WorldWideScience

Sample records for demographically similar control

  1. What are the odds? How demographic similarity affects the prevalence of perceived employment discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Derek R; McKay, Patrick F; Wilson, David C

    2008-03-01

    Because research is needed to identify the conditions that facilitate or impede the prevalence of perceived workplace discrimination, the authors examined the effects of demographics and demographic similarity on the prevalence of sex- and race/ethnicity-based perceived workplace discrimination. Results from a national survey of 763 full-time, United States employees show perceived sex-based discrimination at work was more prevalent among female than male employees, and perceived race-based discrimination at work was more prevalent among Black and Hispanic than White employees. Additionally, perceived racial/ethnic discrimination was less prevalent among those with same-race/ethnicity supervisors. The effect of employee-coworker sex similarity on perceived sex discrimination was significant only for women, and the effects of supervisor-subordinate racial similarity on the prevalence of perceived racial discrimination varied between Black and White respondents, depending on employee-residential-community racial similarity.

  2. Virtual water controlled demographic growth of nations

    CERN Document Server

    Suweis, Samir; Maritan, Amos; D'Odorico, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Population growth is in general constrained by food production, which in turn depends on the access to water resources. At a country level, some populations use more water than they control because of their ability to import food and the virtual water required for its production. Here, we investigate the dependence of demographic growth on available water resources for exporting and importing nations. By quantifying the carrying capacity of nations based on calculations of the virtual water available through the food trade network, we point to the existence of a global water unbalance. We suggest that current export rates will not be maintained and consequently we question the long-run sustainability of the food trade system as a whole. Water rich regions are likely to soon reduce the amount of virtual water they export, thus leaving import-dependent regions without enough water to sustain their populations. We also investigate the potential impact of possible scenarios that might mitigate these effects throu...

  3. Demographic controls of future global fire risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knorr, W.; Arneth, A.; Jiang, L.

    2016-08-01

    Wildfires are an important component of terrestrial ecosystem ecology but also a major natural hazard to societies, and their frequency and spatial distribution must be better understood. At a given location, risk from wildfire is associated with the annual fraction of burned area, which is expected to increase in response to climate warming. Until recently, however, only a few global studies of future fire have considered the effects of other important global environmental change factors such as atmospheric CO2 levels and human activities, and how these influence fires in different regions. Here, we contrast the impact of climate change and increasing atmospheric CO2 content on burned area with that of demographic dynamics, using ensembles of climate simulations combined with historical and projected population changes under different socio-economic development pathways for 1901-2100. Historically, humans notably suppressed wildfires. For future scenarios, global burned area will continue to decline under a moderate emissions scenario, except for low population growth and fast urbanization, but start to increase again from around mid-century under high greenhouse gas emissions. Contrary to common perception, we find that human exposure to wildfires increases in the future mainly owing to projected population growth in areas with frequent wildfires, rather than by a general increase in burned area.

  4. Hypertension: The Demographics of Management and Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, Natalie

    1985-01-01

    The ultimate goal of any hypertension control program is reduction of excessive morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease. Factors affecting detection of hypertension and compliance with educational intervention are discussed and implications drawn. (MT)

  5. Similarity based mixed transaction concurrency control protocol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Yi; LU Yan-sheng

    2005-01-01

    Due to the various performance requirements and data access restrictions of different types of real-time transactions, concurrency control protocols which had been designed for the systems with single type of transactions are not sufficient for mixed real-time database systems (MRTDBS), where different types of real-time transactions coexist in the systems concurrently. In this paper, a new concurrency control protocol MRTT_CC for mixed real-time transactions is proposed. The new strategy integrates with different concurrency control protocols to meet the deadline requirements of different types of real-time transactions. The data similarity concept is also explored in the new protocol to reduce the blocking time of soft real-time transactions, which increases their chances to meet the deadlines. Simulation experiments show that the new protocol has gained good performance.

  6. Demographic and Commercial Environments and Building Control Customer Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hope Peter

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple and cost effective business analytics schema developed in this study provides a basis for observing how demographic and commercial environmental impacts affect building control customer services. In order to overlay environmental impacts onto building control services, schematic mapping of resource distributions and services were plotted according to corporate jurisdiction, corporate virtues and customer type characteristics. Quantitative and qualitative surveys were conducted on corporate staff and material resources, business performance measures and targets, building control service manager observations and demographic and commercial environments. Results from this research provide a single view corporate map of people, material resources, and service performance in relation to customer characteristics, while reaching out to better understand the building control customer experience, general public expectation and market influences. In this regard, this research can provide a foundation for realising corporate virtue aspirations.

  7. Genomic control of neuronal demographics in the retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Benjamin E; Keeley, Patrick W

    2016-11-01

    The mature retinal architecture is composed of various types of neuron, each population differing in size and constrained to particular layers, wherein the cells achieve a characteristic patterning in their local organization. These demographic features of retinal nerve cell populations are each complex traits controlled by multiple genes affecting different processes during development, and their genetic determinants can be dissected by correlating variation in these traits with their genomic architecture across recombinant-inbred mouse strains. Using such a resource, we consider how the variation in the numbers of twelve different types of retinal neuron are independent of one another, including those sharing transcriptional regulation as well as those that are synaptically-connected, each mapping to distinct genomic loci. Using the populations of two retinal interneurons, the horizontal cells and the cholinergic amacrine cells, we present in further detail examples where the variation in neuronal number, as well as the variation in mosaic patterning or in laminar positioning, each maps to discrete genomic loci where allelic variants modulating these features must be present. At those loci, we identify candidate genes which, when rendered non-functional, alter those very demographic properties, and in turn, we identify candidate coding or regulatory variants that alter protein structure or gene expression, respectively, being prospective contributors to the variation in phenotype. This forward-genetic approach provides an alternative means for dissecting the molecular genetic control of neuronal population dynamics, with each genomic locus serving as a causal anchor from which we may ultimately understand the developmental principles responsible for the control of those traits.

  8. Relationship between Selected Socio-Demographic Factors and Cancer of Oral Cavity - A Case Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madani, Abdoul Hossain; Dikshit, Madhurima; Bhaduri, Debanshu; Jahromi, Abdolreza Sotoodeh; Aghamolaei, Teamur

    2010-08-11

    The aim of this study was to recognize factors associated with cancer of oral cavity considering socio-demographic characteristics. The cases were 350 with squamous-cell carcinoma of oral cavity diagnosed between 2005 and 2006 in Morbai, Narandia, Budharani Cancer Institute, Pune, India. Similar number of controls match for age and sex selected from the background population. Cases and controls were interviewed for tobacco related habits and general characteristics; age, gender, education and possible socio-demographic factors. Chi-square test in uni-variate analysis and estimate for risk showed that education, occupation and monthly household income were significantly different between cases and controls (P currency (OR = 1.7, CI 1.2-2.3) were significant risk factors for oral cancer. While, there was no significant relationship between religious and or marital status either in males or females.

  9. Similarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostol, Tom M. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    In this 'Project Mathematics! series, sponsored by the California Institute for Technology (CalTech), the mathematical concept of similarity is presented. he history of and real life applications are discussed using actual film footage and computer animation. Terms used and various concepts of size, shape, ratio, area, and volume are demonstrated. The similarity of polygons, solids, congruent triangles, internal ratios, perimeters, and line segments using the previous mentioned concepts are shown.

  10. Specific aspects of evaluation of control systems similarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evtushenko, V. F.; Burkov, V. N.; Myshlyaev, L. P.; Makarov, G. V.

    2017-09-01

    The paper discusses the problem of estimating the similarity of two or more control systems. In accordance with the statements made earlier it is indicated that such management systems should be characterized by a strict or approximate equality of the values of targeted indicators (criteria) of control effectiveness. Two main variants of procedures for estimating the control systems similarity are proposed. The first is based on the direct evaluation of the targeted indicators of control performance, the second – on the use of the so-called similarity relations, describing the conditions the fulfillment of which is valid for such systems. The procedures for evaluating the control systems similarity with the help of special similarity relations are associated with considerably less expenses. However, they are formed for a relatively narrow class of automatic control systems and are basically special cases of similarity, which requires further research in this direction.

  11. Relationship between Selected Socio-Demographic Factors and Cancer of Oral Cavity - A Case Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdoul Hossain Madani

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to recognize factors associated with cancer of oral cavity considering socio-demographic characteristics. The cases were 350 with squamous-cell carcinoma of oral cavity diagnosed between 2005 and 2006 in Morbai, Narandia, Budharani Cancer Institute, Pune, India. Similar number of controls match for age and sex selected from the background population. Cases and controls were interviewed for tobacco related habits and general characteristics; age, gender, education and possible socio-demographic factors. Chi-square test in uni-variate analysis and estimate for risk showed that education, occupation and monthly household income were significantly different between cases and controls (P < 0.001. Irrespective to gender, relative risk, here odds ratio, (OR of low level of education (OR = 5.3, CI 3.7–7.6, working in field as a farmer (OR = 2.5, CI 1.7–3.7, and monthly household income less than 5000 Indian Rupees currency (OR = 1.7, CI 1.2–2.3 were significant risk factors for oral cancer. While, there was no significant relationship between religious and or marital status either in males or females.

  12. Demographic controls of aboveground forest biomass across North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderwel, Mark C; Zeng, Hongcheng; Caspersen, John P; Kunstler, Georges; Lichstein, Jeremy W

    2016-04-01

    Ecologists have limited understanding of how geographic variation in forest biomass arises from differences in growth and mortality at continental to global scales. Using forest inventories from across North America, we partitioned continental-scale variation in biomass growth and mortality rates of 49 tree species groups into (1) species-independent spatial effects and (2) inherent differences in demographic performance among species. Spatial factors that were separable from species composition explained 83% and 51% of the respective variation in growth and mortality. Moderate additional variation in mortality (26%) was attributable to differences in species composition. Age-dependent biomass models showed that variation in forest biomass can be explained primarily by spatial gradients in growth that were unrelated to species composition. Species-dependent patterns of mortality explained additional variation in biomass, with forests supporting less biomass when dominated by species that are highly susceptible to competition (e.g. Populus spp.) or to biotic disturbances (e.g. Abies balsamea).

  13. The Similar Structures and Control Problems of Complex Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, the naturally evolving complex systems, such as biotic and social ones, are considered. Focusing on their structures, a feature is noteworthy, i.e., the similarity in structures. The relations between the functions and behaviors of these systems and their similar structures will be studied. Owing to the management of social systems and the course of evolution of biotic systems may be regarded as control processes, the researches will be within the scope of control problems. Moreover, since it is difficult to model for biotic and social systems, it will start with the control problems of complex systems, possessing similar structures, in engineering.The obtained results show that for either linear or nonlinear systems and for a lot of control problemssimilar structures lead to a series of simplifications. In general, the original system may be decomposed into reduced amount of subsystems with lower dimensions and simpler structures. By virtue of such subsystems, the control problems of original system can be solved more simply.At last, it turns round to observe the biotic and social systems and some analyses are given.

  14. The effect of script similarity on executive control in bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coderre, Emily L.; van Heuven, Walter J. B.

    2014-01-01

    The need for executive control (EC) during bilingual language processing is thought to enhance these abilities, conferring a “bilingual advantage” on EC tasks. Recently, the reliability and robustness of the bilingual advantage has been questioned, with many variables reportedly affecting the size and presence of the bilingual advantage. This study investigates one further variable that may affect bilingual EC abilities: the similarity of a bilingual's two languages. We hypothesize that bilinguals whose two languages have a larger degree of orthographic overlap will require greater EC to manage their languages compared to bilinguals who use two languages with less overlap. We tested three groups of bilinguals with language pairs ranging from high- to low-similarity (German-English (GE), Polish-English (PE), and Arabic-English (AE), respectively) and a group of English monolinguals on a Stroop and Simon task. Two components of the bilingual advantage were investigated: an interference advantage, such that bilinguals have smaller interference effects than monolinguals; and a global RT advantage, such that bilinguals are faster overall than monolinguals. Between bilingual groups, these effects were expected to be modulated by script similarity. AE bilinguals showed the smallest Stroop interference effects, but the longest overall RTs in both tasks. These seemingly contradictory results are explained by the presence of cross-linguistic influences in the Stroop task. We conclude that similar-script bilinguals demonstrated more effective domain-general EC than different-script bilinguals, since high orthographic overlap creates more cross-linguistic activation and increases the daily demands on cognitive control. The role of individual variation is also discussed. These results suggest that script similarity is an important variable to consider in investigations of bilingual executive control abilities. PMID:25400594

  15. The effect of script similarity on executive control in bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coderre, Emily L; van Heuven, Walter J B

    2014-01-01

    The need for executive control (EC) during bilingual language processing is thought to enhance these abilities, conferring a "bilingual advantage" on EC tasks. Recently, the reliability and robustness of the bilingual advantage has been questioned, with many variables reportedly affecting the size and presence of the bilingual advantage. This study investigates one further variable that may affect bilingual EC abilities: the similarity of a bilingual's two languages. We hypothesize that bilinguals whose two languages have a larger degree of orthographic overlap will require greater EC to manage their languages compared to bilinguals who use two languages with less overlap. We tested three groups of bilinguals with language pairs ranging from high- to low-similarity (German-English (GE), Polish-English (PE), and Arabic-English (AE), respectively) and a group of English monolinguals on a Stroop and Simon task. Two components of the bilingual advantage were investigated: an interference advantage, such that bilinguals have smaller interference effects than monolinguals; and a global RT advantage, such that bilinguals are faster overall than monolinguals. Between bilingual groups, these effects were expected to be modulated by script similarity. AE bilinguals showed the smallest Stroop interference effects, but the longest overall RTs in both tasks. These seemingly contradictory results are explained by the presence of cross-linguistic influences in the Stroop task. We conclude that similar-script bilinguals demonstrated more effective domain-general EC than different-script bilinguals, since high orthographic overlap creates more cross-linguistic activation and increases the daily demands on cognitive control. The role of individual variation is also discussed. These results suggest that script similarity is an important variable to consider in investigations of bilingual executive control abilities.

  16. Representational Similarity Analysis Reveals Heterogeneous Networks Supporting Speech Motor Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Zane; Cusack, Rhodri; Johnsrude, Ingrid

    The everyday act of speaking involves the complex processes of speech motor control. One important feature of such control is regulation of articulation when auditory concomitants of speech do not correspond to the intended motor gesture. While theoretical accounts of speech monitoring posit...... is supported by a complex neural network that is involved in linguistic, motoric and sensory processing. With the aid of novel real-time acoustic analyses and representational similarity analyses of fMRI signals, our data show functionally differentiated networks underlying auditory feedback control of speech....... multiple functional components required for detection of errors in speech planning (e.g., Levelt, 1983), neuroimaging studies generally indicate either single brain regions sensitive to speech production errors, or small, discrete networks. Here we demonstrate that the complex system controlling speech...

  17. The counseling african americans to control hypertension (caatch) trial: baseline demographic, clinical, psychosocial, and behavioral characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Diaz-Gloster Marleny; Cassells Andrea; Tobin Jonathan N; Fernandez Senaida; Kalida Chamanara; Ogedegbe Gbenga

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Effectiveness of combined physician and patient-level interventions for blood pressure (BP) control in low-income, hypertensive African Americans with multiple co-morbid conditions remains largely untested in community-based primary care practices. Demographic, clinical, psychosocial, and behavioral characteristics of participants in the Counseling African American to Control Hypertension (CAATCH) Trial are described. CAATCH evaluates the effectiveness of a multi-level, mu...

  18. Systems chemistry : using thermodynamically controlled networks to assess molecular similarity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saggiomo, Vittorio; Hristova, Yana R.; Ludlow, R. Frederick; Otto, Sijbren

    2013-01-01

    Background: The assessment of mol. similarity is a key step in the drug discovery process that has thus far relied almost exclusively on computational approaches. We now report an exptl. method for similarity assessment based on dynamic combinatorial chem. Results: In order to assess mol. similarity

  19. Measures of Similarity for Command and Control Situation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    Resnik proposed to use information content[17]. He reasoned that if we consider the taxon- omy to be a source of information, that we could effectively...determined by the specific probabilistic profile of that source2. From this, Resnik proposed that the degree of similarity between concepts within a...379–423,623–656, 1948. [17] Philip Resnik . Semantic similarity in a taxonomy: An information-based measure and its application to problems of

  20. Detecting the Evolution of Deliberate Fertility Control before the Demographic Transition in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliaksandr Amialchuk

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Pervious literature has established the existence of deliberate non-parity-specific fertility control in pre-transitional populations. However, less focus has been given to the timing of its onset. In addition, previous studies focused on the changes in fertility in response to the local prices of grains, which may be endogenous. OBJECTIVE This paper studies the emergence and evolution of deliberate fertility control by investigating the link between child mortality and economic stress on the one hand and non-parity-specific birth control on the other, in historic German villages between 1700 and 1900. METHODS Birth histories from fourteen German villages (1700-1900 and rye price series are used in a micro-level event history analysis. The fertility response of second and higher-order births to the mortality of children over age two and exogenous fluctuations in rye price are used as measures of the extent of deliberate non-parity-specific birth control. RESULTS Over the course of the demographic transition, the effect of the death of children generally increases after controlling for the effect of the death of children less than two years old. The negative fertility response to high rye prices before and in the year immediately following the price change occurred only after 1800. CONCLUSIONS The replacement and insurance effects associated with child mortality generally increased before the demographic transition. The emergence of the negative effect of high rye prices on fertility after 1800 further supports the presence and evolution of deliberate non-parity-specific fertility control before the demographic transition.

  1. Prevalence, awareness, treatment, control and socio demographic determinants of hypertension in Malaysian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Razak, Suraya; Daher, Aqil Mohammad; Ramli, Anis Safura; Ariffin, Farnaza; Mazapuspavina, Md Yasin; Ambigga, Krishnapillai S; Miskan, Maizatullifah; Abdul-Hamid, Hasidah; Mat-Nasir, Nafiza; Nor-Ashikin, Mohamed Noor Khan; Ng, Kien Keat; Nawawi, Hapizah; Yusoff, Khalid

    2016-04-21

    Hypertension is the leading cardiovascular risk factor globally as well as in Malaysia. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence, awareness, treatment, control and the socio demographic determinants of hypertension among Malaysian adults. The analytic sample consisted of 11,288 adults aged ≥ 30 years recruited at baseline in 2007-2011 from the REDISCOVER Study which is an ongoing, prospective cohort study involving 18 urban and 22 rural communities in Malaysia. Socio-demographics, anti-hypertensive treatment details and an average of at least two blood pressure measurements were obtained. The age-adjusted prevalence was 42.0 % (CI: 40.9-43.2) and was higher in men [43.5 % (CI: 41.2-45.0)] than women [41.0 % (CI: 39.8-42.3)]. Participants from rural areas (APR: 1.12, CI: 1.04-1.20); aged at least 40-49 years (APR: 1.86, CI: 1.62-2.14); who were overweight (APR: 1.24, CI: 1.15-1.34) and obese (APR: 1.54, CI: 1.43-1.6) were more likely to have hypertension. The Indigenous ethnic group was less likely to be aware (APR: 0.81, CI: 0.69-0.92) and to be on treatment (APR: 0.66, CI: 0.55-0.79). Those in rural areas were less likely to have their hypertension controlled (APR: 0.61, CI: 0.49-0.75). On the other hand, control was more likely in females (APR: 1.25, CI: 1.01-1.54) and Indigenous group (APR: 1.64, CI: 1.19-2.25). Hypertension is common in the Malaysian adults. The control of hypertension has increased over the years but is still quite low. Public health measures, as well as individual interventions in primary care are crucial to reduce their risk of developing complications.

  2. Economic-demographic interactions and the impact of investments in population control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paqueo, V B

    1981-01-01

    The interaction between economic and demographic factors in the Philippines was examined, analyzing the effects of investment in fertility control on the birthrate, population size, and such economic variables as gross national product (GNP), wage rate, and family income. A family planning model that was constructed and is used to project population program cost and births prevented is grafted to and simulated with a larger economic/demographic model. The simulation results are anayzed. The economic demographic model to which the family planning subsystem was grafted is a modified version of the model constructed by Encarnacion et al. (1974). It is basically a neoclassical model, a closed economy in which the real wage rate is determined by the intersection of the demand and supply of labor. The demand for labor is derived from a Cobb-Douglas production function on the assumption that labor is paid the value of its margin product, and the labor supply is determined by age and sex specific labor force participation rates and population. Capital accumulation is influenced by population size through its effect on government and private consumption expe nditures. Fertility rate is determined by duration of marriage and the level and distribution of family incomes. The model was used to develop projections from 1970 through 2000. Results show that the effects on per capital income and real wage rate seem significant, yet family income appears largely unaffected and the effect on the traditional investment to output ratio (I/Y) seems minimal. One of the outcomes of the projection without family planning is that, if the economy were to depend solely on its own savings, the average annual rate of growth of gross national product (GNP) would be only about 4.32%, which is less than the historical growth rate of 6% and the present government longterm target of 8%. The result suggests that foreign investments and loans would have to play an increasingly important role in the

  3. The Effects of Internal-External Locus of Control and Selected Demographic Variables on Rational-Irrational Beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Janice E.; And Others

    This study evaluated whether or not locus of control mediates rational-irrational beliefs. Data were generated investigating the impact of an internal-external orientation and selected demographic variables (age, race, gender, education, and occupation) on rational-irrational beliefs. Independent variables were locus of control and demographic…

  4. Socio-Demographic and Environmental Correlates of Leprosy: A hospital based cases control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devang A Jariwala, Bharat H Patel, Naresh R Godara, S L Kantharia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Worldwide, India alone contributes approximately 50% of Leprosy cases. The Natural history of Leprosy has still many gaps about causation of Leprosy. There are very few studies focusing on all possible factors that might be associated with Leprosy. Materials and Methodology: Hospital based case-control study was carried out in Outpatient department. Interviews of 76 cases of Leprosy and 152 Age and Sex matched Non-Leprosy Controls were taken exploring Demographic, Socio-Economic, Environmental and Behavioural factors to elucidate association with Le-prosy. Results: In Univariate analysis, Residing in Rural and Urban-slum area, lower education, low per capita monthly income, Ex-tended family, unsafe water for domestic purpose, presence of animals in house/yard, unhygienic habit of sewage disposal, frequent bathing in open water bodies, working barefooted were associated with Leprosy. Presence of BCG scar was found to reduce the risk of Leprosy. In the final model of Binary Logistic Regression analysis, presence of BCG scar and higher per capita monthly income were found to be protective for Leprosy whereas family history of Leprosy and frequent bathing in open water bodies were found to be risk factors for Leprosy. Conclusion: BCG vaccine might provide some degree of protec-tion against Leprosy. Protective effect of higher per capita income emphasizes that economic development itself will help us to reduce the burden of Leprosy. Association of Frequent bathing in open water bodies with Leprosy might indicate the role of environmental factors in transmission of Leprosy.

  5. Similar Motor Cortical Control Mechanisms for Precise Limb Control during Reaching and Locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakovenko, Sergiy; Drew, Trevor

    2015-10-28

    Throughout the course of evolution there has been a parallel development of the complexity and flexibility of the nervous system and the skeletomuscular system that it controls. This development is particularly evident for the cerebral cortical areas and the transformation of the use of the upper limbs from a purely locomotor function to one including, or restricted to, reaching and grasping. This study addresses the issue of whether the control of reaching has involved the development of new cortical circuits or whether the same neurons are used to control both locomotion and reaching. We recorded the activity of pyramidal tract neurons in the motor cortex of the cat both during voluntary gait modifications and during reaching. All cells showed generally similar patterns of activity in both tasks. More specifically, we showed that, in many cases, cells maintained a constant temporal relationship to the activity of synergistic muscle groups in each task. In addition, in some cells the relationship between the intensity of the cell discharge activity and the magnitude of the EMG activity was equally constant during gait modifications and reaching. As such, the results are compatible with the hypothesis that the corticospinal circuits used to control reaching evolved from those used to precisely modify gait. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/3514476-15$15.00/0.

  6. The counseling african americans to control hypertension (caatch trial: baseline demographic, clinical, psychosocial, and behavioral characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diaz-Gloster Marleny

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Effectiveness of combined physician and patient-level interventions for blood pressure (BP control in low-income, hypertensive African Americans with multiple co-morbid conditions remains largely untested in community-based primary care practices. Demographic, clinical, psychosocial, and behavioral characteristics of participants in the Counseling African American to Control Hypertension (CAATCH Trial are described. CAATCH evaluates the effectiveness of a multi-level, multi-component, evidence-based intervention compared with usual care (UC in improving BP control among poorly controlled hypertensive African Americans who receive primary care in Community Health Centers (CHCs. Methods Participants included 1,039 hypertensive African Americans receiving care in 30 CHCs in the New York Metropolitan area. Baseline data on participant demographic, clinical (e.g., BP, anti-hypertensive medications, psychosocial (e.g., depression, medication adherence, self-efficacy, and behavioral (e.g., exercise, diet characteristics were gathered through direct observation, chart review, and interview. Results The sample was primarily female (71.6%, middle-aged (mean age = 56.9 ± 12.1 years, high school educated (62.4%, low-income (72.4% reporting less than $20,000/year income, and received Medicaid (35.9% or Medicare (12.6%. Mean systolic and diastolic BP were 150.7 ± 16.7 mm Hg and 91.0 ± 10.6 mm Hg, respectively. Participants were prescribed an average of 2.5 ± 1.9 antihypertensive medications; 54.8% were on a diuretic; 33.8% were on a beta blocker; 41.9% were on calcium channel blockers; 64.8% were on angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs. One-quarter (25.6% of the sample had resistant hypertension; one-half (55.7% reported medication non-adherence. Most (79.7% reported one or more co-morbid medical conditions. The majority of the patients had a Charlson Co-morbidity score ≥ 2. Diabetes

  7. CDC Kerala 12: Socio-demographic factors among children (2-6 y) with autism--a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Babu; Padmam, M S Razeena; Nair, M K C; Leena, M L; Russell, Paul Swamidhas Sudhakar

    2014-12-01

    To compare the socio-demographic factors among children between 2 and 6 y of age with autism and a control group of normal children. One hundred forty three confirmed cases of 2-6 y-old children with autism, attending autism clinic of Child Development Centre, who had a CARS score of more than 30 were included in the study. Two hundred normal children in the same age group were recruited from the well-baby/immunization clinic of SAT Hospital, Thiruvananthapuram. Data was collected using a structured pre-piloted questionnaire consisting of 11 socio-demographic possible risk factors. The multivariate analysis on socio-demographic characteristics as possible risk factors for autism has shown that (i) upper and upper middle socioeconomic status (OR: 7.13; CI: 3.26-15.57) and (ii) male gender (OR: 3.95; CI: 2.22-7.04) were significant risk factors for autism, whereas place of residence, rural (OR: 0.41; CI: 0.24-0.68) is a protective factor. This case control study involving 143 children between 2 and 6 y with autism as per CARS criteria and a control group of 200 normal children has shown that upper and upper middle socioeconomic status and (ii) male gender are significant risk factors for autism, whereas place of residence, rule is a protective factor.

  8. Evaluation of animal control measures on pet demographics in Santa Clara County, California, 1993–2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip H. Kass

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The measurable benefits of animal control programs are unknown and the aim of this study was to determine the impact of these programs on pet population changes. A prospective cross-sectional study of 1000 households was implemented in 2005 to evaluate characteristics of the owned and unowned population of dogs and cats in Santa Clara County, California. The same population was previously studied 12 years earlier. During this time period, the county instituted in 1994 and then subsequently disestablished a municipal spay/neuter voucher program for cats. Dog intakes declined from 1992–2005, as they similarly did for an adjacent county (San Mateo. However, cat intakes declined significantly more in Santa Clara County than San Mateo, with an average annual decline of approximately 700 cats for the 12 year period. Time series analysis showed a greater than expected decline in the number of cats surrendered to shelters in Santa Clara County during the years the voucher program was in effect (1994–2005. The net savings to the county by reducing the number of cat shelter intakes was estimated at approximately $1.5 million. The measurable benefits of animal control programs are unknown and the aim of this study was to determine the impact of these programs on pet population changes.

  9. Evaluation of animal control measures on pet demographics in Santa Clara County, California, 1993-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kass, Philip H; Johnson, Karen L; Weng, Hsin-Yi

    2013-01-01

    The measurable benefits of animal control programs are unknown and the aim of this study was to determine the impact of these programs on pet population changes. A prospective cross-sectional study of 1000 households was implemented in 2005 to evaluate characteristics of the owned and unowned population of dogs and cats in Santa Clara County, California. The same population was previously studied 12 years earlier. During this time period, the county instituted in 1994 and then subsequently disestablished a municipal spay/neuter voucher program for cats. Dog intakes declined from 1992-2005, as they similarly did for an adjacent county (San Mateo). However, cat intakes declined significantly more in Santa Clara County than San Mateo, with an average annual decline of approximately 700 cats for the 12 year period. Time series analysis showed a greater than expected decline in the number of cats surrendered to shelters in Santa Clara County during the years the voucher program was in effect (1994-2005). The net savings to the county by reducing the number of cat shelter intakes was estimated at approximately $1.5 million. The measurable benefits of animal control programs are unknown and the aim of this study was to determine the impact of these programs on pet population changes.

  10. The associations of social self-control, personality disorders, and demographics with drug use among high-risk youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, Steve; McCuller, William J; Dent, Clyde W

    2003-08-01

    A 10-item self-report measure of social self-control was examined for its association with substance use, controlling for its associations with 12 personality disorder indices and 4 demographic variables among a sample of 1050 high-risk youth. Social self-control was found to be associated with 30-day cigarette smoking, alcohol use, marijuana use, and hard drug use, controlling for these other variables. The most consistent concurrent predictors of substance use were male gender, antisocial personality disorder, and social self-control. These results highlight the importance of social self-control as a unique concurrent predictor of substance use and suggest that social self-control skill training is relevant in substance abuse prevention programming.

  11. State impulsive control strategies for a two-languages competitive model with bilingualism and interlinguistic similarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Lin-Fei; Teng, Zhi-Dong; Nieto, Juan J.; Jung, Il Hyo

    2015-07-01

    For reasons of preserving endangered languages, we propose, in this paper, a novel two-languages competitive model with bilingualism and interlinguistic similarity, where state-dependent impulsive control strategies are introduced. The novel control model includes two control threshold values, which are different from the previous state-dependent impulsive differential equations. By using qualitative analysis method, we obtain that the control model exhibits two stable positive order-1 periodic solutions under some general conditions. Moreover, numerical simulations clearly illustrate the main theoretical results and feasibility of state-dependent impulsive control strategies. Meanwhile numerical simulations also show that state-dependent impulsive control strategy can be applied to other general two-languages competitive model and obtain the desired result. The results indicate that the fractions of two competitive languages can be kept within a reasonable level under almost any circumstances. Theoretical basis for finding a new control measure to protect the endangered language is offered.

  12. Participant demographics reported in "Table 1" of randomised controlled trials: a case of "inverse evidence"?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furler John

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Data supporting external validity of trial results allows clinicians to assess the applicability of a study's findings to their practice population. Socio-economic status (SES of trial participants may be critical to external validity given the relationship between social and economic circumstances and health. We explored how this is documented in reports of RCTs in four major general medical journals. Methods The contents lists of four leading general medical journals were hand searched to identify 25 consecutive papers reporting RCT results in each journal (n = 100. Data on demographic characteristics were extracted from each paper's Table 1 only (or equivalent. Results Authors infrequently reported key demographic characteristics relating to SES of RCT participants. Age and gender of participants were commonly reported. Less than 10% reported occupational group, employment status, income or area based measures of disadvantage. Conclusions Without adequate reporting of key indicators of SES in trial participants it is unclear if lower SES groups are under-represented. If such groups are systematically under-recruited into trials, this may limit the external validity and applicability of study findings to these groups. This is in spite of the higher health-care need in more disadvantaged populations. Under-representation of low SES groups could underestimate the reported effect of an intervention for those with a higher baseline risk. The marginal benefit identified in a trial with poor or no representation of lower SES participants could significantly underestimate the potential benefit to a low SES community. More transparency in this reporting and greater attention to the impact of SES on intervention outcomes in clinical trials is needed. This could be considered in the next revision of the CONSORT statement.

  13. Oral health: locus of control, health behavior, self-rated oral health and socio-demographic factors in Istanbul adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peker, Kadriye; Bermek, Gulcin

    2011-01-01

    To determine oral health control beliefs of Istanbul adults using the Multidimensional Oral Health Locus of Control Scale (MOHLCS) after confirming its factorial validity and to examine the relationships between these beliefs, self-rated oral health, oral health behaviors and socio-demographic factors. The MOHLCS was administered to a sample of 1200 subjects aged ≥18 years in Istanbul chosen using a quota-sampling method (response 88%). The relationship between the MOHLCS and oral health behaviors, self-rated oral health and socio-demographic factors was assessed after confirming the factorial validity of the MOHLCS. The MOHLCS demonstrated satisfactory internal reliability. Factor analysis results showed a new four-factor solution, namely Internal, Dentist, Chance, and Socialization agents. Multivariate analysis showed that female gender, younger age, higher socioeconomic status, more frequent daily toothbrushing, and regular dental check-ups were associated with higher Internal beliefs, while older age, lower educational level, lower socioeconomic status, low toothbrushing frequency, and symptom-orientated dental attendance were associated with higher Chance beliefs. Being unmarried and low toothbrushing frequency were associated with lower Dentist beliefs. Males and older subjects had lower Socialization agents beliefs. Internal, Dentist and Chance beliefs were significantly associated with self-rated oral health. Compared with the original factor structure, the new factor structure had better goodness of fit for this sample. Self-rated oral health, socio-demographic factors, and oral health behaviors were significantly associated with oral health control beliefs. These beliefs may be useful for planning oral health promotion programs and for formulating advice given by oral health professionals about their patients' oral health behaviors.

  14. Decision model on the demographic profile for tuberculosis control using fuzzy logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laisa Ribeiro de Sá

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to describe the relationship between demographic factors and the involvement of tuberculosis by applying a decision support model based on fuzzy logic to classify the regions as priority and non-priority in the city of João Pessoa, state of Paraíba (PB. As data source, we used the Notifiable Diseases Information System between 2009 and 2011. We chose the descriptive analysis, relative risk (RR, spatial distribution and fuzzy logic. The total of 1,245 cases remained in the study, accounting for 37.02% of cases in 2009. High and low risk clusters were identified, and the RR was higher among men (8.47, with 12 clusters, and among those uneducated (11.65, with 13 clusters. To demonstrate the functionality of the model was elected the year with highest number of cases, and the municipality district with highest population. The methodology identified priority areas, guiding managers to make decisions that respect the local particularities.

  15. Sociocultural and Demographic Risk Factors for the Development of Multiple Sclerosis in Kuwait: A Case - Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shammri, Suhail N.; Hanna, Magdy G.; Chattopadhyay, Arpita; Akanji, Abayomi O.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Immunological, genetic and environmental factors are believed to play important roles in the pathogenesis of Multiple Sclerosis (MS). There have been many studies on risk factors for MS but these have been mainly in Caucasian populations; robust studies in Arab populations remain relatively uncommon. This study therefore aimed to identify behavioral, socio-cultural, and demographic factors associated with development of MS in Kuwait, a high income Arab country, currently undergoing a demographic transition. Subjects and methods In this case- control study, 195 Kuwaiti MS patients and 146 healthy age and sex-matched controls were recruited. Both groups of subjects were interviewed using a structured questionnaire, in relation to anthropometric, socio-cultural and demographic data, residence during the 1990/91 Gulf War and current and past medical history, including medications. We also clinically evaluated, and retrospectively reviewed medical records of patients to derive appropriate clinical information, including associated chronic medical illness requiring long-term treatment. Results On multiple logistic regression analysis after adjustment for potential confounders including age, gender and BMI, in all the subjects, a positive associations prevail with presence of MS and some sociocultural and demographic factors, which included non-Bedouin ethnicity (AOR 2, 95% CI 1.0-3.9, p 0.049), positive family history of MS (AOR 10.6, 95% CI 3.0-36.9), p < 0.001), and low daily sunlight exposure of < 15min/day (AOR 5.3, 95% CI 2.7-10.5 p < 0.001). In addition, while 41.8% of MS patients indicated at least one comorbidity, only 26.8% of the controls reported any associated physical illness, with the suggestion that presence of certain comorbidities might increase MS risk (AOR 2.4, 95% CI 1.3-4.7, p < 0.001). Other risk variables such as smoking status and mode of routine outdoor dressing were not significant in all the MS subjects taken as a whole, but

  16. Sociocultural and Demographic Risk Factors for the Development of Multiple Sclerosis in Kuwait: A Case - Control Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhail N Al-Shammri

    Full Text Available Immunological, genetic and environmental factors are believed to play important roles in the pathogenesis of Multiple Sclerosis (MS. There have been many studies on risk factors for MS but these have been mainly in Caucasian populations; robust studies in Arab populations remain relatively uncommon. This study therefore aimed to identify behavioral, socio-cultural, and demographic factors associated with development of MS in Kuwait, a high income Arab country, currently undergoing a demographic transition.In this case- control study, 195 Kuwaiti MS patients and 146 healthy age and sex-matched controls were recruited. Both groups of subjects were interviewed using a structured questionnaire, in relation to anthropometric, socio-cultural and demographic data, residence during the 1990/91 Gulf War and current and past medical history, including medications. We also clinically evaluated, and retrospectively reviewed medical records of patients to derive appropriate clinical information, including associated chronic medical illness requiring long-term treatment.On multiple logistic regression analysis after adjustment for potential confounders including age, gender and BMI, in all the subjects, a positive associations prevail with presence of MS and some sociocultural and demographic factors, which included non-Bedouin ethnicity (AOR 2, 95% CI 1.0-3.9, p 0.049, positive family history of MS (AOR 10.6, 95% CI 3.0-36.9, p < 0.001, and low daily sunlight exposure of < 15min/day (AOR 5.3, 95% CI 2.7-10.5 p < 0.001. In addition, while 41.8% of MS patients indicated at least one comorbidity, only 26.8% of the controls reported any associated physical illness, with the suggestion that presence of certain comorbidities might increase MS risk (AOR 2.4, 95% CI 1.3-4.7, p < 0.001. Other risk variables such as smoking status and mode of routine outdoor dressing were not significant in all the MS subjects taken as a whole, but demonstrated variably positive

  17. Diabetes and age-related demographic differences in risk factor control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Brent M; Li, Jiexiang; Wolfman, Tamara E; Sinopoli, Angelo

    2014-06-01

    Disparate vascular outcomes in diabetes by race and/or ethnicity may reflect differential risk factor control, especially pre-Medicare. Assess concurrent target attainment for glycohemoglobin 2, P factor awareness and treatment were lower in Hispanics than whites. When treated, diabetes and hypertension control were greater in whites than blacks or Hispanics. Concurrent risk factor control is low in all diabetics and could improve with greater statin use. Insuring younger adults, especially Hispanic, could raise risk factor awareness and treatment. Improving treatment effectiveness in younger black and Hispanic diabetics could promote equitable risk factor control.

  18. Decentralized Control for a Class of Similar Composite Systems with Interconnections with Unsatisfying Interconnection Condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zheng; LI Zhong-hai; ZHANG Si-ying; HOU Xue-zhang

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, a class of similar composite systems is discussed, whose interconnections areasymmetrical and mismatched. The interconnection condition is proposed. Based on it, the interconnectionsare divided into two parts. One satisfies the interconnection condition, by means of the two--step method,the decentralized controllers are designed. The other does not satisfy the interconnection condition, but thisis offsetted by good quality of the system itself. Based on these, a sufficient condition is given by some linearmatrix inequalities, which makes the studied systems quadratic stabile via linear decentralized controllers bymaking use of the information of interconnections better.

  19. Demographic profile of families and children in the Study to Explore Early Development (SEED): Case-control study of autism spectrum disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiGuiseppi, Carolyn G.; Daniels, Julie L.; Fallin, Daniele M.; Rosenberg, Steven A.; Schieve, Laura A.; Thomas, Kathleen C.; Windham, Gayle C.; Goss, Cynthia W.; Soke, Gnakub N.; Currie, Dustin W.; Singer, Alison B.; Lee, Li-Ching; Bernal, Pilar; Croen, Lisa A.; Miller, Lisa A.; Pinto-Martin, Jennifer A.; Young, Lisa M.; Schendel, Diana E.

    2016-01-01

    Background The Study to Explore Early Development (SEED) is designed to enhance knowledge of autism spectrum disorder characteristics and etiologies. Objective This paper describes the demographic profile of enrolled families and examines sociodemographic differences between children with autism spectrum disorder and children with other developmental problems or who are typically developing. Methods This multi-site case-control study used health, education, and birth certificate records to identify and enroll children aged 2–5 years into one of three groups: 1) cases (children with autism spectrum disorder), 2) developmental delay or disorder controls, or 3) general population controls. Study group classification was based on sampling source, prior diagnoses, and study screening tests and developmental evaluations. The child's primary caregiver provided demographic characteristics through a telephone (or occasionally face-to-face) interview. Groups were compared using ANOVA, chi-squared test, or multinomial logistic regression as appropriate. Results Of 2768 study children, sizeable proportions were born to mothers of non-White race (31.7%), Hispanic ethnicity (11.4%), and foreign birth (17.6%); 33.0% of households had incomes below the US median. The autism spectrum disorder and population control groups differed significantly on nearly all sociodemographic parameters. In contrast, the autism spectrum disorder and developmental delay or disorder groups had generally similar sociodemographic characteristics. Conclusions SEED enrolled a sociodemographically diverse sample, which will allow further, in-depth exploration of sociodemographic differences between study groups and provide novel opportunities to explore sociodemographic influences on etiologic risk factor associations with autism spectrum disorder and phenotypic subtypes. PMID:26917104

  20. Population structure and demographic history of Sicyopterus japonicus (Perciformes; Gobiidae) in Taiwan inferred from mitochondrial control region sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Y M; Hsu, C H; Fang, L S; Lin, H D; Wu, J H; Han, C C; Chen, I-S; Chiang, T Y

    2013-09-27

    The amphidromous goby Sicyopterus japonicus is distributed throughout southern Taiwan and Japan. Larvae of this freshwater fish go through a long marine stage. This migratory mode influences population genetic structure. We examined the genetic diversity, population differentiation, and demographic history of S. japonicus based on the mitochondrial DNA control region. We identified 102 haplotypes from 107 S. japonicus individuals from 22 populations collected from Taiwan and Islet Lanyu. High mean haplotype diversity (h = 0.999) versus low nucleotide diversity (θπ = 0.008) was detected across populations. There was low correspondence between clusters identified in the neighbor-joining tree and geographical region, as also indicated by AMOVA and pairwise F(ST) estimates. Both mismatch distribution analysis and Tajima's D test indicated that S. japonicus likely experienced a demographic expansion. Using a Bayesian skyline plot approach, we estimated the time of onset of the expansion of S. japonicus at 135 kyr (during the Pleistocene) and the time of stable effective population size at approximately 2.5 kyr (last glacial maximum). Based on these results, we suggest 1) a panmictic population at the oceanic planktonic larval stage, mediated by the Kuroshio current; 2) a long planktonic marine stage and long period of dispersal, which may have permitted efficient tracking of environmental shifts during the Pleistocene; and 3) a stable, constant population size ever since the last glacial maximum.

  1. Initial virtual flight test for a dynamically similar aircraft model with control augmentation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linliang Guo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available To satisfy the validation requirements of flight control law for advanced aircraft, a wind tunnel based virtual flight testing has been implemented in a low speed wind tunnel. A 3-degree-of-freedom gimbal, ventrally installed in the model, was used in conjunction with an actively controlled dynamically similar model of aircraft, which was equipped with the inertial measurement unit, attitude and heading reference system, embedded computer and servo-actuators. The model, which could be rotated around its center of gravity freely by the aerodynamic moments, together with the flow field, operator and real time control system made up the closed-loop testing circuit. The model is statically unstable in longitudinal direction, and it can fly stably in wind tunnel with the function of control augmentation of the flight control laws. The experimental results indicate that the model responds well to the operator’s instructions. The response of the model in the tests shows reasonable agreement with the simulation results. The difference of response of angle of attack is less than 0.5°. The effect of stability augmentation and attitude control law was validated in the test, meanwhile the feasibility of virtual flight test technique treated as preliminary evaluation tool for advanced flight vehicle configuration research was also verified.

  2. Endurance training in patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls: differences and similarities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller-Varady, Katriona; Hasan, Alkomiet; Schneider-Axmann, Thomas; Hillmer-Vogel, Ursula; Adomßent, Björn; Wobrock, Thomas; Schmitt, Andrea; Niklas, Andree; Falkai, Peter; Malchow, Berend

    2016-08-01

    The aims were to examine the feasibility of and adaptations to endurance training in persons diagnosed with schizophrenia and to address the question whether the principles and beneficial effects of endurance training established in the healthy population apply also to patients with schizophrenia. In this controlled interventional study, 22 patients with schizophrenia and 22 healthy controls performed a standardized aerobic endurance training on bicycle ergometers over 12 weeks. Another group of 21 patients with schizophrenia played table soccer. Endurance capacity was measured with incremental cycle ergometry before and after the intervention and 3 months later. A specific set of outcome parameters was defined. The training stimuli can be assumed to be similar in both endurance groups. Endurance capacity improved significantly in the endurance groups, but not in the table soccer group. Patients and healthy controls showed comparable adaptations to endurance training, as assessed by physical working capacity and maximal achieved power. Differences were found in changes of performance at a lactate concentration of 3 mmol/l. Endurance training was feasible and effective in both groups. The principles and types of training that are usually applied to healthy controls need to be verified in patients with schizophrenia. Nevertheless, patients benefited from endurance training in terms of improvement of endurance capacity and reduction in the baseline deficit in comparison with healthy controls. Therefore, endurance training should be implemented in future therapy programs. These programs need to pay special attention to the differences between patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls.

  3. Demographic parameters of individual E.coli within and among controlled environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jouvet, Lionel; Steiner, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    . This can be achieved by working on isogenic populations under controlled environments. We use a microfluidic device to limit stochastic processes to their molecular components. The high throughput microfluidic device traps thousands of individual E. coli cells and tracks them over their lifespan...

  4. Multiple Sclerosis and Several Demographic Characteristics, Family History of MS, and Month of Birth: A Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagheri

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Several factors have been reported as risk factors for multiple sclerosis (MS; however, the main causes of the disease are still unknown. A geographical area with a low MS incidence is Ahvaz, Iran. Objectives The objective of this study was to evaluate the association of several demographic characteristics, family history, and birth month with MS in Ahvaz. Patients and Methods This was a case-control study including 155 MS cases and 155 controls matched for age, sex, and residential status. The participants were selected randomly, using a systematic method, from the MS patients referred to the MS Society of Khuzestan (Iran. The data collection tool was a standardized questionnaire designed by the authors to assess demographic characteristics. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics including mean, frequency, and standard deviation and inferential statistical tests including χ2, Fisher’s exact test, and logistic regression using SPSS version 19. Results In both cases and controls, no significant associations were found between Arab ethnicity and incidence of MS, marital status and risk of MS in Ahvaz, or more than 15-year residency in Ahvaz, birth in Khuzestan, and month of birth and the risk of MS (P > 0.05. However, there was a marginally significant association between living from birth to age 15 years in Ahvaz and MS (P = 0.05. Furthermore, there was an association between a family history of MS and the risk of MS in Ahvaz (P = 0.02, which was significant in univariate logistic regression (P = 0.006. Conclusions The findings suggested that according to the ecological conditions of Ahvaz, a family history of MS may increase the risk of developing MS.

  5. Risk Analysis and Setting Priorities in Air Traffic Control by Using a Matrix of Similarities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacane Monta

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article considers how mathematical decision-making in Air Traffic Control could be done in order to minimize the risk of collisions. An example of how to prioritize airplanes which are in the vicinity of an airport according to their level of risk in respect to other airplanes is given by using a matrix of similarities and Euclidean metric. The analysis has shown that it is necessary to classify ATC specialists and ATC centers according to their ability to provide safe enough service using time methods and highly experienced team work.

  6. Adults With Idiopathic Scoliosis Diagnosed at Youth Experience Similar Physical Activity and Fracture Rate as Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diarbakerli, Elias; Grauers, Anna; Danielsson, Aina; Gerdhem, Paul

    2017-04-01

    Cross-sectional. To describe physical activity level and fracture rates in adults with idiopathic scoliosis, diagnosed before maturity, and to compare with a control group. A previous study found a lower level of sporting activities in adults treated for idiopathic scoliosis compared with controls. Other studies have shown a lower bone mass in adults with idiopathic scoliosis compared with controls. One thousand two hundred seventy-eight adults (aged 18-71 yr) with idiopathic scoliosis and 214 controls (aged 18-70 yr) were included and answered the International Physical Activity Questionnaire - Short Form (IPAQ-SF) and questions about previous fractures. The three scoliosis treatment groups (untreated n = 360, brace n = 460, and surgically treated n = 458) were compared. Furthermore, a comparison based on onset (juvenile n = 169 or adolescent n = 976) was performed. Achieved weekly moderate activity level and metabolic equivalent task (MET) minutes/week were assessed for patients and controls. Statistical comparisons were made with analysis of covariance with adjustments for age, body mass index, and sex. The proportion achieving weekly moderate activity level was 962 out of 1278 for individuals with idiopathic scoliosis (75%) and 157 out of 214 (73%) for controls (P = 0.40). The scoliosis patients reported 2016 MET-minutes/week (median value) and the controls 2456 (P = 0.06). Fracture rates did not differ (P = 0.72). Fewer surgically treated individuals achieved moderate activity level (P = 0.046) compared with the untreated and the previously braced individuals. No difference was seen regarding MET-minutes/week (P = 0.86). No differences were seen between individuals with a juvenile onset compared with individuals with an adolescent onset (all P ≥ 0.05). Adults with idiopathic scoliosis have similar physical activity level and do not sustain more fractures compared with controls. Adults with surgically treated

  7. Bacterial Community Succession During in situ Uranium Bioremediation: Spatial Similarities Along Controlled Flow Paths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Chiachi; Wu, Weimin; Gentry, Terry J.; Carley, Jack; Corbin, Gail A.; Carroll, Sue L.; Watson, David B.; Jardine, Phil M.; Zhou, Jizhong; Criddle, Craig S.; Fields, Matthew W.

    2009-05-22

    Bacterial community succession was investigated in a field-scale subsurface reactor formed by a series of wells that received weekly ethanol additions to re-circulating groundwater. Ethanol additions stimulated denitrification, metal reduction, sulfate reduction, and U(VI) reduction to sparingly soluble U(IV). Clone libraries of SSU rRNA gene sequences from groundwater samples enabled tracking of spatial and temporal changes over a 1.5 y period. Analyses showed that the communities changed in a manner consistent with geochemical variations that occurred along temporal and spatial scales. Canonical correspondence analysis revealed that the levels of nitrate, uranium, sulfide, sulfate, and ethanol strongly correlated with particular bacterial populations. As sulfate and U(VI) levels declined, sequences representative of sulfate-reducers and metal-reducers were detected at high levels. Ultimately, sequences associated with sulfate-reducing populations predominated, and sulfate levels declined as U(VI) remained at low levels. When engineering controls were compared to the population variation via canonical ordination, changes could be related to dissolved oxygen control and ethanol addition. The data also indicated that the indigenous populations responded differently to stimulation for bio-reduction; however, the two bio-stimulated communities became more similar after different transitions in an idiosyncratic manner. The strong associations between particular environmental variables and certain populations provide insight into the establishment of practical and successful remediation strategies in radionuclide-contaminated environments with respect to engineering controls and microbial ecology.

  8. Embedding parameters in ab initio theory to develop well-controlled approximations based on molecular similarity

    CERN Document Server

    Tanha, Matteus; Cappiello, Alex; Gordon, Geoffrey J; Yaron, David J

    2013-01-01

    A means to take advantage of molecular similarity to lower the computational cost of electronic structure theory is proposed, in which parameters are embedded into a low-cost, low-level (LL) ab initio theory and adjusted to obtain agreement with a higher level (HL) ab initio theory. This approach is explored by training such a model on data for ethane and testing the resulting model on methane, propane and butane. The electronic distribution of the molecules is varied by placing them in strong electrostatic environments consisting of random charges placed on the corners of a cube. The results find that parameters embedded in HF/STO-3G theory can be adjusted to obtain agreement, to within about 2 kcal/mol, with results of HF/6-31G theory. Obtaining this level of agreement requires the use of parameters that are functions of the bond lengths, atomic charges, and bond orders within the molecules. The argument is made that this approach provides a well-controlled means to take advantage of molecular similarity in...

  9. Socio-Demographic Indicators, Intelligence, and Locus of Control as Predictors of Adult Financial Well-Being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Furnham

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The current study investigated a longitudinal data set of 4790 adults examining a set of socio-demographic and psychological factors that influence adult financial well-being. Parental social status (at birth, childhood intelligence and self-esteem (at age 10, locus of control (at age 16, psychological distress (age 30, educational qualifications (age 34, current occupation, weekly net income, house ownership status, and number of rooms (all measured at age 38 years were examined. Structural Equation Modelling showed that childhood intelligence, locus of control, education and occupation were all independent predictors of adult financial well-being for both men and women. Parental social status and psychological distress were also significant predictors of the outcome variable for men, but not for women. Whereas for women, in comparison to men, the effects of current occupation and childhood intelligence on the outcome variable appeared to be stronger. The strongest predictor of adult financial well-being was current occupational prestige, followed by educational achievement. The gender deferential of financial well-being indicators and its implications are discussed.

  10. Selective Separation of Similar Metals in Chloride Solution by Sulfide Precipitation Under Controlled Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weifeng; Sun, Baiqi; Zhang, Duchao; Chen, Lin; Yang, Tianzu

    2017-08-01

    A new process of sulfide precipitation under controlled potential was proposed to separate selectively similar metals in a Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (P204) stripping solution of the Co extraction system. Theoretical calculations revealed that Cu2+, Co2+, Zn2+, and Mn2+ could be separated by fractional precipitation with sulfide by controlling the solution potential and pH value simultaneously. The results demonstrated a Cu precipitation ratio reaching 99.9% during sulfide precipitation of Cu at the potential of 330 mV; the Cu/Co mass ratio in the Cu precipitate was 224. The Co precipitation ratio in the xanthate precipitation of Co, at a potential of 170 mV, was 99.9%, and the Co/Zn mass ratio in the Co precipitate was 28.0. The Zn precipitation ratio reached 99.9% for sulfide precipitation of Zn at the potential of 30 mV, and the Zn/Mn mass ratio in the Zn precipitate was 1.41. The Mn precipitation ratio reached 99.9% after neutralization.

