partners those who resemble themselves at a genetic level.

  9. The heterogeneous health latent classes of elderly people and their socio-demographic characteristics in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li-Fan; Tian, Wei-Hua; Yao, Hui-Ping

    2014-01-01

    The health care needs of elderly people were influenced by their heterogeneity. This study aimed to identify the health latent classes of elderly people by using latent class analysis to deal with heterogeneity and examine their socio-demographic characteristics. Data came from the 2005 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) in Taiwan. In total, 2449 elderly individuals with available health indicators were examined in latent class analysis (LCA), and 2217 elderly community-dwellings with complete socio-demographic data were analyzed by multinomial logistic regression. Four health latent classes were identified which included 1066 (43.5%) people in the High Comorbidity (HC), 152 (6.2%) in the Functional Impairment (FI), 252 (10.3%) in the Frail (FR), and 979 (40.0%) in the Relatively Healthy (RH) group. Multinomial logistic regressions revealed socio-demographic characteristics among health classes. The variables associated with an increased likelihood of being in the FR group were age, female, and living with families. They were also correlated to ethnicity and educations. Apart from age and gender, the Functional Impairment group was less likely to be ethnicity of Hakka, more likely to live with others than were the RH group. The HC group tended to be younger, with higher educations, and more likely to live in urban area than the Functional Impairment group. The correlations between health classes and socio-demographic factors were discussed. The health status of elderly people includes a variety of health indicators. A person-centered approach is critical to identify the health heterogeneity of elderly people and manage their care needs by targeting differential aging.

  10. The relationship between bisphosphonate use and demographic characteristics of male osteoporosis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alev Cevikoi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to investigate a number of demographic characteristics in males with osteoporosis (OP treated with bisphosphonate and determine whether any of these measures could act as an effective indicator of medication persistence and compliance. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Among the patients with OP who applied to our clinic and were prescribed weekly oral bisphosphonate treatment, 89 patients over 50 years of age were included in this study. The demographic characteristics of these patients were evaluated. The number of medications used by the patients over the past 1 and 3 years were counted, and the persistence and compliance with bisphosphonate treatment was estimated. The patients were divided into two groups: fully compliant and noncompliant subjects. The two groups of patients were compared separately for 1 and 3 years while considering their demographic characteristics. RESULTS: The mean age of the 89 patients included in the study was 62.43 + 9.41 years. Comparisons among the studied demographic characteristics during the 1-year period of medication use indicated that the educational status of the fully compliant patients was higher. During the 3-year period of medication use, educational status was the only demographic characteristic that was determined to be significantly lower in the noncompliant patients than in the fully compliant group. CONCLUSION: Although deficiencies in medication persistence and compliance during osteoporosis treatment can lead to serious health and social problems in both genders, the causes of these deficiencies have not been thoroughly clarified. We suggest that the educational status of the patient may contribute to these deficiencies.

  11. China's Demographic Challenge Requires an Integrated Coping Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xizhe

    2013-01-01

    China has entered into a new stage of demographic dynamics whereby population-related challenges are more complicated than ever before. The current one-child policy should be modified. However, the anticipated impacts of such a policy change should not be over-exaggerated. China's demographic challenge requires an integrated coping strategy.…

  12. Making the Case for Demographic Data in Extension Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Katherine J.; Verdoff, Daniel; Rizzo, Bill; Beaudoin, James

    2012-01-01

    Understanding one's community is essential for effective Extension programming across all program areas. The use of current and reliable demographic data is crucial for Extension to develop effective education and programming to track change and to uncover hidden community characteristics. We discuss what demographic data are, present…

  13. Europe at the crossroads: demographic challenges and international migration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nimwegen, N.; van der Erf, R.F.

    2010-01-01

    Two demographic challenges confront Europe today: population ageing and population decline. These challenges are two sides of the same demographic coin. While low fertility and increasing longevity cause populations to rapidly grow older, low fertility also leads to population decline. This paper de

  14. Developing a Global Mindset: Integrating Demographics, Sustainability, Technology, and Globalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Raj

    2011-01-01

    Business schools face a number of challenges in responding to the business influences of demographics, sustainability, and technology--all three of which are also the fundamental driving forces for globalization. Demographic forces are creating global imbalances in worker populations and in government finances; the world economy faces…

  15. Making the Case for Demographic Data in Extension Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Katherine J.; Verdoff, Daniel; Rizzo, Bill; Beaudoin, James

    2012-01-01

    Understanding one's community is essential for effective Extension programming across all program areas. The use of current and reliable demographic data is crucial for Extension to develop effective education and programming to track change and to uncover hidden community characteristics. We discuss what demographic data are, present…

  16. The Impact of Extrinsic Demographic Factors on Cantonese Speech Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, Carol K. S.; Cheung, Pamela S. P.; McLeod, Sharynne

    2013-01-01

    This study modeled the associations between extrinsic demographic factors and children's speech acquisition in Hong Kong Cantonese. The speech of 937 Cantonese-speaking children aged 2;4 to 6;7 in Hong Kong was assessed using a standardized speech test. Demographic information regarding household income, paternal education, maternal education,…

  17. Developing a Global Mindset: Integrating Demographics, Sustainability, Technology, and Globalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Raj

    2011-01-01

    Business schools face a number of challenges in responding to the business influences of demographics, sustainability, and technology--all three of which are also the fundamental driving forces for globalization. Demographic forces are creating global imbalances in worker populations and in government finances; the world economy faces…

  18. Demographic profile of families and children in the Study to Explore Early Development (SEED): Case-control study of autism spectrum disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiGuiseppi, Carolyn G.; Daniels, Julie L.; Fallin, Daniele M.; Rosenberg, Steven A.; Schieve, Laura A.; Thomas, Kathleen C.; Windham, Gayle C.; Goss, Cynthia W.; Soke, Gnakub N.; Currie, Dustin W.; Singer, Alison B.; Lee, Li-Ching; Bernal, Pilar; Croen, Lisa A.; Miller, Lisa A.; Pinto-Martin, Jennifer A.; Young, Lisa M.; Schendel, Diana E.

    2016-01-01

    Background The Study to Explore Early Development (SEED) is designed to enhance knowledge of autism spectrum disorder characteristics and etiologies. Objective This paper describes the demographic profile of enrolled families and examines sociodemographic differences between children with autism spectrum disorder and children with other developmental problems or who are typically developing. Methods This multi-site case-control study used health, education, and birth certificate records to identify and enroll children aged 2–5 years into one of three groups: 1) cases (children with autism spectrum disorder), 2) developmental delay or disorder controls, or 3) general population controls. Study group classification was based on sampling source, prior diagnoses, and study screening tests and developmental evaluations. The child's primary caregiver provided demographic characteristics through a telephone (or occasionally face-to-face) interview. Groups were compared using ANOVA, chi-squared test, or multinomial logistic regression as appropriate. Results Of 2768 study children, sizeable proportions were born to mothers of non-White race (31.7%), Hispanic ethnicity (11.4%), and foreign birth (17.6%); 33.0% of households had incomes below the US median. The autism spectrum disorder and population control groups differed significantly on nearly all sociodemographic parameters. In contrast, the autism spectrum disorder and developmental delay or disorder groups had generally similar sociodemographic characteristics. Conclusions SEED enrolled a sociodemographically diverse sample, which will allow further, in-depth exploration of sociodemographic differences between study groups and provide novel opportunities to explore sociodemographic influences on etiologic risk factor associations with autism spectrum disorder and phenotypic subtypes. PMID:26917104

