WorldWideScience

Sample records for demographic variables including

  1. [Integration of demographic variables into development plans in the Sahel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wane, H R

    1992-07-01

    A founding principle of the Program of Action of N'Djamena is the interdependence of population and development and the need for development strategies to take demographic factors into account. The concept of integration of population variables into development has evolved since its introduction in the 1974 World Population Plan of Action from a simple description of population size, growth rates, and distribution to a stress on harmonizing population policies and development policies with macroeconomic variables. The essence of the concept is the consideration given by development policies and programs to the interrelations between population, resources, the environment, and development factors. Population variables and goals should ideally be treated as endogenous variables in development planning, but in practice the extreme complexity of such a systematic approach limits its ability to be made operational. Usually the most crucial problems only are included. Integrated planning is composed of explicit or implicit population policies intended to influence demographic variables and of socioeconomic policies intended to adapt to demographic change. In the Sahel, only Senegal, Burkina Faso, and Mali have formal population policies, but around 1980 several countries of the region began to show interest in influencing demographic variables as they did economic variables. Fundamental principles for developing an integration strategy can be applied regardless or whether the plan is based on projections, analysis of interaction of a demographic variable with factors specific to a sector, or a monosectorial or multisectorial demoeconomic planning model. Demographic data is used more frequently in diagnosing problems than in developing projections or formulating objectives. The level of disaggregation of demographic projections and estimates tends to be low, despite the great potential utility of demographic projections in planning. Demographic projections can be useful

  2. Demographic variables in coal miners’ safety attitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Wen-wen; Wu, Xiang; Ci, Hui-Peng; Qin, Shu-Qi; Liu, Jia-Long

    2017-03-01

    To change unsafe behavior through adjusting people’s safety attitudes has become an important measure to prevent accidents. Demographic variables, as influential factors of safety attitude, are fundamental and essential for the research. This research does a questionnaire survey among coal mine industry workers, and makes variance analysis and correlation analysis of the results in light of age, length of working years, educational level and experiences of accidents. The results show that the coal miners’ age, length of working years and accident experiences correlate lowly with safety attitudes, and those older coal miners with longer working years have better safety attitude, as coal miners without experiences of accident do.However, educational level has nothing to do with the safety attitude. Therefore, during the process of safety management, coal miners with different demographic characteristics should be put more attention to.

  3. The association of demographic variables and dietary habits on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The association of demographic variables and dietary habits on body mass ... socio-demographic variables, weight, height, frequency of physical activity, and food ... in Korea should focus on reducing the intake of meat and high energy foods.

  4. Environmental versus demographic variability in stochastic predator-prey models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobramysl, U.; Täuber, U. C.

    2013-10-01

    In contrast to the neutral population cycles of the deterministic mean-field Lotka-Volterra rate equations, including spatial structure and stochastic noise in models for predator-prey interactions yields complex spatio-temporal structures associated with long-lived erratic population oscillations. Environmental variability in the form of quenched spatial randomness in the predation rates results in more localized activity patches. Our previous study showed that population fluctuations in rare favorable regions in turn cause a remarkable increase in the asymptotic densities of both predators and prey. Very intriguing features are found when variable interaction rates are affixed to individual particles rather than lattice sites. Stochastic dynamics with demographic variability in conjunction with inheritable predation efficiencies generate non-trivial time evolution for the predation rate distributions, yet with overall essentially neutral optimization.

  5. Evaluation of Demographic Variables and Socio-economic Status ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Evaluation of Demographic Variables and Socio-economic Status on the Prevalence of. Health Hazards ... management provide food and harbourage for rodents, mosquitoes .... were factors influencing solid waste management in. Abeokuta.

  6. Significance of Demographic Variables for Targeting of Internet Advertisements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Václav Stříteský

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Broad ad targeting options belong among the major advantages of internet advertising. Demographic targeting has become a standard option in most of on-line advertising systems. There are more ways how to target on-line advertisements by using demographic variables. In some cases, e.g., social media, we can use data from user registrations. Modern technologies enable to estimate the demographic profile of internet users using on behavioural data. The traditional approach to the demographic targeting of advertisements based on affinity targeting assumes the existence of internet servers with sufficient homogeneity of visits. The aim of this article is to identify the differences in the internet content consumption habits of Czech internet users based on gender and age. The analysis is based on the data from the extensive research which was carried out by the Netmonitor project, and which was provided for the purposes of this study by the Association for Internet Development (SPIR. The research results show that the traditional affinity-based method of targeting according to gender and age is still suitable on the Czech internet. On the other hand, in some cases, the traditional approach of ad targeting based on affinity leads to wasted ad impressions that miss defined target group.

  7. Implementation of the food choice questionnaire in young adolescents and their relationship to overweight and other socio-demographic variables

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Canales Ronda, Pedro; Hernández Fernández, Asunción

    2015-01-01

    ... (overweight and obesity) and other socio-demographic variables. In the study included 590 students attended public and private schools in the city of Valencia, aged between 14 and 17 years, randomly selected...

  8. Wind farm power optimization including flow variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herp, Jürgen; Poulsen, Uffe Vestergaard; Greiner, Martin

    2015-01-01

    an optimized wind-farm control strategy, derived from a fixed wake parameter, is facing this flow variability, the potential gain reduces to 0.3–0.5%. An omnipotent control strategy, which has real-time knowledge of the actual wake flow, would be able to increase the gain in wind-farm power to 4.9%.......A model-based optimisation approach is used to investigate the potential gain of wind-farm power with a cooperative control strategy between the wind turbines. Based on the Jensen wake model with the Katic wake superposition rule, the potential gain for the Nysted offshore wind farm is calculated...... to be 1.4–5.4% for standard choices 0.4 ≥ k ≥ 0.25 of the wake expansion parameter. Wake model fits based on short time intervals of length 15sec ≤ T ≤ 10 min within three months of data reveal a strong wake flow variability, resulting in rather broad distributions for the wake expansion parameter. When...

  9. Endogenising demographic variables in demo-economic models: the Bachue experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wery, R; Rodgers, G

    1980-01-01

    The attempt is made in this discussion to describe and draw lessons from the treatment of behavioral demographic variables in the Bachue demo-economic models constructed for the Philippines, Kenya, Brazil and Yugoslavia. Focus is on certain theoretical, technical and practical problems encountered in inserting demographic variables in the system as a whole; how they have been measured in the various applications of the Bachue models, how they are behaviorally explained and linked to the other elements in the system, the data sources used, and some issues of econometric estimates and modelling. 8 issues are dealt with: population accounting and lag structure; fertility; mortality; migration; nuptiality; household formation; schooling; and labor force participation. In each case model structure, dependent and explanatory variables, and empirical strategy are discussed. Summary tables compare the approaches of the different models. The specifics of each country situation rule out the identification of the best solution. Some suggestions regarding more promising approaches are included with respect to choice of variables and the estimation of behavioral models. The endogenous nature of certain demographic elements of a demo-economic model are clear, but construction of the Bachue models has shown that there are no exact rules valid for all cases. There is considerable variety in the way characteristics of the population have been represented in the various applications.

  10. Socio-demographic, health, and tinnitus related variables affecting tinnitus severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoekstra, Carlijn E L; Wesdorp, Francina M; van Zanten, Gijsbert A

    2014-01-01

    Tinnitus is a highly prevalent symptom with potential severe morbidity. Fortunately, only a small proportion of the population experience problems due to their tinnitus in such a degree that it adversely affects their quality of life (clinically significant tinnitus). It is not known why these individuals develop more burden from tinnitus. It seems likely that the severity of tinnitus can be influenced by different factors, such as socio-demographic or tinnitus characteristics or additional health complaints. It remains unclear from the current literature as to what are the main independent variables that have a bearing on tinnitus severity. This study addresses this problem by investigating variables previously described in the literature as well as additional variables. The aim of this study is to identify socio-demographic, health, and tinnitus variables that independently relate to tinnitus severity the most. This is a retrospective cohort study performed at the Tinnitus Care Group of the University Medical Center, Utrecht, in 309 consecutively seen chronic tinnitus patients. At this care group, patients are examined according to a structured diagnostic protocol, including history-taking by an otorhinolaryngologist and audiologist, physical examination, and audiometry. Based on results from previous research and theoretical considerations, a subset of data acquired through this diagnostic protocol were selected and used in this study. Univariate and multivariate correlations with tinnitus severity were investigated for 28 socio-demographic, health, and tinnitus variables. Tinnitus severity was measured with the Tinnitus Questionnaire (TQ) and the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI). Eighteen variables related univariately with the TQ and 16 variables related univariately with the THI. Among these, 14 variables related univariately with both the TQ and the THI. Multivariate analyses showed three variables with an independent significant effect on both the TQ and

  11. Environmental Literacy in Madeira Island (Portugal): The Influence of Demographic Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinola, Hélder

    2016-01-01

    Demographic factors are among those that influence environmental literacy and, particularly, environmentally responsible behaviours, either directly or due to an aggregation effect dependent on other types of variables. Present study evaluates a set of demographic variables as predictors for environmental literacy among 9th grade students from…

  12. Psychosocial Variables Contribute to Length of Stay and Discharge Destination after Lumbar Surgery Independent of Demographic and Clinical Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancuso, Carol A; Duculan, Roland; Craig, Chad M; Girardi, Federico P

    2017-07-03

    Prospective analysis of resource utilization (RU) after lumbar surgery. To determine contributions of patient psychosocial variables to RU, specifically length of stay (LOS) and discharge destination. Associations between demographic/clinical variables and RU are well-established; less is known about associations between psychosocial variables, such as social support and depressive/anxiety symptoms, and RU. Preoperatively 532 patients provided standard ratings of depressive and anxiety symptoms and amount of social support. Clinical variables included calculation of a composite score reflecting invasiveness of surgery. Two outcomes were considered: LOS ≤ 3 or > 3 days; and discharged home without external services or discharged with external services. Independent variables in multivariable logistic models were demographic/clinical and psychosocial variables. Mean age was 56 years, 55% were men, 87% had degenerative conditions, 40% had a positive depression screen, 62% had anxiety greater than population norms, and 77% reported as much social support as wanted. Variables that remained associated with a LOS > 3 days (53%) in multivariable analysis were: older age (OR 1.8, CI 1.2-2.8); female gender (OR 1.9, CI 1.2-2.9), less social support (OR1.4, CI 1.1-1.7); obesity (OR1.8, CI 1.1-2.8), worse functional status (OR 1.0, CI 1.0-1.0) and more invasive surgery (OR 3.0, CI 2.4-3.7). Variables that remained associated with discharged with external services (17%) in multivariable analysis were: older age (OR 3.3, CI 1.9-5.9); less social support (OR 1.3, CI 1.0-1.7); positive depression screen (OR 1.9, CI 1.1-3.4); more anxiety (OR 2.4, CI 1.3-4.2); major comorbidity (OR 1.7, CI 1.0-2.8); and more invasive surgery (OR 1.9, CI 1.5-2.5). This study confirms the importance of demographic/clinical variables as predictors of greater RU after lumbar surgery and provides preliminary evidence for the importance of concurrent psychosocial variables, particularly less social

  13. Derived Trail Making Test indices: demographics and cognitive background variables across the adult life span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christidi, Foteini; Kararizou, Evangelia; Triantafyllou, Nikolaos; Anagnostouli, Maria; Zalonis, Ioannis

    2015-01-01

    We examined the contribution of demographics and cognitive background variables (processing speed, visuospatial skill, working memory, and interference control) on derived Trail Making Test (TMT) scores in a large sample of Greek healthy participants. We included 775 participants and administered the TMT (TMT-A and TMT-B) and the Wechsler Intelligence Adult Scale (WAIS). Direct (TMT-A & TMT-B time-to-completion) and derived [difference TMT-(B - A) & ratio TMT-(B/A)] scores were calculated. Demographics (age, age(2), education, and gender) and WAIS Full Intelligence Quotient significantly predicted the direct TMT-A (R(2) = 0.426) and TMT-B (R(2) = 0.593) scores and to a lesser extent, the derived TMT-(B - A) (R(2) = 0.343) and TMT-(B/A) (R(2) = 0.088) scores. In a subsample of 537 healthy participants who also completed the Stroop Neuropsychological Screening Test (SNST), demographics (age and education), WAIS Digit Symbol, Block Design, Arithmetic, and SNST accounted for 44.8% and 59.7% of the variance on TMT-A and TMT-B, and 32.5% and 9.6% of the variance on TMT-(B - A) and TMT-(B/A), respectively. We found minimal influence of Block Design and Arithmetic on TMT-(B - A) and an absence of significant influence of any cognitive variable on TMT-(B/A) score. Concluding, derived TMT scores are suggested as indices to detect impairment in cognitive flexibility across the adult life span, since they minimize the effect of demographics and other cognitive background variables.

  14. Empathy, Burnout, Demographic Variables and their Relationships in Oncology Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taleghani, Fariba; Ashouri, Elaheh; Saburi, Morteza

    2017-01-01

    Development of nurse-patient empathic communication in the oncology ward is of great importance for the patients to relieve their psychological stress, however, nursing care of cancer patients is accompanied with high stress and burnout. The present study aimed to define the level of empathy and its association with burnout and some demographic characteristics of oncology nurses. This descriptive/correlation study was conducted in a professional cancer treatment center in Isfahan. Through census sampling, 67 oncology nurses were selected. The data collection tools were Jefferson Scale of Nursing Empathy, Maslach Burnout Inventory, and demographic characteristics questionnaire. Mean nurses' empathy and overall burnout scores were 62.28 out of 100 and 38.8 out of 100, respectively. Score of empathy showed an inverse correlation with overall burnout score (r = -0.189, P = 0.04), depersonalization (r = -0.218, P = 0.02), and personal accomplishment (r = -0.265, P = 0.01). Multiple regression test was used to detect which dimension of burnout was a better predictor for the reduction of empathy score. Results showed that the best predictors were lack of personal accomplishment (P = 0.02), depersonalization (P = 0.04), and emotional exhaustion (P = 0.14), respectively. The most influential demographic factor on empathy was work experience (r = 0.304, P = 0.004). One-way analysis of variance showed that official staff had a higher empathy score (f = 2.39, P = 0.045) and their burnout was lower (f = 2.56, P = 0.04). Results showed a negative relationship between empathy and burnout in oncology nurses. Therefore, nursing support from managers to reduce burnout increases empathic behavior of nurses.

  15. Environmental vs. demographic variability in stochastic lattice predator-prey models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauber, Uwe C.

    2014-03-01

    In contrast to the neutral population cycles of the deterministic mean-field Lotka-Volterra rate equations, including spatial structure and stochastic noise in models for predator-prey interactions yields complex spatio-temporal structures associated with long-lived erratic population oscillations. Environmental variability in the form of quenched spatial randomness in the predation rates results in more localized activity patches. Population fluctuations in rare favorable regions in turn cause a remarkable increase in the asymptotic densities of both predators and prey. Very intriguing features are found when variable interaction rates are affixed to individual particles rather than lattice sites. Stochastic dynamics with demographic variability in conjunction with inheritable predation efficiencies generate non-trivial time evolution for the predation rate distributions, yet with overall essentially neutral optimization.

  16. Dose Response Association between Physical Activity and Biological, Demographic, and Perceptions of Health Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul D. Loprinzi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Few population-based studies have examined the association between physical activity (PA and cardiovascular disease risk factors, demographic variables, and perceptions of health status, and we do not have a clear understanding of the dose-response relationship among these variables. Methods: Data from the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey was used to examine the dose-response relationship between objectively measured PA and metabolic syndrome (and its individual cardiovascular disease risk factors, demographic variables, and perceptions of health. After exclusions, 5,538 participants 18 years or older were included in the present study, with 2,538 participants providing fasting glucose and 2,527 providing fasting triglyceride data. PA was categorized into deciles. Results: Overall, the health benefits showed a general pattern of increase with each increasing levels of PA. Of the ten PA classifications examined, participants in the highest moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA category (at least 71 min/day had the lowest odds of developing metabolic syndrome. Conclusion: At a minimum, sedentary adults should strive to meet current PA guidelines (i.e., 150 min/week of MVPA, with additional positive benefits associated with engaging in three times this level of PA.

  17. Demographic Variables and Job Performance: Any Link? (A Case of Insurance Salesmen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banjo Hassan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the relationship between socio-economic backgrounds of insurance salesmen on the job performance. The demographic factors studied include age, marital status, educational qualification, job tenure and gender. Using a descriptive design, a total of one hundred and thirteen respondents were studied. Using primary data generated through 1questionnaire, the result of the study analyzed by both regression and correlation indicated a moderate positive relationship between the variable studied and job performance. Jointly, they account for 13% of factors explaining the performance of job of the respondents. However marital status and job tenure were found to be mostly predictive of job performance of insurance salesmen. The paper discussed the implications for the practice of management and human resource management.

  18. Knowledge sharing behaviour and demographic variables amongst secondary school teachers in and around Gaborone, Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac C. Mogotsi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between knowledge sharing behaviour and the demographic variables gender, age, organisational tenure and professional tenure. Following a correlational survey approach, the study sourced its data from senior secondary school teachers in and around Gaborone, Botswana. Knowledge sharing behaviour was measured using an instrument sourced from the extant literature. No statistically significant relationship was detected between knowledge sharing behaviour and gender, age, or professional tenure. Only organisational tenure weakly negatively correlated with knowledge sharing behaviour. Thus, according to these findings, demographic variables do not appear to be important determinants of knowledge sharing behaviour.

  19. Do Demographic Variables Moderate the Relationship Between Job Burnout and its Consequences?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Zarei Matin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have already been conducted to understand the various dimensions of the burnout. The purpose of the present research is to investigate the moderating effect of demographic variables on the relationship between job burnout and its consequences among the staff of an Iranian public sector company. In this research, job burnout is considered as independent variable; organizational commitment, intention to leave and the employees‟ job satisfaction are dependent variables; and the age, gender, marital status and educational level are moderating variables. The results of this study show that firstly, the job burnout of employees in organizations leads to the decrease of organizational commitment and job satisfaction, and the increase of intention to leave; secondly, the demographic variables in this research don't affect on the relationship of job burnout with its consequences.

  20. Prediction of Individual Social-Demographic Role Based on Travel Behavior Variability Using Long-Term GPS Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of and advances in smartphones and global positioning system (GPS devices, travelers’ long-term travel behaviors are not impossible to obtain. This study investigates the pattern of individual travel behavior and its correlation with social-demographic features. For different social-demographic groups (e.g., full-time employees and students, the individual travel behavior may have specific temporal-spatial-mobile constraints. The study first extracts the home-based tours, including Home-to-Home and Home-to-Non-Home, from long-term raw GPS data. The travel behavior pattern is then delineated by home-based tour features, such as departure time, destination location entropy, travel time, and driving time ratio. The travel behavior variability describes the variances of travelers’ activity behavior features for an extended period. After that, the variability pattern of an individual’s travel behavior is used for estimating the individual’s social-demographic information, such as social-demographic role, by a supervised learning approach, support vector machine. In this study, a long-term (18-month recorded GPS data set from Puget Sound Regional Council is used. The experiment’s result is very promising. The sensitivity analysis shows that as the number of tours thresholds increases, the variability of most travel behavior features converges, while the prediction performance may not change for the fixed test data.

  1. Prediction of Individual Social-Demographic Role Based on Travel Behavior Variability Using Long-Term GPS Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Lei [Transportation and Hydrogen Systems Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), 15013 Denver West Parkway, Golden, CO 80401, USA; Gonder, Jeffrey [Transportation and Hydrogen Systems Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), 15013 Denver West Parkway, Golden, CO 80401, USA; Lin, Lei [Department of Civil, Structural and Environmental Engineering, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14260, USA

    2017-01-01

    With the development of and advances in smartphones and global positioning system (GPS) devices, travelers’ long-term travel behaviors are not impossible to obtain. This study investigates the pattern of individual travel behavior and its correlation with social-demographic features. For different social-demographic groups (e.g., full-time employees and students), the individual travel behavior may have specific temporal-spatial-mobile constraints. The study first extracts the home-based tours, including Home-to-Home and Home-to-Non-Home, from long-term raw GPS data. The travel behavior pattern is then delineated by home-based tour features, such as departure time, destination location entropy, travel time, and driving time ratio. The travel behavior variability describes the variances of travelers’ activity behavior features for an extended period. After that, the variability pattern of an individual’s travel behavior is used for estimating the individual’s social-demographic information, such as social-demographic role, by a supervised learning approach, support vector machine. In this study, a long-term (18-month) recorded GPS data set from Puget Sound Regional Council is used. The experiment’s result is very promising. The sensitivity analysis shows that as the number of tours thresholds increases, the variability of most travel behavior features converges, while the prediction performance may not change for the fixed test data.

  2. The Teachers Level of Emotional Intelligence Some of the Demographic Variables for Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adilogullari, Ilhan

    2011-01-01

    The study aims to examine the level of emotional intelligence of some of the demographic variables of the teachers working in the province of Gaziantep. Acar (2002) adapted to Turkish by Bar-On Emotional Intelligence Ability Scale 5-item scale used in grading and answered 87. The study evaluated data; descriptive statistical methods (frequency,…

  3. Relationships between Teacher Organizational Commitment, Psychological Hardiness and Some Demographic Variables in Turkish Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezgin, Ferudun

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationships between teachers' organizational commitment perceptions and both their psychological hardiness and some demographic variables in a sample of Turkish primary schools. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 405 randomly selected teachers working at primary schools in Ankara…

  4. Attitudes toward Euthanasia as a Function of Death Fears and Demographic Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slezak, Michael E.

    1982-01-01

    Studied the relationship of attitudes toward euthanasia to death fears and demographic variables in a sample of 100 adults. Found the strongest predictors of euthanasia attitude were age and amount of education. Suggests individuals who are more experienced with life and death have a more positive attitude toward euthanasia. (Author)

  5. Attitudes toward Euthanasia as a Function of Death Fears and Demographic Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slezak, Michael E.

    1982-01-01

    Studied the relationship of attitudes toward euthanasia to death fears and demographic variables in a sample of 100 adults. Found the strongest predictors of euthanasia attitude were age and amount of education. Suggests individuals who are more experienced with life and death have a more positive attitude toward euthanasia. (Author)

  6. Modeling heart rate variability including the effect of sleep stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliński, Mateusz; Gierałtowski, Jan; Żebrowski, Jan

    2016-02-01

    We propose a model for heart rate variability (HRV) of a healthy individual during sleep with the assumption that the heart rate variability is predominantly a random process. Autonomic nervous system activity has different properties during different sleep stages, and this affects many physiological systems including the cardiovascular system. Different properties of HRV can be observed during each particular sleep stage. We believe that taking into account the sleep architecture is crucial for modeling the human nighttime HRV. The stochastic model of HRV introduced by Kantelhardt et al. was used as the initial starting point. We studied the statistical properties of sleep in healthy adults, analyzing 30 polysomnographic recordings, which provided realistic information about sleep architecture. Next, we generated synthetic hypnograms and included them in the modeling of nighttime RR interval series. The results of standard HRV linear analysis and of nonlinear analysis (Shannon entropy, Poincaré plots, and multiscale multifractal analysis) show that—in comparison with real data—the HRV signals obtained from our model have very similar properties, in particular including the multifractal characteristics at different time scales. The model described in this paper is discussed in the context of normal sleep. However, its construction is such that it should allow to model heart rate variability in sleep disorders. This possibility is briefly discussed.

  7. Evaluation of socio-demographic variables affecting the periodontal health of pregnant women in Chandigarh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhaliwal, Jagjit Singh; Lehl, Gurvanit; Sodhi, Sachinjeet K.; Sachdeva, Sonia

    2013-01-01

    Background: The literature is replete with reports that pregnant women have an increased level of periodontal disease as compared with non-pregnant women of the same age. There are many studies correlating the effect of periodontal disease on the adverse pregnancy outcomes. The development of periodontal diseases during pregnancy can be influenced by factors such as preexisting oral conditions, general health, and socio-cultural background. There is very little data studying the effect of socio-demographic factors on the periodontal health of pregnant women. This study evaluated the periodontal status of a sample of pregnant women of Chandigarh and adjoining areas. The study also investigated the relationship between these variables and a series of demographic and clinical variables. Materials and Methods: The participants were 190 pregnant women attending Gynecology and Obstetrics outpatient department of Government Medical College and Hospital, Chandigarh. The participants were examined for their periodontal health and various socio-demographic variables were recorded on performas designed for the purpose of study. Statistical analysis was done. Results: The results revealed that the mean bleeding index scores and probing depth increased with statistical significance when the socio-economic status was lower (P0.1). The plaque index was not significantly associated with the socio-economic status, profession, place of residence, and trimester of pregnancy (P>0.1). Conclusion: In the population of pregnant women investigated under this study, the clinical and socio-demographic characteristics showed non-significant correlation except socio-economic status which showed statistically significant correlation with bleeding on probing and pocket depth. Further studies may be required in Indian population to determine the association of periodontal diseases in pregnant women with socio-demographic variables. PMID:23633773

  8. Demographic Variables and Its Effect on Emotional Intelligence: A Study on Indian Service Sector Employees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pooja, Pooja; Kumar, Pranab

    2016-01-01

    In past few decades, emotional intelligence (EI) has gained much popularity worldwide. Intelligence quotient alone is not enough in today's age for achieving success and hence for developing a person's ability, the fields of psychology and neurosciences have highlighted the importance of EI, which is a person's response toward feelings and emotions. In this study, relationship of various demographic variables with EI, as measured by Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-Short Form, has been highlighted. The study has been conducted on a sample of 424 employees belonging to the Indian service sector. The results showed that demographic variables have an impact over EI. Organizations can take a cue from the study and adhere to diversity management practices to ensure financial gains and growth. PMID:27536018

  9. Organizational commitment of workers in a public university in Lima and its relationship with demographic variables

    OpenAIRE

    Loli Pineda, Alejandro E.; Facultad de Psicología, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú

    2014-01-01

    The present investigation tries to know the organizational commitment about the workers not teachers of a public university of Lima and its relation with some demographic variables in a sample of 205 people of a whole of 20 faculties. The results throw a suitable trend of the workers towards the organizational commitment and the analysis of the factors indicates very significant and positive correlation between general satisfaction with the work and work commitment, affective commitment, hier...

  10. Problem-solving skills of futsal players with regard to some socio-demographic variables

    OpenAIRE

    CON, Musa; Acar, Kürşat; CANKAYA, Soner; TASMEKTEPLIGIL, Mehmet Yalcin

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate problem-solving skills of female futsal teams that compete in the Futsal League of Turkish Universities Sports Federation in terms of some socio-demographic variables. In total, 144 students from female futsal teams of 10 universities competing in the Futsal League of Turkish Universities Sports Federation voluntarily took part in this study. In the study, “Problem-Solving Inventory” that was developed by Heppner & Petersen was used. With this inve...

  11. Impacts of Physical and Psychological Abuse of Children on Family Demographic Variables

    OpenAIRE

    Lama M. Al-Qaisy

    2007-01-01

    The aims of this study was to show relationship between physical and psychological abuse of children and family demographical variables. A random sample of study representing TTU students has been selected for that purpose; it was consisted of (279), of whom were (127) females and (170) males. The findings show that there are various types of abuse but psychological abuse is the most common type. Also, females are more exposed to psychological abuse than males. In addition, the findings prove...

  12. Personality Traits and Socio-Demographic Variables as Correlates of Counselling Effectiveness of Counsellors in Enugu State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyekuru, Bruno U.; Ibegbunam, Josephat

    2015-01-01

    Quality personality traits and socio-demographic variables are essential elements of effective counselling. This correlational study investigated personality traits and socio-demographic variables as predictors of counselling effectiveness of counsellors in Enugu State. The instruments for data collection were Personality Traits Assessment Scale…

  13. ANALYSIS OF PUBLIC SCHOOL TEACHERS’ PERSONALITY TRAITS ACCORDING TO DEMOGRAPHIC VARIABLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhayat ÇELEBİ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to demonstrate the relations and differences between personality traits of teachers and some demographic variables. This research is designed in a descriptive survey model. The study group is composed of 407 teachers who are working in 22 public high schools from Ataşehir, Beşiktaş, Güngören and Ümraniye districts of Istanbul. Big Five Inventory, which is developed by Benet-Martinez and John (1998 and adapted to Turkish by Sümer and Sümer (2005, is used in order to assess the teacher personality traits. The scale of Alpha coefficient is, .699. As a result, teachers the highest average is in openness to experience and the lowest average is in neuroticism. Also it is found that significant differences exist between teachers’ personality traits and demographic variables. In accordance to this, significant differences are observed between gender variable and conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, neuroticism. There are similar differences between marital status variable and openness to experience, conscientiousness, agreeableness. The differences between branch variable and openness to experience, extraversion are also significant.

  14. Beyond R0: demographic models for variability of lifetime reproductive output.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hal Caswell

    Full Text Available The net reproductive rate R0 measures the expected lifetime reproductive output of an individual, and plays an important role in demography, ecology, evolution, and epidemiology. Well-established methods exist to calculate it from age- or stage-classified demographic data. As an expectation, R0 provides no information on variability; empirical measurements of lifetime reproduction universally show high levels of variability, and often positive skewness among individuals. This is often interpreted as evidence of heterogeneity, and thus of an opportunity for natural selection. However, variability provides evidence of heterogeneity only if it exceeds the level of variability to be expected in a cohort of identical individuals all experiencing the same vital rates. Such comparisons require a way to calculate the statistics of lifetime reproduction from demographic data. Here, a new approach is presented, using the theory of Markov chains with rewards, obtaining all the moments of the distribution of lifetime reproduction. The approach applies to age- or stage-classified models, to constant, periodic, or stochastic environments, and to any kind of reproductive schedule. As examples, I analyze data from six empirical studies, of a variety of animal and plant taxa (nematodes, polychaetes, humans, and several species of perennial plants.

  15. [Relationships between perception of Exercise Guidelines 2006, perception of other health promotion policies, and demographic variables].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Kazuhiro; Takaizumi, Kanae; Shibata, Ai; Oka, Koichiro; Nakamura, Yoshio

    2009-10-01

    According to the interim report of Healthy Japan 21, promoting Exercise Guideline 2006 is one important issue in the fields of physical activity and exercise. However, a previous study indicated that Japanese people rarely were aware of Exercise Guideline 2006 (Higo & Nakamura, 2008). The purpose of the present study was to identify characteristics of those who were aware of the guideline. The subjects were 1,613 Japanese adults (40.2 +/- 12.2 years) recruited by a Japanese social research company. The study designwas cross-sectional, using an internet questionnaire. Regarding the research items, the dependent variable was awareness of Exercise Guideline 2006, and the independent variables included awareness of other health promotion policies such as Healthy Japan 21, the Japanese Nutrition Balance Guide, and the Japanese national policy for preventing metabolic syndrome, as well as demographic variables (e.g., gender, age, BMI, hours per day spent watching TV watching and hours per day with internet usage). Logistic regression analysis was used for this research. Of all subjects, 12.3% answered that they were aware of Exercise Guideline 2006. Those over 50 years old (OR = 2.17; 95% CI = 1.11-4.22), having over 10 million household income (OR = 1.94; 99% CI = 1.05-3.61), an exercise habit (OR = 1.75; 95% CI = 1.07-2.86), an awareness of Healthy Japan 21 (OR = 23.60; 95% CI = 15.26-36.52), the Japanese Nutrition Balance Guide (OR = 5.52; 95% GCI = 3.01-10.13), and the Japanese national policy for preventing metabolic syndrome (OR = 3.41; 95% CI = 2.12-5.48) were significantly more likely to be aware of the guideline. Major findings of this study were: 1) older people are more aware of Exercise Guideline 2006 than their younger counterparts, although level of awareness was generally low; 2) for promotion of Exercise Guideline 2006, targeting those with a low educational background might not be a critical issue; and 3) awareness levels for Exercise Guideline 2006 and

  16. A study on effects of demographic variables on success of social media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Mohammadreza

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years, social media have developed significantly and their usages have become main activities of internet users. The proposed study of this paper considers the effects of personal characteristics such as age, gender and marital status on social media. The study designs a questionnaire and distributes 385 questionnaires among students who are enrolled in different educational levels in governmental university named Allameh Tabatabayi university located in Tehran, Iran during the year of 2011. Because of abnormality of data, non-parametric test were used. In this research, we studied the effects of demographic variables on success of social media. The results showed that success of social media is more important among female students. Marriage situation shows that social media success variable is more important among married than single ones and, finally, this variable is more important among older people.

  17. Brand Loyalty Factors Affecting the Hotel Elections of Tourists investigation with Respect to the Demographic Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Tayfun

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to investigate the factors affecting hotel guests’s brand loyalty and these factors is to determine whether there is a difference or not according to the demographic variables. Within this purpose, a survey research was conducted on the guests staying in the five star hotels of Ankara, Turkey. The research was carried out in two stages, namely the pilot study and the main study. As a result of study, while the factors affecting brand loyalty differs based on the gender and the age of the participants (p0,05

  18. The Impacts of Demographic Variables on Technological and Contextual Challenges of E-learning Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldowah, Hanan; Ghazal, Samar; Naufal Umar, Irfan; Muniandy, Balakrishnan

    2017-09-01

    Information technology has achieved robust growth which has made it possible for learning to occur quickly. The rapid development of information, communication and technologies (ICT) has initiated an unparalleled transformation in universities all over the world. This development of technology and learning is offering new techniques to represent knowledge, new practices, and new global communities of learners. As a result, today’s economic and social changes force universities to try to find new learning approaches and systems. E-learning seems to be an appropriate approach in this aspect. However, the implementation of e-learning systems in universities is not an easy task because of some challenges related to context, technology, and other challenges. This paper studied the impacts of demographic data and reported the critical points for the decision makers to consider when planning and implementing e-learning in universities. A quantitative approach was used to study the effects of technological and contextual challenges on e-learning implementation in which a questionnaire was used for the data collection. According to the findings of the study, the most important challenges of the implementation of e-learning are related either to organizational (Contextual) and technological (technical) issues. The demographic variables have been found to play a direct and indirect role with the technological and contextual challenges of implementing e-learning. This paper showed that there are some significant differences in the two challenges faced by instructors in terms of the demographic variables. The result revealed that some significant differences exist between demographic variables and the two challenges of e-learning in terms of gender, age, teaching experience, ICT experience and e-learning experience. However, there is no significant difference in terms of e-learning experience. The obtained data, from such study, can provide information about what academic

  19. Biographical and demographical variables as moderators in the prediction of turnover intentions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine du Plooy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The aim of the study was to explore the possible moderation effects of biographical and demographical variables on a prediction model of turnover intention (TI.Research purpose: The main purpose of the study was to determine how biographical and demographical variables have an impact on predictors of turnover intentions.Motivation for the study: Twenty-first century organisations face significant challenges in the management of talent and human capital. One in particular is voluntary employee turnover and the lack of appropriate business models to track this process.Research design, approach, and method: A secondary data analysis (SDA was performed in a quantitative research tradition on the cross-sectional survey sample (n = 2429. Data were collected from a large South African Information and Communication Technologies (ICT sector company (N = 23 134.Main findings: The results of the study confirmed significant moderation effects regarding race, age, and marital status in the prediction equations of TIs.Practical and managerial implications: Practical implications of the study suggested increased understanding of workforce diversity effects within the human resource (HR value chain, with resultant evidence-based, employee retention strategies and interventions. Issues concerning talent management could also be addressed.Contribution and value-add: The study described in this article took Industrial/Organisational (I/O psychological concepts and linked them in unique combinations to establish better predictive validity of a more comprehensive turnover intentions model.

  20. [Association between self-directed learning behaviors, socio-demographic and academic variables among medical students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasce H, Eduardo; Ortega B, Javiera; Pérez V, Cristhian; Márquez U, Carolina; Parra P, Paula; Ortiz M, Liliana; Matus, Olga

    2013-09-01

    Medical education must encourage autonomous learning behaviors among students. However the great income profile disparity among university students may influence their capacity to acquire such skills. To assess the association between self-directed learning, socio-demographic and academic variables. The self-directed learning readiness scale was applied to 202 medical students aged between 17 and 25 years (64% males). Simultaneously information about each surveyed participant was obtained from the databases of the medical school. There is an association between socio-demographic and academic variables with the general scale of self-directed learning and the subscales learning planning and willingness to learn. Participants coming from municipal schools have a greater willingness to learn than their counterparts coming from subsidized and private schools. High school grades are related to self-directed learning and the subscales learning planning and self-assessment. Among the surveyed medical students, there is a relationship between self-directed learning behaviors, the type of school where they come from and the grades that they obtained during high school.

  1. Anatomy of a population cycle: the role of density dependence and demographic variability on numerical instability and periodicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Row, Jeffrey R; Wilson, Paul J; Murray, Dennis L

    2014-07-01

    Determining the causes of cyclic fluctuations in population size is a central tenet in population ecology and provides insights into population regulatory mechanisms. We have a firm understanding of how direct and delayed density dependence affects population stability and cyclic dynamics, but there remains considerable uncertainty in the specific processes contributing to demographic variability and consequent change in cyclic propensity. Spatiotemporal variability in cyclic propensity, including recent attenuation or loss of cyclicity among several temperate populations and the implications of habitat fragmentation and climate change on this pattern, highlights the heightened need to understand processes underlying cyclic variation. Because these stressors can differentially impact survival and productivity and thereby impose variable time delays in density dependence, there is a specific need to elucidate how demographic vital rates interact with the type and action of density dependence to contribute to population stability and cyclic variation. Here, we address this knowledge gap by comparing the stability of time series derived from general and species-specific (Canada lynx: Lynx canadensis; small rodents: Microtus, Lemmus and Clethrionomys spp.) matrix population models, which vary in their demographic rates and the direct action of density dependence. Our results reveal that density dependence acting exclusively on survival as opposed to productivity is destabilizing, suggesting that a shift in the action of population regulation toward reproductive output may decrease cyclic propensity and cycle amplitude. This result was the same whether delayed density dependence was pulsatile and acted on a single time period (e.g. t-1, t-2 or t-3) vs. more constant by affecting a successive range of years (e.g. t-1,…, t-3). Consistent with our general models, reductions in reproductive potential in both the lynx and small rodent systems led to notably large drops in

  2. Inflammation in Schizophrenia: Cytokine Levels and Their Relationships to Demographic and Clinical Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ellen E; Hong, Suzi; Martin, Averria Sirkin; Eyler, Lisa T; Jeste, Dilip V

    2017-01-01

    Inflammation may play a role in the accelerated physical aging reported in schizophrenia, though biomarker findings and associations with demographic and clinical factors are inconsistent. In a cross-sectional, case-control design, 95 outpatients with schizophrenia (mean age ± SD: 48.1 ± 10.2 years) and 95 demographically comparable healthy comparison subjects (HCs) (mean age ± SD: 48.1 ± 12.1 years) were studied. Sociodemographic and clinical data were collected, and plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) were assayed. The authors compared cytokine levels, examined demographic and clinical associations, and adjusted for relevant variables with linear models. Individuals with schizophrenia had higher levels of TNF-α and IL-6 but not IFN-γ than HCs. Age was not related to cytokine levels, and age relationships did not differ between diagnostic groups. Women had higher levels of IL-6. TNF-α and IL-6 levels were significantly correlated with depressive symptoms, and adjustment for depression reduced the group effect for both. Within the HCs, TNF-α levels were associated with physical comorbidity and body mass index. IL-6 levels were significantly correlated with body mass index and within schizophrenia patients, with worse mental and physical well-being. Accounting for physical morbidity and mental well-being reduced group differences in TNF-α and IL-6 levels, respectively. Worse positive symptoms were associated with higher IL-6 levels. Higher TNF-α and IL-6 levels in schizophrenia patients were associated with depression, physical comorbidity, and mental well-being. Further longitudinal studies are warranted to assess inflammation as a potential treatment target for a subgroup of schizophrenia. Copyright © 2017 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The organizational creativity skills of sports directors based on some demographic variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akın Çelik

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study dealt with the perceptions of the staff working in five of the Provincial Directorate of Sports about organizational creativity skills of directors based on some demographic variables. The participants of the study were chosen from the Provincial Directorate of Sports in different cities. The positions they held in the organizations were as follows: 54 managers, 55 civil servants and 63 trainers. 38 of them were women (21.9% and 135 were men (78.1%. Data were collected using a demographic information form prepared by the researcher and the organizational creativity perception scale. The data were analyzed through nonparametric methods using Mann Whitney -U test and Kruscal Wallis test. The study revealed that younger participants had higher senses of organizational creativity perception. Those who are new in the organizations were also found to be more creative. The staff with higher levels of education had higher levels of organizational creativity perception. The study also revealed that the managers were higher levels of organizational creativity perception than the trainers, the trainers than the civil servants and the males than the females.

  4. Including high frequency variability in coastal ocean acidification projections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Takeshita

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Assessing the impacts of anthropogenic ocean acidification requires knowledge of present-day and future environmental conditions. Here, we present a simple model for upwelling margins that projects anthropogenic acidification trajectories by combining high-temporal resolution sensor data, hydrographic surveys for source water characterization, empirical relationships of the CO2 system, and the atmospheric CO2 record. This model characterizes CO2 variability on timescales ranging from hours (e.g. tidal to months (e.g. seasonal, bridging a critical knowledge gap in ocean acidification research. The amount of anthropogenic carbon in a given water mass is dependent on the age, therefore a density–age relationship was derived for the study region, and was combined with the 2013 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change CO2 emission scenarios to add density-dependent anthropogenic carbon to the sensor time series. The model was applied to time series from four autonomous pH sensors, each deployed in the surf zone, kelp forest, submarine canyon edge, and shelf break in the upper 100 m of the Southern California Bight. All habitats were within 5 km of one another, and exhibited unique, habitat-specific CO2 variability signatures and acidification trajectories, demonstrating the importance of making projections in the context of habitat-specific CO2 signatures. In general, both the mean and range of pCO2 increase in the future, with the greatest increases in both magnitude and range occurring in the deeper habitats due to reduced buffering capacity. On the other hand, the saturation state of aragonite (ΩAr decreased in both magnitude and range. This approach can be applied to the entire California Current System, and upwelling margins in general, where sensor and complementary hydrographic data are available.

  5. The Relationship Between Demographics Variables, Emotional Intelligence, Communication Effectiveness, Motivation, and Job Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Jorfi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available What seems to still be the main concern for managers and employees in the organization world across the globe is communication effectiveness. The problem to be addressed in this study was the lack of motivation and job satisfaction in educational administrations of Iran. Upon reviewing various literatures on this subject, it was found that emotional intelligence is one of the most vital factors that help sustain communication effectiveness and job satisfaction. The researcher upon having a detailed discussion on the possible areas associated with the present body of knowledge has discovered gaps in the studies that have been undertaken on emotional intelligence and communication effectiveness. This is because motivation in relation to emotional intelligence, communication effectiveness, and job satisfaction has been ignored in the previous studies. As a result, this research proposes a relationshipbetween demographic variables, emotional intelligence (i.e., intrapersonal, interpersonal, adaptability, general mood, and stress management, Communication Effectiveness, Job Satisfaction, and Motivation.

  6. Learning Styles, Socio-Demographic Variables and Academic Performance of Building Engineering Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Alducin-Ochoa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objectives guiding this research were to determine the dominant learning style of the first year Building engineering students (University of Seville, the influence of the style on the grades in each school subject, and if learning style is influenced by socio-demographic variables. The sample was composed of 161 students, who completed the Honey-Alonso questionnaire (CHAEA and the CDAT. Descriptive and correlational methods were used. For the analysis of the data, a univariate (one-way ANOVA descriptive study was performed, and the non-parametric Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests, both with a confidence level of 95% (σ=.05 were used. The results show the predominance of the reflective style, and the fact that grades as a function of styles vary depending on the school subject. No significant differences were found in the variables gender, university admission scores, type of school (private or public of the study centers attended previous to university. Significant differences were found for some styles in the variables age, type of university admission, and if a student had to work as well as to study. The conclusions highlight the need to develop teaching strategies that encompass all the styles to improve performance, as well as the need to modify the teaching practices for the students to develop the rest of the styles in a balanced manner. This latest aspect is important so that the students can freely operate professionally, as the Engineering profession requires having all four characteristic styles simultaneously.

  7. An Examination of the Demographic and Environmental Variables Correlated with Lyme Disease Emergence in Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seukep, Sara E; Kolivras, Korine N; Hong, Yili; Li, Jie; Prisley, Stephen P; Campbell, James B; Gaines, David N; Dymond, Randel L

    2015-12-01

    Lyme disease is the United States' most significant vector-borne illness. Virginia, on the southern edge of the disease's currently expanding range, has experienced an increase in Lyme disease both spatially and temporally, with steadily increasing rates over the past decade and disease spread from the northern to the southwestern part of the state. This study used a Geographic Information System and a spatial Poisson regression model to examine correlations between demographic and land cover variables, and human Lyme disease from 2006 to 2010 in Virginia. Analysis indicated that herbaceous land cover is positively correlated with Lyme disease incidence rates. Areas with greater interspersion between herbaceous and forested land were also positively correlated with incidence rates. In addition, income and age were positively correlated with incidence rates. Levels of development, interspersion of herbaceous and developed land, and population density were negatively correlated with incidence rates. Abundance of forest fragments less than 2 hectares in area was not significantly correlated. Our results support some findings of previous studies on ecological variables and Lyme disease in endemic areas, but other results have not been found in previous studies, highlighting the potential contribution of new variables as Lyme disease continues to emerge southward.

  8. Cancer patients' referral wish: effects of distress, problems, socio-demographic and illness-related variables and social support sufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Admiraal, J M; van Nuenen, F M; Burgerhof, J G M; Reyners, A K L; Hoekstra-Weebers, J E H M

    2016-11-01

    The present study's aim was to examine effects of cancer patients' perceived distress and problems, socio-demographic and illness-related variables and social support sufficiency on referral wish. A cross-sectional group of 1340 patients (response = 51%) completed a questionnaire consisting of the Dutch version of the Distress Thermometer and Problem List, including the referral wish question, and questions on socio-demographic and illness-related variables and perceived social support sufficiency. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to investigate the effects of these variables on patients' referral wish. Of the patients who completed the referral wish question (N = 1297), 13% wished and 21% considered a referral, while 66% did not want a referral. Univariate analyses showed that, in comparison with patients not having a referral wish, those having a (maybe) wish were more distressed, reporting more problems in all Problem List domains, younger, more likely not to have children or children living at home, higher educated, more likely to be employed, under active treatment or recently diagnosed, receiving more intensive treatment and more likely to perceive support received to be insufficient. A final ordinal logistic regression analysis showed independent effects of distress, practical and emotional problems, age and treatment phase on referral wish (χ(2) (6) = 205.9; p < 0.001; Nagelkerke's R(2)  = 0.24). A third of the patients (maybe) wished a referral. Knowledge of risk variables (particularly increased distress, experience of more practical and emotional problems, younger age and receiving active treatment or recently diagnosed) may support the identification of patients at increased need of additional healthcare services. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Changing maternity leave policy: short-term effects on fertility rates and demographic variables in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyrian, Jochen René; Fendrich, Konstanze; Lange, Anja; Haas, Johannes-Peter; Zygmunt, Marek; Hoffmann, Wolfgang

    2010-08-01

    Changes in reproductive behaviour and decreasing fertility rates have recently led to policy actions that attempt to counteract these developments. Evidence on the efficacy of such policy interventions, however, is limited. The present analysis examines fertility rates and demographic variables of a population in Germany in response to new maternity leave regulations, which were introduced in January 2007. As part of a population-based survey of neonates in Pomerania (SNiP), all births in the study region from the period 23 months prior to January 1st, 2007 until 23 months afterwards were examined. Crude Birth Rates (CBR) per month, General Fertility Rates (GFR) per month, parity and sociodemographic variables were compared using bivariate techniques. Logistic regression analysis was performed. No statistically significant difference in the CBR or GFR after Jan. 1st, 2007 was found. There were statistically significant differences in other demographic variables, however. The proportion of mothers who (a) were employed full-time before pregnancy; (b) came from a higher socioeconomic status; and (c) had higher income levels all increased after January 1st, 2007. The magnitude of these effects was higher in multigravid women. Forward stepwise logistic regression found an odds ratio of 1.79 for women with a family income of more than 3000 euro to give birth after the new law was introduced. This is the first analysis of population-based data that examines fertility rates and sociodemographic variables in response to new legal regulations. No short-term effects on birth rates were detected, but there was a differential effect on the subgroup of multigravidae. The focus of this policy was to provide financial support, which is certainly important, but the complexity of having a child suggests that attitudinal and motivational aspects also need to be taken into account. Furthermore, these analyses were only able to evaluate the short-term consequences of the policy

  10. The Effects of Internal-External Locus of Control and Selected Demographic Variables on Rational-Irrational Beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Janice E.; And Others

    This study evaluated whether or not locus of control mediates rational-irrational beliefs. Data were generated investigating the impact of an internal-external orientation and selected demographic variables (age, race, gender, education, and occupation) on rational-irrational beliefs. Independent variables were locus of control and demographic…

  11. Factors Related to Household Energy Use and Intention to Reduce It : The Role of Psychological and Socio-Demographic Variables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abrahamse, Wokje; Steg, Linda

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the relationships between household energy use and householders' intention to reduce their energy use on the one hand, and psychological variables and socio-demographic variables on the other More specifically, the study examined whether the explanation of household energy use an

  12. Factors Related to Household Energy Use and Intention to Reduce It : The Role of Psychological and Socio-Demographic Variables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abrahamse, Wokje; Steg, Linda

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the relationships between household energy use and householders' intention to reduce their energy use on the one hand, and psychological variables and socio-demographic variables on the other More specifically, the study examined whether the explanation of household energy use

  13. Sensible energy policy does not include a variable import fee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lave, L.B. (Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Schenley Park, Pittsburgh, PA (US))

    1988-01-01

    Energy analysis has become unfashionable. The millions of dollars and professional hours devoted to fashioning solutions to the US energy problems in the late 1970s have disappeared with little trce. With world oil selling below $20 per barrel, there is little or no interest in alternatives to petroleum, or even in R and D on alternatives. Current apathy suggests that the USA is capable of only two modes of operation: Throw money at perceived crises, knowing it is being spent foolishly, or ignore any problem that ceases to be a perceived crises. Energy policy seems to be thought of these days as bailing out the oil billionaires and the Texas banks and savings and loan situations. When mature, consenting adults spend years trying to bring something about, one should allow them to enjoy the fruits of their labor - as long as it is within the law. Thus, the author assumes that Singer's proposal is not to be justified on the grounds of pulling these chestnuts out of the fire. Rather, Singer puts it forth on the grounds that it will contribute to sensible energy policy. Unfortunately, the variable import fee (VIF) is seriously flawed and the supporting arguments are contradictory or unsupported. In order to evaluate a proposal such as Singer's VIF, one has to be clear on the objectives and time frame. Others and the author agree that at any date, there is a supply curve for domestic petroleum that rises with price. There are stripping well secondary and tertiary recovery all waiting, and drillers willing to bring in new wells; the higher the price, the more oil will flow from these sources.

  14. Predictors and Variability of Urinary Paraben Concentrations in Men and Women, Including before and during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kristen W.; Braun, Joe M.; Williams, Paige L.; Ehrlich, Shelley; Correia, Katharine F.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Ye, Xiaoyun; Ford, Jennifer; Keller, Myra; Meeker, John D.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Parabens are suspected endocrine disruptors and ubiquitous preservatives used in personal care products, pharmaceuticals, and foods. No studies have assessed the variability of parabens in women, including during pregnancy. Objective: We evaluated predictors and variability of urinary paraben concentrations. Methods: We measured urinary concentrations of methyl (MP), propyl (PP), and butyl paraben (BP) among couples from a fertility center. Mixed-effects regression models were fit to examine demographic predictors of paraben concentrations and to calculate intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). Results: Between 2005 and 2010, we collected 2,721 spot urine samples from 245 men and 408 women. The median concentrations were 112 µg/L (MP), 24.2 µg/L (PP), and 0.70 µg/L (BP). Urinary MP and PP concentrations were 4.6 and 7.8 times higher in women than men, respectively, and concentrations of both MP and PP were 3.8 times higher in African Americans than Caucasians. MP and PP concentrations we CI re slightly more variable in women (ICC = 0.42, 0.43) than men (ICC = 0.54, 0.51), and were weakly correlated between partners (r = 0.27–0.32). Among 129 pregnant women, urinary paraben concentrations were 25–45% lower during pregnancy than before pregnancy, and MP and PP concentrations were more variable (ICCs of 0.38 and 0.36 compared with 0.46 and 0.44, respectively). Conclusions: Urinary paraben concentrations were more variable in women compared with men, and during pregnancy compared with before pregnancy. However, results for this study population suggest that a single urine sample may reasonably represent an individual’s exposure over several months, and that a single sample collected during pregnancy may reasonably classify gestational exposure. PMID:22721761

  15. The relationship between demographic variables, productivity, and staff burnout among staffs of a hospital located in Ilam city

    OpenAIRE

    Bahram Kohnavard; Hakime Mallaki Moghadam; Zohreh Fazli

    2015-01-01

    Background­ and objectives : Burnout is one of the causes of reduced job performance and productivity, this syndrome in jobs who deal directly with people are more than other professions may be viewed. This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between demographic variables, efficiency, and staff burnout in a hospital. Methods : In this descriptive-analytical study all 100 employees of the hospital were evaluated . People by demographic information , Maslach Burnout question...

  16. Demographic and psychological variables affecting test subject evaluations of ride quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, N. C.; Conley, H. W.

    1975-01-01

    Ride-quality experiments similar in objectives, design, and procedure were conducted, one using the U.S. Air Force Total In-Flight Simulator and the other using the Langley Passenger Ride Quality Apparatus to provide the motion environments. Large samples (80 or more per experiment) of test subjects were recruited from the Tidewater Virginia area and asked to rate the comfort (on a 7-point scale) of random aircraft motion typical of that encountered during STOL flights. Test subject characteristics of age, sex, and previous flying history (number of previous airplane flights) were studied in a two by three by three factorial design. Correlations were computed between one dependent measure, the subject's mean comfort rating, and various demographic characteristics, attitudinal variables, and the scores on Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. An effect of sex was found in one of the studies. Males made higher (more uncomfortable) ratings of the ride than females. Age and number of previous flights were not significantly related to comfort ratings. No significant interactions between the variables of age, sex, or previous number of flights were observed.

  17. Bone Mineral Density in Patients with Ankylosing Spondylitis: Incidence and Correlation with Demographic and Clinical Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura MUNTEAN

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate bone mineral density (BMD in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS and determine its correlation with the demographic and clinical characteristics of AS. Patients and Methods: Demographic, clinical and osteodensitometric data were evaluated in a cross-sectional study that included 136 patients with AS. Spine and hip BMD were measured by means of dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA. Using the modified Schober’s test we assessed spine mobility. We examined the sacroiliac, anteroposterior and lateral dorso-lumbar spine radiographs in order to grade sacroiliitis and assess syndesmophytes. Disease activity was evaluated using C-reactive protein (CRP levels and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR. Demographic data and BMD measurements were compared with those of 167 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Results: Patients with AS had a significantly lower BMD at the spine, femoral neck, trochanter and total hip as compared to age-matched controls (all p<0.01. According to the WHO classification, osteoporosis was present in 20.6% of the AS patients at the lumbar spine and in 14.6% at the femoral neck. There were no significant differences in BMD when comparing men and women with AS, except for trochanter BMD that was lower in female patients. No correlations were found between disease activity markers (ESR, CRP and BMD. Femoral neck BMD was correlated with disease duration, Schober’s test and sacroiliitis grade. Conclusion: Patients with AS have a lower spine and hip BMD as compared to age- and sex-matched controls. Bone loss at the femoral neck is associated with disease duration and more severe AS.

  18. The relationship between demographic variables and well-being of women in South African workplaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madelyn Geldenhuys

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: It is important to investigate the determinants of well-being among working women. Given the unique demographic diversity within the South African context, differences in the experience of well-being among women are expected.Purpose: The study investigated the effects of age, race, marital status and educational status on psychological meaningfulness, life satisfaction, work–family conflict and social support of working women.Motivation: With the increase of women in the workplace, there is a need for knowledge and understanding of the factors that influence the well-being of women. This study aims to investigate demographic variables as determinants of well-being among working women.Method: Cross-sectional surveys were used to gather data from a sample (n = 540 of women from various South African companies. The Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES, the Psychological Meaningfulness Scale (PMS, the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS, the WorkRole Conflict Scale and the Job Demands Resources Scale (JDRS were administered.Results: Significant relationships were found between life satisfaction, work-to-family conflict and work engagement, respectively, and marital status. Higher levels of education showed significant relationships with life satisfaction and work-to-family conflict. Being white showed significant positive relationships with life satisfaction, work-to-family conflict and work engagement. With regard to social support and psychological meaningfulness, race explained significant amounts of variance in psychological meaningfulness, as did age.Practical, managerial and methodological implications: The findings indicate that the experiences of well-being among women vary by age, race, marital status and educational status. It is therefore imperative that human resource practitioners appropriately measure these differences, accommodate them in policies through relevant supportive practices and also champion these practices for

  19. Demographic variables, clinical aspects, and medicolegal implications in a population of patients with adjustment disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasia, Annalisa; Colletti, Chiara; Cuoco, Valentina; Quartini, Adele; Urso, Stefania; Rinaldi, Raffaella; Bersani, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Although adjustment disorder (AD) is considered as residual diagnosis and receives little attention in research, it plays an important role in clinical practice and also assumes an increasingly important role in the field of legal medicine, where the majority of diagnostic frameworks (eg, mobbing) often refer to AD. Our study aimed to look for specific stressor differences among demographic and clinical variables in a naturalistic setting of patients with AD. Methods A restrospective statistical analysis of the data of patients diagnosed with AD from November 2009 to September 2012, identified via manual search from the archive of the outpatient setting at the University Unit of Psychiatry “A. Fiorini” Hospital, Terracina (Latina, Italy), was performed. Results The sample consisted of 93 patients (46 males and 47 females), aged between 26 and 85, with medium–high educational level who were mainly employed. In most cases (54.80%), a diagnosis of AD with mixed anxiety and depressed mood was made. In all, 72% of the sample reported a negative family history for psychiatric disorders. In 22.60%, a previous history of psychopathology, especially mood disorders (76.19%), was reported. The main stressors linked to the development of AD were represented by working problems (32.30%), family problems (23.70%), and/or somatic disease (22.60%) with significant differences with respect to age and sex. Half of the patients were subjected to a single first examination; 24.47% requested a copy of medical records. Conclusion Confirming previous data from previous reports, our results suggest that AD may have a distinct profile in demographic and clinical terms. Increased scientific attention is hoped, particularly focused on addressing a better definition of diagnostic criteria, whose correctness and accuracy are critical, especially in situations with medicolegal implications. PMID:27099504

  20. Environmental, dietary, demographic, and activity variables associated with biomarkers of exposure for benzene and lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, A; Georgopoulos, P G; Ouyang, M; Freeman, N; Lioy, P J

    2003-11-01

    Classification and regression tree methods represent a potentially powerful means of identifying patterns in exposure data that may otherwise be overlooked. Here, regression tree models are developed to identify associations between blood concentrations of benzene and lead and over 300 variables of disparate type (numerical and categorical), often with observations that are missing or below the quantitation limit. Benzene and lead are selected from among all the environmental agents measured in the NHEXAS Region V study because they are ubiquitous, and they serve as paradigms for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and heavy metals, two classes of environmental agents that have very different properties. Two sets of regression models were developed. In the first set, only environmental and dietary measurements were employed as predictor variables, while in the second set these were supplemented with demographic and time-activity data. In both sets of regression models, the predictor variables were regressed on the blood concentrations of the environmental agents. Jack-knife cross-validation was employed to detect overfitting of the models to the data. Blood concentrations of benzene were found to be associated with: (a) indoor air concentrations of benzene; (b) the duration of time spent indoors with someone who was smoking; and (c) the number of cigarettes smoked by the subject. All these associations suggest that tobacco smoke is a major source of exposure to benzene. Blood concentrations of lead were found to be associated with: (a) house dust concentrations of lead; (b) the duration of time spent working in a closed workshop; and (c) the year in which the subject moved into the residence. An unexpected finding was that the regression trees identified time-activity data as better predictors of the blood concentrations than the measurements in environmental and dietary media.

  1. Psychosocial and demographic variables associated with consumer intention to purchase sustainably produced foods as defined by the Midwest Food Alliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Ramona; Smith, Chery

    2002-01-01

    To examine psychosocial and demographic variables associated with consumer intention to purchase sustainably produced foods using an expanded Theory of Planned Behavior. Consumers were approached at the store entrance and asked to complete a self-administered survey. Three metropolitan Minnesota grocery stores. Participants (n = 550) were adults who shopped at the store: the majority were white, female, and highly educated and earned >or= 50,000 dollars/year. Participation rates averaged 62%. The major domain investigated was consumer support for sustainably produced foods. Demographics, beliefs, attitudes, subjective norm, and self-identity and perceived behavioral control were evaluated as predictors of intention to purchase them. Descriptive statistics, independent t tests, one-way analysis of variance, Pearson product moment correlation coefficients, and stepwise multiple regression analyses (P Consumers were supportive of sustainably produced foods but not highly confident in their ability to purchase them. Independent predictors of intention to purchase them included attitudes, beliefs, perceived behavioral control, subjective norm, past buying behavior, and marital status. Beliefs, attitudes, and confidence level may influence intention to purchase sustainably produced foods. Nutrition educators could increase consumers' awareness of sustainably produced foods by understanding their beliefs, attitudes, and confidence levels.

  2. Estimating Intelligence in Spanish: Regression Equations With the Word Accentuation Test and Demographic Variables in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra Sanjurjo, Natalia; Montañes, Patricia; Sierra Matamoros, Fabio Alexander; Burin, Debora

    2015-01-01

    Spanish is the fourth most spoken language in the world, and the majority of Spanish speakers have a Latin American origin. Reading aloud infrequently accentuated words has been established as a National Adult Reading Test-like method to assess premorbid intelligence in Spanish. However, several versions have been proposed and validated with small and selected samples, in particular geographical conditions, and they seldom derive a formula for IQ estimation with the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) Full-Scale IQ (FSIQ). The objective of this study was to develop equations to estimate WAIS-Third Edition (WAIS-III) FSIQ from the Word Accentuation Test-Revised (WAT-R), demographic variables, and their combination within diverse Latin American samples. Two hundred and forty participants from Argentina and Colombia, selected according to age and years of education strata, were assessed with the WAT-R, the WAIS-III, and a structured questionnaire about demographic and medical information. A combined approach including place of birth, years of education, and WAT-R provided the best equation, explaining 76% of IQ variance. These equations could be useful for estimating premorbid IQ in patients with Latin American Spanish as their birth language.