  11. Interlimb coordination in human crawling reveals similarities in development and neural control with quadrupeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Susan K; Noah, J Adam; Yang, Jaynie F

    2009-02-01

    The study of quadrupeds has furnished most of our understanding of mammalian locomotion. To allow a more direct comparison of coordination between the four limbs in humans and quadrupeds, we studied crawling in the human, a behavior that is part of normal human development and mechanically more similar to quadrupedal locomotion than is bipedal walking. Interlimb coordination during hands-and-knees crawling is compared between humans and quadrupeds and between human infants and adults. Mechanical factors were manipulated during crawling to understand the relative contributions of mechanics and neural control. Twenty-six infants and seven adults were studied. Video, force plate, and electrogoniometer data were collected. Belt speed of the treadmill, width of base, and limb length were manipulated in adults. Influences of unweighting and limb length were explored in infants. Infants tended to move diagonal limbs together (trot-like). Adults additionally moved ipsilateral limbs together (pace-like). At lower speeds, movements of the four limbs were more equally spaced in time, with no clear pairing of limbs. At higher speeds, running symmetrical gaits were never observed, although one adult galloped. Widening stance prevented adults from using the pace-like gait, whereas lengthening the hind limbs (hands-and-feet crawling) largely prevented the trot-like gait. Limb length and unweighting had no effect on coordination in infants. We conclude that human crawling shares features both with other primates and with nonprimate quadrupeds, suggesting similar underlying mechanisms. The greater restriction in coordination patterns used by infants suggests their nervous system has less flexibility.

  12. Democratic constraints on demographic policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigsby, J S

    1984-01-01

    The discussion compares the population policies adopted in Sweden during the 1930s to raise fertiity and the policies considered in the US during the 1970s in response to the high fertility experienced in the 1950s. Both sets of policies recommended increased availability of birth control, more liberal abortion laws, and greater employment opportunities for women. It becomes evident that the constraints imposed by a democratic system of government translate into policy recommendations that place individual freedom of choice and equal opportunity for all citizens as higher goals than any specific demographic target. Consequently, the population commissions of Sweden and the US made similar suggestions on how to resolve their opposite demographic problems. The demographic situations in the 2 nations were antipodal, and the countries also had very different social climates. This additional disparity was insufficient to counterbalance the apparently overwhelming influence of the democratic political systems in making virtually identical policy recommendations. Yet, the contrasting social climates of Sweden in 1935 and the US in 1970-72 may explain the different reactions each commission received. In terms of the responses by both citizens and government officials to the commissions' reports, the Swedish commission was more successful. Practically all of their recommendations were enthusiastically received and quickly adopted by the Swedish Riksdag. Yet, when the criterion for success becomes whether or not a demographic target was met, it increased in the 1940s and then dropped again while the same social policies were in effect. Even before the US commission began its study, fertility in the US had fallen and continues to remain low. These findings suggest that commissions in democratic countries will most likely never recommend dramatic measures in population policy. Thus, it is questionable whether such commissions in democratic nations will totally fulfill the

  13. Geographic structure and demographic history of Iranian brown bear (Ursus arctos based on mtDNA control region sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Ashrafzadeh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the brown bear's range has declined and its populations in some areas have faced extinction. Therefore, to have a comprehensive picture of genetic diversity and geographic structure of populations is essential for effective conservation strategies. In this research, we sequenced a 271bp segment of mtDNA control region of seven Iranian brown bears, where a total dataset of 467 sequences (brown and polar bears were used in analyses. Overall, 113 different haplotypes and 77 polymorphic sites were identified within the segment. Based on phylogenetic analyses, Iranian brown bears were not nested in any other clades. The low values of Nm (range=0.014-0.187 and high values of Fst (range=0.728-0.972 among Iranian bears and others revealed a genetically significant differentiation. We aren't found any significant signal of demographic reduction in Iranian bears. The time to the most recent common ancestor of Iranian brown bears (Northern Iran was found to be around 19000 BP.

  14. Algorithmic aspects of analysis, prediction, and control in science and engineering an approach based on symmetry and similarity

    CERN Document Server

    Nava, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    This book demonstrates how to describe and analyze a system's behavior and extract the desired prediction and control algorithms from this analysis. A typical prediction is based on observing similar situations in the past, knowing the outcomes of these past situations, and expecting that the future outcome of the current situation will be similar to these past observed outcomes. In mathematical terms, similarity corresponds to symmetry, and similarity of outcomes to invariance.   This book shows how symmetries can be used in all classes of algorithmic problems of sciences and engineering: from analysis to prediction to control. Applications cover chemistry, geosciences, intelligent control, neural networks, quantum physics, and thermal physics. Specifically, it is shown how the approach based on symmetry and similarity can be used in the analysis of real-life systems, in the algorithms of prediction, and in the algorithms of control.

  15. Pregnancy intention, demographic differences, and psychosocial health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxson, Pamela; Miranda, Marie Lynn

    2011-08-01

    We explore the psychosocial, demographic, and maternal characteristics across wanted, mistimed, and unwanted pregnancies. Data from 1321 women from a prospective cohort study of pregnant women in Durham, NC, are analyzed. Psychosocial correlates were obtained through prenatal surveys; electronic medical records were used to ascertain maternal health and pregnancy outcomes. Sixty-two percent of the women indicated an unintended pregnancy, with 44% (578) mistimed and 18% (245) unwanted. Only 38% of the pregnancies were characterized as wanted. Women with unwanted and with mistimed pregnancies were similar demographically, but they differed significantly on psychosocial profiles and maternal characteristics. Women with mistimed and with wanted pregnancies differed in demographics and psychosocial profiles. Wanted pregnancies had the healthiest, mistimed an intermediate, and unwanted the poorest psychosocial profile. Women with unwanted pregnancies had the highest depression, perceived stress, and negative paternal support scores (ppsychosocial profiles had higher odds of being in the unwanted category. Controlling for psychosocial and demographic variables, perceived stress and positive paternal support remained significant predictors of belonging to the unwanted and mistimed groups. Fully characterizing pregnancy intention and its relationship to psychosocial profiles may provide a basis for identifying women with highest risk during pregnancy and early motherhood. Women with unwanted and mistimed pregnancies may appear similar demographically but are different psychosocially. Women with unwanted pregnancies have multiple risk factors and would benefit from targeted interventions.

  16. Composites Similarity Analysis Method Based on Knowledge Set in Composites Quality Control

    OpenAIRE

    Li Haifeng

    2016-01-01

    Composites similarity analysis is an important link of composites review, it can not only to declare composites review rechecking, still help composites applicants promptly have the research content relevant progress and avoid duplication. This paper mainly studies the composites similarity model in composites review. With the actual experience of composites management, based on the author’s knowledge set theory, paper analyzes deeply knowledge set representation of composites knowledge, impr...

  17. Multiple Sclerosis and Several Demographic Characteristics, Family History of MS, and Month of Birth: A Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background Several factors have been reported as risk factors for multiple sclerosis (MS); however, the main causes of the disease are still unknown. A geographical area with a low MS incidence is Ahvaz, Iran. Objectives The objective of this study was to evaluate the association of several demographic characteristics, family history, and birth month with MS in Ahvaz. Patients and Methods ...

  18. Asymmetries in reactive and anticipatory balance control are of similar magnitude in Parkinson's disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonstra, Tjitske A; van Kordelaar, Joost; Engelhart, Denise; van Vugt, Jeroen P P; van der Kooij, Herman

    2016-01-01

    Many Parkinson's disease (PD) patients show asymmetries in balance control during quiet stance and in response to perturbations (i.e., reactive balance control) in the sagittal plane. In addition, PD patients show a reduced ability to anticipate to self-induced disturbances, but it is not clear whether these anticipatory responses can be asymmetric too. Furthermore, it is not known how reactive balance control and anticipatory balance control are related in PD patients. Therefore, we investigated whether reactive and anticipatory balance control are asymmetric to the same extent in PD patients. 14 PD patients and 10 controls participated. Reactive balance control (RBC) was investigated by applying external platform and force perturbations and relating the response of the left and right ankle torque to the body sway angle at the excited frequencies. Anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) were investigated by determining the increase in the left and right ankle torque just before the subjects released a force exerted with the hands against a force sensor. The symmetry ratio between the contribution of the left and right ankle was used to express the asymmetry in reactive and anticipatory balance control; the correlation between the two ratio's was investigated with Spearman's rank correlation coefficients. PD patients were more asymmetric in anticipatory (p=0.026) and reactive balance control (p=0.004) compared to controls and the symmetry ratios were significantly related (ρ=0.74; p=0.003) in PD patients. These findings suggest that asymmetric reactive balance control during bipedal stance may share a common pathophysiology with asymmetries in the anticipation of voluntary perturbations during, for instance, gait initiation.

  19. Demographic factors associated with loss to follow up in the management of chronic otitis media: case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, R; Fox, R; Srinivasan, R; Majithia, A; Singh, A

    2016-02-01

    The likelihood of a patient attending regular follow up can affect decision making when planning and performing tympanomastoid surgery. This study investigated whether demographic factors were associated with loss to follow up. A database of patients who had been investigated and treated for chronic otitis media was searched. Patients lost to follow up and a matching sample of patients who were formally discharged were identified. The demographic factors of age, sex and postcode were compared between the two groups. The information collected was also used to provide measures of deprivation. Fifty patients in each group were identified. Patients lost to follow up were significantly younger than patients formally discharged (p < 0.02), and were more likely to live in an area of education and training deprivation (p < 0.05). Younger patient age, and living in an area of education and training deprivation, are associated with a higher incidence of loss to follow up.

  20. Relationships between high-stakes testing policies and student achievement after controlling for demographic factors in aggregated data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory J. Marchant

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available With the mandate of No Child Left Behind, high-stakes achievement testing is firmly in place in every state. The few studies that have explored the effectiveness of high-stakes testing using NAEP scores have yielded mixed results. This study considered state demographic characteristics for each NAEP testing period in reading, writing, mathematics, and science from 1992 through 2002, in an effort to examine the relation of high-stakes testing policies to achievement and changes in achievement between testing periods. As expected, demographic characteristics and their changes were related significantly to most achievement outcomes, but high-stakes testing policies demonstrated few relationships with achievement. The few relationships between high-stakes testing and achievement or improvement in reading, writing, or science tended to appear only when demographic data were missing; and the minimal relationships with math achievement were consistent with findings in previous research. Considering the cost and potential unintended negative consequences, high-stakes testing policies seem to provide a questionable means of improving student learning.

  1. CSF d-serine concentrations are similar in Alzheimer's disease, other dementias, and elderly controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biemans, Elisanne A L M; Verhoeven-Duif, Nanda M; Gerrits, Johan; Claassen, Jurgen A H R; Kuiperij, H Bea; Verbeek, Marcel M

    2016-01-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of d-serine were recently reported as a potential new biomarker for Alzheimer's disease (AD), showing a perfect distinction between AD patients and healthy controls. In this study, we aimed to confirm these results and extend these previous findings to dementia with

  2. Braiding of submarine channels controlled by aspect ratio similar to rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, Brady Z.; Lai, Steven Y. J.; Komatsu, Yuhei; Paola, Chris

    2015-09-01

    The great majority of submarine channels formed by turbidity and density currents are meandering in planform; they consist of a single, sinuous channel that transports a turbid, dense flow of sediment from submarine canyons to ocean floor environments. Braided turbidite systems consisting of multiple, interconnected channel threads are conspicuously rare. Furthermore, such systems may not represent the spontaneous planform instability of true braiding, but instead result from erosive processes or bathymetric variability. In marked contrast to submarine environments, both meandering and braided planforms are common in fluvial systems. Here we present experiments of subaqueous channel formation conducted at two laboratory facilities. We find that density currents readily produce a braided planform for flow aspect ratios of depth to width that are similar to those that produce river braiding. Moreover, we find that stability model theory for river planform morphology successfully describes submarine channels in both experiments and the field. On the basis of these observations, we propose that the rarity of braided submarine channels is explained by the generally greater flow depths in submarine systems, which necessitate commensurately greater widths to achieve the required aspect ratio, along with feedbacks among flow thickness, suspended sediment concentration and channel relief that induce greater levee deposition rates and limit channel widening.

  3. Impaired metabolic control and socio-demographic status in immigrant children at onset of Type 1 diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Soderstrom, U.; Samuelsson, Ulf; Sahlqvist, L.; Aman, J

    2014-01-01

    AimThe aim of the present study was to compare clinical and socio-demographic conditions at the onset of Type1 diabetes in children born to immigrant families and children born to Swedish families, and to assess whether those conditions had an impact on metabolic status. Methods and designThis was an observational nationwide population-based matched cohort study on prospectively recorded registry data of all children with diabetes in Sweden and their families during 2000-2010. Out of a total ...

  4. A Control Chart Approach for Representing and Mining Data Streams with Shape Based Similarity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omitaomu, Olufemi A [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    The mining of data streams for online condition monitoring is a challenging task in several domains including (electric) power grid system, intelligent manufacturing, and consumer science. Considering a power grid application in which thousands of sensors, called the phasor measurement units, are deployed on the power grid network to continuously collect streams of digital data for real-time situational awareness and system management. Depending on design, each sensor could stream between ten and sixty data samples per second. The myriad of sensory data captured could convey deeper insights about sequence of events in real-time and before major damages are done. However, the timely processing and analysis of these high-velocity and high-volume data streams is a challenge. Hence, a new data processing and transformation approach, based on the concept of control charts, for representing sequence of data streams from sensors is proposed. In addition, an application of the proposed approach for enhancing data mining tasks such as clustering using real-world power grid data streams is presented. The results indicate that the proposed approach is very efficient for data streams storage and manipulation.

  5. Demographic Correlates and Factor Structure of the Family Environment Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boake, Corwin; Salmon, Paul G.

    1983-01-01

    Factor analyzed the Family Environment Scale (FES) subscale scores of 204 families and correlated them with family demographic characteristics. The obtained factor structure showed two major factors similar to "control" and "acceptance-rejection" dimensions in previous research. Results support the FES as part of multimethod…

  6. Socio-Demographic Factors Related to Oral Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdoul Hossain Madani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The aim of this study was to identify factors related to cancer of oral cavity considering individual socio-demographic characteristics of a hospital based study in Pune. Approach: A case-control study was conducted. The cases were 350 with squamous-cell carcinoma of oral cavity diagnosed between 2005 and 2006 in Morbai, Narandia, Budharani Cancer Institute, Pune, India. Similar number of controls matched for age and sex selected from the background population. Cases and controls were interviewed for general characteristics; age, gender, education and possible socio-demographic factors. Results: Chi-square test in uni-variate analysis and estimate for risk showed that education, occupation and monthly household income were significantly different between cases and controls (pConclusion/Recommendations: Socio-demographic factors such as education, occupation and income do play an important role in development oral cancer.

  7. Analysis and comparison. Bd. 1 - Longlife. Report on the analysis of state of technology, administrative and legal procedures, financial situation, demographic needs, similarities and differences in the participating countries Denmark, Germany, Lithuania, Poland and Russia. Formulations and benchmarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rueckert, Klaus (ed.)

    2010-07-01

    Environmental considerations are becoming one of the key features in the design when it comes to constructing modern, sustainable residential buildings. In an effort to streamline procedures and practices, the project Longlife has conducted a comparative review of these among the countries Denmark, Germany, Lithuania, Poland and Russia (associated organizations). The countries involved have shared knowledge and experiences with each other about how their respective building processes operate. These are collated and analysed. There are differences and commonness in the state of technology, administrative and legal procedures, financial situation, demographic needs, and how a 'housing project' functions. With this exercise Longlife has started to ensure that differences across the Baltic Sea Region will be minimised as regards environmentally-friendly residential constructions. This initial comparative stage covers planning, building permit and tendering procedures, practices for developing and operating housing and construction technologies. The report reflects the currently most applicable features of the participating countries' processes. Longlife project partners work in three competence teams to use the special know how and experiences and to cooperate in the public private partnership composition. The report analyses in the competence team 1 - Engineering and building technology, design standards - the engineering and technology standards in the countries Denmark, Germany, Lithuania, Poland and Russia. The report shows for the competence team 2 - Administration procedures, licensing rules, tendering rules, laws - the comparison and investigations of administration procedures, building permit rules, tendering rules and laws in the participating countries. The report provides for competence team 3 - Economical and financial basis - a general and a specific overview about economical and financial issues, sustainability and quality aspects in the

  8. CONTROLE DE QUALIDADE DE MEDICAMENTOS ANTI-HIPERTENSIVOS SIMILARES COMERCIALIZADOS EM FARMÁCIAS DE IMPERATRIZ, MA, BRASIL

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, Paulo Roberto da Silva

    2012-01-01

    A Hipertensão Arterial (HA) é uma doença crônica e multifatorial. O captopril (CPT) é um inibidor da enzima conversora de angiotensina amplamente utilizado no tratamento da HA. Casos de falsificação de medicamentos contendo CPT foram relatados e representam um perigo para a saúde dos pacientes que deles necessitam. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a qualidade dos medicamentos similares contendo CPT. Para tanto, foi realizado o controle de qualidade físico-químico de doze amostras de CPT em...

  9. [Parliament and the demographic question: a study of the debate over birth control and family planning in the National Congress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Rocha, M I

    1987-12-01

    The author explores the involvement of Brazil's Chamber of Deputies and Federal Senate in issues of population policy, family planning, and birth control. The focus is on the period 1960-1985, with special attention to actions taken by the Parliamentary Inquiry Commission. The debate within the National Congress on these issues is described, and the opinions of members of Parliament are outlined. Data are from official and other published sources. (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  10. [Poverty, demographic growth, and birth control: a critique of Peter Singer s ethical perspective on the relationship between rich and poor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, D E

    1998-01-01

    This article analyzes the relationship between population growth and ethical principles relating to poverty. The paper is a critical approach to the thesis presented by Peter Singer in his book Practical Ethics. The first part briefly examines the principal topics of his thesis. The author then analyzes the basis of Singer's theory with respect to the following questions: 1. Is overpopulation the main reason for poverty? Is it possible to establish an association between the poverty phenomenon and population growth? 2. Is Singer s demographic perspective valid? 3. Can problems of resource distribution be ignored when talking about poverty from an ethical perspective? 4. Is it true that birth control policy was successfully implemented in Mexico, Colombia, and Brazil? 5. Does Singer s position on population growth have a negative influence on the "collective imagination"? The paper concludes by suggesting some useful arguments for understanding an ethical perspective towards poverty.

  11. Hypothalamic BOLD response to glucose intake and hypothalamic volume are similar in anorexia nervosa and healthy control subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M Van Opstal

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. Inconsistent findings about the neurobiology of Anorexia Nervosa (AN hinder the development of effective treatments for this severe mental disorder. Therefore the need arises for elucidation of neurobiological factors involved in the pathophysiology of AN. The hypothalamus plays a key role in the neurobiological processes that govern food intake and energy homeostasis, processes that are disturbed in anorexia nervosa (AN. The present study will assess the hypothalamic response to energy intake and the hypothalamic structure in patients with AN and healthy controls. Methods. 10 women aged 18-30 years diagnosed with AN and 11 healthy, lean (BMI <23 kg/m2 women in the same age range were recruited. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI to determine function of the hypothalamus in response to glucose. Structural MRI was used to determine differences in hypothalamic volume and local grey volume using manual segmentation and voxel-based morphometry.Results. No differences were found in hypothalamic volume and neuronal activity in response to a glucose load between the patients and controls. Whole brain structural analysis showed a significant decrease in grey matter volume in the cingulate cortex in the AN patients, bilaterally.Conclusions. We argue that in spite of various known changes in the hypothalamus the direct hypothalamic response to glucose intake is similar in AN patients and healthy controls.

  12. Web Similarity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, A.R.; Vitányi, P.M.B.

    2015-01-01

    Normalized web distance (NWD) is a similarity or normalized semantic distance based on the World Wide Web or any other large electronic database, for instance Wikipedia, and a search engine that returns reliable aggregate page counts. For sets of search terms the NWD gives a similarity on a scale fr

  13. Genetic diversity and demographical history of Coilia ectenes (Clupeiformes: Engraulidae) inferred from the complete control region sequences of mitochondrial DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chunyan; Cheng, Qiqun; Zhang, Qingyi

    2012-10-01

    Coilia ectenes is a commercially important fishery species. In this study, genetic diversity and population structure of C. ectenes were examined by using mitochondrial DNA control region sequences in 246 individuals sampled from 10 localities in China. One hundred and ninety-five polymorphic sites defined 184 distinct haplotypes, revealing a moderately high haplotype diversity (Hd) and a relatively low nucleotide diversity (π) in the 10 localities. An excess of unique haplotypes at most sample locations were detected, which might influence the genetic structure of the C. ectenes populations. Hd ranged from 0.939 to 1.000 and π ranged from 0.26% to 1.15%. The Dongting fish population had the highest π level. The genetic distances ranged from 0.26% to 1.03% within populations and from 0.56% to 4.90% between populations. The distances between the Fuzhou (FZ) population and other populations were mostly >4.8%. Neighbor-joining tree indicated distinct patterns of phylogeographic structure among haplotypes from FZ population and those from other populations. Analyses of molecular variance and F(st) statistics suggested that the divergence existed among populations from 10 localities, indicating that gene flow might be restricted among those regions, despite the wide dispersal. In addition, neutral tests and analysis of mismatch distribution suggested that C. ectenes might have undergone a population expansion. Our study revealed the extant population genetic diversity and structure of the C. ectenes, and was in favor of the related fishery management issues including fishery stock identification and conservation.

  14. Demographic and personal factors associated with metabolic control and self-care in youth with type 1 diabetes: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neylon, Orla M; O'Connell, Michele A; Skinner, Timothy C; Cameron, Fergus J

    2013-05-01

    Optimal use of recent technological advances in insulin delivery and glucose monitoring remain limited by the impact of behaviour on self-care. In recent years, there has been a resurgence of interest in psychosocial methods of optimizing care in youth with type 1 diabetes. We therefore sought to examine the literature for demographic, interpersonal and intrapersonal correlates of self-care and/or metabolic control. Studies for this systematic review were obtained via an electronic search of Medline, Embase, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature and PsycINFO databases. Seventy studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. These studies have indicated that identifiable individual characteristics in each domain are robustly associated with metabolic control and/or self-care in children and adolescents. We present these characteristics and propose a theoretical model of their interactions and effect on diabetes outcomes. There is currently no consensus regarding patient selection for insulin pump therapy. In this era of scarce healthcare resources, it may be prudent to identify youth requiring increased psychosocial support prior to regimen intensification. The importance of this review lies in its potential to create a framework for rationally utilizing resources by stratifying costly therapeutic options to those who, in the first instance, will be most likely to benefit from them.

  15. Reverse sequential therapy achieves a similar eradication rate as standard sequential therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsay, Feng-Woei; Wu, Deng-Chyang; Kao, Sung-Shuo; Tsai, Tzung-Jium; Lai, Kwok-Hung; Cheng, Jin-Shiung; Chan, Hoi-Hung; Wang, Huay-Min; Tsai, Wei-Lun; Tseng, Hui-Hwa; Peng, Nan-Jin; Hsu, Ping-I

    2015-02-01

    Sequential therapy is a two-step therapy achieving a promising eradication rate for Helicobacter pylori infection. The rationale of sequential method has been proposed that amoxicillin weakens bacterial cell walls in the initial phase of treatment, preventing the development of drug efflux channels for clarithromycin and metronidazole used in the second phase. The aim of this prospective, randomized, controlled study was to investigate whether the efficacy of reverse sequential therapy was noninferior to sequential therapy in the treatment of H. pylori infection. From January 2009 to December 2010, consecutive H. pylori-infected patients were randomly assigned to receive either sequential therapy (a 5-day dual therapy with pantoprazole plus amoxicillin, followed by a 5-day triple therapy with pantoprazole plus clarithromycin and metronidazole) or reverse sequential therapy (a 5-day triple therapy with pantoprazole plus clarithromycin and metronidazole, followed by a 5-day dual therapy with pantoprazole plus amoxicillin). H. pylori status was examined 6 weeks after the end of treatment by rapid urease and histology or urea breath test. One hundred and twenty-two H. pylori-infected participants were randomized to receive sequential (n = 60) or reverse sequential therapy (n = 62). The eradication rates, by intention-to-treat analysis, were similar: 91.9% (95% confidence interval (CI): 85.1-98.7%) for sequential therapy and 96.7% (95% CI: 92.2-101.2%) for reverse sequential therapy (p = .44). Per-protocol analysis also showed similar results: 91.8% (95% CI: 84.9-98.7%) for sequential group and 96.7% (95% CI: 92.2-101.2%) for reverse sequential therapy (p = .43). The two treatments exhibited comparable frequencies of adverse events (11.3% vs 6.7%, respectively) and drug compliance (98.4% vs 100%, respectively). The overall resistance rates of antibiotics were clarithromycin 10.5%, amoxicillin 0%, and metronidazole 44.2% of patients, respectively. The dual

  16. Demographic Analysis of Sex Ratio on Population Growth of Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) With Discussion of Control Efficacy Using Male Annihilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu-Bing Huang, Kevin; Atlihan, Remzi; Gökçe, Ayhan; Yu-Bing Huang, Joyce; Chi, Hsin

    2016-09-30

    The life table data for the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), at different adult sex ratios (1♀: 1♂, 1♀: 50♂, 50♀: 1♂ free-choice mating, and 50♀: 1♂ no-choice mating) were collected to determine the effects of sex-ratio manipulation on current pest control procedures. At 1♀: 1♂, females mated, on average, 2.3 times during their lifetime with a mean fecundity (F) of 1,122 eggs. The net reproductive rate (R0), intrinsic rate of increase (r), finite rate (λ), and mean generation time (T) were 561.0 offspring, 0.1693 d(-)  (1), 1.1844 d(-)  (1), and 37.4 d, respectively. At 50♀: 1♂ free-choice mating, males mated 46.7 times during their lifetime, while at 50♀: 1♂ no-choice mating, males mated on average 50 times during their lifetime, and all females mating only once in both treatments. The values for F, r, and λ were significantly lower for both 50♀: 1♂ treatments than those in the 1♀: 1♂ group; the R0 values, however, were either equal to or even higher than those in the 1♀: 1♂ treatment. In the male-biased sex ratio (1♀: 50♂), fecundity was the highest (1,610 eggs) and female average life span the longest (166 d), while the R0 was the lowest (31.6 offspring) among all treatments. Population projections showed that even at a sex ratio of 50♀: 1♂, B. dorsalis could still produce a large number of offspring. These findings demonstrate that management strategies for controlling B. dorsalis could be properly evaluated by using demographic methods. Because female annihilation appears to be a more effective control strategy, it should be considered as a viable alternative.

  17. Similarity Scaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnack, Dalton D.

    In Lecture 10, we introduced a non-dimensional parameter called the Lundquist number, denoted by S. This is just one of many non-dimensional parameters that can appear in the formulations of both hydrodynamics and MHD. These generally express the ratio of the time scale associated with some dissipative process to the time scale associated with either wave propagation or transport by flow. These are important because they define regions in parameter space that separate flows with different physical characteristics. All flows that have the same non-dimensional parameters behave in the same way. This property is called similarity scaling.

  18. Demographic modelling approach for assessment of environmental conditions which control the population of the invasive Ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi in the Mediterranean Seas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiganova, Tamara; Nival, Paul; Carlotti, Francois; Alekseenko, Elena

    2017-04-01

    , demographic model (MBd) was validated for the Black Sea ecosystem basing on the unique database of long-term field data of ctenophores (including M.l. and B.o.), mesozooplankton, ichtyoplankton, bacteria in the Black Sea (1992-present). Then comparative analysis of the ecosystem conditions for the productive Black Sea and oligrotrophic areas of the north-western Mediterranean Sea favorable for M.l. blooms have been performed using the developed modelling approach. References : Ghabooli Sara, Shiganova Tamara A., Elizabeta Briski, Stefano Piraino, Veronica Fuentes, Delphine Thibault-Botha, Dror L. Angel, Melania E. Cristescu, Hugh J. MacIsaac (2013) Invasion pathway of the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi in the Mediterranean Sea. PLOS ONE. Open Access PLOS ONE | www.plosone.org 9 November 2013 | Volume 8 | Issue 11 | e81067: DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0081067 Impact factor 3,534 Shiganova Tamara A., Louis Legendre, Alexander S. Kazmin, Paul Nival 2014. Interactions between invasive ctenophores in the Black Sea: assessment of control mechanisms based on long-term observations. Marine ecology Prog.Ser. Vol. 507: 111-123 doi: 10.3354/meps10806.

  19. Laboratory Demographics Lookup Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This website provides demographic information about laboratories, including CLIA number, facility name and address, where the laboratory testing is performed, the...

  20. Maternal and perinatal outcomes in 143 Danish women with gestational diabetes mellitus and 143 controls with a similar risk profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Dorte Møller; Sørensen, B; Feilberg-Jørgensen, N

    2000-01-01

    To assess maternal and fetal outcomes in pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) compared to non-diabetic pregnancies with an otherwise similar risk profile and to study the association between different anti-diabetic treatments and fetal outcomes....

  1. Maternal and perinatal outcomes in 143 Danish women with gestational diabetes mellitus and 143 controls with a similar risk profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Dorte Møller; Sørensen, B; Feilberg-Jørgensen, N

    2000-01-01

    To assess maternal and fetal outcomes in pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) compared to non-diabetic pregnancies with an otherwise similar risk profile and to study the association between different anti-diabetic treatments and fetal outcomes.......To assess maternal and fetal outcomes in pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) compared to non-diabetic pregnancies with an otherwise similar risk profile and to study the association between different anti-diabetic treatments and fetal outcomes....

  2. Domestic dog demographic structure and dynamics relevant to rabies control planning in urban areas in Africa: the case of Iringa, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gsell Alena S

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mass vaccinations of domestic dogs have been shown to effectively control canine rabies and hence human exposure to rabies. Knowledge of dog population demography is essential for planning effective rabies vaccination programmes; however, such information is still rare for African domestic dog populations, particularly so in urban areas. This study describes the demographic structure and population dynamics of a domestic dog population in an urban sub-Saharan African setting. In July to November 2005, we conducted a full household-level census and a cross-sectional dog demography survey in four urban wards of Iringa Municipality, Tanzania. The achievable vaccination coverage was assessed by a two-stage vaccination campaign, and the proportion of feral dogs was estimated by a mark-recapture transect study. Results The estimated size of the domestic dog population in Iringa was six times larger than official town records assumed, however, the proportion of feral dogs was estimated to account for less than 1% of the whole population. An average of 13% of all households owned dogs which equalled a dog:human ratio of 1:14, or 0.31 dogs per household or 334 dogs km-2. Dog female:male ratio was 1:1.4. The average age of the population was 2.2 years, 52% of all individuals were less than one year old. But mortality within the first year was high (72%. Females became fertile at the age of 10 months and reportedly remained fertile up to the age of 11 years. The average number of litters whelped per fertile female per year was 0.6 with an average of 5.5 pups born per litter. The population growth was estimated at 10% y-1. Conclusions Such high birth and death rates result in a rapid replacement of anti-rabies immunised individuals with susceptible ones. This loss in herd immunity needs to be taken into account in the design of rabies control programmes. The very small proportion of truly feral dogs in the population implies that

  3. Domestic dog demographic structure and dynamics relevant to rabies control planning in urban areas in Africa: the case of Iringa, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gsell, Alena S; Knobel, Darryn L; Kazwala, Rudovick R; Vounatsou, Penelope; Zinsstag, Jakob

    2012-12-05

    Mass vaccinations of domestic dogs have been shown to effectively control canine rabies and hence human exposure to rabies. Knowledge of dog population demography is essential for planning effective rabies vaccination programmes; however, such information is still rare for African domestic dog populations, particularly so in urban areas. This study describes the demographic structure and population dynamics of a domestic dog population in an urban sub-Saharan African setting. In July to November 2005, we conducted a full household-level census and a cross-sectional dog demography survey in four urban wards of Iringa Municipality, Tanzania. The achievable vaccination coverage was assessed by a two-stage vaccination campaign, and the proportion of feral dogs was estimated by a mark-recapture transect study. The estimated size of the domestic dog population in Iringa was six times larger than official town records assumed, however, the proportion of feral dogs was estimated to account for less than 1% of the whole population. An average of 13% of all households owned dogs which equalled a dog:human ratio of 1:14, or 0.31 dogs per household or 334 dogs km-2. Dog female:male ratio was 1:1.4. The average age of the population was 2.2 years, 52% of all individuals were less than one year old. But mortality within the first year was high (72%). Females became fertile at the age of 10 months and reportedly remained fertile up to the age of 11 years. The average number of litters whelped per fertile female per year was 0.6 with an average of 5.5 pups born per litter. The population growth was estimated at 10% y-1. Such high birth and death rates result in a rapid replacement of anti-rabies immunised individuals with susceptible ones. This loss in herd immunity needs to be taken into account in the design of rabies control programmes. The very small proportion of truly feral dogs in the population implies that vaccination campaigns aimed at the owned dog population are

  4. Semantic Similarities between a Keyword Database and a Controlled Vocabulary Database: An Investigation in the Antibiotic Resistance Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jian

    2000-01-01

    Explores similarities or dissimilarities between citation-semantic and analytic indexing based on a study of records in the Science Citation Index and MEDLINE databases on antibiotic resistance in pneumonia. Concludes that disparate indexing terms may be an advantage for better recall and precision in information retrieval. (Contains 42…

  5. DEMOGRAPHIC SECURITY: THEORY, METHODOLOGY, EVALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail V. Karmanov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the theoretical aspects of demographic security. Reviewed and analyzed the point of view of various scholars to the definition of demographic security. The main directions of statistical analysis of demographic security.

  6. Demographic changes and nationalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishnevskii, A G

    1995-01-01

    This article examines the different characteristics of the many peoples inhabiting what used to be the Soviet Union and communist Eastern Europe, including Yugoslavia. The differences among these nationalities, or ethnic groups, are illustrated using the example of demographic modernization, showing how different peoples have or have not passed through the demographic transition process. The author looks at ethnic differences in mortality, fertility, natural increase, and migration, as well as economic and social inequalities among ethnic groups. The prospects for inter-ethnic conflict are assessed.

  7. [The demographic transition in Latin America and Europe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala De Cosio, M E

    1992-12-01

    in Latin America because of the much more rapid mortality decline. In Latin America, in the face of the fertility increase of the mid-20th century, there was no attempt to control nuptiality, as in traditional European populations, to limit family size. Nuptiality control as a mechanism of demographic regulation was never socially acceptable in Latin America. The beginning of the Latin American transition occurred in urban areas, among more educated women who were over 20 years old at marriage. The fertility transition in these privileged sectors was quite similar to that in Europe. But a second transition has occurred among impoverished women conserving traditional reproductive patterns of early marriage and numerous closely spaced births. Availability of modern contraception among rural and marginal urban women has allowed termination of childbearing, but usually at relatively high levels of fertility. Fertility decline, in this case, does not reflect improvements in living conditions.

  8. Demographic Change and Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haustein, Sonja; Siren, Anu Kristiina; Framke, Elisabeth

    This report is the literature review on demographic changes and transport of Work Package 1 of the EU project CONSOL, “CONcerns and SOLutions – Road Safety in the Ageing Societies” (contract period: 2011-2013). The report is a state-of-the art report that combines current knowledge with new findi...

  9. Implications of alternative assumptions regarding future air pollution control in scenarios similar to the Representative Concentration Pathways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chuwah, C.; van Noije, T.; van Vuuren, D.P.; Hazeleger, W.; Strunk, A.; Deetman, S.; Beltran, A.M.; van Vliet, J.

    2013-01-01

    The uncertain, future development of emissions of short-lived trace gases and aerosols forms a key factor for future air quality and climate forcing. The Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) only explore part of this range as they all assume that worldwide ambitious air pollution control pol

  10. Implications of alternative assumptions regarding future air pollution control in scenarios similar to the Representative Concentration Pathways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chuwah, C.D.; Noije, van T.; Vuuren, van D.P.; Hazeleger, W.; Strunk, A.; Deetman, S.; Beltran, A.M.; Vliet, van de J.

    2013-01-01

    The uncertain, future development of emissions of short-lived trace gases and aerosols forms a key factor for future air quality and climate forcing. The Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) only explore part of this range as they all assume that worldwide ambitious air pollution control

  11. Implications of alternative assumptions regarding future air pollution control in scenarios similar to the Representative Concentration Pathways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chuwah, C.; van Noije, T.; van Vuuren, D.P.; Hazeleger, W.; Strunk, A.; Deetman, S.; Beltran, A.M.; van Vliet, J.

    2013-01-01

    The uncertain, future development of emissions of short-lived trace gases and aerosols forms a key factor for future air quality and climate forcing. The Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) only explore part of this range as they all assume that worldwide ambitious air pollution control pol

  12. [Differences and similarities in approach of integrated strategy for dengue prevention and control between Colombia and Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Orozco, Raimundo; Alvis-Guzmán, Nelson; Gómez-Arias, Rubén

    2015-10-01

    We analyzed and compared two Integrated Management Strategies for Dengue Prevention and Control (IMS-dengue Colombia and IMS-dengue Peru), through a narrative review of available literature, in order to identify common and dissimilar patterns in two Andean countries with epidemiological differences in the context of dengue disease. We were able to identify differences related to: formal assessment of problem, formation of groups of actors, and quantitative information provided by performance indicators. These limitations identified in IMS-dengue Colombia 2006-2010 were overcome in a new version of the strategy (IMS-dengue Colombia 2012-2021). We were able to document an epidemiological impact of implementation of IMS-dengue Colombia 2006-2010. Additionally, a gradual increase was observed in incidence rates of dengue cases that could be related to the strengthening of surveillance system of IMS- dengue Peru.

  13. The Macroeconomic Dynamics of Demographic Shocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijdra, B.J.; Ligthart, J.E.

    2004-01-01

    The paper employs an extended Yaari-Blanchard model of overlapping generations to study how the macroeconomy is affected over time by various demographic changes.It is shown that a proportional decline in fertility and death rates has qualitatively similar effects to capital income subsidies; both p

  14. Building demographic literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crews, K

    1993-01-01

    Students should get in the habit of seeking out the most current projections, estimates, or rates available. Since demographic measures change over time, publications based on the UN's world population projections from 1980 or 1990 may need to be supplemented using the UN's most current, 1992, projections. A 1989 Census Bureau report on the African American Population will not contain data from the 1990 Census or the 1992 Current Population Survey, conducted by the Census Bureau. Some groups collect data with advocacy in mind, as shown by the range of estimates of participants at the 1993 National March on Washington for Lesbian, Gay and Bi Equal Rights and Liberation. The organizers estimated that 1 million people participated; the US Park Police estimated 300,000; and the Washington Blade, a gay newspaper, reported 750,000. A seemingly innocuous choice of phrasing can change the meaning of demographic data. One commonly misreported concept is population doubling time which is not a prediction, but rather a concept designed to accent how fast a population is growing at the present time. At current rates, the population of India would double in size in 34 years, but it is more likely that growth rates will begin to slow down somewhat during that time. Older students may be encouraged to examine the assumptions behind population projections. The UN's long-range projection that world population will grow to 10 billion by 2050 is based on certain assumption about fertility and mortality during the period. With regard to the fastest growing US minority, Hispanics added the largest number of people to the US population during the 1980s, but Asians had the largest percent increase. The time to initiate demographic literacy is in the early grades of school.

  15. EJSCREEN Version 1, Demographic Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This map service displays demographic data used in EJSCREEN. All demographic data were derived from American Community Survey 2006-2010 estimates. EJSCREEN is an...

  16. Similarities and differences among paramilitaries, severe aggressors and communal control, a case-control study in Medellín, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis F. Duque

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A case-control study was performed in Medellín during 2003-2004 to compare characteristics of severe aggressors, members of Colombian United Selfdefense Forces members (AUC, otherwise named paramilitaries, and communal control. Severe aggressors and paramilitaries have lower educational level than communal control; their families were biparental in a lower proportion, and experienced drug and alcohol abuse in a higher proportion than in the case of families of communal control. Severe aggressors and paramilitaries’ families suffered forced displacement and assassination of one of its members in a higher proportion than those of controls. There were no differences relating time of residence in Medellín or current neighborhood, or current family socioeconomic stressors. No differences were found regarding believing in God, religious practice and reasons for practicing religion. There were no significant differences for all mentioned variables between severe aggressors and paramilitaries. Paramilitaries did inform having suffered extreme poverty conditions during childhood in a higher proportion than severe aggressors and controls. Progress opportunities perception was also explored.

  17. Demographic trends in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present note, we present the main features of recent trends in vital family-demographic behavior in Sweden. For this purpose, published indices of marriage, divorce, and childbearing risks by calendar year are updated by adding another two or three years of observation to our series. We demonstrate that the latest trend reversal in Swedish birth rates, which occurred at the end of the 1990s, continued to manifest itself in increasing propensities for childbearing during the early years of the 21st century. The rise pertains to all birth orders. Marriage propensities showed an increase as well, however, to a large extent expressed in a short-term development that was prevalent at the turn of the millennium. The previous long-term trend of rising divorce risks leveled off during the first two years of the new century.

  18. Approach to criticality in cold core of the Unit 1 of the cycle 10 of the Laguna Verde power plant with control rods similar in design to the original ones and the advanced ones; Aproximacion a criticidad en frio de la Unidad 1 del ciclo 10 de la CLV con barras de control de diseno similar al original y avanzadas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perusquia, R.; Ramirez, J.R.; Ortiz, J.J.; Hernandez, J.L.; Montes, J.L. [ININ, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: rpc@nuclear.inin.mx

    2004-07-01

    In the Laguna Verde power plant (CLV) worn out control bars have been replacing for control rods of advanced design. At the moment of the 109 rods of similar design to the original of the Unit 1 of the CLV, 14 of them have been substituted with two types of different advanced control rods. The same as the original rods the advanced rods use boron carbide as control element for neutrons, but additionally they use hafnium, to achieve a longer useful half life. The rods of similar design to the original are homogeneous axially on the other hand the advanced presenting several zones. In principle the advanced rods were designed to be neutronically compatible to the original rods. However the differences in the design and of constituents assumed to consider a different performance during the operation. Since the one numbers of advanced bars is growing with the number of cycles of the CLV reactor has requested to the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ) to evaluate in detailed form the performance of the control rods. Previously the calculations and analysis of cycle design that that were carried out assumed that control rods should be of similar design as the original. Using the HELIOS/CM-LENDS system, the effect of the inclusion of advanced rods was analyzed in the approximation of the criticality in cold (20 C) in the cycle 10 of the Unit 1. Four scenarios were poposed, where the type of the rod of substitution control is varied. The value of reactivity was calculated for the rods similar in design to the original and for the advanced one. By comparison of these values, it was found that the value of reactivity of the control rods of the advanced design was superior to the value for rods similar to the original ones by 7.6% for one of the advanced designs and of 13.6% for the other one. (Author)

  19. Pattern of thyroid function during early pregnancy in women diagnosed with subclinical hypothyroidism and treated with l-thyroxine is similar to that in euthyroid controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Geyter, Christian; Steimann, Sabine; Müller, Beat; Kränzlin, Marius E; Meier, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) is associated with a higher miscarriage rate. It is unclear how the thyroid function in SCH differs from that in euthyroidism during early pregnancy. We intended to determine the regulation of thyroid function in women with SCH receiving constant l-thyroxine (T4) replacement during early pregnancy as compared to euthyroid controls. This was a prospective cohort study with weekly serum sampling in eight women in early pregnancy with SCH and eight euthyroid women from week 5 to week 12 of pregnancy. Thyroid function was assessed before pregnancy. Women with SCH were treated with T4 (50 microg daily) and continued on an unchanged dose until week 12. The following parameters were measured weekly: thyrotropin (TSH), thyroglobulin, thyroxine, triiodothyronine, free thyroxine (FT4), free triiodothyronine (FT3), estradiol, progesterone, human chorionic gonadotropin, and prolactin. Although the pregestational levels of TSH were significantly higher among women with SCH as compared to euthyroid controls, the self-limited estrogen-induced increment of TSH during early pregnancy was similar in both groups. Although both SCH and ovarian hyperstimulation were associated with an intermediate rise in TSH, the pattern of thyroid function followed similar changes as in euthyroid controls and is unlikely to cause the higher miscarriage rate observed in SCH.

  20. Perceived Similarity, Proactive Adjustment, and Organizational Socialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammeyer-Mueller, John D.; Livingston, Beth A.; Liao, Hui

    2011-01-01

    The present study explores how perceived demographic and attitudinal similarity can influence proactive behavior among organizational newcomers. We propose that newcomers who perceive themselves as similar to their co-workers will be more willing to seek new information or build relationships, which in turn will lead to better long-term…

  1. [Demographic profile of Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero, I

    1984-04-01

    Sources of demographic data for Venezuela include 11 population censuses conducted between 1873-1981, birth and death registration statistics, and the household sample survey. The average annual rate of population growth increase from 2.8% between 1920-40 to 3-4% thereafter. The population at the 1961 census was 7.52 million. According to preliminary data from the 1981 census, the population of 14.57 million is growing at an annual rate of 2.8%. 41.2% of the population is under 15 years old, implying a huge demand for educational and health services, housing and employment. The dependency rate in 1980 was 81.3% for the country as a whole, 100.4% in rural areas, and 76.0% in urban areas. The young age structure means that the population will continue to grow even if natality rates decline. The crude natality rate was estimated at 47.3/1000 for 1950-55, 36.0 for 1970-75, and 32.9 for 1980-85. Some rural areas still have natality rates of over 47/1000. The total fertility rate declined from 6.5 in 1950-55 to 4.1 in 1980-85. The decline in the natality rate reflects improving quality of life, availability of family planning services, urbanization, and access of women to productive activities and educational centers. The mortality rate was 12.3/1000 in 1950-55, 9.1 in 1960-65, in 1970-75, and has been estimated at 5.5 for 1980-85. Some rural areas have mortality rates of 8.1. The infant mortality rate was 50.2/1000 in 1971 and 34.3 in 1980. Life expectancy at birth is about 69 years. During the 1920s, Venezuela unerwent expansion in infrastructure and technological utilization, generating rapid urbanization. 39.2% of the population was urban in 1941, compared to 78.8% in 1980. The significance of urbanization in Venezuela is due to the rapidity as well as the diffusion of the process. The household sample survey for the 2nd half of 1980 indicated a total of 8.16 million employed and an activity rate of 32.1% overall, 46.4% for males and 17.7% for females. The

  2. Half-flat vs. atomically flat: Alkyl monolayers on morphologically controlled Si(100) and Si(111) have very similar structure, density, and chemical stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBenedetti, William J I; Li, Thomas L; Hines, Melissa A

    2017-02-07

    Chemists have long preferred the Si(111) surface for chemical functionalization, as a simple aqueous etch can be used to produce ideal, atomically flat H/Si(111) surfaces for subsequent reactions. In contrast, industry-standard etches produce rough H/Si(100) surfaces terminated by nanohillocks. The recent discovery of an aqueous etch that produces morphologically controlled H/Si(100) surfaces with a near atomically flat or "half-flat" morphology challenges the assumption that Si(111) is an inherently preferable starting point for chemical functionalization. This study shows that alkyl functionalization of morphologically controlled, "half-flat" Si(100) surfaces by terminal alkenes produces dense, tightly packed monolayers that are essentially identical to those on atomically flat Si(111). The striking similarity between the infrared spectra on these two surfaces - in terms of absolute absorbance, line shape and position, and polarization dependence - strongly suggests that alkyl monolayers on morphologically controlled Si(111) and Si(100) have essentially identical structures. The principle difference between the two surfaces is the amount of residual H at the Si/organic interface, a difference that is dictated by the structure of the Si(100) surface. Alkyl monolayers on morphologically controlled Si(111) and Si(100) surfaces were shown to be equally resistant to harsh oxidants. As a result, there appears to be no chemical reason to prefer one surface over the other, at least for functionalization with terminal alkenes.

  3. Half-flat vs. atomically flat: Alkyl monolayers on morphologically controlled Si(100) and Si(111) have very similar structure, density, and chemical stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBenedetti, William J. I.; Li, Thomas L.; Hines, Melissa A.

    2017-02-01

    Chemists have long preferred the Si(111) surface for chemical functionalization, as a simple aqueous etch can be used to produce ideal, atomically flat H/Si(111) surfaces for subsequent reactions. In contrast, industry-standard etches produce rough H/Si(100) surfaces terminated by nanohillocks. The recent discovery of an aqueous etch that produces morphologically controlled H/Si(100) surfaces with a near atomically flat or "half-flat" morphology challenges the assumption that Si(111) is an inherently preferable starting point for chemical functionalization. This study shows that alkyl functionalization of morphologically controlled, "half-flat" Si(100) surfaces by terminal alkenes produces dense, tightly packed monolayers that are essentially identical to those on atomically flat Si(111). The striking similarity between the infrared spectra on these two surfaces — in terms of absolute absorbance, line shape and position, and polarization dependence — strongly suggests that alkyl monolayers on morphologically controlled Si(111) and Si(100) have essentially identical structures. The principle difference between the two surfaces is the amount of residual H at the Si/organic interface, a difference that is dictated by the structure of the Si(100) surface. Alkyl monolayers on morphologically controlled Si(111) and Si(100) surfaces were shown to be equally resistant to harsh oxidants. As a result, there appears to be no chemical reason to prefer one surface over the other, at least for functionalization with terminal alkenes.

  4. Revolution without ideology: demographic transition in East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, T D

    1980-01-01

    The acceleration of demographic transition in East Asia is a process of great potential import for the world. The most rapid and large scale transformation of demographic pattern in world history is being accomplished in this region. Demographic processes in other countries and regions have been viewed in the light of past events. Demographic transition has been accepted as a desirable goal, but its realization was believed subject to certain constraints. These include the need to attain high rates of economic growth in order to stimulate the transition and the longer period of time required to accomplish the transition. It was assumed that at least 2 generations would be subject to gradually diminishing rates of increase and slow cultural modification before transition entered its last phase. This interpretation of the preconditions and specific character of demographic transition has been subject to increasing challenge, and recent events in East Asia accentuate such doubts. Most new views begin with the premises that contemporary pretransition societies are not European in culture and the 1970s are not the 1880s. East Asia also differs culturally from other developing areas, including South and Southeast Asia. The most significant regional features are cultural. Demographic transition in the region began after World War 2 and somewhat differently in each East Asian country. The process began first in Japan. The 3rd phase was accomplished rapidly but not as a specific consequence of the modernization process. The end of World War 2 and the spurt in births accompanying military demobilization contributed to a population surge. The cultural factors of practicality, homogeneity, social discipline, and nearly universial literacy were decisive here. Abortion was legalized in 1948 and other forms of birth control were made readily available. Between 1947 and 1957 the birthrate was halved to 17/1000. In Taiwan and South Korea public concern about high rates of

  5. Demographic Trends: Impact on Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Sylvia N. Y.; Cheah, Horn Mun

    2010-01-01

    Background: Singapore is experiencing great demographic change. These demographic trends show fewer young people and declining birth rates, greater longevity for ageing generations and an increase in the number of non-Singaporean residents. Statistics also show that more than half of the total population increase in the last decades was…

  6. Genes and longevity: a genetic-demographic approach reveals sex- and age-specific gene effects not shown by the case-control approach (APOE and HSP70.1 loci).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dato, S; Carotenuto, L; De Benedictis, G

    2007-02-01

    Association analyses between gene variability and human longevity carried out by comparing gene frequencies between population samples of different ages (case/control design) may provide information on genes and pathways playing a role in modulating survival at old ages. However, by dealing with cross-sectional data, the gene-frequency (GF) approach ignores cohort effects in population mortality changes. The genetic-demographic (GD) approach adds demographic information to genetic data and allows the estimation of hazard rates and survival functions for candidate alleles and genotypes. Thus mortality changes in the cohort to which the cross-sectional sample belongs are taken into account. In this work, we applied the GD method to a dataset relevant to two genes, APOE and HSP70.1, previously shown to be related to longevity by the GF method. We show that the GD method reveals sex- and age-specific allelic effects not shown by the GF analysis. In addition, we provide an algorithm for the implementation of a non-parametric GD analysis.

  7. Similar Effects of Thrust and Non-Thrust Spinal Manipulation Found in Adults With Subacute and Chronic Low Back Pain – A Controlled Trial with Adaptive Allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Ting; Long, Cynthia R.; Gudavalli, Maruti R.; Wilder, David G.; Vining, Robert D.; Rowell, Robert M.; Reed, William R.; DeVocht, James W.; Goertz, Christine M.; Owens, Edward F.; Meeker, William C.

    2015-01-01

    Study Design A three-arm controlled trial with adaptive allocation. Objectives The aim of this study was to compare short-term effects of a side-lying, thrust spinal manipulation (SM) procedure and a non-thrust, flexion-distraction SM procedure in adults with subacute or chronic low back pain (LBP) over 2 weeks. Summary of Background Data SM has been recommended in recently published clinical guidelines for LBP management. Previous studies suggest that thrust and non-thrust SM procedures, though distinctly different in joint loading characteristics, have similar effects on patients with LBP. Methods Participants were eligible if they were 21-54 years old, had LBP for at least 4 weeks, scored 6 or above on the Roland-Morris disability questionnaire, and met the diagnostic classification of 1, 2, or 3 according to the Quebec Task Force Classification for Spinal Disorders. Participants were allocated in a 3:3:2 ratio to 4 sessions of thrust or non-thrust SM procedures directed at the lower lumbar and pelvic regions, or to a 2-week wait list control. The primary outcome was LBP-related disability using Roland-Morris disability questionnaire and the secondary outcomes were LBP intensity using visual analog scale, Fear-Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire, and the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey. The study was conducted at the Palmer Center for Chiropractic Research with care provided by experienced doctors of chiropractic. Clinicians and patients were not blinded to treatment group. Results Of 192 participants enrolled, the mean age was 40 years and 54% were male. Improvement in disability, LBP intensity, Fear-Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire – work subscale, and 36-Item Short Form Health Survey – physical health summary measure for the two SM groups were significantly greater than the control group. No difference in any outcomes was observed between the two SM groups. Conclusions Thrust and non-thrust SM procedures with distinctly different joint loading characteristics

  8. Beta分布在模糊贴近度指标控制图的应用%Application of Beta distribution in fuzzy similarity index control chart

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白莹

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, through the Beta distribution curve characteristics and mathematical analysis, using order statistics maximum likelihood estimation method for estimation of the distribution parameters, and the use of Montecarl method to conduct numerical simulation, the author draws the conclusion that the index of random fluctuation can be described by Beta distribution. Therefore, this paper proposed the similarity index control chart based on Beta distribution which can be applied in fuzzy quality control, and proves its feasibility through the effect analysis.%文中首先通过对Beta分布曲线特性及数学特征的分析,然后运用顺序统计量极大似然估计法对分布参数的估计,以及利用Montecarl方法进行数值模拟,得出了贴近度指标的随机变动可以用Beta分布描述.最后,文中提出建立基于Beta分布的贴近度指标控制图,用于模糊质量控制,并通过效果分析证明其可行性.