  19. Demographic upheavals in the former USSR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haub, C

    1995-01-01

    Fertility and life expectancy have changed since the breakup of the Soviet republics in 1991 and continue to change very rapidly. Before 1991, the USSR was the fastest growing developed country in the world. Annual growth rates in the mid-1980s were 0.9% compared to only 0.1% in Europe or 1.1% in the US. Immigration did not greatly affect the USSR's growth rate. By 1993, the population had declined in 8 of the 15 former republics. Deaths exceeded births in Russia, Belarus, Ukraine, Estonia, and Latvia, followed by Lithuania in 1994. The last census was conducted in 1989. Fertility declined in Russia from 1.9 in 1990 to 1.4 in 1993. Fertility has been low in Lithuania at 1.7, in the Ukraine at 1.6, in Latvia at 1.5, and in Estonia at 1.4. Kazakhstan, Georgia, and Kyrgyzstan have experienced fertility decline, which was affected by emigration to Russia and other countries after 1990. 25 million Russians have resided in the former republics in 1990. In Kazakhstan, the 160,000 more births than deaths were offset by 200,000 emigrants. Central republics with higher fertility experienced declines after 1990; for example, Kyrgyzstan declined from 3.7 in 1990 to 3.3 in 1993. Life expectancy for males in Russia in 1993 was 58.9 years, which was a decline from 63.8 years in 1990. About 50% of the decline in life expectancy was due to circulatory diseases, and about 25% was due to external causes such as accidents, suicide, and alcoholism. Infant mortality has been increasing since 1990; for example, it increased in the Ukraine from 12.9 in 1990 to 14.1 in 1992. Russia's population in 1993 experienced 700,000 more deaths than births. The demographic impact will be declining school enrollments and smaller employment among the working population to support the aged. The change to a market economy has been uneven in Russia, where it has advanced more rapidly than in the republics. It is unclear whether the declining birth rate and increasing mortality rates will continue, but

  20. Online Self-Tracking Groups to Increase Fruit and Vegetable Intake: A Small-Scale Study on Mechanisms of Group Effect on Behavior Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Jingbo; Peng, Wei; Shin, Soo Yun; Chung, Minwoong

    2017-03-06

    Web-based interventions with a self-tracking component have been found to be effective in promoting adults' fruit and vegetable consumption. However, these interventions primarily focus on individual- rather than group-based self-tracking. The rise of social media technologies enables sharing and comparing self-tracking records in a group context. Therefore, we developed an online group-based self-tracking program to promote fruit and vegetable consumption. This study aims to examine (1) the effectiveness of online group-based self-tracking on fruit and vegetable consumption and (2) characteristics of online self-tracking groups that make the group more effective in promoting fruit and vegetable consumption in early young adults. During a 4-week Web-based experiment, 111 college students self-tracked their fruit and vegetable consumption either individually (ie, the control group) or in an online group characterized by a 2 (demographic similarity: demographically similar vs demographically diverse) × 2 (social modeling: incremental change vs ideal change) experimental design. Each online group consisted of one focal participant and three confederates as group members or peers, who had their demographics and fruit and vegetable consumption manipulated to create the four intervention groups. Self-reported fruit and vegetable consumption were assessed using the Food Frequency Questionnaire at baseline and after the 4-week experiment. Participants who self-tracked their fruit and vegetable consumption collectively with other group members consumed more fruits and vegetables than participants who self-tracked individually (P=.01). The results did not show significant main effects of demographic similarity (P=.32) or types of social modeling (P=.48) in making self-tracking groups more effective in promoting fruit and vegetable consumption. However, additional analyses revealed the main effect of performance discrepancy (ie, difference in fruit and vegetable consumption

  1. Online Self-Tracking Groups to Increase Fruit and Vegetable Intake: A Small-Scale Study on Mechanisms of Group Effect on Behavior Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Wei; Shin, Soo Yun; Chung, Minwoong

    2017-01-01

    Background Web-based interventions with a self-tracking component have been found to be effective in promoting adults’ fruit and vegetable consumption. However, these interventions primarily focus on individual- rather than group-based self-tracking. The rise of social media technologies enables sharing and comparing self-tracking records in a group context. Therefore, we developed an online group-based self-tracking program to promote fruit and vegetable consumption. Objective This study aims to examine (1) the effectiveness of online group-based self-tracking on fruit and vegetable consumption and (2) characteristics of online self-tracking groups that make the group more effective in promoting fruit and vegetable consumption in early young adults. Methods During a 4-week Web-based experiment, 111 college students self-tracked their fruit and vegetable consumption either individually (ie, the control group) or in an online group characterized by a 2 (demographic similarity: demographically similar vs demographically diverse) × 2 (social modeling: incremental change vs ideal change) experimental design. Each online group consisted of one focal participant and three confederates as group members or peers, who had their demographics and fruit and vegetable consumption manipulated to create the four intervention groups. Self-reported fruit and vegetable consumption were assessed using the Food Frequency Questionnaire at baseline and after the 4-week experiment. Results Participants who self-tracked their fruit and vegetable consumption collectively with other group members consumed more fruits and vegetables than participants who self-tracked individually (P=.01). The results did not show significant main effects of demographic similarity (P=.32) or types of social modeling (P=.48) in making self-tracking groups more effective in promoting fruit and vegetable consumption. However, additional analyses revealed the main effect of performance discrepancy (ie

  2. Demographic aspects of the island syndrome in two Afrotropical Mastomys rodent species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespin, Laurent; Duplantier, Jean-Marc; Granjon, Laurent

    2012-02-01

    The island syndrome is the name given to the particularities of the behavioural, morphological and demographical characteristics of island populations. As concerns demography, the island syndrome model states that densities and survival are greater in island than in mainland populations. Most previous studies aimed at confirming this prediction for small mammals have addressed species from the North Temperate Zone. Here, we tested the demographic expectations of the island syndrome using data gathered over two years for island and mainland populations of two African rodent species, Mastomys erytholeucus and Mastomys huberti, at two different sites in Senegal. Capture-Mark-Recapture methods allowing for variation in catchability of the individuals were used to yield estimates of both abundance (or density) and probability of survival and seniority (which is a demographic parameter inversely related to recruitment). As predicted from the island syndrome, survival and densities were indeed higher in island populations for the two study sites; however, only for the population with stronger island syndrome was the difference in survival biologically important. Estimates of the probability of seniority were similar for island and mainland populations at the two sites. Our findings provide support for the demographic expectations of the model of island syndrome in an Afrotropical context and thus confirm the general applicability of this syndrome while revealing differences according to particular insular situations.

  3. Demographic response of northern spotted owls to barred owl removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diller, V. Lowell; Hamm, Keith A; Early, Desiree A; Lamphear, David W; Katie Dugger,; Yackulic, Charles B.; Schwarz, Carl J.; Carlson, Peter C.; McDonald, Trent L.