  3. Demographic models reveal the shape of density dependence for a specialist insect herbivore on variable host plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Tom E X

    2007-07-01

    1. It is widely accepted that density-dependent processes play an important role in most natural populations. However, persistent challenges in our understanding of density-dependent population dynamics include evaluating the shape of the relationship between density and demographic rates (linear, concave, convex), and identifying extrinsic factors that can mediate this relationship. 2. I studied the population dynamics of the cactus bug Narnia pallidicornis on host plants (Opuntia imbricata) that varied naturally in relative reproductive effort (RRE, the proportion of meristems allocated to reproduction), an important plant quality trait. I manipulated per-plant cactus bug densities, quantified subsequent dynamics, and fit stage-structured models to the experimental data to ask if and how density influences demographic parameters. 3. In the field experiment, I found that populations with variable starting densities quickly converged upon similar growth trajectories. In the model-fitting analyses, the data strongly supported a model that defined the juvenile cactus bug retention parameter (joint probability of surviving and not dispersing) as a nonlinear decreasing function of density. The estimated shape of this relationship shifted from concave to convex with increasing host-plant RRE. 4. The results demonstrate that host-plant traits are critical sources of variation in the strength and shape of density dependence in insects, and highlight the utility of integrated experimental-theoretical approaches for identifying processes underlying patterns of change in natural populations.

  4. [Prevention of sexually transmitted diseases in women: association with socioeconomic and demographic variables].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, A L; Gotlieb, S L; Hardy, E; Zaneveld, L J

    2001-01-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) have been a subject of discussion both among scientists and in the mass media, especially because of their association with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We studied the adoption of specific protective behaviors for the prevention of STDs among women, as well as the associations between these behaviors and socioeconomic and demographic variables. This was a descriptive study based on secondary data from a previous study carried out in Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil. A total of 635 women were selected using the social network ("snowball") technique. Subjects were classified into four groups: adolescents and adults of upper middle and lower socioeconomic status, respectively. Condoms were the STD prevention method most frequently mentioned by interviewees. A negative association was observed between having a steady partner and condom use in all the groups. The main reason mentioned for not using condoms was "having a single partner and trusting him". Among adolescents, a positive association was observed between schooling above the 8th grade and condom use, and a negative association was observed between age and condom use. Among adults, only condom use in general was also positively associated with socioeconomic status.

  5. Investigating demographic, work-related and job satisfaction variables as predictors of motivation in Greek nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaki, Eleni; Kontodimopoulos, Nick; Niakas, Dimitris

    2013-04-01

    To investigate whether demographic variables and work-related factors predict work motivation in Greek nurses. Nurses' motivation is crucial for an effective health-care system. Herzberg's and Maslow's motivation theories constitute the framework of this study. The sample consisted of 200 nurses from every sector and registration level in a University Hospital in Greece. The response rate was 76%. A previously developed and validated questionnaire addressing four work-related motivators (job attributes, remuneration, co-workers and achievements) on a five-point Likert scale. Most participants were women, married, between 36 years and 45 years old and higher education graduates. The highest mean score was recorded for 'achievements' (mean 4.07, SD 0.72), which emerged as the most important motivator. Job satisfaction, work sector and age were statistically significantly related to motivational factors. Nurses placed emphasis on motivators not strictly relating to economic rewards, but which can be seen as intrinsic and could lead to self-actualization. The constantly changing health sector requires that human resources and job context be a priority for health administrators. By promoting nurses' satisfaction and efficacy, an improvement in service quality is expected. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Depression and anxiety in epilepsy: the association with demographic and seizure-related variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pseftogianni Dimitra

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Depression and anxiety are common psychiatric symptoms in patients with epilepsy, exerting a profound negative effect on health-related quality of life. Several issues, however, pertaining to their association with psychosocial, seizure-related and medication factors, remain controversial. Accordingly, the present study was designed to investigate the association of interictal mood disorders with various demographic and seizure-related variables in patients with newly-diagnosed and chronic epilepsy. Methods We investigated 201 patients with epilepsy (51.2% males, mean age 33.2 ± 10.0 years, range 16–60 with a mean disease duration of 13.9 ± 9.5 years. Depression and anxiety were assessed in the interictal state with the Beck Depression Inventory, 21-item version (BDI-21 and the state and trait subscales of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-S and STAI-T, respectively. The association of mood disorders with various variables was investigated with simple and multiple linear regression analyses. Results High seizure frequency and symptomatic focal epilepsy (SFE were independent determinants of depression, together accounting for 12.4% of the variation of the BDI-21. The STAI-S index was significantly associated with the type of epilepsy syndrome (SFE. Finally, high seizure frequency, SFE and female gender were independent determinants of trait anxiety accounting for 14.7% of the variation of the STAI-T. Conclusion Our results confirm the prevailing view that depression and anxiety are common psychological disorders in epileptics. It is additionally concluded that female gender, high seizure frequency and a symptomatic epilepsy syndrome are independent risk factors for the development of anxiety and/or depression.

  7. How well can body size represent effects of the environment on demographic rates? Disentangling correlated explanatory variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Mollie E; Mugabo, Marianne; Rodgers, Gwendolen M; Benton, Timothy G; Ozgul, Arpat

    2016-03-01

    Demographic rates are shaped by the interaction of past and current environments that individuals in a population experience. Past environments shape individual states via selection and plasticity, and fitness-related traits (e.g. individual size) are commonly used in demographic analyses to represent the effect of past environments on demographic rates. We quantified how well the size of individuals captures the effects of a population's past and current environments on demographic rates in a well-studied experimental system of soil mites. We decomposed these interrelated sources of variation with a novel method of multiple regression that is useful for understanding nonlinear relationships between responses and multicollinear explanatory variables. We graphically present the results using area-proportional Venn diagrams. Our novel method was developed by combining existing methods and expanding upon them. We showed that the strength of size as a proxy for the past environment varied widely among vital rates. For instance, in this organism with an income breeding life history, the environment had more effect on reproduction than individual size, but with substantial overlap indicating that size encompassed some of the effects of the past environment on fecundity. This demonstrates that the strength of size as a proxy for the past environment can vary widely among life-history processes within a species, and this variation should be taken into consideration in trait-based demographic or individual-based approaches that focus on phenotypic traits as state variables. Furthermore, the strength of a proxy will depend on what state variable(s) and what demographic rate is being examined; that is, different measures of body size (e.g. length, volume, mass, fat stores) will be better or worse proxies for various life-history processes.

  8. Socio-Demographic Variables, General Psychological Well-Being and the Mental Health Continuum in an African Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khumalo, I. P.; Temane, Q. M.; Wissing, M. P.

    2012-01-01

    Age, gender, marital status, education attainment, employment status, and environmental setting explain different amounts of variance in psychological well-being and mental health. Inconsistent findings are reported for the socio-demographic variables in psychological well-being depending amongst others on the definition and measurement of…

  9. Cancer patients' referral wish : effects of distress, problems, socio-demographic and illness-related variables and social support sufficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Admiraal, J M; van Nuenen, F M; Burgerhof, J G M; Reyners, A K L; Hoekstra-Weebers, J E H M

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The present study's aim was to examine effects of cancer patients' perceived distress and problems, socio-demographic and illness-related variables and social support sufficiency on referral wish. METHODS: A cross-sectional group of 1340 patients (response = 51%) completed a questionnair

  10. Turkish College Students' Subjective Wellbeing in Regard to Psychological Strengths and Demographic Variables: Implications for College Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivis-Cetinkaya, Rahsan

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated Turkish college students' subjective wellbeing in regard to psychological strength and demographic variables. A sample of Turkish college students (N?=?1,052) aged 17-32 (mean age = 21, SD = 1.79) was administered various psychological strength instruments--the Gratitude Scale, the Rosenberg Self Esteem Inventory, the…

  11. Effect of Demographic Variables and Utilization of ICT in Employment of Disabled

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Bakhshi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Most of the disabled people are faced with many physical, social and cultural problems. Social barriers deprive them from using civil and welfare utilities and social vulgar and inexpert attitudes toward the disabled keep them out from the social life and relations. Using ICT is one of the best ways for their participation in all cultural, social, political and economic issues. In recent years, with the emergence of the concept of telework, entrepreneurial process has also changed. As many jobs require attendance at a particular place or time, they are associated with restrictions. Entrepreneurship and consequently telework can provide an appropriate opportunity for disabled or those who temporarily suffer from physical injuries. This is possible only by using information technology services; because in the present age information technology has undertaken a leadership role and has overshadowed different dimensions of human life. Planning and especial policies for the disabled would be unsuccessful or very expensive without the knowledge and understanding of their needs. Therefore, aim of this research is studying Effect of Demographic Variables and Utilization of ICT in Employment of Disabled. Furthermore with regard to the type of disability and employment, using ICT and findings of this research, scientific planning can proceed in this area based on existing capabilities. The results of this study show that half of the sample case is unemployed. However, the percentage of unemployed deaf was lower than other groups. Despite laws for the employment of disabled, as the results show, a lot of people with disabilities are still unemployed. Furthermore, the results define the more need of deployment of strategies and programs for more access of disabled to ICT and also providing a good platform to familiarize them to this technology and to enjoy the benefits of it.

  12. The influence of selected socio-demographic variables on symptoms occurring during the menopause

    OpenAIRE

    Marta Makara-Studzińska; Karolina Kryś-Noszczyką; Grzegorz Jakiel

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: It is considered that the lifestyle conditioned by socio-demographic or socio-economic factors determines the health condition of people to the greatest extent. The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of selected socio-demographic factors on the kinds of symptoms occurring during menopause. Material and methods : The study group consisted of 210 women aged 45 to 65, not using hormone replacement therapy, staying at healthcare centers for rehabilitation treatment...

  13. Research on PTSD prevalence in OEF/OIF Veterans: expanding investigation of demographic variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynnette A. Averill

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: A series of recent articles has reported on well-designed studies examining base rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD screenings within the Operation Enduring Freedom (Afghanistan conflict/Operation Iraqi Freedom (Iraq conflict (OEF/OIF military population. Although these studies have a number of strengths, this line of research points out several key areas in need of further examination. Objective: Many OEF/OIF Veterans do not use available Veterans Affairs (VA services, especially mental health care. This highlights the need to understand the differences between those who use and do not use the VA, especially as research with pre-OEF/OIF Veterans suggests that these two groups differ in significant ways. The high rates of PTSD-related concerns in non-VA users also points to a need to understand whether—and where—Veterans are seeking care outside the VA and the accessibility of evidence-based, trauma-focused treatments in the community and private sectors. Careful examination of relationship status is also paramount as little research has examined relationship status or other relationship context issues. Social support, especially from a spouse, can buffer the development of PTSD; however, relationship discord has the potential to greatly exacerbate PTSD symptomatology. Furthermore, given the additional risk factors for sexual minority Veterans to be exposed to trauma, the 2011 repeal of the US Military “Don't Ask, Don't Tell” policy, and the emergence of the VA as likely the largest health care provider for sexual minority Veterans, it will be critically important to study the trauma and mental health experiences of this group. Conclusions: Studies that examine prevalence rates of PTSD in the returning cohort contribute significantly to our understanding of the US OEF/OIF military population. Further study of PTSD in relation to demographic variables such as VA and non-VA use, relationship status, and sexual

  14. Relationship Between Malocclusion And Behavioral, Demographic And Socioeconomic Variables: A Cross-sectional Study Of 5-year-olds.

    OpenAIRE

    Hebling S.R.; Cortellazzi K.L.; Tagliaferro E.P.; Hebling E.; Ambrosano G.M.; Meneghim M.C.; Pereira A.C.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that the prevalence and the severity of malocclusion have increased over the years. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between malocclusions, such as open bite and crossbite, and behavioral, demographic and socioeconomic variables in a sample of 5-year-old children attending preschools. METHODS: The random sample consisted of 728 preschool children attending 22 public (n = 428) and 18 private (n = 300) preschools. A cali...

  15. The Impact of Different Demographic Variables on Determinants of University Choice Decision: A Study on Business Administration Students of the Foundation Universities in Istanbul

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Oya Tamtekin; Bayir, Firat

    2016-01-01

    By examining the relevant literature, many factors can be determined as effecting factors on university choice process. However, existing literature does not fully explore the effect of demographic variables on these factors. This research is aimed at identifying the relationship between university selection criteria and demographic variables,…

  16. [Implementation of the food choice questionnaire in young adolescents and their relationship to overweight and other socio-demographic variables].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canales Ronda, Pedro; Hernández Fernández, Asunción

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the behavior in choosing food among Spanish young teens, and its effect on the potential problems related to their weight (overweight and obesity) and other socio-demographic variables. In the study included 590 students attended public and private schools in the city of Valencia, aged between 14 and 17 years, randomly selected. A personal questionnaire based on the Food Choice Questionnaire was conducted. In general, young people choose their food based on the sensory aspects and the price thereof, and do not care about the effects on weight have their eating habits. No differences between students in public or private schools, or between those with normal weight or overweight are detected. If there is any difference in terms of gender of the respondent. Teens, when food choices are not very aware of the possible effects of these on their current and future health. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  17. Investigating Academic Self-Efficacy of University Students in Terms of Socio-Demographic Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satici, Seydi Ahmet; Can, Gurhan

    2016-01-01

    In this study whether academic self-efficacy of university students differ in terms of various socio-demographic features has been investigated. The study was conducted on 1679 students who were attending Anadolu University. In the study, the Academic Self-Efficacy Scale and Personal Information Form were used as data collection tools. In the…

  18. Relationships between demographic variables and quality of life in a population of Dutch adult psychiatric outpatients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trompenaars, F.J.; Masthoff, E.D.M.; Heck, G.L. van; Hodiamont, P.P.G.; Vries, I.J.M. de

    2005-01-01

    Background Examinations of the role of demographic characteristics in quality of life (QOL) in psychiatric samples are not new. However, serious limitations of previous research have been that (1) QOL was not assessed according to current recommendations, (2) assessment of QOL was often hampered by

  19. Of sports and politics: Predicting category-specific retention of news events from demographic variables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Meeter; D.J.C. Ochtman; S.M.J. Janssen; J.M.J. Murre

    2010-01-01

    Many tests of retrograde amnesia consist of questions on news events. It is therefore important to know how such questions are answered by normal adults. We analysed the retention of news events in a sample of 12,913 participants, who provided basic demographic information and subsequently answered

  20. Of sports and politics: Predicting category-specific retention of news events from demographic variables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeter, M.; Ochtman, D.J.C.; Janssen, S.M.J.; Murre, J.M.J.

    2010-01-01

    Many tests of retrograde amnesia consist of questions on news events. It is therefore important to know how such questions are answered by normal adults. We analysed the retention of news events in a sample of 12,913 participants, who provided basic demographic information and subsequently answered

  1. Psychometric functioning, socio-demographic variability of childhood maltreatment in the general population and its effects of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Andrea; Schmidt, Carsten Oliver; Appel, Katja; Mahler, Jessie; Spitzer, Carsten; Wingenfeld, Katja; Barnow, Sven; Driessen, Martin; Freyberger, Harald J; Völzke, Henry; Grabe, Hans J

    2014-09-01

    Maltreatment of children is a major public-health and social-welfare problem but socio-demographic variability has received little attention. This work addresses such variability in a general population cohort and associations with depression. Analyses were based on the cross-sectional SHIP-LEGEND examination among 2265 adults (29-89 years). Childhood maltreatment was multi-dimensionally assessed with the German 28-item Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ): emotional neglect; emotional abuse; physical neglect; physical abuse; sexual abuse. Non-linear associations between CTQ responses and age were assessed with fractional polynomials and cubic splines. Scale properties were analysed with confirmatory factor analyses and item response models. Associations between childhood maltreatment domains and depression [Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II)] were assessed. The majority (58.9%) reported events indicative of at least mild levels of childhood maltreatment. CTQ subscales showed characteristically different non-linear associations to age across the five studied domains, indicating methodological issues like recall bias and the influence of seminal events. Psychometric scale properties were acceptable to good for all subscales except for physical neglect. Associations to depression measures varied systematically across socio-demographic strata. We conclude that socio-demographic variability is a major issue when studying self-reported childhood maltreatment in a community sample. This needs to be taken into account for the study of associations to psychiatric key outcomes. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Impact of Demographic Variables on Work-Life Balance of Women Employees (with special reference to Bangalore City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumari K Thriveni

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Today we see women working in almost all types of professions demonstrating that there is no gender difference in work. In fact many organisations say that women are playing a major role in uplifting the organization. This is a positive development that women are making their presence felt in different walks of life. On the other hand, for every woman there is one more background to manage. That is home and personal life. Today with increasing demands at work place, the interface between work life and personal life assumed significance which demands more attention. Different factors affect work –life balance and one set of factors could be demographic variables. The present study is undertaken to determine the relationship between the demographic variables and work life balance. Women employees in various professions like IT, BPO, Marketing, Insurance, Banking and Education at Bangalore constitute the universe for the study and a sample of 340 employees is chosen using stratified random sampling method. The hypothesis is tested using chi-square test and it has revealed that there is significant relationship between demographic variables and work life balance.

  3. Survey of independent inventors: An overview. [Includes information on demographics, gender, ethnicity, education, income, employment, areas of invention, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whalley, P.

    1992-01-01

    Independent inventors are important but little-researched members of the US technical community. The survey reported on here is the first in modern times to attempt to provide a profile of the US independent inventor that goes beyond a single geographical or organizational locale. The report that follows provides an overview of the demographics, practices and concerns of the modern US inventor as represented by the members of leading US inventor organizations. It is by no means comprehensive but seeks to be indicative of the issues raised in the survey each which will be dealt with more comprehensively in future publications.

  4. Effects of Socio-economic and Demographic Variables on Meat Consumption in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Effects of Socio-economic and Demographic Variables on Meat Consumption in Vietnam; Tran Huu Cuong; Marcus Mergenthaler

    2014-01-01

    This study relates social-demographic characteristics of Vietnamese households to their consumption of meat. Pork and poultry constitute the majority of meat consumed in Vietnamese households. Hence, pork and poultry consumption have great influence on the total amount of meat consumed. Increasing pork and poultry consumption has strongly contributed to the total meat consumption growth. Tobit models are estimated drawing on the latest Vietnamese Household Living Standard Survey in 2010. The ...

  5. Study on Some Socio-Economic and Demographic Variables and Communication Effect on The Marital Adjustment

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    This research, which was conducted in theprovince of Ankara carried out to determine andcompare the various subjects in the economic,managerial and psychosocial activation areas and themarital adjustment of the man and woman in the viewpoint of demographic and socioeconomic variablessuch as their education levels, marriage ages,marriage duration and monthly income amount. 413married personnel and their spouses whom werechosen in accordance with the “Random SamplingMethod” by the personnel who...

  6. A Study of Isonymy and some socio-demographic variables among Koms and Meiteis of Manipur, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naorem Kiranmala

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Manipur is one of the northeastern states of India, comprising of both tribal and non-tribal population groups. Kom (tribal and Meitei (non-tribal population groups are considered for the present study. This study examines the socio-demographic correlates of prenatal and post natal deaths among Koms and Meiteis of Manipur. Meiteis are found to have comparatively better socio-economic condition than that of Koms. Two socio-demographic variables have emerged to influence offspring mortality among Meiteis and Koms. While among Meiteis higher socio-economic status is found to significantly reduce offspring mortality, among Koms it is the higher inbreeding which is found to significantly increase the offspring mortality.

  7. Characterizing relationships between personal exposures to VOCs and socioeconomic, demographic, behavioral variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sheng-Wei; Majeed, Mohammed A.; Chu, Pei-Ling; Lin, Hui-Chih

    Socioeconomic and demographic factors have been found to significantly affect time-activity patterns in population cohorts that can subsequently influence personal exposures to air pollutants. This study investigates relationships between personal exposures to eight VOCs (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, o-xylene, m-,p-xylene, chloroform, 1,4-dichlorobenzene, and tetrachloroethene) and socioeconomic, demographic, time-activity pattern factors using data collected from the 1999-2000 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) VOC study. Socio-demographic factors (such as race/ethnicity and family income) were generally found to significantly influence personal exposures to the three chlorinated compounds. This was mainly due to the associations paired by race/ethnicity and urban residence, race/ethnicity and use of air freshener in car, family income and use of dry-cleaner, which can in turn affect exposures to chloroform, 1,4-dichlorobenzene, and tetrachloroethene, respectively. For BTEX, the traffic-related compounds, housing characteristics (leaving home windows open and having an attached garage) and personal activities related to the uses of fuels or solvent-related products played more significant roles in influencing exposures. Significant differences in BTEX exposures were also commonly found in relation to gender, due to associated significant differences in time spent at work/school and outdoors. The coupling of Classification and Regression Tree (CART) and Bootstrap Aggregating (Bagging) techniques were used as effective tools for characterizing robust sets of significant VOC exposure factors presented above, which conventional statistical approaches could not accomplish. Identification of these significant VOC exposure factors can be used to generate hypotheses for future investigations about possible significant VOC exposure sources and pathways in the general U.S. population.

  8. The influence of selected socio-demographic variables on symptoms occurring during the menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makara-Studzińska, Marta; Kryś-Noszczyka, Karolina; Jakiel, Grzegorz

    2015-03-01

    It is considered that the lifestyle conditioned by socio-demographic or socio-economic factors determines the health condition of people to the greatest extent. The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of selected socio-demographic factors on the kinds of symptoms occurring during menopause. The study group consisted of 210 women aged 45 to 65, not using hormone replacement therapy, staying at healthcare centers for rehabilitation treatment. The study was carried out in 2013-2014 in the Silesian, Podlaskie and Lesser Poland voivodeships. The set of tools consisted of the authors' own survey questionnaire and the Menopause Rating Scale (MRS). The most commonly occurring symptom in the group of studied women was a depressive mood, from the group of psychological symptoms, followed by physical and mental fatigue, and discomfort connected with muscle and joint pain. The greatest intensity of symptoms was observed in the group of women with the lowest level of education, reporting an average or bad material situation, and unemployed women. An alarmingly high number of reported psychological symptoms in the group of menopausal women was observed, and in particular among the group of low socio-economic status. Career seems to be a factor reducing the risk of occurrence of psychological symptoms. There is an urgent need for health promotion and prophylaxis in the group of menopausal women, and in many cases for implementation of specialist psychological assistance.

  9. Can demographic variables predict lottery and pari-mutuel losses? An empirical investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, K Brandon; Omori, Megumi

    2009-06-01

    Using data from the 2004 and 2005 Consumer Expenditure Surveys (CES) comprising of 15,000 respondents, this study examines two research questions. The first of these considers the demographic differences between households whose members lose money playing the lottery and/or engaging in pari-mutuel betting and those whose members do not lose money participating in such activities. The second assesses demographic differences among households whose members lose money playing the lottery and/or engaging in pari-mutuel betting. It was found that respondents living in money-losing households are slightly older, better off financially, more likely to be married or divorced, more likely to live in a state with at least one legal casino and more likely to live in the Northeast than respondents living in non-money-losing households. Among those living in money-losing households, the least wealthy and African American respondents are more likely to lose a higher proportion of their respective incomes purchasing lottery tickets and engaging in pari-mutuel betting than wealthier respondents and whites.

  10. Effects of Socio-economic and Demographic Variables on Meat Consumption in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Effects of Socio-economic and Demographic Variables on Meat Consumption in Vietnam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study relates social-demographic characteristics of Vietnamese households to their consumption of meat. Pork and poultry constitute the majority of meat consumed in Vietnamese households. Hence, pork and poultry consumption have great influence on the total amount of meat consumed. Increasing pork and poultry consumption has strongly contributed to the total meat consumption growth. Tobit models are estimated drawing on the latest Vietnamese Household Living Standard Survey in 2010. The analysis of demand for pork and poultry in Vietnamese households demonstrates that meat demand in Vietnam is significantly affected by socio-economic and demographic factors of households. Understanding meat consumption patterns will help the Vietnamese government to implement policies to ensure food security. The policies may affect food redistribution between rural and urban areas, ethnic groups, the poor and the rich. In addition, food firms who wish to invest in the food market in Vietnam have to understand meat consumption patterns and meat demand to develop suitable business strategies and thereby contribute to increasing food security. This opens possibilities for domestic meat supply chains like feed producers and other livestock input suppliers, agricultural producers, processors, traders and the retail sector to take advantage of this dynamic markets sector.

  11. The influence of selected socio-demographic variables on symptoms occurring during the menopause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Makara-Studzińska

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It is considered that the lifestyle conditioned by socio-demographic or socio-economic factors determines the health condition of people to the greatest extent. The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of selected socio-demographic factors on the kinds of symptoms occurring during menopause. Material and methods : The study group consisted of 210 women aged 45 to 65, not using hormone replacement therapy, staying at healthcare centers for rehabilitation treatment. The study was carried out in 2013-2014 in the Silesian, Podlaskie and Lesser Poland voivodeships. The set of tools consisted of the authors’ own survey questionnaire and the Menopause Rating Scale (MRS. Results : The most commonly occurring symptom in the group of studied women was a depressive mood, from the group of psychological symptoms, followed by physical and mental fatigue, and discomfort connected with muscle and joint pain. The greatest intensity of symptoms was observed in the group of women with the lowest level of education, reporting an average or bad material situation, and unemployed women. Conclusions : An alarmingly high number of reported psychological symptoms in the group of menopausal women was observed, and in particular among the group of low socio-economic status. Career seems to be a factor reducing the risk of occurrence of psychological symptoms. There is an urgent need for health promotion and prophylaxis in the group of menopausal women, and in many cases for implementation of specialist psychological assistance.

  12. The influence of socioeconomic and demographic variables on willingness to donate cadaveric human organs in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasiah, Rajah; Manikam, Rishya; Chandarsekaran, Sankara K; Thangiah, Govindamal; Puspharajan, Saravanan; Swaminathan, Dasan

    2014-11-01

    The growing shortage in human organs has raised serious concerns. To address this problem, we examine in this article the association between demographic and socioeconomic factors, and respondents' willingness to donate cadaveric organs using a large survey of Malaysian adults aged 18 years and above.A convenience sampling method was used to extract information from a total of 10,350 participants from Metropolitan Kuala Lumpur over the period of April 2, 2013 to February 29, 2014. In addition to analyzing the data using incidence of willingness to donate by demographic and socioeconomic factors, we carried out logistic regression analysis to estimate the odds ratio of respondents' willingness to become cadaveric organ donors controlling for age.About less than a third of the participants pledged to donate their organs upon death with women (35.6%) showing a higher incidence compared with men (33.2%). The Chinese (35.7%) and Malays (35.0%) pledged to contribute more than the Indians (31.6%) and the logistic regressions show that Malays (adjusted odds ration [OR] = 1.18) and Chinese (adjusted OR = 1.21) are more likely to donate than Indians (reference group). The results by religion were significant among Muslims and Hindus but not Buddhists. The likelihood of Muslims donating was the lowest (adjusted OR = 0.26). Income was also highly significant but the relationship with willingness to donate was negative. Against tertiary education, all other occupations were significant. However, the respondents with primary education enjoyed the highest adjusted OR (5.46) whereas that of secondary (0.48) and higher secondary (0.83) education was low. Among occupations (against supervisory, clerical, and direct workers), it was significant only among the unemployed and managers with adjusted OR of 1.50 and 1.58, respectively.Sex, education, ethnicity, religion, and income are important demographic and socioeconomic influences on the likelihood of Malaysians willing to become

  13. The Influence of Socioeconomic and Demographic Variables on Willingness to Donate Cadaveric Human Organs in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasiah, Rajah; Manikam, Rishya; Chandarsekaran, Sankara K.; Thangiah, Govindamal; Puspharajan, Saravanan; Swaminathan, Dasan

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The growing shortage in human organs has raised serious concerns. To address this problem, we examine in this article the association between demographic and socioeconomic factors, and respondents’ willingness to donate cadaveric organs using a large survey of Malaysian adults aged 18 years and above. A convenience sampling method was used to extract information from a total of 10,350 participants from Metropolitan Kuala Lumpur over the period of April 2, 2013 to February 29, 2014. In addition to analyzing the data using incidence of willingness to donate by demographic and socioeconomic factors, we carried out logistic regression analysis to estimate the odds ratio of respondents’ willingness to become cadaveric organ donors controlling for age. About less than a third of the participants pledged to donate their organs upon death with women (35.6%) showing a higher incidence compared with men (33.2%). The Chinese (35.7%) and Malays (35.0%) pledged to contribute more than the Indians (31.6%) and the logistic regressions show that Malays (adjusted odds ration [OR] = 1.18) and Chinese (adjusted OR = 1.21) are more likely to donate than Indians (reference group). The results by religion were significant among Muslims and Hindus but not Buddhists. The likelihood of Muslims donating was the lowest (adjusted OR = 0.26). Income was also highly significant but the relationship with willingness to donate was negative. Against tertiary education, all other occupations were significant. However, the respondents with primary education enjoyed the highest adjusted OR (5.46) whereas that of secondary (0.48) and higher secondary (0.83) education was low. Among occupations (against supervisory, clerical, and direct workers), it was significant only among the unemployed and managers with adjusted OR of 1.50 and 1.58, respectively. Sex, education, ethnicity, religion, and income are important demographic and socioeconomic influences on the likelihood of

  14. The impact of clinical and demographic variables on cognitive performance in methamphetamine-dependent individuals in rural South Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Kimber L; DeSantis, Stacia M; Simpson, Annie N; Tolliver, Bryan K; McRae-Clark, Aimee L; Saladin, Michael E; Baker, Nathaniel L; Wagner, Mark T; Brady, Kathleen T

    2011-01-01

    Inconsistencies in reports on methamphetamine (METH) associated cognitive dysfunction may be attributed, at least in part, to the diversity of study sample features (eg, clinical and demographic characteristics). The current study assessed cognitive function in a METH-dependent population from rural South Carolina, and the impact of demographic and clinical characteristics on performance. Seventy-one male (28.2%) and female (71.8%) METH-dependent subjects were administered a battery of neurocognitive tests including the Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM), Shipley Institute of Living Scale, Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT), Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT), Grooved Pegboard Test, California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT), and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). Demographic and clinical characteristics (eg, gender, frequency of METH use) were examined as predictors of performance. Subjects scored significantly lower than expected on one test of attention and one of fine motor function, but performed adequately on all other tests. There were no predictors of performance on attention; however, more frequent METH use was associated with better performance for males and worse for females on fine motor skills. The METH-dependent individuals in this population exhibit very limited cognitive impairment. The marked differences in education, Intellectual Quotient (IQ), and gender in our sample when compared to the published literature may contribute to these findings. Characterization of the impact of clinical and/or demographic features on cognitive deficits could be important in guiding the development of treatment interventions. © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  15. Quality of Life in Patients With Schizophrenia in China: Relationships Among Demographic Characteristics, Psychosocial Variables, and Symptom Severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Chunfeng; Yu, Liping

    2017-08-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine the relationships among demographic characteristics, psychosocial variables, symptom severity, and quality of life (QOL), and the way these variables affect QOL in patients with schizophrenia living in Hubei, China. A convenience sample of 178 individuals with schizophrenia participated. The results suggest that the Schizophrenia Quality of Life Scale was positively and statistically significantly correlated with employment status (r = 0.232, p empowerment (r = 0.692; p empowerment (accounting for 22.1% of variance) was the best positive predictor, whereas symptom severity (accounting for 7.6% of variance) was the best negative predictor of QOL in patients with schizophrenia. Implications for future research and practice are discussed. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 55(8), 48-54.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  16. Identifying Demographic Variables Influencing the Nature of Science (NOS) Conceptions of Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaman, Ayhan

    2017-01-01

    In this survey research study, the views of practicing teachers in select aspects of NOS were investigated in connection with the effects of several variables (teaching discipline, gender, education level, teaching experience and regional work location). The instrument used to collect data was an adapted version of "Scientific Epistemological…

  17. The relevance of socio-demographic and occupational variables for the assessment of work-related stress risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinaccio, Alessandro; Ferrante, Pierpaolo; Corfiati, Marisa; Di Tecco, Cristina; Rondinone, Bruna M; Bonafede, Michela; Ronchetti, Matteo; Persechino, Benedetta; Iavicoli, Sergio

    2013-12-10

    Work-related stress is widely recognized as one of the major challenges to occupational health and safety. The correlation between work-related stress risk factors and physical health outcomes is widely acknowledged. This study investigated socio-demographic and occupational variables involved in perceived risk of work-related stress. The Italian version of the Health and Safety Executive Management Standards Indicator Tool was used in a large survey to examine the relationship between work-related stress risks and workers' demographic and occupational characteristics. Out of 8,527 questionnaires distributed among workers (from 75 organizations) 6,378 were returned compiled (74.8%); a set of mixed effects models were adopted to test single and combined effects of the variables on work-related stress risk. Female workers reported lower scores on control and peer support and more negative perceptions of relationships and change at work than male workers, most of them with full-time contracts. Age, job seniority, and educational level appeared positively correlated with control at work, but negatively with job demands. Fixed-term workers had positive perceptions regarding job demands and relationships, but more difficulties about their role at work than permanent workers. A commuting time longer than one hour and shift work appeared to be associated with higher levels of risk factors for work-related stress (except for role), the latter having more negative effects, increasing with age. The findings suggest that the assessment and management of work-related stress risk should consider specific socio-demographic and occupational risk factors such as gender, age, educational level, job status, shift work, commuting time, job contracts.

  18. Risk adjustment models for interhospital comparison of CS rates using Robson's ten group classification system and other socio-demographic and clinical variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colais, Paola; Fantini, Maria P; Fusco, Danilo; Carretta, Elisa; Stivanello, Elisa; Lenzi, Jacopo; Pieri, Giulia; Perucci, Carlo A

    2012-06-21

    Caesarean section (CS) rate is a quality of health care indicator frequently used at national and international level. The aim of this study was to assess whether adjustment for Robson's Ten Group Classification System (TGCS), and clinical and socio-demographic variables of the mother and the fetus is necessary for inter-hospital comparisons of CS rates. The study population includes 64,423 deliveries in Emilia-Romagna between January 1, 2003 and December 31, 2004, classified according to theTGCS. Poisson regression was used to estimate crude and adjusted hospital relative risks of CS compared to a reference category. Analyses were carried out in the overall population and separately according to the Robson groups (groups I, II, III, IV and V-X combined). Adjusted relative risks (RR) of CS were estimated using two risk-adjustment models; the first (M1) including the TGCS group as the only adjustment factor; the second (M2) including in addition demographic and clinical confounders identified using a stepwise selection procedure. Percentage variations between crude and adjusted RRs by hospital were calculated to evaluate the confounding effect of covariates. The percentage variations from crude to adjusted RR proved to be similar in M1 and M2 model. However, stratified analyses by Robson's classification groups showed that residual confounding for clinical and demographic variables was present in groups I (nulliparous, single, cephalic, ≥37 weeks, spontaneous labour) and III (multiparous, excluding previous CS, single, cephalic, ≥37 weeks, spontaneous labour) and IV (multiparous, excluding previous CS, single, cephalic, ≥37 weeks, induced or CS before labour) and to a minor extent in groups II (nulliparous, single, cephalic, ≥37 weeks, induced or CS before labour) and IV (multiparous, excluding previous CS, single, cephalic, ≥37 weeks, induced or CS before labour). The TGCS classification is useful for inter-hospital comparison of CS section rates, but

  19. Money, Age and Happiness: Association of Subjective Wellbeing with Socio-Demographic Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Vera-Villarroel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la relación entre felicidad y variables socio demográficas (edad, sexo, estatus socioeconómico, nivel educativo y su asociación con bienestar subjetivo en una muestra latinoamericana encontrando evidencia empírica controversial de su relación. Se encuestó un total de 520 persona (300 mujeres y 220 hombres con edades entre los 18 y 29 años, con una media de 21.26 años, y una desviación estándar de 2.47 quienes respondieron la escala de felicidad subjetiva. La variable felicidad fue categorizada, y los participantes fueron clasificados en dos grupos: felices y no felices. Se analizaron los datos con un Análisis de Componentes Principales y Regresiones Logísticas, los principales resultados muestran que las variables que mejor caracterizan los niveles de felicidad son la edad y estatus socioeconómico. Puntualmente, los resultados indican que una mayor edad predice bajos niveles de felicidad. Por otra parte, a un mayor estatus socioeconómico mayor felicidad reportada. No se encontraron diferencias entre los géneros de los participantes.

  20. Associations of commuting to school and work with demographic variables and with weight status in eight European countries: The ENERGY-cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Te Velde, Saskia J; Haraldsen, Eli; Vik, Frøydis N; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Jan, Natasa; Kovacs, Eva; Moreno, Luis A; Dössegger, Alain; Manios, Yannis; Brug, Johannes; Bere, Elling

    2017-06-01

    This study aims to assess the prevalence of different modes of commuting to school and work for 10-12year-olds and their parents; to assess the associations with demographic variables (country, sex, parental education and ethnicity) and with weight status in eight European countries. As part of the ENERGY project a cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2010 in which modes of commuting and socio-demographic variables for children (N=7903) and one of their parents (n=6455) were measured by questionnaires. Children's weight and height were objectively measured; parents self-reported their weight and height. Logistic multilevel regression analyses assessed the associations between mode of commuting and overweight. Differences between countries and differences in mode of commuting according to demographic variables were tested using χ(2)-test and Marascuilo's Post-hoc analysis. There were marked differences between countries, especially regarding cycling to school, which was common in The Netherlands and Norway and rare in Greece and Spain. Demographic variables were associated with mode of commuting in children and parents. Mode of commuting was not associated with being overweight in children, after adjustment for demographic variables. Bicycling to work, but not other modes of commuting, was significantly inversely associated with being overweight among parents (OR=0.74 (95%CI 0.57-0.97)). Interventions targeting active commuting may promote cycling, and should take into account the differences regarding demographic variables. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Socio-demographic and clinical variables associated with psychological distress 1 and 3 years after breast cancer diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonsson, Sven; Olsson, Erik; Hursti, Timo; Lundh, Marie Høyer; Johansson, Birgitta

    2016-09-01

    A large group of women (20-30 %) report psychological distress shortly after breast cancer diagnosis, and some experience continued or increased symptoms over time. The aim of this study was to investigate socio-demographic and clinical variables associated with sustained psychological distress in this patient group. Women with breast cancer (n = 833) completed self-report questionnaires regarding socio-demographic and clinical variables shortly after (T1) and 3 years after diagnosis (T2) while data on illness severity were collected from a quality register. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale was used as a measure of psychological distress at both time points. The number of participants who reported elevated levels of anxiety was 231 (28 %) at T1 and 231 (28 %) at T2 while elevated depressive symptoms was reported by 119 (14 %) women at T1 and 92 (11 %) at T2. Despite non-significant differences in mean scores over time, 91 (15 %) participants reported increased anxiety symptoms and 47 (7 %) reported increased depressive symptoms. Poor financial situation, lack of social support, previous psychiatric treatment, and high levels of fatigue were associated with both anxiety and depressive symptoms. Reporting high levels of fatigue was the variable most strongly associated with increased psychological distress over time. Most participants reported decreased psychological distress over time, but there were subgroups of women who experienced sustained or increased symptoms of anxiety or depression. Participants with poor financial status, previous psychological problems, or high levels of fatigue may be at increased risk of psychological distress. Such individuals may benefit most from psychosocial interventions.

  2. Socio-Demographic Variables and Successful Aging of the Angolan Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Galiana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The proportion of elderly people is growing faster than any other age group. Amongst them, the group of oldest old is indeed the segment of the elderly population with the fastest growth rate. The increase in the proportion of elderly in the Angolan population makes research on this area badly needed. Within the theoretical framework of successful aging, the study aims to test for sociodemographic group differences in perceived health, life satisfaction, and social relations in Angolan elderly. The dependent variables are three of the components of what has been called successful aging. Data came from a cross-sectional survey of elderly people living in Luanda. 1003 Angolan elderly were surveyed on sociodemographic information, perceived health, life satisfaction, and social support. MANOVAs were calculated to test for mean differences in the dependent variables. Results permit to conclude that the factors associated with the largest differences on the Angolan elderly’s quality of life and social relations were age (becoming oldest old and institutionalization. The interactions of several factors with age pointed out that the oldest old were clearly a group in which the decreased quality of life due to becoming oldest old could not be compensated by other factors, as it was the case in the group of young old.

  3. Modeling geographic and demographic variability in residential concentrations of environmental tobacco smoke using national data sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahine, Teresa; Schultz, Bradley; Zartarian, Valerie; Subramanian, S V; Spengler, John; Hammitt, James; Levy, Jonathan I

    2011-01-01

    Despite substantial attention toward environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure, previous studies have not provided adequate information to apply broadly within community-scale risk assessments. We aim to estimate residential concentrations of particulate matter (PM) from ETS in sociodemographic and geographic subpopulations in the United States for the purpose of screening-level risk assessment. We developed regression models to characterize smoking using the 2006-7 Current Population Survey--Tobacco Use Supplement, and linked these with air exchange models using the 2007 American Housing Survey. Using repeated logistic and log-linear models (n = 1000), we investigated whether household variables from the 2000 United States census can predict exposure likelihood and ETS-PM concentration in exposed households. We estimated a mean ETS-PM concentration of 16 μg/m(3) among the 17% of homes with non-zero exposure (3 μg/m(3) overall), with substantial variability among homes. The highest exposure likelihood was in the South and Midwest regions, rural populations, and low-income households. Concentrations in exposed households were highest in the South and demonstrated a non-monotonic association with income, related to air exchange rate patterns. We provide estimates of ETS-PM concentration distributions for different subpopulations in the United States, providing a starting point for communities interested in characterizing aggregate and cumulative risks from indoor pollutants.

  4. Who theorizes age? The "socio-demographic variables" device and age-period-cohort analysis in the rhetoric of survey research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rughiniș, Cosima; Humă, Bogdana

    2015-12-01

    In this paper we argue that quantitative survey-based social research essentializes age, through specific rhetorical tools. We outline the device of 'socio-demographic variables' and we discuss its argumentative functions, looking at scientific survey-based analyses of adult scientific literacy, in the Public Understanding of Science research field. 'Socio-demographics' are virtually omnipresent in survey literature: they are, as a rule, used and discussed as bundles of independent variables, requiring little, if any, theoretical and measurement attention. 'Socio-demographics' are rhetorically effective through their common-sense richness of meaning and inferential power. We identify their main argumentation functions as 'structure building', 'pacification', and 'purification'. Socio-demographics are used to uphold causal vocabularies, supporting the transmutation of the descriptive statistical jargon of 'effects' and 'explained variance' into 'explanatory factors'. Age can also be studied statistically as a main variable of interest, through the age-period-cohort (APC) disambiguation technique. While this approach has generated interesting findings, it did not mitigate the reductionism that appears when treating age as a socio-demographic variable. By working with age as a 'socio-demographic variable', quantitative researchers convert it (inadvertently) into a quasi-biological feature, symmetrical, as regards analytical treatment, with pathogens in epidemiological research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Transients drive the demographic dynamics of plant populations in variable environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McDonald, Jenni L; Stott, Iain; Townley, Stuart;

    2016-01-01

    clear patterns related to growth form. We find a surprising tendency for plant populations to boom rather than bust in response to temporal changes in vital rates and that stochastic growth rates increase with increasing tendency to boom. Synthesis. Transient dynamics contribute significantly......The dynamics of structured plant populations in variable environments can be decomposed into the ‘asymptotic’ growth contributed by vital rates, and ‘transient’ growth caused by deviation from stable stage structure. We apply this framework to a large, global data base of longitudinal studies...... of projection matrix models for plant populations. We ask, what is the relative contribution of transient boom and bust to the dynamic trajectories of plant populations in stochastic environments? Is this contribution patterned by phylogeny, growth form or the number of life stages per population and per...

  6. The relationship between demographic variables, productivity, and staff burnout among staffs of a hospital located in Ilam city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Kohnavard

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background­ and objectives : Burnout is one of the causes of reduced job performance and productivity, this syndrome in jobs who deal directly with people are more than other professions may be viewed. This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between demographic variables, efficiency, and staff burnout in a hospital. Methods : In this descriptive-analytical study all 100 employees of the hospital were evaluated . People by demographic information , Maslach Burnout questionnaire (MBI and productivity questionnaire were studied . Data analysis was performed using descriptive and inferential statistics . Results : Findings showed there was a significant correlation between the frequency of emotional exhaustion and reduced personal performance scale (the scale of burnout with productivity. Burnout in emotional exhaustion scale for 41 to 50 years and reduction of operation scale for 20 to 30 years old had the highest score . Metamorphosis and efficiency in terms of significant differences between the study found , and those with a bachelor's degree and those with postgraduate highest grade metamorphic and more than had the highest productivity . Respondents with less than 8 hours daily working hours are significantly higher productivity . Metamorphosis in nurses has higher scale scores . Productivity in anesthesia was significantly higher than other occupational groups. Conclusion : According to different levels of burnout and its damaging effects on the health of employees , lower productivity and quality of patient care , while more research on the causes of light , especially in institutional factors . It is suggested to adopt the methods of adjusting and preventive action to reduce this phenomenon .

  7. The interplay between socio-demographic variables, nutritional and immune status of HIV-positive/AIDS patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguntibeju, O O; van den Heever, W M J; Van Schalkwyk, F E

    2007-10-15

    This study examined the association between socio-demographic factors (educational level and employment status) and the nutritional and immune status of 35 HIV-positive/AIDS patients at baseline. Assessment of selected macro-and micronutrient dietary intake was done using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Evaluation of anthropometric profiles (body mass index, waist-hip ratio and percentage of body fat) was also evaluated. A questionnaire was applied to obtain information on the educational level and employment status of the patients. The CD4+ T-cell counts and viral loads of the same patients were determined using the flow cytometry and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) method respectively. An association between educational level and dietary intake was significant (p 0.05) association between the two socio-demographic variables (education and employment) and anthropometric profiles. The association between education, employment and CD4+ T-cell count was not significant (p > 0.05). The viral load showed a significant (p nutritional and immune status. It is suggested that the results of this study should be interpreted with caution. Further studies with larger sample sizes are recommended.

  8. Demographic and placement variables associated with overweight and obesity in children in long-term foster care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiderman, Janet U; Arnold-Clark, Janet S; Smith, Caitlin; Duan, Lei; Fuentes, Jorge

    2013-11-01

    Overweight and obesity is a growing problem for children in foster care. This study describes the prevalence of overweight and obesity in an urban, ethnic minority population of children ages 2-19 in long-term foster care (N = 312) in Los Angeles, California. It also investigates whether demographics or placement settings are related to high body mass index. The estimates of prevalence of overweight/obesity (≥85th percentile) and obesity (≥95th percentile) were presented for gender, age, ethnicity, and placement type. Multiple logistic regression was used to examine potential associations between demographic and placement variables and weight status. The prevalence of overweight/obesity was almost 40 % and obesity was 23 % for the study population. Children placed in a group home had the highest prevalence of overweight/obesity (60 %) and obesity (43 %) compared to other types of placement. Within this study, older children (ages 12-19) were more likely to be overweight/obese than normal weight compared to children between 2 and 5 years old when controlling for gender, ethnicity and placement (OR = 2.10, CI = 1.14-3.87). These findings suggest that older age and long-term foster care in general may be risk factors for obesity. Child welfare agencies and health care providers need to work together to train caregivers with children in long-term foster care in obesity treatment interventions and obesity prevention strategies.

  9. [An association between forms of coping and the socio-demographic variables of people on chronic hemodialysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolin, Daniela Comelis; Pace, Ana Emilia; Kusumota, Luciana; Haas, Vanderlei

    2011-10-01

    This sectional study was performed with the objective to verify the association between the forms of coping used by people on chronic hemodialysis and their socio-demographic variables. A semi-structured instrument and the Folkman and Lazarus' Coping Strategies Inventory were used. The sample consisted of 107 adults, mostly male (62.4%), on ambulatory hemodialysis for over six months. The most commonly referred forms of coping were related to the positive reevaluation factor (coping centered on emotions); with the highest mean scores among women for all factors and for people who reported having a partner, living with their families and receiving support in their treatment, and the highest scores were common for the factors control, self-control, and social support. Knowing the forms of coping prepares nurses to reinforce or seek, with patients on hemodialysis, choosing positive forms of coping and propose actions that permit patients to develop adaptive mechanisms.

  10. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PSYCHOPATHOLOGY & SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC AND CLINICAL VARIABLES IN COPD AND BRONCHIAL ASTHMA: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayank

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This is a cross sectional comparative case control study assessing the Relationship between psychopathology and socio demographic and clinical variables in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and Bronchial Asthma in comparison to healthy individuals. The investigation reveals that there is psychopathology in all the three groups. The psychopathology is significantly more in patients with COPD. Psychopathology in COPD patients is related to age, duration, severity of illness and steroid medication. It is found that psychopathology in bronchial asthma patients are more than those of healthy controls but there is no significant difference. The psychopathology is significantly related to relate to age, marital status, occupational status, and smoking. Duration severity of illness and steroid medication.

  11. Associations among self-reported diabetes, nutritional status, and socio-demographic variables in community-dwelling older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Clara Moretto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to describe relationships between self-reported diabetes mellitus and its treatment, according to demographic and socioeconomic data, as well as indicators of nutritional status in community-dwelling older adults. Methods: This is a population-based and a cross-sectional study derived from the multicentric survey "Frailty in Brazilian Elderly". The random sample consisted of 881 community-dwelling older adults aged 65 years and older from the city of Campinas. The self-reported variables were: age, gender, family income (minimum salaries, education (years of education; and absolute data (yes versus no regarding unintentional weight loss and weight gain, diabetes, and its treatment. Anthropometric variables were collected by trained examiners following classic protocols. Body mass index was classified as: underweight 1.00 and >0.90. Results: The variables most associated with diabetes were obesity (OR=2.19, abdominal adiposity (OR=2.97, and unintentional weight loss (OR=3.38. The lack of diabetes treatment was associated with advanced age (p=0.027, lower educational level (p=0.005, and low metabolic risk (p=0.004. Conclusion: Self-reported diabetes was associated with obesity but mostly with abdominal adiposity and unintentional weight loss. Not being treated for diabetes mellitus was associated with advanced age, lower levels of education, and lower abdominal adiposity.

  12. A generic taxonomy of shopping motives among hypermarkets (hyper-stores customers and the relationship with demographic variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dhurup

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the study: Noting that the motive for shopping is located within the paradigm of buying behaviour of consumers; the study seeks to complement existing literature by examining whether a configuration of shopper motives could be developed, thereby revealing taxonomy of hypermarket (hyper-store shoppers. In addition the study seeks to establish whether shopping motives is shaped by demographic variables. Problem statement: Although the motive for shopping and its antecedents has been approached from various perspectives, it has been accentuated in literature that traditional utilitarian aspects of product acquisition explanations may not fully reflect the totality of a shopping experience. With such affirmations, shopping may be harmonised with hedonic activities when considered within a hypermarket/hyper-store South African context. Methodology: The study adopted a conceptual framework for identifying relatable factors (using exploratory factor analysis that influence consumer motivation for shopping within hypermarket (hyper-store environments. Reliability and validity of the scale was established. Findings: A 13 item scale was developed. Shopping seems to be both a utilitarian and a hedonic consumption experience with three auxiliary categories of hedonic motivations, namely diversion, recreational and sensory stimulated shoppers. In examining the motives for shopping and demographic variables, diversion appears to vary with levels of education. Value of the research: Enhancing one's understanding of the "softer" issues of shopping, namely diversion, recreational and sensory stimulated shoppers is essential, as they represent possible differentiating factors in a highly competitive and often commoditised retail market. Acquaintance of distinct shopper segments is useful for retailers in assembling marketing communication strategies and designing appealing store environments. Conclusion: Whilst shopper typologies may hold several

  13. The relationship between dyadic adjustment with demographic and clinical variables in infertile couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurdan Eren Bodur

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study it was aimed to assess and evaluate the impact of the levels of dyadic adjustment in infertile couples on stress related with infertility and marital adjustment. The study included 104 couples with primary or secondary infertility and 44 healthy couples with children for the control group. Control group was given the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS, Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS and Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS. Infertile group was given HADS, DAS, MSPSS and also Fertility Problem Inventory. Women in infertile couples reported greater psychological symptoms and more decreased marital adjustment than men in infertile couples; but the couples did not show any significant difference with those in control groups regarding these parameters. It was determined that, in general, while marital adjustment in infertile couples increases, depression and anxiety levels decrease. These results showed that psychosocial problems in infertile couples should be evaluated with specific scales. Psychosocial support which will be given to infertile couples and motivating social support systems while providing this service would have positive effects especially on men. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(1.000: 51-62

  14. Taylor Series Trajectory Calculations Including Oblateness Effects and Variable Atmospheric Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, James R.

    2011-01-01

    Taylor series integration is implemented in NASA Glenn's Spacecraft N-body Analysis Program, and compared head-to-head with the code's existing 8th- order Runge-Kutta Fehlberg time integration scheme. This paper focuses on trajectory problems that include oblateness and/or variable atmospheric density. Taylor series is shown to be significantly faster and more accurate for oblateness problems up through a 4x4 field, with speedups ranging from a factor of 2 to 13. For problems with variable atmospheric density, speedups average 24 for atmospheric density alone, and average 1.6 to 8.2 when density and oblateness are combined.

  15. Associations between demographic, disease related, and treatment pathway related variables and health related quality of life in primary care patients with coronary heart disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Coronory heart disease (CHD) is a common medical problem worldwide that demands shared care of general practitioners and cardiologists for concerned patients. In order to improve the cooperation between both medical specialists and to optimize evidence-based care, a treatment pathway for patients with CHD was developed and evaluated in a feasibility study according to the recommendation for the development and evaluation of complex interventions of the British Medical Research Council (MRC). In the context of this feasibility study the objective of the present research was to investigate the contributions of different disease related (e.g. prior myocardial infarction), pathway related (e.g. basic medication) and demographic variables on patients` perceived health related quality of life (HRQoL) as a relevant and widely used outcome measure in cardiac populations. Methods Data assessing demographic, disease and pathway related variables of CHD patients included in the study were collected in a quasi-experimental design with three study arms (pathway developers, users, control group) via case record forms and questionnaires at baseline and after 6 and 12 (intervention groups), and 9 months (control group), respectively after the initial implementation on GP level. Additionally, at the same measuring points the CHD patients participating in the study were interviewed by phone regarding their perceived HRQoL, measured with the EuroQol EQ-5D as an index-based health questionnaire. Due to the hierarchical structure of the data, we performed cross-sectional and longitudinal linear mixed models to investigate the impact of disease related, pathway related and demographic variables on patients` perceived HRQoL. Results Of 334 initially recruited patients with CHD, a total of 290 were included in our analysis. This was an average 13.2% dropout rate from baseline assessment to the 12-month follow-up. At all assessment points, patients` HRQoL was associated with a

  16. Associations between demographic, disease related, and treatment pathway related variables and health related quality of life in primary care patients with coronary heart disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kramer Lena

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coronory heart disease (CHD is a common medical problem worldwide that demands shared care of general practitioners and cardiologists for concerned patients. In order to improve the cooperation between both medical specialists and to optimize evidence-based care, a treatment pathway for patients with CHD was developed and evaluated in a feasibility study according to the recommendation for the development and evaluation of complex interventions of the British Medical Research Council (MRC. In the context of this feasibility study the objective of the present research was to investigate the contributions of different disease related (e.g. prior myocardial infarction, pathway related (e.g. basic medication and demographic variables on patients` perceived health related quality of life (HRQoL as a relevant and widely used outcome measure in cardiac populations. Methods Data assessing demographic, disease and pathway related variables of CHD patients included in the study were collected in a quasi-experimental design with three study arms (pathway developers, users, control group via case record forms and questionnaires at baseline and after 6 and 12 (intervention groups, and 9 months (control group, respectively after the initial implementation on GP level. Additionally, at the same measuring points the CHD patients participating in the study were interviewed by phone regarding their perceived HRQoL, measured with the EuroQol EQ-5D as an index-based health questionnaire. Due to the hierarchical structure of the data, we performed cross-sectional and longitudinal linear mixed models to investigate the impact of disease related, pathway related and demographic variables on patients` perceived HRQoL. Results Of 334 initially recruited patients with CHD, a total of 290 were included in our analysis. This was an average 13.2% dropout rate from baseline assessment to the 12-month follow-up. At all assessment points, patients` HRQo

  17. A longitudinal study on emotional adjustment of sarcoma patients: the determinant role of demographic, clinical and coping variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes, T; Pereira, M; Simões, M R; Canavarro, M C

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined change on emotional distress of sarcoma patients from the diagnostic to treatment phases, the distinct trajectories of adjustment and the influence of demographic, clinical and coping variables on anxiety and depression. Thirty-six sarcoma patients completed questionnaires on emotional distress (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale) and coping strategies (Brief Cope) at time of diagnosis, and again during treatment. No significant change in emotional distress levels was found from diagnostic to treatment phase, with mean anxiety and depression scores remaining below the clinical range. Over time, 52.8% and 66.7% of patients maintained non-clinical anxious and depressive symptoms respectively, and 25% and 11.1% remained with clinical anxiety and depression. Living with partner, less use of humour and more denial were associated with high emotional distress at time of diagnosis and during treatments, and high levels of distress at baseline were predictive of poorer emotional adjustment during treatments. Although sarcoma patients, in general, seem to exhibit good psychological adjustment, there is a significant minority that requires mental health services in order to help decrease their emotional distress following the diagnosis, and prevent psychological difficulties during treatments. Our findings are an important contribution to understanding the psychological adjustment of patients with a specific and rare type of cancer.

  18. Influence of demographic and metabolic variables on forearm blood flow and vascular conductance in individuals without overt heart disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago E Sartori

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Thiago E Sartori1, Rafael AB Nunes1, Gisela T da Silva2, Sandra C da Silva1, Maria UPB Rondon1, Carlos E Negrão1, Alfredo J Mansur11Heart Institute (InCor, University of São Paulo Medical School, São Paulo, Brazil; 2Institute of Mathematics and Statistics, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, BrazilPurpose: Vascular reactivity is involved in the regulation of vascular function either in normal conditions or in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular diseases. We tested the hypothesis that vascular reactivity evaluated by forearm blood flow may vary according to demographic and metabolic variables in a cohort of individuals without any evidence of heart disease after clinical examination.Subjects and methods: We studied 186 individuals (mean age 41.4 years, standard deviation 13.1 years; 95 (51% men and 91 (49% women. We investigated forearm blood flow and vascular conductance with venous occlusion plethysmography at baseline, during handgrip isometric exercise and during the recovery phase. Demographic and laboratory data were collected. Statistical analysis was performed with mixed linear models appropriate for repeated measurements.Results: Mean forearm blood flow values in the different study conditions ranged between 1.7 ± 0.47 mL.min−1.100 mL−1 of tissue and 2.82 ± 1.13 mL.min−1.100 mL−1 of tissue. Forearm blood flow was higher in men than in women (P < 0.005 and increased as the heart rate increased during handgrip maneuver (P < 0.0001. Serum triglyceride levels were inversely related to forearm blood flow at baseline, during isometric exercise and recovery phase (P = 0.0209. Body mass index was inversely related to forearm vascular conductance at baseline, during isometric exercise and recovery phase (P = 0.0223.Conclusion: Our findings suggest that forearm blood flow and vascular conductance as a surrogate of the vascular function may be influenced by gender, heart rate, serum triglyceride levels and body mass index in

  19. The Role of Chance Events in the School-to-Work Transition: The Influence of Demographic, Personality and Career Development Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschi, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Chance events are considered important in career development, yet little empirical research is available on their predictors and consequences. The present study investigated socio-demographic (gender, nationality, school-type), personality (openness, locus of control) and career development variables (career decidedness, career planning) in…

  20. Lecturers' Job Satisfaction in a Public Tertiary Institution in Singapore: Ambivalent and Non-Ambivalent Relationships between Job Satisfaction and Demographic Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Emily Pakivathy; Phua, Seok Kheng

    2011-01-01

    Increasing lecturer turnover rates and fewer qualified recruits choosing a career in academia threaten the integrity of the tertiary education system in Singapore. The purpose of this study was to ascertain the relationship between lecturers' job satisfaction levels in a public tertiary institution and selected demographic variables. The study…

  1. Academic, Socio-Emotional and Demographic Characteristics of Adolescents Involved in Traditional Bullying, Cyberbullying, or Both: Looking at Variables and Persons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomontos-Kountouri, Olga; Tsagkaridis, Konstantinos; Gradinger, Petra; Strohmeier, Dagmar

    2017-01-01

    The present paper (1) examined variables, which could predict traditional bullying, cyberbullying, traditional victimization and cybervictimization and (2) looked at persons to examine whether academic, socio-emotional and demographic characteristics differed between traditional, cyber and mixed bullies, victims and bully-victims. A sample of…

  2. How to include the variability of TMS responses in simulations: a speech mapping case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Geeter, N.; Lioumis, P.; Laakso, A.; Crevecoeur, G.; Dupré, L.

    2016-11-01

    When delivered over a specific cortical site, TMS can temporarily disrupt the ongoing process in that area. This allows mapping of speech-related areas for preoperative evaluation purposes. We numerically explore the observed variability of TMS responses during a speech mapping experiment performed with a neuronavigation system. We selected four cases with very small perturbations in coil position and orientation. In one case (E) a naming error occurred, while in the other cases (NEA, B, C) the subject appointed the images as smoothly as without TMS. A realistic anisotropic head model was constructed of the subject from T1-weighted and diffusion-weighted MRI. The induced electric field distributions were computed, associated to the coil parameters retrieved from the neuronavigation system. Finally, the membrane potentials along relevant white matter fibre tracts, extracted from DTI-based tractography, were computed using a compartmental cable equation. While only minor differences could be noticed between the induced electric field distributions of the four cases, computing the corresponding membrane potentials revealed different subsets of tracts were activated. A single tract was activated for all coil positions. Another tract was only triggered for case E. NEA induced action potentials in 13 tracts, while NEB stimulated 11 tracts and NEC one. The calculated results are certainly sensitive to the coil specifications, demonstrating the observed variability in this study. However, even though a tract connecting Broca’s with Wernicke’s area is only triggered for the error case, further research is needed on other study cases and on refining the neural model with synapses and network connections. Case- and subject-specific modelling that includes both electromagnetic fields and neuronal activity enables demonstration of the variability in TMS experiments and can capture the interaction with complex neural networks.

  3. The correlation between effective factors of e-learning and demographic variables in a post-graduate program of virtual medical education in Tehran University of Medical Sciences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farnoosh Golband

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available E-learning as an educational approach has been adopted by diverse educational and academic centers worldwide as it facilitates learning in facing the challenges of the new era in education. Considering the significance of virtual education and its growing practice, it is of vital importance to examine its components for promoting and maintaining success. This analytical cross-sectional study was an attempt to determine the relationship between four factors of content, educator, learner and system, and effective e-learning in terms of demographic variables, including age, gender, educational background, and marital status of postgraduate master's students (MSc studying at virtual faculty of Tehran University of Medical Sciences. The sample was selected by census (n=60; a demographic data gathering tool and a researcher-made questionnaire were used to collect data. The face and content validity of both tools were confirmed and the results were analyzed by descriptive statistics (frequency, percentile, standard deviation and mean and inferential statistics (independent t-test, Scheffe's test, one-way ANOVA and Pearson correlation test by using SPSS (V.16. The present study revealed that There was no statistically significant relationship between age and marital status and effective e-learning (P>0.05; whereas, there was a statistically significant difference between gender and educational background with effective e-learning (P<0.05. Knowing the extent to which these factors can influence effective e-learning can help managers and designers to make the right decisions about educational components of e-learning, i.e. content, educator, system and learner and improve them to create a more productive learning environment for learners.