  9. EJSCREEN Demographic Indicators 2016 Public

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EJSCREEN uses demographic factors as very general indicators of a community's potential susceptibility to the types of environmental factors included in this...

  10. EJSCREEN Demographic Indicators 2015 Internal

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EJSCREEN uses demographic factors as very general indicators of a community's potential susceptibility to the types of environmental factors included in this...

  11. EJSCREEN Demographic Indicators 2015 Public

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EJSCREEN uses demographic factors as very general indicators of a community's potential susceptibility to the types of environmental factors included in this...

  12. DEMOGRAPHIC VULNERABILITIES IN TECUCI PLAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian Adrian ŞORCARU

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The study focuses on analyzing and mapping 8 indicators considered to best reflect the demographic vulnerability in Tecuci Plain in the year 2010 and proposes a model of aggregation which finally allows us to distinguish three major types of demographic vulnerability (low, medium and high. Mapping the final values also shows significant disparities in the territorial administrative units that broadly overlap the plain, the most vulnerable being Tecuci city and the peripheral communes, towards Vrancea and Vaslui Counties.

  13. Cartilage collagen damage in hip osteoarthritis similar to that seen in knee osteoarthritis; a case–control study of relationship between collagen, glycosaminoglycan and cartilage swelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosseininia Shahrzad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It remains to be shown whether OA shares molecular similarities between different joints in humans. This study provides evidence for similarities in cartilage molecular damage in osteoarthritic (OA joints. Methods Articular cartilage from osteoarthritic hip joints were analysed and compared to non-OA controls regarding collagen, glycosaminoglycan and water content. Femoral heads from 16 osteoarthritic (OA and 20 reference patients were obtained from hip replacement surgery due to OA and femoral neck fracture, respectively. Cartilage histological changes were assessed by Mankin grading and denatured collagen type II immunostaining and cartilage was extracted by α-chymotrypsin. Hydroxyproline and Alcian blue binding assays were used to measure collagen and glycosaminoglycan (GAG content, respectively. Results Mankin and immunohistology scores were significantly higher in hip OA samples than in reference samples. Cartilage water content was 6% higher in OA samples than in references. 2.5 times more collagen was extracted from OA than from reference samples. There was a positive association between water content and percentage of extractable collagen pool (ECP in both groups. The amounts of collagen per wet and dry weights did not differ statistically between OA and reference cartilage. % Extractable collagen was not related to collagen per dry weight in either group. However when collagen was expressed by wet weight there was a negative correlation between % extractable and collagen in OA cartilage. The amount of GAG per wet weight was similar in both groups but the amount of GAG per dry weight was higher in OA samples compared to reference samples, which suggests a capacity for GAG biosynthesis in hip OA cartilage. Neither of the studied parameters was related to age in either group. Conclusions Increased collagen extractability and water content in human hip cartilage is associated with OA pathology and can be observed at

  14. Similar to Those Who Are Breastfed, Infants Fed a Formula Containing 2'-Fucosyllactose Have Lower Inflammatory Cytokines in a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goehring, Karen C; Marriage, Barbara J; Oliver, Jeffery S; Wilder, Julie A; Barrett, Edward G; Buck, Rachael H

    2016-12-01

    IL-6 (38%) (unadjusted P ≤ 0.05) and IL-1β (30%) (unadjusted P = 0.06) than did infants fed the control formula. Our data indicate that infants fed formula supplemented with 2'-FL exhibit lower plasma and ex vivo inflammatory cytokine profiles, similar to those of a breastfed reference group. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01808105. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  15. What is the impact of obtaining medical clearance to participate in a randomised controlled trial examining a physical activity intervention on the socio-demographic and risk factor profiles of included participants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Mitch J; Rosenkranz, Richard R; Vandelanotte, Corneel; Caperchione, Cristina M; Rebar, Amanda L; Maeder, Anthony J; Tague, Rhys; Savage, Trevor N; van Itallie, Anetta; Mummery, W Kerry; Kolt, Gregory S

    2016-12-07

    Requiring individuals to obtain medical clearance to exercise prior to participation in physical activity interventions is common. The impact this has on the socio-demographic characteristic profiles of participants who end up participating in the intervention is not clear. As part of the multi-component eligibility screening for inclusion in a three-arm randomised controlled trial examining the efficacy of a web-based physical activity intervention, individuals interested in participating were required to complete the Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire (PAR-Q). The PAR-Q identified individuals as having lower or higher risk. Higher-risk individuals were required to obtain medical exercise clearance prior to enrolment. Comparisons of the socio-demographic characteristics of the lower- and higher-risk individuals were performed using t tests and chi-square tests (p = 0.05). A total of 1244 individuals expressed interest in participating, and 432 were enrolled without needing to undergo further screening. Of the 251 individuals required to obtain medical clearance, 148 received clearance, 15 did not receive clearance and 88 did not return any form of clearance. A total of 105 individuals were enrolled after obtaining clearance, and the most frequent reason for being required to seek clearance was for using blood pressure/heart condition medication. Higher-risk individuals were significantly older, had a higher body mass index and engaged in more sedentary behaviour than lower-risk individuals. Use of more inclusive participant screening protocols that maintain high levels of participant safety are encouraged. Allowing individuals to obtain medical clearance to participate can result in including a more diverse population likely to benefit most from participation. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ( ACTRN12611000157976 ). Registered on 9 February 2011.

  16. Do equivalent doses of escitalopram and citalopram have similar efficacy? A pooled analysis of two positive placebo-controlled studies in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepola, Ulla; Wade, Alan; Andersen, Henning Friis

    2004-05-01

    Escitalopram is the S-enantiomer of citalopram. In this study, we compared the efficacy of equivalent dosages of escitalopram and citalopram in the treatment of moderate to severe major depressive disorder (MDD), based on data from two, pooled, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies of escitalopram in which citalopram was the active reference. The primary efficacy parameter was the mean change from baseline in the Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) total score. Significant differences in favour of escitalopram were observed for the MADRS [PEscitalopram separated from placebo at week 1 on the primary efficacy parameter, whereas citalopram first separated from placebo at week 6. An analysis of time to response showed that escitalopram-treated patients responded significantly faster to treatment than citalopram-treated patients (Pescitalopram than to citalopram (Pescitalopram-treated patients had a significant reduction in HAMD-17 total score at week 8 compared to citalopram-treated patients (P or = 30), escitalopram-treated patients showed greater improvement than citalopram-treated patients (PEscitalopram showed consistently superior efficacy compared to citalopram in the treatment of moderate to severe MDD on all efficacy parameters, and was similarly well tolerated.

  17. Motor Learning Abilities Are Similar in Hemiplegic Cerebral Palsy Compared to Controls as Assessed by Adaptation to Unilateral Leg-Weighting during Gait: Part I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiano, Diane L.; Stanley, Christopher J.; Bulea, Thomas C.; Park, Hyung Soon

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Individuals with cerebral palsy (CP) demonstrate high response variability to motor training insufficiently accounted for by age or severity. We propose here that differences in the inherent ability to learn new motor tasks may explain some of this variability. Damage to motor pathways involving the cerebellum, which may be a direct or indirect effect of the brain injury for many with CP, has been shown to adversely affect the ability to learn new motor tasks and may be a potential explanation. Classic adaptation paradigms that evaluate cerebellar integrity have been utilized to assess adaptation to gait perturbations in adults with stroke, traumatic brain injury and other neurological injuries but not in children with CP. Materials and Methods: A case-control study of 10 participants with and 10 without hemiplegic CP within the age range of 5–20 years was conducted. Mean age of participants in the CP group was slightly but not significantly higher than controls. Step length and swing time adaptation, defined as gradual accommodation to a perturbation, and aftereffects, or maintenance of the accommodation upon removal of the perturbation, to unilateral leg weighing during treadmill gait were quantified to assess group differences in learning. Results: Adaptation and aftereffects were demonstrated in step length across groups with no main effect for group. In CP, the dominant leg had a greater response when either leg was weighted. Swing time accommodated immediately (no adaptation) in the weighted leg only, with the non-dominant leg instead showing a more pronounced response in CP. Discussion: This group of participants with unilateral CP did not demonstrate poorer learning or retention similar to reported results in adult stroke. Deficits, while not found here, may become evident in those with other etiologies or greater severity of CP. Our data further corroborate an observation from the stroke literature that repeated practice of exaggerating the

  18. Non-Heart-Beating Donor Kidney Transplantation Survival Is Similar to Donation After Brain Death: Comparative Study With Controls in a Regional Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentil, M A; Castro de la Nuez, P; Gonzalez-Corvillo, C; de Gracia, M C; Cabello, M; Mazuecos, M A; Rodriguez-Benot, A; Ballesteros, L; Osuna, A; Alonso, M

    2016-11-01

    Non-heart-beating donors (NHBD) are an increasing source of organs for kidney transplantation (KT) compared with donation after brain death (DBD), but the results in each regional transplantation program require local analysis. We compared 164 KT from NHBD (83 Maastrich type II A-B [T2] and 81 type III [T3]) with 328 DBD controls. NHBD kidneys were implanted with less cold ischemia, mean time on renal replacement therapy for NHBD recipients before transplantation was less too, and a higher proportion of thymoglobulin was also used. Besides NHBD-T2 more frequently showing the A group and patients being younger (48.9 ± 11 vs DBD 55.2 ± 15 years old; P DBD 4.3 and 26.9% (P DBD; P DBD, respectively (not significant [NS]). Graft survival rates censored by death were 91% and 89% (1st and 3rd years, respectively) versus 95% and 94% for DBD, respectively (NS). We did not find significant differences about survival between NHBD-T2 and T3. In the multivariable survival study (Cox, covariables with statistical significance demonstrated previously in our region), NHBD is not a prognosis factor for recipient or graft survival. Regarding current criteria for choosing donors and the graft allocation applied in Andalusia, short-term survival for NHBD transplantation is similar to DBD. Renal function in the short term is slightly worse, which is why it is important to monitor results over a long term, especially those from NHBD-T2.

  19. Widespread Pressure Pain Hypersensitivity Is Similar in Women With Frequent Episodic and Chronic Tension-Type Headache: A Blinded Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios Ceña, María; Castaldo, Matteo; Kelun Wang; Torelli, Paola; Pillastrini, Paolo; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2017-02-01

    To investigate differences in widespread pressure pain hyperalgesia in the trigemino-cervical and extra-trigeminal (distant pain-free) regions in women with frequent episodic (FETTH) and chronic (CTTH) tension-type headache. It seems that people with tension-type headache exhibit central sensitization. No study has investigated differences between FETTH and CTTH in terms of widespread pressure pain hypersensitivity. Forty-three women with FETTH, 42 with CTTH, and 45 women without headache diagnosis were recruited. Pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) were bilaterally assessed over trigeminal area (ie, temporalis muscle), extra-trigeminal (ie, C5/C6 zygapophyseal joint), and two distant points (ie, second metacarpal and tibialis anterior muscle) by a blinded assessor. Clinical features of the headache were collected with a 4-week headache diary. Anxiety and depression were assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). The ANCOVA revealed that PPTs were significantly decreased bilaterally over trigeminal (mean differences ranging from 97.5 to 101.5 kPa), extra-trigeminal (from 94.3 to 114.5 kPa), and distant points (from 99.4 to 208.6 kPa) in both FETTH and CTTH groups compared with controls (all, P  .217). Anxiety (all, P > .803) or depression (P > .206) did not influence pressure pain hyperalgesia. No associations between widespread pressure hypersensitivity and headache features were observed (all, P > .110). Current results suggest the presence of similar local and widespread pressure hyperalgesia, not associated with anxiety or depression, in women with FETTH and CTTH supporting that localized and central manifestations are involved in both the episodic and chronic forms of tension-type headache. © 2016 American Headache Society.

  20. Tourism Market and Demographic Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Nedelea

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper identifies the major demographic trends and their implications for consumer market. It is important to know how will demographic change influence the tourism market in particularly and how can the tourist industry adapt to these. The advancing ageing of society will result in far reaching changes, particularly on the demand side. To profitably seize the opportunities, managers must understand how senior markets evolve and adapt products and service offerings along multiple dimensions to meet the needs of senior consumers.

  1. Demographic Modelling in Weed Biocontrol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demographic matrix modeling of plant populations can be a powerful tool to identify key life stage transitions that contribute the most to population growth of an invasive plant and hence should be targeted for disruption. Therefore, this approach has the potential to guide the pre-release selection...

  2. Logistics Dynamics and Demographic Change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klumpp, Matthias; Abidi, Hella; Bioly, Sascha; Buchkremer, Rüdiger; Sandhaus, Gregor; Freitag, Michael; Kotzab, Herbert; Pannek, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Change and dynamics in logistics are interestingly driven at the same time by external as well as internal forces. This contribution outlines a big data literature review methodology to overview recognizable external changes and analyzes the interaction of one major trend—demographic change—further

  3. Development of reprogenetics and its demographic aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devedžić Mirjana M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of reprogenetics during the last two decades of the XX century has brought a new age of reproduction. The paper surveys different types of reprogenetics in a wider sense, i.e. different assisted reproductive technologies (ART that include manipulation of female reproductive cell out of a woman's womb. Development of reprogenetics is documented by available quantitative indicators of the number and success of ART procedures in developed countries at the beginning of the XXI century. Since 1978, when the first baby was born from in vitro fertilization, the number of children born that way has reached 1% of all children, and in some countries even over 3%. Moreover, existing documentation is incomplete and does not include all forms of assisted reproduction - in reality, the importance of assisted reproduction is even higher and becomes demographically significant. Hence the paper indicates existing and potential effects of the ART development on the demographic development i.e. on specific demographic aspects of this phenomenon. It also points out the effects on the level of fertility, on the changes of direct fertility determinants, and on the levels of mortality and infant mortality, as well as a new understanding of birth control, the possibility of affecting biological structures, and the changes of the fundaments of marriage and family. Development perspectives of reprogenetics are also being raised in the context of bioethical discussions and indicate ethical dilemmas related to assisted reproduction. Solutions to the dilemmas define the scope of applying new reproductive technologies in the future.

  4. Regional Differentiation of The Demographic Potential in Italy and Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pastuszka Sławomir

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to compare the demographic potential of given Italian and Polish regions. The analysis shows that the demographic situation in Poland, unlike in Italy, is not directly related to the level of development of some regions and their geographical location. In Italy, the unfavorable demographic situation is typical of most of the less-developed southern regions, whereas in Poland it occurs in voivodships with different economic potential, situated in different parts of the country. This is probably the result of the current polycentric development of Poland, characteristic of a centralized economy, and the polar development in Italy. Certain demographic similarities, but of different levels, related to the dynamics of the population, the level of fertility, and net migration are observable in the macro-regions of Mezzogiorno and Eastern Poland.

  5. Similar DNA methylation levels in specific imprinting control regions in children conceived with and without assisted reproductive technology: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puumala Susan E

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While a possible link between assisted reproductive technology (ART and rare imprinting disorders has been found, it is not clear if this is indicative of subtler disruptions of epigenetic mechanisms. Results from previous studies have been mixed, but some methylation differences have been observed. Methods Children conceived through ART and children conceived spontaneously were recruited for this cross-sectional study. Information about reproductive history, demographic factors, birth characteristics, and infertility treatment was obtained from maternal interview and medical records. Peripheral blood lymphocytes and buccal cell samples were collected from participating children. Methylation analysis was performed on five loci using pyrosequencing. Statistical analysis of methylation differences was performed using linear regression with generalized estimating equations. Results are reported as differences with 95% confidence intervals (CI. Results A total of 67 ART children and 31 spontaneously conceived (SC children participated. No significant difference in methylation in lymphocyte samples was observed between groups for any loci. Possible differences were found in buccal cell samples for IGF2 DMR0 (Difference: 2.07; 95% confidence interval (CI: -0.28, 4.42; p = 0.08 and IGF2R (Difference: -2.79; 95% CI: -5.74, 0.16; p = 0.06. Subgroup analysis indicated potential lower methylation in those whose parents used ART for unexplained infertility. Conclusions Observed differences in methylation between the ART and SC groups were small for all loci in the two sample types examined and no statistical differences were observed. It is still unclear whether or not small differences observed in several studies represent a real difference between groups and if this difference is biologically meaningful. Larger studies with long term follow-up are needed to fully answer these questions.

  6. Similarity transformations of MAPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andersen Allan T.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce the notion of similar Markovian Arrival Processes (MAPs and show that the event stationary point processes related to two similar MAPs are stochastically equivalent. This holds true for the time stationary point processes too. We show that several well known stochastical equivalences as e.g. that between the H 2 renewal process and the Interrupted Poisson Process (IPP can be expressed by the similarity transformations of MAPs. In the appendix the valid region of similarity transformations for two-state MAPs is characterized.

  7. Clustering by Pattern Similarity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-xun Wang; Jian Pei

    2008-01-01

    The task of clustering is to identify classes of similar objects among a set of objects. The definition of similarity varies from one clustering model to another. However, in most of these models the concept of similarity is often based on such metrics as Manhattan distance, Euclidean distance or other Lp distances. In other words, similar objects must have close values in at least a set of dimensions. In this paper, we explore a more general type of similarity. Under the pCluster model we proposed, two objects are similar if they exhibit a coherent pattern on a subset of dimensions. The new similarity concept models a wide range of applications. For instance, in DNA microarray analysis, the expression levels of two genes may rise and fall synchronously in response to a set of environmental stimuli. Although the magnitude of their expression levels may not be close, the patterns they exhibit can be very much alike. Discovery of such clusters of genes is essential in revealing significant connections in gene regulatory networks. E-commerce applications, such as collaborative filtering, can also benefit from the new model, because it is able to capture not only the closeness of values of certain leading indicators but also the closeness of (purchasing, browsing, etc.) patterns exhibited by the customers. In addition to the novel similarity model, this paper also introduces an effective and efficient algorithm to detect such clusters, and we perform tests on several real and synthetic data sets to show its performance.

  8. Judgments of brand similarity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijmolt, THA; Wedel, M; Pieters, RGM; DeSarbo, WS

    This paper provides empirical insight into the way consumers make pairwise similarity judgments between brands, and how familiarity with the brands, serial position of the pair in a sequence, and the presentation format affect these judgments. Within the similarity judgment process both the

  9. New Similarity Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazdani, Hossein; Ortiz-Arroyo, Daniel; Kwasnicka, Halina

    2016-01-01

    In data science, there are important parameters that affect the accuracy of the algorithms used. Some of these parameters are: the type of data objects, the membership assignments, and distance or similarity functions. This paper discusses similarity functions as fundamental elements in membership...

  10. Judgments of brand similarity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijmolt, THA; Wedel, M; Pieters, RGM; DeSarbo, WS

    1998-01-01

    This paper provides empirical insight into the way consumers make pairwise similarity judgments between brands, and how familiarity with the brands, serial position of the pair in a sequence, and the presentation format affect these judgments. Within the similarity judgment process both the formatio

  11. Desenho e funcionamento dos mecanismos de controle e accountability das agências reguladoras brasileiras: semelhanças e diferenças Design and operation of the Brazilian regulatory agencies' control and accountability mechanisms: similarities and differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Vinicius Pó

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo estuda o formato e o funcionamento dos mecanismos de controle e accountability das agências reguladoras, ressaltando suas similaridades e distinções. Suas observações permitem abrir novas frentes de investigação para explicar as diferenças e semelhanças encontradas, tais como a influência da burocracia no processo e os contextos histórico e político de cada setor. O artigo analisa a formatação prevista legalmente para os dispositivos que proporcionam maior accountability às agências reguladoras, como a ouvidoria, as consultas públicas e os conselhos, e verifica indicadores de seu funcionamento efetivo, de forma a avaliar se a aparente uniformidade institucional dos órgãos reflete-se em uniformidade de procedimentos e de resultados. Por fim, aponta alguns impactos que o modelo institucional das agências reguladoras provoca na accountability do Estado brasileiro.This article studies the design and operation of the regulatory agencies' control and accountability mechanisms, underlining their similarities and differences. Its observations open new investigation fronts for the explanation of the differences and similarities found, such as the influence of bureaucracy on the process and each sector's historical and political context. The article analyzes the design determined by legislation for mechanisms that provide the regulatory agencies with more accountability, such as the ombudsman department, public consultations and councils, and assesses the indicators of their effectiveness, in order to verify if the apparent institutional uniformity of the agencies corresponds to the uniformity of procedures and results. Finally, it points out some of the impacts of the regulatory agencies' institutional model on the accountability of the Brazilian state.

  12. Demographic Characteristics of World Class Jamaican Sprinters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachael Irving

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The dominance of Jamaican sprinters in international meets remains largely unexplained. Proposed explanations include demographics and favorable physiological characteristics. The aim of this study was to analyze the demographic characteristics of world class Jamaican sprinters. Questionnaires administered to 120 members of the Jamaican national team and 125 controls elicited information on place of birth, language, ethnicity, and distance and method of travel to school. Athletes were divided into three groups based on athletic disciplines: sprint (s: 100–400 m; n=80, jump and throw (j/t: jump and throw; n=25 and, middle distance (md: 800–3000 m; n=15. Frequency differences between groups were assessed using chi-square tests. Regional or county distribution of sprint differed from that of middle distance (P<0.001 but not from that of jump and throw athletes (P=0.24 and that of controls (P=0.59. Sprint athletes predominately originated from the Surrey county (s = 46%, j/t = 37%, md = 17, C = 53%, whilst middle distance athletes exhibited excess from the Middlesex county (md = 60%. The language distribution of all groups showed uniformity with a predominance of English. A higher proportion of middle distance and jump and throw athletes walked to school (md = 80%, j/t = 52%, s = 10%, and C = 12% and travelled greater distances to school. In conclusion, Jamaica’s success in sprinting may be related to environmental and social factors.

  13. New Similarity Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazdani, Hossein; Ortiz-Arroyo, Daniel; Kwasnicka, Halina

    2016-01-01

    In data science, there are important parameters that affect the accuracy of the algorithms used. Some of these parameters are: the type of data objects, the membership assignments, and distance or similarity functions. This paper discusses similarity functions as fundamental elements in membership...... assignments. The paper introduces Weighted Feature Distance (WFD), and Prioritized Weighted Feature Distance (PWFD), two new distance functions that take into account the diversity in feature spaces. WFD functions perform better in supervised and unsupervised methods by comparing data objects on their feature...... spaces, in addition to their similarity in the vector space. Prioritized Weighted Feature Distance (PWFD) works similarly as WFD, but provides the ability to give priorities to desirable features. The accuracy of the proposed functions are compared with other similarity functions on several data sets...

  14. A randomized, controlled trial of efficacy and safety of Anbainuo, a bio-similar etanercept, for moderate to severe rheumatoid arthritis inadequately responding to methotrexate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-Xiang; Li, Zhan-Guo; Wu, Hua-Xiang; Zhao, Dong-Bao; Li, Xing-Fu; Xu, Jian-Hua; Tao, Yi; Yang, Nan-Ping; Hu, Shao-Xian; Huang, An-Bin; Jiang, Lin-di; Wang, Guo-Chun; Zhang, Xiao; Bao, Chun-de

    2016-09-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of etanercept (Anbainuo) treatment in Chinese moderate to severe rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with inadequate response to methotrexate (MTX-IR); 600 patients (360 in phase III-1 and 240 in phase III-2) poorly responding to MTX were enrolled in the study and randomized at a ratio of 2:1 into an Anbainuo treatment or control group. The study was designed as a 12-week double-blind, placebo-controlled period followed by a 12-week open-label study. The primary endpoint was the ACR20 response rate at week 12. Secondary endpoints included the ACR50, ACR70, ACR-N, and safety. At week 12, ACR20 response was observed in 60.9 % of the Anbainuo group-significantly higher than that of the control group (20.6 %). At week 24, the ACR20 response in the Anbainuo group increased to 70.2 %; there was no significant difference compared with that of the control group (61.8 %, P > 0.05). At week 12, the ACR50 and ACR70 responses of the Anbainuo group increased to 25.6 and 6.8 %, compared to 4 and 1 % in the control group (P < 0.001, P = 0.002). The ACR-N was 2.85 ± 6.73 vs. -3.24 ± 8.78 % in the control group (P < 0.001). During the first 12 weeks of treatment, 66 adverse events (AE) were reported in the Anbainuo group (15.6 %) and 21 AEs (10.5 %) occurred in the control group, whereby the rate of the Anbainuo group was slightly higher than the control group (P = 0.042). Severe adverse events (SAEs) occurred in the Anbainuo group (1.3 %) and one (SAE) occurred in the control group (0.5 %) (P = 0.19). Anbainuo displays a rapid onset of efficacy as well as good tolerance and safety in MTX-IR patients having moderate to severe RA.

  15. Measure of Node Similarity in Multilayer Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Mollgaard, Anders; Dammeyer, Jesper; Jensen, Mogens H; Lehmann, Sune; Mathiesen, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    The weight of links in a network is often related to the similarity of the nodes. Here, we introduce a simple tunable measure for analysing the similarity of nodes across different link weights. In particular, we use the measure to analyze homophily in a group of 659 freshman students at a large university. Our analysis is based on data obtained using smartphones equipped with custom data collection software, complemented by questionnaire-based data. The network of social contacts is represented as a weighted multilayer network constructed from different channels of telecommunication as well as data on face-to-face contacts. We find that even strongly connected individuals are not more similar with respect to basic personality traits than randomly chosen pairs of individuals. In contrast, several socio-demographics variables have a significant degree of similarity. We further observe that similarity might be present in one layer of the multilayer network and simultaneously be absent in the other layers. For a...

  16. Chronological objects in demographic research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans J. Willekens

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Calendar time, age and duration are chronological objects. They represent an instant or a time period. Age and duration are usually expressed in units with varying lengths. The number of days in a month or a year depends on the position on the calendar. The units are also not homogeneous and the structure influences measurement. One solution, common in demography, is to use units that are large enough for the results not to be seriously affected by differences in length and structure. Another approach is to take the idiosyncrasy of calendars into account and to work directly with calendar dates. The technology that enables logical and arithmetic operations on dates is available. OBJECTIVE To illustrate logical and arithmetic operations on dates and conversions between time measurements. METHODS Software packages include utilities to process dates. I use existing and a few new utilities in R to illustrate operations on dates and conversions between calendar dates and elapsed time since a reference moment or a reference event. Three demographic applications are presented. The first is the impact of preferences for dates and days on demographic indicators. The second is event history analysis with time-varying covariates. The third is microsimulation of life histories in continuous time. CONCLUSIONS The technology exists to perform operations directly on dates, enabling more precise calculations of duration and elapsed time in demographic analysis. It eliminates the need for (a approximations and (b transformations of dates, such as Century Month Code, that are convenient for computing durations but are a barrier to interpretation. Operations on dates, such as the computation of age, should consider time units of varying length.

  17. The semantic similarity ensemble

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Ballatore

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Computational measures of semantic similarity between geographic terms provide valuable support across geographic information retrieval, data mining, and information integration. To date, a wide variety of approaches to geo-semantic similarity have been devised. A judgment of similarity is not intrinsically right or wrong, but obtains a certain degree of cognitive plausibility, depending on how closely it mimics human behavior. Thus selecting the most appropriate measure for a specific task is a significant challenge. To address this issue, we make an analogy between computational similarity measures and soliciting domain expert opinions, which incorporate a subjective set of beliefs, perceptions, hypotheses, and epistemic biases. Following this analogy, we define the semantic similarity ensemble (SSE as a composition of different similarity measures, acting as a panel of experts having to reach a decision on the semantic similarity of a set of geographic terms. The approach is evaluated in comparison to human judgments, and results indicate that an SSE performs better than the average of its parts. Although the best member tends to outperform the ensemble, all ensembles outperform the average performance of each ensemble's member. Hence, in contexts where the best measure is unknown, the ensemble provides a more cognitively plausible approach.

  18. Evolutionary shaping of demographic schedules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachter, Kenneth W.; Steinsaltz, David; Evans, Steven N.

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary processes of natural selection may be expected to leave their mark on age patterns of survival and reproduction. Demographic theory includes three main strands—mutation accumulation, stochastic vitality, and optimal life histories. This paper reviews the three strands and, concentrating on mutation accumulation, extends a mathematical result with broad implications concerning the effect of interactions between small age-specific effects of deleterious mutant alleles. Empirical data from genomic sequencing along with prospects for combining strands of theory hold hope for future progress. PMID:25024186

  19. Similar component analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hong; WANG Xin; LI Junwei; CAO Xianguang

    2006-01-01

    A new unsupervised feature extraction method called similar component analysis (SCA) is proposed in this paper. SCA method has a self-aggregation property that the data objects will move towards each other to form clusters through SCA theoretically,which can reveal the inherent pattern of similarity hidden in the dataset. The inputs of SCA are just the pairwise similarities of the dataset,which makes it easier for time series analysis due to the variable length of the time series. Our experimental results on many problems have verified the effectiveness of SCA on some engineering application.

  20. Addition of insulin glargine or NPH insulin to metformin monotherapy in poorly controlled type 2 diabetic patients decreases IGF-I bioactivity similarly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. Varewijck (Aimee); J.A.M.J.L. Janssen (Joseph); M. Vähätalo (M.); L.J. Hofland (Leo); S.W.J. Lamberts (Steven); H. Yki-Jarvinen (Hannele)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractAims/hypothesis The aim of this study was to compare IGFI bioactivity 36 weeks after the addition of insulin glargine (A21Gly,B31Arg,B32Arg human insulin) or NPH insulin to metformin therapy in type 2 diabetic patients who had poor glucose control under metformin monotherapy. Methods In

  1. Social axioms among Romanians: Structure and demographic differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guan, Yanjun

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Social axioms are beliefs about the material, social and spiritual world, assessing what the person regards as true. Following a functionalist orientation, we propose that social axioms serve as a reflection of social reality and provide guidance for living to people in different demographic groups. This study investigated the dimensionality of a measure of such beliefs, the Social Axioms Survey (SAS, and demographic differences in the resulting factor scores for groups of Romanians. Results of exploratory factor analyses revealed a new five-factor structure, with four factors remarkably similar to those derived from a pan-cultural solution of 40 cultural groups (Leung & Bond, 2004. A distinctive factor named “Interpersonal Relations” replaced the “Social Complexity” factor found in previous research, and represented beliefs about the impact of interpersonal relations on life events and how to maintain good relations with others. Canonical correlation revealed that people of older age, lower education, and lower income endorsed stronger beliefs in “Social Cynicism” and “Religiosity”. After controlling for the effects of age, education, and income, females reported stronger endorsement of the “Religiosity”, “Interpersonal Relations”, and “Fate Control” dimensions than males; widowed participants scored significantly higher than married, divorced and unmarried groups on both “Religiosity” and “Fate Control”. By reflecting on the characteristics of Romanian society, we discussed these findings in terms of the life experience and social status of different social groups. Based on this analysis, questions were proposed for future research.

  2. Gender similarities and differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Janet Shibley

    2014-01-01

    Whether men and women are fundamentally different or similar has been debated for more than a century. This review summarizes major theories designed to explain gender differences: evolutionary theories, cognitive social learning theory, sociocultural theory, and expectancy-value theory. The gender similarities hypothesis raises the possibility of theorizing gender similarities. Statistical methods for the analysis of gender differences and similarities are reviewed, including effect sizes, meta-analysis, taxometric analysis, and equivalence testing. Then, relying mainly on evidence from meta-analyses, gender differences are reviewed in cognitive performance (e.g., math performance), personality and social behaviors (e.g., temperament, emotions, aggression, and leadership), and psychological well-being. The evidence on gender differences in variance is summarized. The final sections explore applications of intersectionality and directions for future research.

  3. TEENAGE PREGNANCY: DEMOGRAPHICS, MATERNAL AND FOETAL OUTCOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhika Gollapudi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Pregnancy though is a physiological event in a woman’s life, it has its own associated complications. In teenage pregnancies, the physical and emotional state of stress coupled with biological immaturity leads to adverse effect both on the health of the mother and the foetus. METHODS This study is a clinical prospective study analysing the demographics, maternal health issues and the foetal outcome in teenage pregnancies. The study was conducted over a period of one year at a government tertiary care center. Pregnant women in the age group of 13-19 years who delivered during the study period were included in the study group. All pregnant women over 20 years of age who delivered during the same period were taken as control group. Women who had medical disorders complicating pregnancy were excluded from the study. Anaemia, pregnancy induced hypertension, antepartum haemorrhage and mode of delivery were the maternal outcomes that were noted. Intrauterine growth retardation, prematurity, low birth weight, APGAR score were analysed with respect to the foetus. RESULTS In this study, the total number of pregnant women who delivered during the study period were 4782, 536 were teenage mothers, constituting 11.2% of the total pregnancies. Of the 536 teenage mothers, 69.78% belonged to the rural areas and 71.64% were found to have inadequate antenatal visits to the hospital. The mean age of teenage pregnancy was 17.18 years. Incidence of anaemia was 44.2% in comparison, the control group had an incidence of 33.02%. In our study, incidence of Pregnancy induced hypertension was 18.64% in teenage mothers and 10.6% in non-teenage mothers. The incidence of Antepartum Haemorrhage in our study was 8.94% in teenage mothers. Incidence of lower segment caesarean section was 22.76% in the teenage group as compared to 14.57% in the non-teenage group. In our study, 13.05% of teenage mothers had preterm deliveries as compared to 6.40% of non-teenage mothers

  4. Compression-based Similarity

    CERN Document Server

    Vitanyi, Paul M B

    2011-01-01

    First we consider pair-wise distances for literal objects consisting of finite binary files. These files are taken to contain all of their meaning, like genomes or books. The distances are based on compression of the objects concerned, normalized, and can be viewed as similarity distances. Second, we consider pair-wise distances between names of objects, like "red" or "christianity." In this case the distances are based on searches of the Internet. Such a search can be performed by any search engine that returns aggregate page counts. We can extract a code length from the numbers returned, use the same formula as before, and derive a similarity or relative semantics between names for objects. The theory is based on Kolmogorov complexity. We test both similarities extensively experimentally.

  5. Similarity or difference?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Anders Ryom

    2013-01-01

    While the organizational structures and strategies of public organizations have attracted substantial research attention among public management scholars, little research has explored how these organizational core dimensions are interconnected and influenced by pressures for similarity....... In this paper I address this topic by exploring the relation between expenditure strategy isomorphism and structure isomorphism in Danish municipalities. Different literatures suggest that organizations exist in concurrent pressures for being similar to and different from other organizations in their field......-shaped relation exists between expenditure strategy isomorphism and structure isomorphism in a longitudinal quantitative study of Danish municipalities....

  6. Segmentation Similarity and Agreement

    CERN Document Server

    Fournier, Chris

    2012-01-01

    We propose a new segmentation evaluation metric, called segmentation similarity (S), that quantifies the similarity between two segmentations as the proportion of boundaries that are not transformed when comparing them using edit distance, essentially using edit distance as a penalty function and scaling penalties by segmentation size. We propose several adapted inter-annotator agreement coefficients which use S that are suitable for segmentation. We show that S is configurable enough to suit a wide variety of segmentation evaluations, and is an improvement upon the state of the art. We also propose using inter-annotator agreement coefficients to evaluate automatic segmenters in terms of human performance.

  7. Cultured mast cells from asthmatic patients and controls respond with similar sensitivity to recombinant Der P2 induced, IgE-mediated activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krohn, Inge Jacoba Maria Kortekaas; Sverrild, Asger; Lund, Gitte;

    2013-01-01

    The function of cultured mast cells may depend on genetic or environmental influence on the stem cell donor. This study investigates whether asthma or atopy in the donor influenced the growth and sensitivity of mast cells cultured from patients with asthma and healthy controls under identical...... conditions. Mast cells were cultured from peripheral blood from twelve patients with an objectively confirmed asthma diagnosis and eight healthy subjects. During the last 2 weeks of culture, mast cells were incubated with IL-4 and 80 kU/l recombinant human IgE containing two clones (7% + 7%) specific...... for mite allergen Der p2. The sensitivity of IgE-mediated activation of mast cells was investigated as FcεRI-mediated upregulation of CD63. Ten subjects were atopic, defined as a positive skin prick test (>3 mm) to at least one of ten common allergens. After activation with recombinant Der p2, the maximum...

  8. RELN-expressing neuron density in layer I of the superior temporal lobe is similar in human brains with autism and in age-matched controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, Jasmin; Ejaz, Ehsan; Ariza, Jeanelle; Noctor, Stephen C; Martínez-Cerdeño, Verónica

    2014-09-05

    Reelin protein (RELN) level is reduced in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum of subjects with autism. RELN is synthesized and secreted by a subpopulation of neurons in the developing cerebral cortex termed Cajal-Retzius (CR) cells. These cells are abundant in the marginal zone during cortical development, many die after development is complete, but a small population persists into adulthood. In adult brains, RELN is secreted by the surviving CR cells, by a subset of GABAergic interneurons in layer I, and by pyramidal cells and GABAergic interneurons in deeper cortical layers. It is widely believed that decreased RELN in layer I of the cerebral cortex of subjects with autism may result from a decrease in the density of RELN expressing neurons in layer I; however, this hypothesis has not been tested. We examined RELN expression in layer I of the adult human cortex and found that 70% of cells express RELN in both control and autistic subjects. We quantified the density of neurons in layer I of the superior temporal cortex of subjects with autism and age-matched control subjects. Our data show that there is no change in the density of neurons in layer I of the cortex of subjects with autism, and therefore suggest that reduced RELN expression in the cerebral cortex of subjects with autism is not a consequence of decreased numbers of RELN-expressing neurons in layer I. Instead reduced RELN may result from abnormal RELN processing, or a decrease in the number of other RELN-expressing neuronal cell types. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. DEMOGRAPHIC FACTOR OF ECOLOGICAL POLICY

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Demographic factor of ecological policy is analyzed. Анализируется демографическая составляющая экологической политики. Аналізується демографічна складова екологічної політики.

  10. SELECTED DETERMINANTS OF DEMOGRAPHIC SAFETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisława Ostasiewicz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents, in a simplifi ed manner, selected theories of population to explain the current trends of population development in Poland and throughout the world. The aim of the article is to present the demographic threats that have emerged in the last eighty years. Prognosticated age structures have also been predicted. Signifi cant diff erences between the structure of the population now and the future have been indicated, particularly regarding the ageing of the population. Against the background of global transformations analyzes of changes in Poland have been conducted. The comparison shows that changes in Poland are highly analogous to transformations around the world, such as declining birth rates and increasing life expectancy. These changes cause ageing of the population, which could result in the collapse of the functioning of the labor market and the pension system as it currently exists.

  11. Demographic Ageing on Croatian Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Nejašmić

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the changes in the population structure of the Croatian islands by age, warns of the degree of ageing, provides spatial differentiation of this process and presents perspective of ageing at the level of settlement. Typing of population ageing is based on scores and has seven types. The total island population in 2011 belongs to the type 5 – very old population. Almost a half of the settlements (out of 303 have been affected by the highest levels of ageing (types 6 and 7. It was found that a quarter of island settlements will become “dead villages” in a foreseeable future; most of them are on small islands but also in the interior of larger islands. These are villages decaying in every respect, in which the way of life, as we know it, veins and goes out. The present ageing villagers are their last residents in most cases. Eve¬rything suggests that demographic recovery of the islands is not possible with the forces in situ. It is important to strike a balance between the needs and opportunities in order to successfully organize life on the islands, both small and large ones, and the fact is that there is a continuing disparity, which is especially profound in small islands. A sensitive and selective approach is needed to overcome the unfavourable demographic trends. Therefore it is necessary to respect the particularities of indi¬vidual islands and island groups in devising development strategy. Solutions to the problems must come of the local and wider community in synergy with relevant professional and scientific institutions. However, if the solutions are not found or measures do not give results, if the islands are left to desorganisation and senilisation, a part of the islands will become a wasteland. With regard to the value of this area whose wealth are people in the first place, this would be an intolerable civilization decline.

  12. Incremental Similarity and Turbulence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole E.; Hedevang, Emil; Schmiegel, Jürgen

    This paper discusses the mathematical representation of an empirically observed phenomenon, referred to as Incremental Similarity. We discuss this feature from the viewpoint of stochastic processes and present a variety of non-trivial examples, including those that are of relevance for turbulence...

  13. Bio-equivalent doses of recombinant HCG and recombinant LH during ovarian stimulation result in similar oestradiol output: a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsbjerg, Birgit; Elbaek, Helle Olesen; Laursen, Rita Jakubcionyte; Povlsen, Betina Boel; Haahr, Thor; Yding Andersen, Claus; Humaidan, Peter

    2017-08-01

    In nature, HCG is secreted by the implanting embryo from peri-implantation and onwards. In contrast, LH is mandatory for steroidogenesis and follicular development during the follicular phase, working in synergy with FSH. Moreover, LH is mandatory for the function of the corpus luteum. Although LH and HCG bind to the same receptor, significant molecular, structural and functional differences exist, inducing differences in bioactivity. This randomized controlled study compared the effect of recombinant FSH stimulation combined with daily either micro-dose recombinant HCG or recombinant LH supplementation in a 1:1 bioactivity ratio from day 1 of stimulation in a long gonadotrophin releasing hormone agonist down regulation protocol. A total of 100 patients from a public clinic completed the study. The primary end-point was the oestradiol level on the day of ovulation trigger and the median oestradiol level in the HCG supplemented group was 8662 pmol/l versus 9203 pmol/l in the recombinant LH supplemented group; therefore, no significant difference was found. Moreover, no differences were observed in the number of oocytes retrieved or in the live birth rate. We conclude that recombinant HCG and recombinant LH are equally effective in boosting oestradiol synthesis during ovarian stimulation when used in a 1:1 bioactivity ratio. Copyright © 2017 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Measurement and Socio-Demographic Variation of Social Capital in a Large Population-Based Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieminen, Tarja; Martelin, Tuija; Koskinen, Seppo; Simpura, Jussi; Alanen, Erkki; Harkanen, Tommi; Aromaa, Arpo

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: The main objective of this study was to describe the variation of individual social capital according to socio-demographic factors, and to develop a suitable way to measure social capital for this purpose. The similarity of socio-demographic variation between the genders was also assessed. Data and methods: The study applied…

  15. Genetic population structuring and demographic history of red ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-10-20

    Oct 20, 2008 ... In order to estimate the demographic history and genetic structure of. Epinephelus ... using DNA sequence data from the 5' end of the control region. ... on the aquaculture and biology of E. akaara, and Deng ... evolutionary history of the species. .... at low frequency are more likely to be new, θл is a useful.

  16. More Similar Than Different

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mogens Jin

    2015-01-01

    What role do employee features play into the success of different personnel management practices for serving high performance? Using data from a randomized survey experiment among 5,982 individuals of all ages, this article examines how gender conditions the compliance effects of different...... incentive treatments—each relating to the basic content of distinct types of personnel management practices. The findings show that males and females are more similar than different in terms of the incentive treatments’ effects: Significant average effects are found for three out of five incentive...

  17. CONSEQUENCES OF THE DEMOGRAPHIC CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIVIU RADU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Major dysfunctionalities can arise from the demographic decline, both on a social level and from the perspective of the economic-financial evolution of the world’s states. The obvious aging of the industrialized states’ population overlapping the import of cheap workforce in the developing countries can start mutations whose consequences are somewhat predictable but discouraging. An accelerated urbanization of the states is foreseen, as well as the decrease of birthrates, negative external migration, increase of mortality and its stagnation in a larger value than that of the birthrate, and not least the population’s aging will hinder a part of the developing countries to sustain a high rhythm of long-term economical increase. The socialeconomic consequences will be reflected in the labor market, the householders’ amount of income as well as in the education’s level. All of these aspects call for a rethinking of the public politics, especially of the social insurance’s system and of the education, a reorientation of the economy based on the increase of specializing in production and productivity, as well as a financial stability unburdened by the politics’ interference in the business environment.

  18. Sequence Analysis in Demographic Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Billari, Francesco C.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available EnglishThis paper examines the salient features of sequence analysis in demogrpahicresearch. The new approach allows a holistic perspective on life course analysis and is based on arepresentation of lives as sequences of states. Some of the methods for analyzing such data aresketched, from complex description to optimal matching ot monoethetic divisive algorithms. Afer ashort ilustration of a demographically-relevant example, the needs in terms of data collection and theopportunities of applying the same aproach to synthetic data are discussed.FrenchOn examine ici les principaux éléments de l’analyse par séquence endémographie. Cette nouvelle technique permet une perspective unifiée del’analyse du cours de la vie, en représentant la vie comme une série d’états.Certaines des méthodes pour de telles analyses sont décrites, en commençant parla description complexe, pour considérer ensuite les alignements optimales, etles algorithmes de division. Après un court exemple en démographie, onconsidère les besoins en données et les possibilités d’application aux donnéessynthétique.

  19. Similar dissection of sets

    CERN Document Server

    Akiyama, Shigeki; Okazaki, Ryotaro; Steiner, Wolfgang; Thuswaldner, Jörg

    2010-01-01

    In 1994, Martin Gardner stated a set of questions concerning the dissection of a square or an equilateral triangle in three similar parts. Meanwhile, Gardner's questions have been generalized and some of them are already solved. In the present paper, we solve more of his questions and treat them in a much more general context. Let $D\\subset \\mathbb{R}^d$ be a given set and let $f_1,...,f_k$ be injective continuous mappings. Does there exist a set $X$ such that $D = X \\cup f_1(X) \\cup ... \\cup f_k(X)$ is satisfied with a non-overlapping union? We prove that such a set $X$ exists for certain choices of $D$ and $\\{f_1,...,f_k\\}$. The solutions $X$ often turn out to be attractors of iterated function systems with condensation in the sense of Barnsley. Coming back to Gardner's setting, we use our theory to prove that an equilateral triangle can be dissected in three similar copies whose areas have ratio $1:1:a$ for $a \\ge (3+\\sqrt{5})/2$.

  20. Demographic changes and international factor mobility

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews the extent and policy implications of linkages between demographic changes and international factor mobility. Evidence is found of significant demographic effects on both migration and the current account, but for different reasons neither increased migration nor international transfers of savings is expected to offer much assistance in digesting the variety of demographic transitions expected over the next fifty years. The paper also examines more briefly the effects of de...

  1. Measure of Node Similarity in Multilayer Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Mollgaard

    Full Text Available The weight of links in a network is often related to the similarity of the nodes. Here, we introduce a simple tunable measure for analysing the similarity of nodes across different link weights. In particular, we use the measure to analyze homophily in a group of 659 freshman students at a large university. Our analysis is based on data obtained using smartphones equipped with custom data collection software, complemented by questionnaire-based data. The network of social contacts is represented as a weighted multilayer network constructed from different channels of telecommunication as well as data on face-to-face contacts. We find that even strongly connected individuals are not more similar with respect to basic personality traits than randomly chosen pairs of individuals. In contrast, several socio-demographics variables have a significant degree of similarity. We further observe that similarity might be present in one layer of the multilayer network and simultaneously be absent in the other layers. For a variable such as gender, our measure reveals a transition from similarity between nodes connected with links of relatively low weight to dis-similarity for the nodes connected by the strongest links. We finally analyze the overlap between layers in the network for different levels of acquaintanceships.

  2. Measure of Node Similarity in Multilayer Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollgaard, Anders; Zettler, Ingo; Dammeyer, Jesper; Jensen, Mogens H.; Lehmann, Sune; Mathiesen, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    The weight of links in a network is often related to the similarity of the nodes. Here, we introduce a simple tunable measure for analysing the similarity of nodes across different link weights. In particular, we use the measure to analyze homophily in a group of 659 freshman students at a large university. Our analysis is based on data obtained using smartphones equipped with custom data collection software, complemented by questionnaire-based data. The network of social contacts is represented as a weighted multilayer network constructed from different channels of telecommunication as well as data on face-to-face contacts. We find that even strongly connected individuals are not more similar with respect to basic personality traits than randomly chosen pairs of individuals. In contrast, several socio-demographics variables have a significant degree of similarity. We further observe that similarity might be present in one layer of the multilayer network and simultaneously be absent in the other layers. For a variable such as gender, our measure reveals a transition from similarity between nodes connected with links of relatively low weight to dis-similarity for the nodes connected by the strongest links. We finally analyze the overlap between layers in the network for different levels of acquaintanceships. PMID:27300084

  3. Similarity transformed semiclassical dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Voorhis, Troy; Heller, Eric J.

    2003-12-01

    In this article, we employ a recently discovered criterion for selecting important contributions to the semiclassical coherent state propagator [T. Van Voorhis and E. J. Heller, Phys. Rev. A 66, 050501 (2002)] to study the dynamics of many dimensional problems. We show that the dynamics are governed by a similarity transformed version of the standard classical Hamiltonian. In this light, our selection criterion amounts to using trajectories generated with the untransformed Hamiltonian as approximate initial conditions for the transformed boundary value problem. We apply the new selection scheme to some multidimensional Henon-Heiles problems and compare our results to those obtained with the more sophisticated Herman-Kluk approach. We find that the present technique gives near-quantitative agreement with the the standard results, but that the amount of computational effort is less than Herman-Kluk requires even when sophisticated integral smoothing techniques are employed in the latter.

  4. Socio-demographic determinants of participation in mammography screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Euler-Chelpin, My; Olsen, Anne Helene; Njor, Sisse

    2008-01-01

    Our objective was to use individual data on socio-demographic characteristics to identify predictors of participation in mammography screening and control to what extent they can explain the regional difference. We used data from mammography screening programmes in Copenhagen, 1991-1999, and Funen......, 1993-2001, Denmark. Target groups were identified from the Population Register, screening data came from the health authority, and socio-demographic data from Statistics Denmark. Included were women eligible for at least 3 screens. The crude RR of never use versus always use was 3.21 (95%CI, 3...... women in Copenhagen, irrespective of their socio-demographic characteristics, had low participation. Screening programmes have to find ways to handle this urbanity factor....

  5. Bias and ignorance in demographic perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landy, D; Guay, B; Marghetis, T

    2017-08-31

    When it comes to knowledge of demographic facts, misinformation appears to be the norm. Americans massively overestimate the proportions of their fellow citizens who are immigrants, Muslim, LGBTQ, and Latino, but underestimate those who are White or Christian. Previous explanations of these estimation errors have invoked topic-specific mechanisms such as xenophobia or media bias. We reconsidered this pattern of errors in the light of more than 30 years of research on the psychological processes involved in proportion estimation and decision-making under uncertainty. In two publicly available datasets featuring demographic estimates from 14 countries, we found that proportion estimates of national demographics correspond closely to what is found in laboratory studies of quantitative estimates more generally. Biases in demographic estimation, therefore, are part of a very general pattern of human psychology-independent of the particular topic or demographic under consideration-that explains most of the error in estimates of the size of politically salient populations. By situating demographic estimates within a broader understanding of general quantity estimation, these results demand reevaluation of both topic-specific misinformation about demographic facts and topic-specific explanations of demographic ignorance, such as media bias and xenophobia.

  6. The State Economic, Demographic & Fiscal Handbook 1993.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, David; Cohen, Lee

    This handbook is an easy-to-use reference book for policymakers, public officials, and policy analysts, as well as anyone else who may need up-to-date information about state economic, demographic, and fiscal data. The book includes data on demographics, poverty rates, per capita state personal income, state and local tax rates, and state and…

  7. 5 CFR 841.404 - Demographic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Demographic factors. 841.404 Section 841... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-GENERAL ADMINISTRATION Government Costs § 841.404 Demographic factors. (a) The Office of Personnel Management (OPM) will consider the factors listed below...

  8. Demographic and clinical features of neuromyelitis optica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pandit, L.; Asgari, Nasrin; Apiwattanakul, M.

    2015-01-01

    The comparative clinical and demographic features of neuromyelitis optica (NMO) are not well known. In this review we analyzed peer-reviewed publications for incidence and prevalence, clinical phenotypes, and demographic features of NMO. Population-based studies from Europe, South East and Southe...

  9. A Demographic Perspective on Family Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Suzanne M.

    2014-01-01

    Demographic analysis seeks to understand how individual microlevel decisions about child-bearing, marriage and partnering, geographic mobility, and behaviors that influence health and longevity aggregate to macrolevel population trends and differentials in fertility, mortality and migration. In this review, I first discuss theoretical perspectives—classic demographic transition theory, the perspective of the “second demographic transition,” the spread of developmental idealism—that inform demographers’ understanding of macrolevel population change. Then, I turn to a discussion of the role that demographically informed data collection has played in illuminating family change since the mid-20th century in the United States. Finally, I discuss ways in which demographic theory and data collection might inform future areas of family research, particularly in the area of intergenerational family relationships and new and emerging family forms. PMID:26078785

  10. Desenho e funcionamento dos mecanismos de controle e accountability das agências reguladoras brasileiras: semelhanças e diferenças Design and operation of the Brazilian regulatory agencies' control and accountability mechanisms: similarities and differences

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marcos Vinicius Pó; Fernando Luiz Abrucio

    2006-01-01

    ... agências reguladoras provoca na accountability do Estado brasileiro.This article studies the design and operation of the regulatory agencies' control and accountability mechanisms, underlining...

  11. Demographic response of northern spotted owls to barred owl removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diller, V. Lowell; Hamm, Keith A; Early, Desiree A; Lamphear, David W; Katie Dugger,; Yackulic, Charles B.; Schwarz, Carl J.; Carlson, Peter C.; McDonald, Trent L.

    2016-01-01

    Federally listed as threatened in 1990 primarily because of habitat loss, the northern spotted owl (Strix occidentalis caurina) has continued to decline despite conservation efforts resulting in forested habitat being reserved throughout its range. Recently, there is growing evidence the congeneric invasive barred owl (Strix varia) may be responsible for the continued decline primarily by excluding spotted owls from their preferred habitat. We used a long-term demographic study for spotted owls in coastal northern California as the basis for a pilot barred owl removal experiment. Our demography study used capture–recapture, reproductive output, and territory occupancy data collected from 1990 to 2013 to evaluate trends in vital rates and populations. We used a classic before-after-control-impact (BACI) experimental design to investigate the demographic response of northern spotted owls to the lethal removal of barred owls. According to the best 2-species dynamic occupancy model, there was no evidence of differences in barred or northern spotted owl occupancy prior to the initiation of the treatment (barred owl removal). After treatment, barred owl occupancy was lower in the treated relative to the untreated areas and spotted owl occupancy was higher relative to the untreated areas. Barred owl removal decreased spotted owl territory extinction rates but did not affect territory colonization rates. As a result, spotted owl occupancy increased in the treated area and continued to decline in the untreated areas. Prior to and after barred owl removal, there was no evidence that average fecundity differed on the 2 study areas. However, the greater number of occupied spotted owl sites on the treated areas resulted in greater productivity in the treated areas based on empirical counts of fledged young. Prior to removal, survival was declining at a rate of approximately 0.2% per year for treated and untreated areas. Following treatment, estimated survival was 0.859 for

  12. 77 FR 50138 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request: Collection of Customer Service, Demographic, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-20

    ... Customer Service, Demographic, and Smoking/Tobacco Use Information From the National Cancer Institute's... displays a currently valid OMB control number. Proposed Collection: Title: Collection of Customer Service... three customer service and twelve demographic questions (age, sex, race, ethnicity, education, household...