    2016-01-01

    Federally listed as threatened in 1990 primarily because of habitat loss, the northern spotted owl (Strix occidentalis caurina) has continued to decline despite conservation efforts resulting in forested habitat being reserved throughout its range. Recently, there is growing evidence the congeneric invasive barred owl (Strix varia) may be responsible for the continued decline primarily by excluding spotted owls from their preferred habitat. We used a long-term demographic study for spotted owls in coastal northern California as the basis for a pilot barred owl removal experiment. Our demography study used capture–recapture, reproductive output, and territory occupancy data collected from 1990 to 2013 to evaluate trends in vital rates and populations. We used a classic before-after-control-impact (BACI) experimental design to investigate the demographic response of northern spotted owls to the lethal removal of barred owls. According to the best 2-species dynamic occupancy model, there was no evidence of differences in barred or northern spotted owl occupancy prior to the initiation of the treatment (barred owl removal). After treatment, barred owl occupancy was lower in the treated relative to the untreated areas and spotted owl occupancy was higher relative to the untreated areas. Barred owl removal decreased spotted owl territory extinction rates but did not affect territory colonization rates. As a result, spotted owl occupancy increased in the treated area and continued to decline in the untreated areas. Prior to and after barred owl removal, there was no evidence that average fecundity differed on the 2 study areas. However, the greater number of occupied spotted owl sites on the treated areas resulted in greater productivity in the treated areas based on empirical counts of fledged young. Prior to removal, survival was declining at a rate of approximately 0.2% per year for treated and untreated areas. Following treatment, estimated survival was 0.859 for

  4. Pharmaco-economic impact of demographic change on pharmaceutical expenses in Germany and France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boecking Wolfgang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most European health care systems are suffering from the impact of demographic change. In short, aging of society is leading to higher costs of treatment per capita, while reproduction rates below 2.1 children per woman lead to a reduced number of younger people to provide for the necessary contributions into the health insurance system. This research paper addresses the questions what impact the demographic development will have on one particular spending area, what are pharmaceutical expenditure in two of Europe’s largest health care systems, Germany and France, and what the implications are for pharmaceutical companies. Methods The research is based on publicly available data from German and French health ministries, the OECD, and institutes which focus on projection of demographic development in those countries. In a first step, data was clustered into age groups, and average spending on pharmaceuticals was allocated to that. In the second step, these figures were extrapolated, based on the projected change in the demographic structure of the countries from 2004 until 2050. This leads to a deeper understanding of demand for pharmaceutical products in the future due to the demographic development as a single driving factor. Results Pharmaceutical expenses per head (patient will grow only slightly until 2050 (0.5% p.a. in both countries. Demographic change alone only provides for a slowly growing market for pharmaceutical companies both in Germany and in France, but for a relevant change in the consumption mix of pharmaceutical products, based on a shift of relevance of different age groups. Conclusions Despite demographic changes pharmaceutical expenses per head (patient and the overall pharmaceutical markets will grow only slightly until 2050 in Germany as well as in France. Nevertheless, the aging of society implies different challenges for pharmaceutical companies and also for the health care system. Companies have to

  5. The socio-demographics of texting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ling, Richard; Bertel, Troels Fibæk; Sundsøy, Pål

    2012-01-01

    Who texts, and with whom do they text? This article examines the use of texting using metered traffic data from a large dataset (nearly 400 million anonymous text messages). We ask 1) How much do different age groups use mobile phone based texting (SMS)? 2) How wide is the circle of texting partn...

  6. Quantifying invariant features of within-group inequality in consumption across groups

    CERN Document Server

    Chakrabarti, Anindya S; Nandi, Tushar K; Ghosh, Asim; Chakraborti, Anirban

    2016-01-01

    We study unit-level expenditure on consumption across multiple countries and multiple years, in order to extract invariant features of consumption distribution. We show that the bulk of it is lognormally distributed, followed by a power law tail at the limit. The distributions coincide with each other under normalization by mean expenditure and log scaling even though the data is sampled across multiple dimension including, e.g., time, social structure and locations. This phenomenon indicates that the dispersions in consumption expenditure across various social and economic groups are significantly similar subject to suitable scaling and normalization. Further, the results provide a measurement of the core distributional features. Other descriptive factors including those of sociological, demographic and political nature, add further layers of variation on the this core distribution. We present a stochastic multiplicative model to quantitatively characterize the invariance and the distributional features.

  7. Similarity problems and completely bounded maps

    CERN Document Server

    Pisier, Gilles

    2001-01-01

    These notes revolve around three similarity problems, appearing in three different contexts, but all dealing with the space B(H) of all bounded operators on a complex Hilbert space H. The first one deals with group representations, the second one with C* -algebras and the third one with the disc algebra. We describe them in detail in the introduction which follows. This volume is devoted to the background necessary to understand these three problems, to the solutions that are known in some special cases and to numerous related concepts, results, counterexamples or extensions which their investigation has generated. While the three problems seem different, it is possible to place them in a common framework using the key concept of "complete boundedness", which we present in detail. Using this notion, the three problems can all be formulated as asking whether "boundedness" implies "complete boundedness" for linear maps satisfying certain additional algebraic identities. Two chapters have been added on the HALMO...

  8. Some theoretical aspects of human categorization behavior: similarity and generalization

    OpenAIRE

    Jäkel, Frank

    2007-01-01

    Explanations of human categorization behavior often invoke similarity. Stimuli that are similar to each other are grouped together whereas stimuli that are very different are kept separate. Despite serious problems in defining similarity, both conceptually and experimentally, this is the prevailing view of categorization in prototype models (Posner & Keele, 1968; Reed, 1972) and exemplar models (Medin & Schaffer, 1978; Nosofsky, 1986). This is also the prevailing approach in machine learning ...

  9. Demographic future of Serbia from a different angle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikitović Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the assessment of the empirical errors in the official population forecasts of Serbia, the paper shows why forecast users might want a change of the current official concept. The article consists of three parts. The first gives a brief chronological overview of the methods and hypotheses in the official population forecasts of Serbia during the last 60 years. The second refers to the quantification of the past forecast errors in projecting total fertility rate, life expectancy at birth and total population aiming at assessment of the empirical variability. The third part shows the probabilistic population forecast of Serbia based on Bayesian hierarchical models of vital components, as implemented in the 2012 revision of United Nations World population prospects. The empirical error served as an evaluation tool of the probabilistic distributions of total population. In spite of the increased availability and quality of input data and developing of advanced projection techniques during the period, there was no obvious improvement noted neither in accuracy nor in the expression of the uncertainty inherent to forecasting in the official population forecasts in Serbia up to date. In general, fertility has been overestimated while improvements in mortality have been underestimated. It has been shown that accuracy largely depends on the stability of demographic processes throughout the projection horizon, which confirms findings from similar studies in other countries. The uncertainty in the demographic trends remains a major challenge for forecasters. A typical judgment that the smallest error will be made if a recently observed trend is assumed to continue has been linked to the low fertility variant in the past Serbian forecasts. The target level of the medium fertility, interpreted as "most likely" outcome, was firmly bound to replacement fertility until recently thus reflecting desirable rather than realistic future. Therefore, the

  10. Liberals and conservatives can show similarities in negativity bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Mark J; Wetherell, Geoffrey; Reyna, Christine

    2014-06-01

    Negativity bias may underlie the development of political ideologies, but liberals and conservatives are likely to respond to threats similarly. We review evidence from research on intolerance, motivated reasoning, and basic psychological threats that suggest liberals and conservatives are more similar than different when confronting threatening groups, situations, and information.