  4. Survey the relationship between mental health statuses with safety behavior, occupational accident and demographic variables among workers: A case study in publication industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Khandan,

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & objective: Physical and mental health of workers is one of the important factors affecting their job performance. The number of fatal occupational accidents in our country is high. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between mental health and safety behaviors, occupational accidents and demographic variables in a publishing industry in one of the central provinces of Iran, 2014. Methods: In this cross-sectional study all operational employees (98 persons were included. Researchers developed a demographics questionnaire, Goldberg general health-28, safety behavior checklist and self-reported accidents were tools to gather the required data. Statistical analysis such as independent T-test, ANOVA and Pearson correlation were used for data evaluation by SPSS V20. Results: All workers were men and Mean of age was 41.79 also its standard deviation was 6.77. Studied personnel have been experienced occupational accident in a range of 0-5 cases. As well as, 80.75% of total observed behaviors (800 were safe. The mean score of GHQ test equals to 50.38±10.39 that was over the cut point (23. There was no significant relationship between mental health with safety behaviors (p>0.05. Also, significant level of its correlation with occupational accident was calculated as 0.08. Conclusion: Workers mental health status was unacceptable. Although, work condition based on the occupational accident and safety behavior has not showed caution situation, but the ABC model (Activators-Behaviors-Consequences can help to promote personnel behaviors and control accidents.

  5. Prevalence and intensity of infections of Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura and associated socio-demographic variables in four rural Honduran communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith HM

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Between January and March 1998, a cross-sectional survey was carried out in four rural communities in Honduras, Central America. We examined the prevalence and intensity of Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura infections among 240 fecal specimens, and the association between selected socio-demographic variables and infection for 62 households. The overall prevalence of A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura was 45% (95% CI 39.0-51.9 and 38% (95% CI 31.8-44.4 respectively. The most intense infections for Ascaris and Trichuris were found in children aged 2-12 years old. By univariate analysis variables associated with infections of A. lumbricoides were: number of children 2-5 years old (p=0.001, level of formal education of respondents (p=0.01, reported site of defecation of children in households (p=0.02, households with children who had a recent history of diarrhea (p=0.002, and the location of households (p=0.03. Variables associated with both A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura infection included: number of children 6-14 years old (p=0.01, p=0.04, respectively, ownership of a latrine (p=0.04, p=0.03, respectively and coinfection with either helminth (p=0.001, p=0.001, respectively. By multivariate analysis the number of children 2-5 years living in the household, (p=0.01, odds ratio (OR=22.2, children with a recent history of diarrhea (p=0.0, OR=39.8, and infection of household members with T. trichiura (p=0.02, OR=16.0 were associated with A. lumbricoides infection. The number of children 6-14 years old in the household was associated with both A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura infection (p=0.04, p=0.01, OR=19.2, OR=5.2, respectively.

  6. Prevalence and intensity of infections of Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura and associated socio-demographic variables in four rural Honduran communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, H; Dekaminsky, R; Niwas, S; Soto, R; Jolly, P

    2001-04-01

    Between January and March 1998, a cross-sectional survey was carried out in four rural communities in Honduras, Central America. We examined the prevalence and intensity of Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura infections among 240 fecal specimens, and the association between selected socio-demographic variables and infection for 62 households. The overall prevalence of A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura was 45% (95% CI 39.0-51.9) and 38% (95% CI 31.8-44.4) respectively. The most intense infections for Ascaris and Trichuris were found in children aged 2-12 years old. By univariate analysis variables associated with infections of A. lumbricoides were: number of children 2-5 years old (p=0.001), level of formal education of respondents (p=0.01), reported site of defecation of children in households (p=0.02), households with children who had a recent history of diarrhea (p=0.002), and the location of households (p=0.03). Variables associated with both A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura infection included: number of children 6-14 years old (p=0.01, p=0.04, respectively), ownership of a latrine (p=0.04, p=0.03, respectively) and coinfection with either helminth (p=0.001, p=0.001, respectively). By multivariate analysis the number of children 2-5 years living in the household, (p=0.01, odds ratio (OR)=22.2), children with a recent history of diarrhea (p=0.0, OR=39.8), and infection of household members with T. trichiura (p=0.02, OR=16.0) were associated with A. lumbricoides infection. The number of children 6-14 years old in the household was associated with both A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura infection (p=0.04, p=0.01, OR=19.2, OR=5.2, respectively).

  7. The Effects of Key Demographic Variables on Markers' Perceived Ease of Use and Acceptance of Onscreen Marking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zi; Coniam, David

    2014-01-01

    The current study aims to investigate the effects of three key demographic factors -- the language of marking, gender and age -- on markers' reactions to onscreen marking (OSM). A total of 1743 markers completed a post-marking questionnaire consisting of two previously validated scales, i.e. "Ease of Use in the OSM Environment" and…

  8. Statistically Non-significant Papers in Environmental Health Studies included more Outcome Variables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pentti Nieminen; Khaled Abass; Kirsi Vhkanga; Arja Rautio

    2015-01-01

    Objective The number of analyzed outcome variables is important in the statistical analysis and interpretation of research findings. This study investigated published papers in the field of environmental health studies. We aimed to examine whether differences in the number of reported outcome variables exist between papers with non-significant findings compared to those with significant findings. Articles on the maternal exposure to mercury and child development were used as examples. Methods Articles published between 1995 and 2013 focusing on the relationships between maternal exposure to mercury and child development were collected from Medline and Scopus. Results Of 87 extracted papers, 73 used statistical significance testing and 38 (43.7%) of these reported ‘non-significant’ (P>0.05) findings. The median number of child development outcome variables in papers reporting ‘significant’ (n=35) and ‘non-significant’ (n=38) results was 4 versus 7, respectively (Mann-Whitney test P-value=0.014). An elevated number of outcome variables was especially found in papers reporting non-significant associations between maternal mercury and outcomes when mercury was the only analyzed exposure variable. Conclusion Authors often report analyzed health outcome variables based on their P-values rather than on stated primary research questions. Such a practice probably skews the research evidence.

  9. The relationship between demographic variables and leisure perceptions of selected South African first year university students / J.T. Weilbach.

    OpenAIRE

    Weilbach, Johannes Theron

    2013-01-01

    Participation in campus leisure and recreation programmes can provide university students with various benefits, but the provision of effective leisure programmes are complicated by the changes that have taken place in the demographic composition of the student population attending South African universities. Increases in the proportion of black students attending university, and decreases in the proportion of white students means that current students possibly exhibit leisure behaviours that...

  10. An Efficient Method for Synthesis of Planar Multibody Systems including Shape of Bodies as Design Variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael R.; Hansen, John Michael

    1998-01-01

    A point contact joint has been developed and implemented in a joint coordinate based planar multibody dynamics analysis program that also supports revolute and translational joints. Further, a segment library for the definition of the contours of the point contact joints has been integrated...... in the code and as a result any desired contour shape may be defined. The sensitivities of the basic physical variables of a multibody system, i.e. the positions, velocities, accelerations, and reactions of the system with respect to the automatically identified independent design variables may be determined...

  11. Carpenter syndrome: marked variability of expression to include the Summitt and Goodman syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershoni-Baruch, R

    1990-02-01

    Here we report on two sibs with Carpenter syndrome showing marked intrafamilial variability. One patient had craniosynostosis of the sagittal suture, normal intelligence, and no abnormalities of hands and feet. The second patient had polysyndactyly of hands and feet, normal intelligence, and no craniosynostosis. The diagnosis of Carpenter syndrome was made after the second affected child in the family was born. This report emphasizes previous suggestions that acrocephalopolysyndactyly, type II, has variable clinical expression. It is suggested that polysyndactyly of feet is not an absolute requisite for the diagnosis of Carpenter syndrome. This allows the inclusion of Summitt and Goodman syndromes within the clinical spectrum of this disorder.

  12. Kindergarten students’ levels of understanding some science concepts and scientific inquiry processes according to demographic variables (the sampling of Kilis Province in Turkey

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    Nail İlhan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to identify the kindergarten students’ levels of understanding some science concepts (LUSSC and scientific inquiry processes (SIP and compare their LUSSC and SIP in terms of some demographic variables. Also, another purpose of this study is to identify the predictive power of those demographic variables over the kindergarten students’ LUSSC and SIP. This study was conducted according to quantitative research design. The study group consisted of 335 kindergarten students from 20 different rural and urban schools. In the study, the scale for “Turkish Kindergarten Students’ Understandings of Scientific Concepts and Scientific Inquiry Processes” was used. According to some variables (such as mother’s education level and family structure, there was a statistically significant difference between students’ mean scores for LUSSC and between students’ mean scores for SIP. Within the scope of this study, it was found that among the predictor variables (age, family’s income level, and number of brother/sister were significant predictors for LUSSC, and number of brother/sister was a significant predictor for SIP.

  13. Impact of socio-demographic factors on the mitigating actions for climate change: a path analysis with mediating effects of attitudinal variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masud, Muhammad Mehedi; Akhatr, Rulia; Nasrin, Shamima; Adamu, Ibrahim Mohammed

    2017-09-25

    Socio-demographic factors play a significant role in increasing the individual's climate change awareness and in setting a favorable individual attitude towards its mitigation. To better understand how the adversative effects of climate change can be mitigated, this study attempts to investigate the impact of socio-demographic factors on the mitigating actions of the individuals (MAOI) on climate change. Qualitative data were collected from a face-to-face survey of 360 respondents in the Kuala Lumpur region of Malaysia through a close-ended questionnaire. Analysis was conducted on the mediating effects of attitudinal variables through the path model by using the SEM. Findings indicate that the socio-demographic factors such as gender, age, education, income, and ethnicity can greatly influence the individual's awareness, attitude, risk perception, and knowledge of climate change issues. The results drawn from this study also revealed that the attitudinal factors act as a mediating effect between the socio-demographic factors and the MAOI, thereby, indicating that both the socio-demographic factors and the attitudinal factors have significant effects on the MAOI towards climate change. The outcome of this study can help policy makers and other private organizations to decide on the appropriate actions to take in managing climate change effects. These actions which encompass improving basic climate change education and making the public more aware of the local dimensions of climate change are important for harnessing public engagement and support that can also stimulate climate change awareness and promote mitigating actions to n protect the environment from the impact of climate change.

  14. Method and apparatus for smart battery charging including a plurality of controllers each monitoring input variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerstrom, Donald J.

    2013-10-15

    A method for managing the charging and discharging of batteries wherein at least one battery is connected to a battery charger, the battery charger is connected to a power supply. A plurality of controllers in communication with one and another are provided, each of the controllers monitoring a subset of input variables. A set of charging constraints may then generated for each controller as a function of the subset of input variables. A set of objectives for each controller may also be generated. A preferred charge rate for each controller is generated as a function of either the set of objectives, the charging constraints, or both, using an algorithm that accounts for each of the preferred charge rates for each of the controllers and/or that does not violate any of the charging constraints. A current flow between the battery and the battery charger is then provided at the actual charge rate.

  15. Ecological variables, including physiognomic-structural attributes, and classification of Indonesian coral reefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bak, R. P. M.; Povel, G. D. E.

    Communities are distinguished by biological and physical features, such as size and shape of organisms and dead substrata, which are characteristic expressions of the organizing forces in the community. We measured 87 of such features in 39 transects on seaward-facing reef slopes in the eastern Indonesian archipelago, but did not identify coral species. We aimed to identify the basic variables that are indispensable to classify coral reef communities. This would give ecological information on variation in reef communities and show exactly which data must be recorded in the field. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of the data matrix showed the following variables to be important in the ordination of transects along the axes: coral colony shape, loose fragments, bare bottom, coral tissue wounds, rubble, sediment/rubble, crustose coralline algae, excavating sponge, miscellaneous organisms, coral overgrowth, interaction coral/non-coral, Acanthaster, maximum size coral colonies, tabular Acropora, massive Porites, fungiids, angle slope, and crevices. We used the transect data to define four groups of environmental conditions: 'sheltered', 'exposed' (to water movement), 'biologically disturbed' and 'physically disturbed'. Discriminant Analysis was employed to classify additional transects. It appeared that a minimum of 9 variables has to be measured in the field (rubble, thick branching corals, fungiids, sediment/rubble, two largest-colonies diameters, massive Porites, angle slope, Acanthaster) to assign transects to one of those groups (P Discriminant Analysis.

  16. Factors associated with patient satisfaction in surgery: the role of patients' perceptions of received care, visit characteristics, and demographic variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfelder, Tonio; Klewer, Joerg; Kugler, Joachim

    2010-11-01

    Measures of satisfaction of surgical patients can be used to evaluate and redesign the process of care or to complement established procedures to improve quality of services. However, study findings regarding aspects of patient satisfaction are often inconsistent and depend on the setting. The primary goals of this research were to identify factors associated with satisfaction among patients in a surgical setting. Data used in this study were obtained from randomly selected 2699 surgical patients discharged during January-December 2008 from 26 hospitals who responded to a mailed survey. The instrument assessed satisfaction regarding 23 items of perceived care, patient demographic, and visit characteristics. Bivariate and multivariate techniques were used to reveal relations between indicators and overall satisfaction. Bivariate statistics showed strong relations between overall satisfaction and perceived care with weaker findings pertaining to demographic and visit characteristics. The Multivariate logistic regression predicting overall satisfaction demonstrated that patients receiving surgical services predominantly have similar demands and priorities regardless of age and gender. The strongest factors were (P < 0.05) the interpersonal manner of medical practitioners and nurses, organization of operations, admittance, and discharge, as well as perceived length of stay. This study identified factors that are related to satisfaction of surgical patients and indicated the intensity of this relationship. These findings support health care providers and medical practitioners with valuable information to meet needs and preferences of patients receiving surgical services. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Lyme Disease Emergence in Virginia: An Examination of the Demographic and Environmental Variables Correlated to the Spatial Pattern of Disease Incidence

    OpenAIRE

    Dymond, Sara Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Since its initial identification in 1975, Lyme disease has become a public health concern in the U.S.  Increased concern is sparked by the rapid rate at which the disease is emerging into new areas.  One area of disease emergence is the state of Virginia which has been experiencing exponentially increasing rates of the disease.  This research studies Virginia\\'s landscape-level habitats to explore demographic and environmental variables related to the spread of Lyme disease. The land cover da...

  18. Demographics and genetic variability of the new world bollworm (Helicoverpa zea) and the old world bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Natália A; Alves-Pereira, Alessandro; Corrêa, Alberto S; Zucchi, Maria I; Omoto, Celso

    2014-01-01

    Helicoverpa armigera is one of the primary agricultural pests in the Old World, whereas H. zea is predominant in the New World. However, H. armigera was first documented in Brazil in 2013. Therefore, the geographical distribution, range of hosts, invasion source, and dispersal routes for H. armigera are poorly understood or unknown in Brazil. In this study, we used a phylogeographic analysis of natural H. armigera and H. zea populations to (1) assess the occurrence of both species on different hosts; (2) infer the demographic parameters and genetic structure; (3) determine the potential invasion and dispersal routes for H. armigera within the Brazilian territory; and (4) infer the geographical origin of H. armigera. We analyzed partial sequence data from the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene. We determined that H. armigera individuals were most prevalent on dicotyledonous hosts and that H. zea were most prevalent on maize crops, based on the samples collected between May 2012 and April 2013. The populations of both species showed signs of demographic expansion, and no genetic structure. The high genetic diversity and wide distribution of H. armigera in mid-2012 are consistent with an invasion period prior to the first reports of this species in the literature and/or multiple invasion events within the Brazilian territory. It was not possible to infer the invasion and dispersal routes of H. armigera with this dataset. However, joint analyses using sequences from the Old World indicated the presence of Chinese, Indian, and European lineages within the Brazilian populations of H. armigera. These results suggest that sustainable management plans for the control of H. armigera will be challenging considering the high genetic diversity, polyphagous feeding habits, and great potential mobility of this pest on numerous hosts, which favor the adaptation of this insect to diverse environments and control strategies.

  19. Demographics and genetic variability of the new world bollworm (Helicoverpa zea and the old world bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera in Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália A Leite

    Full Text Available Helicoverpa armigera is one of the primary agricultural pests in the Old World, whereas H. zea is predominant in the New World. However, H. armigera was first documented in Brazil in 2013. Therefore, the geographical distribution, range of hosts, invasion source, and dispersal routes for H. armigera are poorly understood or unknown in Brazil. In this study, we used a phylogeographic analysis of natural H. armigera and H. zea populations to (1 assess the occurrence of both species on different hosts; (2 infer the demographic parameters and genetic structure; (3 determine the potential invasion and dispersal routes for H. armigera within the Brazilian territory; and (4 infer the geographical origin of H. armigera. We analyzed partial sequence data from the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI gene. We determined that H. armigera individuals were most prevalent on dicotyledonous hosts and that H. zea were most prevalent on maize crops, based on the samples collected between May 2012 and April 2013. The populations of both species showed signs of demographic expansion, and no genetic structure. The high genetic diversity and wide distribution of H. armigera in mid-2012 are consistent with an invasion period prior to the first reports of this species in the literature and/or multiple invasion events within the Brazilian territory. It was not possible to infer the invasion and dispersal routes of H. armigera with this dataset. However, joint analyses using sequences from the Old World indicated the presence of Chinese, Indian, and European lineages within the Brazilian populations of H. armigera. These results suggest that sustainable management plans for the control of H. armigera will be challenging considering the high genetic diversity, polyphagous feeding habits, and great potential mobility of this pest on numerous hosts, which favor the adaptation of this insect to diverse environments and control strategies.

  20. Spatial modelling of marine organisms in Forsmark and Oskarshamn. Including calculation of physical predictor variables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlen, Ida; Nikolopoulos, Anna; Isaeus, Martin (AquaBiota Water Research, Stockholm (SE))

    2007-06-15

    GIS grids (maps) of marine parameters were created using point data from previous site investigations in the Forsmark and Oskarshamn areas. The proportion of global radiation reaching the sea bottom in Forsmark and Oskarshamn was calculated in ArcView, using Secchi depth measurements and the digital elevation models for the respective area. The number of days per year when the incoming light exceeds 5 MJ/m2 at the bottom was then calculated using the result of the previous calculations together with measured global radiation. Existing modelled grid-point data on bottom and pelagic temperature for Forsmark were interpolated to create surface covering grids. Bottom and pelagic temperature grids for Oskarshamn were calculated using point measurements to achieve yearly averages for a few points and then using regressions with existing grids to create new maps. Phytoplankton primary production in Forsmark was calculated using point measurements of chlorophyll and irradiance, and a regression with a modelled grid of Secchi depth. Distribution of biomass of macrophyte communities in Forsmark and Oskarshamn was calculated using spatial modelling in GRASP, based on field data from previous surveys. Physical parameters such as those described above were used as predictor variables. Distribution of biomass of different functional groups of fish in Forsmark was calculated using spatial modelling based on previous surveys and with predictor variables such as physical parameters and results from macrophyte modelling. All results are presented as maps in the report. The quality of the modelled predictions varies as a consequence of the quality and amount of the input data, the ecology and knowledge of the predicted phenomena, and by the modelling technique used. A substantial part of the variation is not described by the models, which should be expected for biological modelling. Therefore, the resulting grids should be used with caution and with this uncertainty kept in mind. All

  1. The relationship between demographic- and disease-related variables and health-related quality of life in patients with axial spondyloarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, Gudrun; Berg, Kari Hansen; Prøven, Anne; Haugeberg, Glenn

    2017-08-01

    Axial spondyloarthritis (ax-SpA) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the spine causing pain, stiffness, loss in physical function, and fatigue. Therefore, the physical and psychological burden of having this chronic disease can reduce the quality of life. We aimed to explore the relationship between demographic- and disease-related variables and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with ax-SpA. Demographic- and disease-related, HRQoL-related and treatment data were collected. Disease measures included the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), the BAS Functional Index (BASFI), the BAS Global (BAS-G) score, the Maastricht Ankylosing Spondylitis Enthesitis Score (MASES), the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) and co-morbidity. HRQoL was assessed using the SF-36 and the utility measures SF-6D and 15D. Variables associated with HRQoL were identified in unadjusted and adjusted analyses. We examined 380 patients with ax-SpA (67% men) with a mean age of 46 years. Among them, 86% reported exercising >1 h per week. Mean values were as follows: BASDAI, 3.17; MASES, 3.19; BASFI, 2.71; BAS-G. 3.88; and HAQ, 0.56. The percentage of current users of NSAIDs was 44%, and of DMARDs 23%. In multivariate analyses, exercising 1-3 h per week (B = 2.73, p = 0.022) and exercising >3 h per week (B = 2.71, p = 0.020), lower HAQ scores (B = -4.61, p = 0.001), lower BASFI scores (B = -1.05, p = 0.010) and lower BAS-G scores (B = -0.91, p = 0.001) were independently associated with higher SF-36-PCS scores, whereas modest alcohol consumption (B = 4.63, p = 0.018) and a lower BAS-G score (B = -1.73, p Exercising 1-3 h per week (B = 0.032, p = 0.004) and exercising >3 h per week (B = 0.036, p = 0.001), lower HAQ scores (B = -0.051, p exercising 1-3 h per week (B = 0.045, p = 0.001) and exercising > 3 h per week (B = 0.053, p < 0.001), lower HAQ scores (B = -0.054, p = 0.001) and lower BAS-G scores

  2. Microscopic age determination of human skeletons including an unknown but calculable variable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallin, Johan Albert; Tkocz, Izabella; Kristensen, Gustav

    1994-01-01

    estimation, which includes the covariance matrix of four single equation residuals, improves the accuracy of age determination. The standard deviation, however, of age prediction remains 12.58 years. An experimental split of the data was made in order to demonstrate that the use of subgroups gives a false...

  3. What Predicts Student Success in Introductory Data Management Classes? An Investigation of Demographic, Personality, Computer-Related, and Interaction Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Kenneth J.; Harris, Ranida B.; Lambert, Alysa D.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction to data management classes are often times students' first exposure to advanced material in these areas. Many factors are likely to influence success in these classes, but empirical investigations have focused on relatively few variables. In this study, we extend this research by examining the relative contributions of the previously…

  4. Karadeniz Jeopolitiğine Demografik Değişkenlerin Etkisi Impact of Demographic Variables on Blacksea Geopolitics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haktan BİRSEL

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The geography of Blacksea has a special role in Turkey and the rest of the world. The Muslim population has increased after Blacksea was changed into a Turkish lake. Shortly, a commonly shared life was born between Muslims and believers of other religions and continuedwithout an issue for a long period of time. The ethnical differences, withthe result of a weakening Ottoman Empire during the 19th century,were used by the European countries and Russia to be able to invadethe demographic structure. This was a demographic game that endedwith Turkey’s victory in 1923. As Turkey transformed into a modernnational country in 1923, Blacksea region developed into a dynamicstructure.Blacksea has provided a safe exit on terrain and marine paths forthe energy resources that were discovered around Hazar region at theend of 1990. Today, with Romania and Bulgaria being neighbors withthe European Union, energy transportation plans play a critical role.However, based on data from 2010, the ratio of amount of transportedenergy to the Turkish population is significantly low. Since the regioncarries a critical importance in energy strategy of global scale,development of energy focused opportunities need to be initiated.During the execution phase; the demographic structure, as well as thehistorical Blacksea culture, must be protected and the population of thelocal community should be increased. Karadeniz coğrafyası Türkiye ve dünya için çok özel bir öneme sahiptir. Osmanlı İmparatorluğu’nun Karadeniz’i bir Türk gölü haline getirmesinden sonra Müslüman nüfusu artmış ve kısa sürede bu bölgede Müslüman ve gayrimüslimler arasında ortak bir yaşam başlamış ve uzun bir dönem problemsiz şekilde yürümüştür. Fakat demografisinde yer alan bu etnik farklılıklar özellikle 19’ncu yüzyıldan itibaren Osmanlı İmparatorluğu’nun zayıflamasına bağlı olarak Avrupalı güçler ve Ruslar bu bölgeye hâkim olabilmek i

  5. The Relationship between Gender Stereotypes, Sense of Power, and Demographic Variables with the Cycle of Demand-Withdrawal Marital Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    somayeh shahmoradi

    2014-04-01

    The regression results showed that gender stereotypes, sense of power and number of children were all significant predictors for demand/withdraw pattern. The correlation results showed that increasing in stereotypical thinking and the number of children can lead to an increase in the probability of demand/withdraw cycle. Also, more sense of power has a positive correlation with the “withdrawal pattern” and less sense of power has a positive correlation with the “demand pattern”. The results demonstrate that the variables which were considered in the analysis of the cycle in this research are important and can help relevant agents to provide opportunities for improving couple relationships.

  6. Interplay of demographic variables, birth experience, and initial reactions in the prediction of symptoms of posttraumatic stress one year after giving birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Julia; Schmid, Sabine; Löser, Eva; Neumann, Olaf; Buchholz, Stefan; Kästner, Ralph

    2016-01-01

    There has been increasing research on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following childbirth in the last two decades. The literature on predictors of who develops posttraumatic stress symptoms (PSS) suggests that both vulnerability and birth factors have an influence, but many studies measure predictors and outcomes simultaneously. In this context, we aimed to examine indirect and direct effects of predictors of PSS, which were measured longitudinally. We assessed women within the first days (n=353), 6 weeks, and 12 months (n=183) after having given birth to a healthy infant. The first assessment included questions on demographics, pregnancy, and birth experience. The second and third assessments contained screenings for postpartum depression, PTSD, and general mental health problems, as well as assessing social support and physical well-being. We analysed our data using structural equation modelling techniques (n=277). Our final model showed good fit and was consistent with a diathesis-stress model of PSS. Women who had used antidepressant medication in the 10 years before childbirth had higher PSS at 6 weeks, independent of birth experiences. Subjective birth experience was the early predictor with the highest total effect on later PSS. Interestingly, a probable migration background also had a small but significant effect on PSS via more episiotomies. The null results for social support may have been caused by a ceiling effect. Given that we measured predictors at different time points, our results lend important support to the etiological model, namely, that there is a vulnerability pathway and a stress pathway leading to PSS. PSS and other psychological measures stayed very stable between 6 weeks and 1 year postpartum, indicating that it is possible to identify women developing problems early. Our results are consistent with a diathesis-stress model: vulnerability (antidepressant use in the previous 10 years) influenced posttraumatic stress symptoms at 6

  7. The effect of demographic variables on the user’s behavior in the Mobile Telecommunication Market of Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikollaq Terezi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the mobile operator users living in Tirana, urban area and its outskirts. The level of confidence for sampling is 95%, (p <0.05. The used methodology is implemented through interviews with experts (the employee of mobile operators, as well as, observation of the service process in general and face to face interview according to a properly designed questionnaire. The evaluation methods for approving the hypothesis are based on linear regression and ÷2 tests. This paper aims to find a significant correlation between the duration of contractual agreement and the occupation of the mobile service users. There is significant dependence between groups of age and the variables like Web-page of the operator, signal coverage and the price of 3Gservice

  8. Moral Intelligence in the Context of Its Questionnaire Psychometric Properties Verification and of Chosen Demographic Variables in the Slovak Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lada Kaliská

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The interest in intelligence construct operationalization is reflected in construction upon new intelligence concepts analyzing it in a wider social context. This scientific study offers the theoretical and empirical analysis of a newly created construct of moral intelligence. Moral intelligence concept was founded in the Multiple Intelligence Theory of H. Gardner (1985, being followed by L. Kuckovsky, A. Dobrin, V. Di Norcia and others in historical-philosophical-evolution-theological context, by D. Lennick, F. Kiel, C. Veach and others in successful management context and by A. Hass, M. Borba, R. Coles, J. Bradshaw and others in school-counselling context. Subsequently moral intelligence is defined as an individual's ability to solve ethical problems ethically right. The application of ethical principles in successful business management formed a theoretical base for moral intelligence characterized by D. Lennick a F. Kiel (2008. They created also a self-report questionnaire Moral Competence Inventory (MCI to assess personal moral competences as a base of moral intelligence. The study provides the results of psychometrical properties (factor structure and reliability in the sense of inner consistency and test-retest result stability of the Slovak, the only available, questionnaire for moral intelligence assessment at a chosen adolescent research sample (N=209. It also analyses the differences in total moral intelligence level and two newly extracted factors (personal and social moral competences in relation to gender, age and religious believes referring to the fact the MCI authors presupposed that there is no relation between moral competences and demographic factors (gender, age, nationality or religion, 2005. The findings prove the significant differences in the overall level of moral intelligence (p≤0,01 and in factors of personal (Standing up for what is right (Courage, p≤0,01 and social (Helping others (Service, p≤0,01 and Actively

  9. Interaction between Helicobacter pylori and latent toxoplasmosis and demographic variables on cognitive function in young to middle-aged adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawn D Gale

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori and latent toxoplasmosis are widespread diseases that have been associated with cognitive deficits and Alzheimer's disease. We sought to determine whether interactions between Helicobacter pylori and latent toxoplasmosis, age, race-ethnicity, educational attainment, economic status, and general health predict cognitive function in young and middle-aged adults. To do so, we used multivariable regression and multivariate models to analyze data obtained from the United States' National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, which can be weighted to represent the US population. In this sample, we found that 31.6 percent of women and 36.2 percent of men of the overall sample had IgG Antibodies against Helicobacter pylori, although the seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori varied with sociodemographic variables. There were no main effects for Helicobacter pylori or latent toxoplasmosis for any of the cognitive measures in models adjusting for age, sex, race-ethnicity, educational attainment, economic standing, and self-rated health predicting cognitive function. However, interactions between Helicobacter pylori and race-ethnicity, educational attainment, latent toxoplasmosis in the fully adjusted models predicted cognitive function. People seropositive for both Helicobacter pylori and latent toxoplasmosis - both of which appear to be common in the general population - appear to be more susceptible to cognitive deficits than are people seropositive for either Helicobacter pylori and or latent toxoplasmosis alone, suggesting a synergistic effect between these two infectious diseases on cognition in young to middle-aged adults.

  10. Interaction between Helicobacter pylori and latent toxoplasmosis and demographic variables on cognitive function in young to middle-aged adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Shawn D; Erickson, Lance D; Brown, Bruce L; Hedges, Dawson W

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori and latent toxoplasmosis are widespread diseases that have been associated with cognitive deficits and Alzheimer's disease. We sought to determine whether interactions between Helicobacter pylori and latent toxoplasmosis, age, race-ethnicity, educational attainment, economic status, and general health predict cognitive function in young and middle-aged adults. To do so, we used multivariable regression and multivariate models to analyze data obtained from the United States' National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, which can be weighted to represent the US population. In this sample, we found that 31.6 percent of women and 36.2 percent of men of the overall sample had IgG Antibodies against Helicobacter pylori, although the seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori varied with sociodemographic variables. There were no main effects for Helicobacter pylori or latent toxoplasmosis for any of the cognitive measures in models adjusting for age, sex, race-ethnicity, educational attainment, economic standing, and self-rated health predicting cognitive function. However, interactions between Helicobacter pylori and race-ethnicity, educational attainment, latent toxoplasmosis in the fully adjusted models predicted cognitive function. People seropositive for both Helicobacter pylori and latent toxoplasmosis - both of which appear to be common in the general population - appear to be more susceptible to cognitive deficits than are people seropositive for either Helicobacter pylori and or latent toxoplasmosis alone, suggesting a synergistic effect between these two infectious diseases on cognition in young to middle-aged adults.

  11. [Discriminating power of socio-demographic and psychological variables on addictive use of cellular phones among middle school students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Haejung; Kim, Myoung Soo; Son, Hyun Kyung; Ahn, Sukhee; Kim, Jung Soon; Kim, Young Hae

    2007-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the degrees of cellular phone usage among middle school students and to identify discriminating factors of addictive use of cellular phones among sociodemographic and psychological variables. From 123 middle schools in Busan, potential participants were identified through stratified random sampling and 747 middle school students participated in the study. The data was collected from December 1, 2004 to December 30, 2004. Descriptive and discriminant analyses were used. Fifty seven percent of the participants were male and 89.7% used cellular phones at school. The participants were grouped into three groups depending on the levels of the cellular phone usage: addicted (n=117), dependent (n=418), non-addicted (n=212). Within the three groups, two functions were produced and only one function was significant, discriminating the addiction group from non-addiction group. Additional discriminant analysis with only two groups produced one function that classified 81.2% of the participants correctly into the two groups. Impulsiveness, anxiety, and stress were significant discriminating factors. Based on the findings of this study, developing intervention programs focusing on impulsiveness, anxiety and stress to reduce the possible addictive use of cellular phones is suggested.

  12. Impact of socio-demographic variables, oral hygiene practices and oral habits on periodontal health status of Indian elderly: a community-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, N; Sundaram, K R

    2003-01-01

    Periodontal disease is the most common cause of tooth loss. It is has insidious onset, chronic course, and commonly result due to cumulative effect of dietary habits, oral hygiene methods and oral habits practiced over the years. This study was planned to evaluate the periodontal health status of elderly population (above 60 years) in the community, using CPITN index, gingival recession, mobility of teeth and halitosis, using modified WHO Oral Health Survey Proforma. In addition, impact of several socio-demographic variables, oral hygiene practices, oral habits, chronic systemic diseases, dietary preferences and body mass index (BMI) on periodontal health status was also studied. It was found that prevalence of periodontal diseases in the elderly was high. Step-wise multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that periodontal diseases were directly correlated with age, oral hygiene practices and presence of cardiac diseases.

  13. Relationship between religiosity, religious coping and socio-demographic variables among out-patients with depression or diabetes mellitus in Enugu, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amadi, Kennedy U; Uwakwe, Richard; Ndukuba, Appolos C; Odinka, Paul C; Igwe, Monday N; Obayi, Nicodemus K; Ezeme, Mark S

    2016-06-01

    Religion is a powerful coping strategy. Diabetes and depression are common conditions in our environment that induce psychological distress, thus requiring coping for better outcome. Studies indicate that increased religiosity is associated with better outcome in clinical and general populations. Therefore, studies of the distribution of religiosity and religious coping among these populations are essential to improve outcome. To assess the association between religiosity, religious coping in depression and diabetes mellitus, and selected sociodemographic variables (age, gender and occupational status). Using simple random sampling we recruited 112 participants with diabetes and an equal number with depression consecutively, matching for gender. Religiosity was determined using religious orientation scale (revised), religious coping with brief religious coping scale and socio-demographic variables with a socio-demographic questionnaire. Intrinsic religiosity was greater among older people with depression than among older people with diabetes(t=5.02,p<0.001); no significant difference among young people with depression and diabetes(t=1.47,p=0.15).Positive religious coping was greater among older people with depression than among older people with diabetes(t=2.31,p=0.02); no difference among young people with depression and diabetes(t=0.80,p=0.43). Females with depression had higher intrinsic religiosity scores than males with depression(t=3.85,p<0.001); no difference in intrinsic religiosity between females and males with diabetes(t=0.99,p=0.32).Positive religious coping was greater among participants with diabetes in the low occupational status(t=2.96,p<0.001) than those in the high occupational status. Religion is indeed a reliable coping method, most commonly used by the elderly and females with depression. Positive religious coping is more common among diabetic patients who are in the low occupational status.

  14. Influence of demographic and tumour variables on prostate cancer treatment with curative intent in Spain. Results of the 2010 national prostate cancer registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Jabaloyas, J M; Castelló-Porcar, A; González-Baena, A C; Cózar-Olmo, J M; Miñana-López, B; Gómez-Veiga, F; Rodriguez-Antolín, A

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study is to determine which cancer and demographic criteria influence the indication for surgery (radical prostatectomy) or radiation therapy (external or brachytherapy) in the treatment of prostate cancer. An analysis of the 2714 patients of the 2010 National Prostate Cancer Registry treated with curative intent. The analysed variables were age, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), prostate volume, the number of biopsy cores, the percentage of positive cores, the stage, Gleason score, the type of pathologist, the presence of perineural invasion and the study centre. We analysed the association among these variables and the type of treatment (surgery vs. radiation therapy/brachytherapy), using a univariate analysis (Student's t test and chi-squared) and a binary multiple logistic regression. The 48.12% of the patients (1306/2714) were treated with surgery, and 51.88% (1,408/2,714) underwent radiation therapy/brachytherapy. Differences were observed between the patients treated with prostatectomy and those treated with radiation therapy/brachytherapy (p<.05) in age (63.50±6.5 vs. 69.0±6.7), PSA (8.76±16.97 vs. 13.21±15.88), biopsied cores, percentage of positives cores (30.0±22 vs. 38.7±29), Gleason score (G6: 53.9% vs. 46.1%; G7: 45% vs. 55% G8-10: 26.6%, 73.4%), stage (localised: 50% vs. 50%; locally advanced: 14.6% vs. 85.4%), perineural invasion and hospital centre. In the multivariate analysis, the selected independent variables were age, PSA, percentage of positives cores, stage, Gleason score and hospital centre. According to our study, age, tumour aggressiveness and stage and the centre where the patient will be treated affect the selection of curative treatment for prostate cancer. Copyright © 2016 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. The effect of socio-demographic variables and dairy use on the intake of essential macro- and micronutrients in 0.5-12-year-old Indonesian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widodo, Yekti; Sandjaja, Sandjaja; Sumedi, Edith; Khouw, Ilse; Deurenberg, Paul

    2016-01-01

    To study the associations between nutrient intake, dairy intake and socioeconomic variables. Food consumption data using 24 h recall were collected in 3600 children, aged 0.5 to 12 years old in addition to frequency of dairy use and anthropometric and sociodemographic variables. Overall height for age Z-score (HAZ) and body mass index for age Z-score (BAZ) values (mean±SE) were -1.40±0.03 and -0.48±0.03 respectively, associated with a high prevalence of stunting and thinness in the population. The overall percentage of children not using any dairy products was 71%, and this percentage increased steadily with age. The overall energy intake from dairy was 99±3 kcal/capita/day and the overall energy intake from dairy in dairy users was 291±7 kcal/day. Dairy use did not differ between boys and girls, but was higher in urban areas, higher if the education of the mother was higher and higher if the mother had a permanent job and if the wealth status of the family was in the upper levels. Nutrient intake after the age of 3 years was inadequate for energy and all nutrients except for protein. The achievement of Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) for all nutrients was higher in dairy users compared to non-dairy users, also after correcting for the confounding effect of the higher energy intake (from dairy) and socio-demographic variables. The contribution increased with increasing frequency of dairy use. Adequate dairy intake can substantially add to the achievement of RDA in Indonesian children.

  16. A new weighted balance measure helped to select the variables to be included in a propensity score model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruana, Emmanuel; Chevret, Sylvie; Resche-Rigon, Matthieu; Pirracchio, Romain

    2015-12-01

    The propensity score (PS) is a balancing score. Following PS matching, balance checking usually relies on estimating separately the standardized absolute mean difference for each baseline characteristic. The average standardized absolute mean difference and the Mahalanobis distances have been proposed to summarize the information across the covariates. However, they might be minimized when nondesirable variables such as instrumental variables (IV) are included in the PS model. We propose a new weighted summary balance measure that takes into account, for each covariate, its strength of association with the outcome. This new measure was evaluated using a simulation study to assess whether minimization of the measure coincided with minimally biased estimates. All measures were then applied to a real data set from an observational cohort study. Contrarily to the other measures, our proposal was minimized when including the confounders, which coincided with minimal bias and mean squared error, but increased when including an IV in the PS model. Similar findings were observed in the real data set. A balance measure taking into account the strength of association between the covariates and the outcome may be helpful to identify the most parsimonious PS model. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Laboratory Demographics Lookup Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This website provides demographic information about laboratories, including CLIA number, facility name and address, where the laboratory testing is performed, the...

  18. STRATEGIC PLANNING DIMENSIONS IN SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES (SMEs IN SOUTH AFRICA: THEIR RELATIVE IMPORTANCE AND VARIATIONS IN SELECTED DEMOGRAPHIC VARIABLES.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAXWELL SANDADA

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to evaluate the strategic dimensions of SMEs and how each dimension is rated by owners and managers of SMEs. The other objective of the study was to ascertain if differences in strategic planning practices existed with respect to demographic variables namely gender, age and position in the organization. It was found that the main dimensions of strategic planning are mission and vision, environmental scanning, employee participation in the strategic planning process, time horizon of strategic planning, implementation incentives, evaluation and control, formality of strategic planning and source of information about the environment. It was also found that mission and vision, formality of strategic planning and evaluation and control were the most valued factors. No significant statistical difference existed among owners and managers of different age, gender and positions in strategic planning practices. The value of the study is that it offers various dimensions of strategic planning that SMEs can implement to be competitive and sustainable.

  19. Study of various social and demographic variables associated with primary headache disorders in 500 school-going children of central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhir Mehta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study was performed to know the prevalence of primary headache disorders in school going children of central India and to elucidate the effects of various sociodemographic variables like personality or behavior traits, hobbies like TV watching, school life or study pressure in form of school tests, family history of headache, age, sex, body habitus etc., on prevalence of primary headaches in school going children of central India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional school-based study was performed on 500 school children (aged 7-14 years for the duration of 1 year. Potential triggering and aggravating demographic and social variables were investigated based on a diagnosis of International Classification of Headache Disorder-II headache. Results: The prevalence of recurrent headache was found to be 25.5% in Indore. Of the studied population, 15.5% had migraine, 5% had tension-type headache migraine, and 5% had mixed-type headache symptoms suggesting both of above. Overall headaches were found to be more common among girls, but tension-type was more common in boys. Using regression analysis, we found that sensitive personality traits (especially vulnerable children, increasing age, female gender and family history of headache had a statistically significant effect on headaches in children. In addition, mathematic or science test dates and post weekend days in school were found to increase the occurrence of headache in school-going children. Hobbies were found to have a significant effects on headaches. Conclusion: As a common healthcare problem, headache is prevalent among school children. Various sociodemographic factors are known to trigger or aggravate primary headache disorders of school children. Lifestyle-coping strategies are essential for school children.

  20. Assessing positive mental health in people with chronic physical health problems: correlations with socio-demographic variables and physical health status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lluch-Canut, Teresa; Puig-Llobet, Montserrat; Sánchez-Ortega, Aurelia; Roldán-Merino, Juan; Ferré-Grau, Carmen

    2013-10-05

    A holistic perspective on health implies giving careful consideration to the relationship between physical and mental health. In this regard the present study sought to determine the level of Positive Mental Health (PMH) among people with chronic physical health problems, and to examine the relationship between the observed levels of PMH and both physical health status and socio-demographic variables. The study was based on the Multifactor Model of Positive Mental Health (Lluch, 1999), which comprises six factors: Personal Satisfaction (F1), Prosocial Attitude (F2), Self-control (F3), Autonomy (F4), Problem-solving and Self-actualization (F5), and Interpersonal Relationship Skills (F6). The sample comprised 259 adults with chronic physical health problems who were recruited through a primary care center in the province of Barcelona (Spain). Positive mental health was assessed by means of the Positive Mental Health Questionnaire (Lluch, 1999). Levels of PMH differed, either on the global scale or on specific factors, in relation to the following variables: age: global PMH scores decreased with age (r=-0.129; p=0.038); b) gender: men scored higher on F1 (t=2.203; p=0.028) and F4 (t=3.182; p=0.002), while women scored higher on F2 (t -3.086; p=0.002) and F6 (t=-2.744; p=0.007); c) number of health conditions: the fewer the number of health problems the higher the PMH score on F5 (r=-0.146; p=0.019); d) daily medication: polymedication patients had lower PMH scores, both globally and on various factors; e) use of analgesics: occasional use of painkillers was associated with higher PMH scores on F1 (t=-2.811; p=0.006). There were no significant differences in global PMH scores according to the type of chronic health condition. The only significant difference in the analysis by factors was that patients with hypertension obtained lower PMH scores on the factor Autonomy (t=2.165; p=0.032). Most people with chronic physical health problems have medium or high levels of PMH

  1. Variables sociodemográficas y procesos de enfrentamiento al estrés en pacientes portadores de Rectocolitis Ulcerativa Idiopática Socio-demographic variables and stress coping strategies among ulcerative colitis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lucia Siqueira Costa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación tuvo como objetivo verificar la asociación existente entre las variables sociodemográficas y los procesos de enfrentamiento al estrés de los individuos portadores de Rectocolitis Ulcerativa Idiopática atendidos en el Ambulatorio de Enfermedades Inflamatorias de Colon del Hospital de las Clínicas de la Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad de San Pablo. Del total de 100 individuos participantes del estudio se verificó que la variable practicante de creencia religiosa presentó resultado estadísticamente significativo para los factores fuga/ esquiva, aceptación de responsabilidad y alejamiento. Con este estudio se pudo concluir que la creencia religiosa favorece la utilización de diversos factores de enfrentamiento para el manejo de situaciones adversas como la enfermedad y de este modo contribuir para mejorar la calidad de vida de los portadores de la enfermedad aquí estudiada.The objective of this research was verify any association between socio-demographic characteristics and and stress coping strategies among ulcerative colitis patients. This study took place in the Inflammatory Diseases Outpatient Clinic of Hospital das Clinicas of the University of São Paulo Medical School. The 100 individual participants of this study verified that the variable of those who practiced their religious faith presented statistically significant results in the factors disdainful escapement, acceptance of responsibility and separation. Conclusion: individuals of this study who practiced their religious faith predominantly used disdainful escapement, acceptance of responsibility, self-control as a way of coping with adverse situations such as this disease, contributed to an improvement in their quality of life.

  2. Statistical methodology for discrete fracture model - including fracture size, orientation uncertainty together with intensity uncertainty and variability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darcel, C. (Itasca Consultants SAS (France)); Davy, P.; Le Goc, R.; Dreuzy, J.R. de; Bour, O. (Geosciences Rennes, UMR 6118 CNRS, Univ. def Rennes, Rennes (France))

    2009-11-15

    the lineament scale (k{sub t} = 2) on the other, addresses the issue of the nature of the transition. We develop a new 'mechanistic' model that could help in modeling why and where this transition can occur. The transition between both regimes would occur for a fracture length of 1-10 m and even at a smaller scale for the few outcrops that follow the self-similar density model. A consequence for the disposal issue is that the model that is likely to apply in the 'blind' scale window between 10-100 m is the self-similar model as it is defined for large-scale lineaments. The self-similar model, as it is measured for some outcrops and most lineament maps, is definitely worth being investigated as a reference for scales above 1-10 m. In the rest of the report, we develop a methodology for incorporating uncertainty and variability into the DFN modeling. Fracturing properties arise from complex processes which produce an intrinsic variability; characterizing this variability as an admissible variation of model parameter or as the division of the site into subdomains with distinct DFN models is a critical point of the modeling effort. Moreover, the DFN model encompasses a part of uncertainty, due to data inherent uncertainties and sampling limits. Both effects must be quantified and incorporated into the DFN site model definition process. In that context, all available borehole data including recording of fracture intercept positions, pole orientation and relative uncertainties are used as the basis for the methodological development and further site model assessment. An elementary dataset contains a set of discrete fracture intercepts from which a parent orientation/density distribution can be computed. The elementary bricks of the site, from which these initial parent density distributions are computed, rely on the former Single Hole Interpretation division of the boreholes into sections whose local boundaries are expected to reflect - locally - geology

  3. A mathematical framework for including various sources of variability in a task-based assessment of digital breast tomosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Subok; Badal, Andreu; Young, Stefano; Myers, Kyle J.

    2012-03-01

    For a rigorous x-ray imaging system optimization and evaluation, the need for exploring a large space of many different system parameters is immense. However, due to the high dimensionality of the problem, it is often infeasible to evaluate many system parameters in a laboratory setting. Therefore, it is useful to utilize computer simulation tools and analytical methods to narrow down to a much smaller space of system parameters and then validate the chosen optimal parameters by laboratory measurements. One great advantage of using the simulation and analytical methods is that the impact of various sources of variability on the system's diagnostic performance can be studied separately and collectively. Previously, we have demonstrated how to separate and analyze noise sources using covariance decomposition in a task-based approach to the assessment of digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) systems in the absence of x-ray scatter and detector blur.1, 2 In this work, we analytically extend the previous work to include x-ray scatter and detector blur. With use of computer simulation, we also investigate the use of the convolution method for approximating the scatter images of structured phantoms in comparison to those computed via Monte Carlo. The extended method is comprehensive and can be used both for exploring a large parameter space in simulation and for validating optimal parameters, chosen from a simulation study, with laboratory measurements.

  4. Auxiliary variables in multiple imputation in regression with missing X: a warning against including too many in small sample research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Multiple imputation is becoming increasingly popular. Theoretical considerations as well as simulation studies have shown that the inclusion of auxiliary variables is generally of benefit. Methods A simulation study of a linear regression with a response Y and two predictors X1 and X2 was performed on data with n = 50, 100 and 200 using complete cases or multiple imputation with 0, 10, 20, 40 and 80 auxiliary variables. Mechanisms of missingness were either 100% MCAR or 50% MAR + 50% MCAR. Auxiliary variables had low (r=.10) vs. moderate correlations (r=.50) with X’s and Y. Results The inclusion of auxiliary variables can improve a multiple imputation model. However, inclusion of too many variables leads to downward bias of regression coefficients and decreases precision. When the correlations are low, inclusion of auxiliary variables is not useful. Conclusion More research on auxiliary variables in multiple imputation should be performed. A preliminary rule of thumb could be that the ratio of variables to cases with complete data should not go below 1 : 3. PMID:23216665

  5. What is the impact of obtaining medical clearance to participate in a randomised controlled trial examining a physical activity intervention on the socio-demographic and risk factor profiles of included participants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Mitch J; Rosenkranz, Richard R; Vandelanotte, Corneel; Caperchione, Cristina M; Rebar, Amanda L; Maeder, Anthony J; Tague, Rhys; Savage, Trevor N; van Itallie, Anetta; Mummery, W Kerry; Kolt, Gregory S

    2016-12-07

    Requiring individuals to obtain medical clearance to exercise prior to participation in physical activity interventions is common. The impact this has on the socio-demographic characteristic profiles of participants who end up participating in the intervention is not clear. As part of the multi-component eligibility screening for inclusion in a three-arm randomised controlled trial examining the efficacy of a web-based physical activity intervention, individuals interested in participating were required to complete the Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire (PAR-Q). The PAR-Q identified individuals as having lower or higher risk. Higher-risk individuals were required to obtain medical exercise clearance prior to enrolment. Comparisons of the socio-demographic characteristics of the lower- and higher-risk individuals were performed using t tests and chi-square tests (p = 0.05). A total of 1244 individuals expressed interest in participating, and 432 were enrolled without needing to undergo further screening. Of the 251 individuals required to obtain medical clearance, 148 received clearance, 15 did not receive clearance and 88 did not return any form of clearance. A total of 105 individuals were enrolled after obtaining clearance, and the most frequent reason for being required to seek clearance was for using blood pressure/heart condition medication. Higher-risk individuals were significantly older, had a higher body mass index and engaged in more sedentary behaviour than lower-risk individuals. Use of more inclusive participant screening protocols that maintain high levels of participant safety are encouraged. Allowing individuals to obtain medical clearance to participate can result in including a more diverse population likely to benefit most from participation. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ( ACTRN12611000157976 ). Registered on 9 February 2011.

  6. Retrospective analysis of the clinical and demographic variables on the outcomes after second-line treatment in advanced non-small cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sourav Sau

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Platinum based doublets chemotherapy are the standard of care for metastatic or advanced non-small cell lung carcinoma. This leads to modest survival advantage and improve quality-of-life. However, patients with advanced or metastatic disease eventually present disease progression and needs second-line systemic therapy in a selected group of patients or other supportive measures. There is very little knowledge available from the literature about the prognostic variables in patients, who receive second-line therapy. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 329 patients received second-line treatment from July 2007 to September 2011 in the Department of Radiation Oncology, Burdwan Medical College and Hospital. For statistical analysis, 12 potential prognostic variables included. Univariate and multivariate regression analysis carried out to identify the prognostic variables associated with survival. Results: The results of univariate analysis for overall survival (OS and survival after second-line therapy identified to have prognostic significance: Age, sex, performance status, smoking history, serum lactate dehydrogenase, histopathology, first-line chemotherapy and its response and second-line therapy except the stage at diagnosis and site of failure after first-line therapy. The multivariate Cox regression analysis has shown that only performance and second-line therapy were independent prognostic variables for survival after second-line treatment and above these prognostic factors; age, smoking status and progression free survival also for OS. Conclusion: The performance status has shown consistent result as a prognostic factor in univariate and multivariate analysis for OS and survival after second-line therapy. These findings may also facilitate pretreatment prediction of survival and be used for selecting patients for the correct choice of cytotoxic therapy.

  7. Socio-Demographic Characteristics, Partner Characteristics, Socioeconomic Variables, and Intimate Partner Violence in Women with Schizophrenia in South-South Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afe, Taiwo Opekitan; Emedoh, Thomas C; Ogunsemi, Olawale O; Adegohun, Abosede Adekeje

    2017-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is common among patients with severe mental illness such as schizophrenia. Few surveys have explored IPV among this specific group of patients and the demographic characteristics of victims in Nigeria. The aim of this survey was to explore socio-demographic, socioeconomic characteristics of victims and partners. A cross-sectional randomized survey of 79 women with schizophrenia from a major adult psychiatric outpatient in South-south Nigeria was done. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID) was used to establish the diagnosis of schizophrenia among the participants and a purposely designed questionnaire to assess IPV. The mean age of the participants was 38.3 ± 2.8 years; the majority (73%) reported at least one form of IPV. Verbal abuse was the most (71%) prevalent form of IPV. Our findings highlight a need for proper attention to demographics of both victims and their male partners by clinicians.

  8. Socio-Demographic, Social-Cognitive, Health-Related and Physical Environmental Variables Associated with Context-Specific Sitting Time in Belgian Adolescents: A One-Year Follow-Up Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busschaert, Cedric; Ridgers, Nicola D.; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Cardon, Greet; Van Cauwenberg, Jelle; De Cocker, Katrien

    2016-01-01

    Introduction More knowledge is warranted about multilevel ecological variables associated with context-specific sitting time among adolescents. The present study explored cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of ecological domains of sedentary behaviour, including socio-demographic, social-cognitive, health-related and physical-environmental variables with sitting during TV viewing, computer use, electronic gaming and motorized transport among adolescents. Methods For this longitudinal study, a sample of Belgian adolescents completed questionnaires at school on context-specific sitting time and associated ecological variables. At baseline, complete data were gathered from 513 adolescents (15.0±1.7 years). At one-year follow-up, complete data of 340 participants were available (retention rate: 66.3%). Multilevel linear regression analyses were conducted to explore cross-sectional correlates (baseline variables) and longitudinal predictors (change scores variables) of context-specific sitting time. Results Social-cognitive correlates/predictors were most frequently associated with context-specific sitting time. Longitudinal analyses revealed that increases over time in considering it pleasant to watch TV (p < .001), in perceiving TV watching as a way to relax (p < .05), in TV time of parents/care givers (p < .01) and in TV time of siblings (p < .001) were associated with more sitting during TV viewing at follow-up. Increases over time in considering it pleasant to use a computer in leisure time (p < .01) and in the computer time of siblings (p < .001) were associated with more sitting during computer use at follow-up. None of the changes in potential predictors were significantly related to changes in sitting during motorized transport or during electronic gaming. Conclusions Future intervention studies aiming to decrease TV viewing and computer use should acknowledge the importance of the behaviour of siblings and the pleasure adolescents experience during

  9. Demographic and Related Determinants of Recent Cuban Emigration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briquets, Sergio Diaz

    1983-01-01

    Examines principal demographic determinants of recent Cuban emigration and discusses how these demographic variables interact with other social, economic, and political determinants. Suggests that Cuban labor migration is more responsive to demographic factors than some theorists assume. (Author/MJL)

  10. Demographic changes and nationalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishnevskii, A G

    1995-01-01

    This article examines the different characteristics of the many peoples inhabiting what used to be the Soviet Union and communist Eastern Europe, including Yugoslavia. The differences among these nationalities, or ethnic groups, are illustrated using the example of demographic modernization, showing how different peoples have or have not passed through the demographic transition process. The author looks at ethnic differences in mortality, fertility, natural increase, and migration, as well as economic and social inequalities among ethnic groups. The prospects for inter-ethnic conflict are assessed.

  11. Testing a Model of the Relationship of Demographic, Affective, and Fitness Variables to Academic Achievement among Non-Science Majors at an Independent University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, Andrew Martin

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship of specific attributes of college students to their academic achievement at an independent university in central Florida. Academic achievement was measured as the numeric score on the final exam in a survey-of-science course (EDS 1032) required for non-science majors. Attribute sets included personological, affective, and fitness variables. A hypothesized diagram of the direct and indirect effects among these attributes relative to academic achievement was developed and tested using data collected Spring 2014 from 168 students in four sections of EDS 1032 at Florida Institute of Technology. Multiple regression results revealed that 19% of the variance in a students' academic achievement was due to the influence of these three sets of research factors; this was found to be statistically significant. The results of mediation analyses also indicated that three variables had significant direct effects on academic achievement, namely gender, number of academic credits, and sports motivation. In addition, gender had a significant indirect effect on academic achievement via stress, and the number of academic credits had a significant indirect effect on academic achievement via sports motivation. These findings indicated that female students scored roughly six points higher than male students on this final exam. Also, gender's influence on academic achievement was partially attributable to the student's level of stress (e.g., male students with high levels of stress had lower grades on this final exam than female students with the same level of stress). In addition, it was found that students taking more academic credits were likely to score higher on this final exam than those students taking fewer credits. Further, as students' level of sports amotivation increased, the strength of the relationship between the number of student academic credits and academic achievement decreased. These results support Self

  12. Inlet-engine matching for SCAR including application of a bicone variable geometry inlet. [Supersonic Cruise Aircraft Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserbauer, J. F.; Gerstenmaier, W. H.

    1978-01-01

    Airflow characteristics of variable cycle engines (VCE) designed for Mach 2.32 can have transonic airflow requirements as high as 1.6 times the cruise airflow. This is a formidable requirement for conventional, high performance, axisymmetric, translating centerbody mixed compression inlets. An alternate inlet is defined where the second cone of a two cone centerbody collapses to the initial cone angle to provide a large off-design airflow capability, and incorporates modest centerbody translation to minimize spillage drag. Estimates of transonic spillage drag are competitive with those of conventional translating centerbody inlets. The inlet's cruise performance exhibits very low bleed requirements with good recovery and high angle of attack capability.

  13. Major histocompatibility complex harbors widespread genotypic variability of non-additive risk of rheumatoid arthritis including epistasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wen-Hua; Bowes, John; Plant, Darren; Viatte, Sebastien; Yarwood, Annie; Massey, Jonathan; Worthington, Jane; Eyre, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Genotypic variability based genome-wide association studies (vGWASs) can identify potentially interacting loci without prior knowledge of the interacting factors. We report a two-stage approach to make vGWAS applicable to diseases: firstly using a mixed model approach to partition dichotomous phenotypes into additive risk and non-additive environmental residuals on the liability scale and secondly using the Levene’s (Brown-Forsythe) test to assess equality of the residual variances across genotype groups per marker. We found widespread significant (P < 2.5e-05) vGWAS signals within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) across all three study cohorts of rheumatoid arthritis. We further identified 10 epistatic interactions between the vGWAS signals independent of the MHC additive effects, each with a weak effect but jointly explained 1.9% of phenotypic variance. PTPN22 was also identified in the discovery cohort but replicated in only one independent cohort. Combining the three cohorts boosted power of vGWAS and additionally identified TYK2 and ANKRD55. Both PTPN22 and TYK2 had evidence of interactions reported elsewhere. We conclude that vGWAS can help discover interacting loci for complex diseases but require large samples to find additional signals. PMID:27109064

  14. Northern Hemisphere spring snow cover variability and change over 1922–2010 including an assessment of uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Robinson

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available An update is provided of Northern Hemisphere (NH spring (March, April snow cover extent (SCE over the 1922–2010 period incorporating the new climate data record (CDR version of the NOAA weekly SCE dataset, with annual 95% confidence intervals estimates from regression analysis and intercomparison of multiple datasets. The uncertainty analysis indicated a 95% confidence interval in NH spring SCE of ±5–10% over the pre-satellite period and ±3–5% over the satellite era. The multi-dataset analysis showed there are larger uncertainties monitoring spring SCE over Eurasia (EUR than North America (NA due to the more complex regional character of the snow cover variability with the largest dataset uncertainty located over eastern Eurasia in a large region extending from the Tibetan Plateau across northern China. Trend analysis of the updated SCE series provided evidence that NH spring snow cover extent has undergone significant reductions over the past ~90 years and that the rate of decrease has accelerated over the past 40 years. The rate of decrease in March and April NH SCE over the 1970–2010 period is ~7–8 million km2 per 100 years which corresponds to an 8–11% decrease in NH March and April SCE respectively from pre-1970 values. In March, most of the change is being driven by Eurasia (NA trends are not significant but both continents exhibit significant SCE reductions in April. The observed trends in SCE are consistent with recent warming trends over northern mid-latitude land areas with NH SCE exhibiting significant negative correlations to air temperature anomalies in March and April. The NH spring SCE-temperature sensitivity has remained relatively stable over the period of record although there is some evidence of contrasting changes in temperature sensitivity over both continents in April. There is evidence that changes in atmospheric circulation around 1980 involving the North Atlantic Oscillation and Scandinavian Pattern have

  15. Potential demographic and baselines variables for risk stratification of high-risk post-myocardial infarction patients in the era of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator - a prognostic indicator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yap, Yee Guan; Duong, Trinh; Bland, Martin

    2008-01-01

    , sex, previous MI or angina, hypertension, diabetes, systolic blood pressure, heart rate, NYHA functional class and non-Q wave infarct on electrocardiogram. Distinct survival curves were obtained for 3 risk groups based on the median and inter-quartile range for the prognostic index. In the high-risk......BACKGROUND: Risk stratification after myocardial infarction (MI) remains expensive and disappointing. We designed a prognostic indicator using demographic information to select patients at risk of dying after MI. METHOD AND RESULTS: We combined individual patient data from the placebo arms of EMIAT......, CAMIAT, TRACE and DIAMOND-MI with LVEF 10 ventricular premature beats/hour or a run of ventricular tachycardia). Risk factors for mortality beginning at day 45 post-MI up to 2 years were examined using Cox regression analysis. Risk scores were derived from the equation of a Cox regression model...

  16. The effect of including molecular opacities of variable composition on the evolution of intermediate-mass AGB stars

    CERN Document Server

    Fishlock, C K; Stancliffe, R J

    2013-01-01

    Calculations from stellar evolutionary models of low- and intermediate-mass asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars provide predictions of elemental abundances and yields for comparison to observations. However, there are many uncertainties that reduce the accuracy of these predictions. One such uncertainty involves the treatment of low-temperature molecular opacities that account for the surface abundance variations of C, N, and O. A number of prior calculations of intermediate-mass AGB stellar models that incorporate both efficient third dredge-up and hot bottom burning include a molecular opacity treatment which does not consider the depletion of C and O due to hot bottom burning. Here we update the molecular opacity treatment and investigate the effect of this improvement on calculations of intermediate-mass AGB stellar models. We perform tests on two masses, 5 M$_{\\odot}$ and 6 M$_{\\odot}$, and two metallicities, $Z~=~0.001$ and $Z~=~0.02$, to quantify the variations between two opacity treatments. We find t...