  13. amily Planning Brings China Demographic Bonus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马瀛通

    2007-01-01

    Editorial note Scholars around the world are voicing their criticisms on China’s family planning policy,which,in their opinions,will lead to an unhealthy population structure.This article reviews the concepts of"rich before old"and"negative demographic bonus",and concludes that with regards to some indicators such as dependency ratio and demographic bonus,there exists a discrepancy between calculations and reality.The author believes that China will continue to witness a surge of demographic bonus in the future.

  14. A unified framework of demographic time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riffe, Tim; Schöley, Jonas; Villavicencio, Francisco

    Demographic thought and practice is largely conditioned by the Lexis diagram, a two-dimensional graphical representation of the identity between age, period, and birth cohort. This relationship does not account for remaining years of life or other related time measures, whose use in demographic...... research is both underrepresented and incompletely situated. We describe a three-dimensional relationship between six different measures of demographic time: chronological age, time to death, lifespan, time of birth, time of death, and period. We describe four identities among subsets of these six measures...

  15. Impact of demographic policy on population growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podyashchikh, P

    1968-01-01

    Various bourgeois theories, including the reactionary Malthusianism and its variants, challenge the Marxist-Leninist revolutionary theory on the growth of population. Bourgeois science maintains that unchanging biological laws of proliferation form the foundation of social life. Malthus, in his "An Essay on the Principle of Population," contends that population increases in a geometric rate, while means of subsistence tend to increase only in an arithmetic rate: neither the way of production nor social conditions but this law of nature in control of proliferation had been the cause of overpopulation, which again leads to misery, hunger, and unemployment. From this follows the possible conclusion that the working classes should be concerned not about how to change the social order but how to reduce the number of childbirths. Progressive science views the laws of social life in a totally different way. Marxism-Leninism teaches that population size, despite the markedly important role played by it in historical progress, fails to represent that main force of social progress which determines the mode of production and of the distribution of material goods, but just the reverse: the mode of production determines the growth of population, the changes in its density and composition. Marxism-Leninism teaches that each historical stage of production (slavery, feudalism, capitalism) has its own special, historically valid demographic law. Bourgeois science maintains that humankind faces an absolute overpopulation caused by the means of production lagging behind the growth of population. Actually this is only a relative overpopulation due to the fact that capitalistic production is subjected to the interests of increasing capitalistic profit and not to those of meeting the demands of population. In socialist countries, production is incessantly developing and expanding, and employment of the entire productive population is ensured. Consequently, the problem of relative

  16. Fundamentals of the Control of Gas-Turbine Power Plants for Aircraft. Part 1; Standardization of the Computations Relating to the Control of Gas-Turbine Power Plants for Aircraft by the Employment of the Laws of Similarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luehl, H.

    1947-01-01

    It will be shown that by the use of the concept of similarity a simple representation of the characteristic curves of a compressor operating in combination with a turbine may be obtained with correct allowance for the effect of temperature. Furthermore, it becmes possible to simplify considerably the rather tedious investigations of the behavior of gas-turbine power plants under different operating conditions. Characteristic values will be derived for the most important elements of operating behavior of the power plant, which will be independent of the absolute valu:s of pressure and temperature. At the same time, the investigations provide the basis for scale-model tests on compressors and turbines.

  17. Befriending Risky Peers: Factors Driving Adolescents' Selection of Friends with Similar Marijuana Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Haye, Kayla; Green, Harold D; Pollard, Michael S; Kennedy, David P; Tucker, Joan S

    2015-10-01

    Adolescents often befriend peers who are similar to themselves on a range of demographic, behavioral, and social characteristics, including substance use. Similarities in lifetime history of marijuana use have even been found to predict adolescent friendships, and we examine whether this finding is explained by youth's selection of friends who are similar on a range of more proximate, observable characteristics that are risk factors for marijuana use. Using two waves of individual and social network data from two high schools that participated in Add Health (N = 1,612; 52.7% male), we apply longitudinal models for social networks to test whether or not several observable risky attributes (psychological, behavioral, and social) predict adolescent friendship choices, and if these preferences explain friend's similarities on lifetime marijuana use. Findings show that similarities on several risk factors predict friendship choices, however controlling for this, the preference to befriend peers with a similar history of marijuana use largely persists. The results highlight the range of social selection processes that lead to similarities in marijuana use among friends and larger peer groups, and that also give rise to friendship groups whose members share similar risk factors for substance use. Friends with high "collective risk" are likely to be important targets for preventing the onset and social diffusion of substance use in adolescents.

  18. Demographic cycles, cohort size, and earnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, M C

    1989-05-01

    This article examines whether position in the demographic cycle is an important factor in determining earnings and earnings growth. Earnings equations for white males are estimated by using March Current Population Survey data. Position in the demographic cycle is captured by including both measures of own cohort size and the size of surrounding cohorts in the estimated earnings equations. Position in the demographic cycle matters. Increases in own cohort size lead to flatter earnings profiles, whereas increases in the size of surrounding cohorts are associated with steeper earnings profiles. The net effect is that those who enter the labor market before or after the peak of the demographic cycle start out with lower earnings but experience faster earnings growth. This pattern is uniform across all schooling groups: high school dropouts, high school graduates, those with some college, and college graduates.

  19. The demographic work of Sir William Wilde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froggatt, P

    2016-05-01

    This paper argues that Sir William Wilde was indeed a pioneering demographer. It also describes the unveiling of the plaque commemorating Sir William Wilde at his home, 1, Merrion Square, Dublin on the 28 October 1971.

  20. Demographics and presenting clinical features of childhood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Demographics and presenting clinical features of childhood systemic lupus ... and characteristics of children with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). ... Rashes were found to be the commonest clinical feature present at the time of diagnosis, ...

  1. Kefir drink causes a significant yet similar improvement in serum lipid profile, compared with low-fat milk, in a dairy-rich diet in overweight or obese premenopausal women: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathi, Yasamin; Ghodrati, Naeimeh; Zibaeenezhad, Mohammad-Javad; Faghih, Shiva

    Controversy exists as to whether the lipid-lowering properties of kefir drink (a fermented probiotic dairy product) in animal models could be replicated in humans. To assess and compare the potential lipid-lowering effects of kefir drink with low-fat milk in a dairy-rich diet in overweight or obese premenopausal women. In this 8-week, single-center, multiarm, parallel-group, outpatient, randomized controlled trial, 75 eligible Iranian women aged 25 to 45 years were randomly allocated to kefir, milk, or control groups. Women in the control group received a weight-maintenance diet containing 2 servings/d of low-fat dairy products, whereas subjects in the milk and kefir groups received a similar diet containing 2 additional servings/d (a total of 4 servings/d) of dairy products from low-fat milk or kefir drink, respectively. At baseline and study end point, serum levels/ratios of total cholesterol (TC), low- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC and HDLC), triglyceride, Non-HDLC, TC/HDLC, LDLC/HDLC, and triglyceride/LDLC were measured as outcome measures. After 8 weeks, subjects in the kefir group had significantly lower serum levels/ratios of lipoproteins than those in the control group (mean between-group differences were -10.4 mg/dL, -9.7 mg/dL, -11.5 mg/dL, -0.4, and -0.3 for TC, LDLC, non-HDLC, TC/HDLC, and LDLC/HDLC, respectively; all P kefir and milk groups. Kefir drink causes a significant yet similar improvement in serum lipid profile, compared with low-fat milk, in a dairy-rich diet in overweight or obese premenopausal women. Copyright © 2016 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Gender inequalities from the demographic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devedžić Mirjana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the meaning of the phrase "the woman’s status in the society" that is recognized in demography as an important cultural factor of demographic development and transitional changes. The analysis indicates qualitative shifts in the woman’s status and simultaneously reveals its importance at present, not only in traditional, but also in modern and developed societies. On the other hand, it explains the importance of sex as a biodemographic determinant, and introduces the concept of gender that sheds another light on the concepts of sex and woman’s status in the society and integrates them. Gender regimes that subsume the inferiority of women in public and private social structures are examined from demographic perspective, albeit only in those phenomenological aspects that can be supported by demographic research, theories, and analyses. To this end, the paper analyzes the effects of strengthening gender equalities on the fertility and mortality transitions, the gender’s impact on the population distribution by sex in South Asian countries, and highlights the key role of gender in interpreting certain social and economic structures. It also stresses the establishing of gender equality as an important element of population policies. The global dimension of the patriarchal society is illustrated through a series of examples of demographic phenomena from various societies. Gender regimes underlie all of these phenomena. The paper puts foreword certain theoretical hypotheses about gender inequalities, and finds their connections with demographic behaviors and demographic indicators. Finally, it summarizes the role of demography in gender (inequality research and the demographic perspective of the way and the speed the demographic equality is being established. Demography is seen as an irreplaceable discipline in examining gender inequalities, especially at the global level. With the advance of qualitative methods in demography

  3. Demographic heterogeneity, cohort selection, and population growth

    OpenAIRE

    Bruce E. Kendall; Fox, Gordon A.; Fujiwara, Masami; Nogeire, Theresa M.

    2011-01-01

    Demographic heterogeneity—variation among individuals in survival and reproduction—is ubiquitous in natural populations. Structured population models address heterogeneity due to age, size, or major developmental stages. However, other important sources of demographic heterogeneity, such as genetic variation, spatial heterogeneity in the environment, maternal effects, and differential exposure to stressors, are often not easily measured and hence are modeled as stochasticity. Recent research ...

  4. Demographic and fertility characteristics of 4 squatter settlements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusof, K; Zulkifli, S N

    1985-01-01

    The demographic and fertility profiles of 4 squatter areas, 2 with Sang Kancil, a community development project designed specifically for squatter settlements in Kuala Lumpur, are described. Data were taken from a census conducted in 1982. Figure 1 maps out the location of the study areas in the Federal Territory. The squatter household (5.4 members) varied little from the average Malaysian household. The average age of the male head of household was 40 years, i.e., not within the high fertility group; the mean duration of stay was 10 years. Household income/month averaged M$760, falling between estimates for urban and rural mean. Comparing the data on the 2 squatter areas, the non-Sang Kancil head of household was, on average, slightly older and had stayed about 2 years longer than his Sang Kancil counterpart. These differences were statistically significant. Both areas were comparable with regard to household income and size. Ethnically, the Sang Kancil areas were predominantly Malay, comprising 86% of total households. The control areas had a more mixed ethnic structure. From 1978-81, annual increases in total population had been fairly uniform, at around 2%, in non-Sang Kancil Areas. Yet, the Sang Kancil population experienced a growth spurt in 1980, which subsequently declined and appeared to level off. 1982 figures were disregarded in this analysis as they were based on a 1/2 year enumeration only. The age distribution pattern of all squatter areas combined was fairly similar to the national distribution pyramid but for a higher proportion of people in the 15-44 age group than national figures. The proportion of dependents, 0-14 years, was comparable despite having more people in this fertile age group. The proportion of infants (0-11 months) in the control population was constant, but there was a decline down to control values by the end of the surveyed period in the Sang Kancil group. In the toddler group, decreases were evident for both populations

  5. Two centuries of demographic change in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry Edmonston

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available One key aspect of the demographic transition—the shift from high mortality and high fertility to low mortality and low fertility is a major change in the population’s age distribution from a pyramid-shaped young age structure to a pillar-shaped old age structure. This paper discusses two demographic processes affected by changes in age structure. First, there are effects on vital rates, with important differences in the observed crude rates and the implied intrinsic vital rates. Second, changes in age structure influence population momentum. More recently, demographers have noted that older age distributions associated with fertility levels below replacement have negative population momentum. Although the demographic transition has been well-described for many countries, demographers have seldom analyzed intrinsic vital rates and population momentum over time, which are dynamic processes affected by changes in the population age structure and which, in turn, influence future changes in population growth and size. This paper uses new data and methods to analyze intrinsic vital rates and population momentum across two centuries of demographic change in Canada

  6. Do Laboratory Results Concerning High-Viscosity Glass-Ionomers versus Amalgam for Tooth Restorations Indicate Similar Effect Direction and Magnitude than that of Controlled Clinical Trials? - A Meta-Epidemiological Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Mickenautsch

    Full Text Available A large percentage of evidence concerning dental interventions is based on laboratory research. The apparent wealth of laboratory evidence is sometimes used as basis for clinical inference and recommendations for daily dental practice. In this study two null-hypotheses are tested: whether trial results from laboratory and controlled clinical trials concerning the comparison of high-viscosity glass-ionomer cements (HVGIC to amalgam for restorations placed in permanent posterior teeth have: (i similar effect direction and (ii similar effect magnitude.7 electronic databases were searched, as well as reference lists. Odds ratios (OR and Standardised Mean Differences (SMD with 95% Confidence intervals were computed for extracted dichotomous and continuous data, respectively. Pooled effect estimates for laboratory and clinical data were computed to test for effect direction. Odds ratios were converted into SMDs. SMDs from laboratory and clinical data were statistically compared to test for differences in effect magnitude. The analysed results were further investigated within the context of potential influencing or confounding factors using a Directed acyclic graph.Of the accepted eight laboratory and nine clinical trials, 13 and 21 datasets could be extracted, respectively. The pooled results of the laboratory datasets were highly statistically significant in favor of amalgam. No statistically significant differences, between HVGICs and amalgam, were identified for clinical data. For effect magnitude, statistically significant differences between clinical and laboratory trial results were found. Both null-hypotheses were rejected.Laboratory results concerning high-viscosity glass-ionomers versus amalgam for tooth restorations do not indicate similar effect direction and magnitude than that of controlled clinical trials.

  7. Estimating similarity of XML Schemas using path similarity measure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veena Trivedi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an attempt has been made to develop an algorithm which estimates the similarity for XML Schemas using multiple similarity measures. For performing the task, the XML Schema element information has been represented in the form of string and four different similarity measure approaches have been employed. To further improve the similarity measure, an overall similarity measure has also been calculated. The approach used in this paper is a distinguished one, as it calculates the similarity between two XML schemas using four approaches and gives an integrated values for the similarity measure. Keywords-componen

  8. Influence of harvesting pressure on demographic tactics: Implications for wildlife management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servanty, S.; Gaillard, J.-M.; Ronchi, F.; Focardi, S.; Baubet, E.; Gimenez, O.

    2011-01-01

    Demographic tactics within animal populations are shaped by selective pressures. Exploitation exerts additional pressures so that differing demographic tactics might be expected among populations with differences in levels of exploitation. Yet little has been done so far to assess the possible consequences of exploitation on the demographic tactics of mammals, even though such information could influence the choice of effective management strategies. Compared with similar-sized ungulate species, wild boar Sus scrofa has high reproductive capabilities, which complicates population management. Using a perturbation analysis, we investigated how population growth rates (??) and critical life-history stages differed between two wild boar populations monitored for several years, one of which was heavily harvested and the other lightly harvested. Asymptotic ?? was 1??242 in the lightly hunted population and 1??115 in the heavily hunted population, while the ratio between the elasticity of adult survival and juvenile survival was 2??63 and 1??27, respectively. A comparative analysis including 21 other ungulate species showed that the elasticity ratio in the heavily hunted population was the lowest ever observed. Compared with expected generation times of similar-sized ungulates (more than 6years), wild boar has a fast life-history speed, especially when facing high hunting pressure. This is well illustrated by our results, where generation times were 3??6years in the lightly hunted population and only 2??3years in the heavily hunted population. High human-induced mortality combined with non-limiting food resources accounted for the accelerated life history of the hunted population because of earlier reproduction. Synthesis and applications. For wild boar, we show that when a population is facing a high hunting pressure, increasing the mortality in only one age-class (e.g. adults or juveniles) may not allow managers to limit population growth. We suggest that simulations of

  9. [Demographic changes and health management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calero, Juan del Rey

    2006-01-01

    Since our Constitution declaration in 1978 and General Law for Health in 1986, to date, the Spanish society has undergorne marked social changes. Socio-economic and health indicators in Spain have also improved as to an increased life expectancy, important reduction in infant mortality, and favourable changes reported in the national Health Survey. Risk factors influence the main causes of death, thus it is said that "man does not die but it kills himself". Healthy health practices are specified, and there is empirical evidence of greater disability-adjusted life years, a better adherence to Mediterranean diet, no smoking, moderate consumption of alcohol, enough time of sleeping, weight control, avoiding obsity and overweight, and increased physical activity, all the above practices achieving a healthier life. At a global scale in the world we live, famine has no frontiers, and fighting against this plague can not await longer. Overall, health and poverty are correlated and it must be overcome for reasons of human dignity, universal rights (even in ius gentium), and ethical dimension as normative of new socio-economic structures. Present must be transformed to recover hope in ou global world, still hungry, and in need of justice, enlightenment and solidarity.

  10. Demographic correlates of children and adolescents with Autistic disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayyoub Malek

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Comparison of the demographic characteristics of patients provides useful information to their identification. This study aimed to determine the demographic characteristics of children and adolescents with autistic disorder (AD. Methods: In this cross-sectional case-control study, 115 children and adolescents with AD were selected from Autism Society Rehabilitation Center in Tabriz, Iran, and 112 normal children and adolescents from the public schools, in 2014. The participants in both groups were matched regarding age and gender. Diagnosis of AD was performed using diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders-4th edition (DSM-IV criteria and clinical diagnostic interviews by two child and adolescent psychiatrists. The demographic information of children and adolescents and their parents were collected from the medical records of children and interviews with their mothers. Results: Most of the children with autism had second or higher birth order and had families with more than three members. Mothers of children with autism had significantly lower levels of education and were mostly housewives. Fathers of autistic children mostly had high school diploma and fewer had university education, and most of them were employed. However, there was no statistically significant difference between the AD group and the control group regarding the average height and weight of children and the residence (urban or rural and age of parents at childbirth.Conclusion: The demographic characteristics of the two groups of children and adolescents with AD and normal controls were different from each other regarding family size, birth order, parent occupation, and parent education variables.

  11. Febrile Seizure: Demographic Features and Causative Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed ESMAILI GOURABI

    2013-01-01

    parental knowledge, attitudes, concerns and practices. J Formos Med Assoc. 2006 Jan;105(1:38-48. Vaswani RK, Dharaskar PG, Kulkarni S, Ghosh K. Iron deficiency as a risk factor for first febrile seizure. Indian Pediatr. 2010 May;47(5:437-9.Sadleir LG, Scheffer IE. Febrile seizures. BMJ. 2007 Feb;334(7588:307-11.Mohebbi MR, Holden KR, Butler IJ. FIRST: a practical approach to the causes and management of febrile seizures. J Child Neurol. 2008 Dec;23(12:1484-9.Salehi Omran M, Khalilian E, Mehdipour E et al. Febrile seizures in North Iranian children: Epidemiology and clinical feature. J Pediatr Neurol. 2008;6(1:39-42.Bidabadi E, Mashouf M. Association between iron deficiency anemia and first febrile convulsion. A case-control study. Seizure. 2009 Jun;18(5:347-51.Vahidnia F, Eskenazi B, Jewell N. Maternal smoking, alcohol drinking, and febrile convulsion. Seizure. 2008 Jun;17(4:320-6.Ashrafzade F, Hashemzadeh A, Malek A. Acute otitis Media in Children with Febrile Convulsion. Iran J Otorhinolaryngol. 2002;16(35:33-9.Millichap JJ, Gordon Millichap J. Methods of investigation and management of infections causing febrile seizures. Pediatr Neurol. 2008 Dec;39(6:381-6.Hosseini Nasab A, Dai pariz M, Alidousti K. Demographic characteristics and predisposing factors of febrile seizures in children admitted to Hospital No. 1 of Kerman University of Medical Sciences. J Med Counc Islam Repub Iran. 2006;24(2:107-12.Keller A, Saucier D, Sheerin A, Yager J. Febrile convulsions affect ultrasonic vocalizations in the rat pup. Epilepsy Behav. 2004 Oct;5(5:649-54.Ogihara M, Shirakawa S, Miyajima T, Takekuma K, Hoshika A. Diurnal variation in febrile convulsions. Pediatr Neurol. 2010 Jun;42(6:409-12.Fallah R, Akhavan S, Mir Sadat Nasseri F. Clinical and demographic characteristics of first febrile seizure in children. J Shaeed Sdoughi Uni Med Sci Yazd. 2009;16(5:61-5.Khodapanahande F, VahidHarandi N, Esmaeli F. Evaluation of seasonal variation and circadian rhythm of febrile seizures in

  12. Demographic and Related Determinants of Recent Cuban Emigration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briquets, Sergio Diaz

    1983-01-01

    Examines principal demographic determinants of recent Cuban emigration and discusses how these demographic variables interact with other social, economic, and political determinants. Suggests that Cuban labor migration is more responsive to demographic factors than some theorists assume. (Author/MJL)

  13. Who Enters Campus Recreation Facilities: A Demographic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Rohe Milton

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine student entry into a campus recreation center based on seven demographics (gender, ethnicity, age, class standing, intercollegiate athlete vs. non-athlete, students with self-reported disability vs. non-disability, and campus residence in order to determine who would be most likely to enter the recreation center. Subjects were from a mid-western, four year state-assisted institution with combined enrollment of 23,932 undergraduate and graduate students. Of the 23,932 enrolled, 14,032 students were examined in this study. Information on student entry to the recreation center was collected through the university’s student information system. Data was analyzed and interpreted using chi-square analysis. Results of the study show statistically significant differences in the demographics except the student disability demographic. More males than females, more African Americans than other ethnicities, more traditionally aged (18-25 students than non-traditional students, more underclassmen than seniors, more athletes and non-athletes, more residents than commuters were likely to enter the campus recreation center. The findings in this study could be used by collegiate recreational sport directors and administrators, in the United States and internationally, for future ideas about programming in similar recreation settings.

  14. The frequencies of Killer immunoglobulin-like receptors and their HLA ligands in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy are similar to those in Guillian Barre syndrome but differ from those of controls, suggesting a role for NK cells in pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Stefan; Csurhes, Peter; McCombe, Pamela

    2015-08-15

    Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) is an acquired inflammatory neuropathy, which has similar clinical and pathological features to Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS), but differs in time course. We investigated the frequency of genes encoding Killer immunoglobulin-like receptors and their HLA ligands in subjects with CIDP, in subjects with GBS and in healthy controls. There were no differences in KIR gene frequency among the 3 groups. The gene frequencies for HLA-B Bw4-I were significantly greater in CIDP than HC, but did not differ from GBS. The frequency of the combination of 3DL1/HLA-B Bw4I was greater in CIDP than HC, but did not differ from that of GBS. These data raise the possibility of NK cell function being an important factor in the pathogenesis of CIDP.

  15. Quantifying the Search Behaviour of Different Demographics Using Google Correlate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Letchford

    Full Text Available Vast records of our everyday interests and concerns are being generated by our frequent interactions with the Internet. Here, we investigate how the searches of Google users vary across U.S. states with different birth rates and infant mortality rates. We find that users in states with higher birth rates search for more information about pregnancy, while those in states with lower birth rates search for more information about cats. Similarly, we find that users in states with higher infant mortality rates search for more information about credit, loans and diseases. Our results provide evidence that Internet search data could offer new insight into the concerns of different demographics.

  16. Kefir drink leads to a similar weight loss, compared with milk, in a dairy-rich non-energy-restricted diet in overweight or obese premenopausal women: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathi, Yasamin; Faghih, Shiva; Zibaeenezhad, Mohammad Javad; Tabatabaei, Sayed Hamid Reza

    2016-02-01

    Controversy exists regarding whether increasing dairy intake without energy restriction would lead to weight loss. We aimed to compare the potential weight-reducing effects of kefir drink (a probiotic dairy product) and milk in a dairy-rich non-energy-restricted diet in overweight or obese premenopausal women. One hundred and forty-four subjects were assessed for eligibility in this single-center, multi-arm, parallel-group, randomized controlled trial. Of these, seventy-five eligible women aged 25-45 years were randomly assigned to three groups, labeled as control, milk, and kefir, to receive an outpatient dietary regimen for 8 weeks. Subjects in the control group received a diet providing a maintenance level of energy intake, containing 2 servings/day of low-fat dairy products, while those in the milk and kefir groups received a weight maintenance diet, containing 2 additional servings/day (a total of 4 servings/day) of dairy products from low-fat milk or commercial kefir drink, respectively. Anthropometric outcomes including weight, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC) were measured every 2 weeks. Fifty-eight subjects completed the study. Using analysis of covariance models in the intention-to-treat population (n = 75), we found that at 8 weeks, subjects in the kefir and milk groups had significantly greater reductions in weight, BMI, and WC compared to those in the control group (all p kefir and milk groups. Kefir drink leads to a similar weight loss, compared with milk, in a dairy-rich non-energy-restricted diet in overweight or obese premenopausal women. However, further studies are warranted.

  17. Comparative demographics of a Hawaiian forest bird community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillaumet, Alban; Woodworth, Bethany L.; Camp, Richard J.; Paxton, Eben

    2016-01-01

    Estimates of demographic parameters such as survival and reproductive success are critical for guiding management efforts focused on species of conservation concern. Unfortunately, reliable demographic parameters are difficult to obtain for any species, but especially for rare or endangered species. Here we derived estimates of adult survival and recruitment in a community of Hawaiian forest birds, including eight native species (of which three are endangered) and two introduced species at Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge, Hawaiʻi. Integrated population models (IPM) were used to link mark–recapture data (1994–1999) with long-term population surveys (1987–2008). To our knowledge, this is the first time that IPM have been used to characterize demographic parameters of a whole avian community, and provides important insights into the life history strategies of the community. The demographic data were used to test two hypotheses: 1) arthropod specialists, such as the ‘Akiapōlā‘au Hemignathus munroi, are ‘slower’ species characterized by a greater relative contribution of adult survival to population growth, i.e. lower fecundity and increased adult survival; and 2) a species’ susceptibility to environmental change, as reflected by its conservation status, can be predicted by its life history traits. We found that all species were characterized by a similar population growth rate around one, independently of conservation status, origin (native vs non-native), feeding guild, or life history strategy (as measured by ‘slowness’), which suggested that the community had reached an equilibrium. However, such stable dynamics were achieved differently across feeding guilds, as demonstrated by a significant increase of adult survival and a significant decrease of recruitment along a gradient of increased insectivory, in support of hypothesis 1. Supporting our second hypothesis, we found that slower species were more vulnerable species at the global

  18. Interneurons targeting similar layers receive synaptic inputs with similar kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossart, Rosa; Petanjek, Zdravko; Dumitriu, Dani; Hirsch, June C; Ben-Ari, Yehezkel; Esclapez, Monique; Bernard, Christophe

    2006-01-01

    GABAergic interneurons play diverse and important roles in controlling neuronal network dynamics. They are characterized by an extreme heterogeneity morphologically, neurochemically, and physiologically, but a functionally relevant classification is still lacking. Present taxonomy is essentially based on their postsynaptic targets, but a physiological counterpart to this classification has not yet been determined. Using a quantitative analysis based on multidimensional clustering of morphological and physiological variables, we now demonstrate a strong correlation between the kinetics of glutamate and GABA miniature synaptic currents received by CA1 hippocampal interneurons and the laminar distribution of their axons: neurons that project to the same layer(s) receive synaptic inputs with similar kinetics distributions. In contrast, the kinetics distributions of GABAergic and glutamatergic synaptic events received by a given interneuron do not depend upon its somatic location or dendritic arborization. Although the mechanisms responsible for this unexpected observation are still unclear, our results suggest that interneurons may be programmed to receive synaptic currents with specific temporal dynamics depending on their targets and the local networks in which they operate.

  19. Demographic aspects of social security in region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alla Gennad'evna Leont'eva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a situational analysis of the level of life safety in the field of demographic regions of the Ural Federal District. The analysis is based on data from the Federal Statistics and covers the period 2000-2010. We have developed a system of indicators for evaluating safety in the demographic sphere. We set the main threats to the social and economic stability in the regions. The system of thresholds includes three blocks: the reproduction of the population, marriage and family relationships and health. We have presented a quantitative description of the main threats. Identified priority areas of social protection, providing increased stability of the regional socio-economic development, reducing the likelihood of social conflicts and improve the demographic situation.

  20. Demographic and affective covariates of pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garron, D C; Leavitt, F

    1979-11-01

    Relationships of four demographic variables and five affective variables to eight attributes of low back pain were investigated in 251 patients by stepwise, multivariate analysis. The demographic variables are age, sex, race, and education. The affective variables are state anxiety, trait anxiety anxiety, hostility, and depression. Seven of the pain variables are from the factorially derived Low Back Pain Questionnaire. The eighth pain variable is a self-estimate of intensity. Relationships among demographic and pain variables are small and unsystematic. Hostility has a small, systematically inverse relation to pain variables, supporting theories relating low back pain to inhibition of anger. Anxiety has a small positive relationship, and depression has no relationship to pain variables. In general, the small relationships indicate that the Low Back Pain Questionnaire provides descriptions of pain that are not confounded by social characteristics or current emotional states of patients.

  1. Febrile Seizure: Demographic Features and Causative Factors

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    How to cite this article: Esmaili Gourabi H, Bidabadi E, Cheraghalipour  F, Aarabi  Y, Salamat F. Febrile Seizure: Demographic Features and Causative Factors. Iran J Child Neurol Autumn 2012; 6(4):33-37.Abstract Objective Because of geographical and periodical variation, we prompted to determine the demographic features and causative factors for febrile seizure in Rasht. Materials & Methods In this cross-sectional study, all 6–month- to 6-year-old children with the diagnosis of febrile s...

  2. Similarity measures for protein ensembles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindorff-Larsen, Kresten; Ferkinghoff-Borg, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    Analyses of similarities and changes in protein conformation can provide important information regarding protein function and evolution. Many scores, including the commonly used root mean square deviation, have therefore been developed to quantify the similarities of different protein conformatio...

  3. Functional Similarity and Interpersonal Attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neimeyer, Greg J.; Neimeyer, Robert A.

    1981-01-01

    Students participated in dyadic disclosure exercises over a five-week period. Results indicated members of high functional similarity dyads evidenced greater attraction to one another than did members of low functional similarity dyads. "Friendship" pairs of male undergraduates displayed greater functional similarity than did…

  4. Functional Similarity and Interpersonal Attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neimeyer, Greg J.; Neimeyer, Robert A.

    1981-01-01

    Students participated in dyadic disclosure exercises over a five-week period. Results indicated members of high functional similarity dyads evidenced greater attraction to one another than did members of low functional similarity dyads. "Friendship" pairs of male undergraduates displayed greater functional similarity than did "nominal" pairs from…

  5. Demographic Costs Associated with Differences in Habitat Space Occupancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Kelly A; Miles, Donald B

    2016-01-01

    Delimiting the habitat characteristics describing the environmental conditions required by a species has become a critical tool for predicting organismal responses to environmental change. Grinnell emphasized the effects of environmental factors on the ability of a population to maintain a positive growth rate, yet few studies have included demographic or reproductive data in analyses of the Grinnellian niche. Identifying differences in habitat exploitation patterns in response to structural variation in the environment presents an incomplete description of the ability of species to adapt to changing habitats if demographic traits are not included. We estimated the vegetation characteristics used by individuals within a population of hooded warblers (Setophaga citrina) across a spatial transect that includes three structurally different forest habitats. We predicted individuals should select similar structural characteristics within each habitat and have similar reproductive success across sample sites. In the two years post burn, adults were present but no young fledged indicating the habitat requirements necessary for reproduction were absent in this habitat. We found significant differences in habitat space occupied by individuals in unaltered and harvested habitats. Nesting habitats used by female warblers differed from available habitat. Fledging success was lower in the harvested habitat 10 to 12 years post-harvest. In the harvested habitat, fledging success was greater on mesic slopes but decreased along a habitat gradient to xeric ridgetops, suggesting compensation in habitat use does not ameliorate fitness costs. In contrast, there was no difference in the number of fledged young along this gradient in the unaltered habitat. Based solely on occupancy data, traditional ecological niche models would incorrectly conclude the environmental characteristics found across the three forested habitats are included in the Grinnellian niche of the hooded warbler

  6. Life Potential as a Basic Demographic Indicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goerlich, Francisco J.; Soler, Angel

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes an indicator that integrates life expectancy with the demographic structure of the population for a given society. By doing this, we have a simple indicator of mortality and aging combined, which could be very useful for developed societies. As is widely known, life expectancy at birth is independent of the demographic…

  7. Demographic development in ASEAN: a comparative overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrin, A N; Pardoko, H; Lim, L L; Hongladorom, C

    1981-01-01

    A comparative overview of recent demographic developments in the ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations) region is presented. Countries discussed include Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. Separate consideration is given to mortality; fertility; and migration, spatial distribution, and employment. A final section is concerned with emerging issues and directions for population policy.

  8. Second demographic transition de-blocked?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobić Mirjana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The text is re-examining the previously established dilemma related to whether Serbia (without Kosovo and Metohija is the country of second demographic transition, i.e.: has the transition been de-blocked, under the assumption that this is a worldwide historical process of transformation of industrialized countries. The last thesis, around which there exists a lot of controversy in the contemporary population theory, is however not dealt with in detail; to the contrary, it is used as the general theoretical framework for the exploration of the most recent tendencies in the transformation of nuptiality and fertility regime in Serbia, as well as in the western and countries in post-socialist transformation. Special attention is given to the ideational changes, more precisely to the specific features of the value profile of the Serbian population, which is one of the most important determinants of the societal framework, that acts in the back of the afore mentioned aggregate demographic indicators. Finally, the hypothesis is posed (which should be further investigated by means of in-depth research and complementary approach that the speeding-up of the second demographic transition and intensification of the individualisation not only of the partnership but of the parenthood as well, accompanied with the rise of living standard and social support to balancing work and family, would have produced important emancipating and, concomitantly, positive socioeconomic and demographic effects.

  9. The Demographics of Corporal Punishment in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examined the student discipline policies of 1,025 Texas school districts, as well as data from the Texas Education Agency's Academic Excellence Indicator System in order to identify demographic patterns regarding corporal punishment policies in Texas schools. The study also studied the relationship between a district's…

  10. The Demographics of Corporal Punishment in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examined the student discipline policies of 1,025 Texas school districts, as well as data from the Texas Education Agency's Academic Excellence Indicator System in order to identify demographic patterns regarding corporal punishment policies in Texas schools. The study also studied the relationship between a district's corporal…

  11. Economic and Demographic Predictors of Inclusive Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosier, Meghan E.; Causton-Theoharis, Julie

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated economic and demographic predictors of levels of inclusion of students with disabilities in 129 school districts. Multiple regression analysis was utilized to address the following research questions: (a) Is there a relationship between economic factors and percentage of highly included students with disabilities in general…

  12. Demographic Group Differences in Adolescents' Time Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andretta, James R.; Worrell, Frank C.; Mello, Zena R.; Dixson, Dante D.; Baik, Sharon H.

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, we examined demographic differences in time attitudes in a sample of 293 adolescents. Time attitudes were measured using the Adolescent Time Attitude Scale (Mello & Worrell, 2007; Worrell, Mello, & Buhl, 2011), which assesses positive and negative attitudes toward the past, the present, and the future. Generally, African…

  13. La pobreza, el crecimiento demográfico y el control de la natalidad: Una crítica a la perspectiva ética de Peter Singer sobre la relación entre ricos y pobres Poverty, demographic growth, and birth control: a critique of Peter Singer's ethical perspective on the relationship between rich and poor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalia Elena Romero

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presenta una reflexión sobre la relación entre el crecimiento demográfico y la ética frente a la pobreza, a partir de una crítica a los argumentos presentados por Peter Singer en su libro "Ética Práctica". En primer lugar, se colocan en pocas palabras los propios argumentos del autor. A continuación, se analizan los "pilares" que sustentan su argumentación, intentando responder a las siguientes cuestiones: 1 ¿Es el "exceso de población" la principal causa de la pobreza? ¿podemos encontrar una relación entre pobreza y velocidad del crecimiento de la población? 2 ¿Está vigente la perspectiva demográfica que Singer asume? 3 ¿Se puede ignorar o restarle importancia al problema de la distribución de los recursos y los ingresos cuando estamos tratando el problema de la pobreza desde una perspectiva ética? 4 ¿Qué tan cierto es ese argumento del éxito en los casos de México, Colombia y Brasil en cuanto a la implantación de una política de control de la natalidad? 5 ¿Esa postura del autor sobre el crecimiento de la población tiene consecuencias negativas en el "imaginario colectivo"? Por último, a manera de conclusión, se presentan algunas cuestiones que deben ser consideradas en una ética frente a la pobreza.This article analyzes the relationship between population growth and ethical principles relating to poverty. The paper is a critical approach to the thesis presented by Peter Singer in his book "Practical Ethics". The first part briefly examines the principal topics of his thesis. The author then analyzes the basis of Singer's theory with respect to the following questions: 1 Is overpopulation the main reason for poverty? Is it possible to establish an association between the poverty phenomenon and population growth? 2 Is Singer´s demographic perspective valid? 3 Can problems of resource distribution be ignored when talking about poverty from an ethical perspective? 4 Is it true that birth control

  14. 基于程序控制流图源代码相似程度分析系统%Program Control Flow Graph Based on the Similarity of Source Code Analysis System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈新

    2013-01-01

      源代码相似程度分析在软件工程和计算机教学等领域都有重要的应用。软件工程领域的源代码盗窃和著作权纠纷仲裁,计算机教学领域的学生作业作弊分析都需要源代码相似程度的分析。良好的源代码相似程序分析软件还可以应用于相似代码聚类和搜索引擎的源代码搜索领域。尽管源代码相似程度分析问题由来已久,但是这个问题并没有令人十分满意和惊喜的研究结果。源代码有其特殊结构,使用传统的纯文本相似度分析显然是不合适的。将首先介绍这个问题的研究历史和进展,简单分析这个问题的难点所在,继而介绍一个新的基于程序控制流图分析的源代码相似程度分析系统,并给出其算法和实现细节。文章最后将分析这个方法的优劣所在,讨论这个方法的进一步改进方向。%It is very important to detect source code similarity in the field of both software engineering and computer science education. Source code stealing and copyright dispute in software engineering, as well as plagiarism detection of student assignment in programming course, call for automation of source code similarity detection. Reliable software to detect source code similarity also helps in the field of source code clustering and source code searching in wide range. Though such problem rises along with the invention of program language, there is not satisfying research result up till now. Source code has its particular structure, making it improper to use traditional pure text similarity detection method over it. This paper first introduce the history and current progress of this problem, analysis the difficulty, then presents a new system for source code similarity detect base on control flow graph analysis, along with the algorithm it uses and the implementation details. In this paper we also discuss the advantage and disadvantage of the method and ways of improve it.

  15. Do consanguineous parents of a child affected by an autosomal recessive disease have more DNA identical-by-descent than similarly-related parents with healthy offspring? Design of a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornel Martina C

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The offspring of consanguineous relations have an increased risk of congenital/genetic disorders and early mortality. Consanguineous couples and their offspring account for approximately 10% of the global population. The increased risk for congenital/genetic disorders is most marked for autosomal recessive disorders and depends on the degree of relatedness of the parents. For children of first cousins the increased risk is 2-4%. For individual couples, however, the extra risk can vary from zero to 25% or higher, with only a minority of these couples having an increased risk of at least 25%. It is currently not possible to differentiate between high-and low-risk couples. The quantity of DNA identical-by-descent between couples with the same degree of relatedness shows a remarkable variation. Here we hypothesize that consanguineous partners with children affected by an autosomal recessive disease have more DNA identical-by-descent than similarly-related partners who have only healthy children. The aim of the study is thus to establish whether the amount of DNA identical-by-descent in consanguineous parents of children with an autosomal recessive disease is indeed different from its proportion in consanguineous parents who have healthy children only. Methods/Design This project is designed as a case-control study. Cases are defined as consanguineous couples with one or more children with an autosomal recessive disorder and controls as consanguineous couples with at least three healthy children and no affected child. We aim to include 100 case couples and 100 control couples. Control couples are matched by restricting the search to the same family, clan or ethnic origin as the case couple. Genome-wide SNP arrays will be used to test our hypothesis. Discussion This study contains a new approach to risk assessment in consanguineous couples. There is no previous study on the amount of DNA identical-by-descent in consanguineous

  16. A COMPARISON OF SEMANTIC SIMILARITY MODELS IN EVALUATING CONCEPT SIMILARITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. X. Xu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The semantic similarities are important in concept definition, recognition, categorization, interpretation, and integration. Many semantic similarity models have been established to evaluate semantic similarities of objects or/and concepts. To find out the suitability and performance of different models in evaluating concept similarities, we make a comparison of four main types of models in this paper: the geometric model, the feature model, the network model, and the transformational model. Fundamental principles and main characteristics of these models are introduced and compared firstly. Land use and land cover concepts of NLCD92 are employed as examples in the case study. The results demonstrate that correlations between these models are very high for a possible reason that all these models are designed to simulate the similarity judgement of human mind.

  17. a Comparison of Semantic Similarity Models in Evaluating Concept Similarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Q. X.; Shi, W. Z.

    2012-08-01

    The semantic similarities are important in concept definition, recognition, categorization, interpretation, and integration. Many semantic similarity models have been established to evaluate semantic similarities of objects or/and concepts. To find out the suitability and performance of different models in evaluating concept similarities, we make a comparison of four main types of models in this paper: the geometric model, the feature model, the network model, and the transformational model. Fundamental principles and main characteristics of these models are introduced and compared firstly. Land use and land cover concepts of NLCD92 are employed as examples in the case study. The results demonstrate that correlations between these models are very high for a possible reason that all these models are designed to simulate the similarity judgement of human mind.

  18. Learning Multi-modal Similarity

    CERN Document Server

    McFee, Brian

    2010-01-01

    In many applications involving multi-media data, the definition of similarity between items is integral to several key tasks, e.g., nearest-neighbor retrieval, classification, and recommendation. Data in such regimes typically exhibits multiple modalities, such as acoustic and visual content of video. Integrating such heterogeneous data to form a holistic similarity space is therefore a key challenge to be overcome in many real-world applications. We present a novel multiple kernel learning technique for integrating heterogeneous data into a single, unified similarity space. Our algorithm learns an optimal ensemble of kernel transfor- mations which conform to measurements of human perceptual similarity, as expressed by relative comparisons. To cope with the ubiquitous problems of subjectivity and inconsistency in multi- media similarity, we develop graph-based techniques to filter similarity measurements, resulting in a simplified and robust training procedure.

  19. Renewing the Respect for Similarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimon eEdelman

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In psychology, the concept of similarity has traditionally evoked a mixture of respect, stemmingfrom its ubiquity and intuitive appeal, and concern, due to its dependence on the framing of the problemat hand and on its context. We argue for a renewed focus on similarity as an explanatory concept, bysurveying established results and new developments in the theory and methods of similarity-preservingassociative lookup and dimensionality reduction — critical components of many cognitive functions, aswell as of intelligent data management in computer vision. We focus in particular on the growing familyof algorithms that support associative memory by performing hashing that respects local similarity, andon the uses of similarity in representing structured objects and scenes. Insofar as these similarity-basedideas and methods are useful in cognitive modeling and in AI applications, they should be included inthe core conceptual toolkit of computational neuroscience.

  20. Similarity Learning of Manifold Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Si-Bao; Ding, Chris H Q; Luo, Bin

    2015-09-01

    Without constructing adjacency graph for neighborhood, we propose a method to learn similarity among sample points of manifold in Laplacian embedding (LE) based on adding constraints of linear reconstruction and least absolute shrinkage and selection operator type minimization. Two algorithms and corresponding analyses are presented to learn similarity for mix-signed and nonnegative data respectively. The similarity learning method is further extended to kernel spaces. The experiments on both synthetic and real world benchmark data sets demonstrate that the proposed LE with new similarity has better visualization and achieves higher accuracy in classification.

  1. [METHODOLOGICAL APPROACHES TO THE CALCULATION OF ACTUAL AND PREVENTED AS A RESULT OF CONTROL AND SUPERVISORY ACTIVITIES, MEDICAL-DEMOGRAPHIC AND ECONOMIC LOSSES, ASSOCIATED WITH THE NEGATIVE IMPACT OF ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, A Yu; Zaytseva, N V; May, I V; Kir'yanov, D A

    2015-01-01

    In the article there are reported the methodological approaches to the calculation of actual and avoided as a result of control and supervisory activities of economic losses caused by mortality, morbidity and disability in the population, associated with the negative impact of environmental factors. There is suggested a consistent solution of the chain of problems: the establishment of cause-and-effect relationships between indices of the health status and indices of the quality of the environment; indices of the quality of the environment and indices of the control and supervision activity of organs and institutions of Federal Service for Surveillance on Consumer Rights Protection and Human Wellbeing calculation of the cases of violations of health prevented as a result of the activity ofthe service; evaluation of their economic equivalents. Approbation of approaches on the example of the Russian Federation allowed to establish that as a result of the activity of organs and institutions of Federal Service for Surveillance on Consumer Rights Protection and Human Wellbeing in 2013, a positive trend was observed on 51 indices of quality of the habitat environment, there were prevented about 160 thousands of deaths and more than 2 million cases of disease that would be held in conditions of the lack of adequate control and surveillance measures in the field of sanitary and epidemiological welfare of the population. Loss prevention of gross domestic product (GDP) amounted to more than 120 billion rubles, Tax shortfalls in the federal budget--about 25.7 billion rubles. With taking into account the costs of the federal budgetfor the activities of the Federal Service for Surveillance on Consumer Rights Protection and Human Wellbeing in 2013 in part to ensure sanitary epidemiological surveillance in the amount of 11.386 billion rubles there was prevented loss of GDP of 10.56 rubles per 1 rub. of the cost of the federal budget and there was warned the shortfall of taxes to

  2. Dynamic similarity in erosional processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheidegger, A.E.

    1963-01-01

    A study is made of the dynamic similarity conditions obtaining in a variety of erosional processes. The pertinent equations for each type of process are written in dimensionless form; the similarity conditions can then easily be deduced. The processes treated are: raindrop action, slope evolution and river erosion. ?? 1963 Istituto Geofisico Italiano.

  3. Wavelet transform in similarity paradigm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Z.R. Struzik; A.P.J.M. Siebes (Arno)

    1998-01-01

    textabstract[INS-R9802] Searching for similarity in time series finds still broader applications in data mining. However, due to the very broad spectrum of data involved, there is no possibility of defining one single notion of similarity suitable to serve all applications. We present a powerful

  4. Demographic variables in coal miners’ safety attitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Wen-wen; Wu, Xiang; Ci, Hui-Peng; Qin, Shu-Qi; Liu, Jia-Long

    2017-03-01

    To change unsafe behavior through adjusting people’s safety attitudes has become an important measure to prevent accidents. Demographic variables, as influential factors of safety attitude, are fundamental and essential for the research. This research does a questionnaire survey among coal mine industry workers, and makes variance analysis and correlation analysis of the results in light of age, length of working years, educational level and experiences of accidents. The results show that the coal miners’ age, length of working years and accident experiences correlate lowly with safety attitudes, and those older coal miners with longer working years have better safety attitude, as coal miners without experiences of accident do.However, educational level has nothing to do with the safety attitude. Therefore, during the process of safety management, coal miners with different demographic characteristics should be put more attention to.

  5. Complexity and demographic explanations of cumulative culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrien Querbes

    Full Text Available Formal models have linked prehistoric and historical instances of technological change (e.g., the Upper Paleolithic transition, cultural loss in Holocene Tasmania, scientific progress since the late nineteenth century to demographic change. According to these models, cumulation of technological complexity is inhibited by decreasing--while favoured by increasing--population levels. Here we show that these findings are contingent on how complexity is defined: demography plays a much more limited role in sustaining cumulative culture in case formal models deploy Herbert Simon's definition of complexity rather than the particular definitions of complexity hitherto assumed. Given that currently available empirical evidence doesn't afford discriminating proper from improper definitions of complexity, our robustness analyses put into question the force of recent demographic explanations of particular episodes of cultural change.

  6. Stock vs. Bond Yields, and Demographic Fluctuations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gozluklu, Arie; Morin, Annaïg

    that the slow-evolving time-series covariation due to changing population age structure accounts for the equilibrium relation between stock and bond markets. As a result, by exploiting the demographic information into distant future, the forecasting performance of evaluation models improves. Finally, using...... a cross-country panel, we document the cross-sectional variation of the demographic effect and explain the cross-country differences in comovement between stock and bond markets.......This paper analyzes the strong comovement between real stock and nominal bond yields at generational (low) frequencies. Life-cycle patterns in savings behavior in an overlapping generations model with cash-in-advance constraints explain this persistent comovement between financial yields. We argue...

  7. The AAVSO 2011 Demographic and Background Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Price, C Aaron

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, the AAVSO conducted a survey of 615 people who are or were recently active in the 101-year old organization. The survey included questions about their demographic background and variable star interests. Data are descriptively analyzed and compared with prior surveys. Results show an organization of very highly educated, largely male amateur and professional astronomers distributed across 108 countries. Participants tend to be loyal, with the average time of involvement in the AAVSO reported as 14 years. Most major demographic factors have not changed much over time. However, the average age of new members is increasing. Also, a significant portion of the respondents report being strictly active in a non-observing capacity, reflecting the growing mission of the organization. Motivations of participants are more aligned with scientific contribution than with that reported by other citizen science projects. This may help explain why a third of all respondents are an author or co-author of a paper in an ...

  8. Stock vs. Bond Yields, and Demographic Fluctuations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gozluklu, Arie; Morin, Annaïg

    that the slow-evolving time-series covariation due to changing population age structure accounts for the equilibrium relation between stock and bond markets. As a result, by exploiting the demographic information into distant future, the forecasting performance of evaluation models improves. Finally, using...... a cross-country panel, we document the cross-sectional variation of the demographic effect and explain the cross-country differences in comovement between stock and bond markets.......This paper analyzes the strong comovement between real stock and nominal bond yields at generational (low) frequencies. Life-cycle patterns in savings behavior in an overlapping generations model with cash-in-advance constraints explain this persistent comovement between financial yields. We argue...

  9. New Approaches to Demographic Data Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treiman, Donald J.; Lu, Yao; Qi, Yaqiang

    2013-01-01

    As population scientists have expanded the range of topics they study, increasingly considering the interrelationship between population phenomena and social, economic, and health conditions, they have expanded the kinds of data collected and have brought to bear new data collection techniques and procedures, often borrowed from other fields. These new approaches to demographic data collection are the concern of this essay. We consider three main topics: new developments in sampling procedures; new developments in fieldwork procedures; and new developments in the kind of information collected in demographic and social surveys. We conclude with some comments on data sharing in the social research community and a list of major Chinese surveys publicly available to researchers. Where possible we illustrate our points with Chinese examples. PMID:23844330

  10. The demographic cycle and optimal schooling choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, B P; Berger, M C

    1996-10-01

    A model is developed that enables the authors to estimate the effects of demographic cycles on both earnings and schooling. The model is tested using data from the 1991 Korean Occupational Wage Survey. The results indicate that cohorts following large birth cohorts in the cycle choose relatively less formal schooling compared to pre-peak cohorts, and that post-peak cohorts also have lower incomes. This result concerning South Korea is consistent with findings from previous studies concerning the United States.

  11. Regions of Demographic Dynamism in Haryana

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjeev Goel

    2014-01-01

    There are different types of population structures in different parts of the world, the nature of demographic challenges also differ accordingly. The developed countries like USA, Canada, Japan, Australia and many European countries face a problem of slow or even negative population growth. The main concern of the government in these countries remains on population ageing, decline in working force and increasing dependency ratio. The developing countries like India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and L...

  12. DEMOGRAPHIC PREDICTORS WITHIN LOCAL PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bente Florina Maria

    2014-12-01

    Design/methodology/approach- Using a quantitative methodological approach, a survey based on SERVQUAL instrument was applied in order to evaluate local public communication. Data from a sample of 380 citizens within Western Romanian were analyzed. Specific demographic predictors that can influence citizens' satisfaction regarding the quality of communication are analyzed. Findings-By analyzing data it was possible to determine citizen satisfaction and to assess its relationship with different demographic characteristics. The results illustrate that gender does not significantly affect satisfaction, instead age, marital status, residence location (urban versus rural, income, education and occupational status of the respondents significantly affect satisfaction regarding local public communication. In addition, the findings confirm a relationship between the citizens' satisfaction and the age, income, education and occupational status of the respondents. Research limitations/implications- Owing to the budget and time limits, only a one-shot survey was conducted, therefore the comparison between “before” and “after” analysis could not be performed. In addition, further research should investigate the local public communication within national contexts. Practical implications -The adapted SERVQUAL scale may be used by institution managers to objectively assess communication performance and local authority service quality. Originality/value- There continues to be a lack of research regarding the communication process within local public administration and the effect of demographic predictors of communication satisfaction. This paper examines both the perceptions and the expectations of citizens regarding public communication. The results offer insights into residence location, age, income, education and occupational status effects on evaluations of communication satisfaction. Finally, the study contributes to studies of perceived service quality by bearing out

  13. TEENAGE PREGNANCY: DEMOGRAPHICS, MATERNAL AND FOETAL OUTCOME

    OpenAIRE

    Radhika Gollapudi; Jagadeeshwari Sistla

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Pregnancy though is a physiological event in a woman’s life, it has its own associated complications. In teenage pregnancies, the physical and emotional state of stress coupled with biological immaturity leads to adverse effect both on the health of the mother and the foetus. METHODS This study is a clinical prospective study analysing the demographics, maternal health issues and the foetal outcome in teenage pregnancies. The study was conducted over a period of o...

  14. Demographic Pressure in the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Peeters, Marga; Groot, Loek

    2012-01-01

    On top of the sovereign debt crisis in the European Union, demographic change is exerting enormous pressure on public finances. We analyse four policy options: lowering pension benefits, increasing labour market participation of the native population, immigration and participation of older people. Our results show that the most publically indebted EU economies face the highest increases in public spending on the retiring baby boom generations over the coming decades. Fortunately for these eco...

  15. Mortality versus Morbidity in the Demographic Transition

    OpenAIRE

    Aksan, Anna-Maria; Chakraborty, Shankha

    2014-01-01

    The link between the mortality and epidemiological transitions is used to identify the effect of the former on the fertility transition: a mortality transition that is not accompanied by improving morbidity causes slower demographic and economic change. In a model where children may die from infectious disease, childhood health affects human capital and noninfectious-disease-related adult mortality. When child mortality falls from lower prevalence, as it did in western Europe, labor productiv...

  16. Evolving demographics of advanced dental education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldman, H Barry; Perlman, Steven P; Cinotti, Debra A

    2009-01-01

    The numbers of dental school graduates and students enrolled in post graduate programs have increased. Decreases are noted in the enrollment in Periodontics and Prosthodontics programs and a marked increase in the enrollment in Pediatric Dentistry programs. A review of these changes, by gender and race/ethnicity provides an overview of the future demographics of the profession. Some concerns regarding the future are considered.