  11. Mapping Cigarettes Similarities using Cluster Analysis Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorentz Jäntschi

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to investigate the relationship and/or occurrences in and between chemical composition information (tar, nicotine, carbon monoxide, market information (brand, manufacturer, price, and public health information (class, health warning as well as clustering of a sample of cigarette data. A number of thirty cigarette brands have been analyzed. Six categorical (cigarette brand, manufacturer, health warnings, class and four continuous (tar, nicotine, carbon monoxide concentrations and package price variables were collected for investigation of chemical composition, market information and public health information. Multiple linear regression and two clusterization techniques have been applied. The study revealed interesting remarks. The carbon monoxide concentration proved to be linked with tar and nicotine concentration. The applied clusterization methods identified groups of cigarette brands that shown similar characteristics. The tar and carbon monoxide concentrations were the main criteria used in clusterization. An analysis of a largest sample could reveal more relevant and useful information regarding the similarities between cigarette brands.

  12. Inequalities between similarities for numerical data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warrens, Matthijs J.

    2016-01-01

    Similarity measures are entities that can be used to quantify the similarity between two vectors with real numbers. We present inequalities between seven well known similarities. The inequalities are valid if the vectors contain non-negative real numbers.

  13. Some medico-socio-demographic factors and intra-uterine growth retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhabra, S; Bhandari, V

    1996-04-01

    In the present prospective pilot study an attempt has been made to find out the correlation between some maternopaternal factors (demographic, socio-economic and medical) that suggest a high risk for intra-uterine growth retardation. The mean height and booking weight of women in study group were significantly less than the height and weight of women in control group (p instrumental vaginal delivery, emergency caesarean section for foetal distress, incidence of intrapartum foetal distress, and number of babies with low Apgar scores at 1 and 5 minutes were significantly more in the study group (p < .05 and p < 0.001 respectively for operative delivery and Apgar scores).

  14. Spatial extent in demographic research - approach and problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knežević Aleksandar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the starting methodological problems in demographic research is the definition of spatial extent, which mostly doesn’t correspond to spatial extent already defined by different levels of administrative-territorial unitsthat are used for distribution of usable statistical data. That’s why determining the spatial extent of a demographic research is closely tied with administrative-territorial division of the territory that is being researched, wherein the fact that differentiation of demographic phenomena and processes cannot be the only basis of setting the principles of regionalization must be strictly acknowledged. This problem is particularly common in historical demographic analyses of geographically determined wholes, which are in administratively-territorial sense represented by one or more smaller territorial units, with their borders changing through the history, which directly affects comparability of the statistical data, and makes it considerably more difficult to track demographic change through longer time intervals. The result of these efforts is usually a solution based on a compromise which enables us to examine the dynamics of population change with little deviation from already defined borders of regional geographic wholes. For that reason in this paper the problem of defining spatial extent in demographic research is examined trough several different approaches in case of Eastern Serbia, as a geographically determined region, a historic area, a spatially functioning whole and as a statistical unit for demographic research, with no judgment calls in regard to any of the regionalization principles. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 47006

  15. Socio-demographic factors and cervical length in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrović, Dorde; Novakov-Mikić, Aleksandra; Mandić, Vesna

    2008-01-01

    The cervical length is an important factor in the risk evaluation of preterm delivery. The aim of this work was to determine the correlation between the cervical length and the demographic characteristics. A transversal type prospective study was done on a sample of 579 pregnant women at various gestational age of low risk mono-fetal pregnancy. The cervical length was measured by trans-vaginal ultrasound procedure within the regular pregnancy monitoring process. The following data were taken into consideration: the woman's age, her body mass at the beginning of the pregnancy and her height in order to calculate the body mass index as well as her smoking habit at the moment of conception. The mean cervical length was 34.3 mm and 35 mm in the group of women aged 30 and less and 31 and over, respectively. The cervix was insignificantly shorter in younger women (being 34.9 mm/35.9 mm in the 1st trimester, 34.5 mm/35.1 mm in the 2nd one and 33.9 mm/34.7 mm in the 3rd trimester). The sample of 579 pregnant women consisted of 448 non-smokers and 131 smokers. The difference in the length of the cervix in smokers and nonsmokers was not significant (being 32.2 mm/35.9 mm; 35 mm/34 mm and 34.4 mm/33.5 mm in the 1st, 2nd and 3rd trimester, respectively). The correlation between the body mass index and the cervical length was analyzed by trimesters. In the first trimester the increase in the body mass index was followed by the shortening of the cervix; the cervical length was not affected by the BAI in the second trimester, whereas the higher the body mass index the longer the cervix in the third trimester. Our study has shown that the cervical length is affected neither by the age of the woman nor her smoking habit but it is affected by the body mass index at the moment of conception, that linear trend being negative in the 1st trimester but positive in the 3rd one. Since the cervical length may be affected not only by the socio-demographic characteristics but the gynecologic

  16. The age demographics of academic librarians a profession apart

    CERN Document Server

    Wilder, Stanley

    2013-01-01

    The Age Demographics of Academic Librarians: A Profession Apart discusses the current demographics of librarianship in North America and examines how a huge retiree rate will affect the profession. With the average age of librarians increasing dramatically since 1990, this book examines the changes that will have to take place in your library, such as recruiting, training, and working with a smaller staff. The Age Demographics of Academic Librarians provides you with insights on how to make your library's transition easier when several of your colleagues leave your library. Valuable and intell

  17. Physical Activity during Work, Transport and Leisure in Germany - Prevalence and Socio-Demographic Correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallmann-Sperlich, Birgit; Froboese, Ingo

    2014-01-01

    Background This study aimed 1) to provide data estimates concerning overall moderate- and vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) as well as MVPA during work, transport and leisure in Germany and 2) to investigate MVPA and possible associations with socio-demographic correlates. Methods A cross-sectional telephone survey interviewed 2248 representative participants in the age of 18–65 years (1077 men; 42.4±13.4 years; body mass index: 25.3±4.5kg•m−2) regarding their self-reported physical activity across Germany. The Global Physical Activity Questionnaire was applied to investigate MVPA during work, transport and leisure and questions were answered concerning their demographics. MVPA was stratified by gender, age, body mass index, residential setting, educational and income level. To identify socio-demographic correlates of overall MVPA as well as in the domains, we used a series of linear regressions. Results 52.8% of the sample achieved physical activity recommendations (53.7% men/52.1% women). Overall MVPA was highest in the age group 18–29 years (psocio-demographic variables, residential setting as well as the physical activity domain in Germany. PMID:25390071

  18. Highlights from the First Ever Demographic Study of Solar Physics, Space Physics, and Upper Atmospheric Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldwin, M.; Morrow, C. A.; White, S. C.; Ivie, R.