  17. EJSCREEN Demographic Indicators 2016 Public

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EJSCREEN uses demographic factors as very general indicators of a community's potential susceptibility to the types of environmental factors included in this...

  18. EJSCREEN Demographic Indicators 2015 Internal

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EJSCREEN uses demographic factors as very general indicators of a community's potential susceptibility to the types of environmental factors included in this...

  19. EJSCREEN Demographic Indicators 2015 Public

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EJSCREEN uses demographic factors as very general indicators of a community's potential susceptibility to the types of environmental factors included in this...

  20. Analysis of Scientific Attitude, Computer Anxiety, Educational Internet Use, Problematic Internet Use, and Academic Achievement of Middle School Students According to Demographic Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekmezci, Mehmet; Celik, Ismail; Sahin, Ismail; Kiray, Ahmet; Akturk, Ahmet Oguz

    2015-01-01

    In this research, students' scientific attitude, computer anxiety, educational use of the Internet, academic achievement, and problematic use of the Internet are analyzed based on different variables (gender, parents' educational level and daily access to the Internet). The research group involves 361 students from two middle schools which are…

  1. The Effect of Academic Advising and Demographic Variables on the Perceived Relevance of Graduate Education for Agriculturalists from Tanzania and Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aagard, Steven D.

    The effect of academic advising on perceptions of relevance by students from two developing countries in East Africa (Tanzania and Malawi) was studied through a survey. The dependent variable was relevance of education to career goals and to national agricultural development goals. The presence and/or adequacy of academic advising was the…

  2. Demographic and affective covariates of pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garron, D C; Leavitt, F

    1979-11-01

    Relationships of four demographic variables and five affective variables to eight attributes of low back pain were investigated in 251 patients by stepwise, multivariate analysis. The demographic variables are age, sex, race, and education. The affective variables are state anxiety, trait anxiety anxiety, hostility, and depression. Seven of the pain variables are from the factorially derived Low Back Pain Questionnaire. The eighth pain variable is a self-estimate of intensity. Relationships among demographic and pain variables are small and unsystematic. Hostility has a small, systematically inverse relation to pain variables, supporting theories relating low back pain to inhibition of anger. Anxiety has a small positive relationship, and depression has no relationship to pain variables. In general, the small relationships indicate that the Low Back Pain Questionnaire provides descriptions of pain that are not confounded by social characteristics or current emotional states of patients.

  3. The AAVSO 2011 Demographic and Background Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Price, C Aaron

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, the AAVSO conducted a survey of 615 people who are or were recently active in the 101-year old organization. The survey included questions about their demographic background and variable star interests. Data are descriptively analyzed and compared with prior surveys. Results show an organization of very highly educated, largely male amateur and professional astronomers distributed across 108 countries. Participants tend to be loyal, with the average time of involvement in the AAVSO reported as 14 years. Most major demographic factors have not changed much over time. However, the average age of new members is increasing. Also, a significant portion of the respondents report being strictly active in a non-observing capacity, reflecting the growing mission of the organization. Motivations of participants are more aligned with scientific contribution than with that reported by other citizen science projects. This may help explain why a third of all respondents are an author or co-author of a paper in an ...

  4. Examination of the Two Models of Subjective Well-Being and Correlations between Satisfaction with Life, Demographic Variables and Personality Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Lučev

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to further the understanding of complex processes that are the base for feelings and satisfaction judgments by examining two models of subjective well-being. 1048 participants rated satisfaction with life and filled out IPIP-50 questionnaire that measures personality traits of the Big five model and demographic data questionnaire. Satisfaction with life in general was statistically significantly positively correlated with satisfaction of relationships with other people, satisfaction with health as well as with specific aspects of these domains. As was expected according to judgment model, correlations were higher for global domains than for specific aspects of satisfaction except for satisfaction with mood. Hypothesis of general positivity model and judgment model were tested in a series of hierarchical regression analyses. General life satisfaction explained variance of both global domains above and beyond satisfaction with corresponding specific domains. Contribution of global life satisfaction was significant even after effect of big five personality traits was controlled. Personality traits of the Big five model were statistically significantly associated with general life satisfaction. Correlation coefficients were -0.41 for Neuroticism, 0.30 for Extraversion, 0.14 for Agreeableness, 0.13 for Conscientiousness and 0.22 for Intellect. Age, education and being in a relationship were positively correlated with general life satisfaction. In this connection younger, better educated persons and those being in relationship were more satisfied with life in general. Women had higher levels of satisfaction for relationship with parents, while men had higher levels of satisfaction with partner, mobility, energy level, immunity and absence of pain.

  5. The influence of socio-demographic, psychological and knowledge-related variables alongside perceived cooking and food skills abilities in the prediction of diet quality in adults: a nationally representative cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Laura; Pot, Gerda K; Stephen, Alison M; Lavelle, Fiona; Spence, Michelle; Raats, Monique; Hollywood, Lynsey; McDowell, Dawn; McCloat, Amanda; Mooney, Elaine; Caraher, Martin; Dean, Moira

    2016-10-26

    Interventions to increase cooking skills (CS) and food skills (FS) as a route to improving overall diet are popular within public health. This study tested a comprehensive model of diet quality by assessing the influence of socio-demographic, knowledge- and psychological-related variables alongside perceived CS and FS abilities. The correspondence of two measures of diet quality further validated the Eating Choices Index (ECI) for use in quantitative research. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a quota-controlled nationally representative sample of 1049 adults aged 20-60 years drawn from the Island of Ireland. Surveys were administered in participants' homes via computer-assisted personal interviewing (CAPI) assessing a range of socio-demographic, knowledge- and psychological-related variables alongside perceived CS and FS abilities. Regression models were used to model factors influencing diet quality. Correspondence between 2 measures of diet quality was assessed using chi-square and Pearson correlations. ECI score was significantly negatively correlated with DINE Fat intake (r = -0.24, p socio-demographic, knowledge, psychological variables and CS and FS abilities on dietary outcomes varied, with regression models explaining 10-20 % of diet quality variance. CS ability exerted the strongest relationship with saturated fat intake (β = -0.296, p food choices (ECI) (β = 0.04, p > 0.05). Greater CS and FS abilities may not lead directly to healthier dietary choices given the myriad of other factors implicated; however, CS appear to have differential influences on aspects of the diet, most notably in relation to lowering saturated fat intake. Findings suggest that CS and FS should not be singular targets of interventions designed to improve diet; but targeting specific sub-groups of the population e.g. males, younger adults, those with limited education might be more fruitful. A greater understanding of the interaction of factors

  6. QUESTIONNAIRES IN THE SCREENING FOR Schistosoma mansoni INFECTION: A STUDY OF SOCIO DEMOGRAPHIC AND WATER CONTACT VARIABLES IN FOUR COMMUNITIES IN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lima e Costa Maria Fernanda F.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of questionnaires has been recommended for identifying, at a lower cost, individuals at risk for schistosomiasis. In this study, validity of information obtained by questionnaire in the screening for Schistosoma mansoni infection was assessed in four communities in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Explanatory variables were water contact activities, sociodemographic characteristics and previous treatment for schistosomiasis. From 677, 1474, 766 and 3290 individuals eligible for stool examination in the communities, 89 to 97% participated in the study. The estimated probability of individuals to be infected, if they have all characteristics identified as independently associated with S.mansoni infection, varied from 15% in Canabrava, to 42% in Belo Horizonte, 48% in Comercinho and 80% in São José do Acácio. Our results do not support the hypothesis that a same questionnaire on risk factors could be used in screening for S.mansoni infection in different communities.

  7. Predictors of attitudes toward cosmetic surgery among U.S. and Colombian college women: the roles of eating behaviors and demographic variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Carrion

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Cross-cultural studies on eating behaviors and relatedconstructs can identify cultural and social factorsthat contribute to eating disorder symptomatology.Eating disorders (EDs are a major cause for concernin the U.S., and recent studies in Colombia have showngrowing rates among their female population. In addition,cosmetic surgery procedures have been increasingrapidly in both the U.S. and Colombia, and preliminaryresearch suggests a positive relation between disorderedeating and endorsement of plastic surgery. In samplesof college women from Colombia and the U.S., we investigatedpatterns of association between disorderedeating variables and cosmetic surgery acceptance. Ourapproach utilized separate analyses for various subcomponentsof disordered eating (to determine their uniqueassociations with cosmetic surgery acceptance whileadjusting for potentially relevant covariates and examiningcross-cultural patterns. Participants were studentsat an urban, public college in the U.S. (n=163 and anurban, private college in Colombia (n=179. Overall,our findings suggested that participants from Colombiawith greater disordered eating were more likely to endorsecosmetic surgery for social reasons, while thosefrom the U.S. were more likely to consider undergoingcosmetic surgery for personal reasons. Differing findingsbetween the two samples may be due to cultural andsocial factors, which we delineate. These findings alsohave potential implications for presurgical counselingof cosmetic surgery candidates.

  8. Including long-range dependence in integrate-and-fire models of the high interspike-interval variability of cortical neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, B Scott

    2004-10-01

    Many different types of integrate-and-fire models have been designed in order to explain how it is possible for a cortical neuron to integrate over many independent inputs while still producing highly variable spike trains. Within this context, the variability of spike trains has been almost exclusively measured using the coefficient of variation of interspike intervals. However, another important statistical property that has been found in cortical spike trains and is closely associated with their high firing variability is long-range dependence. We investigate the conditions, if any, under which such models produce output spike trains with both interspike-interval variability and long-range dependence similar to those that have previously been measured from actual cortical neurons. We first show analytically that a large class of high-variability integrate-and-fire models is incapable of producing such outputs based on the fact that their output spike trains are always mathematically equivalent to renewal processes. This class of models subsumes a majority of previously published models, including those that use excitation-inhibition balance, correlated inputs, partial reset, or nonlinear leakage to produce outputs with high variability. Next, we study integrate-and-fire models that have (nonPoissonian) renewal point process inputs instead of the Poisson point process inputs used in the preceding class of models. The confluence of our analytical and simulation results implies that the renewal-input model is capable of producing high variability and long-range dependence comparable to that seen in spike trains recorded from cortical neurons, but only if the interspike intervals of the inputs have infinite variance, a physiologically unrealistic condition. Finally, we suggest a new integrate-and-fire model that does not suffer any of the previously mentioned shortcomings. By analyzing simulation results for this model, we show that it is capable of producing output

  9. ASSESSMENT OF THE CHANGES IN BLOOD PRESSURE CIRCADIAN PROFILE AND VARIABILITY IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC HEART FAILURE AND ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION DURING COMBINED THERAPY INCLUDING IVABRADINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Surovtseva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To assess the changes in blood pressure (BP circadian profile and variability in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF of ischemic etiology and arterial hypertension (HT due to the complex therapy including ivabradine. Material and methods. Patients (n=90 with CHF class II–III NYHA associated with stable angina II-III class and HT were examined. The patients were randomized into 3 groups depending on received drugs: perindopril and ivabradine - group 1; perindopril, bisoprolol and ivabradine - group 2; perindopril and bisoprolol - group 3. The duration of therapy was 6 months. Ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM was assessed at baseline and after treatment. Results. More significant reduction in average 24-hours systolic BP was found in groups 1 and 2 compared to group 3 (Δ%: -19.4±0,4; -21.1±0.4 and -11.8±0.6, respectively as well as diastolic BP (Δ%: -10.6±0.6; -12.9±0.4 and -4,3±0.3, respectively and other ABPM indicators. Improvement of BP circadian rhythm was found due to increase in the number of «Dipper» patients (p=0.016. More significant reduction in average daily and night systolic and diastolic BP (p=0.001, as well as daily and night BP variability (p=0.001 was also found in patients of group 2 compared to these of group 1. Conclusion. Moderate antihypertensive effect (in respect of both diastolic and systolic BP was shown when ivabradine was included into the complex therapy of patients with ischemic CHF and HT. The effect was more pronounced when ivabradine was combined with perindopril and bisoprolol. This was accompanied by reduction in high BP daily variability and improvement of the BP circadian rhythm. 

  10. ASSESSMENT OF THE CHANGES IN BLOOD PRESSURE CIRCADIAN PROFILE AND VARIABILITY IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC HEART FAILURE AND ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION DURING COMBINED THERAPY INCLUDING IVABRADINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Surovtseva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To assess the changes in blood pressure (BP circadian profile and variability in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF of ischemic etiology and arterial hypertension (HT due to the complex therapy including ivabradine. Material and methods. Patients (n=90 with CHF class II–III NYHA associated with stable angina II-III class and HT were examined. The patients were randomized into 3 groups depending on received drugs: perindopril and ivabradine - group 1; perindopril, bisoprolol and ivabradine - group 2; perindopril and bisoprolol - group 3. The duration of therapy was 6 months. Ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM was assessed at baseline and after treatment. Results. More significant reduction in average 24-hours systolic BP was found in groups 1 and 2 compared to group 3 (Δ%: -19.4±0,4; -21.1±0.4 and -11.8±0.6, respectively as well as diastolic BP (Δ%: -10.6±0.6; -12.9±0.4 and -4,3±0.3, respectively and other ABPM indicators. Improvement of BP circadian rhythm was found due to increase in the number of «Dipper» patients (p=0.016. More significant reduction in average daily and night systolic and diastolic BP (p=0.001, as well as daily and night BP variability (p=0.001 was also found in patients of group 2 compared to these of group 1. Conclusion. Moderate antihypertensive effect (in respect of both diastolic and systolic BP was shown when ivabradine was included into the complex therapy of patients with ischemic CHF and HT. The effect was more pronounced when ivabradine was combined with perindopril and bisoprolol. This was accompanied by reduction in high BP daily variability and improvement of the BP circadian rhythm. 

  11. Socio-demographic characteristics as determinants of differences in perception of local gastronomy

    OpenAIRE

    Vuksanović Nikola; Tešanović Dragan; Kalenjuk Bojana; Portić Milijanko; Knežević Marija

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to research differences in socio-demographic characteristics of foreign tourists in consumption of local food in the city centres Belgrade and Novi Sad, Republic of Serbia. The research was conducted on a sample of 673 respondents. The results of this study point out the importance of socio-demographic variables in research of local gastronomy as a significant component of tourism product. The research included the determining of the impact of the city the tourists stayed at. ...

  12. Demographic Variability of Inhalation Mechanics: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    discussion of findings from the literature review and recommendations for inhalation modeling conclude the section. 4.1. OVERVIEW Gender is an important ...roughly equal between the two genders . Additionally, the literature indicates that there are significant differences in the trachea between women and...influencing inhalation mechanics considered are age, gender , body size and height, ethnicity, smoking, altitude exposure, pregnancy, and lung

  13. A SEARCH FOR L/T TRANSITION DWARFS WITH Pan-STARRS1 AND WISE: DISCOVERY OF SEVEN NEARBY OBJECTS INCLUDING TWO CANDIDATE SPECTROSCOPIC VARIABLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Best, William M. J.; Liu, Michael C.; Magnier, Eugene A.; Aller, Kimberly M.; Burgett, W. S.; Chambers, K. C.; Hodapp, K. W.; Kaiser, N.; Kudritzki, R.-P.; Morgan, J. S.; Tonry, J. L.; Wainscoat, R. J. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Deacon, Niall R. [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Dupuy, Trent J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Redstone, Joshua [Facebook, 335 Madison Ave, New York, NY 10017-4677 (United States); Price, P. A., E-mail: wbest@ifa.hawaii.edu [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2013-11-10

    We present initial results from a wide-field (30,000 deg{sup 2}) search for L/T transition brown dwarfs within 25 pc using the Pan-STARRS1 and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) surveys. Previous large-area searches have been incomplete for L/T transition dwarfs, because these objects are faint in optical bands and have near-infrared (near-IR) colors that are difficult to distinguish from background stars. To overcome these obstacles, we have cross-matched the Pan-STARRS1 (optical) and WISE (mid-IR) catalogs to produce a unique multi-wavelength database for finding ultracool dwarfs. As part of our initial discoveries, we have identified seven brown dwarfs in the L/T transition within 9-15 pc of the Sun. The L9.5 dwarf PSO J140.2308+45.6487 and the T1.5 dwarf PSO J307.6784+07.8263 (both independently discovered by Mace et al.) show possible spectroscopic variability at the Y and J bands. Two more objects in our sample show evidence of photometric J-band variability, and two others are candidate unresolved binaries based on their spectra. We expect our full search to yield a well-defined, volume-limited sample of L/T transition dwarfs that will include many new targets for study of this complex regime. PSO J307.6784+07.8263 in particular may be an excellent candidate for in-depth study of variability, given its brightness (J = 14.2 mag) and proximity (11 pc)

  14. Research on the correlation between psychiatric nurse burnout and demographic variables%精神科护士职业倦怠与人口学变量的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵丽俊; 刘艳; 李古忠; 王庆

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨精神科护士职业倦怠与人口学变量之间的相关性.方法 采用职业倦怠量表和自制一般情况问卷对160名护士进行调查.结果 160名护士职业倦怠各维度分值均低于Maslach样本(P<0.01),职业倦怠重度检出率分别为情感耗竭占22.5%,去人格化占6.9%,低个人成就感占50%;男护士职业倦怠感高于女护士(P<0.05);年龄越大、技术职称越高情感耗竭越严重,单身护士、中专学历护士、护师个人成就感最低,6~15年护龄护士去人格化、低个人成就感最严重,合同制护士情感耗竭低于正式护士,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 精神科护士普遍存在职业倦怠,低个人成就感严重;且人口学变量不同,精神科护士职业倦怠感存在明显差异.%Objective To explore the correlation between psychiatric nurse burnout and demographic variables. Methods A total of 160 nurses were investigated with Burnout Questionnaire and self-designed generally questionnaire. Results Various dimensions of job burnout scores by 160 nurses were lower than the Maslach samples (P <0. 01 ), the detection rate of severe burnout were 22.5% for the emotional exhaustion,6.9% for depersonalization, 50% for low personal accomplishment respectively; Male nurses burnout was more than female nurses (P< 0.05 ); older and higher titles groups got more serious emotional exhaustion. Single nurses, nurses of secondary school education, primary nurses had the lowest sense of personal achievement. 6 to 15 years old nurses had the most serious personalized care and low personal accomplishment. Contract nurses emotional exhaustion was lower than formal nurses, the differences had statistically significant (P<0.05 ).Conclusions The psychiatric nurses had serious burnout and generally had low personal accomplishment;besides, the psychiatric nurses' burnout depends on the different demographic variables. The differences showed significant.

  15. Including the spatial variability of metal speciation in the effect factor in life cycle impact assessment: Limits of the equilibrium partitioning method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tromson, Clara; Bulle, Cécile; Deschênes, Louise

    2017-03-01

    In life cycle assessment (LCA), the potential terrestrial ecotoxicity effect of metals, calculated as the effect factor (EF), is usually extrapolated from aquatic ecotoxicological data using the equilibrium partitioning method (EqP) as it is more readily available than terrestrial data. However, when following the AMI recommendations (i.e. with at least enough species that represents three different phyla), there are not enough terrestrial data for which soil properties or metal speciation during ecotoxicological testing are specified to account for the influence of soil property variations on metal speciation when using this approach. Alternatively, the TBLM (Terrestrial Biotic Ligand Model) has been used to determine an EF that accounts for speciation, but is not available for metals; hence it cannot be consistently applied to metals in an LCA context. This paper proposes an approach to include metal speciation by regionalizing the EqP method for Cu, Ni and Zn with a geochemical speciation model (the Windermere Humic Aqueous Model 7.0), for 5213 soils selected from the Harmonized World Soil Database. Results obtained by this approach (EF(EqP)regionalized) are compared to the EFs calculated with the conventional EqP method, to the EFs based on available terrestrial data and to the EFs calculated with the TBLM (EF(TBLM)regionalized) when available. The spatial variability contribution of the EF to the overall spatial variability of the characterization factor (CF) has been analyzed. It was found that the EFs(EqP)regionalized show a significant spatial variability. The EFs calculated with the two non-regionalized methods (EqP and terrestrial data) fall within the range of the EFs(EqP)regionalized. The EFs(TBLM)regionalized cover a larger range of values than the EFs(EqP)regionalized but the two methods are not correlated. This paper highlights the importance of including speciation into the terrestrial EF and shows that using the regionalized EqP approach is not an

  16. An Empirical Study on the Impacts of Demographic Variable on Knowledge Worker's Innovation Behavior%人口统计变量对企业知识员工创新行为影响的实证研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王贵军

    2015-01-01

    Based on the comprehensive analysis of the 1221 questionnaires which were gained from more than 100 enterprises, this paper analyzed the impacts of demographic variable on knowledge worker’s innovation behavior. It was found that gender, age and position had an obvious effect on innovation behavior. And education had a significant correlation with innovation idea’s generation of innovation behavior. Based on the empirical conclusion, the management suggestions were put forward from the perspective of enterprises in this thesis.%以来自国内100多家企业的1221份答卷为统计样本,分析了人口统计变量对知识员工创新行为的影响,发现性别、年龄、职位对创新行为有显著影响,学历对创新行为之创新构想产生有显著影响。针对实证结论,从企业视角提出了管理建议。

  17. Latino Electoral Participation: Variations on Demographics and Ethnicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Leighley

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Using the 2012 Latino Immigrant National Election Study, the 2012 American National Election Study, and the 2012 Current Population Survey, we document the demographic factors that influenced Latino (native-born and immigrant voter turnout and participation in the 2012 presidential election. We estimate multivariable models of turnout and participation, including standard demographic characteristics (education, income, age, gender, marital status as explanatory variables. Our findings indicate that the relationships between these characteristics and participation are much less consistent across these datasets than the conventional wisdom would suggest. Understanding these results likely requires survey data—with large sample sizes—including information on the resources (including education and income available to immigrants in their home countries to better understand the lingering influences of immigrants’ experiences in their countries of origin on voter turnout.

  18. The State Economic, Demographic & Fiscal Handbook 1993.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, David; Cohen, Lee

    This handbook is an easy-to-use reference book for policymakers, public officials, and policy analysts, as well as anyone else who may need up-to-date information about state economic, demographic, and fiscal data. The book includes data on demographics, poverty rates, per capita state personal income, state and local tax rates, and state and…

  19. Democratic constraints on demographic policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigsby, J S

    1984-01-01

    purpose of making policy recommendations aimed directly at mitigating demographic problems. As demographic goals have little meaning outside of a broader context, it comes as no surprise that the population commissions of Sweden and the US broadened their scope of analysis to include social issues that extended beyond simply demographic problems themselves. To be effective, population commissions should be seen as a basis for making well thought out policy recommendations for solving concrete economic or social problems. The population commission can also be regarded as an educational forum for researchers, the government, and the public.

  20. DEMOGRAPHIC SECURITY: THEORY, METHODOLOGY, EVALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail V. Karmanov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the theoretical aspects of demographic security. Reviewed and analyzed the point of view of various scholars to the definition of demographic security. The main directions of statistical analysis of demographic security.

  1. [Demographic profile of Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero, I

    1984-04-01

    Sources of demographic data for Venezuela include 11 population censuses conducted between 1873-1981, birth and death registration statistics, and the household sample survey. The average annual rate of population growth increase from 2.8% between 1920-40 to 3-4% thereafter. The population at the 1961 census was 7.52 million. According to preliminary data from the 1981 census, the population of 14.57 million is growing at an annual rate of 2.8%. 41.2% of the population is under 15 years old, implying a huge demand for educational and health services, housing and employment. The dependency rate in 1980 was 81.3% for the country as a whole, 100.4% in rural areas, and 76.0% in urban areas. The young age structure means that the population will continue to grow even if natality rates decline. The crude natality rate was estimated at 47.3/1000 for 1950-55, 36.0 for 1970-75, and 32.9 for 1980-85. Some rural areas still have natality rates of over 47/1000. The total fertility rate declined from 6.5 in 1950-55 to 4.1 in 1980-85. The decline in the natality rate reflects improving quality of life, availability of family planning services, urbanization, and access of women to productive activities and educational centers. The mortality rate was 12.3/1000 in 1950-55, 9.1 in 1960-65, in 1970-75, and has been estimated at 5.5 for 1980-85. Some rural areas have mortality rates of 8.1. The infant mortality rate was 50.2/1000 in 1971 and 34.3 in 1980. Life expectancy at birth is about 69 years. During the 1920s, Venezuela unerwent expansion in infrastructure and technological utilization, generating rapid urbanization. 39.2% of the population was urban in 1941, compared to 78.8% in 1980. The significance of urbanization in Venezuela is due to the rapidity as well as the diffusion of the process. The household sample survey for the 2nd half of 1980 indicated a total of 8.16 million employed and an activity rate of 32.1% overall, 46.4% for males and 17.7% for females. The

  2. Demographic Change and Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haustein, Sonja; Siren, Anu Kristiina; Framke, Elisabeth

    This report is the literature review on demographic changes and transport of Work Package 1 of the EU project CONSOL, “CONcerns and SOLutions – Road Safety in the Ageing Societies” (contract period: 2011-2013). The report is a state-of-the art report that combines current knowledge with new findi...

  3. Burnout syndrome in physical therapists - demographic and organizational factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pustułka-Piwnik, Urszula; Ryn, Zdzisław Jan; Krzywoszański, Łukasz; Stożek, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    Professional burnout results from prolonged exposure to chronic, job-related stressors. According to Christina Maslach, professional burnout is a syndrome of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and reduced personal accomplishment. Literature includes a number of reports on burnout syndrome within health service, but hardly ever do they make any references to physiotherapists. The purpose of this study is assessment of the level of professional burnout in a group of physiotherapists and investigating relationships between the indices of burnout syndrome and selected demographic as well as organizational variables. The study group consisted of 151 physiotherapists with at least 3 years of experience, employed in various health service outposts in Krakow, Poland. The Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) was used to measure emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and personal accomplishment. A questionnaire for the description of socio-demographic and work characteristics was used as well. Job burnout among the physiotherapists was manifested by an increased emotional exhaustion and decreased sense of personal achievement. Emotional exhaustion was significantly higher among physi cal therapists working with adults and employed in hospitals, depersonalization was higher among men, hospital workers and employees with seniority from 15 to 19 years, personal accomplishment was decreased among men and less-educated therapists. The study confirmed that indicators of burnout in physiotherapists are significantly associated with selected demographic and organizational variables. It is necessary to undertake a more exhaustive study of burnout in this group of employees, and implement elements of prevention.

  4. The importance of socio-demographic indicators in regional disparities in turkey, 1990-1994

    OpenAIRE

    Gedik, Ayse; Sahin, Nihan; Suer, Sibel

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study is to test the relative importance of the socio-demographic versus economic variables in discriminating the inter-regional differences in Turkey in 1990-94. Our findings show that the "socio-demographic" variables are much more significant than the "economic" variables. Among the socio-demographic variables, especially those variables related with the fertility and the size of household, and the female education such as the "female literacy ratio" and "female schooling r...

  5. Spatial and temporal variability of snow accumulation in Dronning Maud Land, East Antarctica, including two deep ice coring sites at Dome Fuji and EPICA DML

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Fujita

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available To better understand the spatio-temporal variability of the glaciological environment in Dronning Maud Land (DML, East Antarctica, investigations were carried out along the 2800-km-long Japanese-Swedish IPY 2007/2008 traverse. The route covers ice sheet ridges and two deep ice coring sites at Dome Fuji and EPICA DML. The surface mass balance (SMB distribution was derived based on analysis of isochrones within snow pits, firn cores and subsurface radar signals. The SMB averaged over various time scales in the Holocene was determined. This was then compared with various glaciological data. We find that the large-scale distribution of the SMB depends on the surface elevation, continentality and interactions between ice sheet ridges and the prevailing counterclockwise windfield in DML. A different SMB is found for the windward and leeward sides of the ridges. Local-scale variability in the SMB is essentially governed by bedrock topography which determines the local surface topography. In the eastern part of DML, the accumulation rate in the second half of the 20th century is found to be higher by 15 % compared to averages over longer periods of 722 a or 7.9 ka before AD 2008. A similar trend has been reported for many inland plateau sites in East Antarctica.

  6. Characterization of Genotoxic Response to 15 Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes with Variable Physicochemical Properties Including Surface Functionalizations in the FE1-Muta(TM) Mouse Lung Epithelial Cell Line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jackson, Petra; Kling, Kirsten; Jensen, Keld Alstrup

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes vary greatly in physicochemical properties. We compared cytotoxic and genotoxic response to 15 multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) with varying physicochemical properties to identify drivers of toxic responses. The studied MWCNT included OECD Working Party on Manufactured...

  7. Evolutionary shaping of demographic schedules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachter, Kenneth W.; Steinsaltz, David; Evans, Steven N.

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary processes of natural selection may be expected to leave their mark on age patterns of survival and reproduction. Demographic theory includes three main strands—mutation accumulation, stochastic vitality, and optimal life histories. This paper reviews the three strands and, concentrating on mutation accumulation, extends a mathematical result with broad implications concerning the effect of interactions between small age-specific effects of deleterious mutant alleles. Empirical data from genomic sequencing along with prospects for combining strands of theory hold hope for future progress. PMID:25024186

  8. Relationship between socio-demographic and clinical variables, and health-related quality of life in patients with inflammatory bowel disease Relación entre variables sociodemográficas y clínicas y calidad de vida relacionada con la salud en pacientes con enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. López Blanco

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: the principal aim of the present study is to evaluate the influence of socio-demographic and clinical variables on health-related quality of life (HRQL in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Patients and method: this was a cross-sectional study. health-related quality of life was measured with the Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire (IBDQ. A total of 120 patients, 60 with ulcerative colitis and 60 with Crohn's disease, participated in the study. Results: no significant differences were observed between ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease patients in IBDQ dimensions. However, a multivariate analysis revealed that sex, type of treatment, extraintestinal symptoms, number of relapses in previous year, satisfaction with surgery, and need for psychological support were related to HRQL. Conclusions: the identification of these variables associated with HRQL in patients with inflammatory bowel disease shows them to be basically non-disease factors. Knowledge of such elements can turn out to be very useful in order to guide future research and modify specific factors in further interventions.Objetivo: el objetivo principal del presente trabajo consiste en evaluar la influencia de las variables sociodemográficas y clínicas en la calidad de vida relacionada con la salud de los pacientes con enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal. Pacientes y método: se trata de un estudio transversal. La calidad de vida relacionada con la salud se investigó utilizando el "Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire" (IBDQ. Un total de 120 pacientes, 60 con colitis ulcerosa y 60 con enfermedad de Crohn participaron en el estudio. Resultados: no se apreciaron diferencias significativas en la calidad de vida relacionada con la salud en las dimensiones del IBDQ en función de la enfermedad, sin embargo, tras el análisis multivariante, el sexo, el tipo de tratamiento, las manifestaciones extradigestivas, el número de recaídas anual, la satisfacción con

  9. Prevalence, demographic characteristics and associated risk factors of malnutrition among 0-5 aged children: a cross-sectional study from Van, eastern Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Baran Serdar Kizilyildiz; Bülent Sönmez; Kamuran Karaman; Burhan Beger; Adnan Mercen; Süleyman Alioğlu; Yaşar Cesur

    2016-01-01

    Malnutrition in childhood is a dramatic indicator of poor socio-economical status worldwide. To recognize and reveal the socio-demographic features is crucial, especially for developing countries. Our aim was to investigate the prevalence and association with sociodemographic variables of malnutrition in 0-5 years old children in Van, Turkey. A total of 702 children are included in this cross-sectional study. Demographic features of subject including age, gender, family characteristics and ot...

  10. Prevalence, Demographic Characteristics and Associated Risk Factors of Malnutrition Among 0-5 Aged Children: A Cross-Sectional Study From Van, Eastern Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Kizilyildiz, Baran Serdar; SÖNMEZ Bülent; Karaman, Kamuran; Beger, Burhan; Mercen, Adnan; Alioglu, Süleyman; CESUR, Yasar

    2016-01-01

    Malnutrition in childhood is a dramatic indicator of poor socio-economical status worldwide. To recognize and reveal the socio-demographic features is crucial, especially for developing countries. Our aim was to investigate the prevalence and association with sociodemographic variables of malnutrition in 0-5 years old children in Van, Turkey. A total of 702 children are included in this cross-sectional study. Demographic features of subject including age, gender, family characteristics and ot...

  11. Building demographic literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crews, K

    1993-01-01

    Students should get in the habit of seeking out the most current projections, estimates, or rates available. Since demographic measures change over time, publications based on the UN's world population projections from 1980 or 1990 may need to be supplemented using the UN's most current, 1992, projections. A 1989 Census Bureau report on the African American Population will not contain data from the 1990 Census or the 1992 Current Population Survey, conducted by the Census Bureau. Some groups collect data with advocacy in mind, as shown by the range of estimates of participants at the 1993 National March on Washington for Lesbian, Gay and Bi Equal Rights and Liberation. The organizers estimated that 1 million people participated; the US Park Police estimated 300,000; and the Washington Blade, a gay newspaper, reported 750,000. A seemingly innocuous choice of phrasing can change the meaning of demographic data. One commonly misreported concept is population doubling time which is not a prediction, but rather a concept designed to accent how fast a population is growing at the present time. At current rates, the population of India would double in size in 34 years, but it is more likely that growth rates will begin to slow down somewhat during that time. Older students may be encouraged to examine the assumptions behind population projections. The UN's long-range projection that world population will grow to 10 billion by 2050 is based on certain assumption about fertility and mortality during the period. With regard to the fastest growing US minority, Hispanics added the largest number of people to the US population during the 1980s, but Asians had the largest percent increase. The time to initiate demographic literacy is in the early grades of school.

  12. Mercury Concentrations in Fish and Sediment within Streams are Influenced by Watershed and Landscape Variables including Historical Gold Mining in the Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpers, C. N.; Yee, J. L.; Ackerman, J. T.; Orlando, J. L.; Slotton, D. G.; Marvin-DiPasquale, M. C.

    2015-12-01

    We compiled available data on total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in fish tissue and streambed sediment from stream sites in the Sierra Nevada, California, to assess whether spatial data, including information on historical mining, can be used to make robust predictions of fish fillet tissue THg concentrations. A total of 1,271 fish from five species collected at 103 sites during 1980-2012 were used for the modeling effort: 210 brown trout, 710 rainbow trout, 79 Sacramento pikeminnow, 93 Sacramento sucker, and 179 smallmouth bass. Sediment data were used from 73 sites, including 106 analyses of THg and 77 analyses of MeHg. The dataset included 391 fish (mostly rainbow trout) and 28 sediment samples collected explicitly for this study during 2011-12. Spatial data on historical mining included the USGS Mineral Resources Data System and publicly available maps and satellite photos showing the areas of hydraulic mine pits and other placer mines. Modeling was done using multivariate linear regression and multi-model inference using Akaike Information Criteria. Results indicate that fish THg, accounting for species and length, can be predicted using geospatial data on mining history together with other landscape characteristics including land use/land cover. A model requiring only geospatial data, with an R2 value of 0.61, predicted fish THg correctly with respect to over-or-under 0.2 μg/g wet weight (a California regulatory threshold) for 108 of 121 (89 %) size-species combinations tested. Data for THg in streambed sediment did not improve the geospatial-only model. However, data for sediment MeHg, loss on ignition (organic content), and percent of sediment less than 0.063 mm resulted in a slightly improved model, with an R2 value of 0.63. It is anticipated that these models will be useful to the State of California and others to predict areas where mercury concentrations in fish are likely to exceed regulatory criteria.

  13. Demographic cycles, cohort size, and earnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, M C

    1989-05-01

    This article examines whether position in the demographic cycle is an important factor in determining earnings and earnings growth. Earnings equations for white males are estimated by using March Current Population Survey data. Position in the demographic cycle is captured by including both measures of own cohort size and the size of surrounding cohorts in the estimated earnings equations. Position in the demographic cycle matters. Increases in own cohort size lead to flatter earnings profiles, whereas increases in the size of surrounding cohorts are associated with steeper earnings profiles. The net effect is that those who enter the labor market before or after the peak of the demographic cycle start out with lower earnings but experience faster earnings growth. This pattern is uniform across all schooling groups: high school dropouts, high school graduates, those with some college, and college graduates.

  14. EJSCREEN Version 1, Demographic Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This map service displays demographic data used in EJSCREEN. All demographic data were derived from American Community Survey 2006-2010 estimates. EJSCREEN is an...

  15. Demographic and social factors associated with homophobia and fear of AIDS in a community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walch, Susan E; Orlosky, Paula M; Sinkkanen, Kimberly A; Stevens, Heather R

    2010-01-01

    Examinations of demographic and social factors associated with homophobia and fear of AIDS are limited by the frequent use of homogeneous, college student samples and limited examination of interrelationships among variables. The present study examined community attitudes toward homosexuality and fear of HIV/AIDS as a function of age, education, race/ethnicity, religious affiliation, political party affiliation, and personal contact with homosexual individuals and persons living with HIV/AIDS. A community sample of 463 adults completed standardized measures of homophobia and fear of AIDS as well as demographic and social background items. When examined separately, each demographic and social factor assessed, with the exception of race/ethnicity, was associated with homophobia and all but race/ethnicity and political party affiliation were associated with fear of AIDS. However, when entered into multiple regression analyses, 24% of the variance in homophobia was predicted by a single variable, including only personal contact with homosexual individuals, while 18% of the variance in fear of AIDS was accounted for by five variables, including personal contact with homosexual individuals, religious affiliation, political affiliation, education, and personal contact with someone living with HIV/AIDS. Findings suggest that it is important to consider intercorrelations among social and demographic factors, particularly when considering homophobia.

  16. VLT/X-shooter observations of the low-metallicity blue compact dwarf galaxy PHL 293B including a luminous blue variable star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izotov, Y. I.; Guseva, N. G.; Fricke, K. J.; Henkel, C.

    2011-09-01

    Context. We present VLT/X-shooter spectroscopic observations in the wavelength range λλ3000-23 000 Å of the extremely metal-deficient blue compact dwarf (BCD) galaxy PHL 293B containing a luminous blue variable (LBV) star and compare them with previous data. Aims: This BCD is one of the two lowest-metallicity galaxies where LBV stars were detected, allowing us to study the LBV phenomenon in the extremely low metallicity regime. Methods: We determine abundances of nitrogen, oxygen, neon, sulfur, argon, and iron by analyzing the fluxes of narrow components of the emission lines using empirical methods and study the properties of the LBV from the fluxes and widths of broad emission lines. Results: We derive an interstellar oxygen abundance of 12+log O/H = 7.71 ± 0.02, which is in agreement with previous determinations. The observed fluxes of narrow Balmer, Paschen and Brackett hydrogen lines correspond to the theoretical recombination values after correction for extinction with a single value C(Hβ) = 0.225. This implies that the star-forming region observed in the optical range is the only source of ionisation and there is no additional source of ionisation that is seen in the NIR range but is hidden in the optical range. We detect three v = 1-0 vibrational lines of molecular hydrogen. Their flux ratios and non-detection of v = 2-1 and 3-1 emission lines suggest that collisional excitation is the main source producing H2 lines. For the LBV star in PHL 293B we find broad emission with P Cygni profiles in several Balmer hydrogen emission lines and for the first time in several Paschen hydrogen lines and in several He i emission lines, implying temporal evolution of the LBV on a time scale of 8 years. The Hα luminosity of the LBV star is by one order of magnitude higher than the one obtained for the LBV star in NGC 2363 ≡ Mrk 71 which has a slightly higher metallicity 12+logO/H = 7.87. The terminal velocity of the stellar wind in the low-metallicity LBV of PHL293

  17. Chronological objects in demographic research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans J. Willekens

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Calendar time, age and duration are chronological objects. They represent an instant or a time period. Age and duration are usually expressed in units with varying lengths. The number of days in a month or a year depends on the position on the calendar. The units are also not homogeneous and the structure influences measurement. One solution, common in demography, is to use units that are large enough for the results not to be seriously affected by differences in length and structure. Another approach is to take the idiosyncrasy of calendars into account and to work directly with calendar dates. The technology that enables logical and arithmetic operations on dates is available. OBJECTIVE To illustrate logical and arithmetic operations on dates and conversions between time measurements. METHODS Software packages include utilities to process dates. I use existing and a few new utilities in R to illustrate operations on dates and conversions between calendar dates and elapsed time since a reference moment or a reference event. Three demographic applications are presented. The first is the impact of preferences for dates and days on demographic indicators. The second is event history analysis with time-varying covariates. The third is microsimulation of life histories in continuous time. CONCLUSIONS The technology exists to perform operations directly on dates, enabling more precise calculations of duration and elapsed time in demographic analysis. It eliminates the need for (a approximations and (b transformations of dates, such as Century Month Code, that are convenient for computing durations but are a barrier to interpretation. Operations on dates, such as the computation of age, should consider time units of varying length.

  18. Pregnancy intention, demographic differences, and psychosocial health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxson, Pamela; Miranda, Marie Lynn

    2011-08-01

    We explore the psychosocial, demographic, and maternal characteristics across wanted, mistimed, and unwanted pregnancies. Data from 1321 women from a prospective cohort study of pregnant women in Durham, NC, are analyzed. Psychosocial correlates were obtained through prenatal surveys; electronic medical records were used to ascertain maternal health and pregnancy outcomes. Sixty-two percent of the women indicated an unintended pregnancy, with 44% (578) mistimed and 18% (245) unwanted. Only 38% of the pregnancies were characterized as wanted. Women with unwanted and with mistimed pregnancies were similar demographically, but they differed significantly on psychosocial profiles and maternal characteristics. Women with mistimed and with wanted pregnancies differed in demographics and psychosocial profiles. Wanted pregnancies had the healthiest, mistimed an intermediate, and unwanted the poorest psychosocial profile. Women with unwanted pregnancies had the highest depression, perceived stress, and negative paternal support scores (ppsychosocial profiles had higher odds of being in the unwanted category. Controlling for psychosocial and demographic variables, perceived stress and positive paternal support remained significant predictors of belonging to the unwanted and mistimed groups. Fully characterizing pregnancy intention and its relationship to psychosocial profiles may provide a basis for identifying women with highest risk during pregnancy and early motherhood. Women with unwanted and mistimed pregnancies may appear similar demographically but are different psychosocially. Women with unwanted pregnancies have multiple risk factors and would benefit from targeted interventions.

  19. Variations in Rectal Volumes and Dosimetry Values Including NTCP due to Interfractional Variability When Administering 2D-Based IG-IMRT for Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Hanada

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We estimated variations in rectal volumes and dosimetry values including NTCP with interfractional motion during prostate IG-IMRT. Rectal volumes, DVH parameters, and NTCPs of 20 patients were analyzed. For this patient population, the median (range volume on the initial plan for the rectum was 45.6 cc (31.3–82.0, showing on-treatment spread around the initial prediction based on the initial plan. DVH parameters of on-treatment CBCT analyses showed systematic regularity shift from the prediction based on the initial plan. Using the Lyman-Kutcher-Burman model, NTCPs of predicted late rectal bleeding toxicity of rectal grade ≥ 2 (RTOG and the QUANTEC update rectal toxicity for the prediction based on the initial plan were 0.09% (0.02–0.24 and 0.02% (0.00–0.07, respectively, with NTCPs from on-treatment CBCT analyses being 0.35% (0.01–6.16 and 0.12% (0.00–4.11, respectively. Using the relative seriality model, for grade ≥ 2 bleeding rectal toxicity, NTCP of the prediction based on the initial plan was 0.64% (0.15–1.22 versus 1.48% (0.18–7.66 for on-treatment CBCT analysis. Interfraction variations in rectal volumes occur in all patients due to physiological changes. Thus, rectal assessment during 2D-based IG-IMRT using NTCP models has the potential to provide useful and practical dosimetric verification.

  20. Socio-demographic factors and edentulism: the Nigerian experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akeredolu Patricia

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rate of total edentulism is said to be increasing in developing countries and this had been attributed mainly to the high prevalence of periodontal diseases and caries. Several reports have shown that non-disease factors such as attitude, behavior, dental attendance, characteristics of health care systems and socio-demographic factors play important roles in the aetiopathogenesis of edentulism. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between socio-demographic factors and edentulism. Methods A total of 152 patients made up of 80 (52.6% males and 72 (47.4% females who presented in two prosthetic clinics located in an urban and a rural area were included in the study. The relationship between gender, age, socio-economic status and edentulism in this study population was established. Results No significant relationship between gender and denture demand was noted in the study. The demand for complete dentures increased with age while the demand for removable partial dentures also increased with age until the 3rd decade and then started to decline. A significant relationship was found between denture demand and the level of education with a higher demand in lower educational groups (p Conclusions The findings in this study revealed a significant relationship between socio-demographic variables and edentulism with age, educational level and socio-economic status playing vital roles in edentulism and denture demand.

  1. Demographic trends in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present note, we present the main features of recent trends in vital family-demographic behavior in Sweden. For this purpose, published indices of marriage, divorce, and childbearing risks by calendar year are updated by adding another two or three years of observation to our series. We demonstrate that the latest trend reversal in Swedish birth rates, which occurred at the end of the 1990s, continued to manifest itself in increasing propensities for childbearing during the early years of the 21st century. The rise pertains to all birth orders. Marriage propensities showed an increase as well, however, to a large extent expressed in a short-term development that was prevalent at the turn of the millennium. The previous long-term trend of rising divorce risks leveled off during the first two years of the new century.

  2. Dimensions of Delusions in Major Depression: Socio-demographic and Clinical Correlates in an Unipolar-Bipolar Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaninotto, Leonardo; Souery, Daniel; Calati, Raffaella; Camardese, Giovanni; Janiri, Luigi; Montgomery, Stuart; Kasper, Siegfried; Zohar, Joseph; De Ronchi, Diana; Mendlewicz, Julien; Serretti, Alessandro

    2015-04-30

    The present study aims at exploring associations between a continuous measure of distorted thought contents and a set of demographic and clinical features in a sample of unipolar/bipolar depressed patients. Our sample included 1,833 depressed subjects. Severity of mood symptoms was assessed by the 21 items Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D). The continuous outcome measure was represented by a delusion (DEL) factor, extracted from HAM-D items and including items: 2 ("Feelings of guilt"), 15 ("Hypochondriasis"), and 20 ("Paranoid symptoms"). Each socio-demographic and clinical variable was tested by a generalized linear model test, having depressive severity (HAM-D score?DEL score) as the covariate. A family history of major depressive disorder (MDD; p=0.0006), a diagnosis of bipolar disorder, type I ( p=0.0003), a comorbid general anxiety disorder (psocio-demographic or clinical variable was found to be associated to our continuous measure of distorted thinking in depression.

  3. Transtorno mental, indicadores demográficos e satisfação com a vida Trastorno mental, indicadores demográficos y satisfacción con la vida Mental disorder, demographic variables and life satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Maffasioli Gonçalves

    2008-12-01

    -report Questionnaire-20 items y a la Escala de Satisfacción Con la Vida, ésta para evaluar el componente cognitivo del bienestar subjetivo. RESULTADOS: El total de individuos participantes del estudio fue de 625. Ser del sexo femenino reflejó asociación significativa e inversa con la satisfacción con la vida. Lo mismo ocurrió entre los puntajes de seguimiento psiquiátrico y de la Escala de Satisfacción Con la Vida. Por otro lado, la edad presentó asociación significativa y positiva con la Escala. Posterior al análisis multivariado, todas las tres variables permanecieron asociadas en el resultado. Individuos con enfermedad crónica no psiquiátrica no se diferenciaron de los que no presentaron enfermedad en el puntaje de la Escala de Satisfacción Con la Vida. CONCLUSIONES: La asociación positiva entre la Escala de Satisfacción Con la Vida y edad está de acuerdo con su validez en Brasil. La relación inversa entre puntaje del instrumento de seguimiento psiquiátrico y la Escala confirma el impacto negativo de los trastornos mentales.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of positive screening of non-psychotic mental disorders, sociodemographic variables, and concomitant non-psychiatric chronic diseases on the Satisfaction with Life Scale scores. METHODS: The study included residents of an area covered by the Health Family Program in Santa Cruz do Sul, Southern Brazil, between June 30 and August 30, 2006. Respondents answered a psychiatric screening tool, the Self-report Questionnaire-20, and the Satisfaction with Life Scale to assess the cognitive component of subjective well-being. RESULTS: A total of 625 respondents were included in the study. Females showed significant inverse association with life satisfaction. The same association was seen between psychiatric screening and Satisfaction with Life Scale scores. Age had a significant positive association with the Scale scores. After the multivariate analysis, these three variables remained significantly associated to the

  4. Demographic Data, US Census 2000 source data for Rhode Island exerpted from Summary File 1 (SF1) of Population & Housing information including sex, race, age, household and housing unit information to the Census Block level. The spatial base for this data set was derived f, Published in 2007, 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Demographic Data dataset, published at 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Road Centerline Files information as of 2007. It is described...

  5. Demographic Data, US Census 2000 source data for Rhode Island excerpted from Summary File 3 (SF3) of Population, Housing & Economic information including sex, race, age, employment, transportation, education, income, household, family, housing unit, place of birth and lang, Published in 2007, 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Demographic Data dataset, published at 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Road Centerline Files information as of 2007. It is described...

  6. Association among nursing diagnoses, demographic variables, and clinical characteristics of patients with high blood pressure Asociación entre diagnósticos de enfermería y variables sociales/clinicas en pacientes hipertensos Associação entre diagnósticos de enfermagem e variáveis sociais/clínicas em pacientes hipertensos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca de Fátima Vasconcelos

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To analyze the association among diagnoses, demographic variables, and clinical characteristics of patients with high blood pressure. METHODS: The data were collected in 67 patients from a primary care unit in Fortaleza, Brazil. The NANDA Taxonomy was used to determine the nursing diagnoses. Data analysis consisted of Fisher's exact test, Chi-square test, and likelihood ratio test. RESULTS: Fifty four nursing diagnoses were identified; fifteen were above the 75th percentile. Ineffective individual therapeutic regimen management and number of medication, sleep pattern disturbance and marital status, activity intolerance and education, activity intolerance and time of diagnoses, sexual dysfunction and gender, sexual dysfunction and education, risk for falls and age, marital status and time of diagnoses, chronic pain and marital status all had significant association coefficients. CONCLUSION: Some demographic characteristics were associated with nursing diagnoses.OBJETIVO: Analizar la asociación estadística entre diagnósticos y características sociales / clínicas de pacientes hipertensos. MÉTODOS: Los datos fueron recolectados en una unidad básica de salud de Fortaleza-Ceará con 67 pacientes. La identificación de los diagnósticos se llevó a cabo según la taxonomía de la NANDA. Para el análisis de los datos se utilizó test de Fisher, Chi-Cuadrado de Pearson y Razón de Verosemejanza. RESULTADOS: Se encontró 54 diagnósticos de enfermería y 15 sobre el percentil 75. Se verificó asociación estadística entre: Control eficaz del régimen terapéutico y número de medicamentos; Patrón de sueño perturbado y estado civil; Intolerancia a la actividad y escolaridad y años de diagnóstico; Disfunción sexual y sexo y escolaridad; Riesgo para caídas y edad, estado civil y tiempo de diagnóstico de la enfermedad; Dolor crónico y estado civil. CONCLUSIÓN: Algunas características demográficas están asociadas a la

  7. Media usage as health segmentation variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Shelly; Chen, Qimei; Duffy, Margaret; Fleming, Kenneth

    2007-03-01

    The purpose of this research is to contrast a traditional audience segmentation model that uses demographics and health evaluations against a model that uses these same variables plus media usage variables. The goal was to determine whether media usage variables - typically not used in health segmentation studies - add predictive power in determining health behaviors and attitudes. The results of the analysis showed an increase in the ability to predict health behaviors such as aspirin use, vitamin use, diet, and exercise, and suggest that there is predictive value for including media variables as part of the segmentation process. Implications for public health education and campaign planning are discussed.

  8. Burnout syndrome in physical therapists – Demographic and organizational factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urszula Pustułka-Piwnik

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Professional burnout results from prolonged exposure to chronic, job-related stressors. According to Christina Maslach, professional burnout is a syndrome of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and reduced personal accomplishment. Literature includes a number of reports on burnout syndrome within health service, but hardly ever do they make any references to physiotherapists. The purpose of this study is assessment of the level of professional burnout in a group of physiotherapists and investigating relationships between the indices of burnout syndrome and selected demographic as well as organizational variables. Material and Methods: The study group consisted of 151 physiotherapists with at least 3 years of experience, employed in various health service outposts in Krakow, Poland. The Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI was used to measure emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and personal accomplishment. A questionnaire for the description of socio-demographic and work characteristics was used as well. Results: Job burnout among the physiotherapists was manifested by an increased emotional exhaustion and decreased sense of personal achievement. Emotional exhaustion was significantly higher among physical therapists working with adults and employed in hospitals, depersonalization was higher among men, hospital workers and employees with seniority from 15 to 19 years, personal accomplishment was decreased among men and less-educated therapists. Conclusions: The study confirmed that indicators of burnout in physiotherapists are significantly associated with selected demographic and organizational variables. It is necessary to undertake a more exhaustive study of burnout in this group of employees, and implement elements of prevention. Med Pr 2014;65(4:453–462

  9. Durham County Demographic Profile

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — (a) Includes persons reporting only one race.(b) Hispanics may be of any race, so also are included in applicable race categories. D: Suppressed to avoid disclosure...

  10. Demographic development in ASEAN: a comparative overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrin, A N; Pardoko, H; Lim, L L; Hongladorom, C

    1981-01-01

    A comparative overview of recent demographic developments in the ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations) region is presented. Countries discussed include Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. Separate consideration is given to mortality; fertility; and migration, spatial distribution, and employment. A final section is concerned with emerging issues and directions for population policy.

  11. Economic and Demographic Predictors of Inclusive Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosier, Meghan E.; Causton-Theoharis, Julie

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated economic and demographic predictors of levels of inclusion of students with disabilities in 129 school districts. Multiple regression analysis was utilized to address the following research questions: (a) Is there a relationship between economic factors and percentage of highly included students with disabilities in general…

  12. Local Public Libraries Serve Important Functions as Meeting Places, but Demographic Variables Appear Significant, Suggesting a Need for Extensive Further Research. A Review of: Aabø, S., Audunson, R., & Vårheim, A. (2010. How do public libraries function as meeting places? Library & Information Science Research, 32(1, 16-26. doi: 10.1016/j.lisr.2009.07.008.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Laval Hunsucker

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – The investigators hoped to gain an understanding of the extent to which local public libraries are used by their visitors as meeting places, and in what ways. Furthermore, they sought to determine whether certain demographic variables correlate with variations in these ways of using the library. Finally, they were looking for evidence of a relationship between the degree of the subjects’ general community involvement on the one hand, and their participation in various types of meetings in the library on the other.Design – Questionnaire-based telephone survey.Setting – Oslo, Norway.Subjects – 750 adult residents (eighteen years or older from 3 of Oslo’s 15 boroughs.Methods – The researchers selected these boroughs (not identified in this article and referred to, unusually, as “townships” because they judged them to represent three demographically varying types of urban community. In March of 2006, a professional survey organization drew numbers at random from a database of telephone numbers in each borough, continuing until it had reached the desired number of 250 actual survey respondents, including cell phone users, for each borough. It weighted the sample according to gender and age, and administered the telephone interviews on the basis of a questionnaire which the researchers had designed to yield quantitative data for ten independent, and seven dependent, variables. Interviewers asked the respondents to answer questions on the basis of their entire recollected personal history of public library use, rather than during a specific defined period.Six of the independent variables were demographic: borough of residence, occupational category, age category, educational level, cultural/linguistic background (dichotomous: either non-Norwegian or Norwegian, and household income category. The other four were: level of participation in local activities, degree of involvement in community improvement activities, degree to

  13. Demographic aspects of social security in region

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    Alla Gennad'evna Leont'eva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a situational analysis of the level of life safety in the field of demographic regions of the Ural Federal District. The analysis is based on data from the Federal Statistics and covers the period 2000-2010. We have developed a system of indicators for evaluating safety in the demographic sphere. We set the main threats to the social and economic stability in the regions. The system of thresholds includes three blocks: the reproduction of the population, marriage and family relationships and health. We have presented a quantitative description of the main threats. Identified priority areas of social protection, providing increased stability of the regional socio-economic development, reducing the likelihood of social conflicts and improve the demographic situation.

  14. Rural Household Demographics, Livelihoods and the Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sherbinin, Alex; Vanwey, Leah; McSweeney, Kendra; Aggarwal, Rimjhim; Barbieri, Alisson; Henry, Sabina; Hunter, Lori M; Twine, Wayne

    2008-02-01

    This paper reviews and synthesizes findings from scholarly work on linkages among rural household demographics, livelihoods and the environment. Using the livelihood approach as an organizing framework, we examine evidence on the multiple pathways linking environmental variables and the following demographic variables: fertility, migration, morbidity and mortality, and lifecycles. Although the review draws on studies from the entire developing world, we find the majority of micro-level studies have been conducted in either marginal (mountainous or arid) or frontier environments, especially Amazonia. Though the linkages are mediated by many complex and often context-specific factors, there is strong evidence that dependence on natural resources intensifies when households lose human and social capital through adult morbidity and mortality, and qualified evidence for the influence of environmental factors on household decision-making regarding fertility and migration. Two decades of research on lifecycles and land-cover change at the farm level have yielded a number of insights about how households make use of different land-use and natural resource management strategies at different stages. A thread running throughout the review is the importance of managing risk through livelihood diversification, ensuring future income security, and culture-specific norms regarding appropriate and desirable activities and demographic responses. Recommendations for future research are provided.

  15. Demographic Trends: Impact on Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Sylvia N. Y.; Cheah, Horn Mun

    2010-01-01

    Background: Singapore is experiencing great demographic change. These demographic trends show fewer young people and declining birth rates, greater longevity for ageing generations and an increase in the number of non-Singaporean residents. Statistics also show that more than half of the total population increase in the last decades was…

  16. Climatic influence on demographic parameters of a tropical seabird varies with age and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oro, Daniel; Torres, Roxana; Rodríguez, Cristina; Drummond, Hugh

    2010-04-01

    In marine ecosystems climatic fluctuation and other physical variables greatly influence population dynamics, but differential effects of physical variables on the demographic parameters of the two sexes and different age classes are largely unexplored. We analyzed the effects of climate on the survival and recruitment of both sexes and several age classes of a long-lived tropical seabird, the Blue-footed Booby (Sula nebouxii), using long-term observations on marked individuals. Results demonstrated a complex interaction between yearly fluctuations in climate (both local and global indexes, during both winter and breeding season) and the sex and age of individuals. Youngest birds' survival and recruitment were commonly affected by local climate, whereas oldest birds' parameters tended to be constant and less influenced by environmental variables. These results confirm the theoretical prediction that sex- and age-related variation in life-history demographic traits is greater under poor environmental conditions, and they highlight the importance of including variability in fitness components in demographic and evolutionary models. Males and females showed similar variation in survival but different recruitment patterns, in relation to both age and the spatial scale of climatic influence (local or global). Results indicate different life-history tactics for each sex and different ages, with birds likely trying to maximize their fitness by responding to the environmental contingencies of each year.

  17. Felicidade, bem-estar subjetivo e variáveis sociodemográficas, em grupos de estudantes universitários Felicidad, bienestar subjetivo y variables sociodemográficas, en grupos de estudiantes universitarios Happiness, subjective well-being and socio-demographic variables in groups of college students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Augusto Dela Coleta

    2012-04-01

    padres, con más altos niveles socioeconómicos se mostraron significativamente más populares, menos solitarios, más satisfechos con la vida y más felices.This study was developed with 388 college students using a set of scales to measure variables associated to happiness, subjective well-being, social behavior and some questions on demographic data. The results showed that the scales usually present high levels of reliability, average results superior to those expected in the subjective well-being measures and multiple correlation coefficient of 0.79 on the prediction of total happiness. When testing the differences among the several groups, it was verified that women, young people, those married or dating, those who had a religion, studied the first grade in a private school or the college in a public institution, those who know other languages with higher family income, having parents with high level of education or social-economic status, showed to be significantly more popular, less solitaires, more satisfied with their lives and happier.

  18. Personality, Demographics, and Acculturation in North American Refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smither, Robert; Rodriquez-Giegling, Marta

    This study predicts willingness of refugees to acculturate to North American society based on selected demographic and psychological variables. The hypothesis is that most previous research on refugee adaptation has overemphasized sociological variables such as age, time in the country, and level of education and underemphasized psychological…

  19. Combining gene expression, demographic and clinical data in modeling disease: a case study of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobrin Seth

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper presents a retrospective statistical study on the newly-released data set by the Stanley Neuropathology Consortium on gene expression in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. This data set contains gene expression data as well as limited demographic and clinical data for each subject. Previous studies using statistical classification or machine learning algorithms have focused on gene expression data only. The present paper investigates if such techniques can benefit from including demographic and clinical data. Results We compare six classification algorithms: support vector machines (SVMs, nearest shrunken centroids, decision trees, ensemble of voters, naïve Bayes, and nearest neighbor. SVMs outperform the other algorithms. Using expression data only, they yield an area under the ROC curve of 0.92 for bipolar disorder versus control, and 0.91 for schizophrenia versus control. By including demographic and clinical data, classification performance improves to 0.97 and 0.94 respectively. Conclusion This paper demonstrates that SVMs can distinguish bipolar disorder and schizophrenia from normal control at a very high rate. Moreover, it shows that classification performance improves by including demographic and clinical data. We also found that some variables in this data set, such as alcohol and drug use, are strongly associated to the diseases. These variables may affect gene expression and make it more difficult to identify genes that are directly associated to the diseases. Stratification can correct for such variables, but we show that this reduces the power of the statistical methods.

  20. Pension Reform and Demographic Uncertainty : The Case of Germany

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    The present paper compares the distributional and risk-sharing consequences of two pension reform proposals in Germany which both aim to improve the sustainability of the current system by introducing demographic variables to the benefit calculation. While the first reform proposes a so-called "sustainability factor" which measures the changes in the dependency ratio, the second reform proposes a so-called "demographic factor" which takes into account the changes in life expectancy. Our simul...