  17. [[Demographic characteristics of "business bachelors" in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, C

    1987-01-01

    The demographic characteristics of those obliged to live away from their families because of the distance between their normal homes and places of work or education in Japan are described. Data are from a variety of official and other sources. The author notes that such persons are generally male. Factors affecting the growth of this phenomenon in Japan are the concept of lifetime employment with the same company and the popularity of sending children away to school.

  18. Entropy Based Modelling for Estimating Demographic Trends.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoqi Li

    Full Text Available In this paper, an entropy-based method is proposed to forecast the demographical changes of countries. We formulate the estimation of future demographical profiles as a constrained optimization problem, anchored on the empirically validated assumption that the entropy of age distribution is increasing in time. The procedure of the proposed method involves three stages, namely: 1 Prediction of the age distribution of a country's population based on an "age-structured population model"; 2 Estimation the age distribution of each individual household size with an entropy-based formulation based on an "individual household size model"; and 3 Estimation the number of each household size based on a "total household size model". The last stage is achieved by projecting the age distribution of the country's population (obtained in stage 1 onto the age distributions of individual household sizes (obtained in stage 2. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated by feeding real world data, and it is general and versatile enough to be extended to other time dependent demographic variables.

  19. Rural Household Demographics, Livelihoods and the Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sherbinin, Alex; Vanwey, Leah; McSweeney, Kendra; Aggarwal, Rimjhim; Barbieri, Alisson; Henry, Sabina; Hunter, Lori M; Twine, Wayne

    2008-02-01

    This paper reviews and synthesizes findings from scholarly work on linkages among rural household demographics, livelihoods and the environment. Using the livelihood approach as an organizing framework, we examine evidence on the multiple pathways linking environmental variables and the following demographic variables: fertility, migration, morbidity and mortality, and lifecycles. Although the review draws on studies from the entire developing world, we find the majority of micro-level studies have been conducted in either marginal (mountainous or arid) or frontier environments, especially Amazonia. Though the linkages are mediated by many complex and often context-specific factors, there is strong evidence that dependence on natural resources intensifies when households lose human and social capital through adult morbidity and mortality, and qualified evidence for the influence of environmental factors on household decision-making regarding fertility and migration. Two decades of research on lifecycles and land-cover change at the farm level have yielded a number of insights about how households make use of different land-use and natural resource management strategies at different stages. A thread running throughout the review is the importance of managing risk through livelihood diversification, ensuring future income security, and culture-specific norms regarding appropriate and desirable activities and demographic responses. Recommendations for future research are provided.

  20. Intelligent system to study demographic evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, M. de Fatima; Ramos, Carlos; Henriques, Pedro R.

    1999-02-01

    With three centuries of existence, the study of population's behavior implies the manipulation of large amounts of incomplete and imprecise data with high dimensionality. By virtue of its multidisciplinary character, the work in demography involves at least historicists, statisticians and computer scientists/programmers. Moreover, successful demographic analysis requires qualified experts, who have succeeded in analysing data through many views and relate different sources of information, including their personal knowledge of the epoch or regions under study. In this paper, we present an intelligent system to study demographic evolution (ISSDE). This system has a module based on on-line analytical processing (OLAP), which permits conducting multiple analysis, combining many data dimensions. It has a deductive database system, which allows the execution of elaborated queries through the database. It has another module for date treatment (generalization and/or reduction); and, at last, a data mining module to discover nontrivial relations hidden within data. We discover the data treatment procedure with two phases: data generalization and data reduction. In data generalization, utilizing knowledge about concept hierarchies and relevance of data, aggregation of attribute values is performed. In the data reduction phase, rough set theory is applied to compute the minimal attribute set. We highlight the advantages of combining attribute value generalization with rough set theory, to find a subset of attributes that lets the mining process discover more useful patterns, by providing results from the application of the C5.0 algorithm in a demographic relational database.

  1. Demographic and socio-economic determinants of post-neonatal deaths in a special project area of rural northern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Zubair

    2003-07-01

    The demographic and socio-economic determinants of post-neonatal deaths (n = 475) in a special project area of rural northern India (Ballabgarh) were ascertained from 1991 to 1999 using the electronic database system of the project area for data extraction, and were compared with the eligible living children of the same age using a matched population-based case-control study design. Similar determinants were also ascertained in neonatal deaths (n = 212) using the same study design. After controlling for the potential confounders using conditional logistic regression analyses, lower caste (a proxy measure for low socio-economic conditions in rural India) was found to be significantly associated with higher post-neonatal deaths (OR = 2.21). Higher maternal age (>30 years) and fathers' lower educational levels were significantly associated with higher neonatal deaths, in addition to higher post-neonatal deaths in the same area.

  2. Robust demographic inference from genomic and SNP data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Excoffier

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a flexible and robust simulation-based framework to infer demographic parameters from the site frequency spectrum (SFS computed on large genomic datasets. We show that our composite-likelihood approach allows one to study evolutionary models of arbitrary complexity, which cannot be tackled by other current likelihood-based methods. For simple scenarios, our approach compares favorably in terms of accuracy and speed with ∂a∂i, the current reference in the field, while showing better convergence properties for complex models. We first apply our methodology to non-coding genomic SNP data from four human populations. To infer their demographic history, we compare neutral evolutionary models of increasing complexity, including unsampled populations. We further show the versatility of our framework by extending it to the inference of demographic parameters from SNP chips with known ascertainment, such as that recently released by Affymetrix to study human origins. Whereas previous ways of handling ascertained SNPs were either restricted to a single population or only allowed the inference of divergence time between a pair of populations, our framework can correctly infer parameters of more complex models including the divergence of several populations, bottlenecks and migration. We apply this approach to the reconstruction of African demography using two distinct ascertained human SNP panels studied under two evolutionary models. The two SNP panels lead to globally very similar estimates and confidence intervals, and suggest an ancient divergence (>110 Ky between Yoruba and San populations. Our methodology appears well suited to the study of complex scenarios from large genomic data sets.

  3. Similarity of samples and trimming

    CERN Document Server

    Álvarez-Esteban, Pedro C; Cuesta-Albertos, Juan A; Matrán, Carlos; 10.3150/11-BEJ351

    2012-01-01

    We say that two probabilities are similar at level $\\alpha$ if they are contaminated versions (up to an $\\alpha$ fraction) of the same common probability. We show how this model is related to minimal distances between sets of trimmed probabilities. Empirical versions turn out to present an overfitting effect in the sense that trimming beyond the similarity level results in trimmed samples that are closer than expected to each other. We show how this can be combined with a bootstrap approach to assess similarity from two data samples.

  4. Demographic Transformations of the Russian Regional Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Viktorovna Kurushina

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the transformations of the quantitative components of human capital, which is the main driver of economic growth in the material, institutional and mental space. According to the author’s concept of stratified space, the processes of self-reproduction and self-renewal of a system are carried out in the material space. This can be determined by the indicators of fertility, mortality and migration in the demographic subsystem. The process of self-regulation of a system on the basis of legislative acts and behavior patterns is carried out in the institutional space. Institutional transformations are also manifested in the implementation of federal target programs for socio-economic development, affecting the state of the demographic subsystem. The processes of self-reflection, self-determination and self-development are carried out in the mental space. Mental transformations in the demographic subsystem are manifested in the change of value orientations. In accordance with the system of values that are conceptualized in modern development strategies the authors define the following models of Man: Economic Man, Socio-Economic Man (who lives in agglomeration centers and at the periphery, Socio-Natural Man (Environmental Man and Householder Man and Innovative Man. Demographic shifts are investigated in 83 Russian regions on the determinants of birth rate and mortality. The analyzed period of transformation covers 2005 and 2012. Methods of matrix analysis are used to visualize the process of demographic shifts. The assessment of transformation of the stratified regional space spheres is given on the basis of the multifactor models of the population natural growth rate. The paper reveals the reduction in the level and variation of mortality rate, the increasing importance and differentiation of regions according to fertility rate, and the effectiveness of introducing the institution of maternity capital from a perspective of the

  5. Acute Low-Volume High-Intensity Interval Exercise and Continuous Moderate-Intensity Exercise Elicit a Similar Improvement in 24-h Glycemic Control in Overweight and Obese Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Lewan; Shaw, Christopher S.; Banting, Lauren; Levinger, Itamar; Hill, Karen M.; McAinch, Andrew J.; Stepto, Nigel K.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Acute exercise reduces postprandial oxidative stress and glycemia; however, the effects of exercise intensity are unclear. We investigated the effect of acute low-volume high-intensity interval-exercise (LV-HIIE) and continuous moderate-intensity exercise (CMIE) on glycemic control and oxidative stress in overweight and obese, inactive adults. Methods: Twenty-seven adults were randomly allocated to perform a single session of LV-HIIE (9 females, 5 males; age: 30 ± 1 years; BMI: 29 ± 1 kg·m−2; mean ± SEM) or CMIE (8 females, 5 males; age: 30 ± 2.0; BMI: 30 ± 2.0) 1 h after consumption of a standard breakfast. Plasma redox status, glucose and insulin were measured. Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) was conducted during the 24-h period before (rest day) and after exercise (exercise day). Results: Plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS; 29 ±13%, p < 0.01; mean percent change ±90% confidence limit), hydrogen peroxide (44 ± 16%, p < 0.01), catalase activity (50 ± 16%, p < 0.01), and superoxide dismutase activity (21 ± 6%, p < 0.01) significantly increased 1 h after breakfast (prior to exercise) compared to baseline. Exercise significantly decreased postprandial glycaemia in whole blood (−6 ± 5%, p < 0.01), irrespective of the exercise protocol. Only CMIE significantly decreased postprandial TBARS (CMIE: −33 ± 8%, p < 0.01; LV-HIIE: 11 ± 22%, p = 0.34) and hydrogen peroxide (CMIE: −25 ± 15%, p = 0.04; LV-HIIE: 7 ± 26%; p = 0.37). Acute exercise provided a similar significant improvement in 24-h average glucose levels (−5 ± 2%, p < 0.01), hyperglycemic excursions (−37 ± 60%, p < 0.01), peak glucose concentrations (−8 ± 4%, p < 0.01), and the 2-h postprandial glucose response to dinner (−9 ± 4%, p < 0.01), irrespective of the exercise protocol. Conclusion: Despite elevated postprandial oxidative stress compared to CMIE, LV-HIIE is an equally effective exercise mode for improving 24-h glycemic control in

  6. Contextual Bandits with Similarity Information

    CERN Document Server

    Slivkins, Aleksandrs

    2009-01-01

    In a multi-armed bandit (MAB) problem, an online algorithm makes a sequence of choices. In each round it chooses from a time-invariant set of alternatives and receives the payoff associated with this alternative. While the case of small strategy sets is by now well-understood, a lot of recent work has focused on MAB problems with exponentially or infinitely large strategy sets, where one needs to assume extra structure in order to make the problem tractable. In particular, recent literature considered information on similarity between arms. We consider similarity information in the setting of "contextual bandits", a natural extension of the basic MAB problem where before each round an algorithm is given the "context" -- a hint about the payoffs in this round. Contextual bandits are directly motivated by placing advertisements on webpages, one of the crucial problems in sponsored search. A particularly simple way to represent similarity information in the contextual bandit setting is via a "similarity distance...

  7. Self-similar aftershock rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidsen, Jörn; Baiesi, Marco

    2016-08-01

    In many important systems exhibiting crackling noise—an intermittent avalanchelike relaxation response with power-law and, thus, self-similar distributed event sizes—the "laws" for the rate of activity after large events are not consistent with the overall self-similar behavior expected on theoretical grounds. This is particularly true for the case of seismicity, and a satisfying solution to this paradox has remained outstanding. Here, we propose a generalized description of the aftershock rates which is both self-similar and consistent with all other known self-similar features. Comparing our theoretical predictions with high-resolution earthquake data from Southern California we find excellent agreement, providing particularly clear evidence for a unified description of aftershocks and foreshocks. This may offer an improved framework for time-dependent seismic hazard assessment and earthquake forecasting.

  8. Unmixing of spectrally similar minerals

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Debba, Pravesh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available -bearing oxide/hydroxide/sulfate minerals in complex mixtures be obtained using hyperspectral data? Debba (CSIR) Unmixing of spectrally similar minerals MERAKA 2009 3 / 18 Method of spectral unmixing Old method: problem Linear Spectral Mixture Analysis (LSMA...

  9. Self-similar aftershock rates

    CERN Document Server

    Davidsen, Jörn

    2016-01-01

    In many important systems exhibiting crackling noise --- intermittent avalanche-like relaxation response with power-law and, thus, self-similar distributed event sizes --- the "laws" for the rate of activity after large events are not consistent with the overall self-similar behavior expected on theoretical grounds. This is in particular true for the case of seismicity and a satisfying solution to this paradox has remained outstanding. Here, we propose a generalized description of the aftershock rates which is both self-similar and consistent with all other known self-similar features. Comparing our theoretical predictions with high resolution earthquake data from Southern California we find excellent agreement, providing in particular clear evidence for a unified description of aftershocks and foreshocks. This may offer an improved way of time-dependent seismic hazard assessment and earthquake forecasting.

  10. Demographic, socioeconomic and environmental changes affecting circulation of neglected tropical diseases in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-El-Naga, Iman F

    2015-11-01

    Egypt has been plagued by many neglected tropical diseases since Pharaonic time. These diseases are Schistosomiasis, soil-transmitted helminthiasis, lymphatic filariasis, leishmaniasis and fascioliasis beside the epidermal parasitic skin diseases. Indeed, theses diseases still persist as public health problem in the country by the influence of demographic, socioeconomic and environmental obstacles. This study seeks for understanding the contribution of each factor in each obstacle in neglected tropical diseases perpetuation which in turn could help the governorate in planning integrated control strategies. It was found that poverty, unregulated urbanization and inadequate sanitation are important socioeconomic factors that have great effect on the transmission dynamics of the diseases. The environmental factors which affect the epidemiology of these diseases in the country are scarcity of water, construction of dams, land reclamation for agriculture beside the climate factors. Unfortunately, the panic increase in the population growth rate minimizes the efforts done by the governorate to elevate the public health services. These conditions also affect the transmission of epidermal parasitic skin diseases including scabies, head lice and hookworm-related cutaneous larva migrans. The control programs and the recommendations to combat the diseases were discussed. The present study showed that the ecological factors affecting each neglected tropical disease in Egypt are somewhat similar which makes it worthy to develop an integrated control approaches aiming at improving the leading factors of neglected tropical diseases circulation in the country.

  11. Community Detection by Neighborhood Similarity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xu; XIE Zheng; YI Dong-Yun

    2012-01-01

    Detection of the community structure in a network is important for understanding the structure and dynamics of the network.By exploring the neighborhood of vertices,a local similarity metric is proposed,which can be quickly computed.The resulting similarity matrix retains the same support as the adjacency matrix.Based on local similarity,an agglomerative hierarchical clustering algorithm is proposed for community detection.The algorithm is implemented by an efficient max-heap data structure and runs in nearly linear time,thus is capable of dealing with large sparse networks with tens of thousands of nodes.Experiments on synthesized and real-world networks demonstrate that our method is efficient to detect community structures,and the proposed metric is the most suitable one among all the tested similarity indices.%Detection of the community structure in a network is important for understanding the structure and dynamics of the network. By exploring the neighborhood of vertices, a local similarity metric is proposed, which can be quickly computed. The resulting similarity matrix retains the same support as the adjacency matrix. Based on local similarity, an agglomerative hierarchical clustering algorithm is proposed for community detection. The algorithm is implemented by an efficient max-heap data structure and runs in nearly linear time, thus is capable of dealing with large sparse networks with tens of thousands of nodes. Experiments on synthesized and real-world networks demonstrate that our method is efficient to detect community structures, and the proposed metric is the most suitable one among all the tested similarity indices.

  12. Similarity measures for protein ensembles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindorff-Larsen, Kresten; Ferkinghoff-Borg, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    Analyses of similarities and changes in protein conformation can provide important information regarding protein function and evolution. Many scores, including the commonly used root mean square deviation, have therefore been developed to quantify the similarities of different protein conformations...... a synthetic example from molecular dynamics simulations. We then apply the algorithms to revisit the problem of ensemble averaging during structure determination of proteins, and find that an ensemble refinement method is able to recover the correct distribution of conformations better than standard single...

  13. Self-similar parabolic plasmonic beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoyan, Arthur R; Turitsyn, Sergei K; Kivshar, Yuri S

    2013-02-15

    We demonstrate that an interplay between diffraction and defocusing nonlinearity can support stable self-similar plasmonic waves with a parabolic profile. Simplicity of a parabolic shape combined with the corresponding parabolic spatial phase distribution creates opportunities for controllable manipulation of plasmons through a combined action of diffraction and nonlinearity.

  14. Status competition, inequality, and fertility: implications for the demographic transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenk, Mary K; Kaplan, Hillard S; Hooper, Paul L

    2016-04-19

    The role that social status plays in small-scale societies suggests that status may be important for understanding the evolution of human fertility decisions, and for understanding how such decisions play out in modern contexts. This paper explores whether modelling competition for status--in the sense of relative rank within a society--can help shed light on fertility decline and the demographic transition. We develop a model of how levels of inequality and status competition affect optimal investment by parents in the embodied capital (health, strength, and skills) and social status of offspring, focusing on feedbacks between individual decisions and socio-ecological conditions. We find that conditions similar to those in demographic transition societies yield increased investment in both embodied capital and social status, generating substantial decreases in fertility, particularly under conditions of high inequality and intense status competition. We suggest that a complete explanation for both fertility variation in small-scale societies and modern fertility decline will take into account the effects of status competition and inequality. © 2016 The Author(s).

  15. Diversity and Demographics of Zooarchaeologists: Results from a Digital Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne E. Pilaar Birch

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nearly 25 years ago, a “Zooarchaeology Practitioner Survey” was distributed via conventional mail to individuals in the USA and Canada and received 122 responses over a period of several months in 1991. Now, a revised “Demographics in Zooarchaeology Survey” provides an update to  those data and assesses the current state of the field. The 2014 survey remained open for 3 months and received 288 responses from practitioners worldwide. Global participation was made possible by hosting the survey online. Key findings of the 1991 survey included disparities in employment rank for women despite similar levels of degree level attainment as men, a point which the 2014 survey sought to investigate. This trend appears to persist for those without the PhD and at the highest levels of income for those holding a PhD. In addition, the recent survey asked participants about their racial or ethnic identity in order to evaluate the demographic diversity of the discipline beyond sex, age, and nationality. Data regarding topical and geographic research area were also collected and reflect a subtle bias towards working with mammals and a focus on research questions grounded in prehistory in Europe and North America, followed by Australia and Southwest Asia. Results are compared with those of the earlier survey and membership information from the International Council for Archaeozoology.

  16. Distances and similarities in intuitionistic fuzzy sets

    CERN Document Server

    Szmidt, Eulalia

    2014-01-01

    This book presents the state-of-the-art in theory and practice regarding similarity and distance measures for intuitionistic fuzzy sets. Quantifying similarity and distances is crucial for many applications, e.g. data mining, machine learning, decision making, and control. The work provides readers with a comprehensive set of theoretical concepts and practical tools for both defining and determining similarity between intuitionistic fuzzy sets. It describes an automatic algorithm for deriving intuitionistic fuzzy sets from data, which can aid in the analysis of information in large databases. The book also discusses other important applications, e.g. the use of similarity measures to evaluate the extent of agreement between experts in the context of decision making.

  17. Domain similarity based orthology detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitard-Feildel, Tristan; Kemena, Carsten; Greenwood, Jenny M; Bornberg-Bauer, Erich

    2015-05-13

    Orthologous protein detection software mostly uses pairwise comparisons of amino-acid sequences to assert whether two proteins are orthologous or not. Accordingly, when the number of sequences for comparison increases, the number of comparisons to compute grows in a quadratic order. A current challenge of bioinformatic research, especially when taking into account the increasing number of sequenced organisms available, is to make this ever-growing number of comparisons computationally feasible in a reasonable amount of time. We propose to speed up the detection of orthologous proteins by using strings of domains to characterize the proteins. We present two new protein similarity measures, a cosine and a maximal weight matching score based on domain content similarity, and new software, named porthoDom. The qualities of the cosine and the maximal weight matching similarity measures are compared against curated datasets. The measures show that domain content similarities are able to correctly group proteins into their families. Accordingly, the cosine similarity measure is used inside porthoDom, the wrapper developed for proteinortho. porthoDom makes use of domain content similarity measures to group proteins together before searching for orthologs. By using domains instead of amino acid sequences, the reduction of the search space decreases the computational complexity of an all-against-all sequence comparison. We demonstrate that representing and comparing proteins as strings of discrete domains, i.e. as a concatenation of their unique identifiers, allows a drastic simplification of search space. porthoDom has the advantage of speeding up orthology detection while maintaining a degree of accuracy similar to proteinortho. The implementation of porthoDom is released using python and C++ languages and is available under the GNU GPL licence 3 at http://www.bornberglab.org/pages/porthoda .

  18. Gait signal analysis with similarity measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sanghyuk; Shin, Seungsoo

    2014-01-01

    Human gait decision was carried out with the help of similarity measure design. Gait signal was selected through hardware implementation including all in one sensor, control unit, and notebook with connector. Each gait signal was considered as high dimensional data. Therefore, high dimensional data analysis was considered via heuristic technique such as the similarity measure. Each human pattern such as walking, sitting, standing, and stepping up was obtained through experiment. By the results of the analysis, we also identified the overlapped and nonoverlapped data relation, and similarity measure analysis was also illustrated, and comparison with conventional similarity measure was also carried out. Hence, nonoverlapped data similarity analysis provided the clue to solve the similarity of high dimensional data. Considered high dimensional data analysis was designed with consideration of neighborhood information. Proposed similarity measure was applied to identify the behavior patterns of different persons, and different behaviours of the same person. Obtained analysis can be extended to organize health monitoring system for specially elderly persons.

  19. Gait Signal Analysis with Similarity Measure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanghyuk Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Human gait decision was carried out with the help of similarity measure design. Gait signal was selected through hardware implementation including all in one sensor, control unit, and notebook with connector. Each gait signal was considered as high dimensional data. Therefore, high dimensional data analysis was considered via heuristic technique such as the similarity measure. Each human pattern such as walking, sitting, standing, and stepping up was obtained through experiment. By the results of the analysis, we also identified the overlapped and nonoverlapped data relation, and similarity measure analysis was also illustrated, and comparison with conventional similarity measure was also carried out. Hence, nonoverlapped data similarity analysis provided the clue to solve the similarity of high dimensional data. Considered high dimensional data analysis was designed with consideration of neighborhood information. Proposed similarity measure was applied to identify the behavior patterns of different persons, and different behaviours of the same person. Obtained analysis can be extended to organize health monitoring system for specially elderly persons.

  20. Notions of similarity for computational biology models

    KAUST Repository

    Waltemath, Dagmar

    2016-03-21

    Computational models used in biology are rapidly increasing in complexity, size, and numbers. To build such large models, researchers need to rely on software tools for model retrieval, model combination, and version control. These tools need to be able to quantify the differences and similarities between computational models. However, depending on the specific application, the notion of similarity may greatly vary. A general notion of model similarity, applicable to various types of models, is still missing. Here, we introduce a general notion of quantitative model similarities, survey the use of existing model comparison methods in model building and management, and discuss potential applications of model comparison. To frame model comparison as a general problem, we describe a theoretical approach to defining and computing similarities based on different model aspects. Potentially relevant aspects of a model comprise its references to biological entities, network structure, mathematical equations and parameters, and dynamic behaviour. Future similarity measures could combine these model aspects in flexible, problem-specific ways in order to mimic users\\' intuition about model similarity, and to support complex model searches in databases.

  1. Variation in School Health Policies and Programs by Demographic Characteristics of US Schools, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaji, Alexandra B.; Brener, Nancy D.; McManus, Tim

    2010-01-01

    Background: To identify whether school health policies and programs vary by demographic characteristics of schools, using data from the School Health Policies and Programs Study (SHPPS) 2006. This study updates a similar study conducted with SHPPS 2000 data and assesses several additional policies and programs measured for the first time in SHPPS…

  2. Similarity of atoms in molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cioslowski, J.; Nanayakkara, A. (Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States))

    1993-12-01

    Similarity of atoms in molecules is quantitatively assessed with a measure that employs electron densities within respective atomic basins. This atomic similarity measure does not rely on arbitrary assumptions concerning basis functions or 'atomic orbitals', is relatively inexpensive to compute, and has straightforward interpretation. Inspection of similarities between pairs of carbon, hydrogen, and fluorine atoms in the CH[sub 4], CH[sub 3]F, CH[sub 2]F[sub 2], CHF[sub 3], CF[sub 4], C[sub 2]H[sub 2], C[sub 2]H[sub 4], and C[sub 2]H[sub 6] molecules, calculated at the MP2/6-311G[sup **] level of theory, reveals that the atomic similarity is greatly reduced by a change in the number or the character of ligands (i.e. the atoms with nuclei linked through bond paths to the nucleus of the atom in question). On the other hand, atoms with formally identical (i.e. having the same nuclei and numbers of ligands) ligands resemble each other to a large degree, with the similarity indices greater than 0.95 for hydrogens and 0.99 for non-hydrogens. 19 refs., 6 tabs.

  3. Quantifying Similarity in Seismic Polarizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, D. W. S.; Jones, J. P.; Caffagni, E.

    2015-12-01

    Measuring similarity in seismic attributes can help identify tremor, low S/N signals, and converted or reflected phases, in addition to diagnosing site noise and sensor misalignment in arrays. Polarization analysis is a widely accepted method for studying the orientation and directional characteristics of seismic phases via. computed attributes, but similarity is ordinarily discussed using qualitative comparisons with reference values. Here we introduce a technique for quantitative polarization similarity that uses weighted histograms computed in short, overlapping time windows, drawing on methods adapted from the image processing and computer vision literature. Our method accounts for ambiguity in azimuth and incidence angle and variations in signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio. Using records of the Mw=8.3 Sea of Okhotsk earthquake from CNSN broadband sensors in British Columbia and Yukon Territory, Canada, and vertical borehole array data from a monitoring experiment at Hoadley gas field, central Alberta, Canada, we demonstrate that our method is robust to station spacing. Discrete wavelet analysis extends polarization similarity to the time-frequency domain in a straightforward way. Because histogram distance metrics are bounded by [0 1], clustering allows empirical time-frequency separation of seismic phase arrivals on single-station three-component records. Array processing for automatic seismic phase classification may be possible using subspace clustering of polarization similarity, but efficient algorithms are required to reduce the dimensionality.

  4. Demographic, behavioral, and psychosocial correlates of using the website component of a worksite physical activity and healthy nutrition promotion program: a longitudinal study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Robroek, Suzan J W; Brouwer, Wendy; Lindeboom, Dennis; Oenema, Anke; Burdorf, Alex

    2010-01-01

    ...) to identify demographic, behavioral, and psychosocial factors associated with website use. The study was an observational study among participants from 5 workplaces in a cluster randomized controlled trial...

  5. Similarity measures for face recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Vezzetti, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    Face recognition has several applications, including security, such as (authentication and identification of device users and criminal suspects), and in medicine (corrective surgery and diagnosis). Facial recognition programs rely on algorithms that can compare and compute the similarity between two sets of images. This eBook explains some of the similarity measures used in facial recognition systems in a single volume. Readers will learn about various measures including Minkowski distances, Mahalanobis distances, Hansdorff distances, cosine-based distances, among other methods. The book also summarizes errors that may occur in face recognition methods. Computer scientists "facing face" and looking to select and test different methods of computing similarities will benefit from this book. The book is also useful tool for students undertaking computer vision courses.

  6. Professionals and Power Vacuums on Demographic Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seabrooke, Leonard; Tsingou, Eleni

    Aging populations across advanced industrialized countries are expected to have a great impact on a range of socio-economic policies, ranging from welfare and pensions provision to industrial, labor market and financial policies. While populations are aging there has also been a drop in birth rates....... Demographic change is acknowledged as a policy concern within many advanced industrialize countries, but discussions about low fertility are not explicitly expressed in terms of policy objectives. Governments, sensitive to the authoritarian implications of prescriptive natalist policies, focus instead...

  7. Socio-demographic determinants of participation in mammography screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Euler-Chelpin, My; Olsen, Anne Helene; Njor, Sisse; Vejborg, Ilse; Schwartz, Walter; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2008-01-15

    Our objective was to use individual data on socio-demographic characteristics to identify predictors of participation in mammography screening and control to what extent they can explain the regional difference. We used data from mammography screening programmes in Copenhagen, 1991-1999, and Funen, 1993-2001, Denmark. Target groups were identified from the Population Register, screening data came from the health authority, and socio-demographic data from Statistics Denmark. Included were women eligible for at least 3 screens. The crude RR of never use versus always use was 3.21 (95%CI, 3.07-3.35) for Copenhagen versus Funen, and the adjusted RR was 2.55 (95%CI, 2.43-2.67). The adjusted RR for never use among women without contact to a primary care physician was 2.50 (95% CI, 2.31-2.71) and 2.89 (95% CI, 2.66-3.14), and for women without dental care 2.94 (95% CI, 2.77-3.12) and 2.88 (95% CI, 2.68-3.10) for Copenhagen and Funen, respectively. Other important predictive factors for nonparticipation were not being married and not being Danish. In conclusion, to enhance participation in mammography screening programmes special attention needs to be given to women not using other primary health care services. All women in Copenhagen, irrespective of their socio-demographic characteristics, had low participation. Screening programmes have to find ways to handle this urbanity factor. Copyright 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. THE PROCESS AND EFFECTS OF DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION IN PENANG, MALAYSIA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Usman Haji Yaakob; Nik Norliati Fitri Md Nor

    2013-01-01

      This article describes the demographic transition in Penang, Malaysia based on the demographic transition theory, which explains the decline of birth and death rates in European countries during the 18th century...

  9. The association of demographic variables and dietary habits on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The association of demographic variables and dietary habits on body mass ... socio-demographic variables, weight, height, frequency of physical activity, and food ... in Korea should focus on reducing the intake of meat and high energy foods.

  10. Demographic analysis reveals gradual senescence in the flatworm Macrostomum lignano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braeckman Bart P

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Free-living flatworms ("Turbellaria" are appropriate model organisms to gain better insight into the role of stem cells in ageing and rejuvenation. Ageing research in flatworms is, however, still scarce. This is partly due to culture difficulties and the lack of a complete set of demographic data, including parameters such as median lifespan and age-specific mortality rate. In this paper, we report on the first flatworm survival analysis. We used the species Macrostomum lignano, which is an emerging model for studying the reciprocal influence between stem cells, ageing and rejuvenation. This species has a median lifespan of 205 ± 13 days (average ± standard deviation [SD] and a 90th percentile lifespan of 373 ± 32 days. The maximum lifespan, however, is more than 745 days, and the average survival curve is characterised by a long tail because a small number of individuals lives twice as long as 90% of the population. Similar to earlier observations in a wide range of animals, in M. lignano the age-specific mortality rate increases exponentially, but levels off at the oldest ages. To compare the senescence of M. lignano with that of other ageing models, we determined the mortality rate doubling time, which is 0.20 ± 0.02 years. As a result, we can conclude that M. lignano shows gradual senescence at a rate similar to the vertebrate ageing models Rattus norvegicus and Mus musculus. We argue that M. lignano is a suitable model for ageing and rejuvenation research, and especially for the role of stem cells in these processes, due to its accessible stem cell system and regeneration capacity, and the possibility of combining stem cell studies with demographic analyses.

  11. Distance learning for similarity estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, J.; Amores, J.; Sebe, N.; Radeva, P.; Tian, Q.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present a general guideline to find a better distance measure for similarity estimation based on statistical analysis of distribution models and distance functions. A new set of distance measures are derived from the harmonic distance, the geometric distance, and their generalized

  12. Distance learning for similarity estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jie; Amores, Jaume; Sebe, Nicu; Radeva, Petia; Tian, Qi

    2008-03-01

    In this paper, we present a general guideline to find a better distance measure for similarity estimation based on statistical analysis of distribution models and distance functions. A new set of distance measures are derived from the harmonic distance, the geometric distance, and their generalized variants according to the Maximum Likelihood theory. These measures can provide a more accurate feature model than the classical Euclidean and Manhattan distances. We also find that the feature elements are often from heterogeneous sources that may have different influence on similarity estimation. Therefore, the assumption of single isotropic distribution model is often inappropriate. To alleviate this problem, we use a boosted distance measure framework that finds multiple distance measures which fit the distribution of selected feature elements best for accurate similarity estimation. The new distance measures for similarity estimation are tested on two applications: stereo matching and motion tracking in video sequences. The performance of boosted distance measure is further evaluated on several benchmark data sets from the UCI repository and two image retrieval applications. In all the experiments, robust results are obtained based on the proposed methods.

  13. Revisiting Inter-Genre Similarity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sturm, Bob L.; Gouyon, Fabien

    2013-01-01

    We revisit the idea of ``inter-genre similarity'' (IGS) for machine learning in general, and music genre recognition in particular. We show analytically that the probability of error for IGS is higher than naive Bayes classification with zero-one loss (NB). We show empirically that IGS does...

  14. Comparison of hydrological similarity measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rianna, Maura; Ridolfi, Elena; Manciola, Piergiorgio; Napolitano, Francesco; Russo, Fabio

    2016-04-01

    The use of a traditional at site approach for the statistical characterization and simulation of spatio-temporal precipitation fields has a major recognized drawback. Indeed, the weakness of the methodology is related to the estimation of rare events and it involves the uncertainty of the at-site sample statistical inference, because of the limited length of records. In order to overcome the lack of at-site observations, regional frequency approach uses the idea of substituting space for time to estimate design floods. The conventional regional frequency analysis estimates quantile values at a specific site from multi-site analysis. The main idea is that homogeneous sites, once pooled together, have similar probability distribution curves of extremes, except for a scaling factor. The method for pooling groups of sites can be based on geographical or climatological considerations. In this work the region of influence (ROI) pooling method is compared with an entropy-based one. The ROI is a flexible pooling group approach which defines for each site its own "region" formed by a unique set of similar stations. The similarity is found through the Euclidean distance metric in the attribute space. Here an alternative approach based on entropy is introduced to cluster homogeneous sites. The core idea is that homogeneous sites share a redundant (i.e. similar) amount of information. Homogeneous sites are pooled through a hierarchical selection based on the mutual information index (i.e. a measure of redundancy). The method is tested on precipitation data in Central Italy area.

  15. HOW DISSIMILARLY SIMILAR ARE BIOSIMILARS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramshankar Vijayalakshmi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Recently Biopharmaceuticals are the new chemotherapeutical agents that are called as “Biosimilars” or “follow on protein products” by the European Medicines Agency (EMA and the American regulatory agencies (Food and Drug Administration respectively. Biosimilars are extremely similar to the reference molecule but not identical, however close their similarities may be. A regulatory framework is therefore in place to assess the application for marketing authorisation of biosimilars. When a biosimilar is similar to the reference biopharmaceutical in terms of safety, quality, and efficacy, it can be registered. It is important to document data from clinical trials with a view of similar safety and efficacy. If the development time for a generic medicine is around 3 years, a biosimilar takes about 6-9 years. Generic medicines need to demonstrate bioequivalence only unlike biosimilars that need to conduct phase I and Phase III clinical trials. In this review, different biosimilars that are already being used successfully in the field on Oncology is discussed. Their similarity, differences and guidelines to be followed before a clinically informed decision to be taken, is discussed. More importantly the regulatory guidelines that are operational in India with a work flow of making a biosimilar with relevant dos and dont’s are discussed. For a large populous country like India, where with improved treatments in all sectors including oncology, our ageing population is increasing. For the health care of this sector, we need more newer, cheaper and effective biosimilars in the market. It becomes therefore important to understand the regulatory guidelines and steps to come up with more biosimilars for the existing population and also more information is mandatory for the practicing clinicians to translate these effectively into clinical practice.

  16. Material Stock Demographics: Cars in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera Serrenho, André; Allwood, Julian M

    2016-03-15

    Recent literature on material flow analysis has been focused on quantitative characterization of past material flows. Fewer analyses exist on past and prospective quantification of stocks of materials in-use. Some of these analyses explore the composition of products' stocks, but a focus on the characterization of material stocks and its relation with service delivery is often neglected. We propose the use of the methods of human demography to characterize material stocks, defined herein as stock demographics, exploring the insights that this approach could provide for the sustainable management of materials. We exemplify an application of stock demographics by characterizing the composition and service delivery of iron, steel, and aluminum stocks of cars in Great Britain, 2002-2012. The results show that in this period the stock has become heavier, it is traveling less, and it is idle for more time. The visualization of material stocks' dynamics demonstrates the pace of product replacement as a function of its usefulness and enables the formulation of policy interventions and the exploration of future trends.

  17. Similarity searching in large combinatorial chemistry spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rarey, Matthias; Stahl, Martin

    2001-06-01

    We present a novel algorithm, called Ftrees-FS, for similarity searching in large chemistry spaces based on dynamic programming. Given a query compound, the algorithm generates sets of compounds from a given chemistry space that are similar to the query. The similarity search is based on the feature tree similarity measure representing molecules by tree structures. This descriptor allows handling combinatorial chemistry spaces as a whole instead of looking at subsets of enumerated compounds. Within few minutes of computing time, the algorithm is able to find the most similar compound in very large spaces as well as sets of compounds at an arbitrary similarity level. In addition, the diversity among the generated compounds can be controlled. A set of 17 000 fragments of known drugs, generated by the RECAP procedure from the World Drug Index, was used as the search chemistry space. These fragments can be combined to more than 1018 compounds of reasonable size. For validation, known antagonists/inhibitors of several targets including dopamine D4, histamine H1, and COX2 are used as queries. Comparison of the compounds created by Ftrees-FS to other known actives demonstrates the ability of the method to jump between structurally unrelated molecule classes.

  18. Composite likelihood estimation of demographic parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garrigan Daniel

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most existing likelihood-based methods for fitting historical demographic models to DNA sequence polymorphism data to do not scale feasibly up to the level of whole-genome data sets. Computational economies can be achieved by incorporating two forms of pseudo-likelihood: composite and approximate likelihood methods. Composite likelihood enables scaling up to large data sets because it takes the product of marginal likelihoods as an estimator of the likelihood of the complete data set. This approach is especially useful when a large number of genomic regions constitutes the data set. Additionally, approximate likelihood methods can reduce the dimensionality of the data by summarizing the information in the original data by either a sufficient statistic, or a set of statistics. Both composite and approximate likelihood methods hold promise for analyzing large data sets or for use in situations where the underlying demographic model is complex and has many parameters. This paper considers a simple demographic model of allopatric divergence between two populations, in which one of the population is hypothesized to have experienced a founder event, or population bottleneck. A large resequencing data set from human populations is summarized by the joint frequency spectrum, which is a matrix of the genomic frequency spectrum of derived base frequencies in two populations. A Bayesian Metropolis-coupled Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMCMC method for parameter estimation is developed that uses both composite and likelihood methods and is applied to the three different pairwise combinations of the human population resequence data. The accuracy of the method is also tested on data sets sampled from a simulated population model with known parameters. Results The Bayesian MCMCMC method also estimates the ratio of effective population size for the X chromosome versus that of the autosomes. The method is shown to estimate, with reasonable

  19. Value Orientations and the Second Demographic Transition (SDT in Northern, Western and Southern Europe: An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The core issue in this article is the empirical tracing of the connection between a variety of value orientations and the life course choices concerning living arrangements and family formation. The existence of such a connection is a crucial element in the so-called theory of the Second Demographic Transition (SDT. The underlying model is of a recursive nature and based on two effects: firstly, values-based self-selection of individuals into alternative living arrangement or household types, and secondly, event-based adaptation of values to the newly chosen household situation. Any testing of such a recursive model requires the use of panel data. Failing these, only "footprints" of the two effects can be derived and traced in cross-sectional data. Here, use is made of the latest round of the European Values Surveys of 1999-2000, mainly because no other source has such a large selection of value items. The comparison involves two Iberian countries, three western European ones, and two Scandinavian samples. The profiles of the value orientations are based on 80 items which cover a variety of dimensions (e.g. religiosity, ethics, civil morality, family values, social cohesion, expressive values, gender role orientations, trust in institutions, protest proneness and post-materialism, tolerance for minorities etc.. These are analysed according to eight different household positions based on the transitions to independent living, cohabitation and marriage, parenthood and union dissolution. Multiple Classification Analysis (MCA is used to control for confounding effects of other relevant covariates (age, gender, education, economic activity and stratification, urbanity. Subsequently, Correspondence Analysis is used to picture the proximities between the 80 value items and the eight household positions. Very similar value profiles according to household position are found for the three sets of countries, despite the fact that the onset of the SDT in

  20. [Comparison between the qualitative similarity and the quantitative similarity of chromatographic fingerprints of traditional Chinese medicines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Guo-Xiang; Hou, Zhi-Fei; Zhang, Chun-Ling; Bi, Kai-Shun; Sun, Yu-Qing

    2007-01-01

    To explore the differences between the qualitative similarity and the quantitative similarity of chromatographic fingerprints of traditional Chinese medicines, the quantitative similarity calculated by vector shadow C%, apparent quantitative similarity R%, quantitative similarity P%, etc. were firstly proposed to disclose the quantitative information characteristics of traditional Chinese medicines fingerprints. The HPLC fingerprints of both the standard Fructus gardeniae and the ten batches of Fructus gardeniae produced in different places were evaluated by the new parameters to obtain good results. The contrasted fingerprint contained 35 peaks while geniposide was selected as the reference peak. The HPLC fingerprint had good precision and reproducibility with the RSD of the relative retention time less than 1.5% and the RSD of the relative peak area within 5%. The qualitative similarity and quantitative similarity between each crude drug and the contrasted fingerprint were quantitatively calculated, the values of C%, P%, etc., were applied in the quality control practice, which had less errors. What is more, this method could be used for the overall quality control of Fructus gardeniae and especially suits for qualitative and quantitative evaluations of the chromatographic fingerprints both in chemical constituent distribution and in contents. The quantitative parameters such as C% and P% can be used to objectively, authentically and thoroughly display the content information characteristics. When they combined with the qualitative similarity, it will be the good method to evaluate the chromatographic fingerprints of traditional Chinese medicines.

  1. Self-similarity Driven Demosaicking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Buades

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Digital cameras record only one color component per pixel, red, green or blue. Demosaicking is the process by which one can infer a whole color matrix from such a matrix of values, thus interpolating the two missing color values per pixel. In this article we propose a demosaicking method based on the property of non-local self-similarity of images.

  2. Sparse Similarity-Based Fisherfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagertun, Jens; Gomez, David Delgado; Hansen, Mads Fogtmann;

    2011-01-01

    In this work, the effect of introducing Sparse Principal Component Analysis within the Similarity-based Fisherfaces algorithm is examined. The technique aims at mimicking the human ability to discriminate faces by projecting the faces in a highly discriminative and easy interpretative way. Pixel...... obtain the same recognition results as the technique in a dense version using only a fraction of the input data. Furthermore, the presented results suggest that using SPCA in the technique offers robustness to occlusions....

  3. Association between Social and Demographic Factors with Feeding Methods in

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    Maryam Gholamalizadeh

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Healthy Nutrition has an important role in childhood. Food habits of a child probably will continue to adulthood and increase the risk of many chronic diseases. Role of parents in child nutrition as a food producer and eating pattern has recognized to most important factor of child nutrition. Recent studies have shown that the methods used by parents to child feeding have an important role in the child’s diet and BMI. This paper aimed to investigate which parents use which types of parenting control practices to manage their children’s nutrition. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 208 parents with children aged 3-6 years was carried out in 30 primary schools. Measures included demographic and social factors and aspects of child feeding practices.Results: Results showed that stay at home mothers used more modeling practices. Mothers of sons used more pressure to eat than others. Older mothers used less pressure to eat. Mothers with higher BMI used more emotion regulation strategy and less modeling. And mothers with more education used more modeling.Conclusion: The results showed a significant relationship between demographic and social factors with aspects of the feeding practices.

  4. Roget's Thesaurus and Semantic Similarity

    CERN Document Server

    Jarmasz, Mario

    2012-01-01

    We have implemented a system that measures semantic similarity using a computerized 1987 Roget's Thesaurus, and evaluated it by performing a few typical tests. We compare the results of these tests with those produced by WordNet-based similarity measures. One of the benchmarks is Miller and Charles' list of 30 noun pairs to which human judges had assigned similarity measures. We correlate these measures with those computed by several NLP systems. The 30 pairs can be traced back to Rubenstein and Goodenough's 65 pairs, which we have also studied. Our Roget's-based system gets correlations of .878 for the smaller and .818 for the larger list of noun pairs; this is quite close to the .885 that Resnik obtained when he employed humans to replicate the Miller and Charles experiment. We further evaluate our measure by using Roget's and WordNet to answer 80 TOEFL, 50 ESL and 300 Reader's Digest questions: the correct synonym must be selected amongst a group of four words. Our system gets 78.75%, 82.00% and 74.33% of ...

  5. Active browsing using similarity pyramids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jau-Yuen; Bouman, Charles A.; Dalton, John C.

    1998-12-01

    In this paper, we describe a new approach to managing large image databases, which we call active browsing. Active browsing integrates relevance feedback into the browsing environment, so that users can modify the database's organization to suit the desired task. Our method is based on a similarity pyramid data structure, which hierarchically organizes the database, so that it can be efficiently browsed. At coarse levels, the similarity pyramid allows users to view the database as large clusters of similar images. Alternatively, users can 'zoom into' finer levels to view individual images. We discuss relevance feedback for the browsing process, and argue that it is fundamentally different from relevance feedback for more traditional search-by-query tasks. We propose two fundamental operations for active browsing: pruning and reorganization. Both of these operations depend on a user-defined relevance set, which represents the image or set of images desired by the user. We present statistical methods for accurately pruning the database, and we propose a new 'worm hole' distance metric for reorganizing the database, so that members of the relevance set are grouped together.

  6. Self-Similar Collisionless Shocks

    CERN Document Server

    Katz, B; Waxman, E; Katz, Boaz; Keshet, Uri; Waxman, Eli

    2006-01-01

    Observations of gamma-ray burst afterglows suggest that the correlation length of magnetic field fluctuations downstream of relativistic non-magnetized collisionless shocks grows with distance from the shock to scales much larger than the plasma skin depth. We argue that this indicates that the plasma properties are described by a self-similar solution, and derive constraints on the scaling properties of the solution. For example, we find that the scaling of the characteristic magnetic field amplitude with distance from the shock is B \\propto D^{s_B} with -1 \\propto x^{2s_B} (for x>>D). We show that the plasma may be approximated as a combination of two self-similar components: a kinetic component of energetic particles and an MHD-like component representing "thermal" particles. We argue that the latter may be considered as infinitely conducting, in which case s_B=0 and the scalings are completely determined (e.g. dn/dE \\propto E^{-2} and B \\propto D^0). Similar claims apply to non- relativistic shocks such a...

  7. Chiropractors in Finland – a demographic survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malmqvist Stefan

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Finnish chiropractic profession is young and not fully accepted by Finnish healthcare authorities. The demographic profile and style of practice has not been described to date. However, as the profession seems to be under rapid development, it would be of interest to stakeholders, both chiropractic and political, to obtain a baseline description of this profession with a view to the development of future goals and strategies for the profession. The purpose of this study was to describe the chiropractic profession in Finland in relation to its demographic background, the demographics of their clinics, practice patterns, interactions with other health care practitioners and some of the professions' plans for the future. Methods A structured questionnaire survey was conducted in 2005, in which all 50 members of the Finnish Chiropractic Union were invited to participate. Results In all, 44 questionnaires were returned (response rate 88%. Eighty percent of the respondents were men, and 77% were aged 30 to 44 years old, most of whom graduated after 1990 with either a university-based bachelors' or masters' degree in chiropractic. Solo practice was their main practice pattern. The vast majority described their scope of practice to be based on a musculoskeletal approach, using the Diversified Technique, performing Soft Tissue Therapy and about two-thirds also used an Activator Instrument (mechanical adjusting instrument. The mean number of patient visits reported to have been seen weekly was 59 of which nine were new patients. Most practitioners found this number of patients satisfactory. At the initial consultation, 80% of respondents spent 30–45 minutes with their patients, 75% spent 20–30 minutes with "new old" patients and on subsequent visits 80% of respondents spent 15–30 minutes. Interactions with other health care professions were reasonably good and most of chiropractors intended to remain within the profession

  8. Demographic shifts in the Czech Republic after 1989 : A second demographic transition view

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sobotka, T.; Zeman, K.; Kantorova, V.

    2003-01-01

    A dramatic change in fertility, family formation and living arrangements took place in the Czech Republic over the 1990s. The establishment of democracy, profound social transformation and transition to the market economy affected the values and demographic behaviour of the young Czech generation.

  9. Mortality-fertility synergies during the demographic transition in the developed world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Barricarte, Jesús J

    2017-07-01

    The classic theory used to explain the demographic transition assumes that mortality is the key explanatory variable influencing the decline in fertility. However, the empirical results obtained in what is known as the Princeton European Fertility Project have led many specialists to question this assumption. Using both national and provincial aggregated data for 25 countries over a long time span, the analysis reported in this paper found that mortality does indeed play a fundamental role in accounting for the main demographic changes that occurred both before and during the transitional period. Others' research based on individual data has shown clearly that the number of surviving children was indeed an important factor for reproductive decisions. My analysis, using aggregated data, reached largely similar conclusions regarding the role of mortality in changing reproductive trends, via its impact on nuptiality and marital fertility at different stages of the demographic transition.

  10. 3D face analysis for demographic biometrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokola, Ryan A [ORNL; Mikkilineni, Aravind K [ORNL; Boehnen, Chris Bensing [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Despite being increasingly easy to acquire, 3D data is rarely used for face-based biometrics applications beyond identification. Recent work in image-based demographic biometrics has enjoyed much success, but these approaches suffer from the well-known limitations of 2D representations, particularly variations in illumination, texture, and pose, as well as a fundamental inability to describe 3D shape. This paper shows that simple 3D shape features in a face-based coordinate system are capable of representing many biometric attributes without problem-specific models or specialized domain knowledge. The same feature vector achieves impressive results for problems as diverse as age estimation, gender classification, and race classification.

  11. Trust and its Relationship to Demographic Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asghar Mirfardi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Social trust is the main theme in the social life. Trust is “the expectation that arises within a community of regular, honest and cooperative behavior, based on commonly shared norms”. Development, social trust and security are intertwined categories and have interaction to each other. Social trust, as a main factor in social capital, provide social context for developmental programs. This study, examine the affect of Demographic factors on the social trust to others. As social trust is a key factor in social relationship, this study is needed to evaluate such factor according to demographic factors. Approach: This study has been done on existing data about Iranian values and attitudes. Some factors such as gender, age, education level, job situation, marital situation have been studied in this study. Some of these variables such as education, correspondence to development level, especially in social development. This study is done via documental method (archive and Documental data about mentioned themes and second analysis of The Iranian National Values and attitudes Survey (2000. Results: Findings of this study indicated that there is significant relationship between all of independent variables (Gender, age, education level, job situation, marital situation and social trust to families and relatives, there is significant relationship between variables such as gender, education level, job situation, marital situation (independent variables and social trust to friends. Analyzing the data showed that, the residents of less and more developed cities have different situation in trust. Conclusion/Recommendations: This study introduces three types of trust upon the development level of societies. Trust in Iran is an example of trust structure in developing societies.

  12. Geriatric trauma: demographics, injuries, and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Julie M; Sciadini, Marcus F; Sinclair, Elizabeth; O'Toole, Robert V

    2012-09-01

    To identify injuries that elderly sustain during high-energy trauma and determine which are associated with mortality. Retrospective review of prospectively collected database. Academic trauma center. Patients selected from database of all trauma admissions from January 2004 through June 2009. Study population consisted of patients directly admitted from scene of injury who sustained high-energy trauma with at least one orthopaedic injury and were 65 years or older (n = 597). Review of demographics, trauma markers, injuries, and disposition statuses. Statistical analysis using χ test, Student t test, and logistic regression analysis. The most common fractures were of the rib, distal radius, pelvic ring, facial bones, proximal humerus, clavicle, ankle, and sacrum. The injuries associated with the highest mortality rates were fractures of the cervical spine with neurological deficit (47%), at the C2 level (44%), and of the proximal femur (25%), pelvic ring (25%), clavicle (24%), and distal humerus (24%). The fractures significantly associated with mortality were fractures of the clavicle (P = 0.001), foot joints (P = 0.001), proximal humerus or shaft and head of the humerus (P = 0.002), sacroiliac joint (P = 0.004), and distal ulna (P = 0.002). Elderly patients present with significantly worse injuries, remain in the hospital longer, require greater use of resources after discharge, and die at 3 times the rate of the younger population. Although the high mortality rates associated with cervical spine, hip, and pelvic ring fractures were not unexpected, the injuries that were statistically associated with mortality were unexpected. Injuries such as clavicle fracture were statistically associated with mortality. As our population ages and becomes more active, the demographic may gain in clinical importance. Prognostic Level II. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  13. Assessing protein kinase target similarity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Osman A; Thakkar, Balmukund; Narayanan, Dilip

    2015-01-01

    : focussed chemical libraries, drug repurposing, polypharmacological design, to name a few. Protein kinase target similarity is easily quantified by sequence, and its relevance to ligand design includes broad classification by key binding sites, evaluation of resistance mutations, and the use of surrogate......" of sequence and crystal structure information, with statistical methods able to identify key correlates to activity but also here, "the devil is in the details." Examples from specific repurposing and polypharmacology applications illustrate these points. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled...