    2014-12-01

    Members of the Education & Workforce Working Group and the American Institute of Physics (AIP) conducted the first ever National Demographic Survey of working professionals for the 2012 National Academy of Sciences Solar and Space Physics Decadal Survey to learn about the demographics of this sub-field of space science. The instrument contained questions for participants on: the type of workplace; basic demographic information regarding gender and minority status, educational pathways (discipline of undergrad degree, field of their PhD), how their undergraduate and graduate student researchers are funded, participation in NSF and NASA funded spaceflight missions and suborbital programs, and barriers to career advancement. Using contact data bases from AGU, the American Astronomical Society's Solar Physics Division (AAS-SPD), attendees of NOAA's Space Weather Week and proposal submissions to NSF's Atmospheric, Geospace Science Division, the AIP's Statistical Research Center cross correlated and culled these data bases resulting in 2776 unique email addresses of US based working professionals. The survey received 1305 responses (51%) and generated 125 pages of single space answers to a number of open-ended questions. This talk will summarize the highlights of this first-ever demographic survey including findings extracted from the open-ended responses regarding barriers to career advancement which showed significant gender differences.

  19. Overview Chapter 6: The diverse faces of the Second Demographic Transition in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Sobotka

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This chapter discusses the concept of the second demographic transition (SDT and its relevance for explaining the ongoing changes in family and fertility patterns across Europe. It takes a closer look at the shifts in values and attitudes related to family, reproduction, and children, and their representation in different chapters in this collection. It re-examines the link between the second demographic transition and fertility, highlights its strong positive association with fertility at later childbearing ages, and suggests that the transition does not necessarily lead to sub-replacement fertility levels. Subsequently, it provides an extensive discussion on the progression of the SDT behind the former 'Iron Curtain.' To explain some apparent contradictions in this process, it employs a conceptual model of 'readiness, willingness, and ability' (RWA advocated by Lesthaeghe and Vanderhoeft (2001. It also explores the multifaceted nature of the second demographic transition between different social groups, and points out an apparent paradox: whereas lower-educated individuals often embrace values that can be characterised as rather traditional, they also frequently manifest family behaviour associated with the transition, such as non-marital childbearing, high partnership instability, and high prevalence of long-term cohabitation. This suggests that there may be two different pathways of the progression of the second demographic transition. The concluding section points out the role of structural constraints for the diffusion of the transition among disadvantaged social strata, highlights the importance of the 'gender revolution' for the SDT trends, and discusses the usefulness of the SDT framework.

  20. Correlation between demographic characteristics, cognitive functioning and functional independence in stroke patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsić Slađana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. It has been assumed that there is causality of the achieved level of functional independence with the degree of preservation of cognitive function in stroke patients. Demographic characteristics may be important for monitoring the achieved level of functional independence. Objective. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship of demographic characteristics and functional independence in regard to the level of cognitive impairment in stroke patients. Methods. The study included 50 stroke patients after rehabilitation, as well as age- and gender-matched 50 subjects selected randomly, according to the demographic characteristics of the studied sample, who in their medical history had no neurological disorders. For the assessment of functional independence, the Functional Independence Measure (FIM test was used. The general cognition was estimated by the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE test. The statistical analyses included the Mann-Whitney test, for two independent samples, measures of canonical correlation, and χ2 test. Results. There was a statistically significant difference between the groups in relation to risk factors, hypertension and diabetes mellitus type II (p<0.001; There was a statistically significant difference within the groups in relation to the cognitive impairment in all the examined demographic characteristics (p<0.001; the differences within the groups in relation to the cognitive impairment are present on all subscales of the FIM test (p<0.05; the differences within the groups in relation to handedness, hemiparesis, show that mild cognitive impairment is more common among left hemiparesis, while a more severe one is more common among right-sided hemiparesis (p<0.05; More severe cognitive impairment is common among women, the elderly and in persons with lower education (p<0.05. Conclusion. By prevention of risk factors, and prevention of possible cognitive impairment, consequences of stroke can be

  1. Associations of psychological capital, demographic and occupational factors with cigarette smoking among Chinese underground coal miners

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Li; Xu, Xin; Wu, Hui; Yang, Yilong; Wang, Lie

    2015-01-01

    Background As a specific male occupational group, underground coal miners have been commonly found to have a high prevalence of cigarette smoking. It is of urgent need to explore some factors that could be intervened to reduce smoking from personal or internal perspective. The purpose of the present study was to examine the associations of psychological capital (PsyCap), demographic and occupational factors with smoking among Chinese underground coal miners. Methods A cross-sectional survey w...

  2. Patterns of association in older adult gamers: Demographics, gameplay patterns, and perceived benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Gayowsky, Taylor

    2016-01-01

    The over-sixty population is the fastest growing age group worldwide. This rapid growth in the older-adult population requires the need for additional resources to mitigate the effects of aging. Leisure activities have been shown to provide informal learning opportunities that help with various aspects of social and cognitive wellbeing in older adults. A survey asking about gameplay patterns, demographics, and perceived benefits of playing digital games was administered to 590 older adults ov...

  3. Harnessing demographic differences in organizations: What moderates the effects of workplace diversity?

    OpenAIRE

    Guillaume, Yves R. F.; Dawson, Jeremy F.; Otaye-Ebede, Lilian; Woods, Stephen A.; West, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    To account for the double-edged nature of demographic workplace diversity (i.e. relational demography, work group diversity, and organizational diversity) effects on social integration, performance and well-being related variables, research has moved away from simple main effect approaches and started examining variables that moderate these effects. While there is no shortage of primary studies of the conditions under which diversity leads to positive or negative outcomes, it remains unclear ...

  4. Demographics and Angiographic Findings in Patients under 35 Years of Age with Acute ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Abbasi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI is a major cause of cardiovascular mortality worldwide.There are differences between very young patients with STEMI and their older counterparts. This study investigates the demographics and clinical findings in very young patients with STEMI.Methods: Through a review of the angiography registry, 108 patients aged ≤ 35 years (Group I were compared with 5544 patients aged > 35 years (Group II who underwent coronary angiography after STEMI.Results: Group I patients were more likely to be male (92.6%, smokers, and have a family history of cardiovascular diseases (34.6%. The prevalence of diabetes, dyslipidemia, and hypertension was higher in the old patients. Triglyceride and hemoglobin were significantly higher in Group I. Normal coronary angiogram was reported in 18.5% of the young patients, and in 2.1% of the older patients. The prevalence of single-vessel and multi-vessel coronary artery disease was similar in the two groups (34.3% vs. 35.2%. The younger subjects were more commonly candidates for medical treatmentand percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI (84.2%, while coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG was considered for the 39.5% of their older counterparts.Conclusion: In the young adults with STEMI, male gender, smoking, family history, and high triglyceride level were moreoften observed. A considerable proportion of the young patients presented with multi-vessel coronary disease. PCI or medicaltreatment was the preferred treatment in the younger patients; in contrast to their older counterparts, in whom CABG was more commonly chosen for revascularization.