  1. [Demographic approach to populations without writing: the Dogon example].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown-demonet, E

    1989-01-01

    Anthropologists, geneticists, and epidemiologists need clear and detailed descriptions of the demographic situation of the populations they study in order to stratify their samples and calculate their degrees of significance as well as to evaluate the impact of particular traits on their field of investigation. Census and other available demographic data are usually not sufficiently precise, especially in illiterate populations. Establishing the genealogies of all families, conducting a census of all residents to verify and complete the genealogies, and designing 1 or more specific surveys of fertility, marriage, infant mortality, migration, or other topics are recommended to satisfy the needs of a multidisciplinary research team. Data collection is the most delicate phase of a demographer's work. The quality of contacts with the study population will determine response rates and the efforts of the population to give exact and precise information. Establishment of genealogies requires a good knowledge of the kinship system and the exact meaning of kinship terms. Surveys will be necessary to establish fertility and mortality rates, which will be greatly underestimated by the genealogies and census. Specific surveys may be retrospective, prospective, or a combination, depending on available time and budget. In addition to the classic omissions that are often increased in illiterate populations by lapses of memory, the problems may arise of misunderstanding of demographic concepts and tabus against reporting of certain events or practices or against directly mentioning certain names such as those of deceased husbands. Variables lending themselves to misunderstanding and false interpretations may include such socioeconomic features as principal occupation, educational level, marital status, and even age. The greatest source of error in a demographic analysis not based on a reliable civil registration system is undoubtedly omission, some of which is voluntary and not

  2. Demographics of the European apicultural industry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Pierre Chauzat

    Full Text Available Over the last few years, many European and North American countries have reported a high rate of disorders (mortality, dwindling and disappearance affecting honeybee colonies (Apis mellifera. Although beekeeping has become an increasingly professional activity in recent years, the beekeeping industry remains poorly documented in Europe. The European Union Reference Laboratory for Honeybee Health sent a detailed questionnaire to each Member State, in addition to Kosovo and Norway, to determine the demographics and state of their beekeeping industries. Based on data supplied by the National Reference Laboratory for honeybee diseases in each European country, a European database was created to describe the beekeeping industry including the number and types of beekeepers, operation size, industry production, and health (notifiable diseases, mortalities. The total number of beekeepers in Europe was estimated at 620,000. European honey production was evaluated at around 220,000 tons in 2010. The price of honey varied from 1.5 to 40 €/kg depending on the country and on the distribution network. The estimated colony winter mortality varied from 7 to 28% depending on the country and the origin of the data (institutional survey or beekeeping associations. This survey documents the high heterogeneity of the apicultural industry within the European Union. The high proportion of non-professional beekeepers and the small mean number of colonies per beekeeper were the only common characteristics at European level. The tremendous variation in European apicultural industries has implication for any comprehensive epidemiological or economic analysis of the industry. This variability needs to be taken into account for such analysis as well as for future policy development. The industry would be served if beekeeping registration was uniformly implemented across member states. Better information on the package bee and queen production would help in understanding

  3. Demographics of the European apicultural industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauzat, Marie-Pierre; Cauquil, Laura; Roy, Lise; Franco, Stéphanie; Hendrikx, Pascal; Ribière-Chabert, Magali

    2013-01-01

    Over the last few years, many European and North American countries have reported a high rate of disorders (mortality, dwindling and disappearance) affecting honeybee colonies (Apis mellifera). Although beekeeping has become an increasingly professional activity in recent years, the beekeeping industry remains poorly documented in Europe. The European Union Reference Laboratory for Honeybee Health sent a detailed questionnaire to each Member State, in addition to Kosovo and Norway, to determine the demographics and state of their beekeeping industries. Based on data supplied by the National Reference Laboratory for honeybee diseases in each European country, a European database was created to describe the beekeeping industry including the number and types of beekeepers, operation size, industry production, and health (notifiable diseases, mortalities). The total number of beekeepers in Europe was estimated at 620,000. European honey production was evaluated at around 220,000 tons in 2010. The price of honey varied from 1.5 to 40 €/kg depending on the country and on the distribution network. The estimated colony winter mortality varied from 7 to 28% depending on the country and the origin of the data (institutional survey or beekeeping associations). This survey documents the high heterogeneity of the apicultural industry within the European Union. The high proportion of non-professional beekeepers and the small mean number of colonies per beekeeper were the only common characteristics at European level. The tremendous variation in European apicultural industries has implication for any comprehensive epidemiological or economic analysis of the industry. This variability needs to be taken into account for such analysis as well as for future policy development. The industry would be served if beekeeping registration was uniformly implemented across member states. Better information on the package bee and queen production would help in understanding the ability of

  4. DEMOGRAPHIC VULNERABILITIES IN TECUCI PLAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian Adrian ŞORCARU

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The study focuses on analyzing and mapping 8 indicators considered to best reflect the demographic vulnerability in Tecuci Plain in the year 2010 and proposes a model of aggregation which finally allows us to distinguish three major types of demographic vulnerability (low, medium and high. Mapping the final values also shows significant disparities in the territorial administrative units that broadly overlap the plain, the most vulnerable being Tecuci city and the peripheral communes, towards Vrancea and Vaslui Counties.

  5. Bolivia 1998: results from the Demographic and Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-09-01

    This document presents the results of the Bolivia Demographic and Health Survey (DHS), or Encuesta Nacional de Demografia y Salud 1998, conducted by the Instituto Nacional de Estadistica, La Paz, Bolivia, within the framework of the DHS Program of Macro International. Data were collected from 12,109 households and complete interviews were conducted with 11,187 women aged 15-49. A male survey was also conducted, which collected data from 3780 men aged 15-64. The information collected include the following: 1) general characteristics of the population, 2) fertility, 3) fertility preferences, 4) current contraceptive use, 5) contraception, 6) marital and contraceptive status, 7) postpartum variables, 8) infant mortality, 9) health: disease prevention and treatment, and 10) nutritional status: anthropometric measures.

  6. Comparing demographic, health status and psychosocial strategies of audience segmentation to promote physical activity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boslaugh, Sarah E; Kreuter, Matthew W; Nicholson, Robert A; Naleid, Kimberly

    2005-01-01

    .... This study compares the results of audience segmentation for physical activity that is based on either demographic, health status or psychosocial variables alone, or a combination of all three types of variables...

  7. Entropy Based Modelling for Estimating Demographic Trends.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoqi Li

    Full Text Available In this paper, an entropy-based method is proposed to forecast the demographical changes of countries. We formulate the estimation of future demographical profiles as a constrained optimization problem, anchored on the empirically validated assumption that the entropy of age distribution is increasing in time. The procedure of the proposed method involves three stages, namely: 1 Prediction of the age distribution of a country's population based on an "age-structured population model"; 2 Estimation the age distribution of each individual household size with an entropy-based formulation based on an "individual household size model"; and 3 Estimation the number of each household size based on a "total household size model". The last stage is achieved by projecting the age distribution of the country's population (obtained in stage 1 onto the age distributions of individual household sizes (obtained in stage 2. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated by feeding real world data, and it is general and versatile enough to be extended to other time dependent demographic variables.

  8. Demographics of orofacial clefts in Canada from 2002 to 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavri, Sabrina; Forrest, Christopher R

    2013-03-01

    Objective : Orofacial clefts such as cleft lip, cleft palate, and cleft lip and palate are the most frequent congenital anomalies of the head and neck. The purpose of this study was to determine the current demographics for orofacial clefts in Canada. Methods : A request for data from all Canadian provinces (excluding Quebec due to incompatibilities with provincial coding systems) for the fiscal years 2002-2003 to 2007-2008 was submitted to the Canadian Institute for Health Information. Variables evaluated included gender, cleft type, gestational age, birth weight, income quintile, and institution health region. Results : Over the period studied, the prevalence of orofacial clefts ranged from 11.0 to 15.3 per 10,000 live births (1 in 654 to 1 in 909 live births). The distribution of cleft types for live births with orofacial clefts was 17% for cleft lip, 41% for cleft palate, and 42% for cleft lip and palate, of which cleft lip and cleft lip and palate were male dominant (62% and 66% male, respectively) and cleft palate was female dominant (56% female). Saskatchewan and Manitoba had significantly higher cleft birthrates (P orofacial clefting compared with those with no cleft. Conclusions : Canada has one of the highest orofacial cleft birthrates in the world (prevalence of 12.7 per 10,000 live births, approximately 1 in 790 live births). This study presents an updated demographic of orofacial clefts in Canadian newborns and may be useful in predicting the burden of anticipated health care.

  9. Managing demographic risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strack, Rainer; Baier, Jens; Fahlander, Anders

    2008-02-01

    In developed nations, the workforce is aging rapidly. That trend has serious implications. Companies could face severe labor shortages in a few years as workers retire, taking critical knowledge with them. Businesses may also see productivity decline among older employees, especially in physically demanding jobs. The authors, partners at Boston Consulting Group, offer managers a systematic way to assess these dual threats--capacity risk and productivity risk--at their companies. It involves studying the age distribution of their employees to see if large percentages fall within high age brackets and then projecting--by location, unit, and job category--how the distribution will change over the next 15 years. Managers must also factor in both the impact of strategic moves on personnel needs and the future supply of workers in the market. When RWE Power analyzed its trends, the company learned that in 2018 almost 80% of its workers would be over 50. What's more, in certain critical areas its labor surplus was about to become a sizable shortfall. For instance, a shortage of specialized engineers would develop in the company just as their ranks in the job market thinned and competition to hire them intensified. Reversing its downsizing course, RWE Power took steps to increase its supply of workers in those key positions. The authors show how companies that face talent gaps, as RWE Power did, can close them through training, transfers, recruitment, retention, productivity improvements, and outsourcing. They also describe measures that companies can take to keep older workers productive, including workplace accommodations, revised compensation structures, performance incentives, and targeted health care management. The key is to identify and address potential problems early. Firms that do so will gain an edge on rivals that are still relentlessly focused on reducing head count.

  10. Trust and its Relationship to Demographic Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asghar Mirfardi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Social trust is the main theme in the social life. Trust is “the expectation that arises within a community of regular, honest and cooperative behavior, based on commonly shared norms”. Development, social trust and security are intertwined categories and have interaction to each other. Social trust, as a main factor in social capital, provide social context for developmental programs. This study, examine the affect of Demographic factors on the social trust to others. As social trust is a key factor in social relationship, this study is needed to evaluate such factor according to demographic factors. Approach: This study has been done on existing data about Iranian values and attitudes. Some factors such as gender, age, education level, job situation, marital situation have been studied in this study. Some of these variables such as education, correspondence to development level, especially in social development. This study is done via documental method (archive and Documental data about mentioned themes and second analysis of The Iranian National Values and attitudes Survey (2000. Results: Findings of this study indicated that there is significant relationship between all of independent variables (Gender, age, education level, job situation, marital situation and social trust to families and relatives, there is significant relationship between variables such as gender, education level, job situation, marital situation (independent variables and social trust to friends. Analyzing the data showed that, the residents of less and more developed cities have different situation in trust. Conclusion/Recommendations: This study introduces three types of trust upon the development level of societies. Trust in Iran is an example of trust structure in developing societies.

  11. Customers Demographics Influence on Usage of Retail Banking Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha GUPTA

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The study presents the usage of retail banking influenced by customers’ demographics of selected Public Sector Banks (PSBs of India. The study was based on primary data collected through structured questionnaire. The simple random sampling technique used for data collection for sample size 692. The study finds that public sector banks need to understand the usage pattern of an individual customer using delivery channel to add greater value to customers. Respondent age groups influence ATMs usage. Internet banking is majorly influenced by the customers’ demographics. Respondents’ age group and qualification influence mobile banking. Branch lobby kiosk is not influenced by any demographics. The identification of most influential demographic variable will help to build strong and effective cross-selling and up-selling of financial products and services. Our study was limited to the customers of PSBs of India. This study may be helpful to PSBs for enhancing effective usage of delivery channels.

  12. Tourism Market and Demographic Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Nedelea

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper identifies the major demographic trends and their implications for consumer market. It is important to know how will demographic change influence the tourism market in particularly and how can the tourist industry adapt to these. The advancing ageing of society will result in far reaching changes, particularly on the demand side. To profitably seize the opportunities, managers must understand how senior markets evolve and adapt products and service offerings along multiple dimensions to meet the needs of senior consumers.

  13. Development of reprogenetics and its demographic aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devedžić Mirjana M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of reprogenetics during the last two decades of the XX century has brought a new age of reproduction. The paper surveys different types of reprogenetics in a wider sense, i.e. different assisted reproductive technologies (ART that include manipulation of female reproductive cell out of a woman's womb. Development of reprogenetics is documented by available quantitative indicators of the number and success of ART procedures in developed countries at the beginning of the XXI century. Since 1978, when the first baby was born from in vitro fertilization, the number of children born that way has reached 1% of all children, and in some countries even over 3%. Moreover, existing documentation is incomplete and does not include all forms of assisted reproduction - in reality, the importance of assisted reproduction is even higher and becomes demographically significant. Hence the paper indicates existing and potential effects of the ART development on the demographic development i.e. on specific demographic aspects of this phenomenon. It also points out the effects on the level of fertility, on the changes of direct fertility determinants, and on the levels of mortality and infant mortality, as well as a new understanding of birth control, the possibility of affecting biological structures, and the changes of the fundaments of marriage and family. Development perspectives of reprogenetics are also being raised in the context of bioethical discussions and indicate ethical dilemmas related to assisted reproduction. Solutions to the dilemmas define the scope of applying new reproductive technologies in the future.

  14. 人口统计学因素对城市拥堵费政策公众支持度的影响--来自武汉市的经验证据%Influence of Demographic variables on Public Support of City Congestion Charge Policy---Empirical evidences from Wuhan City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓莲

    2014-01-01

    关于城市拥堵费政策公众支持度在人口统计学因素方面的差异,国外已有丰富研究,但其结论在我国是否具有普适性尚未得到证实。以武汉市ETC拥堵费政策为例,采用独立样本T检验和方差分析对影响拥堵费政策公众支持度的人口统计学因素进行了实证探讨,发现有关性别、经济收入和家庭是否有车变量的假设得到支持,而关于学历和年龄的假设没有得到证实。研究认为,应该建立针对利益受损群体的福利补偿机制,以获得这些群体对政策的更大支持。%About the differences of public support of city congestion policy in terms of demographic variables, foreign countries have done abundant researches, but the conclusion has not been confirmed in our country. This paper, taking Wuhan city ETC congestion charge policy for example, using independent sample T test and variance analysis to discuss the congestion charge policy public support of demographic factors in the empirical study, finds out that the presumption about gender, income and whether a family having a car is true, the presumption about education and age is not confirmed. This paper argues that the welfare of the aggrieved group compensation mechanism should be established in order to obtain greater policies support from these groups.

  15. Demographic Modelling in Weed Biocontrol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demographic matrix modeling of plant populations can be a powerful tool to identify key life stage transitions that contribute the most to population growth of an invasive plant and hence should be targeted for disruption. Therefore, this approach has the potential to guide the pre-release selection...

  16. Logistics Dynamics and Demographic Change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klumpp, Matthias; Abidi, Hella; Bioly, Sascha; Buchkremer, Rüdiger; Sandhaus, Gregor; Freitag, Michael; Kotzab, Herbert; Pannek, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Change and dynamics in logistics are interestingly driven at the same time by external as well as internal forces. This contribution outlines a big data literature review methodology to overview recognizable external changes and analyzes the interaction of one major trend—demographic change—further

  17. Tobacco Sales in Community Pharmacies: Remote Decisions and Demographic Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Cory M.; Peterson, N. Andrew; Schneider, John E.; Smith, Brian J.; Armstead, Theresa L.

    2010-01-01

    This study applied multilevel modeling procedures with data from 678 community pharmacies and 382 residential census tracts in a Midwestern U.S. state to determine if two sets of variables: retail type (e.g., remotely owned, independently owned) and population demographics of the tracts in which outlets were located were associated with retail…

  18. Tobacco Sales in Community Pharmacies: Remote Decisions and Demographic Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Cory M.; Peterson, N. Andrew; Schneider, John E.; Smith, Brian J.; Armstead, Theresa L.

    2010-01-01

    This study applied multilevel modeling procedures with data from 678 community pharmacies and 382 residential census tracts in a Midwestern U.S. state to determine if two sets of variables: retail type (e.g., remotely owned, independently owned) and population demographics of the tracts in which outlets were located were associated with retail…

  19. Predicting Psychiatric Rehabilitation Outcome Using Demographic Characteristics: A Replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, William A.; Buell, Gregory J.

    1974-01-01

    Replication was undertaken of a recent study conducted by Buell and Anthony which had found that recidivism and posthospital employment could be predicted by a single demographic variable, number of previous hospitalizations and employment history, respectively. Results of the replication were consistent for posthospital employment but not for…

  20. Economic and Demographic Factors Impacting Placement of Students with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurth, Jennifer A.; Mastergeorge, Ann M.; Paschall, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Educational placement of students with autism is often associated with child factors, such as IQ and communication skills. However, variability in placement patterns across states suggests that other factors are at play. This study used hierarchical cluster analysis techniques to identify demographic, economic, and educational covariates…

  1. Demographic Variables as Determinants of Women's Participation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    Olaleye, Yemisi Lydia - Department of Social Work, University of Ibadan,. Ibadan, Nigeria ... child nutrition education impacted women participation and psychosocial development of mothers ... This may result in disability, disorder that makes.

  2. Intelligent system to study demographic evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, M. de Fatima; Ramos, Carlos; Henriques, Pedro R.

    1999-02-01

    With three centuries of existence, the study of population's behavior implies the manipulation of large amounts of incomplete and imprecise data with high dimensionality. By virtue of its multidisciplinary character, the work in demography involves at least historicists, statisticians and computer scientists/programmers. Moreover, successful demographic analysis requires qualified experts, who have succeeded in analysing data through many views and relate different sources of information, including their personal knowledge of the epoch or regions under study. In this paper, we present an intelligent system to study demographic evolution (ISSDE). This system has a module based on on-line analytical processing (OLAP), which permits conducting multiple analysis, combining many data dimensions. It has a deductive database system, which allows the execution of elaborated queries through the database. It has another module for date treatment (generalization and/or reduction); and, at last, a data mining module to discover nontrivial relations hidden within data. We discover the data treatment procedure with two phases: data generalization and data reduction. In data generalization, utilizing knowledge about concept hierarchies and relevance of data, aggregation of attribute values is performed. In the data reduction phase, rough set theory is applied to compute the minimal attribute set. We highlight the advantages of combining attribute value generalization with rough set theory, to find a subset of attributes that lets the mining process discover more useful patterns, by providing results from the application of the C5.0 algorithm in a demographic relational database.

  3. A proposta biomecânica para a avaliação de sobrecarga na coluna lombar: efeito de diferentes variáveis demográficas na fadiga muscular A biomechamical approach for assessment of overload on lumbar spine: the effects of different demographic variables on muscle fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Sérgio Silva Barbosa

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Analisar a fadiga de músculos lombares e determinar as variáveis demográficas relacionadas com a fadiga destes músculos. MÉTODOS: A atividade eletromiográfica (EMG dos músculos iliocostal direito (IL-D, iliocostal esquerdo (IL-E, multífido direito (MU-D e multífido esquerdo (MU-E de 18 voluntários foi captada durante contrações isométricas sub-máximas. Valores de root mean square (RMS e freqüência mediana (FM foram correlacionados com o tempo de resistência isométrica (TRI. Slopes de RMS positivos e de FM negativos indicaram a ocorrência da fadiga muscular. Procedimentos de regressão múltipla foram realizados para verificar as variáveis demográficas relacionadas com a fadiga muscular. RESULTADOS: A fadiga foi identificada em todos os músculos e intensidades de contração (pOBJECTIVES: To assess low back muscles fatigue and to determine the demographic variables associated to fatigue on these muscles. METHODS: The electromyographic (EMG activity of the right iliocostal (R-IL, left iliocostal (L-IL, right multifidus (R-MU and left multifidus (L-MU of 18 volunteers was recorded during submaximal isometric contractions. Root mean square (RMS and median frequency (MF values were correlated with isometric endurance time (IET. Positive RMS and negative MF slopes indicated occurrence of muscle fatigue. Multiple regression procedures were performed in order to verify the demographic variables related with the muscle fatigue. RESULTS: Fatigue was identified in all muscles and contraction intensities (p<0.01, except for MU-E at 5% in RMS slope analysis. Significant differences were found between the endurance time of 5% and 15% (p=0.01, 5% and 20% (p=0.0002. Higher levels of fatigue were found bilaterally in the multifidus muscles in the MF slope analysis. The combination of endurance time, age and body mass of the volunteers was identified as the determinant factor for the occurrence of muscle fatigue in the assessed

  4. Why travel motivations and socio-demographics matter in managing a National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melville Saayman

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Addo Elephant National Park is one of only a few national parks in the world that offers the Big 7 experience and is therefore one of South Africa’s prime tourism destinations. The park plays an important role in the regional economy and has become a hub for tourism development. The aim of this article is to determine the extent to which socio-demographic and behavioural and motivational indicators influence the spending of tourists to the park. A better understanding of the latter could help marketers and planners to increase the economic impact of the park. Since 2001, surveys have been conducted among tourists to the park and have included a number of socio-demographic, behavioural and motivational questions. In this analysis, 537 questionnaires were used. The methodology used includes factor analysis, cross-sectional regression analysis and pseudo-panel data analysis to determine and compare possible influences on spending. The research identifies six motives for tourists travelling to the Addo Elephant National Park; these are nature, activities, family and socialisation, escape, attractions and photography. The research found that a combination of socio-demographic and motivational factors influences visitor spending decisions. Added to this, the research confi rms that tourist attractions, including national parks, differ from one another and that the variables that influence spending therefore also differ.

  5. Spatial Associations Between Contaminated Land and Socio Demographics in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Russell; Ericson, Bret; Caravanos, Jack; Grigsby, Patrick; Amoyaw-Osei, Yaw

    2015-10-27

    Associations between contaminated land and socio demographics are well documented in high-income countries. In low- and middle-income countries, however, little is known about the extent of contaminated land and possible demographic correlations. This is an important yet sparsely researched topic with potentially significant public health implications as exposure to pollution remains a leading source of morbidity and mortality in low-income countries. In this study, we review the associations between several socio demographic factors (population, population density, unemployment, education, and literacy) and contaminated sites in Ghana. Within this context, both correlation and association intend to show the relationship between two variables, namely contaminated sites and socio demographics. Aggregated district level 2010 census data from Ghana Statistical Service and contaminated site location data from Pure Earth's Toxic Sites Identification Program (TSIP) were spatially evaluated using the number of sites per kilometer squared within districts as the unit of measurement. We found a low to medium positive correlation (ρ range: 0.285 to 0.478) between contaminated sites and the following socio demographics: higher population density, higher unemployment, greater education, and higher literacy rate. These results support previous studies and suggest that several socio demographic factors may be reasonably accurate predictors of contaminated site locations. More research and targeted data collection is needed to better understand these associations with the ultimate goal of developing a predictive model.

  6. Spatial Associations Between Contaminated Land and Socio Demographics in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell Dowling

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Associations between contaminated land and socio demographics are well documented in high-income countries. In low- and middle-income countries, however, little is known about the extent of contaminated land and possible demographic correlations. This is an important yet sparsely researched topic with potentially significant public health implications as exposure to pollution remains a leading source of morbidity and mortality in low-income countries. In this study, we review the associations between several socio demographic factors (population, population density, unemployment, education, and literacy and contaminated sites in Ghana. Within this context, both correlation and association intend to show the relationship between two variables, namely contaminated sites and socio demographics. Aggregated district level 2010 census data from Ghana Statistical Service and contaminated site location data from Pure Earth’s Toxic Sites Identification Program (TSIP were spatially evaluated using the number of sites per kilometer squared within districts as the unit of measurement. We found a low to medium positive correlation (ρ range: 0.285 to 0.478 between contaminated sites and the following socio demographics: higher population density, higher unemployment, greater education, and higher literacy rate. These results support previous studies and suggest that several socio demographic factors may be reasonably accurate predictors of contaminated site locations. More research and targeted data collection is needed to better understand these associations with the ultimate goal of developing a predictive model.

  7. 变包含角平面光栅单色器及其关键技术%The variable included angle plane grating monochromator and the key technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈家华; 薛松; 卢启鹏; 彭忠琦; 邰仁忠; 王勇; 陈明; 吴坤

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the design of a variable included angle plane grating monochromator (VAPGM) on the soft X-ray spectromicroscopy beam-line at Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF).The precision scanning system of sin-bar meets the requirements through resolving the high precision repeatability of mechanical transmission system; the inner path water cooling structure of the plane mirror controls the thermal deformation of the mirror surface; the huge dimension and quadrate flange chamber ensures the ultra high vacuum (UHV) which the VAPGM requires.Finally, the main capabilities of the monochromator, including the energy range, energy resolution and energy repeatability, reach the design requirements completely.%分析设计并研制了上海光源软X射线谱学显微光束线站的变包含角平面光栅单色器,经过精密加工调试,保证了扫描系统的转角重复精度;采用多孔腔内部通道水冷方法,控制了镜子表面热变形;完成真空箱体大尺寸方法兰加工与密封,达到了单色器工作所需的超高真空.通过上述关键部件的精确掌控,确保了单色器主要性能--光子能量范围、能量分辨率和能量重复性,均优于设计指标.

  8. 77 FR 31028 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Collection of Customer Service, Demographic, and Smoking...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-24

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Collection of Customer Service, Demographic, and Smoking/Tobacco Use Information...: Collection of Customer Service, Demographic, and Smoking/Tobacco Use Information from the National Cancer... clients at the end of usual service--a survey that includes three customer service and twelve demographic...

  9. Who is a dangerous driver? Socio-demographic and personal determinants of risky traffic behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Peplińska

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background The aim of this study was to search for comprehensive socio-demographic and personal (personality and temperamental determinants of risky on-the-road behavior. Based on the results of previous studies, we assumed that the main predictors of dangerous traffic behavior include: internal locus of control, sensation seeking, risk seeking and risk acceptance, as well as high self-esteem, a low level of reactivity combined with a high level of endurance and activity (which together determine a strong need for stimulation and a preference for hedonistic values; and among socio-demographic variables – age, gender, education and duration of having a driving license. Participants and procedure The study included a group of 380 participants, aged between 19 and 61 years (Me = 24. In order to verify the hypothesis, a battery of research tools measuring personality and temperamental variables was adopted, namely: the Formal Characteristics of Behavior – Temperament Questionnaire, Rotter I-E Scale, Risk Acceptance Scale, Stimulating-Instrumental Risk Inventory, Scheler Value Scale, Zuckerman Sensation Seeking Scale and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Results The dangerous driver syndrome was found to be promoted by high levels of experience and sensation seeking, low levels of tolerance to boredom and monotony, high need for stimulating risk and high risk acceptance, high self-esteem, a preference for hedonistic values coupled with aversion towards moral values, as well as low sensory sensitivity, and was especially visible among older men with short driving experience. Conclusions It can be concluded that both socio-demographic and psychological variables, such as temperament and personality, are significant predictors of dangerous traffic behavior.

  10. Influência de variáveis socioeconômicas, clínicas e demográfica na experiência de cárie dentária em pré-escolares de Piracicaba, SP Influence of socioeconomic, clinical and demographic variables on caries experience of preschool children in Piracicaba, SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Laura Cortellazzi

    2009-09-01

    prevenção e intervenção direcionadas a este público seria essencial para o controle da doença.AIM: To evaluate the influence of socioeconomic, clinical and demographic variables on caries experience in 5-year-old preschool children from Piracicaba. METHODS: The sample consisted of 728 children attending 22 public (n=428 and 18 private (n=300 preschools. Dental caries were measured using the dmft/dmfs indexes and by detecting initial caries lesion (IL. Gingivitis, crowding, spacing, fluorosis, and mouth breathing were also recorded. Socioeconomic variables (monthly family income, number of people living in the household, parents' schooling, home ownership, and car ownership were collected by means of a parental semi structured questionnaire. RESULTS: The mean (standard deviation values for dmft and dmfs indexes were 1.30 (2.47 and 3.08 (7.55 respectively; and 62.2% of the children were caries-free. The mean (standard deviation values for dmft+LI and dmfs+LI were 1.72 (3.36 and 3.45 (7.94, respectively and 59.7% were caries-free. By means of multiple logistic regression analyses, children with fluorosis (OR=0.40 or family income > 4 minimum wages (OR=0.49 were less likely to experience caries. Those with gingivitis (OR=1.87 were more prone to have the disease. Considering the diagnostic threshold including IL, the multiple logistic regression analyses showed that children with fluorosis (OR=0.39 or family income > 4 minimum wages (OR=0.52 were less likely to have caries. Those with gingivitis (OR=1.80, crowding (OR=2.63 e OR=1.01 or mouth breathing (OR=1.37 were more likely to have the disease. CONCLUSION: The preschool children who presented gingivitis, crowding, mouth breathing or monthly family income < 4 minimum wages were more likely to experience caries. In this way, planning preventive and operative actions targeted at these children would be essential for caries control.

  11. Socio-Demographic and Economic Correlates of Overweight Status in Chinese Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Bin; Chou, Chih-Ping; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Reynolds, Kim; Clark, Florence; Palmer, Paula H.; Gallaher, Peggy; Sun, Ping; Guo, Qian; Johnson, C. Anderson

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate overweight prevalence and socio-demographic and economic correlates in Chinese adolescents. Methods: Weight, height, waist circumference, and socio-demographic and economic variables of 6863 middle and high school students were measured. Results: 10% of girls and 17% of boys were overweight. Waist circumference and…

  12. Demographics, Psychiatric Diagnoses, and Other Characteristics of North American Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Inpatients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Patricia A.; Glickman, Neil S.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined demographic and clinical data from a specialty deaf inpatient unit so as to better understand characteristics of severely and chronically mentally ill deaf people. The study compares deaf and hearing psychiatric inpatients on demographic variables, psychiatric discharge diagnoses, a language assessment measure, a cognitive…

  13. General Economic and Demographic Background and Projections for Indiana Library Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foust, James D.; Tower, Carl B.

    Before future library needs can be estimated, economic and demographic variables that influence the demand for library services must be projected and estimating equations relating library needs to economic and demographic parameters developed. This study considers the size, location and age-sex characteristics of Indiana's current population and…

  14. The Relationship of Parental Military Background to the Demographic Characteristics of 11,195 Navy Recruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-04-19

    listed in this table. All chisquares are signficant at p < .01. Nonsignficant changes in multivariate odds for specific demographic subgroups are noted...demographic variables identifying subgroups with significantly different percentages of CONFs among them are listed in this table. All chisquares are

  15. Demographic Composition of the Online Buyers in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinan NARDALI

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Demographic variables may have an impact on Internet usage patterns. Online buyers’ characteristics keeps changing time along with the shifting dynamics of Turkish consumers’ demographic profile and day by day online shopping becomes a safe and popular option in Turkey. Current study investigates demographic composition of the online buyers that influence consumer attitudes towards online shopping behavior in Izmir, the third largest city in Turkey. This study examines attitudes toward online shopping and provides a better understanding of the potential of online buyers for both researchers and practitioners. The study is based on an empirical research work, and a convenience sample of 400. Frequencies, descriptive statistics, and One-Way ANOVA tests were used in the analysis of data. The study shows that Turkish Internet consumer segment is relatively young, well educated, in mid economic status and professions associated with Internet more than five years.

  16. Political demography: Powerful trends under-attended by demographic science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teitelbaum, Michael S

    2015-01-01

    The interconnections between politics and the dramatic demographic changes under way around the world have been neglected by the two research disciplines that could contribute most to their understanding: demography and political science. Instead, this area of 'political demography' has largely been ceded to political activists, pundits, and journalists, leading often to exaggerated or garbled interpretation. The terrain includes some of the most politically sensitive and contested issues: alleged demographically determined shifts in the international balance of power; low fertility, population decline, and demographic ageing; international migration; change in national identity; and compositional shifts in politically sensitive social categories and human rights. Meanwhile many governments and non-governmental actors have actively pursued varieties of 'strategic demography', deploying fertility, mortality, or migration as instruments of domestic or international policy. Political scientists and demographers could and should use their knowledge and analytic techniques to improve understanding and to moderate excessive claims and fears on these topics.

  17. U.S. consumer demand for restaurant calorie information: targeting demographic and behavioral segments in labeling initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodinsky, Jane; Reynolds, Travis William; Cannella, Mark; Timmons, David; Bromberg, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    To identify different segments of U.S. consumers based on food choices, exercise patterns, and desire for restaurant calorie labeling. Using a stratified (by region) random sample of the U.S. population, trained interviewers collected data for this cross-sectional study through telephone surveys. Center for Rural Studies U.S. national health survey. The final sample included 580 responses (22% response rate); data were weighted to be representative of age and gender characteristics of the U.S. population. Self-reported behaviors related to food choices, exercise patterns, desire for calorie information in restaurants, and sample demographics. Clusters were identified using Schwartz Bayesian criteria. Impacts of demographic characteristics on cluster membership were analyzed using bivariate tests of association and multinomial logit regression. Cluster analysis revealed three clusters based on respondents' food choices, activity levels, and desire for restaurant labeling. Two clusters, comprising three quarters of the sample, desired calorie labeling in restaurants. The remaining cluster opposed restaurant labeling. Demographic variables significantly predicting cluster membership included region of residence (p restaurant calorie labeling. Specific demographic clusters could be targeted through labeling initiatives.

  18. Socio-demographic factors and self-reported funtional status: the significance of social support

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    Vlachonikolis IG

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the present work was to investigate the relative importance of socio-demographic and physical health status factors for subjective functioning, as well as to examine the role of social support. Methods A cross-sectional health survey was carried out in a Greek municipality. 1356 adults of the general population were included in the study. Personal interviews were conducted with house-to-house visits. The response rate was 91.2%. Functioning has been measured by five indexes: 'The Social Roles and Mobility' scale (SORM, 'The Self-Care Restrictions' scale (SCR, 'The Serious Limitations' scale (SL, 'The Minor Self-care Limitations' scale (MSCR and 'The Minor Limitations in Social Roles and Mobility' scale (MSORM. Results Among the two sets of independent variables, the socio-demographic ones had significant influence on the functional status, except for MSORM. Allowing for these variables, the physical health status indicators had also significant effects on all functioning scales. Living arrangements and marital status had significant effects on four out of five indexes, while arthritis, Parkinson's disease, past stroke and kidney stones had significant effects on the SCR and SL scales. Conclusions These results suggest that socio-demographic factors are as important as physical health variables in affecting a person's ability to function normally in their everyday life. Social support appears to play a significant role in explaining differences in subjective functioning: people living alone or only with the spouse, particularly the elderly, seem to be in greater risk for disability problems and should be targeted by preventive programs in the community.

  19. The heterogeneous health latent classes of elderly people and their socio-demographic characteristics in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li-Fan; Tian, Wei-Hua; Yao, Hui-Ping

    2014-01-01

    The health care needs of elderly people were influenced by their heterogeneity. This study aimed to identify the health latent classes of elderly people by using latent class analysis to deal with heterogeneity and examine their socio-demographic characteristics. Data came from the 2005 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) in Taiwan. In total, 2449 elderly individuals with available health indicators were examined in latent class analysis (LCA), and 2217 elderly community-dwellings with complete socio-demographic data were analyzed by multinomial logistic regression. Four health latent classes were identified which included 1066 (43.5%) people in the High Comorbidity (HC), 152 (6.2%) in the Functional Impairment (FI), 252 (10.3%) in the Frail (FR), and 979 (40.0%) in the Relatively Healthy (RH) group. Multinomial logistic regressions revealed socio-demographic characteristics among health classes. The variables associated with an increased likelihood of being in the FR group were age, female, and living with families. They were also correlated to ethnicity and educations. Apart from age and gender, the Functional Impairment group was less likely to be ethnicity of Hakka, more likely to live with others than were the RH group. The HC group tended to be younger, with higher educations, and more likely to live in urban area than the Functional Impairment group. The correlations between health classes and socio-demographic factors were discussed. The health status of elderly people includes a variety of health indicators. A person-centered approach is critical to identify the health heterogeneity of elderly people and manage their care needs by targeting differential aging.

  20. A study of clinical correlates and socio-demographic profile in conversion disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Deka, Kamala; Chaudhury, Pranit K.; Bora, Kavery; Kalita, Pranab

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To study the clinical presentations and relationship of socio-demographic variables with conversion disorder. Methods: Forty patients admitted to the department of psychiatry, Assam Medical College and Hospital, Dibrugarh, during November 2004 to August 2005 who fulfilled the inclusion criteria of the study were evaluated for socio-demographic variables and clinical presentations on a semi-structured pro forma. Results: Conversion disorder is more common in young adults (57.5%), females ...

  1. 关于天津市高校来华留学生不同人口变量在跨文化适应中的差异分析及对策%Difference Analysis of Demographic Variability of International College Students in Tianjin in Cross-cultural Adaptation and Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘忠

    2014-01-01

    随着外国来华留学生人数、生源国和学习层次的不断增加和多元化,加强对他们文化适应的研究和关注,不仅是接收高校对来华留学生教育管理上的需要,对留学生顺利完成学业也同样重要。笔者将就不同洲别、性别、年龄段等来华留学生人口变量在日常生活、学习等跨文化适应问题上,研究其是否存在差异,同时对其影响因素加以分析,并提出相关解决方案。分析结果可以为接收留学生的高校的管理工作提供支持和借鉴,并对来华留学生在华期间的生活适应和完成学业提供帮助。%With the increasing diversity of international students coming to China from more and more foreign countries, to strengthen the research on their cultural adaptation is necessary not only for the enrollment and management of international students but also for the successful completion of their education. This thesis tries to provide some support and reference in this aspect by analysing the relationship between their cultural adaptability and demographic variability such as sex, age, and nationality. After that, the author put forward some countermeasures to deal with certain existing problems.

  2. Socio-demographic characteristics as determinants of differences in perception of local gastronomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuksanović Nikola

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to research differences in socio-demographic characteristics of foreign tourists in consumption of local food in the city centres Belgrade and Novi Sad, Republic of Serbia. The research was conducted on a sample of 673 respondents. The results of this study point out the importance of socio-demographic variables in research of local gastronomy as a significant component of tourism product. The research included the determining of the impact of the city the tourists stayed at. The differences were examined via two-factor ANOVA analysis of variance. The obtained results indicate that there are differences between age groups, in the level of education, monthly income and countries that foreign tourists come from, whereas there is no difference between genders in relation to the perception of local gastronomy. At the same time, the findings indicate that there are no differences in the perception of local gastronomy between the cities of Novi Sad and Belgrade. The results confirm previous studies and point out the significance of socio-demographic characteristics of foreign tourists in their perception of local gastronomy and adapting it to the visitors, regardless of the city they visited.

  3. Sexuality-related attitudes significantly modulate demographic variation in sexual health literacy in Tasmanian university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Steve; Clifford, Christine; Quinn, Michael G; Ross, Kaz; Sefton, Neil; Owen, Louise; Blizzard, Leigh; Turner, Richard

    2017-01-09

    Background: It has previously been shown that there is a significant demographic variation in sexual health literacy (SHL) in university-level students in Tasmania, Australia. Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of statistical adjustment for sexuality-related attitudes on this demographic variation in SHL. Methods: Iterated principal-factor analysis was used to evaluate latent variable grouping of responses to 21 attitudinal questions regarding sexuality and sexual behaviour. Linear regression was used to evaluate the distribution and determinants of attitudinal patterns and thence the relationship of these patterns to SHL. Results: Three patterns - conservative, anti-persons-living-with-HIV and sexually responsible - were identified as explaining variation in sexual attitudes; the former two being associated with significantly lower SHL and the latter associated with significantly higher SHL. Adjustment for these patterns significantly attenuated much of the differences in SHL by birthplace/ethnicity and religion, including among South and South-East Asian and Protestant, Islamic and Hindu students. However, some differences in SHL persisted, suggesting they are partly or fully independent of the attitudinal questions. Conclusions: As hypothesised, differences in attitude significantly explained much of the demographic differences in SHL found previously. These results suggest that sexual education and orientation efforts need to bear cultural framing in mind to enhance uptake by students.

  4. Local Government Units in Indonesia: Demographic Attributes and Differences in Financial Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusmin Rusmin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the outcome of decentralisation reforms in Indonesia, focusing on the association between demographic characteristics and differences in the financial condition of local governments units. It investigates cross-sectional data pertaining to demographic characteristics and financial statements audited by the Supreme Audit Body of 419 Indonesian local government units for the fiscal year 2007. It utilises demographic attributes including scope of entity, location, tenure (date of entry, gender, human development index (HDI and size of local governments to explain differences in the financial condition of Indonesia’s local government. Local government financial condition is proxied by quick ratio, debt ratio, services ratio, and ratio of local to total revenues. The results suggest that scope and location of local government units help explain all of the financial condition variables. The findings further infer that local government units domiciled in Java tend to report better financial conditions relative to those domiciled in other islands. Our results also show that local government units with greater female populations and higher HDI are more likely to have a local authority that (1 has better ability to finance their general services from their unrestricted net assets, and (2 has greater ability to earn more revenues from local sources. Finally, this study documents that the larger the population of a local government unit, the higher its liquidity position, the stronger its ability to funding general services, and the greater its possibility earning revenues from its local sources.

  5. DEMOGRAPHIC FACTOR OF ECOLOGICAL POLICY

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Demographic factor of ecological policy is analyzed. Анализируется демографическая составляющая экологической политики. Аналізується демографічна складова екологічної політики.

  6. SELECTED DETERMINANTS OF DEMOGRAPHIC SAFETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisława Ostasiewicz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents, in a simplifi ed manner, selected theories of population to explain the current trends of population development in Poland and throughout the world. The aim of the article is to present the demographic threats that have emerged in the last eighty years. Prognosticated age structures have also been predicted. Signifi cant diff erences between the structure of the population now and the future have been indicated, particularly regarding the ageing of the population. Against the background of global transformations analyzes of changes in Poland have been conducted. The comparison shows that changes in Poland are highly analogous to transformations around the world, such as declining birth rates and increasing life expectancy. These changes cause ageing of the population, which could result in the collapse of the functioning of the labor market and the pension system as it currently exists.

  7. Demographic Characteristics of World Class Jamaican Sprinters

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    Rachael Irving

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The dominance of Jamaican sprinters in international meets remains largely unexplained. Proposed explanations include demographics and favorable physiological characteristics. The aim of this study was to analyze the demographic characteristics of world class Jamaican sprinters. Questionnaires administered to 120 members of the Jamaican national team and 125 controls elicited information on place of birth, language, ethnicity, and distance and method of travel to school. Athletes were divided into three groups based on athletic disciplines: sprint (s: 100–400 m; n=80, jump and throw (j/t: jump and throw; n=25 and, middle distance (md: 800–3000 m; n=15. Frequency differences between groups were assessed using chi-square tests. Regional or county distribution of sprint differed from that of middle distance (P<0.001 but not from that of jump and throw athletes (P=0.24 and that of controls (P=0.59. Sprint athletes predominately originated from the Surrey county (s = 46%, j/t = 37%, md = 17, C = 53%, whilst middle distance athletes exhibited excess from the Middlesex county (md = 60%. The language distribution of all groups showed uniformity with a predominance of English. A higher proportion of middle distance and jump and throw athletes walked to school (md = 80%, j/t = 52%, s = 10%, and C = 12% and travelled greater distances to school. In conclusion, Jamaica’s success in sprinting may be related to environmental and social factors.

  8. Demographic Ageing on Croatian Islands

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    Ivo Nejašmić

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the changes in the population structure of the Croatian islands by age, warns of the degree of ageing, provides spatial differentiation of this process and presents perspective of ageing at the level of settlement. Typing of population ageing is based on scores and has seven types. The total island population in 2011 belongs to the type 5 – very old population. Almost a half of the settlements (out of 303 have been affected by the highest levels of ageing (types 6 and 7. It was found that a quarter of island settlements will become “dead villages” in a foreseeable future; most of them are on small islands but also in the interior of larger islands. These are villages decaying in every respect, in which the way of life, as we know it, veins and goes out. The present ageing villagers are their last residents in most cases. Eve¬rything suggests that demographic recovery of the islands is not possible with the forces in situ. It is important to strike a balance between the needs and opportunities in order to successfully organize life on the islands, both small and large ones, and the fact is that there is a continuing disparity, which is especially profound in small islands. A sensitive and selective approach is needed to overcome the unfavourable demographic trends. Therefore it is necessary to respect the particularities of indi¬vidual islands and island groups in devising development strategy. Solutions to the problems must come of the local and wider community in synergy with relevant professional and scientific institutions. However, if the solutions are not found or measures do not give results, if the islands are left to desorganisation and senilisation, a part of the islands will become a wasteland. With regard to the value of this area whose wealth are people in the first place, this would be an intolerable civilization decline.

  9. Socio- Demographic Factors And Non- Immunization In Children

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    Singh H

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available An Investigation was conducted to evaluate various socio- demographic variables and non- immunization in children of this region. Among all the children brought to well baby clinics, 20% were not immunized against any of the six killer diseases. Eighty two percent these were from social class I and II. Mothers of 50% and fathers of 40% non â€" immunized children were illiterate. Common factors for non- immunization were illness, ignorance and indifference.

  10. Composite likelihood estimation of demographic parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garrigan Daniel

    2009-11-01

    accuracy, demographic parameters from three simulated data sets that vary in the magnitude of a founder event and a skew in the effective population size of the X chromosome relative to the autosomes. The behavior of the Markov chain is also examined and shown to convergence to its stationary distribution, while also showing high levels of parameter mixing. The analysis of three pairwise comparisons of sub-Saharan African human populations with non-African human populations do not provide unequivocal support for a strong non-African founder event from these nuclear data. The estimates do however suggest a skew in the ratio of X chromosome to autosome effective population size that is greater than one. However in all three cases, the 95% highest posterior density interval for this ratio does include three-fourths, the value expected under an equal breeding sex ratio. Conclusion The implementation of composite and approximate likelihood methods in a framework that includes MCMCMC demographic parameter estimation shows great promise for being flexible and computationally efficient enough to scale up to the level of whole-genome polymorphism and divergence analysis. Further work must be done to characterize the effects of the assumption of linkage equilibrium among genomic regions that is crucial to the validity of applying the composite likelihood method.

  11. A Demographic Approach to Evaluating Tree Population Sustainability

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    Corey R. Halpin

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative criteria for assessing demographic sustainability of tree populations would be useful in forest conservation, as climate change and a growing complex of invasive pests are likely to drive forests outside their historic range of variability. In this paper, we used CANOPY, a spatially explicit, individual‐tree model, to examine the effects of initial size distributions on sustainability of tree populations for 70 northern hardwood stands under current environmental conditions. A demographic sustainability index was calculated as the ratio of future simulated basal area to current basal area, given current demographic structure and density‐dependent demographic equations. Only steeply descending size distributions were indicated to be moderately or highly sustainable (final basal area/initial basal area ≥0.7 over several tree generations. Five of the six principal species had demographic sustainability index values of <0.6 in 40%–84% of the stands. However, at a small landscape scale, nearly all species had mean index values >1. Simulation experiments suggested that a minimum sapling density of 300 per hectare was required to sustain the initial basal area, but further increases in sapling density did not increase basal area because of coincident increases in mortality. A variable slope with high q‐ratios in small size classes was needed to maintain the existing overstory of mature and old‐growth stands. This analytical approach may be useful in identifying stands needing restoration treatments to maintain existing species composition in situations where forests are likely to have future recruitment limitations.

  12. On the dynamics of the world demographic transition and financial-economic crises forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akaev, A.; Sadovnichy, V.; Korotayev, A.

    2012-05-01

    The article considers dynamic processes involving non-linear power-law behavior in such apparently diverse spheres, as demographic dynamics and dynamics of prices of highly liquid commodities such as oil and gold. All the respective variables exhibit features of explosive growth containing precursors indicating approaching phase transitions/catastrophes/crises. The first part of the article analyzes mathematical models of demographic dynamics that describe various scenarios of demographic development in the post-phase-transition period, including a model that takes the limitedness of the Earth carrying capacity into account. This model points to a critical point in the early 2050s, when the world population, after reaching its maximum value may decrease afterward stabilizing then at a certain stationary level. The article presents an analysis of the influence of the demographic transition (directly connected with the hyperexponential growth of the world population) on the global socioeconomic and geopolitical development. The second part deals with the phenomenon of explosive growth of prices of such highly liquid commodities as oil and gold. It is demonstrated that at present the respective processes could be regarded as precursors of waves of the global financial-economic crisis that will demand the change of the current global economic and political system. It is also shown that the moments of the start of the first and second waves of the current global crisis could have been forecasted with a model of accelerating log-periodic fluctuations superimposed over a power-law trend with a finite singularity developed by Didier Sornette and collaborators. With respect to the oil prices, it is shown that it was possible to forecast the 2008 crisis with a precision up to a month already in 2007. The gold price dynamics was used to calculate the possible time of the start of the second wave of the global crisis (July-August 2011); note that this forecast has turned out

  13. Evaluating vegetation effects on animal demographics: the role of plant phenology and sampling bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Daniel; Blomberg, Erik J; Sedinger, James S

    2016-04-24

    Plant phenological processes produce temporal variation in the height and cover of vegetation. Key aspects of animal life cycles, such as reproduction, often coincide with the growing season and therefore may inherently covary with plant growth. When evaluating the influence of vegetation variables on demographic rates, the decision about when to measure vegetation relative to the timing of demographic events is important to avoid confounding between the demographic rate of interest and vegetation covariates. Such confounding could bias estimated effect sizes or produce results that are entirely spurious. We investigated how the timing of vegetation sampling affected the modeled relationship between vegetation structure and nest survival of greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), using both simulated and observational data. We used the height of live grasses surrounding nests as an explanatory covariate, and analyzed its effect on daily nest survival. We compared results between models that included grass height measured at the time of nest fate (hatch or failure) with models where grass height was measured on a standardized date - that of predicted hatch date. Parameters linking grass height to nest survival based on measurements at nest fate produced more competitive models, but slope coefficients of grass height effects were biased high relative to truth in simulated scenarios. In contrast, measurements taken at predicted hatch date accurately predicted the influence of grass height on nest survival. Observational data produced similar results. Our results demonstrate the importance of properly considering confounding between demographic traits and plant phenology. Not doing so can produce results that are plausible, but ultimately inaccurate.

  14. CONSEQUENCES OF THE DEMOGRAPHIC CRISIS

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    LIVIU RADU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Major dysfunctionalities can arise from the demographic decline, both on a social level and from the perspective of the economic-financial evolution of the world’s states. The obvious aging of the industrialized states’ population overlapping the import of cheap workforce in the developing countries can start mutations whose consequences are somewhat predictable but discouraging. An accelerated urbanization of the states is foreseen, as well as the decrease of birthrates, negative external migration, increase of mortality and its stagnation in a larger value than that of the birthrate, and not least the population’s aging will hinder a part of the developing countries to sustain a high rhythm of long-term economical increase. The socialeconomic consequences will be reflected in the labor market, the householders’ amount of income as well as in the education’s level. All of these aspects call for a rethinking of the public politics, especially of the social insurance’s system and of the education, a reorientation of the economy based on the increase of specializing in production and productivity, as well as a financial stability unburdened by the politics’ interference in the business environment.

  15. Sequence Analysis in Demographic Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Billari, Francesco C.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available EnglishThis paper examines the salient features of sequence analysis in demogrpahicresearch. The new approach allows a holistic perspective on life course analysis and is based on arepresentation of lives as sequences of states. Some of the methods for analyzing such data aresketched, from complex description to optimal matching ot monoethetic divisive algorithms. Afer ashort ilustration of a demographically-relevant example, the needs in terms of data collection and theopportunities of applying the same aproach to synthetic data are discussed.FrenchOn examine ici les principaux éléments de l’analyse par séquence endémographie. Cette nouvelle technique permet une perspective unifiée del’analyse du cours de la vie, en représentant la vie comme une série d’états.Certaines des méthodes pour de telles analyses sont décrites, en commençant parla description complexe, pour considérer ensuite les alignements optimales, etles algorithmes de division. Après un court exemple en démographie, onconsidère les besoins en données et les possibilités d’application aux donnéessynthétique.

  16. Coping behaviour of female teachers: Demographic determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Chaturvedi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The study investigates the role of certain demographic variables in determining stress-coping behavior of female teachers. Materials and Methods: The sample consists of 150 female teachers selected by stratified sampling method from various schools of Bhopal. Stress-coping behavior was measured with the help of a subscale of ′The Occupational Stress Indicator′ (Wendy Lord, 1993 consisting of 28 items encompassing six dimensions of coping strategies i.e. Logics, Involvement, Social Support, Task Strategies, Time Management and Home and Work Relations. The scores of the subjects were compared in terms of marital status, age, and level of teaching with the help of ′t′ test and ′F′ test was used for comparing experience. Results: Marital status, age, and experience were found to be significant determinants of stress-coping, whereas the sores did not differ significantly on the basis of level of teaching. Conclusion: Married teachers in the age range of 40-60 years, with higher experience can cope better with the job stress than their counterparts.

  17. Demographic changes and international factor mobility

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews the extent and policy implications of linkages between demographic changes and international factor mobility. Evidence is found of significant demographic effects on both migration and the current account, but for different reasons neither increased migration nor international transfers of savings is expected to offer much assistance in digesting the variety of demographic transitions expected over the next fifty years. The paper also examines more briefly the effects of de...

  18. [Different Regions, Differently Insured Populations? Socio-demographic and Health-related Differences Between Insurance Funds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Falk; Koller, Daniela

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Analyses of health insurance claims data are getting more important in public health and health services research. Since there are several different health insurance funds in Germany, the specific characteristics of regional and socio-demographic population covered by a single fund has to be considered. The aim of this study is to evaluate the differences in socio-demographic and health-related variables between health insurance funds. Methods: This study is based on the GEDA-Study 2009 and 2010, 2 representative cross-sectional telephone surveys (n=42 534). We included socio-economic factors as well as information on area of residence and health-related variables to health status, health behavior and cardiovascular diseases. Results: There are fewer privately insured persons in the eastern regions of Germany. Insurants of the public health insurances have a lower socio-economic status and many have a migration background. Similar results can be found for smoking, obesity and cardiovascular factors. These differences between funds were found in many regional analyses. Conclusions: Especially differences in socio-economic factors are constant between insurance funds and regions. Therefore, the results show that analyses of one single health insurance fund cannot be generalized to the whole population. To ensure precise estimates on health services, morbidity or quality monitoring, we need data sets that integrate more funds. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Women's autonomy in household decision-making: a demographic study in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Teijlingen Edwin R

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background How socio-demographic factors influence women's autonomy in decision making on health care including purchasing goods and visiting family and relatives are very poorly studied in Nepal. This study aims to explore the links between women's household position and their autonomy in decision making. Methods We used Nepal Demographic Health Survey (NDHS 2006, which provided data on ever married women aged 15-49 years (n = 8257. The data consists of women's four types of household decision making; own health care, making major household purchases, making purchase for daily household needs and visits to her family or relatives. A number of socio-demographic variables were used in multivariable logistic regression to examine the relationship of these variables to all four types of decision making. Results Women's autonomy in decision making is positively associated with their age, employment and number of living children. Women from rural area and Terai region have less autonomy in decision making in all four types of outcome measure. There is a mixed variation in women's autonomy in the development region across all outcome measures. Western women are more likely to make decision in own health care (1.2-1.6, while they are less likely to purchase daily household needs (0.6-0.9. Women's increased education is positively associated with autonomy in own health care decision making (p Conclusions Women from rural area and Terai region needs specific empowerment programme to enable them to be more autonomous in the household decision making. Women's autonomy by education, wealth quintile and development region needs a further social science investigation to observe the variations within each stratum. A more comprehensive strategy can enable women to access community resources, to challenge traditional norms and to access economic resources. This will lead the women to be more autonomous in decision making in the due course.

  20. France: demographic change and family policy since World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussel, L; Thery, I

    1988-09-01

    Major demographic trends and changes in family policy in France since World War II are analyzed, with a focus on fertility and marriage patterns (including divorce). The effects of political and economic factors on family policy and legislation since 1945 are also discussed. Data are from official and other published sources.

  1. Disentangling purchasing motives from socio-demographic differences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Laura Mørch

    in a positive effect on their own health. The level of trust in organic products generally increases with level of education, urbanisation and income. Including perception of organic goods in the estimation therefore reduces the effects of these socio-demographics, and thereby demonstrates the strength...

  2. Accounting for rate variation among lineages in comparative demographic analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, Andrew G.; Ho, Simon Y. W.; Malaney, Jason L.; Cook, Joseph A.; Talbot, Sandra L.

    2014-01-01

    Genetic analyses of contemporary populations can be used to estimate the demographic histories of species within an ecological community. Comparison of these demographic histories can shed light on community responses to past climatic events. However, species experience different rates of molecular evolution, and this presents a major obstacle to comparative demographic analyses. We address this problem by using a Bayesian relaxed-clock method to estimate the relative evolutionary rates of 22 small mammal taxa distributed across northwestern North America. We found that estimates of the relative molecular substitution rate for each taxon were consistent across the range of sampling schemes that we compared. Using three different reference rates, we rescaled the relative rates so that they could be used to estimate absolute evolutionary timescales. Accounting for rate variation among taxa led to temporal shifts in our skyline-plot estimates of demographic history, highlighting both uniform and idiosyncratic evolutionary responses to directional climate trends for distinct ecological subsets of the small mammal community. Our approach can be used in evolutionary analyses of populations from multiple species, including comparative demographic studies.

  3. Socio-demographic determinants of participation in mammography screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Euler-Chelpin, My; Olsen, Anne Helene; Njor, Sisse

    2008-01-01

    Our objective was to use individual data on socio-demographic characteristics to identify predictors of participation in mammography screening and control to what extent they can explain the regional difference. We used data from mammography screening programmes in Copenhagen, 1991-1999, and Funen......, 1993-2001, Denmark. Target groups were identified from the Population Register, screening data came from the health authority, and socio-demographic data from Statistics Denmark. Included were women eligible for at least 3 screens. The crude RR of never use versus always use was 3.21 (95%CI, 3...... women in Copenhagen, irrespective of their socio-demographic characteristics, had low participation. Screening programmes have to find ways to handle this urbanity factor....

  4. Demographic potential as a component of life quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Vladimirovna Polkova

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical and methodical reasons for allocation of components of life quality with the particular importance of population quality, including demographic (reproduction potential are provided in the article. The integrated indicators of population quality in Ural federal district regions were calculated and analyzed in dynamics, basing on an author’s technique of integrated index estimation of population quality. Advantages of use the integrated index of population quality (IIKN before the human development index (HDI caused by inclusion in it the major demographic indicators in regional estimates are proved. Peculiarities of HDI and IIKN dynamics in Russia regions for the last decade are demonstrated; their value for efficiency evaluation of realizing state programs in the social and demographic sphere is shown.

  5. Nutrient Patterns and Their Association with Socio-Demographic, Lifestyle Factors and Obesity Risk in Rural South African Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisa, Pedro T.; Pedro, Titilola M.; Kahn, Kathleen; Tollman, Stephen M.; Pettifor, John M.; Norris, Shane A.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify and describe the diversity of nutrient patterns and how they associate with socio-demographic and lifestyle factors including body mass index in rural black South African adolescents. Nutrient patterns were identified from quantified food frequency questionnaires (QFFQ) in 388 rural South African adolescents between the ages of 11–15 years from the Agincourt Health and Socio-demographic Surveillance System (AHDSS). Principle Component Analysis (PCA) was applied to 25 nutrients derived from QFFQs. Multiple linear regression and partial R2 models were fitted and computed respectively for each of the retained principal component (PC) scores on socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics including body mass index (BMI) for age Z scores. Four nutrient patterns explaining 79% of the total variance were identified: PCI (26%) was characterized by animal derived nutrients; PC2 (21%) by vitamins, fibre and vegetable oil nutrients; PC3 (19%) by both animal and plant derived nutrients (mixed diet driven nutrients); and PC4 (13%) by starch and folate. A positive and significant association was observed with BMI for age Z scores per 1 standard deviation (SD) increase in PC1 (0.13 (0.02; 0.24); p = 0.02) and PC4 (0.10 (−0.01; 0.21); p = 0.05) scores only. We confirmed variability in nutrient patterns that were significantly associated with various lifestyle factors including obesity. PMID:25984738

  6. Nutrient patterns and their association with socio-demographic, lifestyle factors and obesity risk in rural South African adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisa, Pedro T; Pedro, Titilola M; Kahn, Kathleen; Tollman, Stephen M; Pettifor, John M; Norris, Shane A

    2015-05-12

    The aim of this study was to identify and describe the diversity of nutrient patterns and how they associate with socio-demographic and lifestyle factors including body mass index in rural black South African adolescents. Nutrient patterns were identified from quantified food frequency questionnaires (QFFQ) in 388 rural South African adolescents between the ages of 11-15 years from the Agincourt Health and Socio-demographic Surveillance System (AHDSS). Principle Component Analysis (PCA) was applied to 25 nutrients derived from QFFQs. Multiple linear regression and partial R2 models were fitted and computed respectively for each of the retained principal component (PC) scores on socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics including body mass index (BMI) for age Z scores. Four nutrient patterns explaining 79% of the total variance were identified: PCI (26%) was characterized by animal derived nutrients; PC2 (21%) by vitamins, fibre and vegetable oil nutrients; PC3 (19%) by both animal and plant derived nutrients (mixed diet driven nutrients); and PC4 (13%) by starch and folate. A positive and significant association was observed with BMI for age Z scores per 1 standard deviation (SD) increase in PC1 (0.13 (0.02; 0.24); p = 0.02) and PC4 (0.10 (-0.01; 0.21); p = 0.05) scores only. We confirmed variability in nutrient patterns that were significantly associated with various lifestyle factors including obesity.

  7. Bias and ignorance in demographic perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landy, D; Guay, B; Marghetis, T

    2017-08-31

    When it comes to knowledge of demographic facts, misinformation appears to be the norm. Americans massively overestimate the proportions of their fellow citizens who are immigrants, Muslim, LGBTQ, and Latino, but underestimate those who are White or Christian. Previous explanations of these estimation errors have invoked topic-specific mechanisms such as xenophobia or media bias. We reconsidered this pattern of errors in the light of more than 30 years of research on the psychological processes involved in proportion estimation and decision-making under uncertainty. In two publicly available datasets featuring demographic estimates from 14 countries, we found that proportion estimates of national demographics correspond closely to what is found in laboratory studies of quantitative estimates more generally. Biases in demographic estimation, therefore, are part of a very general pattern of human psychology-independent of the particular topic or demographic under consideration-that explains most of the error in estimates of the size of politically salient populations. By situating demographic estimates within a broader understanding of general quantity estimation, these results demand reevaluation of both topic-specific misinformation about demographic facts and topic-specific explanations of demographic ignorance, such as media bias and xenophobia.

  8. 5 CFR 841.404 - Demographic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Demographic factors. 841.404 Section 841... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-GENERAL ADMINISTRATION Government Costs § 841.404 Demographic factors. (a) The Office of Personnel Management (OPM) will consider the factors listed below...

  9. Demographic and clinical features of neuromyelitis optica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pandit, L.; Asgari, Nasrin; Apiwattanakul, M.

    2015-01-01

    The comparative clinical and demographic features of neuromyelitis optica (NMO) are not well known. In this review we analyzed peer-reviewed publications for incidence and prevalence, clinical phenotypes, and demographic features of NMO. Population-based studies from Europe, South East and Southe...