  14. DETERMINING HABITUAL DEMOGRAPHIC COORDINATES AND HEALTH FOR PRIMARY SCHOOL CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toma G.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available An important aspect is social learning involves acquisition of knowledge, skills, abilities, habits over from friends, colleagues, social group they belong to.Purpose and research hypothesisSmall school activities is more effective if concrete terms of reference that would bring back to memory certain knowledge that to suggest solutions to solve and give him the opportunity to correct by comparing statements reality, this is why the main method of conducting educational process is observation.Working methodResearch group consisted of children of school age (7-12 years. Demographic information about the subjects covered: health, family composition and housing.Research resultsThe vast majority of children had good health, with no differences between the control group and the experimental group (p = 0.428. Regarding housing conditions, over half (57.1% in the control group and 51.4% in control group live in two rooms, no child lives in a studio and two children in the experimental group live at home with yard. In both groups, two children did not provide information regarding their housing situation. Of children included in the study, a very high percentage (82.9% in the control group and 68.6% in the experimental group is single copies: only six children in the control group and 10 in the control group have brothers or sisters. Under these conditions, more than half of the children have their own room (65.7% in the control group and 57.1% in the experimental group, the rest sharing a room with a brother or sister, or parents (in the case of two children experimental group.ConclusionsWe conclude that in terms of demographic variables (health status, family composition, housing, there are no differences between children in the two groups. Optimal integration in a social environment is based not only on the correct development of intellectual faculties, namely, the possibility of natural evolution on the moral values, scientific and so on, but

  15. Mechanisms for similarity based cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traulsen, A.

    2008-06-01

    Cooperation based on similarity has been discussed since Richard Dawkins introduced the term “green beard” effect. In these models, individuals cooperate based on an aribtrary signal (or tag) such as the famous green beard. Here, two different models for such tag based cooperation are analysed. As neutral drift is important in both models, a finite population framework is applied. The first model, which we term “cooperative tags” considers a situation in which groups of cooperators are formed by some joint signal. Defectors adopting the signal and exploiting the group can lead to a breakdown of cooperation. In this case, conditions are derived under which the average abundance of the more cooperative strategy exceeds 50%. The second model considers a situation in which individuals start defecting towards others that are not similar to them. This situation is termed “defective tags”. It is shown that in this case, individuals using tags to cooperate exclusively with their own kind dominate over unconditional cooperators.

  16. Simulating free-roaming cat population management options in open demographic environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip S Miller

    Full Text Available Large populations of free-roaming cats (FRCs generate ongoing concerns for welfare of both individual animals and populations, for human public health, for viability of native wildlife populations, and for local ecological damage. Managing FRC populations is a complex task, without universal agreement on best practices. Previous analyses that use simulation modeling tools to evaluate alternative management methods have focused on relative efficacy of removal (or trap-return, TR, typically involving euthanasia, and sterilization (or trap-neuter-return, TNR in demographically isolated populations. We used a stochastic demographic simulation approach to evaluate removal, permanent sterilization, and two postulated methods of temporary contraception for FRC population management. Our models include demographic connectivity to neighboring untreated cat populations through natural dispersal in a metapopulation context across urban and rural landscapes, and also feature abandonment of owned animals. Within population type, a given implementation rate of the TR strategy results in the most rapid rate of population decline and (when populations are isolated the highest probability of population elimination, followed in order of decreasing efficacy by equivalent rates of implementation of TNR and temporary contraception. Even low levels of demographic connectivity significantly reduce the effectiveness of any management intervention, and continued abandonment is similarly problematic. This is the first demographic simulation analysis to consider the use of temporary contraception and account for the realities of FRC dispersal and owned cat abandonment.

  17. Predator-induced demographic shifts in coral reef fish assemblages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin I Ruttenberg

    Full Text Available In recent years, it has become apparent that human impacts have altered community structure in coastal and marine ecosystems worldwide. Of these, fishing is one of the most pervasive, and a growing body of work suggests that fishing can have strong effects on the ecology of target species, especially top predators. However, the effects of removing top predators on lower trophic groups of prey fishes are less clear, particularly in highly diverse and trophically complex coral reef ecosystems. We examined patterns of abundance, size structure, and age-based demography through surveys and collection-based studies of five fish species from a variety of trophic levels at Kiritimati and Palmyra, two nearby atolls in the Northern Line Islands. These islands have similar biogeography and oceanography, and yet Kiritimati has ∼10,000 people with extensive local fishing while Palmyra is a US National Wildlife Refuge with no permanent human population, no fishing, and an intact predator fauna. Surveys indicated that top predators were relatively larger and more abundant at unfished Palmyra, while prey functional groups were relatively smaller but showed no clear trends in abundance as would be expected from classic trophic cascades. Through detailed analyses of focal species, we found that size and longevity of a top predator were lower at fished Kiritimati than at unfished Palmyra. Demographic patterns also shifted dramatically for 4 of 5 fish species in lower trophic groups, opposite in direction to the top predator, including decreases in average size and longevity at Palmyra relative to Kiritimati. Overall, these results suggest that fishing may alter community structure in complex and non-intuitive ways, and that indirect demographic effects should be considered more broadly in ecosystem-based management.

  18. A demographic survey of unwanted horses in Ireland 2005-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leadon DP

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Irish Horse Industry expanded during the Celtic Tiger boom years, then contracted in the current economic recession. High value horses were traditionally controlled through sale at public auction, private sales and sales to dealers; these are now also being reduced by decreases in production (> 40%, and increases in retirement, re-homing, euthanasia and disposal through Category 2 plants and abattoirs. The absence or banning of horse abattoirs has been shown to have very significant welfare social and economic consequences in the USA. This study described the currently available data on the demographics of unwanted horses in Ireland from 2005 to 2010. Results The majority of horses euthanised by practicing veterinarians are destroyed on medical grounds but the number euthanised at the request of welfare groups and the state, as well as welfare related calls and the number of horses involved in these calls and subsequent visits is increasing reflecting the increasing involvement of the veterinary profession in equine welfare. Welfare groups have limited resources and do not have a tradition of recording data, but they too have reported increasing calls, visits and numbers of horses per visit. Welfare groups provide significant service to equine welfare and the community. Local Authorities report similar trends. Over 300 horses were found dead or required immediate or subsequent euthanasia following welfare group and local authority visits in 2010, which is of national concern. The majority of local authority interfaces with unwanted horses are with urban (60% rather than rural (40% horses. Mortality figures are poor indicators of non-fatal neglect. More horses were admitted into the care of local authorities than welfare groups, reflecting significant state and taxpayer investment in the control of low value horses. Category 2 plants and abattoirs represent a significant state investment in licensing and control in the

  19. Similarity in romantic couples' drinking motivations and drinking behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehayes, Ivy-Lee L; Mackinnon, Sean P; Sherry, Simon B; Leonard, Kenneth E; Stewart, Sherry H

    2017-07-20

    Research suggests that enhancement, conformity, social, coping-with-anxiety, and coping-with-depression drinking motives are linked to specific drinking outcomes in a theoretically expected manner. Social learning theory suggests that people who spend more time together emulate each other's behavior to acquire reinforcing outcomes. The present study sought to integrate drinking motives theory and social learning theory to investigate similarity in drinking behaviors and drinking motives in romantic couples. We hypothesized that couples would be more similar than chance in their drinking behaviors and motives. We also hypothesized that demographics reflecting time around and interactions with romantic partners (e.g., days spent drinking together) would positively correlate with similarity in drinking behaviors and motivations. The present study tested hypotheses in 203 romantic couples. Participants completed a Timeline Follow-Back measure and the Modified Drinking Motives Questionnaire-Revised to track their alcohol use and drinking motives. Similarity profiles were calculated using McCrae's (J Pers Assess. 2008;90:105-109) coefficient of profile agreement, rpa. Couples were more similar in their drinking behavioral and motivational profiles than could be explained by chance. Days spent drinking together and days with face-to-face contact predicted increased similarity in drinking behavior profiles, but not similarity in drinking motives profiles. Results are partially consistent with social learning theory and suggest that social influences within couples could be important intervention targets to prevent escalations in drinking.

  20. Semantically enabled image similarity search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casterline, May V.; Emerick, Timothy; Sadeghi, Kolia; Gosse, C. A.; Bartlett, Brent; Casey, Jason

    2015-05-01

    Georeferenced data of various modalities are increasingly available for intelligence and commercial use, however effectively exploiting these sources demands a unified data space capable of capturing the unique contribution of each input. This work presents a suite of software tools for representing geospatial vector data and overhead imagery in a shared high-dimension vector or embedding" space that supports fused learning and similarity search across dissimilar modalities. While the approach is suitable for fusing arbitrary input types, including free text, the present work exploits the obvious but computationally difficult relationship between GIS and overhead imagery. GIS is comprised of temporally-smoothed but information-limited content of a GIS, while overhead imagery provides an information-rich but temporally-limited perspective. This processing framework includes some important extensions of concepts in literature but, more critically, presents a means to accomplish them as a unified framework at scale on commodity cloud architectures.

  1. SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES BETWEEN COMPANIES

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    NAGY CRISTINA MIHAELA

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available act: Similarities between the accounting of companies and territorial administrative units accounting are the following: organizing double entry accounting; accounting method both in terms of fundamental theoretical principles and specific practical tools. The differences between the accounting of companies and of territorial administrative units refer to: the accounting of territorial administrative units includes besides general accounting (financial also budgetary accounting, and the accounts system of the budgetary accounting is completely different from that of companies; financial statements of territorial administrative units to which leaders are not main authorizing officers are submitted to the hierarchically superior body (not at MPF; the accounts of territorial administrative units are opened at treasury and financial institutions, accounts at commercial banks being prohibited; equity accounts in territorial administrative units are structured into groups of funds; long term debts have a specific structure in territorial administrative units (internal local public debt and external local public debt.

  2. Performance Indexes: Similarities and Differences

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    André Machado Caldeira

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The investor of today is more rigorous on monitoring a financial assets portfolio. He no longer thinks only in terms of the expected return (one dimension, but in terms of risk-return (two dimensions. Thus new perception is more complex, since the risk measurement can vary according to anyone’s perception; some use the standard deviation for that, others disagree with this measure by proposing others. In addition to this difficulty, there is the problem of how to consider these two dimensions. The objective of this essay is to study the main performance indexes through an empirical study in order to verify the differences and similarities for some of the selected assets. One performance index proposed in Caldeira (2005 shall be included in this analysis.

  3. Features Based Text Similarity Detection

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    Kent, Chow Kok

    2010-01-01

    As the Internet help us cross cultural border by providing different information, plagiarism issue is bound to arise. As a result, plagiarism detection becomes more demanding in overcoming this issue. Different plagiarism detection tools have been developed based on various detection techniques. Nowadays, fingerprint matching technique plays an important role in those detection tools. However, in handling some large content articles, there are some weaknesses in fingerprint matching technique especially in space and time consumption issue. In this paper, we propose a new approach to detect plagiarism which integrates the use of fingerprint matching technique with four key features to assist in the detection process. These proposed features are capable to choose the main point or key sentence in the articles to be compared. Those selected sentence will be undergo the fingerprint matching process in order to detect the similarity between the sentences. Hence, time and space usage for the comparison process is r...

  4. Understanding attitudes toward the control of nonnative wild and feral mammals: similarities and differences in the opinions of the general public, animal protectionists, and conservationists in New Zealand (aotearoa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnworth, Mark J; Watson, Helen; Adams, Nigel J

    2014-01-01

    Lethal control is used extensively in New Zealand to control nonnative nonhuman mammals. Respondents were surveyed about 8 mammal groups considered pests and their attitudes toward their control and pest status. They also identified the most appropriate method of control for the 8 different mammals. Information was gathered from 3 groups of respondents: nonhuman animal protectionists, conservationists, and the general public. Conservationists routinely rated all animal groups as more severe pests than the general public or animal protectionists, who provided the lowest scores. Rats, stoats, brushtail possums, and rabbits were identified as the 4 most serious pests by all 3 groups. Conservationists were 5.7 and 2.6 times more likely to prefer a lethal method of control than protectionists and the general public, respectively. For all 3 groups an increase in pest score for a given animal saw a decline in importance placed upon the animal's welfare. This relationship was strong for the general public but weak for conservationists and animal protectionists. Understanding aspects of potentially opposing viewpoints may be invaluable in supporting the development of new welfare-focused control methods.

  5. Some Demographic Changes in the Population of Montenegro with the Projection of Future Demographic Development

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    Goran Rajović

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Dramatic demographic changes through which in recent decade’s passes Montenegrin society, the consequences arising from the new realities require a serious socio-political engagement. Process of population aging, that began the seventies of the 20th century, represents a significant problem. The process of demographic change was accompanied by an internal migration to major urban centers, primarily Podgorica and Montenegrin coast, leading to emptying the interior of Montenegro. Unfortunately, this development of the population structure of Montenegro opens a series of questions and challenges that would the creators of the future you should put high on the scale of its priorities. In this text we will point out on change of total number of citizens of Montenegro according to the base and chain indexes of 1921-2011 and population in Montenegro 2016–2091 (cohort model projections.

  6. Demographic Factors, Personality and Entrepreneurial Inclination: A Study among Indian University Students

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    Chaudhary, Richa

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the influence of demographic, social and personal dispositional factors on determining the entrepreneurial inclination. Specifically, the author examined the role of gender, age, stream of study, family business background and six psychological traits of locus of control, tolerance for…

  7. Use of Focus Group Data to Develop Recommendations for Demographically Segmented Colorectal Cancer Educational Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Cheryl L.; Shipp, Michele; Eloubeidi, Mohamad; Clay, Kimberly S.; Smith-Janas, Mary Ann; Janas, Michael John; Britt, Kristi; Norena, Maria; Fouad, Mona N.

    2009-01-01

    Screening is available and effective in colorectal cancer (CRC) control, but underutilized. The purpose of this study was to use focus group data to develop recommendations for the development of educational interventions to increase CRC screening, using an audience segmentation strategy. Demographic segments were based on urban-rural residence,…

  8. Who We Really Are: Demographic Factors that Predict Student Service Leadership

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    Arnold, Paul P.; Welch, Marshall

    2007-01-01

    Demographic data were collected from 38 program directors in a university-based community service center and a control group of 62 other students not engaged in any service activity randomly selected at a large, urban, research university. A series of multiple regression analysis were conducted to identify significant predictors of students likely…

  9. Demographic Trends, Policy Influences, and Economic Effects in China and India Through 2025

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    control perceived increases in violence by such males, lead to larger armies that pursue expansionist policies, or even cause public health problems...Developing Countries: Capturing the Second Demographic Dividend,” Genus , Vol. 57, No. 2, 2006, pp. 11–35. Ministry of Rural Areas and Employment, “NSAP

  10. The Influence of Demographic/Psychological Factors and Preexisting Conditions on the Near-Death Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twemlow, Stuart W.; Gabbard, Glen O.

    1985-01-01

    Examined preexisting psychological, perceptual-cognitive, demographic, and physical differences between 34 adults reporting near-death experiences and 386 controls. Results indicated differences in perceptual-cognitive style in those reporting near-death experiences. Medical conditions have some effect on the experience. (JAC)

  11. Demographic responses of Heterocypris incongruens (Ostracoda related to stress factors of competition, predation and food

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    Rocio Fernandez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Heterocypris incongruens is a widely distributed ostracod which can maintain its populations under stressful conditions such as those in temporary ponds and under low-quality diets, for example, detritus. It often co-occurs with cladocerans and fish living in shallow water bodies. Nevertheless, little is known about its response to the presence of predators, its consumption capacity of cyanobacteria typically present in eutrophic systems, and its interaction with other species in similar habits. We studied here the demographic responses of H. incongruens fed the green alga Scenedesmus acutus, two strains of Microcystis cf. aeruginosa and Limnothrix sp. Experiments were conducted separately and together in the presence of the cladoceran Simocephalus vetulus and the cichlid fish, Oreochromis kairomones. The ostracod maintained growth in all treatments, the reproductive output decreased on dietary Limnothrix sp., and its life expectancy was significantly lower with the toxic strain of Microcystis. The coexistence of both crustacean species increased the rate of population growth (~ 0.33 day-1 of S. vetulus and life expectancy (36-44 days of H. incongruens on the test diets compared with controls (23-33 days. Our study suggests facilitation affects the interaction between the two microcrustaceans, especially on poor quality cyanobacterial diets.

  12. Demographic impact of vaccination: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonanni, P

    1999-10-29

    Vaccination is one of the most powerful means to save lives and to increase the level of health of mankind. However, the impact of immunization against the most threatening infectious agents on life expectancy has been the object of a still open debate. The main issues are: the relative influence of nutrition and infectious diseases on demographic patterns of populations; the possibility that lives saved thanks to vaccination are subsequently lost due to other competing causes of death; the positive indirect effect of immunization on other causes of death. With regard to past evidence, several data from the United Kingdom and Scandinavian countries show that the widespread use of smallpox vaccination starting at the beginning of the nineteenth century resulted in a marked and sustained decline not only of smallpox-related deaths, but also of the overall crude death rate, and contributed greatly to an unprecedented growth of European population. As to the present, it is estimated that 3 million children are saved annually by vaccination, but 2 million still die because they are not immunized. Tetanus, measles and pertussis are the main vaccine-preventable killers in the first years of life. Data from Bangladesh show that full implementation of EPI vaccines has the potential of reducing mortality by almost one half in children aged 1-4 years. Recent progress in the development of vaccines against agents responsible for much mortality in the developing countries make it possible to forecast a further substantial reduction of deaths for infectious diseases in the next century.

  13. The shifting demographic landscape of pandemic influenza.

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    Shweta Bansal

    Full Text Available As Pandemic (H1N1 2009 influenza spreads around the globe, it strikes school-age children more often than adults. Although there is some evidence of pre-existing immunity among older adults, this alone may not explain the significant gap in age-specific infection rates.Based on a retrospective analysis of pandemic strains of influenza from the last century, we show that school-age children typically experience the highest attack rates in primarily naive populations, with the burden shifting to adults during the subsequent season. Using a parsimonious network-based mathematical model which incorporates the changing distribution of contacts in the susceptible population, we demonstrate that new pandemic strains of influenza are expected to shift the epidemiological landscape in exactly this way.Our analysis provides a simple demographic explanation for the age bias observed for H1N1/09 attack rates, and suggests that this bias may shift in coming months. These results have significant implications for the allocation of public health resources for H1N1/09 and future influenza pandemics.

  14. Coping behaviour of female teachers: Demographic determinants

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    M Chaturvedi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The study investigates the role of certain demographic variables in determining stress-coping behavior of female teachers. Materials and Methods: The sample consists of 150 female teachers selected by stratified sampling method from various schools of Bhopal. Stress-coping behavior was measured with the help of a subscale of ′The Occupational Stress Indicator′ (Wendy Lord, 1993 consisting of 28 items encompassing six dimensions of coping strategies i.e. Logics, Involvement, Social Support, Task Strategies, Time Management and Home and Work Relations. The scores of the subjects were compared in terms of marital status, age, and level of teaching with the help of ′t′ test and ′F′ test was used for comparing experience. Results: Marital status, age, and experience were found to be significant determinants of stress-coping, whereas the sores did not differ significantly on the basis of level of teaching. Conclusion: Married teachers in the age range of 40-60 years, with higher experience can cope better with the job stress than their counterparts.

  15. Demographics of Resonances in Exoplanetary Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragozzine, Darin; Conaway, James L.; MacDonald, Mariah G.; Sallee, Victor

    2016-10-01

    NASA's Kepler Space Telescope has identified ~700 systems of multiple transiting exoplanets containing ~1700 planets. Most of these multi-transiting systems have 3-5 planets small planets with periods of roughly 5-50 days and are known as Systems with Tightly-spaced Inner Planets (STIPs). These information-rich exoplanetary systems have precisely measured period ratios which allows for the identification and characterization of orbital mean motion resonances. Improved understanding of the resonant populations will reveal much about the formation and evolution of planetary systems. Lissauer, Ragozzine, et al. 2011 found that most Kepler systems were not in resonance, but that there was a small excess of planets wide of resonance. We present new analyses that rigorously identify the frequency of planets in multiple resonances (including three-body resonances) and thus identify many specific new results on the demographics of resonances. We also show that the apparent over-abundance of resonances can be attributed to a difference in inclinations (potentially from dissipation) with implications for the true underlying frequency of resonant systems. We compare the period ratio distribution of Kepler (corrected for inclination biases) to Radial Velocity (RV) surveys and conclude that RV systems are often missing small intermediate planets. This has serious implications for the completeness of RV identification of planets in STIPs.

  16. Demographic evidence for adaptive theories of aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitteldorf, J J

    2012-07-01

    Pleiotropic theories for the evolutionary origins of senescence have been ascendant for forty years (see, for example, G. Williams (1957) Evolution, 11, 398-411; T. Kirkwood (1977) Nature, 270, 301-304), and it is not surprising that interpreters of demographic data seek to frame their results in this context. But some of that evidence finds a much more natural explanation in terms of adaptive aging. Here we re-interpret the 1997 results of the Centenarian Study in Boston, which found in their sample of centenarian women an excess of late childbearing. The finding was originally interpreted as a selection effect: a metabolic link between late menopause and longevity. But we demonstrate that this interpretation is statistically strained, and that the data in fact indicate a causal link: bearing a child late in life induces a metabolic response that promotes longevity. This conclusion directly contradicts some pleiotropic theories of aging that postulate a "cost of reproduction", and it supports theories of aging as an adaptive genetic program.

  17. Demographic research in the Arab Middle East: opportunities, barriers, and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, R H

    1981-06-01

    The demographic characteristics of the Arab region that present opportunities for population research are described, and existing obstacles to research are discussed. Additionally, the prospects for improving the situation are explored. The combination of high fertility, moderately low mortality, and in some instances massive new immigration have produced extremely rapid rates of population growth. During the early 1970s the population of the United Arab Emirates increased by an annual rate of at least 15%, Qatar's population by 8.5% annually, and Kuwait's population by 6% annually. Even the labor exporting countries had high rates of population growth. Thus the slowest growth between 1970 and 1975 occurred in Yemen, where the annual rate of population growth was 1.8%. Because of the large growth gap between birth and death rates in the Arab countries, the age composition is very young. Such young age composition reduces measures of fertility and mortality that do not control for age. It also means that rapid population growth will not cease in the near future. These are the major demographic characteristics of the region and some of the major opportunities for demographic research they present. Obstacles to research in the region include the absence of a tradition of census taking or survey research for demographic purposes and the absence of a registration system for vital statistics in many of the countries. According to informed sources, the governments involved are not always supportive of research per se. Political instability often works against conducting demographic research. Another obstacle to demographic research in the Arab Middle East is language. There is a shortage of qualified instructors to teach demography in universities working in Arabic. A promising development for population research is the increase of demographic data collection by the various governments. Also, non-Arab researchers and funding organizations have expressed growing interest

  18. Gene functional similarity search tool (GFSST

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    Russo James J

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the completion of the genome sequences of human, mouse, and other species and the advent of high throughput functional genomic research technologies such as biomicroarray chips, more and more genes and their products have been discovered and their functions have begun to be understood. Increasing amounts of data about genes, gene products and their functions have been stored in databases. To facilitate selection of candidate genes for gene-disease research, genetic association studies, biomarker and drug target selection, and animal models of human diseases, it is essential to have search engines that can retrieve genes by their functions from proteome databases. In recent years, the development of Gene Ontology (GO has established structured, controlled vocabularies describing gene functions, which makes it possible to develop novel tools to search genes by functional similarity. Results By using a statistical model to measure the functional similarity of genes based on the Gene Ontology directed acyclic graph, we developed a novel Gene Functional Similarity Search Tool (GFSST to identify genes with related functions from annotated proteome databases. This search engine lets users design their search targets by gene functions. Conclusion An implementation of GFSST which works on the UniProt (Universal Protein Resource for the human and mouse proteomes is available at GFSST Web Server. GFSST provides functions not only for similar gene retrieval but also for gene search by one or more GO terms. This represents a powerful new approach for selecting similar genes and gene products from proteome databases according to their functions.

  19. Estimating demographic parameters from large-scale population genomic data using Approximate Bayesian Computation

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    Li Sen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC approach has been used to infer demographic parameters for numerous species, including humans. However, most applications of ABC still use limited amounts of data, from a small number of loci, compared to the large amount of genome-wide population-genetic data which have become available in the last few years. Results We evaluated the performance of the ABC approach for three 'population divergence' models - similar to the 'isolation with migration' model - when the data consists of several hundred thousand SNPs typed for multiple individuals by simulating data from known demographic models. The ABC approach was used to infer demographic parameters of interest and we compared the inferred values to the true parameter values that was used to generate hypothetical "observed" data. For all three case models, the ABC approach inferred most demographic parameters quite well with narrow credible intervals, for example, population divergence times and past population sizes, but some parameters were more difficult to infer, such as population sizes at present and migration rates. We compared the ability of different summary statistics to infer demographic parameters, including haplotype and LD based statistics, and found that the accuracy of the parameter estimates can be improved by combining summary statistics that capture different parts of information in the data. Furthermore, our results suggest that poor choices of prior distributions can in some circumstances be detected using ABC. Finally, increasing the amount of data beyond some hundred loci will substantially improve the accuracy of many parameter estimates using ABC. Conclusions We conclude that the ABC approach can accommodate realistic genome-wide population genetic data, which may be difficult to analyze with full likelihood approaches, and that the ABC can provide accurate and precise inference of demographic parameters from

  20. Febrile Seizure: Demographic Features and Causative Factors

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    Hamed ESMAILI GOURABI

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveBecause of geographical and periodical variation, we prompted to determine the demographic features and causative factors for febrile seizure in Rasht.Materials & MethodsIn this cross-sectional study, all 6–month- to 6-year-old children with the diagnosis of febrile seizure admitted to 17 Shahrivar hospital in Rasht, from August, 2009 to August, 2010 were studied. Age, sex, family history of the disease, seizure types, body temperature upon admission and infectious causes of the fever were recorded. All statistical analysis was performed with SPSS software, version 16.ResultsOf the 214 children (mean age, 25.24±15.40 months, 124 were boys and 109 had a positive family history. Complex seizures were seen in 39 cases. In patients with a complex febrile seizure, 59% had the repetitive type, 20.5% had the focal type and 20.5% had more than 15 minutes duration of seizures. Most of the repetitive seizures (78.3% occurred in patients under 2 years old; the difference between under and over 2-year-old patients was statistically significant (P=0.02. Study results did not show significant differences between the two genders for simple or complex seizures. The mean body temperature upon admission was 38.2±1.32◦C (38.31±0.82 degrees in boys and 38.04±1.78 in girls. Upper respiratory infections were seen in most patients (74.29%. All cases of lower respiratory infections were boys. There was a statistically significant difference between boys and girls in causes of fever.ConclusionMost of the children had a positive family history and the most common causative factor was upper respiratory infection.

  1. The Epidemiology and Demographics of Hip Dysplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loder, Randall T.; Skopelja, Elaine N.

    2011-01-01

    The etiology of developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) is unknown. There are many insights, however, from epidemiologic/demographic information. A systematic medical literature review regarding DDH was performed. There is a predominance of left-sided (64.0%) and unilateral disease (63.4%). The incidence per 1000 live births ranges from 0.06 in Africans in Africa to 76.1 in Native Americans. There is significant variability in incidence within each racial group by geographic location. The incidence of clinical neonatal hip instability at birth ranges from 0.4 in Africans to 61.7 in Polish Caucasians. Predictors of DDH are breech presentation, positive family history, and gender (female). Children born premature, with low birth weights, or to multifetal pregnancies are somewhat protected from DDH. Certain HLA A, B, and D types demonstrate an increase in DDH. Chromosome 17q21 is strongly associated with DDH. Ligamentous laxity and abnormalities in collagen metabolism, estrogen metabolism, and pregnancy-associated pelvic instability are well-described associations with DDH. Many studies demonstrate an increase of DDH in the winter, both in the northern and southern hemispheres. Swaddling is strongly associated with DDH. Amniocentesis, premature labor, and massive radiation exposure may increase the risk of DDH. Associated conditions are congenital muscular torticollis and congenital foot deformities. The opposite hip is frequently abnormal when using rigorous radiographic assessments. The role of acetabular dysplasia and adult hip osteoarthritis is complex. Archeological studies demonstrate that the epidemiology of DDH may be changing. PMID:24977057

  2. Demographic characteristics of patients with pulmonary thromboembolism

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    Ali Duman

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE is a common disease with high mortality and difficult diagnosis.The incidence in our country cannot be calculated because there is no adequate and regular data. In our study,we aimed to investigate the demographic characteristics,risk factors, incidence, Wells and Geneva scores diagnostic and treatment methods of the patients in our emergency department with a diagnosis of PTE. Methods:Files of the 112 patients who were admitted to Erciyes University Medical Faculty Emergency Department between January 2010 - February 2012 were analyzed retrospectively. Data were analyzed with SPSS 17.0 statistical software. Results:The mean age of patients was 65.02 ± 16.23.Forty-one (36.6% of the patients were male and 71 (63.4% were female. The most common complaint of patients was shortness of breath (81.3%, respectively.Immobilization(35.7% and history of previous surgery(19.6% were among the risk factors of the patients. Average troponin levels of the patients was 0.13 ± 0.48 ng/Land average d-dimer levels was 12.698.12 ± 8.779.92 μg/L. Geneva scores of the patients were: 4 patients (3.6% low score, 88 patients (78.6% medium score and 20 patients (17.9% high score. Wells Clinical Probability scores of the patients were; 1 patient (0.9% low probability, 74 patients (66.1% intermediate probability and 37 patients (33% high probability. In the treatmentof patients; heparin infusion (36.6%, enoxaparin sodium(59.8% and tPA (3.6% were used. Conclusion: In spite of improvements in diagnosis and treatment methods, pulmonary embolism diagnosis is stil a problem. The first step to diagnosis in patients with risk factors begin to suspect.J Clin Exp Invest 2015; 6 (1:10-15

  3. Demographics of the European apicultural industry.

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    Marie-Pierre Chauzat

    Full Text Available Over the last few years, many European and North American countries have reported a high rate of disorders (mortality, dwindling and disappearance affecting honeybee colonies (Apis mellifera. Although beekeeping has become an increasingly professional activity in recent years, the beekeeping industry remains poorly documented in Europe. The European Union Reference Laboratory for Honeybee Health sent a detailed questionnaire to each Member State, in addition to Kosovo and Norway, to determine the demographics and state of their beekeeping industries. Based on data supplied by the National Reference Laboratory for honeybee diseases in each European country, a European database was created to describe the beekeeping industry including the number and types of beekeepers, operation size, industry production, and health (notifiable diseases, mortalities. The total number of beekeepers in Europe was estimated at 620,000. European honey production was evaluated at around 220,000 tons in 2010. The price of honey varied from 1.5 to 40 €/kg depending on the country and on the distribution network. The estimated colony winter mortality varied from 7 to 28% depending on the country and the origin of the data (institutional survey or beekeeping associations. This survey documents the high heterogeneity of the apicultural industry within the European Union. The high proportion of non-professional beekeepers and the small mean number of colonies per beekeeper were the only common characteristics at European level. The tremendous variation in European apicultural industries has implication for any comprehensive epidemiological or economic analysis of the industry. This variability needs to be taken into account for such analysis as well as for future policy development. The industry would be served if beekeeping registration was uniformly implemented across member states. Better information on the package bee and queen production would help in understanding

  4. Demographics of the European apicultural industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauzat, Marie-Pierre; Cauquil, Laura; Roy, Lise; Franco, Stéphanie; Hendrikx, Pascal; Ribière-Chabert, Magali

    2013-01-01

    Over the last few years, many European and North American countries have reported a high rate of disorders (mortality, dwindling and disappearance) affecting honeybee colonies (Apis mellifera). Although beekeeping has become an increasingly professional activity in recent years, the beekeeping industry remains poorly documented in Europe. The European Union Reference Laboratory for Honeybee Health sent a detailed questionnaire to each Member State, in addition to Kosovo and Norway, to determine the demographics and state of their beekeeping industries. Based on data supplied by the National Reference Laboratory for honeybee diseases in each European country, a European database was created to describe the beekeeping industry including the number and types of beekeepers, operation size, industry production, and health (notifiable diseases, mortalities). The total number of beekeepers in Europe was estimated at 620,000. European honey production was evaluated at around 220,000 tons in 2010. The price of honey varied from 1.5 to 40 €/kg depending on the country and on the distribution network. The estimated colony winter mortality varied from 7 to 28% depending on the country and the origin of the data (institutional survey or beekeeping associations). This survey documents the high heterogeneity of the apicultural industry within the European Union. The high proportion of non-professional beekeepers and the small mean number of colonies per beekeeper were the only common characteristics at European level. The tremendous variation in European apicultural industries has implication for any comprehensive epidemiological or economic analysis of the industry. This variability needs to be taken into account for such analysis as well as for future policy development. The industry would be served if beekeeping registration was uniformly implemented across member states. Better information on the package bee and queen production would help in understanding the ability of

  5. The demographics of human and malaria movement and migration patterns in East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The quantification of parasite movements can provide valuable information for control strategy planning across all transmission intensities. Mobile parasite carrying individuals can instigate transmission in receptive areas, spread drug resistant strains and reduce the effectiveness of control strategies. The identification of mobile demographic groups, their routes of travel and how these movements connect differing transmission zones, potentially enables limited resources for interventions to be efficiently targeted over space, time and populations. Methods National population censuses and household surveys provide individual-level migration, travel, and other data relevant for understanding malaria movement patterns. Together with existing spatially referenced malaria data and mathematical models, network analysis techniques were used to quantify the demographics of human and malaria movement patterns in Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania. Movement networks were developed based on connectivity and magnitudes of flow within each country and compared to assess relative differences between regions and demographic groups. Additional malaria-relevant characteristics, such as short-term travel and bed net use, were also examined. Results Patterns of human and malaria movements varied between demographic groups, within country regions and between countries. Migration rates were highest in 20–30 year olds in all three countries, but when accounting for malaria prevalence, movements in the 10–20 year age group became more important. Different age and sex groups also exhibited substantial variations in terms of the most likely sources, sinks and routes of migration and malaria movement, as well as risk factors for infection, such as short-term travel and bed net use. Conclusion Census and survey data, together with spatially referenced malaria data, GIS and network analysis tools, can be valuable for identifying, mapping and quantifying regional connectivities

  6. Waterpipe use among high school students in Ontario: Demographic and substance use correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Hayley A; Ferrence, Roberta; Boak, Angela; O'Connor, Shawn; Mann, Robert E; Schwartz, Robert; Adlaf, Edward M

    2015-03-12

    To examine waterpipe use and its association with demographic factors, tobacco cigarette smoking, ever use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) and alcohol use among high school students. Data were derived from the 2013 Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey, a school-based survey of 7th to 12th grade students. This province-wide survey was based on a stratified two-stage cluster design. Analyses were based on a subsample of 2,873 high school students and included adjustments for the complex sample design. Overall, 12.5% of high school students (grades 9-12) had used a waterpipe in the previous year. Awareness of waterpipes was high - 68.4% of students reported that they were aware of waterpipes but had not used one in the past year; 19.1% had never heard of waterpipes or hookah. The percentage of high school students reporting waterpipe use in the past year was similar to reports of tobacco cigarette use (12.5% and 11% respectively). Waterpipe use was highly associated with past-year tobacco cigarette and regular alcohol use as well as ever use of e-cigarettes. In multivariate analyses, males and females had similar odds of waterpipe use, and non-White students and those in higher grades had greater odds of use after controlling for other substance use. These findings suggest that waterpipe use among high school students should be of some concern and suggest the need for policy measures to address potential risks associated with use.

  7. Glycolic Acid Peels/Azelaic Acid 20% Cream Combination and Low Potency Triple Combination Lead to Similar Reduction in Melasma Severity in Ethnic Skin: Results of a Randomized Controlled Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Rahul; Kanwar, Amrinder Jit; Parsad, Davinder; Kumaran, Muthu Sendhil; Sharma, Reena

    2015-01-01

    Background: Numerous therapeutic options have been tried in the management of melasma. Aims and Objectives: This prospective randomized study was planned to assess the efficacy of low potency triple combination (TC) cream (TC-hydroquinone 2%/tretinoin 0.05%/fluocinolone 0.01%) versus glycolic acid (GA) peels/azelaic acid (AA) 20% cream (GA/AA) combination in melasma. Materials and Methods: Forty patients with melasma were recruited into this study and randomized into two groups. Group A consisting 20 patients received TC cream once a day for night time application for 3 months. Group B comprising of 20 patients received GA/AA 20% cream combination for 3 months. The disease severity was monitored with digital photography, melasma area and severity index (MASI) score, which was calculated at baseline, 6 weeks and 12 weeks, and visual analog scale (VAS) score, which was calculated at baseline and 12 weeks. Results: Of 40 patients, 38 were completed the study. A significant reduction in MASI and VAS was recorded after 6 weeks and 12 weeks of treatment in both groups A and B (P = 0.001). However, there was no significant difference in the mean MASI scores between the two groups at baseline, 6 weeks and 12 weeks. Similarly, there was no difference in the mean VAS scores between the two groups at baseline and 12 weeks. Four patients in group A and 3 in group B experienced adverse effects such as irritation, dryness, and photosensitivity. Conclusion: Both low potency TC cream and GA/AA 20% cream combination are effective in treating melasma among Indian patients. PMID:25814702

  8. Mate choice and friendship in twins: evidence for genetic similarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushton, J Philippe; Bons, Trudy Ann

    2005-07-01

    This study examined the genetic and environmental contribution to people's preference for spouses and friends to be similar to themselves. In their responses to 130 personality, attitude, and demographic questions, 174 pairs of monozygotic (MZ) twins resembled each other (r= .53) more than did 148 pairs of dizygotic (DZ) twins (r= .32), 322 pairs of spouses (r= .32), and 563 pairs of best friends (r= .20). It was not previously recognized that spouses and friends are as similar as DZ twins. MZ twins also chose spouses and best friends more similar to their co-twins' friends and spouses than did DZ twins (mean rs = .22 vs. .14). The twins' preference for spouses and friends similar to themselves was about 34% due to the twins' genes, 12% due to the twins' common environment, and 54% due to the twins' unique (nonshared) environment. Similarity to partners was more pronounced on the more heritable items than the less heritable items. It is concluded that people are genetically inclined to choose as social partners those who resemble themselves at a genetic level.

  9. Similarity and scale in catchment storm response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Eric F.; Sivapalan, Murugesu; Beven, Keith

    1993-01-01

    Until recently, very little progress had been made in understanding the relationship between small-scale variability of topography, soil, and rainfalls and the storm response seen at the catchment scale. The work reviewed here represents the first attempt at a systematic theoretical framework for such understanding in the context of surface runoff generation by different processes. The parameterization of hydrological processes over a range of scales is examined, and the concept of the 'representative elementary area' (REA) is introduced. The REA is a fundamental scale for catchment modeling at which continuum assumptions can be applied for the spatially variable controls and parameters, and spatial patterns no longer have to be considered explicitly. The investigation of scale leads into the concept of hydrologic similarity in which the effects of the environmental controls on runoff generation and flood frequency response be investigated independently of catchment scale. The paper reviews the authors' initial results and hopefully will motivate others to also investigate the issues of hydrologic scale and similarity.

  10. Demographic Estimation from Face Images: Human vs. Machine Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hu; Otto, Charles; Liu, Xiaoming; Jain, Anil K

    2015-06-01

    Demographic estimation entails automatic estimation of age, gender and race of a person from his face image, which has many potential applications ranging from forensics to social media. Automatic demographic estimation, particularly age estimation, remains a challenging problem because persons belonging to the same demographic group can be vastly different in their facial appearances due to intrinsic and extrinsic factors. In this paper, we present a generic framework for automatic demographic (age, gender and race) estimation. Given a face image, we first extract demographic informative features via a boosting algorithm, and then employ a hierarchical approach consisting of between-group classification, and within-group regression. Quality assessment is also developed to identify low-quality face images that are difficult to obtain reliable demographic estimates. Experimental results on a diverse set of face image databases, FG-NET (1K images), FERET (3K images), MORPH II (75K images), PCSO (100K images), and a subset of LFW (4K images), show that the proposed approach has superior performance compared to the state of the art. Finally, we use crowdsourcing to study the human perception ability of estimating demographics from face images. A side-by-side comparison of the demographic estimates from crowdsourced data and the proposed algorithm provides a number of insights into this challenging problem.

  11. China's Demographic Challenge Requires an Integrated Coping Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xizhe

    2013-01-01

    China has entered into a new stage of demographic dynamics whereby population-related challenges are more complicated than ever before. The current one-child policy should be modified. However, the anticipated impacts of such a policy change should not be over-exaggerated. China's demographic challenge requires an integrated coping strategy.…

  12. Making the Case for Demographic Data in Extension Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Katherine J.; Verdoff, Daniel; Rizzo, Bill; Beaudoin, James

    2012-01-01

    Understanding one's community is essential for effective Extension programming across all program areas. The use of current and reliable demographic data is crucial for Extension to develop effective education and programming to track change and to uncover hidden community characteristics. We discuss what demographic data are, present…

  13. Europe at the crossroads: demographic challenges and international migration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nimwegen, N.; van der Erf, R.F.

    2010-01-01

    Two demographic challenges confront Europe today: population ageing and population decline. These challenges are two sides of the same demographic coin. While low fertility and increasing longevity cause populations to rapidly grow older, low fertility also leads to population decline. This paper de

  14. Developing a Global Mindset: Integrating Demographics, Sustainability, Technology, and Globalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Raj

    2011-01-01

    Business schools face a number of challenges in responding to the business influences of demographics, sustainability, and technology--all three of which are also the fundamental driving forces for globalization. Demographic forces are creating global imbalances in worker populations and in government finances; the world economy faces…

  15. Making the Case for Demographic Data in Extension Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Katherine J.; Verdoff, Daniel; Rizzo, Bill; Beaudoin, James

    2012-01-01

    Understanding one's community is essential for effective Extension programming across all program areas. The use of current and reliable demographic data is crucial for Extension to develop effective education and programming to track change and to uncover hidden community characteristics. We discuss what demographic data are, present…

  16. The Impact of Extrinsic Demographic Factors on Cantonese Speech Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, Carol K. S.; Cheung, Pamela S. P.; McLeod, Sharynne

    2013-01-01

    This study modeled the associations between extrinsic demographic factors and children's speech acquisition in Hong Kong Cantonese. The speech of 937 Cantonese-speaking children aged 2;4 to 6;7 in Hong Kong was assessed using a standardized speech test. Demographic information regarding household income, paternal education, maternal education,…

  17. Developing a Global Mindset: Integrating Demographics, Sustainability, Technology, and Globalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Raj

    2011-01-01

    Business schools face a number of challenges in responding to the business influences of demographics, sustainability, and technology--all three of which are also the fundamental driving forces for globalization. Demographic forces are creating global imbalances in worker populations and in government finances; the world economy faces…

  18. Demographic upheavals in the former USSR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haub, C

    1995-01-01

    Fertility and life expectancy have changed since the breakup of the Soviet republics in 1991 and continue to change very rapidly. Before 1991, the USSR was the fastest growing developed country in the world. Annual growth rates in the mid-1980s were 0.9% compared to only 0.1% in Europe or 1.1% in the US. Immigration did not greatly affect the USSR's growth rate. By 1993, the population had declined in 8 of the 15 former republics. Deaths exceeded births in Russia, Belarus, Ukraine, Estonia, and Latvia, followed by Lithuania in 1994. The last census was conducted in 1989. Fertility declined in Russia from 1.9 in 1990 to 1.4 in 1993. Fertility has been low in Lithuania at 1.7, in the Ukraine at 1.6, in Latvia at 1.5, and in Estonia at 1.4. Kazakhstan, Georgia, and Kyrgyzstan have experienced fertility decline, which was affected by emigration to Russia and other countries after 1990. 25 million Russians have resided in the former republics in 1990. In Kazakhstan, the 160,000 more births than deaths were offset by 200,000 emigrants. Central republics with higher fertility experienced declines after 1990; for example, Kyrgyzstan declined from 3.7 in 1990 to 3.3 in 1993. Life expectancy for males in Russia in 1993 was 58.9 years, which was a decline from 63.8 years in 1990. About 50% of the decline in life expectancy was due to circulatory diseases, and about 25% was due to external causes such as accidents, suicide, and alcoholism. Infant mortality has been increasing since 1990; for example, it increased in the Ukraine from 12.9 in 1990 to 14.1 in 1992. Russia's population in 1993 experienced 700,000 more deaths than births. The demographic impact will be declining school enrollments and smaller employment among the working population to support the aged. The change to a market economy has been uneven in Russia, where it has advanced more rapidly than in the republics. It is unclear whether the declining birth rate and increasing mortality rates will continue, but

  19. Demographic aspects of the island syndrome in two Afrotropical Mastomys rodent species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespin, Laurent; Duplantier, Jean-Marc; Granjon, Laurent

    2012-02-01

    The island syndrome is the name given to the particularities of the behavioural, morphological and demographical characteristics of island populations. As concerns demography, the island syndrome model states that densities and survival are greater in island than in mainland populations. Most previous studies aimed at confirming this prediction for small mammals have addressed species from the North Temperate Zone. Here, we tested the demographic expectations of the island syndrome using data gathered over two years for island and mainland populations of two African rodent species, Mastomys erytholeucus and Mastomys huberti, at two different sites in Senegal. Capture-Mark-Recapture methods allowing for variation in catchability of the individuals were used to yield estimates of both abundance (or density) and probability of survival and seniority (which is a demographic parameter inversely related to recruitment). As predicted from the island syndrome, survival and densities were indeed higher in island populations for the two study sites; however, only for the population with stronger island syndrome was the difference in survival biologically important. Estimates of the probability of seniority were similar for island and mainland populations at the two sites. Our findings provide support for the demographic expectations of the model of island syndrome in an Afrotropical context and thus confirm the general applicability of this syndrome while revealing differences according to particular insular situations.

  20. A p53-like transcription factor similar to Ndt80 controls the response to nutrient stress in the filamentous fungus, Aspergillus nidulans [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/y2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret E Katz

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Aspergillus nidulans xprG gene encodes a putative transcriptional activator that is a member of the Ndt80 family in the p53-like superfamily of proteins. Previous studies have shown that XprG controls the production of extracellular proteases in response to starvation. We undertook transcriptional profiling to investigate whether XprG has a wider role as a global regulator of the carbon nutrient stress response. Our microarray data showed that the expression of a large number of genes, including genes involved in secondary metabolism, development, high-affinity glucose uptake and autolysis, were altered in an xprGΔ null mutant. Many of these genes are known to be regulated in response to carbon starvation. We confirmed that sterigmatocystin and penicillin production is reduced in xprG- mutants. The loss of fungal mass and secretion of pigments that accompanies fungal autolysis in response to nutrient depletion was accelerated in an xprG1 gain-of-function mutant and decreased or absent in an xprG- mutant. The results support the hypothesis that XprG plays a major role in the response to carbon limitation and that nutrient sensing may represent one of the ancestral roles for the p53-like superfamily. Disruption of the AN6015 gene, which encodes a second Ndt80-like protein, showed that it is required for sexual reproduction in A. nidulans.

  1. Laparoscopic surgery for colorectal cancer is safe and has survival outcomes similar to those of open surgery in elderly patients with a poor performance status: subanalysis of a large multicenter case-control study in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niitsu, Hiroaki; Hinoi, Takao; Kawaguchi, Yasuo; Ohdan, Hideki; Hasegawa, Hirotoshi; Suzuka, Ichio; Fukunaga, Yosuke; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Endo, Shungo; Tagami, Soichi; Idani, Hitoshi; Ichihara, Takao; Watanabe, Kazuteru; Watanabe, Masahiko

    2016-01-01

    It remains controversial whether open or laparoscopic surgery should be indicated for elderly patients with colorectal cancer and a poor performance status. In those patients aged 80 years or older with Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status score of 2 or greater who received elective surgery for stage 0 to stage III colorectal adenocarcinoma and had no concomitant malignancies and who were enrolled in a multicenter case-control study entitled "Retrospective study of laparoscopic colorectal surgery for elderly patients" that was conducted in Japan between 2003 and 2007, background characteristics and short-term and long-term outcomes for open surgery and laparoscopic surgery were compared. Of the 398 patients included, 295 underwent open surgery and 103 underwent laparoscopic surgery. There were no significant differences in the baseline characteristics between open surgery and laparoscopic surgery patients, except for previous abdominal surgery and TNM stage. The median operation duration was shorter with open surgery (open surgery, 153 min; laparoscopic surgery, 202 min; P cancer patients with a poor performance status is safe and not inferior to open surgery in terms of overall survival.

  2. Demographic future of Serbia from a different angle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikitović Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the assessment of the empirical errors in the official population forecasts of Serbia, the paper shows why forecast users might want a change of the current official concept. The article consists of three parts. The first gives a brief chronological overview of the methods and hypotheses in the official population forecasts of Serbia during the last 60 years. The second refers to the quantification of the past forecast errors in projecting total fertility rate, life expectancy at birth and total population aiming at assessment of the empirical variability. The third part shows the probabilistic population forecast of Serbia based on Bayesian hierarchical models of vital components, as implemented in the 2012 revision of United Nations World population prospects. The empirical error served as an evaluation tool of the probabilistic distributions of total population. In spite of the increased availability and quality of input data and developing of advanced projection techniques during the period, there was no obvious improvement noted neither in accuracy nor in the expression of the uncertainty inherent to forecasting in the official population forecasts in Serbia up to date. In general, fertility has been overestimated while improvements in mortality have been underestimated. It has been shown that accuracy largely depends on the stability of demographic processes throughout the projection horizon, which confirms findings from similar studies in other countries. The uncertainty in the demographic trends remains a major challenge for forecasters. A typical judgment that the smallest error will be made if a recently observed trend is assumed to continue has been linked to the low fertility variant in the past Serbian forecasts. The target level of the medium fertility, interpreted as "most likely" outcome, was firmly bound to replacement fertility until recently thus reflecting desirable rather than realistic future. Therefore, the

  3. Inequalities between similarities for numerical data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warrens, Matthijs J.

    2016-01-01

    Similarity measures are entities that can be used to quantify the similarity between two vectors with real numbers. We present inequalities between seven well known similarities. The inequalities are valid if the vectors contain non-negative real numbers.

  4. Spatial extent in demographic research - approach and problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knežević Aleksandar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the starting methodological problems in demographic research is the definition of spatial extent, which mostly doesn’t correspond to spatial extent already defined by different levels of administrative-territorial unitsthat are used for distribution of usable statistical data. That’s why determining the spatial extent of a demographic research is closely tied with administrative-territorial division of the territory that is being researched, wherein the fact that differentiation of demographic phenomena and processes cannot be the only basis of setting the principles of regionalization must be strictly acknowledged. This problem is particularly common in historical demographic analyses of geographically determined wholes, which are in administratively-territorial sense represented by one or more smaller territorial units, with their borders changing through the history, which directly affects comparability of the statistical data, and makes it considerably more difficult to track demographic change through longer time intervals. The result of these efforts is usually a solution based on a compromise which enables us to examine the dynamics of population change with little deviation from already defined borders of regional geographic wholes. For that reason in this paper the problem of defining spatial extent in demographic research is examined trough several different approaches in case of Eastern Serbia, as a geographically determined region, a historic area, a spatially functioning whole and as a statistical unit for demographic research, with no judgment calls in regard to any of the regionalization principles. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 47006

  5. [Generics: similarities, bioequivalence but no conformity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Even-Adin, D; De Muylder, J A; Sternon, J

    2002-01-01

    The using of generic forms (GF) is presented as a potential source of budgetary "saving of money" in the field of pharmaceutical expenses. Not frequently prescribed in Belgium, they win a new interest thanks to the recent making use of the "reference repayment". Sale's authorization of GF is controlled by european rules, but some questions about their identity to original medications remain. Do similarities based only upon qualitative and quantitative composition in active molecules, pharmaceutical forms and biodisponibility give us all requested guaranties? Several cases of discordances can appear; the major elements of non conformity are the nature of excipients, notice's contents and the value of biodisponibility studies. However, in term of economy, in the drug market, development of GF appears to constitute an unavoidable phenomenon.

  6. The age demographics of academic librarians a profession apart

    CERN Document Server

    Wilder, Stanley

    2013-01-01

    The Age Demographics of Academic Librarians: A Profession Apart discusses the current demographics of librarianship in North America and examines how a huge retiree rate will affect the profession. With the average age of librarians increasing dramatically since 1990, this book examines the changes that will have to take place in your library, such as recruiting, training, and working with a smaller staff. The Age Demographics of Academic Librarians provides you with insights on how to make your library's transition easier when several of your colleagues leave your library. Valuable and intell

  7. The Demographic and Political Composition of Mechanical Turk Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin E. Levay

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the most notable recent developments in survey research is the increased usage of online convenience samples drawn from Amazon’s Mechanical Turk (MTurk. While scholars have noted various social and political differences (e.g., age, partisanship between MTurk and population-based samples, the breadth and depth of these variations remain unclear. We investigate the extent to which MTurk samples differ from population samples, and the underlying nature of these differences. We do so by replicating items from the population-based American National Election Studies (ANES 2012 Time Series Study in a survey administered to a sample of MTurk respondents. With few exceptions, we not only find that MTurk respondents differ significantly from respondents completing the 2012 ANES via the Web but also that most differences are reduced considerably when controlling for easily measurable sample features. Thus, MTurk respondents do not appear to differ fundamentally from population-based respondents in unmeasurable ways. This suggests that MTurk data can be used to advance research programs, particularly if researchers measure and account for a range of political and demographic variables as needed.

  8. Pesticides and Arthropods: Sublethal Effects and Demographic Toxicology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Marčić

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Insecticides and acaricides designed to control primary harmful insects and mites may also variously affect some other arthopods present in an (agroecosystem (e.g. secondary pests, predators, parasitoids, saprophytes, bioindicators, pollinators. Apart from insecticides and acaricides, arthropods may also be affected by the activity of other pesticides (fungicides, herbicides, etc.. Regardless of whether they are deemed desirable or not, the effects that pesticides have on arthopods need to be quantified as closely as possible through appropriate experimental procedures. Data acquired in tests designed to determined LD50/LC50 values are inadequate for evaluation of pesticide effectiveness in the field as pesticidesalso cause various sublethal effects, generally disregarded in such investigations. The sublethal effects of pesticides refer to any altered behaviour and/or physiology of individuals that have survived exposure to pesticides at doses/concentrations that can be lethal(within range causing mortality in an experimental population that exceeds mortality in an untreated population or sublethal (below that range. Pesticides affect locomotion and mobility, stimulate dispersion of arthropods from treated areas, complicate or prevent their navigation, orientation and ability to locate hosts, and cause changes in their feeding, mating and egg-laying patterns. Sublethal pesticide effects on arthropod physiology reflect on the life span, rate of development, fecundity and/or fertility, sex ratio and immunity of surviving individuals. Different parameters are being used in arthropod bioassays to determine sublethal effects (ED50/EC50, LOEC, NOEC, total effect index. Compared to acute toxicity tests, these parameters improve the quality of evaluation and create a more accurate view of the effects of a pesticide. However, such approach covers mainly fecundity/fertility alone, while all other sublethal effects remain unaccounted for. Besides, it

  9. Delineating demographic units of woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou in Ontario: cautions and insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L. Shuter

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Delineating demographic structure across an organism’s range can reveal the extent to which population dynamics in different geographic areas are driven by local or external factors and can be crucial for effective conservation and management. Obtaining optimal data for such analyses can be time and resource-intensive and impending development and resource extraction pressures may necessitate the examination of existing data, even when they are less than ideal. We analyzed a historic telemetry dataset containing satellite radio-collar locations of 73 forest-dwelling woodland caribou in northern Ontario to determine demographic structure. We applied several clustering methods (i.e., agglomerative, divisive and fuzzy k-means to median seasonal locations. Results were used to distinguish demographic units and minimum convex polygons and fixed-kernel density estimates were used to delineate unit boundaries and core areas. For areas where sampling was considered representative of the distribution of caribou on the landscape, we assessed demographic distinctness by evaluating intra-individual variation in cluster membership, membership strength and distance between boundaries and core areas of adjacent units. The number and composition of clusters identified was similar among methods and caribou were grouped into 6 general clusters. The distinctions between the three clusters identified in the central portion of the province (i.e., Lac Seul, Wabakimi, Geraldton and the two clusters identified in the eastern portion of the province (i.e., Cochrane and Cochrane-Quebec were determined to represent demographic structuring. Additional distinctions in other areas (i.e., between The Red Lake and Lac Seul clusters in the west and between the central and eastern clusters may just be artifacts of the original sampling effort. Amongst demographic units, there was no evidence of individual flexibility in cluster membership and average membership strength was

  10. The Geography of Happiness: Connecting Twitter Sentiment and Expression, Demographics, and Objective Characteristics of Place

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Lewis; Frank, Morgan R.; Harris, Kameron Decker; Dodds, Peter Sheridan; Danforth, Christopher M.