  5. Lipooligosaccharides (LOS) of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Neisseria meningitidis have components that are immunochemically similar to precursors of human blood group antigens. Carbohydrate sequence specificity of the mouse monoclonal antibodies that recognize crossreacting antigens on LOS and human erythrocytes [published erratum appears in J Exp Med 1988 Oct 1;168(4):1517

    OpenAIRE

    1988-01-01

    We have used mouse mAbs, 3F11 and 06B4, that are specific for highly conserved epitopes of Neisseria gonorrhoeae lipooligosaccharides (LOS) to identify immunochemically similar structures on human erythrocytes. mAb 3F11 agglutinated erythrocytes from all randomly selected adult humans, while mAb 06B4 agglutinated only 80% of the same specimens. The antibodies had an activity with erythrocytes similar to human cold agglutinins in that agglutination occurred at 4 degrees C and decreased with in...

  6. Clinical and demographic characteristics of patients with urinary tract hydatid disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mou Huang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human cystic echinococcosis (CE is caused by flatworm larvae of Echinococcus granulosus and is endemic in many parts of the world. In humans, CE cysts primarily affect the liver and pulmonary system, but can also affect the renal system. However, the clinical manifestations of renal CE can be subtle, so healthcare professionals often overlook renal CE in differential diagnosis. In this study, we examined the clinical and demographic characteristics of patients with urinary tract CE and analyzed the diagnosis and treatment procedures for this disease. METHODS: The records of 19 consecutive renal CE patients who were admitted to the First Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University from January 1983 to April 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. In all cases, CE of the urinary tract was confirmed by pathological examination and visual inspection during surgery. RESULTS: Fifteen patients were males and 4 were females. The most common symptoms were non-specific lower back pain and percussion tenderness on the kidney region. All patients were followed up for 9-180 months after surgery. None of the patients experienced a recurrence of renal CE, but 4 patients experienced non-renal recurrence of hydatid disease. CONCLUSIONS: Hydatid cysts from E. granulosus are structurally similar in the liver and urinary tract. Thus, the treatment regimen for liver CE developed by the World Health Organization/Informal Working Group on Echinococcosis (WHO/IWGE could also be used for urinary tract CE. In our patients, the use of ultrasound, computed tomography, serology, and clinical characteristics provided a diagnostic accuracy of 66.7% to 92.3%.

  7. Association of missing paternal demographics on infant birth certificates with perinatal risk factors for childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Erika R; Hawkins, Summer Sherburne; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Gillman, Matthew W; Taveras, Elsie M

    2016-07-14

    The role of fathers in the development of obesity in their offspring remains poorly understood. We evaluated associations of missing paternal demographic information on birth certificates with perinatal risk factors for childhood obesity. Data were from the Linked CENTURY Study, a database linking birth certificate and well-child visit data for 200,258 Massachusetts children from 1980-2008. We categorized participants based on the availability of paternal age, education, or race/ethnicity and maternal marital status on the birth certificate: (1) pregnancies missing paternal data; (2) pregnancies involving unmarried women with paternal data; and (3) pregnancies involving married women with paternal data. Using linear and logistic regression, we compared differences in smoking during pregnancy, gestational diabetes, birthweight, breastfeeding initiation, and ever recording a weight for length (WFL) ≥ the 95th percentile or crossing upwards ≥2 WFL percentiles between 0-24 months among the study groups. 11,989 (6.0 %) birth certificates were missing paternal data; 31,323 (15.6 %) mothers were unmarried. In adjusted analyses, missing paternal data was associated with lower birthweight (β -0.07 kg; 95 % CI: -0.08, -0.05), smoking during pregnancy (AOR 4.40; 95 % CI: 3.97, 4.87), non-initiation of breastfeeding (AOR 0.39; 95 % CI: 0.36, 0.42), and with ever having a WFL ≥ 95th percentile (AOR 1.10; 95 % CI: 1.01, 1.20). Similar associations were noted for pregnancies involving unmarried women with paternal data, but differences were less pronounced. Missing paternal data on the birth certificate is associated with perinatal risk factors for childhood obesity. Efforts to understand and reduce obesity risk factors in early life may need to consider paternal factors.

  8. Demographic and histopathological variation of ameloblastoma: A hospital-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santanu Patsa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Ameloblastoma is the second most common odontogenic tumor after odontoma which occurs exclusively in the jaws and very rarely in the sinonasal cavities. Aims: The aim of the study was to determine the demographic and histopathological variations of ameloblastoma in Eastern Indian population by retrospectively comparing and evaluating diagnosed cases of ameloblastoma using different parameters. Materials and Methods: Histopathologically diagnosed cases of ameloblastoma retrieved from past records of the Department of Oral Pathology were selected for the study. Totally, 148 cases were isolated from record of previous 7 years. The patients were divided according to (a gender, (b age group, (c site of the lesion and (d histopathological types. The findings of this study were compared with those available in literature. Statistical Analysis Used: This is a retrospective study, mean and standard deviation was calculated. Results: Among 148 patients, 88 (59.45% were male and 60 (40.55% were female. A maximum number of cases (101 of 148 of ameloblastoma were found in the second to fourth decades of life. Mandiblular posterior region was commonly involved (48.6%. Solid/multicystic variety was found in 63.1% followed by unicystic with 21.5%. We found one case each of extraosseous and desmoplastic ameloblastoma. It was difficult for panel of experienced oral pathologists to pinpoint the exact type in 15 (10% cases, this was due to mixture of follicular and plexiform variety with equal presence of both types of architecture, without predominance of any variety in particular. Conclusions: These data may serve as baseline information on occurrence of various histopathological types of ameloblastoma in Eastern Indian population and helps comparing it with other similar studies conducted in different geographic population.

  9. Demographic and histopathological variation of ameloblastoma: A hospital-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patsa, Santanu; Jadav, Riteshkumar Baldevbhai; Halder, Gopal Chandra; Ray, Jay Gopal; Datta, Sila; Deb, Tushar

    2016-01-01

    Context: Ameloblastoma is the second most common odontogenic tumor after odontoma which occurs exclusively in the jaws and very rarely in the sinonasal cavities. Aims: The aim of the study was to determine the demographic and histopathological variations of ameloblastoma in Eastern Indian population by retrospectively comparing and evaluating diagnosed cases of ameloblastoma using different parameters. Materials and Methods: Histopathologically diagnosed cases of ameloblastoma retrieved from past records of the Department of Oral Pathology were selected for the study. Totally, 148 cases were isolated from record of previous 7 years. The patients were divided according to (a) gender, (b) age group, (c) site of the lesion and (d) histopathological types. The findings of this study were compared with those available in literature. Statistical Analysis Used: This is a retrospective study, mean and standard deviation was calculated. Results: Among 148 patients, 88 (59.45%) were male and 60 (40.55%) were female. A maximum number of cases (101 of 148) of ameloblastoma were found in the second to fourth decades of life. Mandiblular posterior region was commonly involved (48.6%). Solid/multicystic variety was found in 63.1% followed by unicystic with 21.5%. We found one case each of extraosseous and desmoplastic ameloblastoma. It was difficult for panel of experienced oral pathologists to pinpoint the exact type in 15 (10%) cases, this was due to mixture of follicular and plexiform variety with equal presence of both types of architecture, without predominance of any variety in particular. Conclusions: These data may serve as baseline information on occurrence of various histopathological types of ameloblastoma in Eastern Indian population and helps comparing it with other similar studies conducted in different geographic population. PMID:27601814

  10. The Geography of Happiness: Connecting Twitter Sentiment and Expression, Demographics, and Objective Characteristics of Place

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Lewis; Frank, Morgan R.; Harris, Kameron Decker; Dodds, Peter Sheridan; Danforth, Christopher M.