  10. DETERMINING HABITUAL DEMOGRAPHIC COORDINATES AND HEALTH FOR PRIMARY SCHOOL CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toma G.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available An important aspect is social learning involves acquisition of knowledge, skills, abilities, habits over from friends, colleagues, social group they belong to.Purpose and research hypothesisSmall school activities is more effective if concrete terms of reference that would bring back to memory certain knowledge that to suggest solutions to solve and give him the opportunity to correct by comparing statements reality, this is why the main method of conducting educational process is observation.Working methodResearch group consisted of children of school age (7-12 years. Demographic information about the subjects covered: health, family composition and housing.Research resultsThe vast majority of children had good health, with no differences between the control group and the experimental group (p = 0.428. Regarding housing conditions, over half (57.1% in the control group and 51.4% in control group live in two rooms, no child lives in a studio and two children in the experimental group live at home with yard. In both groups, two children did not provide information regarding their housing situation. Of children included in the study, a very high percentage (82.9% in the control group and 68.6% in the experimental group is single copies: only six children in the control group and 10 in the control group have brothers or sisters. Under these conditions, more than half of the children have their own room (65.7% in the control group and 57.1% in the experimental group, the rest sharing a room with a brother or sister, or parents (in the case of two children experimental group.ConclusionsWe conclude that in terms of demographic variables (health status, family composition, housing, there are no differences between children in the two groups. Optimal integration in a social environment is based not only on the correct development of intellectual faculties, namely, the possibility of natural evolution on the moral values, scientific and so on, but

  11. A Demographic Perspective on Family Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Suzanne M.

    2014-01-01

    Demographic analysis seeks to understand how individual microlevel decisions about child-bearing, marriage and partnering, geographic mobility, and behaviors that influence health and longevity aggregate to macrolevel population trends and differentials in fertility, mortality and migration. In this review, I first discuss theoretical perspectives—classic demographic transition theory, the perspective of the “second demographic transition,” the spread of developmental idealism—that inform demographers’ understanding of macrolevel population change. Then, I turn to a discussion of the role that demographically informed data collection has played in illuminating family change since the mid-20th century in the United States. Finally, I discuss ways in which demographic theory and data collection might inform future areas of family research, particularly in the area of intergenerational family relationships and new and emerging family forms. PMID:26078785

  12. Why Do We Stay? Career Rural Teachers' Burnout Compared to Personal Motivational Sources and Demographics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, David J.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of individual motivational sources, demographics, and levels of burnout within career rural school teachers in Nebraska. The dependent variable was the psychological syndrome burnout as measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Two independent variables were individual motivational sources (a personality trait…

  13. Why Do We Stay? Career Rural Teachers' Burnout Compared to Personal Motivational Sources and Demographics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, David J.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of individual motivational sources, demographics, and levels of burnout within career rural school teachers in Nebraska. The dependent variable was the psychological syndrome burnout as measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Two independent variables were individual motivational sources (a personality trait…

  14. The influence of passenger demographics on airport attribute evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Carstens

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available It is imperative for airport operators and airlines to have a clear understanding of the factors which influence the passenger’s decision with regard to which airport/airline combination to use in a multi-airport scenario. Interactions between demographic variables, such as gender and purpose of travel, and the choice attributes in the decision-making process exist. The extent to which specific attributes influence the passenger’s decision could be invaluable to service providers (airport operators and airlines in allocating and employing limited resources. The purpose of this article is to investigate the extent of the interactions between passenger demographics and attribute evaluation by taking into account the ordinal nature of the measurement scale.

  15. Socio-demographic determinants of participation in swimming amongst working residents of warsaw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biernat, Elżbieta

    2012-05-01

    The aim of research is to assess the correlation between socio-demographic factors and swimming activity among the working population of Warsaw. The questionnaire survey included 4405 randomly selected residents of Warsaw. The correlation between the swimming activity and the variables characterizing the socio-demographic structure of the respondents were assessed by log-linear modelling. The significance of the impact of factors included in the analysis was determined using the chi-square test. Thirty-five per cent of the respondents declared recreational swimming. Gender, age, BMI, education, occupation, and income were significantly related to the swimming activity. Women (33%) - compared to men (38%) - were almost 1.2 times less likely to participate in swimming; similarly, overweight people (33%, OR = 0.90) and obese people (33%, OR = 0.92). People from Warsaw from 20-29 years (43%), with higher education (40%), incomes above the national average (40%), and representing the profession of an actor (52%), swam relatively more often. The results of the study might help in developing marketing plans and market segmentation strategies, as well as in forecasting the development trends of the leisure activity.

  16. The Epidemiology and Demographics of Hip Dysplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loder, Randall T.; Skopelja, Elaine N.

    2011-01-01

    The etiology of developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) is unknown. There are many insights, however, from epidemiologic/demographic information. A systematic medical literature review regarding DDH was performed. There is a predominance of left-sided (64.0%) and unilateral disease (63.4%). The incidence per 1000 live births ranges from 0.06 in Africans in Africa to 76.1 in Native Americans. There is significant variability in incidence within each racial group by geographic location. The incidence of clinical neonatal hip instability at birth ranges from 0.4 in Africans to 61.7 in Polish Caucasians. Predictors of DDH are breech presentation, positive family history, and gender (female). Children born premature, with low birth weights, or to multifetal pregnancies are somewhat protected from DDH. Certain HLA A, B, and D types demonstrate an increase in DDH. Chromosome 17q21 is strongly associated with DDH. Ligamentous laxity and abnormalities in collagen metabolism, estrogen metabolism, and pregnancy-associated pelvic instability are well-described associations with DDH. Many studies demonstrate an increase of DDH in the winter, both in the northern and southern hemispheres. Swaddling is strongly associated with DDH. Amniocentesis, premature labor, and massive radiation exposure may increase the risk of DDH. Associated conditions are congenital muscular torticollis and congenital foot deformities. The opposite hip is frequently abnormal when using rigorous radiographic assessments. The role of acetabular dysplasia and adult hip osteoarthritis is complex. Archeological studies demonstrate that the epidemiology of DDH may be changing. PMID:24977057

  17. Restless Legs Syndrome in an Appalachian Primary Care Population: Prevalence, Demographic and Lifestyle Correlates, and Burden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innes, Kim E.; Flack, Kathryn L.; Selfe, Terry Kit; Kandati, Sahiti; Agarwal, Parul

    2013-01-01

    Background: Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common and distressing sensorimotor disorder of unknown etiology. While the epidemiology of RLS has been examined in several North American and European studies, research on RLS and RLS burden in poor, rural populations, including those residing in Appalachia, remains sparse. In this study, we investigated RLS prevalence in an Appalachian primary care population and examined the association of RLS to demographic factors, lifestyle characteristics, sleep quality, and mood disorders. Methods: Participants of this anonymous survey study were community-dwelling adults aged ≥ 18 years visiting one of 4 West Virginia primary care clinics. Data gathered included detailed information on sleep patterns, demographic characteristics, lifestyle factors, and health/medical history; the survey also included questions specific to RLS diagnosis and severity. Response rates were excellent, with 68% of eligible adults contacted returning completed surveys (N = 1,424/2,087). Pregnant women (N = 65) and those with missing data on key variables (N = 142) were excluded from the analyses. Results: Of the 1,217 participants included in the final analytic sample, 19.6% (18.2% with symptoms at least once/month) met the 4 IRLSSG diagnostic criteria in the absence of positional discomfort or leg cramps; 14.5% reported RLS symptoms at least once/week and 10.1% indicated symptoms ≥ 3×/week. Excluding respondents with diabetes, kidney disease, or anemia reduced these rates only slightly. Those with RLS were more likely to be older, female, lower income, unemployed, disabled, non-Hispanic white, and less likely to be college educated than those without RLS. Mood and sleep impairment were significantly elevated in those with RLS; after adjustment for demographic and lifestyle characteristics, health history, and other factors, those with RLS remained significantly more likely to indicate a history of depression (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.9; 95

  18. Whole blood and apheresis donors in Quebec, Canada: Demographic differences and motivations to donate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbonneau, Johanne; Cloutier, Marie-Soleil; Carrier, Élianne

    2015-12-01

    This study sought to compare demographics and donation motivations among plasma/platelet donors (PPDs) and whole blood donors (WBDs), in a voluntary and non-remunerated context. Motives to donate blood and demographic characteristics were collected through questionnaires completed by 795 WBDs and 473 PPDs. Comparison of WBDs and PPDs under chi-square tests showed that 17 out of 23 motivators were statistically different according to various demographic variables. These results demonstrate the existence of specific donor profiles both for WBDs and PPDs. Agencies should develop new recruitment strategies tailored to these donors, especially if they wish to convince WBDs to convert to apheresis donation.

  19. Temporal, spatial, and environmental influences on the demographics of grizzly bears in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Charles C.; Haroldson, Mark A.; White, Gary C.; Harris, Richard B.; Cherry, Steve; Keating, Kim A.; Moody, Dave; Servheen, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    During the past 2 decades, the grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) population in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) has increased in numbers and expanded in range. Understanding temporal, environmental, and spatial variables responsible for this change is useful in evaluating what likely influenced grizzly bear demographics in the GYE and where future management efforts might benefit conservation and management. We used recent data from radio-marked bears to estimate reproduction (1983–2002) and survival (1983–2001); these we combined into models to evaluate demographic vigor (lambda [λ]). We explored the influence of an array of individual, temporal, and spatial covariates on demographic vigor.

  20. amily Planning Brings China Demographic Bonus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马瀛通

    2007-01-01

    Editorial note Scholars around the world are voicing their criticisms on China’s family planning policy,which,in their opinions,will lead to an unhealthy population structure.This article reviews the concepts of"rich before old"and"negative demographic bonus",and concludes that with regards to some indicators such as dependency ratio and demographic bonus,there exists a discrepancy between calculations and reality.The author believes that China will continue to witness a surge of demographic bonus in the future.

  1. A unified framework of demographic time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riffe, Tim; Schöley, Jonas; Villavicencio, Francisco

    Demographic thought and practice is largely conditioned by the Lexis diagram, a two-dimensional graphical representation of the identity between age, period, and birth cohort. This relationship does not account for remaining years of life or other related time measures, whose use in demographic...... research is both underrepresented and incompletely situated. We describe a three-dimensional relationship between six different measures of demographic time: chronological age, time to death, lifespan, time of birth, time of death, and period. We describe four identities among subsets of these six measures...

  2. Prevenção de doenças sexualmente transmissíveis em mulheres: associação com variáveis sócio-econômicas e demográficas Prevention of sexually transmitted diseases among women: association with socioeconomic and demographic variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luisa Jiménez

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available As doenças sexualmente transmissíveis (DST têm sido debatidas no ambiente científico e nos meios de comunicação de massa, em especial, por sua associação a maior risco de infecção pelo Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana (HIV. Estudou-se a adoção de comportamentos por mulheres para proteção das DST, tal como a associação destes a variáveis sócio-econômicas e demográficas. Trata-se de estudo descritivo, com dados secundários de pesquisa feita em Campinas, São Paulo, na qual foram entrevistadas 635 mulheres selecionadas mediante a técnica de amostragem "bola de neve". Foram classificadas em: adolescentes e adultas de status sócio-econômico médio-alto ou baixo. Grande proporção delas não se prevenia das DST, em particular, as de status baixo. Em todos os grupos, o condom masculino foi o método de prevenção mais referido. Houve associação negativa entre parceiro fixo e uso de condom, e a principal razão para não usá-lo foi "só ter um parceiro e confiar nele". Em meio às adolescentes, ocorreu associação positiva entre escolaridade acima da oitava série e uso de condom, bem como negativa entre idade e uso desse método. Entre adultas o uso exclusivo de condom esteve, em geral, positivamente associado a status sócio-econômico.Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs have been a subject of discussion both among scientists and in the mass media, especially because of their association with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. We studied the adoption of specific protective behaviors for the prevention of STDs among women, as well as the associations between these behaviors and socioeconomic and demographic variables. This was a descriptive study based on secondary data from a previous study carried out in Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil. A total of 635 women were selected using the social network ("snowball" technique. Subjects were classified into four groups: adolescents and adults of upper middle and lower

  3. Estado nutricional dos adolescentes e sua relação com variáveis sociodemográficas: Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde do Escolar (PeNSE, 2009 Nutritional status of adolescents and its relation with socio-demographics variables: National Adolescent School-based Health Survey (PeNSE, 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cora Araújo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se descrever o estado nutricional dos adolescentes da 9ª série de escolas públicas e privadas das capitais brasileiras e sua associação com variáveis sociodemográficas. Por meio de questionário autopreenchido, foram registradas informações sobre sexo, raça/cor, idade, escola pública/privada, macrorregião do país, escolaridade materna e posse de bens familiares. Peso e altura foram aferidos segundo procedimentos padronizados. A altura para idade e o Índice de Massa Corporal para idade foram avaliados segundo critérios da Organização Mundial da Saúde. Obtiveram-se medidas antropométricas de 58.971 adolescentes, sendo que 2,9% apresentaram déficit estatural e 2,9% magreza. O excesso de peso foi de 23,0% e a obesidade de 7,3%, sendo mais altos no Sul e no Sudeste do país. Déficits de altura e peso, excesso de peso e obesidade foram mais prevalentes nos meninos. Os déficits foram superiores nas escolas públicas, e o excesso de peso e a obesidade nas privadas. Adolescentes cujas mães eram de menor escolaridade ou de famílias mais pobres apresentaram maior déficit de altura; o inverso ocorreu com o excesso de peso e a obesidade. Prevalências de déficits, excesso de peso e obesidade ressaltam a necessidade de intervenções nutricionais direcionadas para esta fase da vida.The aim of this study was to describe the nutritional status of adolescents in the 9th year of public and private schools of the Brazilian capitals and its association with socio-demographic variables. By means of a self-completed questionnaire, information related to sex, race, age, public/private school, macro-region of the country, maternal education and family possessions were recorded. Measures of weight and height were measured according to standardized procedures. Height for age and body mass index for age was evaluated according to the World Health Organization reference. Anthropometric measurements of 58,971 adolescents were obtained, of

  4. Psychosocial and demographic predictors of pediatric psychotropic medication use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, S H; Shepherd, M D

    1996-08-15

    The effects of age, gender, and family background on children's use of prescription psychoactive medications were studied. Patient and prescribing information was obtained for children enrolled as dependents in any of five prescription drug benefit plans during the period from December 29, 1992, through December 28, 1993. A binary response model was specified under the assumption of logistic distribution of probabilities of psychotropic drug use. The independent variables were family size, parenting type (single- or two-parent family), parental use of psychotropic medications, and child's age, gender, and the interaction between age and gender. Logistic regression analysis was conducted not only for overall psychotropic drug use but also for antidepressants, antianxiety drugs, and CNS stimulants. The sample included 3144 children; 3.9% received psychotropic drugs. Family size and parenting type had no effect on overall use of psychotropic drugs by children, but children were more likely to receive psychotropic drugs if the parents took them. The study showed an interaction between age and gender. At younger ages, boys were more likely than girls to receive psychotropic drugs; the opposite was true at older ages. For particular subcategories of drugs the study showed that (1) boys were more likely than girls, and young children were more likely than older children, to receive CNS stimulants, (2) children from single-parent families were less likely to use antidepressants than children from two-parent households, and (3) the influence of mothers' psychotropic drug use extended to all three drug classes, but the influence of fathers' psychotropic drug use existed for antidepressants only. The effects of demographic and familial factors on children's use of psychotropic drugs varied according to the drug class.

  5. Demographic history and rare allele sharing among human populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravel, Simon; Henn, Brenna M.; Gutenkunst, Ryan N.; Indap, Amit R.; Marth, Gabor T.; Clark, Andrew G.; Yu, Fuli; Gibbs, Richard A.; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Altshuler, David L.; Durbin, Richard M.; Abecasis, Gonçalo R.; Bentley, David R.; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Clark, Andrew G.; Collins, Francis S.; De La Vega, Francisco M.; Donnelly, Peter; Egholm, Michael; Flicek, Paul; Gabriel, Stacey B.; Gibbs, Richard A.; Knoppers, Bartha M.; Lander, Eric S.; Lehrach, Hans; Mardis, Elaine R.; McVean, Gil A.; Nickerson, Debbie A.; Peltonen, Leena; Schafer, Alan J.; Sherry, Stephen T.; Wang, Jun; Wilson, Richard K.; Gibbs, Richard A.; Deiros, David; Metzker, Mike; Muzny, Donna; Reid, Jeff; Wheeler, David; Wang, Jun; Li, Jingxiang; Jian, Min; Li, Guoqing; Li, Ruiqiang; Liang, Huiqing; Tian, Geng; Wang, Bo; Wang, Jian; Wang, Wei; Yang, Huanming; Zhang, Xiuqing; Zheng, Huisong; Lander, Eric S.; Altshuler, David L.; Ambrogio, Lauren; Bloom, Toby; Cibulskis, Kristian; Fennell, Tim J.; Gabriel, Stacey B.; Jaffe, David B.; Shefler, Erica; Sougnez, Carrie L.; Bentley, David R.; Gormley, Niall; Humphray, Sean; Kingsbury, Zoya; Koko-Gonzales, Paula; Stone, Jennifer; McKernan, Kevin J.; Costa, Gina L.; Ichikawa, Jeffry K.; Lee, Clarence C.; Sudbrak, Ralf; Lehrach, Hans; Borodina, Tatiana A.; Dahl, Andreas; Davydov, Alexey N.; Marquardt, Peter; Mertes, Florian; Nietfeld, Wilfiried; Rosenstiel, Philip; Schreiber, Stefan; Soldatov, Aleksey V.; Timmermann, Bernd; Tolzmann, Marius; Egholm, Michael; Affourtit, Jason; Ashworth, Dana; Attiya, Said; Bachorski, Melissa; Buglione, Eli; Burke, Adam; Caprio, Amanda; Celone, Christopher; Clark, Shauna; Conners, David; Desany, Brian; Gu, Lisa; Guccione, Lorri; Kao, Kalvin; Kebbel, Andrew; Knowlton, Jennifer; Labrecque, Matthew; McDade, Louise; Mealmaker, Craig; Minderman, Melissa; Nawrocki, Anne; Niazi, Faheem; Pareja, Kristen; Ramenani, Ravi; Riches, David; Song, Wanmin; Turcotte, Cynthia; Wang, Shally; Mardis, Elaine R.; Wilson, Richard K.; Dooling, David; Fulton, Lucinda; Fulton, Robert; Weinstock, George; Durbin, Richard M.; Burton, John; Carter, David M.; Churcher, Carol; Coffey, Alison; Cox, Anthony; Palotie, Aarno; Quail, Michael; Skelly, Tom; Stalker, James; Swerdlow, Harold P.; Turner, Daniel; De Witte, Anniek; Giles, Shane; Gibbs, Richard A.; Wheeler, David; Bainbridge, Matthew; Challis, Danny; Sabo, Aniko; Yu, Fuli; Yu, Jin; Wang, Jun; Fang, Xiaodong; Guo, Xiaosen; Li, Ruiqiang; Li, Yingrui; Luo, Ruibang; Tai, Shuaishuai; Wu, Honglong; Zheng, Hancheng; Zheng, Xiaole; Zhou, Yan; Li, Guoqing; Wang, Jian; Yang, Huanming; Marth, Gabor T.; Garrison, Erik P.; Huang, Weichun; Indap, Amit; Kural, Deniz; Lee, Wan-Ping; Leong, Wen Fung; Quinlan, Aaron R.; Stewart, Chip; Stromberg, Michael P.; Ward, Alistair N.; Wu, Jiantao; Lee, Charles; Mills, Ryan E.; Shi, Xinghua; Daly, Mark J.; DePristo, Mark A.; Altshuler, David L.; Ball, Aaron D.; Banks, Eric; Bloom, Toby; Browning, Brian L.; Cibulskis, Kristian; Fennell, Tim J.; Garimella, Kiran V.; Grossman, Sharon R.; Handsaker, Robert E.; Hanna, Matt; Hartl, Chris; Jaffe, David B.; Kernytsky, Andrew M.; Korn, Joshua M.; Li, Heng; Maguire, Jared R.; McCarroll, Steven A.; McKenna, Aaron; Nemesh, James C.; Philippakis, Anthony A.; Poplin, Ryan E.; Price, Alkes; Rivas, Manuel A.; Sabeti, Pardis C.; Schaffner, Stephen F.; Shefler, Erica; Shlyakhter, Ilya A.; Cooper, David N.; Ball, Edward V.; Mort, Matthew; Phillips, Andrew D.; Stenson, Peter D.; Sebat, Jonathan; Makarov, Vladimir; Ye, Kenny; Yoon, Seungtai C.; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Clark, Andrew G.; Boyko, Adam; Degenhardt, Jeremiah; Gravel, Simon; Gutenkunst, Ryan N.; Kaganovich, Mark; Keinan, Alon; Lacroute, Phil; Ma, Xin; Reynolds, Andy; Clarke, Laura; Flicek, Paul; Cunningham, Fiona; Herrero, Javier; Keenen, Stephen; Kulesha, Eugene; Leinonen, Rasko; McLaren, William M.; Radhakrishnan, Rajesh; Smith, Richard E.; Zalunin, Vadim; Zheng-Bradley, Xiangqun; Korbel, Jan O.; Stütz, Adrian M.; Humphray, Sean; Bauer, Markus; Cheetham, R. Keira; Cox, Tony; Eberle, Michael; James, Terena; Kahn, Scott; Murray, Lisa; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Ye, Kai; De La Vega, Francisco M.; Fu, Yutao; Hyland, Fiona C. L.; Manning, Jonathan M.; McLaughlin, Stephen F.; Peckham, Heather E.; Sakarya, Onur; Sun, Yongming A.; Tsung, Eric F.; Batzer, Mark A.; Konkel, Miriam K.; Walker, Jerilyn A.; Sudbrak, Ralf; Albrecht, Marcus W.; Amstislavskiy, Vyacheslav S.; Herwig, Ralf; Parkhomchuk, Dimitri V.; Sherry, Stephen T.; Agarwala, Richa; Khouri, Hoda M.; Morgulis, Aleksandr O.; Paschall, Justin E.; Phan, Lon D.; Rotmistrovsky, Kirill E.; Sanders, Robert D.; Shumway, Martin F.; Xiao, Chunlin; McVean, Gil A.; Auton, Adam; Iqbal, Zamin; Lunter, Gerton; Marchini, Jonathan L.; Moutsianas, Loukas; Myers, Simon; Tumian, Afidalina; Desany, Brian; Knight, James; Winer, Roger; Craig, David W.; Beckstrom-Sternberg, Steve M.; Christoforides, Alexis; Kurdoglu, Ahmet A.; Pearson, John V.; Sinari, Shripad A.; Tembe, Waibhav D.; Haussler, David; Hinrichs, Angie S.; Katzman, Sol J.; Kern, Andrew; Kuhn, Robert M.; Przeworski, Molly; Hernandez, Ryan D.; Howie, Bryan; Kelley, Joanna L.; Melton, S. Cord; Abecasis, Gonçalo R.; Li, Yun; Anderson, Paul; Blackwell, Tom; Chen, Wei; Cookson, William O.; Ding, Jun; Kang, Hyun Min; Lathrop, Mark; Liang, Liming; Moffatt, Miriam F.; Scheet, Paul; Sidore, Carlo; Snyder, Matthew; Zhan, Xiaowei; Zöllner, Sebastian; Awadalla, Philip; Casals, Ferran; Idaghdour, Youssef; Keebler, John; Stone, Eric A.; Zilversmit, Martine; Jorde, Lynn; Xing, Jinchuan; Eichler, Evan E.; Aksay, Gozde; Alkan, Can; Hajirasouliha, Iman; Hormozdiari, Fereydoun; Kidd, Jeffrey M.; Sahinalp, S. Cenk; Sudmant, Peter H.; Mardis, Elaine R.; Chen, Ken; Chinwalla, Asif; Ding, Li; Koboldt, Daniel C.; McLellan, Mike D.; Dooling, David; Weinstock, George; Wallis, John W.; Wendl, Michael C.; Zhang, Qunyuan; Durbin, Richard M.; Albers, Cornelis A.; Ayub, Qasim; Balasubramaniam, Senduran; Barrett, Jeffrey C.; Carter, David M.; Chen, Yuan; Conrad, Donald F.; Danecek, Petr; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T.; Hu, Min; Huang, Ni; Hurles, Matt E.; Jin, Hanjun; Jostins, Luke; Keane, Thomas M.; Le, Si Quang; Lindsay, Sarah; Long, Quan; MacArthur, Daniel G.; Montgomery, Stephen B.; Parts, Leopold; Stalker, James; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Walter, Klaudia; Zhang, Yujun; Gerstein, Mark B.; Snyder, Michael; Abyzov, Alexej; Balasubramanian, Suganthi; Bjornson, Robert; Du, Jiang; Grubert, Fabian; Habegger, Lukas; Haraksingh, Rajini; Jee, Justin; Khurana, Ekta; Lam, Hugo Y. K.; Leng, Jing; Mu, Xinmeng Jasmine; Urban, Alexander E.; Zhang, Zhengdong; Li, Yingrui; Luo, Ruibang; Marth, Gabor T.; Garrison, Erik P.; Kural, Deniz; Quinlan, Aaron R.; Stewart, Chip; Stromberg, Michael P.; Ward, Alistair N.; Wu, Jiantao; Lee, Charles; Mills, Ryan E.; Shi, Xinghua; McCarroll, Steven A.; Banks, Eric; DePristo, Mark A.; Handsaker, Robert E.; Hartl, Chris; Korn, Joshua M.; Li, Heng; Nemesh, James C.; Sebat, Jonathan; Makarov, Vladimir; Ye, Kenny; Yoon, Seungtai C.; Degenhardt, Jeremiah; Kaganovich, Mark; Clarke, Laura; Smith, Richard E.; Zheng-Bradley, Xiangqun; Korbel, Jan O.; Humphray, Sean; Cheetham, R. Keira; Eberle, Michael; Kahn, Scott; Murray, Lisa; Ye, Kai; De La Vega, Francisco M.; Fu, Yutao; Peckham, Heather E.; Sun, Yongming A.; Batzer, Mark A.; Konkel, Miriam K.; Walker, Jerilyn A.; Xiao, Chunlin; Iqbal, Zamin; Desany, Brian; Blackwell, Tom; Snyder, Matthew; Xing, Jinchuan; Eichler, Evan E.; Aksay, Gozde; Alkan, Can; Hajirasouliha, Iman; Hormozdiari, Fereydoun; Kidd, Jeffrey M.; Chen, Ken; Chinwalla, Asif; Ding, Li; McLellan, Mike D.; Wallis, John W.; Hurles, Matt E.; Conrad, Donald F.; Walter, Klaudia; Zhang, Yujun; Gerstein, Mark B.; Snyder, Michael; Abyzov, Alexej; Du, Jiang; Grubert, Fabian; Haraksingh, Rajini; Jee, Justin; Khurana, Ekta; Lam, Hugo Y. K.; Leng, Jing; Mu, Xinmeng Jasmine; Urban, Alexander E.; Zhang, Zhengdong; Gibbs, Richard A.; Bainbridge, Matthew; Challis, Danny; Coafra, Cristian; Dinh, Huyen; Kovar, Christie; Lee, Sandy; Muzny, Donna; Nazareth, Lynne; Reid, Jeff; Sabo, Aniko; Yu, Fuli; Yu, Jin; Marth, Gabor T.; Garrison, Erik P.; Indap, Amit; Leong, Wen Fung; Quinlan, Aaron R.; Stewart, Chip; Ward, Alistair N.; Wu, Jiantao; Cibulskis, Kristian; Fennell, Tim J.; Gabriel, Stacey B.; Garimella, Kiran V.; Hartl, Chris; Shefler, Erica; Sougnez, Carrie L.; Wilkinson, Jane; Clark, Andrew G.; Gravel, Simon; Grubert, Fabian; Clarke, Laura; Flicek, Paul; Smith, Richard E.; Zheng-Bradley, Xiangqun; Sherry, Stephen T.; Khouri, Hoda M.; Paschall, Justin E.; Shumway, Martin F.; Xiao, Chunlin; McVean, Gil A.; Katzman, Sol J.; Abecasis, Gonçalo R.; Blackwell, Tom; Mardis, Elaine R.; Dooling, David; Fulton, Lucinda; Fulton, Robert; Koboldt, Daniel C.; Durbin, Richard M.; Balasubramaniam, Senduran; Coffey, Allison; Keane, Thomas M.; MacArthur, Daniel G.; Palotie, Aarno; Scott, Carol; Stalker, James; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Gerstein, Mark B.; Balasubramanian, Suganthi; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Knoppers, Bartha M.; Abecasis, Gonçalo R.; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Gharani, Neda; Gibbs, Richard A.; Jorde, Lynn; Kaye, Jane S.; Kent, Alastair; Li, Taosha; McGuire, Amy L.; McVean, Gil A.; Ossorio, Pilar N.; Rotimi, Charles N.; Su, Yeyang; Toji, Lorraine H.; TylerSmith, Chris; Brooks, Lisa D.; Felsenfeld, Adam L.; McEwen, Jean E.; Abdallah, Assya; Juenger, Christopher R.; Clemm, Nicholas C.; Collins, Francis S.; Duncanson, Audrey; Green, Eric D.; Guyer, Mark S.; Peterson, Jane L.; Schafer, Alan J.; Abecasis, Gonçalo R.; Altshuler, David L.; Auton, Adam; Brooks, Lisa D.; Durbin, Richard M.; Gibbs, Richard A.; Hurles, Matt E.; McVean, Gil A.

    2011-01-01

    High-throughput sequencing technology enables population-level surveys of human genomic variation. Here, we examine the joint allele frequency distributions across continental human populations and present an approach for combining complementary aspects of whole-genome, low-coverage data and targeted high-coverage data. We apply this approach to data generated by the pilot phase of the Thousand Genomes Project, including whole-genome 2–4× coverage data for 179 samples from HapMap European, Asian, and African panels as well as high-coverage target sequencing of the exons of 800 genes from 697 individuals in seven populations. We use the site frequency spectra obtained from these data to infer demographic parameters for an Out-of-Africa model for populations of African, European, and Asian descent and to predict, by a jackknife-based approach, the amount of genetic diversity that will be discovered as sample sizes are increased. We predict that the number of discovered nonsynonymous coding variants will reach 100,000 in each population after ∼1,000 sequenced chromosomes per population, whereas ∼2,500 chromosomes will be needed for the same number of synonymous variants. Beyond this point, the number of segregating sites in the European and Asian panel populations is expected to overcome that of the African panel because of faster recent population growth. Overall, we find that the majority of human genomic variable sites are rare and exhibit little sharing among diverged populations. Our results emphasize that replication of disease association for specific rare genetic variants across diverged populations must overcome both reduced statistical power because of rarity and higher population divergence. PMID:21730125

  6. Family demographic profiles and their relationship with the quality of executive functioning subcomponents in kindergarten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenbroucke, Loren; Verschueren, Karine; Ceulemans, Eva; De Smedt, Bert; De Roover, Kim; Baeyens, Dieter

    2016-06-01

    Executive functioning (EF), needed for goal-oriented behaviour, thoughts, and emotions, is important for various life domains. This study examined the relationship between family demographics and EF subcomponents. A kindergarten sample was tested on subcomponents of working memory, inhibition, and cognitive flexibility. Parents provided information on demographic variables. For 78 children both EF and demographic data were available. First, demographic profiles were identified within the sample. Two profiles were found: A low-risk profile of mainly two-biological-parent, high-income families with a highly educated mother who did not smoke during pregnancy and a high-risk profile of low-income families with a young, low-educated mother who more often smoked during pregnancy. Second, children with different demographic profiles were compared on EF subcomponents. Results indicate differential relations between family demographics and EF subcomponents: Whereas for most EF subcomponents no association with family demographics was found, high-risk children performed better on response shifting and tended to perform worse on verbal memory than low-risk children. Parenting stress decreased performance only for high-risk children. Although this study found limited impact of family demographics for EF, further longitudinal research can provide nuanced insights about which factors influence specific EF subcomponents during which developmental periods and guide targeted prevention of EF difficulties.

  7. The demographic work of Sir William Wilde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froggatt, P

    2016-05-01

    This paper argues that Sir William Wilde was indeed a pioneering demographer. It also describes the unveiling of the plaque commemorating Sir William Wilde at his home, 1, Merrion Square, Dublin on the 28 October 1971.

  8. Demographics and presenting clinical features of childhood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Demographics and presenting clinical features of childhood systemic lupus ... and characteristics of children with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). ... Rashes were found to be the commonest clinical feature present at the time of diagnosis, ...

  9. A demographic approach to firm dynamics: formation of new firms and survival of old ones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijkamp, P.; Geenhuizen, van M.

    1995-01-01

    This paper introduces a new approach to firm dynamics, named demography of firms. It is the study of demographic events in a population of firms. Thepaper argues that withina demographic approach, attention should be paid to a broad range of firm dynamics, including both new firm formation and survi

  10. Demographics of Resonances in Exoplanetary Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragozzine, Darin; Conaway, James L.; MacDonald, Mariah G.; Sallee, Victor

    2016-10-01

    NASA's Kepler Space Telescope has identified ~700 systems of multiple transiting exoplanets containing ~1700 planets. Most of these multi-transiting systems have 3-5 planets small planets with periods of roughly 5-50 days and are known as Systems with Tightly-spaced Inner Planets (STIPs). These information-rich exoplanetary systems have precisely measured period ratios which allows for the identification and characterization of orbital mean motion resonances. Improved understanding of the resonant populations will reveal much about the formation and evolution of planetary systems. Lissauer, Ragozzine, et al. 2011 found that most Kepler systems were not in resonance, but that there was a small excess of planets wide of resonance. We present new analyses that rigorously identify the frequency of planets in multiple resonances (including three-body resonances) and thus identify many specific new results on the demographics of resonances. We also show that the apparent over-abundance of resonances can be attributed to a difference in inclinations (potentially from dissipation) with implications for the true underlying frequency of resonant systems. We compare the period ratio distribution of Kepler (corrected for inclination biases) to Radial Velocity (RV) surveys and conclude that RV systems are often missing small intermediate planets. This has serious implications for the completeness of RV identification of planets in STIPs.

  11. Impact of demographic policy on population growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podyashchikh, P

    1968-01-01

    Various bourgeois theories, including the reactionary Malthusianism and its variants, challenge the Marxist-Leninist revolutionary theory on the growth of population. Bourgeois science maintains that unchanging biological laws of proliferation form the foundation of social life. Malthus, in his "An Essay on the Principle of Population," contends that population increases in a geometric rate, while means of subsistence tend to increase only in an arithmetic rate: neither the way of production nor social conditions but this law of nature in control of proliferation had been the cause of overpopulation, which again leads to misery, hunger, and unemployment. From this follows the possible conclusion that the working classes should be concerned not about how to change the social order but how to reduce the number of childbirths. Progressive science views the laws of social life in a totally different way. Marxism-Leninism teaches that population size, despite the markedly important role played by it in historical progress, fails to represent that main force of social progress which determines the mode of production and of the distribution of material goods, but just the reverse: the mode of production determines the growth of population, the changes in its density and composition. Marxism-Leninism teaches that each historical stage of production (slavery, feudalism, capitalism) has its own special, historically valid demographic law. Bourgeois science maintains that humankind faces an absolute overpopulation caused by the means of production lagging behind the growth of population. Actually this is only a relative overpopulation due to the fact that capitalistic production is subjected to the interests of increasing capitalistic profit and not to those of meeting the demands of population. In socialist countries, production is incessantly developing and expanding, and employment of the entire productive population is ensured. Consequently, the problem of relative

  12. Gender inequalities from the demographic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devedžić Mirjana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the meaning of the phrase "the woman’s status in the society" that is recognized in demography as an important cultural factor of demographic development and transitional changes. The analysis indicates qualitative shifts in the woman’s status and simultaneously reveals its importance at present, not only in traditional, but also in modern and developed societies. On the other hand, it explains the importance of sex as a biodemographic determinant, and introduces the concept of gender that sheds another light on the concepts of sex and woman’s status in the society and integrates them. Gender regimes that subsume the inferiority of women in public and private social structures are examined from demographic perspective, albeit only in those phenomenological aspects that can be supported by demographic research, theories, and analyses. To this end, the paper analyzes the effects of strengthening gender equalities on the fertility and mortality transitions, the gender’s impact on the population distribution by sex in South Asian countries, and highlights the key role of gender in interpreting certain social and economic structures. It also stresses the establishing of gender equality as an important element of population policies. The global dimension of the patriarchal society is illustrated through a series of examples of demographic phenomena from various societies. Gender regimes underlie all of these phenomena. The paper puts foreword certain theoretical hypotheses about gender inequalities, and finds their connections with demographic behaviors and demographic indicators. Finally, it summarizes the role of demography in gender (inequality research and the demographic perspective of the way and the speed the demographic equality is being established. Demography is seen as an irreplaceable discipline in examining gender inequalities, especially at the global level. With the advance of qualitative methods in demography

  13. Demographic heterogeneity, cohort selection, and population growth

    OpenAIRE

    Bruce E. Kendall; Fox, Gordon A.; Fujiwara, Masami; Nogeire, Theresa M.

    2011-01-01

    Demographic heterogeneity—variation among individuals in survival and reproduction—is ubiquitous in natural populations. Structured population models address heterogeneity due to age, size, or major developmental stages. However, other important sources of demographic heterogeneity, such as genetic variation, spatial heterogeneity in the environment, maternal effects, and differential exposure to stressors, are often not easily measured and hence are modeled as stochasticity. Recent research ...

  14. FLUXNET2015 Dataset: Batteries included

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastorello, G.; Papale, D.; Agarwal, D.; Trotta, C.; Chu, H.; Canfora, E.; Torn, M. S.; Baldocchi, D. D.

    2016-12-01

    The synthesis datasets have become one of the signature products of the FLUXNET global network. They are composed from contributions of individual site teams to regional networks, being then compiled into uniform data products - now used in a wide variety of research efforts: from plant-scale microbiology to global-scale climate change. The FLUXNET Marconi Dataset in 2000 was the first in the series, followed by the FLUXNET LaThuile Dataset in 2007, with significant additions of data products and coverage, solidifying the adoption of the datasets as a research tool. The FLUXNET2015 Dataset counts with another round of substantial improvements, including extended quality control processes and checks, use of downscaled reanalysis data for filling long gaps in micrometeorological variables, multiple methods for USTAR threshold estimation and flux partitioning, and uncertainty estimates - all of which accompanied by auxiliary flags. This "batteries included" approach provides a lot of information for someone who wants to explore the data (and the processing methods) in detail. This inevitably leads to a large number of data variables. Although dealing with all these variables might seem overwhelming at first, especially to someone looking at eddy covariance data for the first time, there is method to our madness. In this work we describe the data products and variables that are part of the FLUXNET2015 Dataset, and the rationale behind the organization of the dataset, covering the simplified version (labeled SUBSET), the complete version (labeled FULLSET), and the auxiliary products in the dataset.

  15. Two centuries of demographic change in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry Edmonston

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available One key aspect of the demographic transition—the shift from high mortality and high fertility to low mortality and low fertility is a major change in the population’s age distribution from a pyramid-shaped young age structure to a pillar-shaped old age structure. This paper discusses two demographic processes affected by changes in age structure. First, there are effects on vital rates, with important differences in the observed crude rates and the implied intrinsic vital rates. Second, changes in age structure influence population momentum. More recently, demographers have noted that older age distributions associated with fertility levels below replacement have negative population momentum. Although the demographic transition has been well-described for many countries, demographers have seldom analyzed intrinsic vital rates and population momentum over time, which are dynamic processes affected by changes in the population age structure and which, in turn, influence future changes in population growth and size. This paper uses new data and methods to analyze intrinsic vital rates and population momentum across two centuries of demographic change in Canada

  16. CURRENT DEMOGRAPHIC TRENDS AND THEIR GEOPOLITICAL AND STRATEGIC REPERCUSSIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionel STOICA

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Major worldwide demographic trends impact significantly each aspect of people’s lives. The impact will be favorable for some states and completely unfavorable for others since they will depend not only on the magnitude of these tendencies, but also on the aggregated result of the inherent shifts and developments at political, economic, social and military level Global demographic trends will represent a genuine challenge for the powerful states to maintain the existing global political and economic equilibrium and they will also constitute a genuine shocking force for international security and stability. At the same time, they will represent one of the variables underpinning states’ strategies, and domestic and foreign policies and influencing political and military alliances in the future. It is likely that they will lead to the reassessment of the bases of international relations. This paper analyzes the presumed consequences of future demographic shifts on the economic, political, military field and proposes some possible solutions to efficiently manage the issue.

  17. Demographics of hip dysplasia in the Maine Coon cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loder, Randall T; Todhunter, Rory J

    2017-04-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to study the demographics of feline hip dysplasia (FHD) in the Maine Coon cat. Methods The complete hip dysplasia registry (public and private) collected by the Orthopedic Foundation for Animals through April 2015 was accessed. There were 2732 unique cats; 2708 (99.1%) were Maine Coons, and only these were studied. Variables analyzed were sex, month/season of birth and hip dysplasia score. Two groups were created: those with and without FHD. P dysplasia were older. The percentage of bilateral FHD was 56%, and bilateral cases had more severe dysplasia than unilateral cases but with no age difference. Month/season of birth or geographic region of origin did not influence the prevalence of FHD. Conclusions and relevance This is the largest demographic study of FHD in the Maine Coon cat. The overall prevalence in the Orthopedic Foundation for Animals registry was 24.9%, and slightly higher in males (27.3%) than females (23.3%). Dysplasia was more severe in bilateral than unilateral cases and with increasing age. Caution should be used when extrapolating these findings to other feline breeds or other groups of Maine Coon cats. Further studies need to be performed among other breeds and geographic locations to better understand the demographics of feline hip dysplasia.

  18. Investigation of personality traits and self-esteem levels of substance user and non user adolescents based on certain socio-demographic variablesMadde kullanan ve kullanmayan ergenlerin kişilik özellikleri ve benlik saygısı düzeylerinin sosyo-demografik değişkenlere göre incelenmesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zöhre Kaya

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to examine personality traits and self-esteem levels of a total number of 124 adolescents aging between 14 and 20 (62 adolescents who are using substance and 62 adolescents who are not using any substance are compared based on certain socio-demographic variables. Five-Factor Personality Inventory (FFPI and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Questionnaire (RSEQ are used in order to collect data. For the comparison of two groups, t-test is used if the data was normally distributed, and Mann-Whitney U Test was used when normality assumptions were not met. When there are more than two groups, for normally distribute variables One-way ANOVA, and when normality assumptions were not met, Kruskal-Wallis Test were used. According to the findings, girls who are using substance had lower levels of conscientiousness compared to girls who are not using any substance. For boys, they had lower scores for extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness to experience and higher levels of neuroticism if they are using some substance compared to the ones who are not using any substance. When age is taken into consideration, the results indicated that substance using adolescents between 17-20 had higher agreeableness scores compared to the substance using adolescents aged between 14-16. On the other hand, no significant differences were found for adolescents who are not using any substance. Moreover, there were not any significant differences based on the age onset of substance use and immigration status. For self-esteem, boys who are using substance had lower levels compared to the boys who are not using substance. There was no significant difference for the girls based on self-esteem. Results were discussed in the light of literature and implications were proposed.    Özet Bu çalışmada, 14-20 yaş arasında, 62 madde kullanan ve 62 madde kullanmayan olmak üzere toplam 124 ergenin kişilik özellikleri ile benlik saygısı d

  19. The Demographic Crisis and Global Migration - Selected Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frątczak, Ewa Zofia

    2016-01-01

    Currently the world is undergoing a serious demographic shift, characterised by slowing population growth in developed countries. However, the population in certain less-developed regions of the world is still increasing. According to UN data, as of 2015, (World...2015), 244 million people (or 3.3% of the global population) lived outside their country of birth. While most of these migrants travel abroad looking for better economic and social conditions, there are also those forced to move by political crises, revolutions and war. Such migration is being experienced currently in Europe, a continent which is thus going through both a demographic crisis related to the low fertility rate and population ageing, and a migration crisis. Global migrations link up inseparably with demographic transformation processes taking place globally and resulting in the changing tempo of population growth. Attracting and discouraging migration factors are changing at the same time, as is the scale and range of global migration, and with these also the global consequences. The focus of work addressed in this paper is on global population, the demographic transformation and the role of global migrations, as well as the range and scale of international migration, and selected aspects of global migrations including participation in the global labour market, the scale of monetary transfers (remittances) and the place of global migration in the UN 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development (Transforming...2015) and the Europe of two crises (Domeny 2016).

  20. Clinical and Demographic Profile of Attendees at Baghdad’s Walk-in Psychiatric Clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maha S. Younis

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Few studies have examined clinical and demographic profile of attendees of a walk-in psychiatric clinic in countries ravaged by wars. The aim of this study is to quantify the characteristics of attendees of an open walk-in psychiatric clinic in a general hospital in Baghdad and the suburb towns of Iraq in the year 2010.Methods: As part of a retrospective survey, information on specific variables (socio-demographic background, clinical characteristics and attendance rate were sought from medical records in the year 2010 (January to December.Results: Despite the shortcomings expected from a country coming out of the ravage of war, the survey included 2,979 attendees (1,864 [63%] males and 1,115 [37%] females of a walk-in psychiatric clinic who fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The profile of attendees indicated that a majority of the cohort was self-referred with a predominance of employed males, aged 19 to 49 years, residing in Baghdad City. Depression and psychosis were the most common diagnosis given.Conclusion: The observed patterns are discussed within the available literature relevant to consultation liaison psychiatry, and specific to situations in Iraq and Arab/Islamic cultural patterning.

  1. Investigating the Impact of Demographic Characteristics on Encouraging Public Donations via SMS Advertising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Hosseini

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study has been conducted to investigate the effects of demographic characteristics including age, gender, marital status, education level, occupation type, and income level on encouraging public donations through advertising via SMS service in order to evaluate the effects rate of these elements on individuals’ attention and measure/action factors. The research is based on data obtained by distributing the questionnaire among 560 individuals who have formed the sample size of this study. The dependent variable of donation attraction has been analyzed along with two indices of attention and action, which are regarded as its measurement criteria. Therefore, the effects rate of demographic factors on these two parameters has been investigated. It is noteworthy that the analysis of collected data was done by SPSS software. The results have determined specific boundaries for people in sending SMS in order to encourage public donations. For instance, how many people among the sample size of this research will pay attention to the messages, how many of them are potential donators, and which individuals and groups have been identified as real executives.

  2. Investigating the Impact of Demographic Characteristics on Encouraging Public Donations via SMS Advertising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MirzaHassan Hossainee

    2011-07-01

    This study has been conducted to investigate the effects of demographic characteristics including age, gender, marital status, education level, occupation type, and income level on encouraging public donations through advertising via SMS service in order to evaluate the effects rate of these elements on individuals’ attention and measure/action factors. The research is based on data obtained by distributing the questionnaire among 560 individuals who have formed the sample size of this study. The dependent variable of donation attraction has been analyzed along with two indices of attention and action, which are regarded as its measurement criteria. Therefore, the effects rate of demographic factors on these two parameters has been investigated. It is noteworthy that the analysis of collected data was done by SPSS software. The results have determined specific boundaries for people in sending SMS in order to encourage public donations. For instance, how many people among the sample size of this research will pay attention to the messages, how many of them are potential donators, and which individuals and groups have been identified as real executives.

  3. Broadening the Demographics at NIST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebbie, Katharine B.

    2001-04-01

    Scientists have the rare privilege of earning their living by doing what they most enjoy. Women and minorities have the right, the need and the talent to compete for that privilege. And if the profession is to serve its goal of advancing, diffusing and applying the knowledge of science, it must draw upon the widest possible spectrum of talented individuals--the best and the brightest from all segments of society. This talk will discuss and evaluate efforts at NIST to ensure that women and minorities have the opportunity to participate fully in the scientific endeavor. These efforts include close collaboration with predominantly female and minority colleges; programs for students interested in pursuing advanced education; and a Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) program, sponsored jointly with NSF, that affords 50 students the opportunity to spend 12 weeks engaged one-on-one with NIST scientists in projects combining quests for fundamental knowledge with direct applications to problems of national importance.

  4. Predicting Middle School Students' Use of Web 2.0 Technologies out of School Using Home and School Technological Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Joan E.; Read, Michelle F.; Jones, Sara; Mahometa, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This study used multiple regression to identify predictors of middle school students' Web 2.0 activities out of school, a construct composed of 15 technology activities. Three middle schools participated, where sixth- and seventh-grade students completed a questionnaire. Independent predictor variables included three demographic and five computer…

  5. Comparisons of Patient Demographics in Prospective Sports, Shoulder, and National Database Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltzman, Bryan M.; Cvetanovich, Gregory L.; Bohl, Daniel D.; Cole, Brian J.; Bach, Bernard R.; Romeo, Anthony A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: There has been increased emphasis in orthopaedics on high-quality prospective research to provide evidence-based treatment guidelines, particularly in sports medicine/shoulder surgery. The external validity of these studies has not been established, and the generalizability of the results to clinical practice in the United States is unknown. Hypothesis: Comparison of patient demographics in major prospective studies of arthroscopic sports and shoulder surgeries to patients undergoing the same procedures in the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) database will show substantial differences to question the generalizability and external validity of those studies. Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: This study utilized patients undergoing arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR), meniscectomy (MX), rotator cuff repair (RCR), and shoulder stabilization (SS) from the NSQIP database (2005-2013). Two prospective studies (either randomized controlled trials or, in 1 case, a major cohort study) were identified for each of the 4 procedures for comparison. Demographic variables available for comparison in both the identified prospective studies and the NSQIP included age, sex, and body mass index (BMI). Results: From the NSQIP database, 5576 ACLR patients, 18,882 MX patients, 7282 RCR patients, and 993 SS patients were identified. The comparison clinical studies included cohort sizes as follows: ACLR, n = 121 and 2683; MX, n = 146 and 330; RCR, n = 90 and 103; SS, n = 88 and 196. Age differed significantly between the NSQIP and the patients in 6 of the 8 prospective clinical studies. Sex differed significantly between the NSQIP and the patients in 7 of the 8 prospective clinical studies. BMI differed significantly between the NSQIP and the patients of all 4 of the prospective clinical studies that reported this demographic variable. Conclusion: Significant differences exist for patient age, sex

  6. Treatment success in neck pain: The added predictive value of psychosocial variables in addition to clinical variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groeneweg, Ruud; Haanstra, Tsjitske; Bolman, Catherine A W; Oostendorp, Rob A B; van Tulder, Maurits W; Ostelo, Raymond W J G

    2017-01-01

    Identification of psychosocial variables may influence treatment outcome. The objective of this study was to prospectively examine whether psychosocial variables, in addition to clinical variables (pain, functioning, general health, previous neck pain, comorbidity), are predictive factors for treatment outcome (i.e. global perceived effect, functioning and pain) in patients with sub-acute and chronic non-specific neck pain undergoing physical therapy or manual therapy. Psychosocial factors included treatment outcome expectancy and treatment credibility, health locus of control, and fear avoidance beliefs. This study reports a secondary analysis of a primary care-based pragmatic randomized controlled trial. Potential predictors were measured at baseline and outcomes, in 181 patients, at 7 weeks and 26 weeks. Hierarchical logistic regression models showed that treatment outcome expectancy predicted outcome success, in addition to clinical and demographic variables. Expectancy explained additional variance, ranging from 6% (pain) to 17% (functioning) at 7 weeks, and 8% (pain) to 16% (functioning) at 26 weeks. Locus of control and fear avoidance beliefs did not add significantly to predicting outcome. Based on the results of this study we conclude that outcome expectancy, in patients with non-specific sub-acute and chronic neck pain, has additional predictive value for treatment success above and beyond clinical and demographic variables. Psychological processes, health perceptions and how these factors relate to clinical variables may be important for treatment decision making regarding therapeutic options for individual patients. Copyright © 2016 Scandinavian Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. [Demographic projections for Latin American countries prepared by CELADE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somoza, J L

    1978-04-01

    The CELADE (Centro Latinoamericano de Demografia) prepares population projections for 20 Latin American countries, a difficult task considering the lack of reliable census data on births, deaths, and other demographic information. Nevertheless, the demographic situation can be estimated by distinguishing two states in the process: estimating past and present population history and formulating hypotheses regarding the future trends of demographic variables. In a typical situation for most Latin American countries, the first stage is the most difficult; results are mostly approximations of the reality. Thus, projections based on these data are unreliable. The present demographic situation in Latin America was analyzed by estimating fertility, mortality and international migration. Fertility rate was calculated based on the following data: number of children born to the female population, number of live births during the year prior to the census classified according to mother's age and number of children registered according to age up to 10 or 15 years of age. Fertility was thus calculated within 5 years prior to the census. Mortality was roughly estimated by calculating the annual death distribution by age. This promoted questions relating to orphans and the relative number of children who survived out of total number of children born to a woman. Little data was available on migration due to lack of registries on annual migration. It was estimated based on the number of people who left the country for 5 years, and promoted questions such as which country is one native of and year of entry into the country. The most important task relating to population projection of Latin America is the improvement of knowledge on fertility, mortality and migration.

  8. Demographic correlates of children and adolescents with Autistic disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayyoub Malek

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Comparison of the demographic characteristics of patients provides useful information to their identification. This study aimed to determine the demographic characteristics of children and adolescents with autistic disorder (AD. Methods: In this cross-sectional case-control study, 115 children and adolescents with AD were selected from Autism Society Rehabilitation Center in Tabriz, Iran, and 112 normal children and adolescents from the public schools, in 2014. The participants in both groups were matched regarding age and gender. Diagnosis of AD was performed using diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders-4th edition (DSM-IV criteria and clinical diagnostic interviews by two child and adolescent psychiatrists. The demographic information of children and adolescents and their parents were collected from the medical records of children and interviews with their mothers. Results: Most of the children with autism had second or higher birth order and had families with more than three members. Mothers of children with autism had significantly lower levels of education and were mostly housewives. Fathers of autistic children mostly had high school diploma and fewer had university education, and most of them were employed. However, there was no statistically significant difference between the AD group and the control group regarding the average height and weight of children and the residence (urban or rural and age of parents at childbirth.Conclusion: The demographic characteristics of the two groups of children and adolescents with AD and normal controls were different from each other regarding family size, birth order, parent occupation, and parent education variables.

  9. Variation in actigraphy-estimated rest-activity patterns by demographic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Jonathan A; Quante, Mirja; Godbole, Suneeta; James, Peter; Hipp, J Aaron; Marinac, Catherine R; Mariani, Sara; Cespedes Feliciano, Elizabeth M; Glanz, Karen; Laden, Francine; Wang, Rui; Weng, Jia; Redline, Susan; Kerr, Jacqueline

    2017-06-26

    Rest-activity patterns provide an indication of circadian rhythmicity in the free-living setting. We aimed to describe the distributions of rest-activity patterns in a sample of adults and children across demographic variables. A sample of adults (N = 590) and children (N = 58) wore an actigraph on their nondominant wrist for 7 days and nights. We generated rest-activity patterns from cosinor analysis (MESOR, acrophase and magnitude) and nonparametric circadian rhythm analysis (IS: interdaily stability; IV: intradaily variability; L5: least active 5-hour period; M10: most active 10-hour period; and RA: relative amplitude). Demographic variables included age, sex, race, education, marital status, and income. Linear mixed-effects models were used to test for demographic differences in rest-activity patterns. Adolescents, compared to younger children, had (1) later M10 midpoints (β = 1.12 hours [95% CI: 0.43, 1.18] and lower M10 activity levels; (2) later L5 midpoints (β = 1.6 hours [95% CI: 0.9, 2.3]) and lower L5 activity levels; (3) less regular rest-activity patterns (lower IS and higher IV); and 4) lower magnitudes (β = -0.95 [95% CI: -1.28, -0.63]) and relative amplitudes (β = -0.1 [95% CI: -0.14, -0.06]). Mid-to-older adults, compared to younger adults (aged 18-29 years), had (1) earlier M10 midpoints (β = -1.0 hours [95% CI: -1.6, -0.4]; (2) earlier L5 midpoints (β = -0.7 hours [95% CI: -1.2, -0.2]); and (3) more regular rest-activity patterns (higher IS and lower IV). The magnitudes and relative amplitudes were similar across the adult age categories. Sex, race and education level rest-activity differences were also observed. Rest-activity patterns vary across the lifespan, and differ by race, sex and education. Understanding population variation in these patterns provides a foundation for further elucidating the health implications of rest-activity patterns across the lifespan.

  10. Predicting dementia using socio-demographic characteristics and the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mura, Thibault; Baramova, Marieta; Gabelle, Audrey; Artero, Sylvaine; Dartigues, Jean-François; Amieva, Hélène; Berr, Claudine

    2017-03-23

    Our study aimed to determine whether the consideration of socio-demographic features improves the prediction of Alzheimer's dementia (AD) at 5 years when using the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test (FCSRT) in the general older population. Our analyses focused on 2558 subjects from the prospective Three-City Study, a cohort of community-dwelling individuals aged 65 years and over, with FCSRT scores. Four "residual scores" and "risk scores" were built that included the FCSRT scores and socio-demographic variables. The predictive performance of crude, residual and risk scores was analyzed by comparing the areas under the ROC curve (AUC). In total, 1750 subjects were seen 5 years after completing the FCSRT. AD was diagnosed in 116 of them. Compared with the crude free-recall score, the predictive performances of the residual score and of the risk score were not significantly improved (AUC: 0.83 vs 0.82 and 0.88 vs 0.89 respectively). Using socio-demographic features in addition to the FCSRT does not improve its predictive performance for dementia or AD.

  11. The Impact of Adventure Based Activity at Malaysian National Service Training Programme on Team Cohesion: A Demographic Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaffry Zakaria

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study examines the effects of physical module elements (adventure based activity included in the Malaysian National Service Programme and to investigate the socio-demographic variables impact on team cohesion building among the participants. In this study, the participants were selected from three different camps, namely, Tasoh camp, Guar Chenderai camp and Meranti camp, located in the state of Perlis, Malaysia. The participants were those from the second batch intake in the year 2007. The sample sizes comprised of 994 participants (480=males, 514=females. The present study applied a pre-test and post-test design. The group was tested before and after the programme. This design was chosen because it could measure the impacts of the adventure-based activity towards team cohesion over time through the pre- and post-test scores (Berg & Latin, 2004. The variables comprised of the demographic factors (age, gender and place of residence, which included team cohesion were measured by Group Environmental Questionnaire (GEQ (Carron, Widmeyer, & Brawley, 1985. Results indicated that the participants of the National Service Training Programme underwent group cohesion change during the Physical Module activities (adventure based activities that were carried out at the camp. The changes were observable based on the statistically analyzed data during the pre and post-test.

  12. An efficient computational strategy for composite laminates assemblies including variability

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roulet, V; Boucard, P.-A; Champaney, L

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work is to present an efficient numerical strategy for studying the influence of the material parameters on problems involving 3D assemblies of composite parts with contact and friction...

  13. Development of geothermal energy in the Gulf Coast: socio-economic, demographic, and political considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Letlow, K.; Lopreato, S.C.; Meriwether, M.; Ramsey, P.; Williamson, J.K.; Vanston, J.H.; Elmer, D.B.; Gustavson, T.C.; Kreitler, C.W.; Letlow, K.; Lopreato, S.C.; Meriwether, M.; Ramsey, P.; Rogers, K.E.; Williamson, J.K.

    1976-01-01

    The institutional aspect of the study attempts to identify possible effects of geothermal research, development, and utilization on the area and its inhabitants in three chapters. Chapters I and II address key socio-economic and demographic variables. The initial chapter provides an overview of the area where the resource is located. Major data are presented that can be used to establish a baseline description of the region for comparison over time and to delineate crucial area for future study with regard to geothermal development. The chapter highlights some of the variables that reflect the cultural nature of the Gulf Coast, its social characteristics, labor force, and service in an attempt to delineate possible problems with and barriers to the development of geothermal energy in the region. The following chapter focuses on the local impacts of geothermal wells and power-generating facilities using data on such variables as size and nature of construction and operating crews. Data are summarized for the areas studied. A flow chart is utilized to describe research that is needed in order to exploit the resource as quickly and effectively as possible. Areas of interface among various parts of the research that will include exchange of data between the social-cultural group and the institutional, legal, environmental, and resource utilization groups are identified. (MCW)

  14. Demographic, criminogenic, and psychiatric factors that predict competency restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colwell, Lori H; Gianesini, Julie

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has investigated the characteristics of competent and incompetent defendants and restorable and nonrestorable defendants. However, less is known about the influence of current treatment variables and other systemic factors on restorability. In the present study, we sought to examine the impact of demographic, criminogenic, historical clinical, and current treatment variables on the restorability and length of stay (LOS) of incompetent defendants. We reviewed the records of 71 male patients who had been court ordered for competency restoration and subsequently discharged from a maximum-security forensic hospital. Results indicated that nonrestorable patients had more prior hospitalizations, incarcerations, and episodes of incompetence, had lower level charges, were diagnosed with a psychotic and cognitive disorder, were prescribed more medications, and had lower global assessment of functioning (GAF) scores. Nonrestorable patients were hospitalized nearly twice as long as those eventually found competent, and patients with lower IQs and lower GAFs and who spent more days on special observations had longer LOS.

  15. Socio-demographic predictors of person-organization fit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merecz-Kot, Dorota; Andysz, Aleksandra

    2017-02-21

    The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between socio-demographic characteristics and the level of complementary and supplementary person-organization fit (P-O fit). The study sample was a group of 600 Polish workers, urban residents aged 19-65. Level of P-O fit was measured using the Subjective Person-Organization Fit Questionnaire by Czarnota-Bojarska. The binomial multivariate logistic regression was applied. The analyzes were performed separately for the men and women. Socio-demographic variables explained small percentage of the outcome variability. Gender differences were found. In the case of men shift work decreased complementary and supplementary fit, while long working hours decreased complementary fit. In the women, age was a stimulant of a complementary fit, involuntary job losses predicted both complementary and supplementary misfit. Additionally, relational responsibilities increased probability of supplementary P-O fit in the men. Going beyond personality and competences as the factors affecting P-O fit will allow development of a more accurate prediction of P-O fit. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2017;30(1):133-139.