    2013-01-01

    We conduct a detailed investigation of correlations between real-time expressions of individuals made across the United States and a wide range of emotional, geographic, demographic, and health characteristics. We do so by combining (1) a massive, geo-tagged data set comprising over 80 million words generated in 2011 on the social network service Twitter and (2) annually-surveyed characteristics of all 50 states and close to 400 urban populations. Among many results, we generate taxonomies of states and cities based on their similarities in word use; estimate the happiness levels of states and cities; correlate highly-resolved demographic characteristics with happiness levels; and connect word choice and message length with urban characteristics such as education levels and obesity rates. Our results show how social media may potentially be used to estimate real-time levels and changes in population-scale measures such as obesity rates. PMID:23734200

  11. The geography of happiness: connecting twitter sentiment and expression, demographics, and objective characteristics of place.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewis Mitchell

    Full Text Available We conduct a detailed investigation of correlations between real-time expressions of individuals made across the United States and a wide range of emotional, geographic, demographic, and health characteristics. We do so by combining (1 a massive, geo-tagged data set comprising over 80 million words generated in 2011 on the social network service Twitter and (2 annually-surveyed characteristics of all 50 states and close to 400 urban populations. Among many results, we generate taxonomies of states and cities based on their similarities in word use; estimate the happiness levels of states and cities; correlate highly-resolved demographic characteristics with happiness levels; and connect word choice and message length with urban characteristics such as education levels and obesity rates. Our results show how social media may potentially be used to estimate real-time levels and changes in population-scale measures such as obesity rates.

  12. The Geography of Happiness: Connecting Twitter sentiment and expression, demographics, and objective characteristics of place

    CERN Document Server

    Mitchell, Lewis; Frank, Morgan R; Dodds, Peter Sheridan; Danforth, Christopher M

    2013-01-01

    We conduct a detailed investigation of correlations between real-time expressions of individuals made across the United States and a wide range of emotional, geographic, demographic, and health characteristics. We do so by combining (1) a massive, geo-tagged data set comprising over 80 million words generated over the course of several recent years on the social network service Twitter and (2) annually-surveyed characteristics of all 50 states and close to 400 urban populations. Among many results, we generate taxonomies of states and cities based on their similarities in word use; estimate the happiness levels of states and cities; correlate highly-resolved demographic characteristics with happiness levels; and connect word choice and message length with urban characteristics such as education levels and obesity rates. Our results show how social media may potentially be used to estimate real-time levels and changes in population-level measures such as obesity rates.

  13. Demographic noise and resilience in a semi-arid ecosystem model

    CERN Document Server

    Realpe-Gomez, John; Galla, Tobias; McKane, Alan J; Rietkerk, Max

    2013-01-01

    The scarcity of water characterizing drylands forces vegetation to adopt appropriate survival strategies. Some of these generate water-vegetation feedback mechanisms that can lead to spatial self-organisation of vegetation. To date these phenomena have mostly been studied with models representing plants by a density of biomass, varying continuously in time and space. Such models disregard the discrete nature of plant individuals and their intrinsically stochastic behaviour. These features give rise to demographic noise, which can influence the qualitative dynamics of ecosystem models. In the present work we explore the effects of demographic noise on the resilience of a model semi-arid ecosystem. We introduce a spatial stochastic eco-hydrological hybrid model in which plants are modelled as discrete entities subject to stochastic dynamical rules, while the dynamics of surface and soil water are described by continuous variables. The model has a deterministic approximation very similar to previous continuous m...

  14. From First Demographic Transition to Second Demographic Transition: Reflections on the Modern Demographic Transition%从一次人口转变到二次人口转变——现代人口转变及其启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘爽; 卫银霞; 任慧

    2012-01-01

    Based on a brief analysis of the narrowly-defined demographic transition and the classical model, this paper argues that the proposed theory of the second demographic transition broadly interprets the internal motivation and mechanism of action of the demographic changes by drawing upon the demographic "intermediate variables", reflecting on the relationship between modern demographic transition and social changes at the macro, meso and micro levels. Demographic transition is a multidimensional dynamic historical process, involving a set of transitions on marriage, reproduction, family, health, population control etc. Demographic transition is not only demographic change, but more importantly, is its nested social change. The unprecedented close relationship between the two reflects the social changes and social needs. Over the past 30 years China has made its population be adapted to economic development through family planning. In the next 30 to 50 years or even longer, China should make economic and social development be adapted to the changes and needs of the population. The end of development is to improve population survival and enhance life quality.%在扼要解析狭义人口转变及其经典模型的基础上,认为第二次人口转变的提出,是结合人口“中间变量”从广义上阐释了入口变化的内在动因与作用机理,进而在宏观、中观和微观三个层面引入了对现代人口转变与社会变迁关系的思考。主张人口转变是一个多维的动态历史过程,蕴涵着婚姻、生育、家庭、健康、人口调控等系列转变。提出第二次人口转变在中国的城市地区已露端倪。最后特别指出人口转变不仅仅是入口变化,更重要的是将其嵌套的社会变迁,两者关系的空前紧密折射着社会变化与社会需求。过去30年中国通过计划生育让人口“适应”了经济腾飞,而今后三、五十年以至更长时间,应使人口的“主

  15. Spatial continuities and discontinuities in two successive demographic transitions: Spain and Belgium, 1880-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron Lesthaeghe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a study of how the synergisms between cultural and structural factors, which played a major role during the historical fertility and nuptiality transition (first demographic transition or FDT, have continued to condition demographic innovations connected to the "second demographic transition" (SDT. The continuity or discontinuity from the "first" to the "second" demographic transition is studied for spatial aggregates over more than a century in two national contexts, i.e., Belgium and Spain. Special attention is paid to the role of successive secularization waves in shaping the geographical patterns of both transitions. The study also shows that the maps of the two aspects of the SDT, i.e., the "postponement" and the "non-conformism" transitions respectively, are shaped by different determinants. Explanations are offered using the "Ready, Willing, and Able" paradigm, which allows us to uncover the different conditioning and limiting factors involved. The "non-conformist" transitions (control of marital fertility during the FDT and rise of cohabitation and non-conventional family formation during the SDT more closely mirror the history of secularization and the "Willingness" condition, whereas the fertility postponement aspect of the SDT mainly reflects female education and employment, or the "Readiness" condition. This generalization holds in both countries. However, in Belgium spatial continuity from FDT to SDT is connected to stable patterns of secularization, whereas in Spain it is linked to long standing differences with respect to female literacy and education.

  16. low birthweight babies: socio-demographic and obstetric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2002-10-01

    Oct 1, 2002 ... mothers (aged below 20 years) and older mothers of low birthweight ( ... have unfavourable socio-demographic and obstetric factors like ... having less formal education, being unemployed and having obstetric risks for poor.

  17. Evaluation of Demographic Variables and Socio-economic Status ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Evaluation of Demographic Variables and Socio-economic Status on the Prevalence of. Health Hazards ... management provide food and harbourage for rodents, mosquitoes .... were factors influencing solid waste management in. Abeokuta.

  18. Demographic profile and epidemiology of injury in Mthatha, South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    1997-01-01

    Jan 1, 1997 ... Demographic profile and epidemiology of injury in Mthatha, South. Africa. Dhaffala A1 ... Department of Surgery, Walter Sisulu University, Mthatha, South Africa,. 2. Faculty of Health ..... of concern in nursing science. J Nurs ...

  19. Socio-demographic determinants of the knowledge of diabetes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socio-demographic determinants of the knowledge of diabetes mellitus in Onitsha-North Local Government Area, Anambra State, ... Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... The instrument used for the collection of data was self-administered ...

  20. Customers Demographics Influence on Usage of Retail Banking Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha GUPTA

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The study presents the usage of retail banking influenced by customers’ demographics of selected Public Sector Banks (PSBs of India. The study was based on primary data collected through structured questionnaire. The simple random sampling technique used for data collection for sample size 692. The study finds that public sector banks need to understand the usage pattern of an individual customer using delivery channel to add greater value to customers. Respondent age groups influence ATMs usage. Internet banking is majorly influenced by the customers’ demographics. Respondents’ age group and qualification influence mobile banking. Branch lobby kiosk is not influenced by any demographics. The identification of most influential demographic variable will help to build strong and effective cross-selling and up-selling of financial products and services. Our study was limited to the customers of PSBs of India. This study may be helpful to PSBs for enhancing effective usage of delivery channels.

  1. EnviroAtlas - Green Bay, WI - Demographics by Block Group

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset is a summary of key demographic groups for the EnviroAtlas community. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online...

  2. EnviroAtlas - Fresno, CA - Demographics by Block Group

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset is a summary of key demographic groups for the EnviroAtlas community. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online...

  3. EnviroAtlas - New Haven, CT - Demographics by Block Group

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset is a summary of key demographic groups for the EnviroAtlas community. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online...

  4. Socio-Demographic Factors Influencing Work-Role Salience Among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socio-Demographic Factors Influencing Work-Role Salience Among ... The findings showed that students from lower socio-economic status homes and those ... The need to involve the students\\' parents in career education programmes and ...

  5. China’s grave demographic challenges in coming decades

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任强; 郑晓瑛

    2009-01-01

    This paper systematically analyzes the uncertainties of major demographic indicators from China’s 2000 census,such as fertility,gender ratio at birth,and age structure,and through a probability demographic forecast gives an assessment of the situation facing the country.Research outcomes suggest that great differences exist in the estimate of China’s fertility,gender ratio at birth and low-age child population.These differences directly affect China’s current and future demographic uncertainties,and have implications for policy and future research.The demographic uncertainties caused by current conditions are of great value to decision-makers and the public alike.

  6. Political demography: Powerful trends under-attended by demographic science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teitelbaum, Michael S

    2015-01-01

    The interconnections between politics and the dramatic demographic changes under way around the world have been neglected by the two research disciplines that could contribute most to their understanding: demography and political science. Instead, this area of 'political demography' has largely been ceded to political activists, pundits, and journalists, leading often to exaggerated or garbled interpretation. The terrain includes some of the most politically sensitive and contested issues: alleged demographically determined shifts in the international balance of power; low fertility, population decline, and demographic ageing; international migration; change in national identity; and compositional shifts in politically sensitive social categories and human rights. Meanwhile many governments and non-governmental actors have actively pursued varieties of 'strategic demography', deploying fertility, mortality, or migration as instruments of domestic or international policy. Political scientists and demographers could and should use their knowledge and analytic techniques to improve understanding and to moderate excessive claims and fears on these topics.

  7. Gender in Science and Engineering Faculties: Demographic Inertia Revisited.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole R Thomas

    Full Text Available The under-representation of women on faculties of science and engineering is ascribed in part to demographic inertia, which is the lag between retirement of current faculty and future hires. The assumption of demographic inertia implies that, given enough time, gender parity will be achieved. We examine that assumption via a semi-Markov model to predict the future faculty, with simulations that predict the convergence demographic state. Our model shows that existing practices that produce gender gaps in recruitment, retention, and career progression preclude eventual gender parity. Further, we examine sensitivity of the convergence state to current gender gaps to show that all sources of disparity across the entire faculty career must be erased to produce parity: we cannot blame demographic inertia.

  8. Gender in Science and Engineering Faculties: Demographic Inertia Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Nicole R; Poole, Daniel J; Herbers, Joan M

    2015-01-01

    The under-representation of women on faculties of science and engineering is ascribed in part to demographic inertia, which is the lag between retirement of current faculty and future hires. The assumption of demographic inertia implies that, given enough time, gender parity will be achieved. We examine that assumption via a semi-Markov model to predict the future faculty, with simulations that predict the convergence demographic state. Our model shows that existing practices that produce gender gaps in recruitment, retention, and career progression preclude eventual gender parity. Further, we examine sensitivity of the convergence state to current gender gaps to show that all sources of disparity across the entire faculty career must be erased to produce parity: we cannot blame demographic inertia.

  9. socio-demographic factors in under five children with acute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-09-01

    Sep 1, 2013 ... Their socio-demographic factors such as age, sex, breastfeeding status, parents ... acute diarrhoea among under five children in Enugu, Nigeria. ... Malnutrition predisposes .... Determinants of the utilization of children's Health.

  10. EnviroAtlas - Phoenix, AZ - Demographics by Block Group

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset is a summary of key demographic groups for the EnviroAtlas community. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online...

  11. Demographic Trends (1970-2010) for Coastal Geographies

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Demographic Trends (1970-2010) were derived from Census Block Group Data for 13 different coastal geographies. For a full listing of the geographies available,...

  12. EnviroAtlas - Portland, OR - Demographics by Block Group

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset is a summary of key demographic groups for the EnviroAtlas community. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online...

  13. EnviroAtlas - Des Moines, IA - Demographics by Block Group

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset is a summary of key demographic groups for the EnviroAtlas community. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online...

  14. EnviroAtlas - Paterson, NJ - Demographics by Block Group

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset is a summary of key demographic groups for the EnviroAtlas community. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online...

  15. EnviroAtlas - Memphis, TN - Demographics by Block Group

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset is a summary of key demographic groups for the EnviroAtlas community. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online...

  16. Socio-Demographic Correlates of Overweight and Obesity among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    demographic factors with increased BMI among Nigeria women aged 20-49 years using secondary data collected for the .... Half (50.2%) of the women were of the Islamic .... South East .... demonstrates evidence of good living, makes them.

  17. Laser photogrammetry improves size and demographic estimates for whale sharks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Anthony J.; Prebble, Clare E.M.; Marshall, Andrea D.; Bennett, Michael B.; Weeks, Scarla J.; Cliff, Geremy; Wintner, Sabine P.; Pierce, Simon J.

    2015-01-01

    Whale sharks Rhincodon typus are globally threatened, but a lack of biological and demographic information hampers an accurate assessment of their vulnerability to further decline or capacity to recover. We used laser photogrammetry at two aggregation sites to obtain more accurate size estimates of free-swimming whale sharks compared to visual estimates, allowing improved estimates of biological parameters. Individual whale sharks ranged from 432–917 cm total length (TL) (mean ± SD = 673 ± 118.8 cm, N = 122) in southern Mozambique and from 420–990 cm TL (mean ± SD = 641 ± 133 cm, N = 46) in Tanzania. By combining measurements of stranded individuals with photogrammetry measurements of free-swimming sharks, we calculated length at 50% maturity for males in Mozambique at 916 cm TL. Repeat measurements of individual whale sharks measured over periods from 347–1,068 days yielded implausible growth rates, suggesting that the growth increment over this period was not large enough to be detected using laser photogrammetry, and that the method is best applied to estimating growth rates over longer (decadal) time periods. The sex ratio of both populations was biased towards males (74% in Mozambique, 89% in Tanzania), the majority of which were immature (98% in Mozambique, 94% in Tanzania). The population structure for these two aggregations was similar to most other documented whale shark aggregations around the world. Information on small (<400 cm) whale sharks, mature individuals, and females in this region is lacking, but necessary to inform conservation initiatives for this globally threatened species. PMID:25870776

  18. Laser photogrammetry improves size and demographic estimates for whale sharks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph A. Rohner

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Whale sharks Rhincodon typus are globally threatened, but a lack of biological and demographic information hampers an accurate assessment of their vulnerability to further decline or capacity to recover. We used laser photogrammetry at two aggregation sites to obtain more accurate size estimates of free-swimming whale sharks compared to visual estimates, allowing improved estimates of biological parameters. Individual whale sharks ranged from 432–917 cm total length (TL (mean ± SD = 673 ± 118.8 cm, N = 122 in southern Mozambique and from 420–990 cm TL (mean ± SD = 641 ± 133 cm, N = 46 in Tanzania. By combining measurements of stranded individuals with photogrammetry measurements of free-swimming sharks, we calculated length at 50% maturity for males in Mozambique at 916 cm TL. Repeat measurements of individual whale sharks measured over periods from 347–1,068 days yielded implausible growth rates, suggesting that the growth increment over this period was not large enough to be detected using laser photogrammetry, and that the method is best applied to estimating growth rates over longer (decadal time periods. The sex ratio of both populations was biased towards males (74% in Mozambique, 89% in Tanzania, the majority of which were immature (98% in Mozambique, 94% in Tanzania. The population structure for these two aggregations was similar to most other documented whale shark aggregations around the world. Information on small (<400 cm whale sharks, mature individuals, and females in this region is lacking, but necessary to inform conservation initiatives for this globally threatened species.

  19. Laser photogrammetry improves size and demographic estimates for whale sharks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohner, Christoph A; Richardson, Anthony J; Prebble, Clare E M; Marshall, Andrea D; Bennett, Michael B; Weeks, Scarla J; Cliff, Geremy; Wintner, Sabine P; Pierce, Simon J

    2015-01-01

    Whale sharks Rhincodon typus are globally threatened, but a lack of biological and demographic information hampers an accurate assessment of their vulnerability to further decline or capacity to recover. We used laser photogrammetry at two aggregation sites to obtain more accurate size estimates of free-swimming whale sharks compared to visual estimates, allowing improved estimates of biological parameters. Individual whale sharks ranged from 432-917 cm total length (TL) (mean ± SD = 673 ± 118.8 cm, N = 122) in southern Mozambique and from 420-990 cm TL (mean ± SD = 641 ± 133 cm, N = 46) in Tanzania. By combining measurements of stranded individuals with photogrammetry measurements of free-swimming sharks, we calculated length at 50% maturity for males in Mozambique at 916 cm TL. Repeat measurements of individual whale sharks measured over periods from 347-1,068 days yielded implausible growth rates, suggesting that the growth increment over this period was not large enough to be detected using laser photogrammetry, and that the method is best applied to estimating growth rates over longer (decadal) time periods. The sex ratio of both populations was biased towards males (74% in Mozambique, 89% in Tanzania), the majority of which were immature (98% in Mozambique, 94% in Tanzania). The population structure for these two aggregations was similar to most other documented whale shark aggregations around the world. Information on small (<400 cm) whale sharks, mature individuals, and females in this region is lacking, but necessary to inform conservation initiatives for this globally threatened species.

  20. Demographic and psychographic associations of consumer intentions to purchase healthier food products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Melissa; Wang, Wei Chun; Worsley, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study investigated the associations of nutrition concerns, demographics, universalism (community oriented) values, perceived control over personal health and food buying, and perceived influence over the food system with intentions to purchase low fat, sugar and salt (LFSS) food products. Methods A national online survey of 2204 Australian consumers administered in November 2011. Structural equation modeling was used to examine associations of LFSS purchasing intentions with demographic, values, perceived control, and influence factors. Results Nutrition concern, perceived influence over the food system, and universalism values were key predictors of LFSS purchasing intentions. Almost two thirds (64.6%) of the variance associated with LFSS purchasing was explained by the structural equation model. Conclusion Communication programs which focus on universalism values, nutrition concern and perceived influence over the food system are likely to increase LFSS purchasing and perhaps reduce the demand for energy dense, nutrient poor foods. PMID:26844047

  1. [Integration of demographic variables into development plans in the Sahel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wane, H R

    1992-07-01

    A founding principle of the Program of Action of N'Djamena is the interdependence of population and development and the need for development strategies to take demographic factors into account. The concept of integration of population variables into development has evolved since its introduction in the 1974 World Population Plan of Action from a simple description of population size, growth rates, and distribution to a stress on harmonizing population policies and development policies with macroeconomic variables. The essence of the concept is the consideration given by development policies and programs to the interrelations between population, resources, the environment, and development factors. Population variables and goals should ideally be treated as endogenous variables in development planning, but in practice the extreme complexity of such a systematic approach limits its ability to be made operational. Usually the most crucial problems only are included. Integrated planning is composed of explicit or implicit population policies intended to influence demographic variables and of socioeconomic policies intended to adapt to demographic change. In the Sahel, only Senegal, Burkina Faso, and Mali have formal population policies, but around 1980 several countries of the region began to show interest in influencing demographic variables as they did economic variables. Fundamental principles for developing an integration strategy can be applied regardless or whether the plan is based on projections, analysis of interaction of a demographic variable with factors specific to a sector, or a monosectorial or multisectorial demoeconomic planning model. Demographic data is used more frequently in diagnosing problems than in developing projections or formulating objectives. The level of disaggregation of demographic projections and estimates tends to be low, despite the great potential utility of demographic projections in planning. Demographic projections can be useful

  2. Demographic Dynamics and the Empirics of Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Sarel

    1995-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of demographic dynamics on the measured rates of economic growth. First, it develops a model of production with labor productivity that varies with age. Second, it uses macroeconomic and demographic data to estimate the relative productivity of different age groups. Third, it constructs a panel database of effective labor supply in order to reflect the changing age-structure of the population. Fourth, it decomposes the historical measured growth rates into effe...

  3. Pension Reform and Demographic Uncertainty : The Case of Germany

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    The present paper compares the distributional and risk-sharing consequences of two pension reform proposals in Germany which both aim to improve the sustainability of the current system by introducing demographic variables to the benefit calculation. While the first reform proposes a so-called "sustainability factor" which measures the changes in the dependency ratio, the second reform proposes a so-called "demographic factor" which takes into account the changes in life expectancy. Our simul...

  4. Fast demographic traits promote high diversification rates of Amazonian trees

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, Timothy R.; Pennington, R. Toby; Magallon, Susana; Gloor, Emanuel; Laurance, William F.; Alexiades, Miguel; Alvarez, Esteban; Araujo, Alejandro; Arets, Eric J. M. M.; Aymard, Gerardo; de Oliveira, Atila Alves; Amaral, Iêda; Arroyo, Luzmila; Bonal, Damien; Roel J.W. Brienen

    2014-01-01

    The Amazon rain forest sustains the world's highest tree diversity, but it remains unclear why some clades of trees are hyperdiverse, whereas others are not. Using dated phylogenies, estimates of current species richness and trait and demographic data from a large network of forest plots, we show that fast demographic traits - short turnover times - are associated with high diversification rates across 51 clades of canopy trees. This relationship is robust to assuming that diversification rat...

  5. The Gender and Intergenerational Consequences of the Demographic Dividend

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    The demographic transition changes the age composition of a population, potentially affecting resource allocation at the household level and exerting general equilibrium effects at the aggregate level. If age profiles of income, consumption, and savings were stable and estimable for the entire population, they might imply how the demographic transition would affect national savings rates, but there is little agreement on the impact of age composition. These age profiles differ by gender and a...

  6. Socio-demographic, Epidemiological and Environmental Determinants of Acute Gastroenteritis in Western India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihir Prafulbhai Rupani

    2016-03-01

    Conclusions: Socio-demographic factors (higher socio-economic status, epidemiological correlates (change in taste of water, another family member been affected with acute gastroenteritis and eating outside food and environmental determinants (waste disposal in a common dump and waste accumulation around house significantly determines the occurrence of cases of acute gastroenteritis. Keywords: case-control studies;diarrhea; epidemiologic determinants; gastroenteritis; social determinants of health. | PubMed

  7. Explaining union participation: The effects of union commitment and demographic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Bolton

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the relationship between trade union commitment and union participation among blue-collar workers in South Africa. Survey questionnaires were completed by 93 participants (response rate = 62 %. Findings are consistent with previous research and showed that after controlling for demographic factors, 43% of the variance in participation can be explained by union commitment. In this study, Black participants displayed significantly higher levels of commitment and participation than their Coloured counterparts did.

  8. Demographic, breast-feeding, and nutritional trends among children with type 1 diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Baruah, Manash P.; Ammini, Ariachery C; Khurana, Madan L.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) requires a genetic predisposition to particular environmental triggers that may activate mechanisms leading to progressive loss of pancreatic beta cells. Aims: We tried to compare the impact of some demographic and environmental factors and breast-feeding on children (aged < 18 years) with recent onset diabetes mellitus (≤1 year) with that on age, sex, and socioeconomic status-matched controls. Material and Methods: A total of 43...

  9. A Statistical Assessment of Demographic Bonus towards Poverty Alleviation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Abdul Nasir

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The shift of birth and death rates from high to low level in any population is referred as demographic transition. Mechanically, the transition of a society creates more working member of its own population commonly called demographic bonus. This articleempirically explores the realistic soundness of demographic bonus in reducing the poverty level of the society. Three contrasting regions namely Eastern Asia, Central America and Oceania were selected for analytical purposes. The findings indicate that Eastern Asia and Oceania are currently facing the end of their transition whereas theCentral America is lagged behind in transition. Central America due to last runner in transition race is the sustained recipient of its own demographic bonus by the year 2030.On the basis of three mechanisms namely: labour supply, savings and human capital, the Eastern Asian region is found to be successful beneficiary of its own demographic gift which concludes that many million people have escaped from poverty. Under the right policy environment on the above three mechanisms, Eastern Asia experience indicates the realistic contribution of demographic bonus to reduce poverty.

  10. Spatial Associations Between Contaminated Land and Socio Demographics in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Russell; Ericson, Bret; Caravanos, Jack; Grigsby, Patrick; Amoyaw-Osei, Yaw

    2015-10-27

    Associations between contaminated land and socio demographics are well documented in high-income countries. In low- and middle-income countries, however, little is known about the extent of contaminated land and possible demographic correlations. This is an important yet sparsely researched topic with potentially significant public health implications as exposure to pollution remains a leading source of morbidity and mortality in low-income countries. In this study, we review the associations between several socio demographic factors (population, population density, unemployment, education, and literacy) and contaminated sites in Ghana. Within this context, both correlation and association intend to show the relationship between two variables, namely contaminated sites and socio demographics. Aggregated district level 2010 census data from Ghana Statistical Service and contaminated site location data from Pure Earth's Toxic Sites Identification Program (TSIP) were spatially evaluated using the number of sites per kilometer squared within districts as the unit of measurement. We found a low to medium positive correlation (ρ range: 0.285 to 0.478) between contaminated sites and the following socio demographics: higher population density, higher unemployment, greater education, and higher literacy rate. These results support previous studies and suggest that several socio demographic factors may be reasonably accurate predictors of contaminated site locations. More research and targeted data collection is needed to better understand these associations with the ultimate goal of developing a predictive model.

  11. Spatial Associations Between Contaminated Land and Socio Demographics in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell Dowling

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Associations between contaminated land and socio demographics are well documented in high-income countries. In low- and middle-income countries, however, little is known about the extent of contaminated land and possible demographic correlations. This is an important yet sparsely researched topic with potentially significant public health implications as exposure to pollution remains a leading source of morbidity and mortality in low-income countries. In this study, we review the associations between several socio demographic factors (population, population density, unemployment, education, and literacy and contaminated sites in Ghana. Within this context, both correlation and association intend to show the relationship between two variables, namely contaminated sites and socio demographics. Aggregated district level 2010 census data from Ghana Statistical Service and contaminated site location data from Pure Earth’s Toxic Sites Identification Program (TSIP were spatially evaluated using the number of sites per kilometer squared within districts as the unit of measurement. We found a low to medium positive correlation (ρ range: 0.285 to 0.478 between contaminated sites and the following socio demographics: higher population density, higher unemployment, greater education, and higher literacy rate. These results support previous studies and suggest that several socio demographic factors may be reasonably accurate predictors of contaminated site locations. More research and targeted data collection is needed to better understand these associations with the ultimate goal of developing a predictive model.

  12. Socio-demographic determinants and prevalence of Tuberculosis knowledge in three slum populations of Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obuku Ekwaro A

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge of tuberculosis has been shown to influence health seeking behaviour; and urban slum dwellers are at a higher risk of acquiring tuberculosis than the general population. The study aim was to assess knowledge of tuberculosis and identify the associated socio-demographic determinants, in order to inform tailored interventions for advocacy, communication and social mobilisation in three urban-slum communities of Uganda. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 1361 adults between April and October 2011. Data was analyzed by descriptive statistics. Adjusted odds ratios (aOR and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI of potential determinants of tuberculosis (TB knowledge were estimated by multivariable ordinal logistic regression using Stata 11.2 software. Results We found low knowledge of TB cause (26.7%; symptoms (46.8%, transmission (54.3%, prevention (34% and free treatment (35%. Knowledge about TB treatment (69.4 and cure (85.1 was relatively high. Independent determinants of poor knowledge of TB in the multivariable analysis included (aOR, 95% CI lack of formal education (0.56; 0.38 – 0.83, P = 0.004, unemployment (0.67; 0.49 – 0.90, P = 0.010 and never testing for HIV (0.69; 0.51 – 0.92, P  Conclusion This study revealed deficiencies in the public health knowledge about TB symptoms, diagnosis and treatment among urban-slum dwellers in Uganda. Tuberculosis control programmes in similar settings should consider innovative strategies for TB education, advocacy, communication and social mobilisation to reach the youth, unemployed and less-educated; as well as those who have never tested for HIV.

  13. Whose Experience Is Measured?: A Pilot Study of Patient Satisfaction Demographics in Pediatric Otolaryngology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieman, Carrie L.; Benke, James R.; Ishman, Stacey L.; Smith, David F.; Boss, Emily F.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives/Hypothesis Despite a national emphasis on patient-centered care and cultural competency, minority and low-income children continue to experience disparities in health care quality. Patient satisfaction scores are a core quality indicator. The objective of this study was to evaluate race and insurance-related disparities in parent participation with pediatric otolaryngology satisfaction surveys. Study Design Observational analysis of patient satisfaction survey respondents from a tertiary pediatric otolaryngology division. Methods Demographics of survey respondents (Press Ganey Medical Practice Survey©) between January and July 2012 were compared to a clinic comparison group using t test and chi-square analyses. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to assess likelihood to complete a survey based on race or insurance status. Results A total of 130 survey respondents were compared to 1,251 patients in the comparison group. The mean patient age for which the parent survey was completed was 5.7 years (6.1 years for the comparison group, P =0.18); 59.2% of children were ≤5 years old. Relative to the comparison group, survey respondents were more often white (77.7% vs. 58.1%; P <0.001) and privately insured (84.6% vs. 60.8%; P <0.001). Similarly, after controlling for confounding variables, parents of children who were white (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.13–2.78, P =0.013) or privately insured (OR 2.9, 95% CI 1.74–4.85, P <0.001) were most likely to complete a survey. Conclusion Methods to evaluate satisfaction did not capture the racial or socioeconomic patient distribution within this pediatric division. These findings challenge the validity of applying patient satisfaction scores, as currently measured, to indicate health care quality. Future efforts to measure and improve patient experience should be inclusive of a culturally diverse population. Level of Evidence 2c. PMID:23853050

  14. Reconstructing propagation networks with temporal similarity metrics

    CERN Document Server

    Liao, Hao

    2014-01-01

    Node similarity is a significant property driving the growth of real networks. In this paper, based on the observed spreading results we apply the node similarity metrics to reconstruct propagation networks. We find that the reconstruction accuracy of the similarity metrics is strongly influenced by the infection rate of the spreading process. Moreover, there is a range of infection rate in which the reconstruction accuracy of some similarity metrics drops to nearly zero. In order to improve the similarity-based reconstruction method, we finally propose a temporal similarity metric to take into account the time information of the spreading. The reconstruction results are remarkably improved with the new method.

  15. Semantic Referencing - Determining Context Weights for Similarity Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janowicz, Krzysztof; Adams, Benjamin; Raubal, Martin

    Semantic similarity measurement is a key methodology in various domains ranging from cognitive science to geographic information retrieval on the Web. Meaningful notions of similarity, however, cannot be determined without taking additional contextual information into account. One way to make similarity measures context-aware is by introducing weights for specific characteristics. Existing approaches to automatically determine such weights are rather limited or require application specific adjustments. In the past, the possibility to tweak similarity theories until they fit a specific use case has been one of the major criticisms for their evaluation. In this work, we propose a novel approach to semi-automatically adapt similarity theories to the user's needs and hence make them context-aware. Our methodology is inspired by the process of georeferencing images in which known control points between the image and geographic space are used to compute a suitable transformation. We propose to semi-automatically calibrate weights to compute inter-instance and inter-concept similarities by allowing the user to adjust pre-computed similarity rankings. These known control similarities are then used to reference other similarity values.

  16. Conditional Similarity Solutions of the Boussinesq Equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Xiao-Yan; LIN Ji; LOU Sen-Yue

    2001-01-01

    The direct method proposed by Clarkson and Kruskal is modified to obtain some conditional similarity solutions of a nonlinear physics model. Taking the (1+ 1 )-dimensional Boussinesq equation as a simple example, six types of conditional similarity reductions are obtained.

  17. Hemodialysis versus peritoneal dialysis: epidemiologic and demographic characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hekmat R

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: The preferred modality of dialysis is a controversial issue in nephrology. In this study we compare some demographic and epidemiological characteristics of hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis patients in an attempt to analyze this issue."n"n Methods: The results of the research protocol "A survey of the epidemiological characteristics of chronic dialyzed patients in Khorassan province", was used to compare some demographic and epidemiological aspects of chronic hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis patients in search of any statistically significant difference."n"n Results: A total of 836 chronic dialysis patients entered this study, 802 (95.9% of which were under chronic hemodialysis, and 34 (4.1% patients were undergoing peritoneal dialysis, with 339 (42.3% and 12 (35.3% being female, respectively. The mean age for each group was 47.57 and 46.75 years, respectively. The causes of end-stage renal disease in hemodialzed patients were most commonly hypertension (32.2%, followed by diabetes mellitus (22.3%, unknown causes (19.6% and chronic glomeru-lonephritis (10.2%. In the peritoneal dialysis group, chronic glomerulonephritis (32.4% was the most common reason for dialysis, followed by diabetes mellitus (26

  18. Shape Similarity Measures of Linear Entities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The essential of feature matching technology lies in how to measure the similarity of spatial entities.Among all the possible similarity measures,the shape similarity measure is one of the most important measures because it is easy to collect the necessary parameters and it is also well matched with the human intuition.In this paper a new shape similarity measure of linear entities based on the differences of direction change along each line is presented and its effectiveness is illustrated.

  19. Socio-economic and demographic determinants of childhood anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sankar Goswmai

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To evaluate socio-economic and demographic determinants of anemia among Indian children aged 6-59 months. METHODS: Statistical analysis was performed on the cross-sectional weighted sample of 40,885 children from 2005 to 2006 National Family Health Survey by using multinomial logistic regression to assess the significance of some risk factors in different degrees of child anemia. Anemia was diagnosed by World Health Organization (WHO cut-off points on hemoglobin level. Pearson's chi-squared test was applied to justify the associations of anemia with different categories of the study population. RESULTS: The prevalence of anemia was 69.5%; 26.2% mild, 40.4% moderate, and 2.9% severe anemia. Overall prevalence rate, along with mild and moderate cases, showed an increasing trend up to 2 years of age and then decreased. Rural children had a higher prevalence rate. Of 28 Indian states in the study, 10 states showed very high prevalence, the highest being Bihar (77.9%. Higher birth order, high index of poverty, low level of maternal education, mother's anemia, non-intake of iron supplements during pregnancy, and vegetarian mother increased the risks of all types of anemia among children (p < 0.05. Christian population was at lower risk; and Scheduled Caste, Scheduled Tribe, and Other Backward Class categories were at higher risk of anemia. CONCLUSION: The results suggest a need for proper planning and implementation of preventive measures to combat child anemia. Economically under-privileged groups, maternal nutrition and education, and birth control measures should be priorities in the programs.

  20. Socio-demographic and clinical aspects of rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owino, B O; Oyoo, G O; Otieno, C F

    2009-05-01

    To determine the socio-demographic profiles and some clinical aspects of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Prospective, cross-sectional study. Ambulatory out- patient clinics of Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), a public national and referral hospital. Out of 180 patients interviewed and examined, 60 met American College of Rheumatology (ACR) diagnostic criteria of RA. Of the 60 patients recruited 52 (87%) were females with male: female ratio of 1: 6.5. The mean age of patients was 41.38(+/- 16.8) years. There were two peaks of age of occurrence, 20-29 and 40-49 years. In 75% of the study patients, one or more of metacarpophalangeal joints of the hand were involved in the disease. Other frequently involved sites were--wrists, elbows, knees, ankles and glenohumeral joints of shoulders in a symmetrical manner. Serum rheumatoid factor was positive in 78.9% while rheumatoid nodules were present in 13.3% of the study patients. A large majority of patients (88%) had active disease with 18% having mild disease, 38% moderate activity and 32% having severe disease. Only 12% of patients had disease in remission. Forty six point seven per cent (46.7%) of the study patients were on at least one Disease Modifying anti Rheumatic Drugs (DMARD) from a selection of methotrexate, sulphasalazine, hydroxychloroquine and leflunamide. The most frequent drug combination was methotrexate plus prednisolone at 30% of the study population; while 66.7% were on oral prednisolone with 25% of the study patients taking only Non-Steroidal anti Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDS). A large majority of ambulatory patients with RA had active disease. Most of them were sub-optimally treated, especially the use of DMARDS. About two thirds were on oral steroids. Sub-optimal therapy in relatively young patients, peak 20-29 and 40-49 years is likely to impact negatively on their disease control and quality of life.

  1. Climatic influence on demographic parameters of a tropical seabird varies with age and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oro, Daniel; Torres, Roxana; Rodríguez, Cristina; Drummond, Hugh

    2010-04-01

    In marine ecosystems climatic fluctuation and other physical variables greatly influence population dynamics, but differential effects of physical variables on the demographic parameters of the two sexes and different age classes are largely unexplored. We analyzed the effects of climate on the survival and recruitment of both sexes and several age classes of a long-lived tropical seabird, the Blue-footed Booby (Sula nebouxii), using long-term observations on marked individuals. Results demonstrated a complex interaction between yearly fluctuations in climate (both local and global indexes, during both winter and breeding season) and the sex and age of individuals. Youngest birds' survival and recruitment were commonly affected by local climate, whereas oldest birds' parameters tended to be constant and less influenced by environmental variables. These results confirm the theoretical prediction that sex- and age-related variation in life-history demographic traits is greater under poor environmental conditions, and they highlight the importance of including variability in fitness components in demographic and evolutionary models. Males and females showed similar variation in survival but different recruitment patterns, in relation to both age and the spatial scale of climatic influence (local or global). Results indicate different life-history tactics for each sex and different ages, with birds likely trying to maximize their fitness by responding to the environmental contingencies of each year.

  2. Phylogeography and demographic history of two widespread Indo-Pacific mudskippers (Gobiidae: Periophthalmus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polgar, G; Zane, L; Babbucci, M; Barbisan, F; Patarnello, T; Rüber, L; Papetti, C

    2014-04-01

    This study provides a first description of the phylogeographic patterns and evolutionary history of two species of the mudskipper genus Periophthalmus. These amphibious gobies are distributed throughout the whole Indo-Pacific region and Atlantic coast of Africa, in peritidal habitats of soft-bottom coastal ecosystems. Three sequence datasets of two widely distributed species, Periophthalmus argentilineatus and P. kalolo, were obtained by amplifying and sequencing two mtDNA markers (D-loop and 16S rDNA) and the nDNA rag1 region. The three datasets were then used to perform phylogeographic, demographic and population genetic analyses. Our results indicate that tectonic events and past climatic oscillations strongly contributed to shape present genetic differentiation, phylogeographic and demographic patterns. We found support for the monophyly of P. kalolo, and only shallow genetic differentiation between East-African and Indo-Malayan populations of this species. However, our collections of the morphospecies P. argentilineatus include three molecularly distinct lineages, one of them more closely related to P. kalolo. The presence of Miocenic timings for the most recent common ancestors of some of these morphologically similar clades, suggests the presence of strong stabilising selection in mudskippers' habitats. At population level, demographic analyses and palaeoecological records of mangrove ecosystems suggest that Pleistocene bottlenecks and expansion plus secondary contact events of the studied species were associated with recurrent sea transgressions during interglacials, and sea regressions or stable regimes during glacials, respectively.

  3. Hierarchical demographic approaches for assessing invasion dynamics of non-indigenous species: An example using northern snakehead (Channa argus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Y.; Lapointe, N.W.R.; Angermeier, P.L.; Murphy, B.R.

    2009-01-01

    Models of species' demographic features are commonly used to understand population dynamics and inform management tactics. Hierarchical demographic models are ideal for the assessment of non-indigenous species because our knowledge of non-indigenous populations is usually limited, data on demographic traits often come from a species' native range, these traits vary among populations, and traits are likely to vary considerably over time as species adapt to new environments. Hierarchical models readily incorporate this spatiotemporal variation in species' demographic traits by representing demographic parameters as multi-level hierarchies. As is done for traditional non-hierarchical matrix models, sensitivity and elasticity analyses are used to evaluate the contributions of different life stages and parameters to estimates of population growth rate. We applied a hierarchical model to northern snakehead (Channa argus), a fish currently invading the eastern United States. We used a Monte Carlo approach to simulate uncertainties in the sensitivity and elasticity analyses and to project future population persistence under selected management tactics. We gathered key biological information on northern snakehead natural mortality, maturity and recruitment in its native Asian environment. We compared the model performance with and without hierarchy of parameters. Our results suggest that ignoring the hierarchy of parameters in demographic models may result in poor estimates of population size and growth and may lead to erroneous management advice. In our case, the hierarchy used multi-level distributions to simulate the heterogeneity of demographic parameters across different locations or situations. The probability that the northern snakehead population will increase and harm the native fauna is considerable. Our elasticity and prognostic analyses showed that intensive control efforts immediately prior to spawning and/or juvenile-dispersal periods would be more effective

  4. Demographic model of the Neolithic transition in Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrik Galeta

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Several recent lines of evidence indicate more intensive contact between LBK farmers and indigenous foragers in Central Europe (5600–5400 calBC. Strong continuity has been identified between Mesolithic and Neolithic material cultures; faunal assemblages, and isotopic analyses of diet have revealed a greater role of hunting in LBK communities; genetic analyses have suggested that the modern Central European gene pool is mainly of Palaeolithic origin. Surprisingly little attention has been paid to demographic aspects of the Neolithic transition. In our study, demographic simulations were performed to assess the demographic conditions that would allow LBK farmers to spread across central Europe without any admixture with Mesolithic foragers. We constructed a stochastic demographic model of changes in farming population size. Model parameters were constrained by data from human demography, archaeology, and human ecology. Our results indicate that the establishment of farming communities in Central Europe without an admixture with foragers was highly improbable. The demographic conditions necessary for colonization were beyond the potential of the Neolithic population. Our study supports the integrationists’ view of the Neolithic transition in Central Europe.

  5. Accounting for rate variation among lineages in comparative demographic analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, Andrew G.; Ho, Simon Y. W.; Malaney, Jason L.; Cook, Joseph A.; Talbot, Sandra L.

    2014-01-01

    Genetic analyses of contemporary populations can be used to estimate the demographic histories of species within an ecological community. Comparison of these demographic histories can shed light on community responses to past climatic events. However, species experience different rates of molecular evolution, and this presents a major obstacle to comparative demographic analyses. We address this problem by using a Bayesian relaxed-clock method to estimate the relative evolutionary rates of 22 small mammal taxa distributed across northwestern North America. We found that estimates of the relative molecular substitution rate for each taxon were consistent across the range of sampling schemes that we compared. Using three different reference rates, we rescaled the relative rates so that they could be used to estimate absolute evolutionary timescales. Accounting for rate variation among taxa led to temporal shifts in our skyline-plot estimates of demographic history, highlighting both uniform and idiosyncratic evolutionary responses to directional climate trends for distinct ecological subsets of the small mammal community. Our approach can be used in evolutionary analyses of populations from multiple species, including comparative demographic studies.

  6. Stability of similarity measurements for bipartite networks

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jian-Guo; Pan, Xue; Guo, Qiang; Zhou, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Similarity is a fundamental measure in network analyses and machine learning algorithms, with wide applications ranging from personalized recommendation to socio-economic dynamics. We argue that an effective similarity measurement should guarantee the stability even under some information loss. With six bipartite networks, we investigate the stabilities of fifteen similarity measurements by comparing the similarity matrixes of two data samples which are randomly divided from original data sets. Results show that, the fifteen measurements can be well classified into three clusters according to their stabilities, and measurements in the same cluster have similar mathematical definitions. In addition, we develop a top-$n$-stability method for personalized recommendation, and find that the unstable similarities would recommend false information to users, and the performance of recommendation would be largely improved by using stable similarity measurements. This work provides a novel dimension to analyze and eval...

  7. Significant demographic and fine-scale genetic structure in expanding and senescing populations of the terrestrial orchid Cymbidium goeringii (Orchidaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Mi Yoon; Nason, John D; Chung, Myong Gi

    2011-12-01

    Fine-scale genetic structure (FSGS) in plants is influenced by variation in spatial and temporal demographic processes. To determine how demographic structure and FSGS change with stages of population succession, we studied replicate expanding and senescing populations of the Asian terrestrial orchid Cymbidium goeringii. We used spatial autocorrelation methods (O-ring and kinship statistics) to quantify spatial demographic structure and FSGS in two expanding and two senescing populations, also measuring genetic diversity and inbreeding in each. All populations exhibited significant aggregation of individuals and FSGS at short spatial scales. In expanding populations, this finding was associated with high recruitment rates, suggesting restricted seed dispersal. In senescing populations, recruitment was minimal, suggesting alternative mechanisms of aggregation, perhaps including spatial associations with mycorrhizal fungi. All populations had significant evidence of genetic bottlenecks, and inbreeding levels were consistently high. Our results indicate that different successional stages can generate similar patterns of spatial demographic and genetic structure, but as a consequence of different processes. These results contrast with the only other study of senescence effects on population genetic structure in an herbaceous perennial, which found little to no FSGS in senescing populations. With the exception of populations subject to mass collection by orchid sellers, significant FSGS is characteristic of the 16 terrestrial orchid species examined to date. From a conservation perspective, this result suggests that inference of orchid population history will benefit from analyses of both FSGS and demographic structure in combination with other ecological field data.

  8. Smoking Behavior and Demographic Risk Factors in Argentina: A Population-Based Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Eugenio; Kaplan, Celia Patricia; Guil, Valeria; Gregorich, Steven E.; Mejia, Raul; J.Pérez-Stable, Eliseo

    2007-01-01

    Background Demographic and socioeconomic factors associated with smoking behavior were evaluated in a nationwide household survey in Argentina to describe the status of the tobacco epidemic. Methods Face-to-face interviews with adults, age 20 and older, assessed smoking status, frequency, and age of initiation. Multivariate logistic regression was used to compare social and demographic characteristics. Results Of the 43,863 participants, 38% of men and 24% of women were current smokers, and 20% of current smokers smoked occasionally. For older men and women, smoking was less prevalent and their probability of quitting higher. Men with more than high school education were less likely to be current smokers. Rates for women did not differ by education. Conclusions The lower smoking rates among men with more education suggest that Argentina has begun to transition to the next stage of the tobacco epidemic. Tobacco control policy must direct efforts to change smoking behavior. PMID:18037987

  9. The Relationship Between Student Demographics and Student Engagement with Online Library Instruction Modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary C. Thill

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To investigate whether there are any demographic trends affecting student engagement with online library instruction which might have implications for practice, the authors designed a case study to examine the relationship between student demographic characteristics and engagement with online library instruction modules in English 102 courses at a single university. Methods – The authors recruited 181 students from English 102 (ENG 102, a research-based composition course, to participate in the study. ENG 102 instructors asked all participants to complete an online library instruction module embedded in the university’s course management system, either before in-person library instruction or in lieu of face-to-face library instruction. No external incentive was provided for online module completion. The research team measured levels of student engagement by recording the amount of time students spent on each page of the online module. In collaboration with the Office of Institutional Research, the authors then pulled demographic data on each participant using the university’s student information system. Pearson chi-square tests were performed to determine whether there were any notable associations between levels of student engagement and student age, grade point average, gender, and race/ethnicity. Results – Observable trends tied age and higher grade point average to higher levels of engagement with online instruction. There was additionally a slight trend linking female participants to higher levels of engagement than their male peers. In the category of race/ethnicity, the two largest subgroups, Hispanic and Caucasian students, exhibited similar levels of engagement. Conclusions – The authors conclude that there may be demographic implications for practice in designing online library instruction programs, especially when considering student age and academic performance indicators. They also conclude that, owing to

  10. Evaluating vegetation effects on animal demographics: the role of plant phenology and sampling bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Daniel; Blomberg, Erik J; Sedinger, James S

    2016-04-24

    Plant phenological processes produce temporal variation in the height and cover of vegetation. Key aspects of animal life cycles, such as reproduction, often coincide with the growing season and therefore may inherently covary with plant growth. When evaluating the influence of vegetation variables on demographic rates, the decision about when to measure vegetation relative to the timing of demographic events is important to avoid confounding between the demographic rate of interest and vegetation covariates. Such confounding could bias estimated effect sizes or produce results that are entirely spurious. We investigated how the timing of vegetation sampling affected the modeled relationship between vegetation structure and nest survival of greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), using both simulated and observational data. We used the height of live grasses surrounding nests as an explanatory covariate, and analyzed its effect on daily nest survival. We compared results between models that included grass height measured at the time of nest fate (hatch or failure) with models where grass height was measured on a standardized date - that of predicted hatch date. Parameters linking grass height to nest survival based on measurements at nest fate produced more competitive models, but slope coefficients of grass height effects were biased high relative to truth in simulated scenarios. In contrast, measurements taken at predicted hatch date accurately predicted the influence of grass height on nest survival. Observational data produced similar results. Our results demonstrate the importance of properly considering confounding between demographic traits and plant phenology. Not doing so can produce results that are plausible, but ultimately inaccurate.

  11. [The demographic stakes in Black Africa: what lies behind the debate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ela, J

    1992-01-01

    The current debate concerning the population dynamics of Sub-Saharan Africa is reviewed. The author describes the present demographic situation and the potential for future high rates of population growth. He also discusses Africa's resource potential and its current low levels of population density as well as the growing demands in certain quarters for population control policies. He concludes that much of the demand for population control comes from those who benefit from a world economy that is dominated by the developed market-economy countries, and that a workable solution to population problems in Africa can only come about if the inequalities between rich and poor countries are resolved.

  12. Memory endowed US cities and their demographic interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Hernando, A; Plastino, A; Zambrano, E

    2014-01-01

    A quantitative understanding of cities' demographic dynamics is becoming a potentially useful tool for planning sustainable growth. The concomitant theory should reveal details of the cities' past and also of its interaction with nearby urban conglomerates for providing a reasonably complete picture. Using the exhaustive database of the Census Bureau in a time window of 170 years, we exhibit here empirical evidence for time and space correlations in the demographic dynamics of US counties, with a characteristic memory-time of 25 years and typical distances of interaction of 200 km. These correlations are much larger than those observed in an European country (Spain), giving to the US a more coherent evolution. We also measure the resilience of US cities to historical events, finding a demographical post-traumatic amnesia after wars (as the Civil War) or economic crisis (as the 1929 Stock Market Crash).

  13. Demographic Evolution in Romania – Convergence or Peripherisation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Veronica Litra

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Romania began its demographic transition about one century later than the developed countries. We put the blame of this gap on the delayed economic, social and political development in comparison with the Western Europe. But also, it could not be forgotten the shift from a population forced and subdue by the totalitary regime, to a free people to decide when to have a child or how large should be the family. During transition, Romania has pointed many negative demographic evolutions, as compared with the other european countries. It may be said that the transition in Romania over the period 1990-2004 adjusted the classical pattern of demographic evolution. Not fully felt at this moment, we will probably find ourselves few decades later older, less, deprived of skilled labor force and unbalanced as gender ratio.

  14. Memory-endowed US cities and their demographic interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernando, A; Hernando, R; Plastino, A; Zambrano, E

    2015-01-06

    A quantitative understanding of cities' demographic dynamics is becoming a potentially useful tool for planning sustainable growth. The concomitant theory should reveal details of the cities' past and also of its interaction with nearby urban conglomerates for providing a reasonably complete picture. Using the exhaustive database of the Census Bureau in a time window of 170 years, we exhibit here empirical evidence for time and space correlations in the demographic dynamics of US counties, with a characteristic memory time of 25 years and typical distances of interaction of 200 km. These correlations are much larger than those observed in a European country (Spain), indicating more coherent evolution in US cities. We also measure the resilience of US cities to historical events, finding a demographical post-traumatic amnesia after wars (such as the American Civil War) or economic crisis (such as the 1929 Stock Market Crash).

  15. Demographic Composition of the Online Buyers in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinan NARDALI

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Demographic variables may have an impact on Internet usage patterns. Online buyers’ characteristics keeps changing time along with the shifting dynamics of Turkish consumers’ demographic profile and day by day online shopping becomes a safe and popular option in Turkey. Current study investigates demographic composition of the online buyers that influence consumer attitudes towards online shopping behavior in Izmir, the third largest city in Turkey. This study examines attitudes toward online shopping and provides a better understanding of the potential of online buyers for both researchers and practitioners. The study is based on an empirical research work, and a convenience sample of 400. Frequencies, descriptive statistics, and One-Way ANOVA tests were used in the analysis of data. The study shows that Turkish Internet consumer segment is relatively young, well educated, in mid economic status and professions associated with Internet more than five years.

  16. Demographic potential as a component of life quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Vladimirovna Polkova

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical and methodical reasons for allocation of components of life quality with the particular importance of population quality, including demographic (reproduction potential are provided in the article. The integrated indicators of population quality in Ural federal district regions were calculated and analyzed in dynamics, basing on an author’s technique of integrated index estimation of population quality. Advantages of use the integrated index of population quality (IIKN before the human development index (HDI caused by inclusion in it the major demographic indicators in regional estimates are proved. Peculiarities of HDI and IIKN dynamics in Russia regions for the last decade are demonstrated; their value for efficiency evaluation of realizing state programs in the social and demographic sphere is shown.

  17. ANALYSIS OF THE DEMOGRAPHIC POTENTIAL IN FUNCTION OF TOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijalce Gjorgievski

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Man is the prime mover of the overall social economic and political life of the entire globe and therefore he is studied from various aspects depending on the needs of what we want to obtain information on the demographic potential and its features.In this paper, the subject of study will be processing potential through its demographic characteristics (number condition, age structure, natural increase, economic activity, religious composition, etc. for the tourism economy. We know that the basic elements of tourism are the natural and cultural wealth that detect, evaluate and put into operation in tourism. However, it has its function, the basic factor are the people who need to visit those places, so it is very important to understand the demographic characteristics of people in every region of the globe in order to come to some understanding of the habits, needs and affinities of people depending on age, nationality and religious affiliation, etc. when choosing their travel destination.