    2013-01-01

    We conduct a detailed investigation of correlations between real-time expressions of individuals made across the United States and a wide range of emotional, geographic, demographic, and health characteristics. We do so by combining (1) a massive, geo-tagged data set comprising over 80 million words generated in 2011 on the social network service Twitter and (2) annually-surveyed characteristics of all 50 states and close to 400 urban populations. Among many results, we generate taxonomies of states and cities based on their similarities in word use; estimate the happiness levels of states and cities; correlate highly-resolved demographic characteristics with happiness levels; and connect word choice and message length with urban characteristics such as education levels and obesity rates. Our results show how social media may potentially be used to estimate real-time levels and changes in population-scale measures such as obesity rates. PMID:23734200

  11. The geography of happiness: connecting twitter sentiment and expression, demographics, and objective characteristics of place.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewis Mitchell

    Full Text Available We conduct a detailed investigation of correlations between real-time expressions of individuals made across the United States and a wide range of emotional, geographic, demographic, and health characteristics. We do so by combining (1 a massive, geo-tagged data set comprising over 80 million words generated in 2011 on the social network service Twitter and (2 annually-surveyed characteristics of all 50 states and close to 400 urban populations. Among many results, we generate taxonomies of states and cities based on their similarities in word use; estimate the happiness levels of states and cities; correlate highly-resolved demographic characteristics with happiness levels; and connect word choice and message length with urban characteristics such as education levels and obesity rates. Our results show how social media may potentially be used to estimate real-time levels and changes in population-scale measures such as obesity rates.

  12. The Geography of Happiness: Connecting Twitter sentiment and expression, demographics, and objective characteristics of place

    CERN Document Server

    Mitchell, Lewis; Frank, Morgan R; Dodds, Peter Sheridan; Danforth, Christopher M

    2013-01-01

    We conduct a detailed investigation of correlations between real-time expressions of individuals made across the United States and a wide range of emotional, geographic, demographic, and health characteristics. We do so by combining (1) a massive, geo-tagged data set comprising over 80 million words generated over the course of several recent years on the social network service Twitter and (2) annually-surveyed characteristics of all 50 states and close to 400 urban populations. Among many results, we generate taxonomies of states and cities based on their similarities in word use; estimate the happiness levels of states and cities; correlate highly-resolved demographic characteristics with happiness levels; and connect word choice and message length with urban characteristics such as education levels and obesity rates. Our results show how social media may potentially be used to estimate real-time levels and changes in population-level measures such as obesity rates.

  13. Demographic noise and resilience in a semi-arid ecosystem model

    CERN Document Server

    Realpe-Gomez, John; Galla, Tobias; McKane, Alan J; Rietkerk, Max

    2013-01-01

    The scarcity of water characterizing drylands forces vegetation to adopt appropriate survival strategies. Some of these generate water-vegetation feedback mechanisms that can lead to spatial self-organisation of vegetation. To date these phenomena have mostly been studied with models representing plants by a density of biomass, varying continuously in time and space. Such models disregard the discrete nature of plant individuals and their intrinsically stochastic behaviour. These features give rise to demographic noise, which can influence the qualitative dynamics of ecosystem models. In the present work we explore the effects of demographic noise on the resilience of a model semi-arid ecosystem. We introduce a spatial stochastic eco-hydrological hybrid model in which plants are modelled as discrete entities subject to stochastic dynamical rules, while the dynamics of surface and soil water are described by continuous variables. The model has a deterministic approximation very similar to previous continuous m...

  14. Relationship between Selected Socio-Demographic Factors and Cancer of Oral Cavity - A Case Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madani, Abdoul Hossain; Dikshit, Madhurima; Bhaduri, Debanshu; Jahromi, Abdolreza Sotoodeh; Aghamolaei, Teamur

    2010-08-11

    The aim of this study was to recognize factors associated with cancer of oral cavity considering socio-demographic characteristics. The cases were 350 with squamous-cell carcinoma of oral cavity diagnosed between 2005 and 2006 in Morbai, Narandia, Budharani Cancer Institute, Pune, India. Similar number of controls match for age and sex selected from the background population. Cases and controls were interviewed for tobacco related habits and general characteristics; age, gender, education and possible socio-demographic factors. Chi-square test in uni-variate analysis and estimate for risk showed that education, occupation and monthly household income were significantly different between cases and controls (P currency (OR = 1.7, CI 1.2-2.3) were significant risk factors for oral cancer. While, there was no significant relationship between religious and or marital status either in males or females.

  15. The Gestalt principle of similarity benefits visual working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Dwight J; Berryhill, Marian E

    2013-12-01

    Visual working memory (VWM) is essential for many cognitive processes, yet it is notably limited in capacity. Visual perception processing is facilitated by Gestalt principles of grouping, such as connectedness, similarity, and proximity. This introduces the question, do these perceptual benefits extend to VWM? If so, can this be an approach to enhance VWM function by optimizing the processing of information? Previous findings have demonstrated that several Gestalt principles (connectedness, common region, and spatial proximity) do facilitate VWM performance in change detection tasks (Jiang, Olson, & Chun, 2000; Woodman, Vecera, & Luck, 2003; Xu, 2002, 2006; Xu & Chun, 2007). However, one prevalent Gestalt principle, similarity, has not been examined with regard to facilitating VWM. Here, we investigated whether grouping by similarity benefits VWM. Experiment 1 established the basic finding that VWM performance could benefit from grouping. Experiment 2 replicated and extended this finding by showing that similarity was only effective when the similar stimuli were proximal. In short, the VWM performance benefit derived from similarity was constrained by spatial proximity, such that similar items need to be near each other. Thus, the Gestalt principle of similarity benefits visual perception, but it can provide benefits to VWM as well.

  16. The influence of selected socio-demographic variables on symptoms occurring during the menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makara-Studzińska, Marta; Kryś-Noszczyka, Karolina; Jakiel, Grzegorz

    2015-03-01

    It is considered that the lifestyle conditioned by socio-demographic or socio-economic factors determines the health condition of people to the greatest extent. The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of selected socio-demographic factors on the kinds of symptoms occurring during menopause. The study group consisted of 210 women aged 45 to 65, not using hormone replacement therapy, staying at healthcare centers for rehabilitation treatment. The study was carried out in 2013-2014 in the Silesian, Podlaskie and Lesser Poland voivodeships. The set of tools consisted of the authors' own survey questionnaire and the Menopause Rating Scale (MRS). The most commonly occurring symptom in the group of studied women was a depressive mood, from the group of psychological symptoms, followed by physical and mental fatigue, and discomfort connected with muscle and joint pain. The greatest intensity of symptoms was observed in the group of women with the lowest level of education, reporting an average or bad material situation, and unemployed women. An alarmingly high number of reported psychological symptoms in the group of menopausal women was observed, and in particular among the group of low socio-economic status. Career seems to be a factor reducing the risk of occurrence of psychological symptoms. There is an urgent need for health promotion and prophylaxis in the group of menopausal women, and in many cases for implementation of specialist psychological assistance.