  16. Socio-demographic predictors of person–organization fit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Merecz-Kot

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between socio-demographic characteristics and the level of complementary and supplementary person–organization fit (P–O fit. Material and Methods: The study sample was a group of 600 Polish workers, urban residents aged 19–65. Level of P–O fit was measured using the Subjective Person–Organization Fit Questionnaire by Czarnota-Bojarska. The binomial multivariate logistic regression was applied. The analyzes were performed separately for the men and women. Results: Socio-demographic variables explained small percentage of the outcome variability. Gender differences were found. In the case of men shift work decreased complementary and supplementary fit, while long working hours decreased complementary fit. In the women, age was a stimulant of a complementary fit, involuntary job losses predicted both complementary and supplementary misfit. Additionally, relational responsibilities increased probability of supplementary P–O fit in the men. Conclusions: Going beyond personality and competences as the factors affecting P–O fit will allow development of a more accurate prediction of P–O fit. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2017;30(1:133–149

  17. A cross-sectional study of socio-demographic factors associated with patient access to primary care in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kert, Suzana; Švab, Igor; Sever, Maja; Makivić, Irena; Pavlič, Danica Rotar

    2015-04-21

    Primary care (PC) is the provision of universally accessible, integrated, person-centred, comprehensive health and community services. Professionals active in primary care teams include family physicians and general practitioners (FP/GPs). There is concern in Slovenia that the current economic crisis might change the nature of PC services. Access, one of the most basic requirements of general practice, is universal in Slovenia, which is one of the smallest European countries; under national law, compulsory health insurance is mandatory for its citizens. Our study examined access to PC in Slovenia during a time of economic crisis as experienced and perceived by patients between 2011 and 2012, and investigated socio-demographic factors affecting access to PC in Slovenia. Data were collected as a part of a larger international study entitled Quality and Costs of Primary Care in Europe (QUALICOPC) that took place during a period of eight months in 2011 and 2012. 219 general practices were included; in each, the aim was to evaluate 10 patients. Dependent variables covered five aspects of access to PC: communicational, cultural, financial, geographical and organizational. 15 socio-demographic factors were investigated as independent variables. Descriptive statistics, factor analysis and multilevel analysis were applied. There were 1,962 patients in the final sample, with a response rate of 89.6%. The factors with the most positive effect on access to PC were financial and cultural; the most negative effects were caused by organizational problems. Financial difficulties were not a significant socio-demographic factor. Greater frequency of visits improves patients' perception of communicational and cultural access. Deteriorating health conditions are expected to lower perceived geographical access. Patients born outside Slovenia perceived better organizational access than patients born in Slovenia. Universal medical insurance in Slovenia protects most patients from PC

  18. Febrile Seizure: Demographic Features and Causative Factors

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    How to cite this article: Esmaili Gourabi H, Bidabadi E, Cheraghalipour  F, Aarabi  Y, Salamat F. Febrile Seizure: Demographic Features and Causative Factors. Iran J Child Neurol Autumn 2012; 6(4):33-37.Abstract Objective Because of geographical and periodical variation, we prompted to determine the demographic features and causative factors for febrile seizure in Rasht. Materials & Methods In this cross-sectional study, all 6–month- to 6-year-old children with the diagnosis of febrile s...

  19. Demographic, developmental and psychosocial predictors of the development of anxiety in adults with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grogan, Katie; Bramham, Jessica

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate potential demographic, developmental and psychosocial predictors of anxiety in the context of ADHD. Participants included 267 adults with a diagnosis of ADHD (168 males:99 females) and an age range of 18-70 years (M = 31 years; SD = 10.03 years). A background interview, parent questionnaire and rating scales were used to gather participant information. Correlations, independent t tests and one-way analysis of variances were used to identify variables associated with anxiety, and a stepwise multiple regression was used to identify potential predictors of anxiety. Variables associated with anxiety included childhood aggression, employment status, difficulties making friends, number of children and caffeine intake. Childhood aggression and caffeine intake were the potential predictors. Clinicians should be aware of these potential predictors of anxiety in the context of ADHD in order to minimise the likelihood of the development or maintenance of comorbid anxiety. Future research is needed in order to draw any conclusions on cause and effect.

  20. On the Statistical Dependency of Identity Theft on Demographics

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Crescenzo, Giovanni

    An improved understanding of the identity theft problem is widely agreed to be necessary to succeed in counter-theft efforts in legislative, financial and research institutions. In this paper we report on a statistical study about the existence of relationships between identity theft and area demographics in the US. The identity theft data chosen was the number of citizen complaints to the Federal Trade Commission in a large number of US municipalities. The list of demographics used for any such municipality included: estimated population, median resident age, estimated median household income, percentage of citizens with a high school or higher degree, percentage of unemployed residents, percentage of married residents, percentage of foreign born residents, percentage of residents living in poverty, density of law enforcement employees, crime index, and political orientation according to the 2004 presidential election. Our study findings, based on linear regression techniques, include statistically significant relationships between the number of identity theft complaints and a non-trivial subset of these demographics.

  1. Optical modulator including grapene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-06-07

    The present invention provides for a one or more layer graphene optical modulator. In a first exemplary embodiment the optical modulator includes an optical waveguide, a nanoscale oxide spacer adjacent to a working region of the waveguide, and a monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to the spacer. In a second exemplary embodiment, the optical modulator includes at least one pair of active media, where the pair includes an oxide spacer, a first monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a first side of the spacer, and a second monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a second side of the spacer, and at least one optical waveguide adjacent to the pair.

  2. Demographic Profile of Older Adults Using Wheeled Mobility Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amol M. Karmarkar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine whether the use of wheeled mobility devices differed with respect to age, gender, residential setting, and health-related factors among older adults. A total of 723 adults ageing 60 and older are representing three cohorts, from nursing homes, the Center for Assistive Technology, and the wheelchair registry from the Human Engineering Research Laboratories. Wheeled mobility devices were classified into three main groups: manual wheelchairs, power wheelchairs, and scooters. Our results found factors including age, gender, diagnosis, and living settings to be associated with differences in use of manual versus powered mobility devices. Differences in use were also noted for subtypes of manual (depot, standard, and customized and powered (scooter, standard, and customized mobility devices, on demographic, living arrangements, and health-related factors. Consideration of demographic, health-related, and environmental factors during the prescription process may help clinicians identify the most appropriate mobility device for the user.

  3. Socio-demographic determinants and access to prenatal care in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiavarini, Manuela; Lanari, Donatella; Minelli, Liliana; Salmasi, Luca

    2014-04-15

    Many governments have made commitments to examine inequalities in healthcare access based on studies assessing the association between several socio-demographic factors and late initiation or fewer prenatal examinations. This study addressed the question of whether socio-demographic determinants were significant in explaining differences in prenatal care in one administrative region of Italy, Umbria. Data were obtained from the administrative source of the regional Standard Certificate of Live Births between 2005 and 2010, and were merged with Census data to include a socio-economic deprivation index. Standard and multilevel logistic regression models were used to analyze the magnitude of various individual-level maternal characteristics and socio-demographic indicators, such as nationality, employment status, education with respect to late access to the first examination, and low number of medical visits. The study involved approximately 37,000 women. The heterogeneous effects of socio-demographic variables were documented on the prenatal care indicators analyzed. A multivariate model showed that women born outside Italy had a higher probability of making their first visit later than the 12th week of pregnancy and low numbers of prenatal medical visits; the estimated odds ratio for the analyzed indicators range from 2.25 to 3.05. Inadequate prenatal healthcare use was also observed in younger and pluriparous women and those with low education; in addition, having a job improved the use of services, possibly through transmission of information of negative consequences due to delayed or few prenatal visits. Interestingly, this study found a substantial reduction in the number of pregnant women who do not use prenatal healthcare services properly. The aim of this research is to provide more accurate knowledge about the inadequate use of prenatal healthcare in Italy. Results highlight the existence of differences in healthcare use during pregnancy, especially for

  4. Sociocultural and Demographic Risk Factors for the Development of Multiple Sclerosis in Kuwait: A Case - Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shammri, Suhail N.; Hanna, Magdy G.; Chattopadhyay, Arpita; Akanji, Abayomi O.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Immunological, genetic and environmental factors are believed to play important roles in the pathogenesis of Multiple Sclerosis (MS). There have been many studies on risk factors for MS but these have been mainly in Caucasian populations; robust studies in Arab populations remain relatively uncommon. This study therefore aimed to identify behavioral, socio-cultural, and demographic factors associated with development of MS in Kuwait, a high income Arab country, currently undergoing a demographic transition. Subjects and methods In this case- control study, 195 Kuwaiti MS patients and 146 healthy age and sex-matched controls were recruited. Both groups of subjects were interviewed using a structured questionnaire, in relation to anthropometric, socio-cultural and demographic data, residence during the 1990/91 Gulf War and current and past medical history, including medications. We also clinically evaluated, and retrospectively reviewed medical records of patients to derive appropriate clinical information, including associated chronic medical illness requiring long-term treatment. Results On multiple logistic regression analysis after adjustment for potential confounders including age, gender and BMI, in all the subjects, a positive associations prevail with presence of MS and some sociocultural and demographic factors, which included non-Bedouin ethnicity (AOR 2, 95% CI 1.0-3.9, p 0.049), positive family history of MS (AOR 10.6, 95% CI 3.0-36.9), p < 0.001), and low daily sunlight exposure of < 15min/day (AOR 5.3, 95% CI 2.7-10.5 p < 0.001). In addition, while 41.8% of MS patients indicated at least one comorbidity, only 26.8% of the controls reported any associated physical illness, with the suggestion that presence of certain comorbidities might increase MS risk (AOR 2.4, 95% CI 1.3-4.7, p < 0.001). Other risk variables such as smoking status and mode of routine outdoor dressing were not significant in all the MS subjects taken as a whole, but

  5. Sociocultural and Demographic Risk Factors for the Development of Multiple Sclerosis in Kuwait: A Case - Control Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhail N Al-Shammri

    Full Text Available Immunological, genetic and environmental factors are believed to play important roles in the pathogenesis of Multiple Sclerosis (MS. There have been many studies on risk factors for MS but these have been mainly in Caucasian populations; robust studies in Arab populations remain relatively uncommon. This study therefore aimed to identify behavioral, socio-cultural, and demographic factors associated with development of MS in Kuwait, a high income Arab country, currently undergoing a demographic transition.In this case- control study, 195 Kuwaiti MS patients and 146 healthy age and sex-matched controls were recruited. Both groups of subjects were interviewed using a structured questionnaire, in relation to anthropometric, socio-cultural and demographic data, residence during the 1990/91 Gulf War and current and past medical history, including medications. We also clinically evaluated, and retrospectively reviewed medical records of patients to derive appropriate clinical information, including associated chronic medical illness requiring long-term treatment.On multiple logistic regression analysis after adjustment for potential confounders including age, gender and BMI, in all the subjects, a positive associations prevail with presence of MS and some sociocultural and demographic factors, which included non-Bedouin ethnicity (AOR 2, 95% CI 1.0-3.9, p 0.049, positive family history of MS (AOR 10.6, 95% CI 3.0-36.9, p < 0.001, and low daily sunlight exposure of < 15min/day (AOR 5.3, 95% CI 2.7-10.5 p < 0.001. In addition, while 41.8% of MS patients indicated at least one comorbidity, only 26.8% of the controls reported any associated physical illness, with the suggestion that presence of certain comorbidities might increase MS risk (AOR 2.4, 95% CI 1.3-4.7, p < 0.001. Other risk variables such as smoking status and mode of routine outdoor dressing were not significant in all the MS subjects taken as a whole, but demonstrated variably positive

  6. Visual Impairment, Including Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Who Knows What? Survey Item Bank Search for: Visual Impairment, Including Blindness Links updated, April 2017 En ... doesn’t wear his glasses. Back to top Visual Impairments in Children Vision is one of our ...

  7. INFLUENCE OF SOCIOECONOMIC AND DEMOGRAPHIC ENVIRONMENT ON PRIVATE HEALTH CARE PROVIDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lana Kordić

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Health care systems face pressure to increase the quality of health care at the same time with pressure to reduce public spending. The attempt to overcome the gap between needs and opportunities can be resolved through the introduction of public-private partnerships. Goals of this study are to investigate variation of the number, form and efficiency of private providers of general/family medicine services in primary health care and the contribution of socioeconomic and demographic environment on those variations, among counties. Socioeconomic and demographic factors are identified as independent variables that influence the health care need and utilization and consequently the decision of private entities to engage in the provision of health care services. This study extended previous studies because it has introduced socioeconomic and demographic variables. This may shed same new lights on the relationship between private providers of health service and efficiency of providing health service in primary health care.

  8. Early father–daughter relationship and demographic determinants of spousal marital satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alsheikh Ali A

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Ahmad Alsheikh Ali,1 Fawzi Shaker Daoud2 1Counseling Psychology Program, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Hashemite University, 2Department of Psychology, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Al-Ahliyya Amman University, Amman, Jordan Abstract: This study examined several dimensions of early father–daughter relationship as predictors of marital satisfaction among 494 respondents. Descriptive comparative approach was used in result analysis. The Father Presence Questionnaire and Marital Satisfaction Questionnaire were used, in addition to a number of demographic variables. Results showed that only physical relationship with the father, and perceptions of father’s influence, had a positive significant impact on wives’ marital satisfaction. Of all domains, only positive feelings about the father had a negative impact on the husband's marital satisfaction. Most demographic variables had statistically significant effect on marital satisfaction. Sociocultural implications for marital satisfaction for wives and husbands are discussed. Keywords: early father–daughter relationship, demographic, spousal marital satisfaction

  9. Demographic, medical and visual aspects of Dia- betic Retinopathy (DR and Diabetic Macular Edema (DME in South African diabetic patients*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anusha Y. Sukha

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate some of the demographic, medical, and visual aspects of diabetic retinopathy (DR and diabetic macula edema (DME in diabetics attending an urban clinic in Johannesburg, Gauteng.Design: In this cross-sectional study, 202 diabetic patients were recruited. Demographic variables included age, gender, race, age of diagnosis, duration of diabetes mellitus (DM, and social habits. Medical variables included systemic conditions present, blood pressures, body mass indices (BMI, lipid profiles, glycerated haemoglobin (HbA1c, and other biochemical data. Visual variables included distance, pinhole and near visual acuities, contrast visual acuities (CVA, refractive status, colour vision, central visual field evaluation with the Amsler grid, intraocular pressures (IOP, fundus photography and administration of the Impact of Visual Impairment (IVI questionnaire. All variables were compared between diabetic subjects with and with-out DR and DME in both right and left eyes.Results: Overall prevalence of DR was 22.8% and DME 12.5%. In DR subjects, significant results indicated that Whites were more likely to present with DR (p = 0.002. Subjects with DR had a higher mean duration of DM (p = 0.002 and a higher mean diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.035. Autorefraction suggested that more myopia and less astigmatism might be associated with DR. A higher mean CVA at the 2.5% level in DR was significant in both the right eyes (p = 0.042 and left eyes (p = 0.035. These subjects also reported a higher mean IVI score in the consumer and social interaction domain (p = 0.032. Similarly, DME subjects displayed a higher mean duration of DM (p = 0.042 and a higher mean diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.048. A higher mean CVA was associated at both the 10% level: right eyes (p = 0.021; and left eyes (p = 0.046, and at the 2.5% level: right eyes (p = 0.033 and left eyes (p = 0.045. A higher mean IVI score in leisure and work (p = 0.026, consumer and social

  10. Life Potential as a Basic Demographic Indicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goerlich, Francisco J.; Soler, Angel

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes an indicator that integrates life expectancy with the demographic structure of the population for a given society. By doing this, we have a simple indicator of mortality and aging combined, which could be very useful for developed societies. As is widely known, life expectancy at birth is independent of the demographic…

  11. Second demographic transition de-blocked?

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    Bobić Mirjana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The text is re-examining the previously established dilemma related to whether Serbia (without Kosovo and Metohija is the country of second demographic transition, i.e.: has the transition been de-blocked, under the assumption that this is a worldwide historical process of transformation of industrialized countries. The last thesis, around which there exists a lot of controversy in the contemporary population theory, is however not dealt with in detail; to the contrary, it is used as the general theoretical framework for the exploration of the most recent tendencies in the transformation of nuptiality and fertility regime in Serbia, as well as in the western and countries in post-socialist transformation. Special attention is given to the ideational changes, more precisely to the specific features of the value profile of the Serbian population, which is one of the most important determinants of the societal framework, that acts in the back of the afore mentioned aggregate demographic indicators. Finally, the hypothesis is posed (which should be further investigated by means of in-depth research and complementary approach that the speeding-up of the second demographic transition and intensification of the individualisation not only of the partnership but of the parenthood as well, accompanied with the rise of living standard and social support to balancing work and family, would have produced important emancipating and, concomitantly, positive socioeconomic and demographic effects.

  12. The Demographics of Corporal Punishment in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examined the student discipline policies of 1,025 Texas school districts, as well as data from the Texas Education Agency's Academic Excellence Indicator System in order to identify demographic patterns regarding corporal punishment policies in Texas schools. The study also studied the relationship between a district's…

  13. The Demographics of Corporal Punishment in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examined the student discipline policies of 1,025 Texas school districts, as well as data from the Texas Education Agency's Academic Excellence Indicator System in order to identify demographic patterns regarding corporal punishment policies in Texas schools. The study also studied the relationship between a district's corporal…

  14. Demographic Group Differences in Adolescents' Time Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andretta, James R.; Worrell, Frank C.; Mello, Zena R.; Dixson, Dante D.; Baik, Sharon H.

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, we examined demographic differences in time attitudes in a sample of 293 adolescents. Time attitudes were measured using the Adolescent Time Attitude Scale (Mello & Worrell, 2007; Worrell, Mello, & Buhl, 2011), which assesses positive and negative attitudes toward the past, the present, and the future. Generally, African…

  15. The Macroeconomic Dynamics of Demographic Shocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijdra, B.J.; Ligthart, J.E.

    2004-01-01

    The paper employs an extended Yaari-Blanchard model of overlapping generations to study how the macroeconomy is affected over time by various demographic changes.It is shown that a proportional decline in fertility and death rates has qualitatively similar effects to capital income subsidies; both p

  16. Coping strategies in Spanish older adults: a MIMIC model of socio-demographic characteristics and activity level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, Laura; Dumitrache, Cristina G; García, Alfonso J; Cordón-Pozo, Eulogio

    2016-11-02

    The aim of this study was to analyze the combined effect of socio-demographic characteristics and activity level on coping strategies and to test which of these variables has a greater impact on coping. A sample of 243 men and women aged 55-99 years old was selected from different elderly activity centers in Granada, Spain, using a convenience sampling. Associations between eight coping strategies measured by Coping Strategies Inventory and the above mentioned variables were examined using a Multiple Indicator and Multiple Causes model. Age was negatively related with problem solving, express emotions and social support. Activity level was positively related with problem solving, cognitive restructuring, express emotions and social support and it was negatively associated with social withdrawal. Gender only predicted the scores in self-criticism and living alone was related with higher emotional expression. Participation in creative activities, attending University for the third age and practicing physical exercise were related with differences in the use of several coping strategies. There is a complex relationship between socio-demographic characteristics, activity level and the coping strategies used by the elderly. It is important to understand this relationship in order to identify older adults who use ineffective coping, and to subsequently include them in intervention programs to improve their coping abilities.

  17. Individualisation of Migration from the East? Comparison of Different Socio-Demographic Groups and their Migration Intentions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarja Saar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies on Eastern European migration argue that moving for self-development reasons is becoming increasingly common among this group. Furthermore, it is suggested that migration from the East is becoming individualised and less dependent on social surroundings. Nevertheless, most such results rely on interviews conducted among certain social groups, such as the young and highly skilled. Hence, the comparison between different social groups and their motivations is rarely provided and, therefore, the claims about increased individualisation might be premature. This article uses the Estonian Household Module Survey, including responses from 620 Estonians intending to migrate, to evaluate if migration flows are indeed becoming more individualised and less dependent on social surroundings. Using cluster analysis, three different groups — self-development, economic and life quality migrants — are formed, which are then tested using regression analysis to check for the influence of socio-demographic variables. The article concludes that socio-demographic variables such as gender, age, ethnicity, family status and socio-economic status are still relevant for migration intentions. Indeed, a new group of Eastern European migrants, mainly oriented towards self-development, is emerging; however, it is small and consists mostly of young, Estonian-speaking females. The results complicate the notions of free mobility and liquid migration from Eastern Europe and illustrate that there is a need to pay attention to the increasing group differences in these societies

  18. Characterization of salt consumption among hypertensives according to socio-demographic and clinical factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Sia Perin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the relationship between the behaviors of salt consumption and socio-demographic and clinical variables. METHOD: sodium consumption was evaluated using the methods: self-reporting (considering 3 different behaviors related to salt consumption, 24- hr dietary recall, discretionary salt, food frequency questionnaire, estimation of total sodium intake and 24-hr urinary excretion of sodium (n=108. RESULTS: elevated salt intake according to the different measurements of consumption of the nutrient was associated with the variables: male sex, low level of schooling and monthly income, being Caucasian, and being professionally inactive; and with the clinical variables: elevated Body Mass Index, tensional levels, ventricular hypertrophy and the number of medications used. CONCLUSION: the data obtained shows a heterogenous association between the different behaviors related to salt consumption and the socio-demographic and clinical variables. This data can be used to optimize the directing of educational activities with a view to reducing salt consumption among hypertensives.

  19. Characterization of salt consumption among hypertensives according to socio-demographic and clinical factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perin, Milena Sia; Cornélio, Marilia Estevam; Rodrigues, Roberta Cunha Matheus; Gallani, Maria Cecília Bueno Jayme

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the relationship between the behaviors of salt consumption and socio-demographic and clinical variables. Sodium consumption was evaluated using the methods: self-reporting (considering 3 different behaviors related to salt consumption), 24- hr dietary recall, discretionary salt, food frequency questionnaire, estimation of total sodium intake and 24-hr urinary excretion of sodium (n=108). Elevated salt intake according to the different measurements of consumption of the nutrient was associated with the variables: male sex, low level of schooling and monthly income, being Caucasian, and being professionally inactive; and with the clinical variables: elevated Body Mass Index, tensional levels, ventricular hypertrophy and the number of medications used. The data obtained shows a heterogenous association between the different behaviors related to salt consumption and the socio-demographic and clinical variables. This data can be used to optimize the directing of educational activities with a view to reducing salt consumption among hypertensives.

  20. Alterações de tomografia pulmonar de alta resolução em pacientes com artrite reumatoide e suas associações com variáveis clínicas, demográficas, sorológicas e terapêuticas Pulmonary changes on high-resolution computed tomography of patients with rheumatoid arthritis and their association with clinical, demographic, serological and therapeutic variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thelma Larocca Skare

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA: Pacientes com artrite reumatoide (AR têm manifestações extra-articulares em até 50% dos casos OBJETIVO: Estudar a prevalência das alterações pulmonares à tomografia computadorizada de alta resolução em pacientes com AR e sua associação com variáveis demográficas, clinicas, sorológicas e terapêuticas. MÉTODO: Estudaram-se 71 pacientes com AR para idade de início da doença, tempo de doença, sexo, tabagismo, presença de nódulos reumatoides, síndrome de Sjögren secundária, fator reumatoide, presença de anti-CCP e fator antinuclear, queixas respiratórias, uso de medicamentos e achados pulmonares à tomografia de alta resolução. RESULTADOS: Existiam alterações tomográficas em 55% dos pacientes, sendo as mais comuns as presenças de vidro fosco, bandas parenquimatosas, bronquiectasias de tração e faveolamento. Nenhuma das variáveis clínicas estudadas se associou aos achados tomográficos, exceto a duração de doença que foi maior em pacientes com nódulos pulmonares e lesões reticulares (vidro fosco. CONCLUSÕES: Existe uma alta prevalência de alterações tomográficas na população de AR, as quais não se associam com variáveis clínicas, sorológicas, terapêuticas e demográficas salvo tempo de duração da doençaBACKGROUND: Extra-articular manifestations are found in up to 50% of the patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA. OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of pulmonary changes on high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT in patients with RA and their association with demographic, clinical, serological and therapeutic variables. METHOD: Seventy-one patients with RA were assessed regarding their age at RA onset, duration of disease, gender, tobacco use, presence of rheumatoid nodules, secondary Sjögren's syndrome, rheumatoid factor, presence of anti-CCP and antinuclear factor, respiratory complaints, use of medications, and pulmonary changes on HRCT. RESULTS: HRCT changes were identifi ed

  1. Explaining marital patterns and trends in namibia: a regression analysis of 1992, 2000 and 2006 demographic and survey data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lillian Pazvakawambwa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Marriage is a significant event in life-course of individuals, and creates a system that characterizes societal and economic structures. Marital patterns and dynamics over the years have changed a lot, with decreasing proportions of marriage, increased levels of divorce and co-habitation in developing countries. Although, such changes have been reported in African societies including Namibia, they have largely remained unexplained. OBJECTIVES AND METHODS: IN THIS PAPER, WE EXAMINED TRENDS AND PATTERNS OF MARITAL STATUS OF WOMEN OF MARRIAGEABLE AGE: 15 to 49 years, in Namibia using the 1992, 2000 and 2006 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS data. Trends were established for selected demographic variables. Two binary logistic regression models for ever-married versus never married, and cohabitation versus married were fitted to establish factors associated with such nuptial systems. Further a multinomial logistic regression models, adjusted for bio-demographic and socio-economic variables, were fitted separately for each year, to establish determinants of type of union (never married, married and cohabitation. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Findings indicate a general change away from marriage, with a shift in singulate mean age at marriage. Cohabitation was prevalent among those less than 30 years of age, the odds were higher in urban areas and increased since 1992. Be as it may marriage remained a persistent nuptiality pattern, and common among the less educated and employed, but lower odds in urban areas. Results from multinomial model suggest that marital status was associated with age at marriage, total children born, region, place of residence, education level and religion. We conclude that marital patterns have undergone significant transformation over the past two decades in Namibia, with a coexistence of traditional marriage framework with co-habitation, and sizeable proportion remaining unmarried to the late 30s. A shift in the

  2. Children with Cochlear Implants: A Review of Demographics and Communication Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belzner, Kate A.; Seal, Brenda C.

    2009-01-01

    Children with severe to profound hearing loss in the United States are diverse in their racial-ethnic backgrounds, comorbid disabilities, socioeconomic levels, and communication modalities. The present article addresses demographic variables and communication outcomes of children with cochlear implants by means of a review of longitudinal studies…

  3. Latino Population Growth, Demographic Characteristics, and Educational Stagnation: An Examination of Recent Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapa, Jorge; Valencia, Richard R.

    1993-01-01

    Presents data on rapid growth of the Latino population during the 1980s. Outlines ethnic and racial differences in educational attainment, family income, language status, age distribution, and other demographic variables. Discusses the impact of school segregation, growth of youth population, and low socioeconomic status on Latino access to…

  4. Demographic Profiling--A Determination of Academic Performance in a Postgraduate Diploma in Marketing Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beneke, J.; Beeming, C.

    2011-01-01

    This article analyses the direct effect of demographic variables on academic outcomes. The study concludes that ethnic group plays a pivotal role in determining the academic performance of students registered for the Postgraduate Diploma in Marketing Management at the University of Cape Town. White students (presumed to emanate from a privileged…

  5. Distribution of Health-Related Physical Fitness in Texas Youth: A Demographic and Geographic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welk, Gregory J.; Meredith, Marilu D.; Ihmels, Michelle; Seeger, Chris

    2010-01-01

    This study examined demographic and geographic variability in aggregated school-level data on the percentage of students achieving the FITNESSGRAM[R] Healthy Fitness Zones[TM] (HFZ). Three-way analyses of variance were used to examine differences in fitness achievement rates among schools that had distinct diversity and socioeconomic status…

  6. Demographic Factors and Communal Mastery as Predictors of Academic Motivation and Test Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ünal-Karagüven, M. Hülya

    2015-01-01

    Academic motivation and test anxiety have been still adduced for low performance of students by educators. To know the factors that have an effect on students' academic motivation and test anxiety levels can be helpful to improve students' academic performance. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of demographic variables and…

  7. Demographic Characteristics as Predictors of Quality of Life in a Population of Psychiatric Outpatients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masthoff, Erik; Trompenaars, Fons; Van Heck, Guus; Hodiamont, Paul; De Vries, Jolanda

    2006-01-01

    Studies examining relationships between demographic variables in a general population of psychiatric outpatients and quality of life (QOL), in which QOL was assessed according to current recommendations, have not been performed yet. The aim of this study was to examine one particular aspect of this relationship: the question to what extent QOL…

  8. Harnessing demographic differences in organizations: What moderates the effects of workplace diversity?

    OpenAIRE

    Guillaume, Yves R. F.; Dawson, Jeremy F.; Otaye-Ebede, Lilian; Woods, Stephen A.; West, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    To account for the double-edged nature of demographic workplace diversity (i.e. relational demography, work group diversity, and organizational diversity) effects on social integration, performance and well-being related variables, research has moved away from simple main effect approaches and started examining variables that moderate these effects. While there is no shortage of primary studies of the conditions under which diversity leads to positive or negative outcomes, it remains unclear ...

  9. Revolution without ideology: demographic transition in East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, T D

    1980-01-01

    The acceleration of demographic transition in East Asia is a process of great potential import for the world. The most rapid and large scale transformation of demographic pattern in world history is being accomplished in this region. Demographic processes in other countries and regions have been viewed in the light of past events. Demographic transition has been accepted as a desirable goal, but its realization was believed subject to certain constraints. These include the need to attain high rates of economic growth in order to stimulate the transition and the longer period of time required to accomplish the transition. It was assumed that at least 2 generations would be subject to gradually diminishing rates of increase and slow cultural modification before transition entered its last phase. This interpretation of the preconditions and specific character of demographic transition has been subject to increasing challenge, and recent events in East Asia accentuate such doubts. Most new views begin with the premises that contemporary pretransition societies are not European in culture and the 1970s are not the 1880s. East Asia also differs culturally from other developing areas, including South and Southeast Asia. The most significant regional features are cultural. Demographic transition in the region began after World War 2 and somewhat differently in each East Asian country. The process began first in Japan. The 3rd phase was accomplished rapidly but not as a specific consequence of the modernization process. The end of World War 2 and the spurt in births accompanying military demobilization contributed to a population surge. The cultural factors of practicality, homogeneity, social discipline, and nearly universial literacy were decisive here. Abortion was legalized in 1948 and other forms of birth control were made readily available. Between 1947 and 1957 the birthrate was halved to 17/1000. In Taiwan and South Korea public concern about high rates of

  10. The Chi Linh Health and Demographic Surveillance System (CHILILAB HDSS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Bich Huu; Nguyen, Ha Thanh; Ho, Hien Thi; Pham, Cuong Viet; Le, Vui Thi; Le, Anh Vu

    2013-06-01

    The Chi Linh Health and Demographic Surveillance System (CHILILAB HDSS) is the only health and demographic surveillance system (HDSS) in an urbanizing area of the Chi Linh district of Hai Duong, a northern province of Vietnam. It is one of the few field laboratories in the world that links operational research and health interventions with field training. The CHILILAB HDSS provides longitudinal data on demographic and health indicators for the community of Chi Linh. In 2012, when the CHILILAB HDSS included 57,561 people from 17 993 households in 3 towns and 4 communes, it used structured questionnaires to collect information on population changes (birth, death, migration, marriage, and pregnancy) in the community. As of December 2012, 5 rounds of a baseline survey and 17 periodic update surveys or re-enumeration surveys had been conducted. In addition, several specialized public-health research projects, focused particularly on adolescent health, have been implemented by the CHILILAB HDSS. The information that the CHILILAB HDSS has gathered provides a picture of the health status of the population and socio-economic situation in Chi Linh district. The contact person for data sharing is the director of the CHILILAB (E-mail: thb@hsph.edu.vn).

  11. Demographic and psychological correlates of New Zealanders support for euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Carol Hj; Duck, Isabelle M; Sibley, Chris G

    2017-01-13

    To explore the distribution of New Zealanders' support towards the legalisation of euthanasia and examine demographic and psychological factors associated with these attitudes. 15,822 participants responded to the 2014/15 New Zealand Attitudes and Values Study (NZAVS) survey. This survey included an item on people's attitudes towards euthanasia, and information on their demographic and psychological characteristics. The majority of New Zealanders expressed support for euthanasia, which was assessed by asking "Suppose a person has a painful incurable disease. Do you think that doctors should be allowed by law to end the patient's life if the patient requests it?" Non-religious, liberal, younger, employed, non-parents and those living in rural areas were more supportive. Those of Pacific or Asian ethnicity, with lower income and higher deprivation, education and socio-economic status were less supportive. Furthermore, those high on extraversion, conscientiousness and neuroticism showed more support, while those high on agreeableness and honesty-humility exhibited less support. There is strong public support for euthanasia when people are asked whether doctors should be allowed by law to end the life of a patient with a painful incurable disease upon their request. There are reliable demographic and personality differences in support for euthanasia.

  12. Analytic device including nanostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.

    2015-07-02

    A device for detecting an analyte in a sample comprising: an array including a plurality of pixels, each pixel including a nanochain comprising: a first nanostructure, a second nanostructure, and a third nanostructure, wherein size of the first nanostructure is larger than that of the second nanostructure, and size of the second nanostructure is larger than that of the third nanostructure, and wherein the first nanostructure, the second nanostructure, and the third nanostructure are positioned on a substrate such that when the nanochain is excited by an energy, an optical field between the second nanostructure and the third nanostructure is stronger than an optical field between the first nanostructure and the second nanostructure, wherein the array is configured to receive a sample; and a detector arranged to collect spectral data from a plurality of pixels of the array.

  13. Analyzing the Impact of Residential Building Attributes, Demographic and Behavioral Factors on Natural Gas Usage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Livingston, Olga V.; Cort, Katherine A.

    2011-03-03

    study attempts to bridge that gap by analyzing behavioral data and investigate the applicability of additive nonparametric regression to this task. This study evaluates the impact of 31 regressors on residential natural gas usage. The regressors include weather, economic variables, demographic and behavioral characteristics, and building attributes related to energy use. In general, most of the regression results were in line with previous engineering and economic studies in this area. There were, however, some counterintuitive results, particularly with regard to thermostat controls and behaviors. There are a number of possible reasons for these counterintuitive results including the inability to control for regional climate variability due to the data sanitization (to prevent identification of respondents), inaccurate data caused by to self-reporting, and the fact that not all relevant behavioral variables were included in the data set, so we were not able to control for them in the study. The results of this analysis could be used as an in-sample prediction for approximating energy demand of a residential building whose characteristics are described by the regressors in this analysis, but a certain combination of their particular values does not exist in the real world. In addition, this study has potential applications for benefit-cost analysis of residential upgrades and retrofits under a fixed budget, because the results of this study contain information on how natural gas consumption might change once a particular characteristic or attribute is altered. Finally, the results of this study can help establish a relationship between natural gas consumption and changes in behavior of occupants.

  14. Sitting too much: A hierarchy of socio-demographic correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakerveld, Jeroen; Loyen, Anne; Schotman, Nina; Peeters, Carel F W; Cardon, Greet; van der Ploeg, Hidde P; Lien, Nanna; Chastin, Sebastien; Brug, Johannes

    2017-08-01

    Too much sitting (extended sedentary time) is recognized as a public health concern in Europe and beyond. Time spent sedentary is influenced and conditioned by clusters of individual-level and contextual (upstream) factors. Identifying population subgroups that sit too much could help to develop targeted interventions to reduce sedentary time. We explored the relative importance of socio-demographic correlates of sedentary time in adults across Europe. We used data from 26,617 adults who participated in the 2013 Special Eurobarometer 412 "Sport and physical activity". Participants from all 28 EU Member States were randomly selected and interviewed face-to-face. Self-reported sedentary time was dichotomized into sitting less or >7.5h/day. A Chi-squared Automatic Interaction Detection (CHAID) algorithm was used to create a tree that hierarchically partitions the data on the basis of the independent variables (i.e., socio-demographic factors) into homogeneous (sub)groups with regard to sedentary time. This allows for the tentative identification of population segments at risk for unhealthy sedentary behaviour. Overall, 18.5% of the respondents reported sitting >7.5h/day. Occupation was the primary discriminator. The subgroup most likely to engage in extensive sitting were higher educated, had white-collar jobs, reported no difficulties with paying bills, and used the internet frequently. Clear socio-demographic profiles were identified for adults across Europe who engage in extended sedentary time. Furthermore, physically active participants were consistently less likely to engage in longer daily sitting times. In general, those with more indicators of higher wealth were more likely to spend more time sitting. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The effect of age and demographics on rib shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcombe, Sven A; Wang, Stewart C; Grotberg, James B

    2017-08-01

    Elderly populations have a higher risk of rib fractures and other associated thoracic injuries than younger adults, and the changes in body morphology that occur with age are a potential cause of this increased risk. Rib centroidal path geometry for 20 627 ribs was extracted from computed tomography (CT) scans of 1042 live adult subjects, then fitted to a six-parameter mathematical model that accurately characterizes rib size and shape, and a three-parameter model of rib orientation within the body. Multivariable regression characterized the independent effect of age, height, weight, and sex on the rib shape and orientation across the adult population, and statistically significant effects were seen from all demographic factors (P rib end-to-end separation and rib aspect ratio are seen to increase with age, producing elongated and flatter overall rib shapes in elderly populations, with age alone explaining up to 20% of population variability in the aspect ratio of mid-level ribs. Age was not strongly associated with overall rib arc length, indicating that age effects were related to shape change rather than overall bone length. The rib shape effect was found to be more strongly and directly associated with age than previously documented age-related changes in rib angulation. Other demographic results showed height and sex being most strongly associated with rib size, and weight most strongly associated with rib pump-handle angle. Results from the study provide a statistical model for building rib shapes typical of any given demographic by age, height, weight, and sex, and can be used to help build population-specific computational models of the thoracic rib cage. Furthermore, results also quantify normal population ranges for rib shape parameters which can be used to improve the assessment and treatment of rib skeletal deformity and disease. © 2017 Anatomical Society.

  16. Comparative demographics of a Hawaiian forest bird community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillaumet, Alban; Woodworth, Bethany L.; Camp, Richard J.; Paxton, Eben

    2016-01-01

    Estimates of demographic parameters such as survival and reproductive success are critical for guiding management efforts focused on species of conservation concern. Unfortunately, reliable demographic parameters are difficult to obtain for any species, but especially for rare or endangered species. Here we derived estimates of adult survival and recruitment in a community of Hawaiian forest birds, including eight native species (of which three are endangered) and two introduced species at Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge, Hawaiʻi. Integrated population models (IPM) were used to link mark–recapture data (1994–1999) with long-term population surveys (1987–2008). To our knowledge, this is the first time that IPM have been used to characterize demographic parameters of a whole avian community, and provides important insights into the life history strategies of the community. The demographic data were used to test two hypotheses: 1) arthropod specialists, such as the ‘Akiapōlā‘au Hemignathus munroi, are ‘slower’ species characterized by a greater relative contribution of adult survival to population growth, i.e. lower fecundity and increased adult survival; and 2) a species’ susceptibility to environmental change, as reflected by its conservation status, can be predicted by its life history traits. We found that all species were characterized by a similar population growth rate around one, independently of conservation status, origin (native vs non-native), feeding guild, or life history strategy (as measured by ‘slowness’), which suggested that the community had reached an equilibrium. However, such stable dynamics were achieved differently across feeding guilds, as demonstrated by a significant increase of adult survival and a significant decrease of recruitment along a gradient of increased insectivory, in support of hypothesis 1. Supporting our second hypothesis, we found that slower species were more vulnerable species at the global

  17. The Variables Predicting the Appointment of Candidate Teachers to Primary Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuri DOĞAN

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the variables that predict the appointment status of candidate teachers as a result of the Public Personnel Selection Test (PPST. In this study, an answer was searched for the question “Do certain demographic variables, PPST standard scores, University Student Selection Test scores, students’ achievement results in professional courses, and grade point average (GPA of students have any effect on the appointment status of teacher candidates?” Since the dependent variable of this study was categorical (appointed, not appointed, logistics regression technique was used. In the regression model, some variables such as divisions of teacher candidates and GPA were found to be important predictors. The classification success level of variables included in the equation was found to be 72%. Based on these findings it is concluded that some of the variables taken into consideration in this study have an important effect on the appointment status of teacher candidates.

  18. Demographic Costs Associated with Differences in Habitat Space Occupancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Kelly A; Miles, Donald B

    2016-01-01

    Delimiting the habitat characteristics describing the environmental conditions required by a species has become a critical tool for predicting organismal responses to environmental change. Grinnell emphasized the effects of environmental factors on the ability of a population to maintain a positive growth rate, yet few studies have included demographic or reproductive data in analyses of the Grinnellian niche. Identifying differences in habitat exploitation patterns in response to structural variation in the environment presents an incomplete description of the ability of species to adapt to changing habitats if demographic traits are not included. We estimated the vegetation characteristics used by individuals within a population of hooded warblers (Setophaga citrina) across a spatial transect that includes three structurally different forest habitats. We predicted individuals should select similar structural characteristics within each habitat and have similar reproductive success across sample sites. In the two years post burn, adults were present but no young fledged indicating the habitat requirements necessary for reproduction were absent in this habitat. We found significant differences in habitat space occupied by individuals in unaltered and harvested habitats. Nesting habitats used by female warblers differed from available habitat. Fledging success was lower in the harvested habitat 10 to 12 years post-harvest. In the harvested habitat, fledging success was greater on mesic slopes but decreased along a habitat gradient to xeric ridgetops, suggesting compensation in habitat use does not ameliorate fitness costs. In contrast, there was no difference in the number of fledged young along this gradient in the unaltered habitat. Based solely on occupancy data, traditional ecological niche models would incorrectly conclude the environmental characteristics found across the three forested habitats are included in the Grinnellian niche of the hooded warbler

  19. Demographic analysis from summaries of an age-structured population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, William A.; Royle, J. Andrew; Hatfield, Jeff S.

    2003-01-01

    Demographic analyses of age-structured populations typically rely on life history data for individuals, or when individual animals are not identified, on information about the numbers of individuals in each age class through time. While it is usually difficult to determine the age class of a randomly encountered individual, it is often the case that the individual can be readily and reliably assigned to one of a set of age classes. For example, it is often possible to distinguish first-year from older birds. In such cases, the population age structure can be regarded as a latent variable governed by a process prior, and the data as summaries of this latent structure. In this article, we consider the problem of uncovering the latent structure and estimating process parameters from summaries of age class information. We present a demographic analysis for the critically endangered migratory population of whooping cranes (Grus americana), based only on counts of first-year birds and of older birds. We estimate age and year-specific survival rates. We address the controversial issue of whether management action on the breeding grounds has influenced recruitment, relating recruitment rates to the number of seventh-year and older birds, and examining the pattern of variation through time in this rate.

  20. Germ banks affect the inference of past demographic events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Živković, Daniel; Tellier, Aurélien

    2012-11-01

    Continuous progress in empirical population genetics based on the whole-genome polymorphism data requires the theoretical analysis of refined models in order to interpret the evolutionary history of populations with adequate accuracy. Recent studies focus prevalently on the aspects of demography and adaptation, whereas age structure (for example, in plants via the maintenance of seed banks) has attracted less attention. Germ banking, that is, seed or egg dormancy, is a prevalent and important life-history trait in plants and invertebrates, which buffers against environmental variability and modulates species extinction in fragmented habitats. Within this study, we investigate the combined effect of germ banking and time-varying population size on the neutral coalescent and particularly derive the allele frequency spectrum under some simplifying assumptions. We then perform an ABC analysis using two simple demographic scenarios-a population expansion and an instantaneous decline. We demonstrate the appreciable influence of seed banks on the estimation of demographic parameters depending on the germination rate with biases scaled by the square of the germination rate. In the more complex case of a population bottleneck, which comprises an instantaneous decline and an expansion phase, ignoring information on the germination rate denies reliable estimates of the bottleneck parameters via the allelic spectrum. In particular, when seeds remain in the bank over several generations, recent expansions may remain invisible in the frequency spectrum, whereas ancient declines leave signatures much longer than in the absence of seed bank.

  1. ADOPTING SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS IN PROFILING GREEN CONSUMERS: A REVIEW OF HYPOTHESES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Hartono

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available In the last three decades worldwide environmental consciousness has increased dramatically as well as profiling green consumers have gained tremendous attention in the past. Segmenting and targeting markets base on pro-environmental purchase behavior are essential when companies positioning their green products. Socio-demographic characteristics have gained a lot of attention as the key profiling variables. Such characteristics have been employed by many scholars more frequently for the bases of segmenting and profiling green consumers. However, most existing studies of green consumers’ socio-demographic were US based. The present article attempts to review the common hypotheses of socio-demographic characteristics in profiling green consumers. The present article reviews five general hypotheses relating to socio-demographics and environmental consciousness of green consumers, namely the gender, age, education level, income, and occupation hypotheses, as well as the theoretical explanation for each hypothesis. Most previous studies tend to have the same conclusion in the gender, age, education level, and  income characteristics. Critics to socio-demographic characteristics and a need to conduct green marketing research in Indonesia was also reviewed.Key words: profiling, socio-demographic, green consumer, hypotheses.

  2. A demographic approach to study effects of climate change in desert plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salguero-Gómez, Roberto; Siewert, Wolfgang; Casper, Brenda B; Tielbörger, Katja

    2012-11-19

    Desert species respond strongly to infrequent, intense pulses of precipitation. Consequently, indigenous flora has developed a rich repertoire of life-history strategies to deal with fluctuations in resource availability. Examinations of how future climate change will affect the biota often forecast negative impacts, but these-usually correlative-approaches overlook precipitation variation because they are based on averages. Here, we provide an overview of how variable precipitation affects perennial and annual desert plants, and then implement an innovative, mechanistic approach to examine the effects of precipitation on populations of two desert plant species. This approach couples robust climatic projections, including variable precipitation, with stochastic, stage-structured models constructed from long-term demographic datasets of the short-lived Cryptantha flava in the Colorado Plateau Desert (USA) and the annual Carrichtera annua in the Negev Desert (Israel). Our results highlight these populations' potential to buffer future stochastic precipitation. Population growth rates in both species increased under future conditions: wetter, longer growing seasons for Cryptantha and drier years for Carrichtera. We determined that such changes are primarily due to survival and size changes for Cryptantha and the role of seed bank for Carrichtera. Our work suggests that desert plants, and thus the resources they provide, might be more resilient to climate change than previously thought.

  3. Self-confidence level in professional athletes; an examination of exposure to violence, branch and socio-demographic aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Karagün

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether or not the self-confidence levels of the athletes working as professionals show a significant difference by the variables  such as age, gender, number of years spent doing sports, duration of professional working life, exposure to violence, sports branch worked, economic situation and education level. To this end, 607 athletes in total, 265 (43,7% of whom were female and 342 (56,3% of whom were male working professionally in 9 branches including wrestling, arm wrestling, football, judo, basketball, volleyball, handball, athletics and weightlifting in 11 provinces of Turkey in total including İstanbul, Kocaeli, Ankara, Sakarya, Aydın, Bilecik, Samsun, Kayseri, Kütahya, Hatay and Eskişehir were included in the scope of the study. The study was conducted for two years in 2012 and 2013. Self-Confidence Scale developed by Tokinan (2008 as well as Socio-Demographic Characteristics Scale, was applied on the athletes. as the data obtained were analyzed in SPSS 13.0 package program, self-confidence was significant by the variables of gender, exposure to violence, sports branch, the years spent working professionally and doing sports in total whereas the results were found to be insignificant by the variables of marital status, regular participation in non-sports activities, age, educational status and level of income.

  4. Complexity and demographic explanations of cumulative culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrien Querbes

    Full Text Available Formal models have linked prehistoric and historical instances of technological change (e.g., the Upper Paleolithic transition, cultural loss in Holocene Tasmania, scientific progress since the late nineteenth century to demographic change. According to these models, cumulation of technological complexity is inhibited by decreasing--while favoured by increasing--population levels. Here we show that these findings are contingent on how complexity is defined: demography plays a much more limited role in sustaining cumulative culture in case formal models deploy Herbert Simon's definition of complexity rather than the particular definitions of complexity hitherto assumed. Given that currently available empirical evidence doesn't afford discriminating proper from improper definitions of complexity, our robustness analyses put into question the force of recent demographic explanations of particular episodes of cultural change.

  5. Stock vs. Bond Yields, and Demographic Fluctuations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gozluklu, Arie; Morin, Annaïg

    that the slow-evolving time-series covariation due to changing population age structure accounts for the equilibrium relation between stock and bond markets. As a result, by exploiting the demographic information into distant future, the forecasting performance of evaluation models improves. Finally, using...... a cross-country panel, we document the cross-sectional variation of the demographic effect and explain the cross-country differences in comovement between stock and bond markets.......This paper analyzes the strong comovement between real stock and nominal bond yields at generational (low) frequencies. Life-cycle patterns in savings behavior in an overlapping generations model with cash-in-advance constraints explain this persistent comovement between financial yields. We argue...

  6. Stock vs. Bond Yields, and Demographic Fluctuations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gozluklu, Arie; Morin, Annaïg

    that the slow-evolving time-series covariation due to changing population age structure accounts for the equilibrium relation between stock and bond markets. As a result, by exploiting the demographic information into distant future, the forecasting performance of evaluation models improves. Finally, using...... a cross-country panel, we document the cross-sectional variation of the demographic effect and explain the cross-country differences in comovement between stock and bond markets.......This paper analyzes the strong comovement between real stock and nominal bond yields at generational (low) frequencies. Life-cycle patterns in savings behavior in an overlapping generations model with cash-in-advance constraints explain this persistent comovement between financial yields. We argue...

  7. New Approaches to Demographic Data Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treiman, Donald J.; Lu, Yao; Qi, Yaqiang

    2013-01-01

    As population scientists have expanded the range of topics they study, increasingly considering the interrelationship between population phenomena and social, economic, and health conditions, they have expanded the kinds of data collected and have brought to bear new data collection techniques and procedures, often borrowed from other fields. These new approaches to demographic data collection are the concern of this essay. We consider three main topics: new developments in sampling procedures; new developments in fieldwork procedures; and new developments in the kind of information collected in demographic and social surveys. We conclude with some comments on data sharing in the social research community and a list of major Chinese surveys publicly available to researchers. Where possible we illustrate our points with Chinese examples. PMID:23844330

  8. The demographic cycle and optimal schooling choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, B P; Berger, M C

    1996-10-01

    A model is developed that enables the authors to estimate the effects of demographic cycles on both earnings and schooling. The model is tested using data from the 1991 Korean Occupational Wage Survey. The results indicate that cohorts following large birth cohorts in the cycle choose relatively less formal schooling compared to pre-peak cohorts, and that post-peak cohorts also have lower incomes. This result concerning South Korea is consistent with findings from previous studies concerning the United States.

  9. Regions of Demographic Dynamism in Haryana

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjeev Goel

    2014-01-01

    There are different types of population structures in different parts of the world, the nature of demographic challenges also differ accordingly. The developed countries like USA, Canada, Japan, Australia and many European countries face a problem of slow or even negative population growth. The main concern of the government in these countries remains on population ageing, decline in working force and increasing dependency ratio. The developing countries like India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and L...

  10. DEMOGRAPHIC PREDICTORS WITHIN LOCAL PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bente Florina Maria

    2014-12-01

    Design/methodology/approach- Using a quantitative methodological approach, a survey based on SERVQUAL instrument was applied in order to evaluate local public communication. Data from a sample of 380 citizens within Western Romanian were analyzed. Specific demographic predictors that can influence citizens' satisfaction regarding the quality of communication are analyzed. Findings-By analyzing data it was possible to determine citizen satisfaction and to assess its relationship with different demographic characteristics. The results illustrate that gender does not significantly affect satisfaction, instead age, marital status, residence location (urban versus rural, income, education and occupational status of the respondents significantly affect satisfaction regarding local public communication. In addition, the findings confirm a relationship between the citizens' satisfaction and the age, income, education and occupational status of the respondents. Research limitations/implications- Owing to the budget and time limits, only a one-shot survey was conducted, therefore the comparison between “before” and “after” analysis could not be performed. In addition, further research should investigate the local public communication within national contexts. Practical implications -The adapted SERVQUAL scale may be used by institution managers to objectively assess communication performance and local authority service quality. Originality/value- There continues to be a lack of research regarding the communication process within local public administration and the effect of demographic predictors of communication satisfaction. This paper examines both the perceptions and the expectations of citizens regarding public communication. The results offer insights into residence location, age, income, education and occupational status effects on evaluations of communication satisfaction. Finally, the study contributes to studies of perceived service quality by bearing out

  11. TEENAGE PREGNANCY: DEMOGRAPHICS, MATERNAL AND FOETAL OUTCOME

    OpenAIRE

    Radhika Gollapudi; Jagadeeshwari Sistla

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Pregnancy though is a physiological event in a woman’s life, it has its own associated complications. In teenage pregnancies, the physical and emotional state of stress coupled with biological immaturity leads to adverse effect both on the health of the mother and the foetus. METHODS This study is a clinical prospective study analysing the demographics, maternal health issues and the foetal outcome in teenage pregnancies. The study was conducted over a period of o...

  12. Demographic Pressure in the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Peeters, Marga; Groot, Loek

    2012-01-01

    On top of the sovereign debt crisis in the European Union, demographic change is exerting enormous pressure on public finances. We analyse four policy options: lowering pension benefits, increasing labour market participation of the native population, immigration and participation of older people. Our results show that the most publically indebted EU economies face the highest increases in public spending on the retiring baby boom generations over the coming decades. Fortunately for these eco...

  13. Mortality versus Morbidity in the Demographic Transition

    OpenAIRE

    Aksan, Anna-Maria; Chakraborty, Shankha

    2014-01-01

    The link between the mortality and epidemiological transitions is used to identify the effect of the former on the fertility transition: a mortality transition that is not accompanied by improving morbidity causes slower demographic and economic change. In a model where children may die from infectious disease, childhood health affects human capital and noninfectious-disease-related adult mortality. When child mortality falls from lower prevalence, as it did in western Europe, labor productiv...

  14. Evolving demographics of advanced dental education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldman, H Barry; Perlman, Steven P; Cinotti, Debra A

    2009-01-01

    The numbers of dental school graduates and students enrolled in post graduate programs have increased. Decreases are noted in the enrollment in Periodontics and Prosthodontics programs and a marked increase in the enrollment in Pediatric Dentistry programs. A review of these changes, by gender and race/ethnicity provides an overview of the future demographics of the profession. Some concerns regarding the future are considered.

  15. [[Demographic characteristics of "business bachelors" in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, C

    1987-01-01

    The demographic characteristics of those obliged to live away from their families because of the distance between their normal homes and places of work or education in Japan are described. Data are from a variety of official and other sources. The author notes that such persons are generally male. Factors affecting the growth of this phenomenon in Japan are the concept of lifetime employment with the same company and the popularity of sending children away to school.

  16. Nicaragua 1998: results from the Demographic and Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-06-01

    This article presents summary statistics gathered from the 1998 Nicaragua Demographic and Health Survey (Encuesta Nicaraguense de Demografia y Salud 1998, ENDESA-98). Data from the nationally representative ENDESA-98 were collected from 11,528 households. Interviews were conducted with 13,634 women aged 15-49 years and 2912 men aged 15-59 years between December 1, 1997, and May 31, 1998. The statistics presented were on fertility trends, fertility differentials, age-specific fertility, fertility preferences, current contraceptive use, contraception, marital and contraceptive status, differentials in median age at first birth, postpartum variables, and infant mortality. In addition, statistical data on the health and nutritional status of children were also presented.

  17. Demographic Transformations of the Russian Regional Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Viktorovna Kurushina

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the transformations of the quantitative components of human capital, which is the main driver of economic growth in the material, institutional and mental space. According to the author’s concept of stratified space, the processes of self-reproduction and self-renewal of a system are carried out in the material space. This can be determined by the indicators of fertility, mortality and migration in the demographic subsystem. The process of self-regulation of a system on the basis of legislative acts and behavior patterns is carried out in the institutional space. Institutional transformations are also manifested in the implementation of federal target programs for socio-economic development, affecting the state of the demographic subsystem. The processes of self-reflection, self-determination and self-development are carried out in the mental space. Mental transformations in the demographic subsystem are manifested in the change of value orientations. In accordance with the system of values that are conceptualized in modern development strategies the authors define the following models of Man: Economic Man, Socio-Economic Man (who lives in agglomeration centers and at the periphery, Socio-Natural Man (Environmental Man and Householder Man and Innovative Man. Demographic shifts are investigated in 83 Russian regions on the determinants of birth rate and mortality. The analyzed period of transformation covers 2005 and 2012. Methods of matrix analysis are used to visualize the process of demographic shifts. The assessment of transformation of the stratified regional space spheres is given on the basis of the multifactor models of the population natural growth rate. The paper reveals the reduction in the level and variation of mortality rate, the increasing importance and differentiation of regions according to fertility rate, and the effectiveness of introducing the institution of maternity capital from a perspective of the

  18. The long goodbye: Age, demographics, and flexibility in retirement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David K. Foot

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The current literature on retirement decisions has given inadequate attention to the impacts of increasing life expectancy. This paper examines workforce aging and retirement within a framework that not only includes age, but also integrates increasing life expectancy into the discussion. Employee preference surveys regarding choice in retirement are supported by the demographic and by work-time compression arguments for retirement flexibility. We outlinearguments why partial-retirement policies would be a practical and timely transition strategy for organizations and societies in a world of increasing life expectancies and aging workforces,especially when facing the imminent retirement of the large post-war baby-boom generation.

  19. The long goodbye: Age, demographics, and flexibility in retirement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemary A. Venne

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The current literature on retirement decisions has given inadequate attention to the impacts of increasing life expectancy. This paper examines workforce aging and retirement within a framework that not only includes age, but also integrates increasing life expectancy into the discussion. Employee preference surveys regarding choice in retirement are supported by the demographic and by work-time compression arguments for retirement flexibility. We outlinearguments why partial-retirement policies would be a practical and timely transition strategy for organizations and societies in a world of increasing life expectancies and aging workforces,especially when facing the imminent retirement of the large post-war baby-boom generation.

  20. A micro simulation model of demographic development and households' economic behavior in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Albert Ando; Sergio Nicoletti-Altimari

    2004-01-01

    The relationship between the demographic structure and the saving rate of a society is the reflection of the aggregation of the behaviour of heterogeneous households, differing from one another in the type of living arrangements and in the characteristics of their members. In order to contribute to the understanding of this relationship, we construct a dynamic micro model capable of simulating the demographic development of a population, including the creation, destruction, dimension and vari...

  1. Demographical and Psychological Determinants of Depression, Among a Sample of Iranian Male Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Fazlollah Ghofranipour; Mohsen Saffari; Mahmoud Mahmoudi; Ali Montazeri

    2013-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of depression especially among youths is increasingly high. The present study is aimed to identify some demographic and psychological factors such as self-efficacy and perceived stress that may be related to depression among male adolescents. Methods: Overall, 402 adolescent were selected for participation in the study using multistage sampling method. The participants completed a questionnaire including demographic, depression, self-efficacy, and perceived stre...

  2. Facebook addiction among Turkish college students: the role of psychological health, demographic, and usage characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koc, Mustafa; Gulyagci, Seval

    2013-04-01

    This study explored Facebook addiction among Turkish college students and its behavioral, demographic, and psychological health predictors. The Facebook Addiction Scale (FAS) was developed and its construct validity was assessed through factor analyses. A total of 447 students reported their personal information and Facebook usage and completed the FAS and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28). The results revealed that weekly time commitment, social motives, severe depression, and anxiety and insomnia positively predicted Facebook addiction. Neither demographic variables nor the interactions of gender by usage characteristics were found to be significant predictors.

  3. Demographic and socioeconomic conditions associated with food insecurity in households in Campinas, SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Fernanda do Nascimento Jacinto de SOUZA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the association of food insecurity with demographic and socioeconomic conditions in households in Campinas, São Paulo state, Brazil. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study conducted on a representative sample of the urban population of the Southern, Southwestern, and Northwestern Health Districts of Campinas, between 2011-2012. Characteristics of the head of household, family history and household patterns were investigated. The dependent variable was food security condition, categorized as food security, mild food insecurity, and moderate/severe food insecurity. All independent variables with p-value <0.20 in the bivariate multinomial logistic regression were included in the final model of multiple multinomial logistic regression, adjusted to household head age; the remaining variables had p-value <0.05. Results: In the 691 households analyzed, there was 65% of food security, 27.9% of mild food insecurity, and 7.1% of moderate/severe food insecurity. The conditions associated with mild food insecurity were monthly per capita income less than the minimum wage, household head unemployed for more than six months between 2004-2010, living in properties given to the family/occupied/other, and density higher than two people per bedroon. The moderate/severe food insecurity was associated with informal employment condition of the household head and the presence of a beneficiary of the Bolsa Família (Family Allowance Program, a cash transfer-type program, in the household. The higher the score of the consumer goods, the lower the probability of mild food insecurity or moderate/severe food insecurity. There was a higher probability of mild food insecurity and moderate/severe food insecurity in unfinished masonry-built houses/other. Conclusion: More than one third of the households investigated experienced some form of food insecurity. Mild food insecurity was associated with demographic conditions, while moderate

  4. The economics of counterfeit Avastin: a geospatial and statistical analysis of demographic correlates to FDA warning letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuomo, Raphael E; Mackey, Tim K; Stigler, Paula

    2015-07-01

    In 2012, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) sent warning notices to clinics and medical practitioners that may have purchased or administered counterfeited versions of the angiogenesis cancer drug Avastin Genentech, South San Francisco, California, USA. The purpose of this study was to explore potential differences in demographic, economic, and healthcare coverage characteristics between areas that received these counterfeit warning notices and those that did not receive notices. The aims of this study are to improve future counterfeit drug surveillance and better assess potential risk factors associated with counterfeit cancer drugs. Addresses for warning notices sent to healthcare practitioners were obtained from the FDA and then geocoded using arcgis. Variables chosen for statistical and geospatial analyses were then identified and assessed based on their potential association with Avastin access and affordability. These variables included demographic and economic factors (percent below the poverty line, percent uninsured, and median household income) and healthcare coverage data (percent Medicare enrollees) available from the US Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services. All variables were analyzed at the US county level. Our analysis uncovered 401 distinct US counties where the FDA sent at least one counterfeit Avastin warning notice. A hot spot analysis of notices and variables was carried out using arcgis software to identify and visualize risk features with high and low values of clustering. In a multiple logistic regression model reassessing visually observed geospatial associations, the receipt of a notice was not significantly associated with percent uninsured (p = 0.3121), but was significantly associated with percent Medicare enrollees (OR = 0.874 per 10% increase; p = 0.0121), individuals below federal poverty line (OR = 2.990 per 10% increase; p economic and demographic factors are potentially associated with counterfeit Avastin

  5. Prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of active commuting to school in a nationwide representative sample of German adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Reimers, Anne Kerstin; Jekauc, Darko; Peterhans, Eliane; Wagner, Matthias O.; Woll, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To assess the prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of walking and cycling to school in a nationwide representative cross-sectional sample of German adolescents.Methods. A sample of 1828 German adolescents aged 11–17 years were examined between 2003 and 2006. Mode of commuting to school was assessed using a reliable self-report measure. Socioeconomic status, migration background and residential area were assessed as socio-demographic variables using a parent-report questionna...