  18. THE SECOND DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION THEORY: A Review and Appraisal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Batool; Morgan, S. Philip

    2017-01-01

    References to the second demographic transition (SDT) concept/theoretical framework have increased dramatically in the last two decades. The SDT predicts unilinear change toward very low fertility and a diversity of union and family types. The primary driver of these changes is a powerful, inevitable and irreversible shift in attitudes and norms in the direction of greater individual freedom and self-actualization. First, we describe the origin of this framework and its evolution over time. Second, we review the empirical fit of the framework to major changes in demographic and family behavior in the U.S., the West, and beyond. As has been the case for other unilinear, developmental theories of demographic/family change, the SDT failed to predict many contemporary patterns of change/difference. Finally, we review previous critiques and identify fundamental weaknesses of this perspective, and provide brief comparisons to selected alternative approaches. PMID:28798523

  19. Demographic changes in towns of Central Serbia: Comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipović Marko

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to intensive urbanization, Central Serbia's urban population reached almost 60% in the total population. Despite the fact that the urban residents share in Serbia is still bellow the level of urbanization in developed countries, in which the percentage of urban residents exudes 70% (in majority of cases even more than 80%, it is an impression that demographic "resources" of rural areas have bean rather exhausted and that all demographic revitalization potential of Central Serbia is concentrated in towns. This paper treats the demographic changes which encompassed the towns of Central Serbia since 1981 census onwards, with special emphasis on the population migrations as well as on the natural growth, i.e. age - gender structure formation featuring the towns of Central Serbia. The changes will be analyzed trough a comparative analysis at the level of small, medium sized towns and big cities, while Belgrade will be represent as a special category.

  20. Demographic Evolution in Romania – Convergence or Peripherisation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Veronica Litra

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Romania began its demographic transition about one century later than the developed countries. We put the blame of this gap on the delayed economic, social and political development in comparison with the Western Europe. But also, it could not be forgotten the shift from a population forced and subdue by the totalitary regime, to a free people to decide when to have a child or how large should be the family. During transition, Romania has pointed many negative demographic evolutions, as compared with the other european countries. It may be said that the transition in Romania over the period 1990-2004 adjusted the classical pattern of demographic evolution. Not fully felt at this moment, we will probably find ourselves few decades later older, less, deprived of skilled labor force and unbalanced as gender ratio.

  1. Testing Self-Similarity Through Lamperti Transformations

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Myoungji

    2016-07-14

    Self-similar processes have been widely used in modeling real-world phenomena occurring in environmetrics, network traffic, image processing, and stock pricing, to name but a few. The estimation of the degree of self-similarity has been studied extensively, while statistical tests for self-similarity are scarce and limited to processes indexed in one dimension. This paper proposes a statistical hypothesis test procedure for self-similarity of a stochastic process indexed in one dimension and multi-self-similarity for a random field indexed in higher dimensions. If self-similarity is not rejected, our test provides a set of estimated self-similarity indexes. The key is to test stationarity of the inverse Lamperti transformations of the process. The inverse Lamperti transformation of a self-similar process is a strongly stationary process, revealing a theoretical connection between the two processes. To demonstrate the capability of our test, we test self-similarity of fractional Brownian motions and sheets, their time deformations and mixtures with Gaussian white noise, and the generalized Cauchy family. We also apply the self-similarity test to real data: annual minimum water levels of the Nile River, network traffic records, and surface heights of food wrappings. © 2016, International Biometric Society.

  2. Motivating the population to cope with the demographic change

    OpenAIRE

    König, Armin

    2009-01-01

    The effects of the demographic challenge will change the nature of politics and the emphasis of political sectors over the next 20 years, especially on a local level. This calls for new ways of thinking, new social skills and a new frame of awareness to allow for sustainable development. The community of Illingen in the Saarland, a town of 18,000 residents, has not denied the demographic change, but has accepted it. It shows how the populace, politics and administration have been confronted w...

  3. Demographic and labor market in the Chilean countryside Transformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos René Rodríguez Garcés

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on the information provided by the National Socioeconomic Survey of 1990 and 2013, the Chilean countryside reconfigurations are analyzed in terms of their demographic trends and labor market restructuring. A continuous process of depopulation and aging of the rural population is demographically notes. The agricultural activities of the rural labor market charge less important in terms of jobs and income, showing a strong process and favoring deagrarianisation positioning services area. Finally, a growing number of households that hold informal consensual unions and a greater presence of single-parent households, mainly consisting of female-headed households is observed.

  4. Sessile serrated adenomas:Demographic,endoscopic and pathological characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suryakanth; R; Gurudu; Russell; I; Heigh; Giovanni; De; Petris; Evelyn; G; Heigh; Jonathan; A; Leighton; Shabana; F; Pasha; Isaac; B; Malagon; Ananya; Das

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To study the demographic and endoscopic characteristics of patients with sessile serrated adenoma(SSA) in a single center.METHODS:Patients with SSA were identified by review of the pathology database of Mayo Clinic Arizona from 2005 to 2007.A retrospective chart review was performed to extract data on demographics,polyp characteristics,presence of synchronous adenomatous polyps or cancer,polypectomy methods,and related complications.RESULTS:One hundred and seventy-one(2.9%) of all patients undergoing co...

  5. Plague mortality and demographic depression in later medieval England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poos, L R

    1981-01-01

    Both direct and indirect evidence implies that England experienced a lengthy period of stagnant or declining population during the later fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. The Black Death of 1348-1349 had brought about profound changes in England's agrarian economy, and this subsequent demographic depression is most commonly interpreted by historians as the result of plague mortality, recurring in severe outbreaks after the disease's introduction into the country. This paper reviews the evidence and assumptions behind this interpretation, in light of recent research by historical demographers and epidemiologists into bubonic plague epidemics and general mortality crises during the post-medieval period.

  6. Contrasting demographic histories of the neighboring bonobo and chimpanzee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilsom, Christina; Carlsen, Frands; Heller, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    analyzed complete mitochondrial genomes representing all four recognized chimpanzee subspecies and the bonobo to infer the recent demographic history and used simulations to exclude a confounding effect of population structure. Our genus-wide Bayesian coalescent-based analysis revealed surprisingly...... dissimilar demographic histories of the chimpanzee subspecies and the bonobo, despite their overlapping habitat requirements. Whereas the central and eastern chimpanzee subspecies were inferred to have expanded tenfold between around 50,000 and 80,000 years ago and today, the population size...

  7. The demographic transition: an attempt to reformulate a population theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofsten, E

    1981-01-01

    In this effort to reformulate the demographic transition theory, attention is directed to the following: Malthus and Karl Marx's criticism of his principle of population; the 1st stage of transition, i.e., high mortality, high fertility, and slow population growth; the 2nd stage of declining mortality; the 3rd stage of declining fertility; the 4th stage when mortality and fertility are both low; the growth potential; and the demographic transition in the 3rd world countries. The demographic transition theory has become popular among demographers, economists, historians, and others interested in studying the development of population over time since the end of World War 2. This interest has most likely been created by the anxiety over the population explosion in the 3rd world countries. Transition has made demographers believe that the period of rapid population growth will be automatically succeeded by a period of more or less constant population size. The question that arises is whether it is as simple as that. Demographic transition has to a great extent taken the place of Malthus' principle of population as a general theory of population. Demographic transition appears to describe in a satisfactory way the development of population which all currently industrialized countires have passed through, when going from the preindustrial to the present industrialized stage. The objectives to demographic transition as a general theory are considered. Some of the factors which have accounted for the decline in fertility in Europe may also apply to the 3rd world countries. 1 such factor is the effect of reduced infant and child mortality on the individual level. The fertility decline, caused by reduced infant and child mortality may, however, be of limited size. The great amount of unemployment in the 3rd world may affect fertility in a downward direction. The fertility decline in Europe occurred simultaneously with an industrialization process, which gradually covered the

  8. Money attitude of Ukrainian young people: socio-demographic aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIANNA SIMKIV

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of research on social and demographic factors of Ukr health literacy, health culture, young adults, concepts of health and healthy lifestyle, motivations, forms of communication, learning methods ainian youth money attitudes. The aim of the research is to identify dependency between money attitudes of the young people and such social and demographic characteristics as sex, age, education, place of residence, place of employment, employment position and level of income. The research required application of survey and questionnaire methods as well as statistical methods of results processing.

  9. Circulating irisin levels are lower in patients with either stable coronary artery disease (CAD) or myocardial infarction (MI) versus healthy controls, whereas follistatin and activin A levels are higher and can discriminate MI from CAD with similar to CK-MB accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasilakis, Athanasios D; Koulaxis, Dimitrios; Kefala, Nikoleta; Polyzos, Stergios A; Upadhyay, Jagriti; Pagkalidou, Eirini; Economou, Fotios; Anastasilakis, Chrysostomos D; Mantzoros, Christos S

    2017-08-01

    Several myokines are produced by cardiac muscle. We investigated changes in myokine levels at the time of acute myocardial infarction (MI) and following reperfusion in relation to controls. Patients with MI (MI Group, n=31) treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) were compared to patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) subjected to scheduled PCI (CAD Group, n=40) and controls with symptoms mimicking CAD without stenosis in angiography (Control Group, n=43). The number and degree of stenosis were recorded. Irisin, follistatin, follistatin-like 3, activin A and B, ALT, AST, CK and CK-MB were measured at baseline and 6 or 24h after the intervention. MI and CAD patients had lower irisin than controls (pCAD patients and controls (all p≤0.001). None of the myokines changed following reperfusion. Circulating irisin was associated with the degree of stenosis in all patients (p=0.05). Irisin was not inferior to CK-MB in predicting MI while folistatin and activin A could discriminate MI from CAD patients with similar to CK-MB accuracy. None of these myokines was altered following PCI in contrast to CK-MB. Irisin levels are lower in MI and CAD implying that their production may depend on myocadial blood supply. Follistatin and activin A are higher in MI than in CAD suggesting increased release due to myocardial necrosis. They can predict MI with accuracy similar to CK-MB and their role in the diagnosis of MI remains to be confirmed by prospective large clinical studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Molecular quantum similarity using conceptual DFT descriptors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Patrick Bultinck; Ramon carbó-dorca

    2005-09-01

    This paper reports a Molecular Quantum Similarity study for a set of congeneric steroid molecules, using as basic similarity descriptors electron density ρ (r), shape function (r), the Fukui functions +(r) and -(r) and local softness +(r) and -(r). Correlations are investigated between similarity indices for each couple of descriptors used and compared to assess whether these different descriptors sample different information and to investigate what information is revealed by each descriptor.

  11. Cluster Tree Based Hybrid Document Similarity Measure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Varshana Devi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available similarity measure is established to measure the hybrid similarity. In cluster tree, the hybrid similarity measure can be calculated for the random data even it may not be the co-occurred and generate different views. Different views of tree can be combined and choose the one which is significant in cost. A method is proposed to combine the multiple views. Multiple views are represented by different distance measures into a single cluster. Comparing the cluster tree based hybrid similarity with the traditional statistical methods it gives the better feasibility for intelligent based search. It helps in improving the dimensionality reduction and semantic analysis.

  12. Similarity effects in visual working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yuhong V; Lee, Hyejin J; Asaad, Anthony; Remington, Roger

    2016-04-01

    Perceptual similarity is an important property of multiple stimuli. Its computation supports a wide range of cognitive functions, including reasoning, categorization, and memory recognition. It is important, therefore, to determine why previous research has found conflicting effects of inter-item similarity on visual working memory. Studies reporting a similarity advantage have used simple stimuli whose similarity varied along a featural continuum. Studies reporting a similarity disadvantage have used complex stimuli from either a single or multiple categories. To elucidate stimulus conditions for similarity effects in visual working memory, we tested memory for complex stimuli (faces) whose similarity varied along a morph continuum. Participants encoded 3 morphs generated from a single face identity in the similar condition, or 3 morphs generated from different face identities in the dissimilar condition. After a brief delay, a test face appeared at one of the encoding locations for participants to make a same/different judgment. Two experiments showed that similarity enhanced memory accuracy without changing the response criterion. These findings support previous computational models that incorporate featural variance as a component of working memory load. They delineate limitations of models that emphasize cortical resources or response decisions.

  13. Synthetic and Biopolymer Gels - Similarities and Difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horkay, Ferenc

    2006-03-01

    Ion exchange plays a central role in a variety of physiological processes, such as nerve excitation, muscle contraction and cell locomotion. Hydrogels can be used as model systems for identifying fundamental chemical and physical interactions that govern structure formation, phase transition, etc. in biopolymer systems. Polyelectrolyte gels are particularly well-suited to study ion-polymer interactions because their structure and physical-chemical properties (charge density, crosslink density, etc) can be carefully controlled. They are sensitive to different external stimuli such as temperature, ionic composition and pH. Surprisingly few investigations have been made on polyelectrolyte gels in salt solutions containing both monovalent and multivalent cations. We have developed an experimental approach that combines small angle neutron scattering and osmotic swelling pressure measurements. The osmotic pressure exerted on a macroscopic scale is a consequence of changes occurring at a molecular level. The intensity of the neutron scattering signal, which provides structural information as a function of spatial resolution, is directly related to the osmotic pressure. We have found a striking similarity in the scattering and osmotic behavior of polyacrylic acid gels and DNA gels swollen in nearly physiological salt solutions. Addition of calcium ions to both systems causes a sudden volume change. This volume transition, which occurs when the majority of the sodium counterions are replaced by calcium ions, is reversible. Such reversibility implies that the calcium ions are not strongly bound by the polyanion, but are free to move along the polymer chain, which allows these ions to form temporary bridges between negative charges on adjacent chains. Mechanical measurements reveal that the elastic modulus is practically unchanged in the calcium-containing gels, i.e., ion bridging is qualitatively different from covalent crosslinks.

  14. Mapping populations at risk: improving spatial demographic data for infectious disease modeling and metric derivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatem Andrew J

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The use of Global Positioning Systems (GPS and Geographical Information Systems (GIS in disease surveys and reporting is becoming increasingly routine, enabling a better understanding of spatial epidemiology and the improvement of surveillance and control strategies. In turn, the greater availability of spatially referenced epidemiological data is driving the rapid expansion of disease mapping and spatial modeling methods, which are becoming increasingly detailed and sophisticated, with rigorous handling of uncertainties. This expansion has, however, not been matched by advancements in the development of spatial datasets of human population distribution that accompany disease maps or spatial models. Where risks are heterogeneous across population groups or space or dependent on transmission between individuals, spatial data on human population distributions and demographic structures are required to estimate infectious disease risks, burdens, and dynamics. The disease impact in terms of morbidity, mortality, and speed of spread varies substantially with demographic profiles, so that identifying the most exposed or affected populations becomes a key aspect of planning and targeting interventions. Subnational breakdowns of population counts by age and sex are routinely collected during national censuses and maintained in finer detail within microcensus data. Moreover, demographic and health surveys continue to collect representative and contemporary samples from clusters of communities in low-income countries where census data may be less detailed and not collected regularly. Together, these freely available datasets form a rich resource for quantifying and understanding the spatial variations in the sizes and distributions of those most at risk of disease in low income regions, yet at present, they remain unconnected data scattered across national statistical offices and websites. In this paper we discuss the deficiencies of existing

  15. Mapping populations at risk: improving spatial demographic data for infectious disease modeling and metric derivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatem, Andrew J; Adamo, Susana; Bharti, Nita; Burgert, Clara R; Castro, Marcia; Dorelien, Audrey; Fink, Gunter; Linard, Catherine; John, Mendelsohn; Montana, Livia; Montgomery, Mark R; Nelson, Andrew; Noor, Abdisalan M; Pindolia, Deepa; Yetman, Greg; Balk, Deborah

    2012-05-16

    The use of Global Positioning Systems (GPS) and Geographical Information Systems (GIS) in disease surveys and reporting is becoming increasingly routine, enabling a better understanding of spatial epidemiology and the improvement of surveillance and control strategies. In turn, the greater availability of spatially referenced epidemiological data is driving the rapid expansion of disease mapping and spatial modeling methods, which are becoming increasingly detailed and sophisticated, with rigorous handling of uncertainties. This expansion has, however, not been matched by advancements in the development of spatial datasets of human population distribution that accompany disease maps or spatial models.Where risks are heterogeneous across population groups or space or dependent on transmission between individuals, spatial data on human population distributions and demographic structures are required to estimate infectious disease risks, burdens, and dynamics. The disease impact in terms of morbidity, mortality, and speed of spread varies substantially with demographic profiles, so that identifying the most exposed or affected populations becomes a key aspect of planning and targeting interventions. Subnational breakdowns of population counts by age and sex are routinely collected during national censuses and maintained in finer detail within microcensus data. Moreover, demographic and health surveys continue to collect representative and contemporary samples from clusters of communities in low-income countries where census data may be less detailed and not collected regularly. Together, these freely available datasets form a rich resource for quantifying and understanding the spatial variations in the sizes and distributions of those most at risk of disease in low income regions, yet at present, they remain unconnected data scattered across national statistical offices and websites.In this paper we discuss the deficiencies of existing spatial population datasets and

  16. Mining Diagnostic Assessment Data for Concept Similarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhyastha, Tara; Hunt, Earl

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces a method for mining multiple-choice assessment data for similarity of the concepts represented by the multiple choice responses. The resulting similarity matrix can be used to visualize the distance between concepts in a lower-dimensional space. This gives an instructor a visualization of the relative difficulty of concepts…

  17. Similar methodological analysis involving the user experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida e Silva, Caio Márcio; Okimoto, Maria Lúcia R L; Tanure, Raffaela Leane Zenni

    2012-01-01

    This article deals with the use of a protocol for analysis of similar methodological analysis related to user experience. For both, were selected articles recounting experiments in the area. They were analyze based on the similar analysis protocol and finally, synthesized and associated.

  18. Outsourced Similarity Search on Metric Data Assets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yiu, Man Lung; Assent, Ira; Jensen, Christian S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers a cloud computing setting in which similarity querying of metric data is outsourced to a service provider. The data is to be revealed only to trusted users, not to the service provider or anyone else. Users query the server for the most similar data objects to a query example...

  19. Appropriate Similarity Measures for Author Cocitation Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.J.P. van Eck (Nees Jan); L. Waltman (Ludo)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractWe provide a number of new insights into the methodological discussion about author cocitation analysis. We first argue that the use of the Pearson correlation for measuring the similarity between authors’ cocitation profiles is not very satisfactory. We then discuss what kind of similar

  20. Interleaving Helps Students Distinguish among Similar Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrer, Doug

    2012-01-01

    When students encounter a set of concepts (or terms or principles) that are similar in some way, they often confuse one with another. For instance, they might mistake one word for another word with a similar spelling (e.g., allusion instead of illusion) or choose the wrong strategy for a mathematics problem because it resembles a different kind of…

  1. Self-Similar Traffic In Wireless Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Jerjomins, R.; Petersons, E.

    2005-01-01

    Many studies have shown that traffic in Ethernet and other wired networks is self-similar. This paper reveals that wireless network traffic is also self-similar and long-range dependant by analyzing big amount of data captured from the wireless router.

  2. and Models: A Self-Similar Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Belinchón

    2013-01-01

    equations (FEs admit self-similar solutions. The methods employed allow us to obtain general results that are valid not only for the FRW metric, but also for all the Bianchi types as well as for the Kantowski-Sachs model (under the self-similarity hypothesis and the power-law hypothesis for the scale factors.

  3. Similarity Structure of Wave-Collapse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rypdal, Kristoffer; Juul Rasmussen, Jens; Thomsen, Kenneth

    1985-01-01

    Similarity transformations of the cubic Schrödinger equation (CSE) are investigated. The transformations are used to remove the explicit time variation in the CSE and reduce it to differential equations in the spatial variables only. Two different methods for similarity reduction are employed and...

  4. Some Effects of Similarity Self-Disclosure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kevin C.; Strong, Stanley R.

    1972-01-01

    College males were interviewed about how college had altered their friendships, values, and plans. The interviewers diclosed experiences and feelings similar to those revealed by the students. Results support Byrne's Law of Similarity in generating interpersonal attraction in the interview and suggest that the timing of self-disclosures is…

  5. Similarity indices I: what do they measure.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, J.W.

    1976-11-01

    A method for estimating the effects of environmental effusions on ecosystems is described. The characteristics of 25 similarity indices used in studies of ecological communities were investigated. The type of data structure, to which these indices are frequently applied, was described as consisting of vectors of measurements on attributes (species) observed in a set of samples. A general similarity index was characterized as the result of a two-step process defined on a pair of vectors. In the first step an attribute similarity score is obtained for each attribute by comparing the attribute values observed in the pair of vectors. The result is a vector of attribute similarity scores. These are combined in the second step to arrive at the similarity index. The operation in the first step was characterized as a function, g, defined on pairs of attribute values. The second operation was characterized as a function, F, defined on the vector of attribute similarity scores from the first step. Usually, F was a simple sum or weighted sum of the attribute similarity scores. It is concluded that similarity indices should not be used as the test statistic to discriminate between two ecological communities.

  6. Learning deep similarity in fundus photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudzik, Piotr; Al-Diri, Bashir; Caliva, Francesco; Ometto, Giovanni; Hunter, Andrew

    2017-02-01

    Similarity learning is one of the most fundamental tasks in image analysis. The ability to extract similar images in the medical domain as part of content-based image retrieval (CBIR) systems has been researched for many years. The vast majority of methods used in CBIR systems are based on hand-crafted feature descriptors. The approximation of a similarity mapping for medical images is difficult due to the big variety of pixel-level structures of interest. In fundus photography (FP) analysis, a subtle difference in e.g. lesions and vessels shape and size can result in a different diagnosis. In this work, we demonstrated how to learn a similarity function for image patches derived directly from FP image data without the need of manually designed feature descriptors. We used a convolutional neural network (CNN) with a novel architecture adapted for similarity learning to accomplish this task. Furthermore, we explored and studied multiple CNN architectures. We show that our method can approximate the similarity between FP patches more efficiently and accurately than the state-of- the-art feature descriptors, including SIFT and SURF using a publicly available dataset. Finally, we observe that our approach, which is purely data-driven, learns that features such as vessels calibre and orientation are important discriminative factors, which resembles the way how humans reason about similarity. To the best of authors knowledge, this is the first attempt to approximate a visual similarity mapping in FP.

  7. Are We Ready for the Approaching Demographic Tsunami?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Bolgen; Conlon, Jill E.

    2011-01-01

    For those at the high school and college levels who have been tracking the demographic changes occurring throughout the United States during the past few decades, it came as no surprise when recent U.S. Census statistics revealed that the 2010 kindergarten class is 25% Hispanic, up from 19% in 2000, and 5% Asian, up from 4% in 2000. The class is…

  8. Tobacco Sales in Community Pharmacies: Remote Decisions and Demographic Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Cory M.; Peterson, N. Andrew; Schneider, John E.; Smith, Brian J.; Armstead, Theresa L.

    2010-01-01

    This study applied multilevel modeling procedures with data from 678 community pharmacies and 382 residential census tracts in a Midwestern U.S. state to determine if two sets of variables: retail type (e.g., remotely owned, independently owned) and population demographics of the tracts in which outlets were located were associated with retail…

  9. Socio-demographic distribution of vestibular schwannomas in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stepanidis, Karen; Kessel, Marie; Caye-Thomasen, Per

    2014-01-01

    CONCLUSION: Vestibular schwannomas (VSs) are diagnosed less frequently in the remote parts of Denmark, whereas the diagnostic age and tumor size is the same across the different socio-demographic areas of Denmark. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether VSs are diagnosed equally often in different socio-demographic...... of socio-demographic areas elaborated by Demarks Statistic. RESULTS: The mean national incidence increased almost linearly over the time period from 6.1 per million per year in the first period from 1976 to 1984, to 22.1 per million per year in the last period from 2003 to 2012. There was a lower incidence...... at the end of the period in the remote areas compared with the other socio-demographic areas (1976-1984, p = 0.05 and 2003-2011, p = 0.001). The mean age at diagnosis increased during the period, from 52.6 years in the first period to 58.6 years in the last period. There was no significant difference...

  10. Personality, Demographics, and Acculturation in North American Refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smither, Robert; Rodriquez-Giegling, Marta

    This study predicts willingness of refugees to acculturate to North American society based on selected demographic and psychological variables. The hypothesis is that most previous research on refugee adaptation has overemphasized sociological variables such as age, time in the country, and level of education and underemphasized psychological…

  11. socio-demographic correlates of mental and behavioural disorders ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2000-10-01

    Oct 1, 2000 ... (DICA) was used to interview parents of 1,477 children. Main outcome ... Mood and anxiety disorders were not significantly associated with any of the socio- demographic ... The logistic regression method was employed to adjust relative risks for ..... handbook for Diagnosis and Treatment. The Guilford ...

  12. Demographic Factors Affecting Internet Using Purposes of High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Abdullah Faruk; Güzeller, Cem Oktay

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed at determining the impact of demographic factors on the Internet usage purposes of high school students. The population of the study consisted of students between 9th and 12th grades from the Anatolian high schools, science high schools, social sciences high schools, sports high schools and fine arts high schools in Turkey. The…

  13. Leisure Lifestyles: Segmentation by Interests, Needs, Demographics, and Television Viewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Marshall G.; Frank, Ronald E.

    1983-01-01

    Using their own 1978 national survey sample, the authors describe the social and demographic characteristics, psychological needs, and television viewing behaviors of persons who exhibit each of 14 patterns of leisure activities. The patterns were isolated through factor analysis and clustering techniques. (Author/RM)

  14. Higher Order Risk Attitudes, Demographics, and Financial Decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noussair, C.N.; Trautmann, S.T.; van de Kuilen, G.

    2011-01-01

    We conduct an experiment to study the prevalence of the higher order risk attitudes of prudence and temperance, in a large demographically representative sample, as well as in a sample of undergraduate students. Participants make pairwise choices between lotteries of the form proposed by Eeckhoudt a

  15. Demographic Analysis and Planning for the Future. No. 13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efird, Cathy M.

    The basic sources and types of demographic data available for future planning for the developmentally disabled are reviewed and a frame work for data organization is suggested. It is explained that future forecasts may be undertaken by the following principles: trend forecasting or extrapolation; scenario construction; models, games, and…

  16. Fast demographic traits promote high diversification rates of Amazonian trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baker, Timothy R; Pennington, R Toby; Magallon, Susana; Gloor, Emanuel; Laurance, William F; Alexiades, Miguel; Alvarez, Esteban; Araujo, Alejandro; Arets, Eric J M M; Aymard, Gerardo; de Oliveira, Atila Alves; Amaral, Iêda; Arroyo, Luzmila; Bonal, Damien; Brienen, Roel J W; Chave, Jerome; Dexter, Kyle G; Di Fiore, Anthony; Eler, Eduardo; Feldpausch, Ted R; Ferreira, Leandro; Lopez-Gonzalez, Gabriela; van der Heijden, Geertje; Higuchi, Niro; Honorio, Eurídice; Huamantupa, Isau; Killeen, Tim J; Laurance, Susan; Leaño, Claudio; Lewis, Simon L; Malhi, Yadvinder; Marimon, Beatriz Schwantes; Marimon Junior, Ben Hur; Monteagudo Mendoza, Abel; Neill, David; Peñuela-Mora, Maria Cristina; Pitman, Nigel; Prieto, Adriana; Quesada, Carlos A; Ramírez, Fredy; Ramírez Angulo, Hirma; Rudas, Agustin; Ruschel, Ademir R; Salomão, Rafael P; de Andrade, Ana Segalin; Silva, J Natalino M; Silveira, Marcos; Simon, Marcelo F; Spironello, Wilson; ter Steege, Hans|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/075217120; Terborgh, John; Toledo, Marisol; Torres-Lezama, Armando; Vasquez, Rodolfo; Vieira, Ima Célia Guimarães; Vilanova, Emilio; Vos, Vincent A; Phillips, Oliver L; Santos, F.

    2014-01-01

    The Amazon rain forest sustains the world's highest tree diversity, but it remains unclear why some clades of trees are hyperdiverse, whereas others are not. Using dated phylogenies, estimates of current species richness and trait and demographic data from a large network of forest plots, we show

  17. Homeschool Progress Report 2009: Academic Achievement and Demographics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Brian D.

    2009-01-01

    In 2007, the Home School Legal Defense Association commissioned Dr. Brian D. Ray of the National Home Education Research Institute to conduct a nationwide study of homeschooling in America. The study's purpose was to develop a current picture of homeschool students and their families--capturing their demographics and educational background--and…

  18. Social identity patterns and trust in demographically diverse work teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zee, Karen; Vos, Menno; Luijters, Kyra

    The article presents a model that links trust in a demographically diverse work context to three different social-identity patterns. Trust is considered to be beneficial for interpersonal relationships and work outcomes in diverse teams as well as for a healthy work relationship between minority

  19. Genetic diversity and demographic evolution of baobab (Adansonia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ezedom Theresa

    2013-09-18

    Sep 18, 2013 ... This study evaluated the spatial genetic structure of baobab ... digitata, haplotype, genetic diversity, demographic evolution. ... use in domestication, conservation, management and .... Benin, and inferred some impact of the environment and ... new diploid species from Africa, which co-exists with A.

  20. Tobacco Sales in Community Pharmacies: Remote Decisions and Demographic Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Cory M.; Peterson, N. Andrew; Schneider, John E.; Smith, Brian J.; Armstead, Theresa L.

    2010-01-01

    This study applied multilevel modeling procedures with data from 678 community pharmacies and 382 residential census tracts in a Midwestern U.S. state to determine if two sets of variables: retail type (e.g., remotely owned, independently owned) and population demographics of the tracts in which outlets were located were associated with retail…

  1. Fast demographic traits promote high diversification rates of Amazonian trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baker, Timothy R; Pennington, R Toby; Magallon, Susana; Gloor, Emanuel; Laurance, William F; Alexiades, Miguel; Alvarez, Esteban; Araujo, Alejandro; Arets, Eric J M M; Aymard, Gerardo; de Oliveira, Atila Alves; Amaral, Iêda; Arroyo, Luzmila; Bonal, Damien; Brienen, Roel J W; Chave, Jerome; Dexter, Kyle G; Di Fiore, Anthony; Eler, Eduardo; Feldpausch, Ted R; Ferreira, Leandro; Lopez-Gonzalez, Gabriela; van der Heijden, Geertje; Higuchi, Niro; Honorio, Eurídice; Huamantupa, Isau; Killeen, Tim J; Laurance, Susan; Leaño, Claudio; Lewis, Simon L; Malhi, Yadvinder; Marimon, Beatriz Schwantes; Marimon Junior, Ben Hur; Monteagudo Mendoza, Abel; Neill, David; Peñuela-Mora, Maria Cristina; Pitman, Nigel; Prieto, Adriana; Quesada, Carlos A; Ramírez, Fredy; Ramírez Angulo, Hirma; Rudas, Agustin; Ruschel, Ademir R; Salomão, Rafael P; de Andrade, Ana Segalin; Silva, J Natalino M; Silveira, Marcos; Simon, Marcelo F; Spironello, Wilson; ter Steege, Hans; Terborgh, John; Toledo, Marisol; Torres-Lezama, Armando; Vasquez, Rodolfo; Vieira, Ima Célia Guimarães; Vilanova, Emilio; Vos, Vincent A; Phillips, Oliver L; Santos, F.

    2014-01-01

    The Amazon rain forest sustains the world's highest tree diversity, but it remains unclear why some clades of trees are hyperdiverse, whereas others are not. Using dated phylogenies, estimates of current species richness and trait and demographic data from a large network of forest plots, we show th

  2. France: demographic change and family policy since World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussel, L; Thery, I

    1988-09-01

    Major demographic trends and changes in family policy in France since World War II are analyzed, with a focus on fertility and marriage patterns (including divorce). The effects of political and economic factors on family policy and legislation since 1945 are also discussed. Data are from official and other published sources.

  3. The Demographic Crisis and Global Migration - Selected Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frątczak, Ewa Zofia

    2016-01-01

    Currently the world is undergoing a serious demographic shift, characterised by slowing population growth in developed countries. However, the population in certain less-developed regions of the world is still increasing. According to UN data, as of 2015, (World...2015), 244 million people (or 3.3% of the global population) lived outside their country of birth. While most of these migrants travel abroad looking for better economic and social conditions, there are also those forced to move by political crises, revolutions and war. Such migration is being experienced currently in Europe, a continent which is thus going through both a demographic crisis related to the low fertility rate and population ageing, and a migration crisis. Global migrations link up inseparably with demographic transformation processes taking place globally and resulting in the changing tempo of population growth. Attracting and discouraging migration factors are changing at the same time, as is the scale and range of global migration, and with these also the global consequences. The focus of work addressed in this paper is on global population, the demographic transformation and the role of global migrations, as well as the range and scale of international migration, and selected aspects of global migrations including participation in the global labour market, the scale of monetary transfers (remittances) and the place of global migration in the UN 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development (Transforming...2015) and the Europe of two crises (Domeny 2016).

  4. Doctoral Accounting Candidates: A Profile of Demographics and Perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backmon, Ida Robinson

    1998-01-01

    Presents information on minority doctoral students in accounting, drawing on surveys completed by 47 such students. Outlines demographic characteristics, and identifies respondents' rankings of costs and benefits of pursuing a doctorate in accounting. Most respondents were professionally certified and were interested in academic careers. (SLD)

  5. Russian Federation : From the first to second demographic transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zakharov, Sergei

    2008-01-01

    The demographic transition in Russia was accelerated by several social cataclysms during the "Soviet type" modernization. Frequent changes in the timing of births and marriages engendered a mass "abortion culture". Contraceptive devices of poor quality were produced on a limited scale. The Soviet

  6. Demographic and Behavioral Characteristics of Osher Lifelong Learning Institute Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Robert Jack; Brady, E. Michael; Thaxton, Steven P.

    2016-01-01

    The number of lifelong learning institutes (LLIs) is growing across the United States and it is important for educational planners and administrators to know about current demographic and behavioral characteristics of program participants. A 14-question survey was administered via SurveyMonkey to members who use computers in eight Osher Lifelong…

  7. Predicting Psychiatric Rehabilitation Outcome Using Demographic Characteristics: A Replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, William A.; Buell, Gregory J.

    1974-01-01

    Replication was undertaken of a recent study conducted by Buell and Anthony which had found that recidivism and posthospital employment could be predicted by a single demographic variable, number of previous hospitalizations and employment history, respectively. Results of the replication were consistent for posthospital employment but not for…

  8. Learning Approaches, Demographic Factors to Predict Academic Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tuan Minh

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to predict academic outcome in math and math-related subjects using learning approaches and demographic factors. Design/Methodology/Approach: ASSIST was used as the instrumentation to measure learning approaches. The study was conducted in the International University of Vietnam with 616 participants. An…

  9. Economic and Demographic Factors Impacting Placement of Students with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurth, Jennifer A.; Mastergeorge, Ann M.; Paschall, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Educational placement of students with autism is often associated with child factors, such as IQ and communication skills. However, variability in placement patterns across states suggests that other factors are at play. This study used hierarchical cluster analysis techniques to identify demographic, economic, and educational covariates…

  10. Significance of Demographic Variables for Targeting of Internet Advertisements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Václav Stříteský

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Broad ad targeting options belong among the major advantages of internet advertising. Demographic targeting has become a standard option in most of on-line advertising systems. There are more ways how to target on-line advertisements by using demographic variables. In some cases, e.g., social media, we can use data from user registrations. Modern technologies enable to estimate the demographic profile of internet users using on behavioural data. The traditional approach to the demographic targeting of advertisements based on affinity targeting assumes the existence of internet servers with sufficient homogeneity of visits. The aim of this article is to identify the differences in the internet content consumption habits of Czech internet users based on gender and age. The analysis is based on the data from the extensive research which was carried out by the Netmonitor project, and which was provided for the purposes of this study by the Association for Internet Development (SPIR. The research results show that the traditional affinity-based method of targeting according to gender and age is still suitable on the Czech internet. On the other hand, in some cases, the traditional approach of ad targeting based on affinity leads to wasted ad impressions that miss defined target group.

  11. Global Demographic Change and Its Implications for Military Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    119 APPENDIXES A. Delayed Maternity and Fertility Rates...some during the past decade. The consequence of what has already taken place in the world’s maternity wards (so to speak) will unfold over the next 20...bathing, and dressing . See Spillman, 2004, p. 160. 31 Spillman, 2004, Table 2, pp. 167–168. 32 Bloom, Canning, and Fink, 2008. 74 Global Demographic

  12. Details from the Dashboard: Charter School Race/Ethnicity Demographics

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Alliance for Public Charter Schools, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This "Details from the Dashboard" report examines race/ethnicity breakouts for public charter schools and traditional public schools at the state and the school district level. The data in this report indicate that in the large majority of states, the race/ethnicity student demographics of charter schools are almost identical to those of the…

  13. Demographic, criminal and psychiatric factors related to inmate suicide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaauw, E.; Kerkhof, A.J.F.M.; Hayes, L.M.

    2005-01-01

    A review of 19 studies suggests that it may be feasible to identify prisoners with suicide risk on the basis of demographic, psychiatric, and criminal characteristics. The present study aimed to identify combinations of characteristics that are capable of identifying potential suicide victims. Chara

  14. Hyperstate matrix models : extending demographic state spaces to higher dimensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roth, G.; Caswell, H.

    2016-01-01

    1. Demographic models describe population dynamics in terms of the movement of individuals among states (e.g. size, age, developmental stage, parity, frailty, physiological condition). Matrix population models originally classified individuals by a single characteristic. This was enlarged to two cha

  15. Demographics and Motivation of Adult Group Piano Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wristen, Brenda

    2006-01-01

    As people are living longer and enjoying better quality of life, there has been a corresponding increase in interest in recreational music-making by adults. This study examined the demographics and motivations of students enrolled in the Community Piano Experience hosted by the University of Nebraska-Lincoln School of Music. Twenty-six…

  16. Greying at the Temples: Demographics of a Public Service Occupation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, James F.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Presents results of an empirical study of the effects of demographic trends on a local government occupational group--public welfare workers. Considers effects of these trends on managers' abilities to foster new ideas, to achieve affirmative action goals, and to ensure employee motivation, performance, and productivity. (Author/CH)

  17. The impact of demographic change on intergenerational transfers via bequests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Zagheni

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Transfers in the form of bequests have important implications for the intergenerational transmission of inequality. Demographic change has relevant consequences for the timing and size of bequests. For example, longer life implies that people receive bequests when they are older. Conversely, increasing generational length reduces the average age at which people are given bequests. Objective: We analyze the consequences of demographic change in the United States on timing over the life course when individuals receive an inheritance and on the size of bequests. Methods: We evaluate trends in life expectancy at the mean age at childbearing as a proxy for timing at receipt of bequests. We complement formal demographic analysis with empirical estimates from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID inheritance data for 1987-2010. Results: We find that the long-term trend of increasing age at receipt of bequests might have stalled, mainly because of changes in the timing of fertility. In the long term the upward trend in age at which people receive bequests may resume, as the expected linear gains in life expectancy will more than counteract recent increases in the mean age at childbearing. Conclusions: We showed that demographic change affects the size of bequests and the timing over the life course when people receive them. As the need for economic resources varies over the life cycle, changes in the timing at receipt of bequests may have a differential impact on wealth inequality and affect patterns of multigenerational transfers of resources.

  18. Social identity patterns and trust in demographically diverse work teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zee, Karen; Vos, Menno; Luijters, Kyra

    2009-01-01

    The article presents a model that links trust in a demographically diverse work context to three different social-identity patterns. Trust is considered to be beneficial for interpersonal relationships and work outcomes in diverse teams as well as for a healthy work relationship between minority mem

  19. Students from Australian Universities Studying Abroad: A Demographic Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerlich, Steve

    2015-01-01

    Australia is one of many countries to encourage its students to study abroad and hence develop a global perspective. Traditionally, students who have pursued this option represented a relatively privileged and demographically narrow group. More recently, governments and other agencies have been offering funding support with the aim of…

  20. Are We Ready for the Approaching Demographic Tsunami?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Bolgen; Conlon, Jill E.

    2011-01-01

    For those at the high school and college levels who have been tracking the demographic changes occurring throughout the United States during the past few decades, it came as no surprise when recent U.S. Census statistics revealed that the 2010 kindergarten class is 25% Hispanic, up from 19% in 2000, and 5% Asian, up from 4% in 2000. The class is…

  1. The Russian Market of University Services: Social and Demographic Aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bydanova, Elizaveta; Mushketova, Natalia; Rouet, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyze the impact of demographic, social, economic and international aspects on the market of university services in Russia. It also reminds readers briefly of the evolution of the Russian higher education system during the last 20 years and considers some consequences of the current public policy and…

  2. The Other Languages of Europe: Demographic, Sociolinguistic and Educational Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extra, Guus, Ed.; Gorter, Durk, Ed.

    This book focuses on the minority languages of Europe, those other than the national languages of European Union member states, by looking at the demographic, sociolinguistic, and educational aspects of both regional and immigrant languages. Empirical evidence for the status of these other languages of multicultural Europe is brought together in a…

  3. Demographic Trends in the European Union: Political and Strategic Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-01

    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), in Laxenburg, Austria, concluded that the current...Delays in Childbearing make a Big Difference for the Birth Rate,” International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis , Office of Information, 27 March...its Demographic Evolution, Delays in Childbearing make a Big Difference for the Birth Rate.” International Institute for Applied Systems

  4. Demographic, criminal and psychiatric factors related to inmate suicide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaauw, E.; Kerkhof, A.J.F.M.; Hayes, L.M.

    2005-01-01

    A review of 19 studies suggests that it may be feasible to identify prisoners with suicide risk on the basis of demographic, psychiatric, and criminal characteristics. The present study aimed to identify combinations of characteristics that are capable of identifying potential suicide victims. Chara

  5. Demographic, criminal and psychiatric factors related to inmate suicide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaauw, E.; Kerkhof, A.J.F.M.; Hayes, L.M.

    2005-01-01

    A review of 19 studies suggests that it may be feasible to identify prisoners with suicide risk on the basis of demographic, psychiatric, and criminal characteristics. The present study aimed to identify combinations of characteristics that are capable of identifying potential suicide victims.

  6. Demographic and personality characteristics of Internet Child Pornography Offenders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnen, L.; Bulten, B.H.; Nijman, H.L.I.

    2009-01-01

    This research study was conducted to map out the demographic and psychological aspects of Internet child pornography offenders. The backgrounds, characteristics, and MMPI profiles of 22 Internet child pornography offenders were statistically compared to those of 112 perpetrators of other offenses. I

  7. Disentangling purchasing motives from socio-demographic differences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Laura Mørch

    in a positive effect on their own health. The level of trust in organic products generally increases with level of education, urbanisation and income. Including perception of organic goods in the estimation therefore reduces the effects of these socio-demographics, and thereby demonstrates the strength...

  8. The Boder Test: Neuropsychological and Demographic Features of Dyslexic Subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telzrow, Cathy F.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Investigated the demographic and neuropsychological characteristics of 30 children in reading categories defined by performance on the Boder Test. Provided evidence that the Boder Test may be a nonbiased valid screening test for the identification of dyslexia and dyslexic subtypes. (JAC)

  9. Wildlife value orientations and demographics in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaske, J.J.; Jacobs, M.H.; Sijtsma, M.T.J.

    2011-01-01

    This article identified the Dutch publics’ value orientations toward wildlife and examined differences in value orientations among four demographic characteristics: age, sex, current residence, and education. The two wildlife value orientations—domination and mutualism—were based on prior theorizing

  10. The Russian Market of University Services: Social and Demographic Aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bydanova, Elizaveta; Mushketova, Natalia; Rouet, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyze the impact of demographic, social, economic and international aspects on the market of university services in Russia. It also reminds readers briefly of the evolution of the Russian higher education system during the last 20 years and considers some consequences of the current public policy and…

  11. Predicting tobacco sales in community pharmacies using population demographics and pharmacy type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, Lisa M; Farris, Karen B; Peterson, N Andrew; Aquilino, Mary L

    2006-01-01

    To determine whether the population demographics of the location of pharmacies were associated with tobacco sales in pharmacies, when controlling for pharmacy type. Retrospective analysis. Iowa. All retailers in Iowa that obtained tobacco licenses and all pharmacies registered with the Iowa Board of Pharmacy in 2003. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE AND INTERVENTIONS: Percentage of pharmacies selling tobacco (examined by pharmacy type using chi-square analysis); median income and distribution of race/ethnicity in the county for pharmacies that did or did not sell tobacco (t tests); predictors of whether a pharmacy sold tobacco (logistic regression using the independent variables county-level demographic variables and pharmacy characteristics). County gender composition, race/ethnicity make-up, and income levels were different for tobacco-selling and -nonselling pharmacies. Logistic regression showed that whether a pharmacy sold tobacco was strongly dependent on the type of pharmacy; compared with independent pharmacies (of which only 5% sold tobacco products), chain pharmacies were 34 times more likely to sell tobacco products, mass merchandiser outlets were 47 times more likely to stock these goods, and grocery stores were 378 times more likely to do so. Pharmacies selling tobacco were more likely to be located in counties with significantly higher numbers of multiracial groups. The best predictor of whether an Iowa pharmacy sells tobacco products is type of pharmacy. In multivariable analyses, population demographics of the county in which pharmacies were located were generally not predictive of whether a pharmacy sold tobacco.

  12. A Demographic Approach to Evaluating Tree Population Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corey R. Halpin

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative criteria for assessing demographic sustainability of tree populations would be useful in forest conservation, as climate change and a growing complex of invasive pests are likely to drive forests outside their historic range of variability. In this paper, we used CANOPY, a spatially explicit, individual‐tree model, to examine the effects of initial size distributions on sustainability of tree populations for 70 northern hardwood stands under current environmental conditions. A demographic sustainability index was calculated as the ratio of future simulated basal area to current basal area, given current demographic structure and density‐dependent demographic equations. Only steeply descending size distributions were indicated to be moderately or highly sustainable (final basal area/initial basal area ≥0.7 over several tree generations. Five of the six principal species had demographic sustainability index values of <0.6 in 40%–84% of the stands. However, at a small landscape scale, nearly all species had mean index values >1. Simulation experiments suggested that a minimum sapling density of 300 per hectare was required to sustain the initial basal area, but further increases in sapling density did not increase basal area because of coincident increases in mortality. A variable slope with high q‐ratios in small size classes was needed to maintain the existing overstory of mature and old‐growth stands. This analytical approach may be useful in identifying stands needing restoration treatments to maintain existing species composition in situations where forests are likely to have future recruitment limitations.

  13. Is bad living better than good death? Impact of demographic and cultural factors on health state preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xuejing; Liu, Gordon Guoen; Luo, Nan; Li, Hongchao; Guan, Haijing; Xie, Feng

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the impact of demographic and cultural factors on health preferences among Chinese general population. The Chinese EQ-5D-5L valuation study was conducted between December 2012 and January 2013. A total of 1296 participants were recruited from the general public at Beijing, Chengdu, Guiyang, Nanjing, and Shenyang. Each participant was interviewed to measure preferences for ten EQ-5D-5L health states using composite time trade-off and seven pairs of states using discrete choice experiment (data were not included in this study). At the end of the interview, each participant was also asked to provide their demographic information and answers to two questions about their attitudes towards whether bad living is better than good death (LBD) and whether they believe in an afterlife. Generalized linear model and random effects logistic models were used to examine the impact of demographic and cultural factors on health preferences. Participants who had serious illness experience received college or higher education, or agree with LBD were more likely to value health states positively and have a narrower score range. Participants at Beijing were more likely to be non-traders, value health states positively, less likely to reach the lowest possible score, and have narrower score range compared with all other four cities after controlling for all other demographic and culture factors. Health state preference is significantly affected by factors beyond demographics. These factors should be considered in achieving a representative sample in valuation studies in China.

  14. Derived Trail Making Test indices: demographics and cognitive background variables across the adult life span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christidi, Foteini; Kararizou, Evangelia; Triantafyllou, Nikolaos; Anagnostouli, Maria; Zalonis, Ioannis

    2015-01-01

    We examined the contribution of demographics and cognitive background variables (processing speed, visuospatial skill, working memory, and interference control) on derived Trail Making Test (TMT) scores in a large sample of Greek healthy participants. We included 775 participants and administered the TMT (TMT-A and TMT-B) and the Wechsler Intelligence Adult Scale (WAIS). Direct (TMT-A & TMT-B time-to-completion) and derived [difference TMT-(B - A) & ratio TMT-(B/A)] scores were calculated. Demographics (age, age(2), education, and gender) and WAIS Full Intelligence Quotient significantly predicted the direct TMT-A (R(2) = 0.426) and TMT-B (R(2) = 0.593) scores and to a lesser extent, the derived TMT-(B - A) (R(2) = 0.343) and TMT-(B/A) (R(2) = 0.088) scores. In a subsample of 537 healthy participants who also completed the Stroop Neuropsychological Screening Test (SNST), demographics (age and education), WAIS Digit Symbol, Block Design, Arithmetic, and SNST accounted for 44.8% and 59.7% of the variance on TMT-A and TMT-B, and 32.5% and 9.6% of the variance on TMT-(B - A) and TMT-(B/A), respectively. We found minimal influence of Block Design and Arithmetic on TMT-(B - A) and an absence of significant influence of any cognitive variable on TMT-(B/A) score. Concluding, derived TMT scores are suggested as indices to detect impairment in cognitive flexibility across the adult life span, since they minimize the effect of demographics and other cognitive background variables.

  15. Efficient Privacy Preserving Protocols for Similarity Join

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal Hawashin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available During the similarity join process, one or more sources may not allow sharing its data with other sources. In this case, a privacy preserving similarity join is required. We showed in our previous work [4] that using long attributes, such as paper abstracts, movie summaries, product descriptions, and user feedbacks, could improve the similarity join accuracy using supervised learning. However, the existing secure protocols for similarity join methods can not be used to join sources using these long attributes. Moreover, the majority of the existing privacy‐preserving protocols do not consider the semantic similarities during the similarity join process. In this paper, we introduce a secure efficient protocol to semantically join sources when the join attributes are long attributes. We provide two secure protocols for both scenarios when a training set exists and when there is no available training set. Furthermore, we introduced the multi‐label supervised secure protocol and the expandable supervised secure protocol. Results show that our protocols can efficiently join sources using the long attributes by considering the semantic relationships among the long string values. Therefore, it improves the overall secure similarity join performance.

  16. Mining Object Similarity for Predicting Next Locations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meng Chen; Xiaohui Yu; Yang Liu

    2016-01-01

    Next location prediction is of great importance for many location-based applications. With the virtue of solid theoretical foundations, Markov-based approaches have gained success along this direction. In this paper, we seek to enhance the prediction performance by understanding the similarity between objects. In particular, we propose a novel method, called weighted Markov model (weighted-MM), which exploits both the sequence of just-passed locations and the object similarity in mining the mobility patterns. To this end, we first train a Markov model for each object with its own trajectory records, and then quantify the similarities between different objects from two aspects: spatial locality similarity and trajectory similarity. Finally, we incorporate the object similarity into the Markov model by considering the similarity as the weight of the probability of reaching each possible next location, and return the top-rankings as results. We have conducted extensive experiments on a real dataset, and the results demonstrate significant improvements in prediction accuracy over existing solutions.

  17. Trajectory similarity join in spatial networks

    KAUST Repository

    Shang, Shuo

    2017-09-07

    The matching of similar pairs of objects, called similarity join, is fundamental functionality in data management. We consider the case of trajectory similarity join (TS-Join), where the objects are trajectories of vehicles moving in road networks. Thus, given two sets of trajectories and a threshold θ, the TS-Join returns all pairs of trajectories from the two sets with similarity above θ. This join targets applications such as trajectory near-duplicate detection, data cleaning, ridesharing recommendation, and traffic congestion prediction. With these applications in mind, we provide a purposeful definition of similarity. To enable efficient TS-Join processing on large sets of trajectories, we develop search space pruning techniques and take into account the parallel processing capabilities of modern processors. Specifically, we present a two-phase divide-and-conquer algorithm. For each trajectory, the algorithm first finds similar trajectories. Then it merges the results to achieve a final result. The algorithm exploits an upper bound on the spatiotemporal similarity and a heuristic scheduling strategy for search space pruning. The algorithm\\'s per-trajectory searches are independent of each other and can be performed in parallel, and the merging has constant cost. An empirical study with real data offers insight in the performance of the algorithm and demonstrates that is capable of outperforming a well-designed baseline algorithm by an order of magnitude.

  18. Expert opinions of demographic rates of Argentine black and white tegus in South Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Fred A.

    2017-01-01

    We illustrate the utility of expert elicitation, explicit recognition of uncertainty, and the value of information for directing management and research efforts for invasive species, using tegu lizards (Salvator merianae) in southern Florida as a case study.  We posited a post-birth pulse, matrix model, which was parameterized using a 3-point process to elicit estimates of tegu demographic rates from herpetology experts.  We fit statistical distributions for each parameter and for each expert, then drew and pooled a large number of replicate samples from these to form a distribution for each demographic parameter.  Using these distributions, we generated a large sample of matrix models to infer how the tegu population might respond to control efforts.  We used the concepts of Pareto efficiency and stochastic dominance to conclude that targeting older age classes at relatively high rates appears to have the best chance of minimizing tegu abundance and control costs.  Expert opinion combined with an explicit consideration of uncertainty can be valuable for conducting an initial assessment of the effort needed to control the invader.  The value of information can be used to focus research in a way that not only helps increases the efficacy of control, but minimizes costs as well.

  19. A Similarity Search Using Molecular Topological Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshifumi Fukunishi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A molecular similarity measure has been developed using molecular topological graphs and atomic partial charges. Two kinds of topological graphs were used. One is the ordinary adjacency matrix and the other is a matrix which represents the minimum path length between two atoms of the molecule. The ordinary adjacency matrix is suitable to compare the local structures of molecules such as functional groups, and the other matrix is suitable to compare the global structures of molecules. The combination of these two matrices gave a similarity measure. This method was applied to in silico drug screening, and the results showed that it was effective as a similarity measure.

  20. Similarity-based pattern analysis and recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Pelillo, Marcello

    2013-01-01

    This accessible text/reference presents a coherent overview of the emerging field of non-Euclidean similarity learning. The book presents a broad range of perspectives on similarity-based pattern analysis and recognition methods, from purely theoretical challenges to practical, real-world applications. The coverage includes both supervised and unsupervised learning paradigms, as well as generative and discriminative models. Topics and features: explores the origination and causes of non-Euclidean (dis)similarity measures, and how they influence the performance of traditional classification alg