  17. The influence of selected socio-demographic variables on symptoms occurring during the menopause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Makara-Studzińska

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It is considered that the lifestyle conditioned by socio-demographic or socio-economic factors determines the health condition of people to the greatest extent. The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of selected socio-demographic factors on the kinds of symptoms occurring during menopause. Material and methods : The study group consisted of 210 women aged 45 to 65, not using hormone replacement therapy, staying at healthcare centers for rehabilitation treatment. The study was carried out in 2013-2014 in the Silesian, Podlaskie and Lesser Poland voivodeships. The set of tools consisted of the authors’ own survey questionnaire and the Menopause Rating Scale (MRS. Results : The most commonly occurring symptom in the group of studied women was a depressive mood, from the group of psychological symptoms, followed by physical and mental fatigue, and discomfort connected with muscle and joint pain. The greatest intensity of symptoms was observed in the group of women with the lowest level of education, reporting an average or bad material situation, and unemployed women. Conclusions : An alarmingly high number of reported psychological symptoms in the group of menopausal women was observed, and in particular among the group of low socio-economic status. Career seems to be a factor reducing the risk of occurrence of psychological symptoms. There is an urgent need for health promotion and prophylaxis in the group of menopausal women, and in many cases for implementation of specialist psychological assistance.

  18. EnviroAtlas - Durham, NC - Demographics by Block Group Web Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas web service supports research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas ). This EnviroAtlas dataset is...

  19. EnviroAtlas - Pittsburgh, PA - Demographics by Block Group Web Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas web service supports research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas). This EnviroAtlas dataset is a...

  20. EnviroAtlas - Green Bay, WI - Demographics by Block Group Web Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas web service supports research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas). This EnviroAtlas dataset is a...

  1. EnviroAtlas - Portland, OR - Demographics by Block Group Web Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas web service supports research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas (http:/www.epa.gov/enviroatlas). This EnviroAtlas dataset is a...

  2. EnviroAtlas - Portland, ME - Demographics by Block Group Web Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas web service supports research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas). This EnviroAtlas dataset is a...

  3. EnviroAtlas - Paterson, NJ - Demographics by Block Group Web Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas web service supports research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas). This EnviroAtlas dataset is a...

  4. EnviroAtlas - Fresno, CA - Demographics by Block Group Web Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas web service supports research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas). This EnviroAtlas dataset is a...

  5. EnviroAtlas - Des Moines, IA - Demographics by Block Group Web Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas web service supports research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas (https://enviroatlas.epa.gov/EnviroAtlas). This EnviroAtlas...

  6. EnviroAtlas - Minneapolis/St. Paul, MN - Demographics by Block Group Web Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas web service supports research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas (https://enviroatlas.epa.gov/EnviroAtlas). This EnviroAtlas...

  7. EnviroAtlas - Woodbine, IA - Demographics by Block Group Web Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas web service supports research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas). This EnviroAtlas dataset is a...

  8. EnviroAtlas - Cleveland, OH - Demographics by Block Group Web Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas web service supports research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas (https://enviroatlas.epa.gov/EnviroAtlas). This EnviroAtlas...

  9. EnviroAtlas - Durham, NC - Demographics by Block Group Web Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas web service supports research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas ). This EnviroAtlas dataset is a...

  10. EnviroAtlas - Phoenix, AZ - Demographics by Block Group Web Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas web service supports research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas). This EnviroAtlas dataset is a...

  11. EnviroAtlas - Tampa, FL - Demographics by Block Group Web Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas web service supports research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas). This EnviroAtlas dataset is a...

  12. EnviroAtlas - Memphis, TN - Demographics by Block Group Web Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas web service supports research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas). This EnviroAtlas dataset is a...

  13. low birthweight babies: socio-demographic and obstetric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2002-10-01

    Oct 1, 2002 ... mothers (aged below 20 years) and older mothers of low birthweight ( ... have unfavourable socio-demographic and obstetric factors like ... having less formal education, being unemployed and having obstetric risks for poor.

  14. Evaluation of Demographic Variables and Socio-economic Status ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Evaluation of Demographic Variables and Socio-economic Status on the Prevalence of. Health Hazards ... management provide food and harbourage for rodents, mosquitoes .... were factors influencing solid waste management in. Abeokuta.

  15. Demographic profile and epidemiology of injury in Mthatha, South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    1997-01-01

    Jan 1, 1997 ... Demographic profile and epidemiology of injury in Mthatha, South. Africa. Dhaffala A1 ... Department of Surgery, Walter Sisulu University, Mthatha, South Africa,. 2. Faculty of Health ..... of concern in nursing science. J Nurs ...

  16. Socio-demographic determinants of the knowledge of diabetes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socio-demographic determinants of the knowledge of diabetes mellitus in Onitsha-North Local Government Area, Anambra State, ... Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... The instrument used for the collection of data was self-administered ...

  17. Socio-Demographic Factors Influencing Work-Role Salience Among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socio-Demographic Factors Influencing Work-Role Salience Among ... The findings showed that students from lower socio-economic status homes and those ... The need to involve the students\\' parents in career education programmes and ...

  18. China’s grave demographic challenges in coming decades

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任强; 郑晓瑛

    2009-01-01

    This paper systematically analyzes the uncertainties of major demographic indicators from China’s 2000 census,such as fertility,gender ratio at birth,and age structure,and through a probability demographic forecast gives an assessment of the situation facing the country.Research outcomes suggest that great differences exist in the estimate of China’s fertility,gender ratio at birth and low-age child population.These differences directly affect China’s current and future demographic uncertainties,and have implications for policy and future research.The demographic uncertainties caused by current conditions are of great value to decision-makers and the public alike.

  19. Political demography: Powerful trends under-attended by demographic science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teitelbaum, Michael S

    2015-01-01

    The interconnections between politics and the dramatic demographic changes under way around the world have been neglected by the two research disciplines that could contribute most to their understanding: demography and political science. Instead, this area of 'political demography' has largely been ceded to political activists, pundits, and journalists, leading often to exaggerated or garbled interpretation. The terrain includes some of the most politically sensitive and contested issues: alleged demographically determined shifts in the international balance of power; low fertility, population decline, and demographic ageing; international migration; change in national identity; and compositional shifts in politically sensitive social categories and human rights. Meanwhile many governments and non-governmental actors have actively pursued varieties of 'strategic demography', deploying fertility, mortality, or migration as instruments of domestic or international policy. Political scientists and demographers could and should use their knowledge and analytic techniques to improve understanding and to moderate excessive claims and fears on these topics.

  20. Gender in Science and Engineering Faculties: Demographic Inertia Revisited.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole R Thomas

    Full Text Available The under-representation of women on faculties of science and engineering is ascribed in part to demographic inertia, which is the lag between retirement of current faculty and future hires. The assumption of demographic inertia implies that, given enough time, gender parity will be achieved. We examine that assumption via a semi-Markov model to predict the future faculty, with simulations that predict the convergence demographic state. Our model shows that existing practices that produce gender gaps in recruitment, retention, and career progression preclude eventual gender parity. Further, we examine sensitivity of the convergence state to current gender gaps to show that all sources of disparity across the entire faculty career must be erased to produce parity: we cannot blame demographic inertia.