  6. Prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of time spent cooking by adults in the 2005 UK Time Use Survey. Cross-sectional analysis☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Jean; White, Martin

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to document the prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of time spent cooking by adults in the 2005 UK Time-Use Survey. Respondents reported their main activities, in 10 minute slots, throughout one 24 hour period. Activities were coded into 30 pre-defined codes, including ‘cooking, washing up’. Four measures of time spent cooking were calculated: any time spent cooking, 30 continuous minutes spent cooking, total time spent cooking, and longest continuous time spent cooking. Socio-demographic correlates were: age, employment, social class, education, and number of adults and children in the household. Analyses were stratified by gender. Data from 4214 participants were included. 85% of women and 60% of men spent any time cooking; 60% of women and 33% of men spent 30 continuous minutes cooking. Amongst women, older age, not being in employment, lower social class, greater education, and living with other adults or children were positively associated with time cooking. Few differences in time spent cooking were seen in men. Socio-economic differences in time spent cooking may have been overstated as a determinant of socio-economic differences in diet, overweight and obesity. Gender was a stronger determinant of time spent cooking than other socio-demographic variables. PMID:26004671

  7. Longitudinal change in the use of services in autism spectrum disorder: understanding the role of child characteristics, family demographics, and parent cognitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siller, Michael; Reyes, Nuri; Hotez, Emily; Hutman, Ted; Sigman, Marian

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to identify child characteristics, family demographics, and parent cognitions that may affect access to early intervention, special education, and related services. The sample included 70 families of young children with autism spectrum disorders. All parents were enrolled in a short education program, providing them with basic information and resources on advocating for a young child with autism spectrum disorders (Parent Advocacy Coaching). Longitudinal change in children's intervention program in the community was evaluated over a period of about 27 months, starting 12 months prior to enrollment in Parent Advocacy Coaching. Results revealed large individual differences in the intensity of children's individual and school-based services. Despite this variability, only two child characteristics (age, gender) emerged as independent predictors. In contrast, the intensity of children's intervention programs was independently predicted by a broad range of demographic characteristics, including parental education, child ethnicity and race, and family composition. Finally, even after child characteristics and family demographics were statistically controlled, results revealed associations between specific parental cognitions (parenting efficacy, understanding of child development) and the subsequent rate of change in the intensity of children's intervention programs. Implications for improving educational programs that aim to enhance parent advocacy are discussed.

  8. South African medical schools: Current state of selection criteria and medical students' demographic profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Merwe, L J; van Zyl, G J; St Clair Gibson, A; Viljoen, M; Iputo, J E; Mammen, M; Chitha, W; Perez, A M; Hartman, N; Fonn, S; Green-Thompson, L; Ayo-Ysuf, O A; Botha, G C; Manning, D; Botha, S J; Hift, R; Retief, P; van Heerden, B B; Volmink, J

    2015-12-16

    Selection of medical students at South African (SA) medical schools must promote equitable and fair access to students from all population groups, while ensuring optimal student throughput and success, and training future healthcare practitioners who will fulfil the needs of the local society. In keeping with international practices, a variety of academic and non-academic measures are used to select applicants for medical training programmes in SA medical schools. To provide an overview of the selection procedures used by all eight medical schools in SA, and the student demographics (race and gender) at these medical schools, and to determine to what extent collective practices are achieving the goals of student diversity and inclusivity. A retrospective, quantitative, descriptive study design was used. All eight medical schools in SA provided information regarding selection criteria, selection procedures, and student demographics (race and gender). Descriptive analysis of data was done by calculating frequencies and percentages of the variables measured. Medical schools in SA make use of academic and non-academic criteria in their selection processes. The latter include indices of socioeconomic disadvantage. Most undergraduate medical students in SA are black (38.7%), followed by white (33.0%), coloured (13.4%) and Indian/Asian (13.6%). The majority of students are female (62.2%). The number of black students is still proportionately lower than in the general population, while other groups are overrepresented. Selection policies for undergraduate medical programmes aimed at redress should be continued and further refined, along with the provision of support to ensure student success.

  9. Branchfall as a Demographic Filter for Epiphyte Communities: Lessons from Forest Floor-Based Sampling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Sarmento Cabral

    Full Text Available Local variation in the abundance and richness of vascular epiphytes is often attributed to environmental characteristics such as substrate and microclimate. Less is known, however, about the impacts of tree and branch turnover on epiphyte communities. To address this issue, we surveyed branches and epiphytes found on the forest floor in 96 transects in two forests (Atlantic rainforest in Brazil and Caribbean rainforest in Panama. In the Brazilian forest, we additionally distinguished between edge and core study sites. We quantified branch abundance, epiphyte abundance, richness and proportion of adults to investigate the trends of these variables over branch diameter. Branches 90% of all branches on the forest floor. Abundance and richness of fallen epiphytes per transect were highest in the Brazilian core transects and lowest in the Panamanian transects. The majority of epiphytes on the floor (c. 65% were found attached to branches. At all three study sites, branch abundance and branch diameter were negatively correlated, whereas epiphyte abundance and richness per branch, as well as the proportion of adults were positively correlated with branch diameter. The relationship between branch diameter and absolute epiphyte abundance or richness differed between study sites, which might be explained by differences in forest structure and dynamics. In the Panamanian forest, epiphytes had been previously inventoried, allowing an evaluation of our surveying method by comparing canopy and forest floor samplings. Individuals found on the forest floor corresponded to 13% of all individuals on branches <10 cm in diameter (including crowns, with abundance, richness and composition trends on forest floor reflecting canopy trends. We argue that forest floor surveys provide useful floristic and, most notably, demographic information particularly on epiphytes occurring on the thinnest branches, which are least accessible. Here, branchfall acts as an important

  10. Role of OCB and demographic factors in the relationship of motivation and employee performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yew Huei Tan

    2014-05-01

    discusses the types of motivation that explain higher variance of employee performance and how OCB play role as mediator in the motivation and employee performance relationship. In addition, the moderating effect of gender and organizational tenure were also discussed. This is the first attempt to include all the variables in the same theoretical framework.

  11. Robust demographic inference from genomic and SNP data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Excoffier

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a flexible and robust simulation-based framework to infer demographic parameters from the site frequency spectrum (SFS computed on large genomic datasets. We show that our composite-likelihood approach allows one to study evolutionary models of arbitrary complexity, which cannot be tackled by other current likelihood-based methods. For simple scenarios, our approach compares favorably in terms of accuracy and speed with ∂a∂i, the current reference in the field, while showing better convergence properties for complex models. We first apply our methodology to non-coding genomic SNP data from four human populations. To infer their demographic history, we compare neutral evolutionary models of increasing complexity, including unsampled populations. We further show the versatility of our framework by extending it to the inference of demographic parameters from SNP chips with known ascertainment, such as that recently released by Affymetrix to study human origins. Whereas previous ways of handling ascertained SNPs were either restricted to a single population or only allowed the inference of divergence time between a pair of populations, our framework can correctly infer parameters of more complex models including the divergence of several populations, bottlenecks and migration. We apply this approach to the reconstruction of African demography using two distinct ascertained human SNP panels studied under two evolutionary models. The two SNP panels lead to globally very similar estimates and confidence intervals, and suggest an ancient divergence (>110 Ky between Yoruba and San populations. Our methodology appears well suited to the study of complex scenarios from large genomic data sets.

  12. TEENAGE PREGNANCY: DEMOGRAPHICS, MATERNAL AND FOETAL OUTCOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhika Gollapudi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Pregnancy though is a physiological event in a woman’s life, it has its own associated complications. In teenage pregnancies, the physical and emotional state of stress coupled with biological immaturity leads to adverse effect both on the health of the mother and the foetus. METHODS This study is a clinical prospective study analysing the demographics, maternal health issues and the foetal outcome in teenage pregnancies. The study was conducted over a period of one year at a government tertiary care center. Pregnant women in the age group of 13-19 years who delivered during the study period were included in the study group. All pregnant women over 20 years of age who delivered during the same period were taken as control group. Women who had medical disorders complicating pregnancy were excluded from the study. Anaemia, pregnancy induced hypertension, antepartum haemorrhage and mode of delivery were the maternal outcomes that were noted. Intrauterine growth retardation, prematurity, low birth weight, APGAR score were analysed with respect to the foetus. RESULTS In this study, the total number of pregnant women who delivered during the study period were 4782, 536 were teenage mothers, constituting 11.2% of the total pregnancies. Of the 536 teenage mothers, 69.78% belonged to the rural areas and 71.64% were found to have inadequate antenatal visits to the hospital. The mean age of teenage pregnancy was 17.18 years. Incidence of anaemia was 44.2% in comparison, the control group had an incidence of 33.02%. In our study, incidence of Pregnancy induced hypertension was 18.64% in teenage mothers and 10.6% in non-teenage mothers. The incidence of Antepartum Haemorrhage in our study was 8.94% in teenage mothers. Incidence of lower segment caesarean section was 22.76% in the teenage group as compared to 14.57% in the non-teenage group. In our study, 13.05% of teenage mothers had preterm deliveries as compared to 6.40% of non-teenage mothers

  13. Associations between socio-demographic characteristics and chemical concentrations contributing to cumulative exposures in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hongtai; Tornero-Velez, Rogelio; Barzyk, Timothy M

    2017-09-13

    Association rule mining (ARM) has been widely used to identify associations between various entities in many fields. Although some studies have utilized it to analyze the relationship between chemicals and human health effects, fewer have used this technique to identify and quantify associations between environmental and social stressors. Socio-demographic variables were generated based on U.S. Census tract-level income, race/ethnicity population percentage, education level, and age information from the 2010-2014, 5-Year Summary files in the American Community Survey (ACS) database, and chemical variables were generated by utilizing the 2011 National-Scale Air Toxics Assessment (NATA) census tract-level air pollutant exposure concentration data. Six mobile- and industrial-source pollutants were chosen for analysis, including acetaldehyde, benzene, cyanide, particulate matter components of diesel engine emissions (namely, diesel PM), toluene, and 1,3-butadiene. ARM was then applied to quantify and visualize the associations between the chemical and socio-demographic variables. Census tracts with a high percentage of racial/ethnic minorities and populations with low income tended to have higher estimated chemical exposure concentrations (fourth quartile), especially for diesel PM, 1,3-butadiene, and toluene. In contrast, census tracts with an average population age of 40-50 years, a low percentage of racial/ethnic minorities, and moderate-income levels were more likely to have lower estimated chemical exposure concentrations (first quartile). Unsupervised data mining methods can be used to evaluate potential associations between environmental inequalities and social disparities, while providing support in public health decision-making contexts.Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology advance online publication, 13 September 2017; doi:10.1038/jes.2017.15.

  14. Relation between demographic and epidemiological characteristics and permanency under a dental health care program for HIV infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squassi, A; Khaszki, C; Blanco, B; Schnaiderman, M; Scholnik, L; Bonazzi, M; Bordoni, N

    1998-01-01

    The association between factors involved in health care and the health status of the people has been proven. The use of health care services, particularly in the case of patients who suffer from chronic pathologies, has been the object of many studies aimed at establishing factors which contribute to guarantee permanence in treatment and implementation of health care controls. The purpose of the present study was to identify the response of HIV infected or AIDS patients to the oral health care program and establish the association between permanence in treatment and the presence of risk factors, epidemiological or demographic conditions of the users. Ninety patients selected at random from the 300 who attended the Clinic for High Risk Patient Care, School of Dentistry, University of Buenos Aires (CLAPAR, Spanish acronym) during 1994-1995 were included in this study. The patients were assigned to one of seven groups, according to their permanence in treatment and commitment to the program during the phase of maintenance in health. Each of these categories was characterized in terms of age, sex, educational level, place of residence (CIRFS, 1990), type of job, type of health coverage and place where healthcare was received, risk behavior and date of positive serological diagnosis. The frequency of each variable was established. Contingency tables were employed to establish the statistical significance of the association between the different variables and the patient categories. The data revealed that 24.2% of the patients performed occasional or emergency consultation, 57.1% achieved discharge with or without the assistance of the social worker or are still in treatment and 18.7% abandoned the program. Significant association were found between the response to odontological treatment and the following variables: place of residence, date of positive serological diagnosis, and risk behavior. We may conclude that certain demographic, epidemiological or life

  15. Professionals and Power Vacuums on Demographic Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seabrooke, Leonard; Tsingou, Eleni

    Aging populations across advanced industrialized countries are expected to have a great impact on a range of socio-economic policies, ranging from welfare and pensions provision to industrial, labor market and financial policies. While populations are aging there has also been a drop in birth rates....... Demographic change is acknowledged as a policy concern within many advanced industrialize countries, but discussions about low fertility are not explicitly expressed in terms of policy objectives. Governments, sensitive to the authoritarian implications of prescriptive natalist policies, focus instead...

  16. Mortality-fertility synergies during the demographic transition in the developed world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Barricarte, Jesús J

    2017-07-01

    The classic theory used to explain the demographic transition assumes that mortality is the key explanatory variable influencing the decline in fertility. However, the empirical results obtained in what is known as the Princeton European Fertility Project have led many specialists to question this assumption. Using both national and provincial aggregated data for 25 countries over a long time span, the analysis reported in this paper found that mortality does indeed play a fundamental role in accounting for the main demographic changes that occurred both before and during the transitional period. Others' research based on individual data has shown clearly that the number of surviving children was indeed an important factor for reproductive decisions. My analysis, using aggregated data, reached largely similar conclusions regarding the role of mortality in changing reproductive trends, via its impact on nuptiality and marital fertility at different stages of the demographic transition.

  17. Correspondence between overweight and socioeconomic and demographic indicators in the adult Brazilian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Schuindt da Silva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To verify the correlation between overweight and socioeconomic and demographic indicators among Brazilian adults, using data from the Brazilian Household Budget Survey from 2008/2009.METHODS: We analyzed the joint relationships between overweight and socioeconomic and demographic indicators in the Brazilian adult population (99,532,672 individuals, through the multiple correspondence analysis technique.RESULTS: The featured profile of the Brazilian adult population with regard to overweight was correlated with ages from 30 years of the most developed and economically social geographic regions of Brazil; however between genders, the correlation was in the opposite direction in the variables income, education, and subjective issues about life conditions related to food and nutrition security.CONCLUSION: By the joint relationship between overweight and selected demographic and socioeconomic indicators, the urgency of the development of strategies and/or preventive public health programs of health problems with overweight in the Brazilian adult population is suggested.

  18. 极高分辨变包含角平面光栅单色器关键技术及检测方法研究%Key technologies and the performance measuring methods in variable included angle plane grating monochromator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢启鹏; 宋源; 龚学鹏; 马磊

    2016-01-01

    变包含角平面光栅单色器具有分辨率高和光通量高等优点,被广泛应用于各科研领域,并且随着相关领域研究的不断深入,迫切需要提高其光谱分辨率,以满足使用需求。为研究探索极高分辨率变包含角平面光栅单色器,结合上海同步辐射光源光束线,重点研究影响单色器分辨率的关键因素;对单色器光学元件表面热负载进行分析,设计冷却系统,降低热负载产生的影响;研究变包含角平面光栅单色器转角精度等检测方法。结果表明,根据推导出的变包含角平面光栅单色器光学放大倍数与单色器分辨率的关系式,达到优选极高分辨率工作模式的目的;加入冷却系统后,单色器前置平面镜因受热负载影响而产生的最大斜率误差由8.1μrad降到3.1μrad;设计可应用于变包含角光栅单色器分辨率达5×104的转角精度检测方法,检测精度可达0.026″。该研究将为第三代同步辐射光源中建造极高分辨变包含角单色器提供帮助。%The variable-included-angle plane grating monochromator is broadly used in high performance soft X-ray due to its superior performance,such as high throughput and high resolution.With the development of Science,improving and optimizing the resolution of variables-included-angle plane grating monochromator is necessary and urgently.In order to study and explore the ultra-high resolution of variables-included-angle plane grating monochromator in synchrotron radiation,some issues were researched in this work.Firstly,the relationship between working modes of variables-included-angle plane grating monochromator with different cf is emphatically researched.According to the relationship,the high resolution working modes of the mono-chromator can be selected.Secondly,we studied the effects of high heat load on the optical system by using the simulation software and designed an appropriate cooling system in

  19. Does Financial Literacy Moderate the Relationship among Demographic Characteristics and Financial Risk Tolerance? Evidence from Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Ali Shusha

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Financial risk tolerance is certainly an important topic for researchers, investors and personal financial planners or consultants. This study purposed to investigate the effect of demographic characteristics on financial risk tolerance among Egyptians. A literature review of demographic determinants of financial risk tolerance showed dialectical results. Therefore, this study attempts to clarify the debatable issues in these results by studying the moderating role of financial literacy in relationships among demographic characteristics and financial risk tolerance. The study sample included 386 respondents representing different segments of Egyptian people. Using the hierarchical regression analysis, the results demonstrated that there were significant effects of gender, age, educational level and annual income on financial risk tolerance. Moreover, the financial literacy moderates the relationships among demographic characteristics of individuals and their tendency to take a risk.

  20. Modeling of budgetary funding influence on socio-demographic processes of a region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Vladimirovna Vasil'eva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a method of modeling socio-demographic processes in a region based on the minimax approach. In this method, the simulated socio-demographic processes reflect the performance of a population fertility age model, reproductive systems and the structure of mortality, as management impact tools of fiscal spending on socially significant budget items (health, physical culture and sport, social policy, education, environmental protection are considered. Testing methodology on the examples of the Russian Federation subjects included in the Ural Federal District is presented. Peculiarities of influence of funding of each socially important item on the social and demographic processes in the regions of the Ural Federal District are shown. Priorities of distribution of funds based on the level of budgetary provision in the region to ensure optimization of socio-demographic development of the region are shaped.

  1. THE PROCESS AND EFFECTS OF DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION IN PENANG, MALAYSIA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Usman Haji Yaakob; Nik Norliati Fitri Md Nor

    2013-01-01

      This article describes the demographic transition in Penang, Malaysia based on the demographic transition theory, which explains the decline of birth and death rates in European countries during the 18th century...

  2. Baseline demographic profile and general health influencing the post-radiotherapy health related quality-of-life in women with gynaecological malignancy treated with pelvic irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sourav Sau

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cancer specific survival and quality-of-life (QOL assessment are important in evaluating cancer treatment outcomes. Baseline demographic profiles have significant effects on follow-up health related QOL (HRQOL and affect the outcome of treatments. Materials and Methods: Post-operative gynaecological cancer patients required adjuvant pelvic radiation enrolled longitudinal assessment study. Patients had completed the short form-36 (SF-36 questionnaire before the adjuvant radiotherapy and functional assessments of cancer therapy-general module at 6 th month′s follow-up period to assess the HRQOL. Baseline variables were race, age, body mass index (BMI, education, marital status, type of surgery, physical composite scores (PCS and mental composite scores (MCS summary scores of the SF-36. Univariate and multivariate regression analysis used to determine the influence of these variables on post-radiotherapy HRQOL domains. Results: Baseline PCS, MCS, age, education and marital status had positively correlation with post-radiotherapy HRQOL while higher BMI had a negative impact in univariate analysis. In multivariate regression analysis, education and MCS had a positive correlation while higher BMI had a negative correlation with HRQOL domains. Conclusion: Enhance our ability to detect demographic variables and modify those factors and develops new treatment aimed at improving all aspect of gynaecological cancer including good QOL.

  3. Demographic Models for Projecting Population and Migration: Methods for African Historical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Manning

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study presents methods for projecting population and migration over time in cases were empirical data are missing or undependable. The methods are useful for cases in which the researcher has details of population size and structure for a limited period of time (most obviously, the end point, with scattered evidence on other times. It enables estimation of population size, including its structure in age, sex, and status, either forward or backward in time. The program keeps track of all the details. The calculated data can be reported or sampled and compared to empirical findings at various times and places to expected values based on other procedures of estimation. The application of these general methods that is developed here is the projection of African populations backwards in time from 1950, since 1950 is the first date for which consistently strong demographic estimates are available for national-level populations all over the African continent. The models give particular attention to migration through enslavement, which was highly important in Africa from 1650 to 1900. Details include a sensitivity analysis showing relative significance of input variables and techniques for calibrating various dimensions of the projection with each other. These same methods may be applicable to quite different historical situations, as long as the data conform in structure to those considered here.

  4. Attitudes Toward LGBT Patients Among Students in the Health Professions: Influence of Demographics and Discipline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Christina K; West, Lindsey; Stepleman, Lara; Villarosa, Margo; Ange, Brittany; Decker, Matthew; Waller, Jennifer L

    2014-09-01

    Health providers' personal and professional experiences may predict attitudes toward lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals and can therefore serve as key targets for health professions training aimed at decreasing barriers to high-quality patient care. This study explored the relationship between professional, demographic, and training characteristics and health professions student attitudes toward LGBT patients. Students from a health sciences university and applied mental health programs in Georgia (N=475) completed a survey that included a modified version of the Attitudes Toward LGBT Patients Scale (ATLPS). Profession, sexual orientation, current financial status, religion, religiosity, spirituality, and self-reported familiarity with various religious perspectives on sex were associated with ATLPS scores. However, religiosity and self-reported familiarity with various religious perspectives on sex were the only significant predictors of ATLPS scores when these variables were included in one general linear model. Health professions students with higher levels of religiosity and lower levels of self-reported familiarity with various religious perspectives on sex reported less positive attitudes toward LGBT individuals. Results suggest that personal factors may be important to address in interprofessional curriculum related to LGBT patient care. Self-report biases and other factors may limit the accuracy and generalizability of the findings.

  5. Demographic implications of the New United States certificates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunde, A S; Grove, R D

    1966-06-01

    To assist in developing uniform reporting of vital events among the fifty states, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands, the United States government prepares standard certificates of birth, fetal death, death, marriage, and divorce. These model forms are revised, with the assistance of the states, approximately every ten years. Revisions are now being prepared by the National Center for Health Statistics which will become effective beginning January 1, 1968. Important new source material for demography will be introduced.Most changes will appear in the Standard Certificate of Live Birth and in the Standard Certificate of Fetal Death. An item on education of father and mother will provide detailed national data on education and fertility. The date of the last live birth to the mother and the date of the last fetal death will provide information on previous pregnancy outcome and on child-spacing. The recording of state file numbers for mates born alive and dead in the same delivery will make it easier to match live birth and fetal death certificates for the preparation of detailed tabulations on multiple births. Several new items related to maternal and child health have also been added. No significent changes were planned for the Standard Certificate of Death.The Standard Certificate of Marriage will include as new items the education of the bride and groom, the date on which the last marriage, if any, ended, and specification of the officiant as a religious or civil official. The Standard Certificate of Divorce or Annulment will obtain information on the education of husband and wife, the approximate date on which the couple separated, the mode of dissolution of the previous marriage, and the total number of living children. It is anticipated that most of the new items will be included in the certificates of all the states. The National Center for Health Statistics will provide detailed tabulations related to these items, beginning with data year 1968.Demographers

  6. Influence of socioeconomic and demographic status on spirometry testing in patients initiating medication targeting obstructive lung disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koefoed, Mette M; Søndergaard, Jens; Christensen, René Depont;

    2013-01-01

    a possible association between education, income, labour market affiliation, cohabitation status and having spirometry performed when initiating medication targeting obstructive pulmonary disease. METHODS: We conducted a population-based cohort study. Danish national registers were linked, retrieving data...... on prescriptions, spirometry testing, socioeconomic and demographic variables in all first time users of medication targeting obstructive lung disease in 2008. RESULTS: A total of 37,734 persons were included and approximately half of the cohort had spirometry performed. Among medication users under 65 years...... spirometry performed among men (OR = 0.78, CI = 0.69-0.88). CONCLUSION: Social inequity in spirometry testing among patients initiating medication targeting obstructive lung disease was confirmed in this study. Increased focus on spirometry testing among elderly men living alone, among the unemployed...

  7. Demographic Data Assessment using Novel 3DCCOM Spatial Hierarchical Clustering: A Case Study of Sonipat Block, Haryana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamta Malik

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Cluster detection is a tool employed by GIS scientists who specialize in the field of spatial analysis. This study employed a combination of GIS, RS and a novel 3DCCOM spatial data clustering algorithm to assess the rural demographic development strategies of Sonepat block, Haryana, India. This Study is undertaken in the rural and rural-based district in India to demonstrate the integration of village-level spatial and non-spatial data in GIS environment using Hierarchical Clustering. Spatial clusters of living standard parameters, including family members, male and female population, sex ratio, total male and female education ratio etc. The paper also envisages future development and usefulness of this community GIS, Spatial data clustering tool for grass-root level planning. Any data that showsgeographic (spatial variability can be subject to cluster analysis.

  8. Cardiac variables as main predictors of endotracheal reintubation rate after cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdanian, Forouzan; Azarfarin, Rasoul; Aghdaii, Nahid; Faritous, Seyedeh Zahra; Motlagh, Soudabeh Djalali; Panahipour, Abdollah

    2013-01-01

    Reintubation in patients after cardiac surgery is associated with undesirable consequences. The purpose of the present study was to identify variables that could predict reintubation necessity in this group of patients. We performed a prospective study in 1000 consecutive adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. The patients who required reintubation after extubation were compared with patients not requiring reintubation regarding demographic and preoperative clinical variables, including postoperative complications and in-hospital mortality. Postoperatively, 26 (2.6%) of the 1000 patients studied required reintubation due to respiratory, cardiac, or neurological reasons. Advanced age and mainly cardiac variables were determined as univariate intra- and postoperative predictors of reintubation (all p values predictors of reintubation. These findings reveal that cardiac variables are more common and significant predictors of reintubation after cardiac surgery in adult patients than are respiratory variables. The incidence of this complication, reintubation, is low, although it could result in significant postoperative morbidity and mortality.

  9. Material Stock Demographics: Cars in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera Serrenho, André; Allwood, Julian M

    2016-03-15

    Recent literature on material flow analysis has been focused on quantitative characterization of past material flows. Fewer analyses exist on past and prospective quantification of stocks of materials in-use. Some of these analyses explore the composition of products' stocks, but a focus on the characterization of material stocks and its relation with service delivery is often neglected. We propose the use of the methods of human demography to characterize material stocks, defined herein as stock demographics, exploring the insights that this approach could provide for the sustainable management of materials. We exemplify an application of stock demographics by characterizing the composition and service delivery of iron, steel, and aluminum stocks of cars in Great Britain, 2002-2012. The results show that in this period the stock has become heavier, it is traveling less, and it is idle for more time. The visualization of material stocks' dynamics demonstrates the pace of product replacement as a function of its usefulness and enables the formulation of policy interventions and the exploration of future trends.

  10. Find the weakest link. A comparison between demographic, genetic and demo-genetic metapopulation extinction times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Alexandre

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While the ultimate causes of most species extinctions are environmental, environmental constraints have various secondary consequences on evolutionary and ecological processes. The roles of demographic, genetic mechanisms and their interactions in limiting the viabilities of species or populations have stirred much debate and remain difficult to evaluate in the absence of demography-genetics conceptual and technical framework. Here, I computed projected times to metapopulation extinction using (1 a model focusing on the effects of species properties, habitat quality, quantity and temporal variability on the time to demographic extinction; (2 a genetic model focusing on the dynamics of the drift and inbreeding loads under the same species and habitat constraints; (3 a demo-genetic model accounting for demographic-genetic processes and feedbacks. Results Results indicate that a given population may have a high demographic, but low genetic viability or vice versa; and whether genetic or demographic aspects will be the most limiting to overall viability depends on the constraints faced by the species (e.g., reduction of habitat quantity or quality. As a consequence, depending on metapopulation or species characteristics, incorporating genetic considerations to demographically-based viability assessments may either moderately or severely reduce the persistence time. On the other hand, purely genetically-based estimates of species viability may either underestimate (by neglecting demo-genetic interactions or overestimate (by neglecting the demographic resilience true viability. Conclusion Unbiased assessments of the viabilities of species may only be obtained by identifying and considering the most limiting processes (i.e., demography or genetics, or, preferentially, by integrating them.

  11. Socio-demographic determinants of participation in mammography screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Euler-Chelpin, My; Olsen, Anne Helene; Njor, Sisse; Vejborg, Ilse; Schwartz, Walter; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2008-01-15

    Our objective was to use individual data on socio-demographic characteristics to identify predictors of participation in mammography screening and control to what extent they can explain the regional difference. We used data from mammography screening programmes in Copenhagen, 1991-1999, and Funen, 1993-2001, Denmark. Target groups were identified from the Population Register, screening data came from the health authority, and socio-demographic data from Statistics Denmark. Included were women eligible for at least 3 screens. The crude RR of never use versus always use was 3.21 (95%CI, 3.07-3.35) for Copenhagen versus Funen, and the adjusted RR was 2.55 (95%CI, 2.43-2.67). The adjusted RR for never use among women without contact to a primary care physician was 2.50 (95% CI, 2.31-2.71) and 2.89 (95% CI, 2.66-3.14), and for women without dental care 2.94 (95% CI, 2.77-3.12) and 2.88 (95% CI, 2.68-3.10) for Copenhagen and Funen, respectively. Other important predictive factors for nonparticipation were not being married and not being Danish. In conclusion, to enhance participation in mammography screening programmes special attention needs to be given to women not using other primary health care services. All women in Copenhagen, irrespective of their socio-demographic characteristics, had low participation. Screening programmes have to find ways to handle this urbanity factor. Copyright 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Prevalence, Demographic Characteristics and Associated Risk Factors of Malnutrition Among 0-5 Aged Children: A Cross-Sectional Study From Van, Eastern Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizilyildiz, Baran Serdar; Sönmez, Bülent; Karaman, Kamuran; Beger, Burhan; Mercen, Adnan; Alioglu, Süleyman; Cesur, Yasar

    2016-11-17

    Malnutrition in childhood is a dramatic indicator of poor socio-economical status worldwide. To recognize and reveal the socio-demographic features is crucial, especially for developing countries. Our aim was to investigate the prevalence and association with sociodemographic variables of malnutrition in 0-5 years old children in Van, Turkey. A total of 702 children are included in this cross-sectional study. Demographic features of subject including age, gender, family characteristics and other data were obtained. Nutritional assessment was done using anthropometric indices including weight-for-age, height-for-age, weight-for-height, head circumference and body mass index-for-age. Multivariate logistic regressions were carried out to assess malnutrition-associated factors. Prevalence of underweight, stunting and wasting were 19.7, 17.7 and 16.2%, respectively. Socio-demographic variables that statistical significantly in association with malnutrition were low monthly family income, educational level and employment status of father, parental consanguinity, number of pregnancies, regular intake of vitamin D and history of prematurity. The prevalence of children with head circumference-z score ≤2SD and body mass index-for-age ≤2SD were 9.8 and 16.3%, respectively. Multivariate analysis detected following risk factors for these indices; low monthly family income, history of prematurity, unemployed father and the period between pregnancies (1-2 years). We found that prevalence of malnutrition in the city of Van, was still higher than more developed regions of Turkey. The associated risk factors of malnutrition should be specifically interpreted by health professionals and also by government authorities that are responsible for making practical politics of public health.

  13. Prevalence, demographic characteristics and associated risk factors of malnutrition among 0-5 aged children: a cross-sectional study from Van, eastern Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baran Serdar Kizilyildiz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Malnutrition in childhood is a dramatic indicator of poor socio-economical status worldwide. To recognize and reveal the socio-demographic features is crucial, especially for developing countries. Our aim was to investigate the prevalence and association with sociodemographic variables of malnutrition in 0-5 years old children in Van, Turkey. A total of 702 children are included in this cross-sectional study. Demographic features of subject including age, gender, family characteristics and other data were obtained. Nutritional assessment was done using anthropometric indices including weight-for-age, height-for-age, weight-for-height, head circumference and body mass index-for-age. Multivariate logistic regressions were carried out to assess malnutrition- associated factors. Prevalence of underweight, stunting and wasting were 19.7, 17.7 and 16.2%, respectively. Socio-demographic variables that statistical significantly in association with malnutrition were low monthly family income, educational level and employment status of father, parental consanguinity, number of pregnancies, regular intake of vitamin D and history of prematurity. The prevalence of children with head circumference-z score ≤−2SD and body mass index-for-age ≤−2SD were 9.8 and 16.3%, respectively. Multivariate analysis detected following risk factors for these indices; low monthly family income, history of prematurity, unemployed father and the period between pregnancies (1- 2 years. We found that prevalence of malnutrition in the city of Van, was still higher than more developed regions of Turkey. The associated risk factors of malnutrition should be specifically interpreted by health professionals and also by government authorities that are responsible for making practical politics of public health.

  14. Analysis of real-time crash risk for expressway ramps using traffic, geometric, trip generation, and socio-demographic predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ling; Abdel-Aty, Mohamed; Lee, Jaeyoung; Shi, Qi

    2017-07-07

    There have been numerous studies on real-time crash prediction seeking to link real-time crash likelihood with traffic and environmental predictors. Nevertheless, none has explored the impact of socio-demographic and trip generation parameters on real-time crash risk. This study analyzed the real-time crash risk for expressway ramps using traffic, geometric, socio-demographic, and trip generation predictors. Two Bayesian logistic regression models were utilized to identify crash precursors and their impact on ramp crash risk. Meanwhile, four Support Vector Machines (SVM) were applied to predict crash occurrence. Bayesian logistic regression models and SVMs commonly showed that the models with the socio-demographic and trip generation variables outperform their counterparts without those parameters. It indicates that the socio-demographic and trip generation parameters have significant impact on the real-time crash risk. The Bayesian logistic regression model results showed that the logarithm of vehicle count, speed, and percentage of home-based-work production had positive impact on crash risk. Meanwhile, off-ramps or non-diamond-ramps experienced higher crash potential than on-ramps or diamond-ramps, respectively. Though the SVMs provided good model performance, the SVM model with all variables (i.e., all traffic, geometric, socio-demographic, and trip generation variables) had an overfitting problem. Therefore, it is recommended to build SVM models based on significant variables identified by other models, such as logistic regression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The Relationship of Socio-Demographic Factors, Fertility Behavior and Child’s Perceived Value with Fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmoude, Elham; Behnam, Haniye; Barati-Far, Saeede; Kabirian, Maryam

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Fertility intention is one of the strongest predictors of couple’s fertility behavior that is affected by many variables. This study aimed to identify the relationship of socio-demographic factors, fertility behavior, and child’s perceived value with fertility intention of women in a region in the east Iran Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, 241 married women aged between 15 and 49 years of Torbat Heydariyeh City in 2015, were studied. The data collection scales included a demographic information form, fertility information questionnaire and Trommsdorff’s child value questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS 16 by Chi-square, Kruskal-Wallis, t-independent test and logistic regression. The significance level of Pcosts of children (P=0.001). In addition, in subjects with children of both sexes, intention for childbearing was significantly lower when compared to subjects with only one sex in children (P=0.001). However, when the logistic regression test was performed, being housewife, number of children, having children of both sexes, benefit and costs of children showed statistical significance (Pcurrent children, having children of both sexes, and perceived childbearing costs are important in determining the odds that a woman will intend to have a child. These findings can contribute to the realization of new population programs towards higher fertility rate in the country. PMID:28409166

  16. Chiropractors in Finland – a demographic survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malmqvist Stefan

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Finnish chiropractic profession is young and not fully accepted by Finnish healthcare authorities. The demographic profile and style of practice has not been described to date. However, as the profession seems to be under rapid development, it would be of interest to stakeholders, both chiropractic and political, to obtain a baseline description of this profession with a view to the development of future goals and strategies for the profession. The purpose of this study was to describe the chiropractic profession in Finland in relation to its demographic background, the demographics of their clinics, practice patterns, interactions with other health care practitioners and some of the professions' plans for the future. Methods A structured questionnaire survey was conducted in 2005, in which all 50 members of the Finnish Chiropractic Union were invited to participate. Results In all, 44 questionnaires were returned (response rate 88%. Eighty percent of the respondents were men, and 77% were aged 30 to 44 years old, most of whom graduated after 1990 with either a university-based bachelors' or masters' degree in chiropractic. Solo practice was their main practice pattern. The vast majority described their scope of practice to be based on a musculoskeletal approach, using the Diversified Technique, performing Soft Tissue Therapy and about two-thirds also used an Activator Instrument (mechanical adjusting instrument. The mean number of patient visits reported to have been seen weekly was 59 of which nine were new patients. Most practitioners found this number of patients satisfactory. At the initial consultation, 80% of respondents spent 30–45 minutes with their patients, 75% spent 20–30 minutes with "new old" patients and on subsequent visits 80% of respondents spent 15–30 minutes. Interactions with other health care professions were reasonably good and most of chiropractors intended to remain within the profession

  17. Birth tourism: socio-demographic and statistical aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoly V. Korotkov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to research birth tourism issue. The article gives the socio-demographic and statistical aspects of research problems of birth inbound tourism in the Russian Federation. Following the literature analysis, the degree of study for birth tourism lags behind its actual size. Currently, the media has accumulated a significant amount of information on birth tourism in Russia, that requires processing, systematization and understanding that can and should become an independent area of study of sociologists and demographers to develop recommendations for the management of socio-demographic processes in birth tourism in our country. It is necessary to identify the problems that will inevitably arise. At present, this process is almost not regulated.These problems are complex, it requires the joint efforts of sociologists and demographers. However, it is impossible to obtain reliable results and to develop management decisions without attention to the statistical aspect of this problem. It is necessary to create methodological support for collecting and information processing and model development of the birth tourism. At the initial stage it is necessary to identify the direction and objectives of the analysis to determine the factors in the development of this process, to develop a hierarchical system of statistical indicators, to receive the information, needed for calculating of specific indicators.The complex research of the birth tourism issues should be based on the methodology of sociology, demography and statistics, including statistical observation, interviews with residents, structure analysis and birth tourism concentration in the country, the analysis of the dynamics, classification of factors and reasons, the grouping of regions for the development of the studied processes and, of course, the development of economic-statistical indicators.The article reveals the problem of the significant influence of the

  18. Demographic shifts in the Czech Republic after 1989 : A second demographic transition view

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sobotka, T.; Zeman, K.; Kantorova, V.

    2003-01-01

    A dramatic change in fertility, family formation and living arrangements took place in the Czech Republic over the 1990s. The establishment of democracy, profound social transformation and transition to the market economy affected the values and demographic behaviour of the young Czech generation.

  19. Virtual water controlled demographic growth of nations

    CERN Document Server

    Suweis, Samir; Maritan, Amos; D'Odorico, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Population growth is in general constrained by food production, which in turn depends on the access to water resources. At a country level, some populations use more water than they control because of their ability to import food and the virtual water required for its production. Here, we investigate the dependence of demographic growth on available water resources for exporting and importing nations. By quantifying the carrying capacity of nations based on calculations of the virtual water available through the food trade network, we point to the existence of a global water unbalance. We suggest that current export rates will not be maintained and consequently we question the long-run sustainability of the food trade system as a whole. Water rich regions are likely to soon reduce the amount of virtual water they export, thus leaving import-dependent regions without enough water to sustain their populations. We also investigate the potential impact of possible scenarios that might mitigate these effects throu...

  20. 3D face analysis for demographic biometrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokola, Ryan A [ORNL; Mikkilineni, Aravind K [ORNL; Boehnen, Chris Bensing [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Despite being increasingly easy to acquire, 3D data is rarely used for face-based biometrics applications beyond identification. Recent work in image-based demographic biometrics has enjoyed much success, but these approaches suffer from the well-known limitations of 2D representations, particularly variations in illumination, texture, and pose, as well as a fundamental inability to describe 3D shape. This paper shows that simple 3D shape features in a face-based coordinate system are capable of representing many biometric attributes without problem-specific models or specialized domain knowledge. The same feature vector achieves impressive results for problems as diverse as age estimation, gender classification, and race classification.

  1. Illuminating Free-floating Planet Demographics with Keck AO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Calen B.

    2017-01-01

    The frequency and mass function of free-floating planets (FFPs) are unknown. Gravitational microlensing is able to explore the demographics of FFPs, which are identifiable as short-timescale microlensing events, lasting of-order 1 day for Jupiter-mass planets. In 2011, the MOA ground-based microlensing survey group announced the discovery of an excess of short-timescale microlensing events over what was expected from Galactic models that incorporate stellar densities and kinematics. They account for this excess by positing a population of Jupiter-mass FFPs that outnumbers stars by a ratio of nearly 2:1. However, there are several other possible astrophysical explanations for short-timescale microlensing events, including bound planets on wide orbits and high-velocity stars. Although the specific events identified by MOA lack mass measurements, high-resolution imaging can determine whether the lens systems are luminous, which would exclude the FFP conclusion through proof by contradiction. We have taken H-band adaptive optics (AO) observations of the MOA FFP candidates using NIRC2 on Keck II in order to test this result. Here I will present preliminary results from these AO observations, which will help inform our understanding of the demographics of FFPs.

  2. Association between Social and Demographic Factors with Feeding Methods in

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Gholamalizadeh

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Healthy Nutrition has an important role in childhood. Food habits of a child probably will continue to adulthood and increase the risk of many chronic diseases. Role of parents in child nutrition as a food producer and eating pattern has recognized to most important factor of child nutrition. Recent studies have shown that the methods used by parents to child feeding have an important role in the child’s diet and BMI. This paper aimed to investigate which parents use which types of parenting control practices to manage their children’s nutrition. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 208 parents with children aged 3-6 years was carried out in 30 primary schools. Measures included demographic and social factors and aspects of child feeding practices.Results: Results showed that stay at home mothers used more modeling practices. Mothers of sons used more pressure to eat than others. Older mothers used less pressure to eat. Mothers with higher BMI used more emotion regulation strategy and less modeling. And mothers with more education used more modeling.Conclusion: The results showed a significant relationship between demographic and social factors with aspects of the feeding practices.

  3. Sessile serrated adenomas: Demographic, endoscopic and pathological characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurudu, Suryakanth R; Heigh, Russell I; Petris, Giovanni De; Heigh, Evelyn G; Leighton, Jonathan A; Pasha, Shabana F; Malagon, Isaac B; Das, Ananya

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To study the demographic and endoscopic characteristics of patients with sessile serrated adenoma (SSA) in a single center. METHODS: Patients with SSA were identified by review of the pathology database of Mayo Clinic Arizona from 2005 to 2007. A retrospective chart review was performed to extract data on demographics, polyp characteristics, presence of synchronous adenomatous polyps or cancer, polypectomy methods, and related complications. RESULTS: One hundred and seventy-one (2.9%) of all patients undergoing colonoscopy had a total of 226 SSAs. The mean (SE) size of the SSAs was 8.1 (0.4) mm; 42% of SSAs were ≤ 5 mm, and 69% were ≤ 9 mm. Fifty-one per cent of SSAs were located in the cecum or ascending colon. Approximately half of the patients had synchronous polyps of other histological types, including hyperplastic and adenomatous polyps. Synchronous adenocarcinoma was present in seven (4%) cases. Ninety-seven percent of polyps were removed by colonoscopy. CONCLUSION: Among patients with colon polyps, 2.9% were found to have SSAs. Most of the SSAs were located in the right side and were safely managed by colonoscopy. PMID:20632442

  4. Diversity and Demographics of Zooarchaeologists: Results from a Digital Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne E. Pilaar Birch

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nearly 25 years ago, a “Zooarchaeology Practitioner Survey” was distributed via conventional mail to individuals in the USA and Canada and received 122 responses over a period of several months in 1991. Now, a revised “Demographics in Zooarchaeology Survey” provides an update to  those data and assesses the current state of the field. The 2014 survey remained open for 3 months and received 288 responses from practitioners worldwide. Global participation was made possible by hosting the survey online. Key findings of the 1991 survey included disparities in employment rank for women despite similar levels of degree level attainment as men, a point which the 2014 survey sought to investigate. This trend appears to persist for those without the PhD and at the highest levels of income for those holding a PhD. In addition, the recent survey asked participants about their racial or ethnic identity in order to evaluate the demographic diversity of the discipline beyond sex, age, and nationality. Data regarding topical and geographic research area were also collected and reflect a subtle bias towards working with mammals and a focus on research questions grounded in prehistory in Europe and North America, followed by Australia and Southwest Asia. Results are compared with those of the earlier survey and membership information from the International Council for Archaeozoology.

  5. Geriatric trauma: demographics, injuries, and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Julie M; Sciadini, Marcus F; Sinclair, Elizabeth; O'Toole, Robert V

    2012-09-01

    To identify injuries that elderly sustain during high-energy trauma and determine which are associated with mortality. Retrospective review of prospectively collected database. Academic trauma center. Patients selected from database of all trauma admissions from January 2004 through June 2009. Study population consisted of patients directly admitted from scene of injury who sustained high-energy trauma with at least one orthopaedic injury and were 65 years or older (n = 597). Review of demographics, trauma markers, injuries, and disposition statuses. Statistical analysis using χ test, Student t test, and logistic regression analysis. The most common fractures were of the rib, distal radius, pelvic ring, facial bones, proximal humerus, clavicle, ankle, and sacrum. The injuries associated with the highest mortality rates were fractures of the cervical spine with neurological deficit (47%), at the C2 level (44%), and of the proximal femur (25%), pelvic ring (25%), clavicle (24%), and distal humerus (24%). The fractures significantly associated with mortality were fractures of the clavicle (P = 0.001), foot joints (P = 0.001), proximal humerus or shaft and head of the humerus (P = 0.002), sacroiliac joint (P = 0.004), and distal ulna (P = 0.002). Elderly patients present with significantly worse injuries, remain in the hospital longer, require greater use of resources after discharge, and die at 3 times the rate of the younger population. Although the high mortality rates associated with cervical spine, hip, and pelvic ring fractures were not unexpected, the injuries that were statistically associated with mortality were unexpected. Injuries such as clavicle fracture were statistically associated with mortality. As our population ages and becomes more active, the demographic may gain in clinical importance. Prognostic Level II. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  6. The organizational commitment and its relation to certain demographic and psychological factors

    OpenAIRE

    Arias Galicia, Fernando; Facultad de Contaduría y Administración, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México; Varela Sosa, Daniel; Facultad de Ciencias Administrativas y Relaciones Industriales, Universidad de San Martín de Porres, Lima, Perú; Loli Pineda, Alejandro; Facultad de Psicología, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú; Quintana Otiniano, María; Facultad de Ciencias Administrativas y Relaciones Industriales, Universidad de San Martín de Porres, Lima, Perú

    2014-01-01

    One looks for to know the relation that exists between the organizational commitment and some demographic variables (studied by Mathieu and Zajac) in a sample of 190 people with a high education, originating of diverse varied organizations and so large. Was high correlation between affective commitment and general satisfaction with the work, also between affective commitment and commitment with the work, just as affective commitment and clarity of the roll. However the relation with hierarchy...

  7. The trade-off between fertility and education : evidence from before the demographic transition

    OpenAIRE

    Becker, Sascha O.; Cinnirella, Francesco; Woessmann, Ludger

    2010-01-01

    The trade-off between child quantity and education is a crucial ingredient of unified growth models that explain the transition from Malthusian stagnation to modern growth. We present first evidence that such a trade-off indeed existed before the demographic transition, exploiting a unique census-based dataset of 334 Prussian counties in 1849. Estimating two separate instrumental-variable models that instrument education by landownership inequality and distance to Wittenberg and fertility by ...

  8. Variability in inpatient management of children hospitalized with bronchiolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macias, Charles G; Mansbach, Jonathan M; Fisher, Erin S; Riederer, Mark; Piedra, Pedro A; Sullivan, Ashley F; Espinola, Janice A; Camargo, Carlos A

    2015-01-01

    To determine the variability between hospitals in diagnostic testing and management interventions for children with bronchiolitis admitted to inpatient wards and identify its association with patient characteristics. A prospective, multicenter (16 hospitals), multiyear (2007-2010) observational study of children (age bronchiolitis. Outcomes included variability in diagnostic testing (complete blood count, chest radiographs) and medications or interventions (bronchodilator, systemic corticosteroid, antibiotic, IV placement) by hospital. A modified Respiratory Distress Severity Score was utilized to assess severity of illness. For all outcomes, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was calculated from a model to estimate the random effects of hospital without added covariates and compared to ICCs from a second model that adjusted for demographic and clinical patient characteristics. A second unadjusted and adjusted model was created for age ≥ 2 months. Of 2207 subjects, 1715 were identified as admitted to inpatient wards. We observed wide variations in the proportion of patients who received diagnostic testing (complete blood count 21-75%, chest radiograph 36-85%) and medications/interventions (bronchodilators 19-91%, systemic corticosteroids 8-44%, antibiotics 17-43%, IV placement 38-93%). Adjusting for demographic and clinical patient characteristics did not materially affect the proportion of variability attributable to hospitals (differences in ICCs with and without model adjustment bronchiolitis treated on the inpatient wards at 16 US hospitals were not attributable to demographic or clinical patient characteristics. These results further support efforts to standardize care for bronchiolitis through active quality improvement strategies. Copyright © 2015 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Variable volume combustor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostebee, Heath Michael; Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Keener, Christopher Paul

    2017-01-17

    The present application provides a variable volume combustor for use with a gas turbine engine. The variable volume combustor may include a liner, a number of micro-mixer fuel nozzles positioned within the liner, and a linear actuator so as to maneuver the micro-mixer fuel nozzles axially along the liner.

  10. Avaliação da qualidade das variáveis epidemiológicas e demográficas do Sistema de Informações sobre Nascidos Vivos, 2002 Evaluation of quality of epidemiological and demographic variables in the Live Births Information System, 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalia E. Romero

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho avalia a qualidade da informação do Sistema de Informações sobre Nascidos Vivos (SINASC quanto à clareza metodológica da documentação, completitude do preenchimento e consistência para o país, grandes regiões e Unidades da Federação no ano 2002. Adicionalmente, correlaciona-se a completitude com indicadores de pobreza, desigualdade e recursos humanos. As variáveis analisadas são: raça/cor do recém-nascido, instrução materna, estado civil materno, ocupação materna, idade materna, consulta pré-natal, filhos nascidos vivos, filhos nascidos mortos e peso do bebê ao nascer. Mostrou-se que o SINASC possui boa completitude de preenchimento e consistência da informação na maioria das variáveis; porém, observaram-se sérios problemas de qualidade nas variáveis sobre filhos anteriores e ocupação. Quanto à raça, encontraram-se tanto problemas metodológicos de definição da variável como incompletitude do preenchimento no Distrito Federal, São Paulo, Bahia e Sergipe, Brasil. Por intermédio da análise estatística, confirmou-se a relação significativa entre completitude e indicadores de pobreza e desigualdade. Espera-se que melhorias da qualidade da informação do SINASC possam contribuir para que esse sistema seja uma robusta fonte de dados epidemiológicos que permita identificar fatores de risco e condicionantes sócio-econômicos.This study evaluates the quality of data in the Brazilian Live Births Information System (SINASC, focusing on the methodological clarity of documentation and adequate data completeness and consistency at the national, regional, and State levels in 2002. The variables analyzed were: skin color/race of newborn, maternal schooling, maternal marital status, maternal occupation, maternal age, prenatal visits, live births, stillbirths, and birth weight. For most of the variables, SINASC shows good data completeness and consistency, but there were serious problems with the quality of

  11. Investigation of burnout scores of high school students according to socio-demographic variables, psychological symptoms and attachment stylesLise öğrencilerinin tükenmişlik puanlarının sosyo-demografik değişkenler, psikolojik belirtiler ve bağlanma stilleri açısından incelenmesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burhan Çapri

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to investigate the contributions of psychological symptoms with attachment styles to indicate the prediction of burnout scores of high school students by identifying whether there is a difference in burnout scores according to gender, class level and school type variables. The research group is consisting of 1260 students. 649 of them (%51, 5 are female and 611 of them (% 48,5 are male and they are chosen by simple random sampling method from the 9th, 10th, 11th and 12th classes of different kinds of high schools in four center districts (Akdeniz, Mezitli, Toroslar and Yenişehir of Mersin Province. The data have been collected with "Maslach Burnout Inventory-Student Survey (MBI-SS", "The Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI", "Relationship Scales Questionnaire (RSQ" and "Personal Information Form". Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA, t-test, analysis of variance (ANOVA, multiple analysis of variance (MANOVA, correlation analysis and multiple regression analysis have been used in the analysis of data. The results indicated that gender, class level and school type variables have effective on MBI-SS subscale scores and attachment styles and psychological symptoms have been predictive relations. The results were discussed in the light of the literature. Özet Bu araştırmanın amacı, lise öğrencilerinin; tükenmişlik puanlarının cinsiyet, sınıf düzeyi ve okul türü değişkenleri açısından farklılaşıp farklılaşmadığını belirleyerek, psikolojik belirtiler ile bağlanma stillerinin tükenmişlik puanlarını yordamadaki katkılarını incelemektir. Araştırma grubu, Mersin İlinin dört merkez ilçesindeki (Akdeniz, Mezitli, Toroslar ve Yenişehir farklı türdeki liselerin 9, 10, 11 ve 12. sınıflarından basit tesadüfi örnekleme yöntemi ile seçilen ve 649’u (% 51.5 kız ve 611’i (% 48.5 erkek olmak üzere toplam 1260 öğrenciden oluşmaktadır. Veriler, “Maslach Tükenmişlik Envanteri

  12. Socio-economic and Demographic Determinants of Antenatal Care Services Utilization in Central Nepal

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    Srijana Pandey, PhD

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objective: The importance of maternal health services in lessening maternal mortality and morbidity as well as neonatal deaths has received substantial recognition in the past decade. The lack of antenatal care has been identified as a risk factor for maternal mortality and other adverse pregnancy outcomes. The purpose of this study was to determine the factors affecting attendance of antenatal care services in Nepal. Methods: This is a cross-sectional descriptive study carried out in Central Nepal. Using semi-structured questionnaire, interviews were conducted with married women aged between 15-49 years, who had delivered their babies within one year. Systematic random sampling method was used to select the sample. Results were obtained by frequency distribution and cross-tabulation of the variables. Results: More than half of the women were not aware of the consequences of lack of antenatal care. Age, education, income, type of family were strongly associated with the attendance at antenatal care service. Conclusions and Public Health Implications: In Nepal and in other developing countries, maternal mortality and morbidity continue to pose challenges to the health care delivery system. Variety of factors including socio-demographic, socio-economic, cultural and service availability as well as accessibility influences the use of maternal health services.

  13. Association of psychosocial and demographic factors with postpartum negative thoughts and appraisals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Pauline L; Holden, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    The impact of psychosocial and demographic factors on symptoms of postpartum depression remains unclear. This study aimed to explore whether particular maternal sociodemographic variables were associated with postpartum negative thoughts and negative appraisals. Data were collected from a community sample of 181 mothers with infants aged 0 to 7 months. Participants completed and returned anonymous questionnaires including the Postnatal Negative Thoughts Questionnaire (PNTQ) and a sociodemographic questionnaire. The PNTQ is a self-report scale to detect and measure postpartum negative cognitions. It consists of 2 factors: "baby- related and motherhood negative thoughts" (BRM-NT) and "appraisals of cognition, emotion and situation" (ACES). Analyses revealed that practical and emotional support and satisfaction with this support were related to low ACES scores, and mothers of infant boys were more likely to have high ACES scores (ie, more negative appraisals of their own thinking). Satisfaction with practical and emotional support was also related to low BRM-NT scores. Logistic regression analyses revealed that sex of infant predicted ACES scores, whereby having a boy predicted high ACES scores. In conclusion, this study found that postpartum negative thoughts and negative appraisals are correlated with the amount and satisfaction of support received, and having an infant boy was found to reliably predict a tendency to appraise thoughts negatively.

  14. Ashtekar variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashtekar, Abhay

    2015-05-01

    In the spirit of Scholarpedia, this invited article is addressed to students and younger researchers. It provides the motivation and background material, a summary of the main physical ideas, mathematical structures and results, and an outline of applications of the connection variables for general relativity. These variables underlie both the canonical/Hamiltonian and the spinfoam/path integral approaches in loop quantum gravity.

  15. Reading fluency estimates of current intellectual function: demographic factors and effects of type of stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simos, Panagiotis G; Sideridis, Georgios D; Kasselimis, Dimitrios; Mouzaki, Angeliki

    2013-03-01

    The study explores the potential clinical value of reading fluency measures in complementing demographic variables as indices of current intellectual capacity. IQ estimates (based on the PPVT-R, WASI Vocabulary and Block Design subtests) were obtained from a representative, non-clinical sample of 386 Greek adults aged 48–87 years along with two measures of reading efficiency (one involving relatively high-frequency words—WRE—and the second comprised of phonotactically matched pseudowords—PsWRE). Both reading measures (number of items read correctly in 45 s) accounted for significant portions of variability in demographically adjusted verbal and performance IQ indices. Reading measures provided IQ estimates which were significantly closer to those predicted by demographic variables alone in up to 22% of individuals with fewer than 7 (across all ages) or 13 years of formal education (in the 70–87 year age range). PsWRE scores slightly outperformed WRE scores in predicting a person’s estimated verbal or performance IQ. Results are discussed in the context of previous findings using reading accuracy measures for low-frequency words with exceptional spellings in less transparent orthographic systems such as English.

  16. Understanding the socio-demographic and climate impacts on total and landscape water use in the City of Los Angeles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mini, C.; Hogue, T. S.; Pincetl, S.

    2010-12-01

    Urbanization has environmental impacts that modify ecosystem services associated with vegetation. Semi-arid urban forests also have costs related to irrigation that are difficult to evaluate. In the face of climate change and population growth, quantifying and predicting ecosystems costs and benefits are important and challenging. In urban areas, residential water consumption includes both domestic needs and landscaping irrigation, yet accurate partitioning of each of these uses is rare in most environments. The goal of the current research is to quantify outdoor landscape water use in order to have a better understanding of urban water footprints and the dynamics of water consumption patterns within semi-arid cities. Data is being collected from the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power (LADWP) to evaluate household water use by ZIP code and by census tract. Neighborhoods were selected to represent city characteristics based on socio-demographic factors such as density, ethnicity, income level, education level and housing types. Initial studies are focusing on the correlation between residential water use and socio-demographic factors at the ZIP code level inside each neighborhood over the 2000-2010 period. Other variables predicting water use include climate variability and vegetation type. As expected, monthly water use patterns follow seasonal temperature and precipitation variability across the study neighborhoods. Results also show that education, ethnicity, per capita income, and the number of persons per household are linearly related to water use per capita and per area. A positive correlation is also observed between landscape area, vegetation indices and outdoor water use. A multiple regression model is developed that integrates these fundamental factors controlling indoor and outdoor water use across the region. Estimates of urban landscape water use will ultimately be compared to a remotely-sensed evapotranspiration model with high spatial (250 m

  17. Identifying socio-demographic and clinical characteristics associated with medication beliefs about aromatase inhibitors among postmenopausal women with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado, Teresa M; Davis, Emily J; Farris, Karen B; Fawaz, Souhiela; Batra, Peter; Henry, N Lynn

    2017-06-01

    Non-adherence/persistence to adjuvant endocrine therapy can negatively impact survival. Beliefs about medicines are known to affect adherence. This study aims to identify socio-demographic and clinical characteristics associated with medication beliefs among women taking aromatase inhibitors (AIs). Women completed an online survey on beliefs about AI therapy [Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire (BMQ)], beliefs about breast cancer [Assessment of Survivor Concerns scale (ASC)], and depression [Personal Health Questionnaire depression scale (PHQ-8)]. Socio-demographic and clinical characteristics were collected. Bivariate analyses and linear regression models were performed to investigate relationships between variables. A total of 224 women reported currently taking AI therapy and were included in the analysis. Significantly higher concern beliefs were found among women who had at least mild depression, experienced side effects from AIs, and previously stopped therapy with another AI. Significant correlations were found between concern and necessity beliefs and cancer and health worry. Women age 70 and older displayed less fear of cancer recurrence and health worry, and a trend towards lower necessity and concern beliefs. No differences were found for other variables. In the regression model, greater necessity beliefs were found with increases in the number of current prescription medications (B = 1.06, 95% CI 0.31-1.81, p = 0.006) and shorter duration of current AI therapy (B = -0.65, 95% CI -1.23 to -0.07, p = 0.029), whereas greater concern beliefs were associated with higher depression scores (B = 1.19, 95% CI 0.35-2.03, p = 0.006). Medication necessity and concern beliefs were associated with a definable subset of patients who may be at higher risk for non-persistence.

  18. Demographic and urban form correlates of healthful and unhealthful food availability in Montréal, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Mark; Kestens, Yan; Paquet, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    This study sought to extend previous analyses of food insecurity in Montreal by examining the relationship between neighbourhood sociodemographic and urban form variables and sources of food both unhealthful (fast-food outlets, FFO) and healthful (stores selling fruits and vegetables, FVS). Densities of FFO and FVS were computed for 862 Census tract areas (CTA) (defined as census tract with a 1-km buffer around its limits) for the Montréal Census Metropolitan Area (CMA). Predictor variables included CTA socio-demographic characteristics reflecting income, household structure, language, and education, and urban form measures, specifically, densities of local roads, main roads, expressways and highways. Food source densities were regressed on CTA characteristics using stepwise regression. Socio-demographic and urban form measures explained 60% and 73% of the variance in densities of FFO and FVS, respectively. FFO were more prevalent in CTA with higher proportions of full-time students and households speaking neither French nor English; lower proportions of married individuals, children and older adults; and more high-traffic roads. FVS were more prevalent in CTA with higher proportions of single residents, university-educated residents and households speaking neither French nor English; lower proportion of French-speakers; and more local roads. Median household income was not related to the density of FFO or FVS. The availability of healthful and unhealthful food varies across the Montréal CMA. Areas with lower education and more French-speaking households have a lesser availability of FVS. The association of FFO with high-traffic roadways and areas with high school attendance suggests a point for intervention via commercial zoning changes.

  19. The nebular variables

    CERN Document Server

    Glasby, John S

    1974-01-01

    The Nebular Variables focuses on the nebular variables and their characteristics. Discussions are organized by type of nebular variable, namely, RW Aurigae stars, T Orionis stars, T Tauri stars, and peculiar nebular objects. Topics range from light variations of the stars to their spectroscopic and physical characteristics, spatial distribution, interaction with nebulosity, and evolutionary features. This volume is divided into four sections and consists of 25 chapters, the first of which provides general information on nebular variables, including their stellar associations and their classifi

  20. East Asian child-rearing attitudes: an exploration of cultural, demographic and self-disclosure factors among US immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Declan T; Bernard, Matthew J; Beitel, Mark

    2009-10-01

    Child-rearing attitudes among East Asian groups have been emphasized in the developmental psychology literature in the context of their association with academic achievement. Although child-rearing attitudes play an important role in the transmission of cultural values, much of the research on East Asian child-rearing attitudes has ignored cultural variables and has instead focused on authoritarian parenting style. The current study examined the association between three classes of variables-culture (i.e., ethnic identity, self-construal, acculturation), demographics (sex, years in the US, English fluency), and self-disclosure-and traditional child-rearing attitudes (TCRA) among East Asian immigrants in the United States. It was hypothesized that higher levels of TCRA would be associated with higher levels of ethnic identity, interdependent self-construal, separation, and guarded self-disclosure, and fewer years spent in the United States. The participants included 170 East Asian (Chinese, Japanese, and Korean) immigrants (88 men, 82 women) who were administered a battery of psychometrically established measures. Our hypotheses were largely supported. We found that, while there was no significant sex by ethnicity effect for TCRA, men were significantly more likely than women to endorse TCRA and the Korean group had significantly higher TCRA than the Japanese group. Ethnic identity, interdependent self-construal, separation, years in the US, and guarded self-disclosure were significant independent predictors of TCRA. The findings suggest the need for broadening the content of assessment tools of child-rearing attitudes and measuring associated cultural and noncultural variables among East Asian ethnic groups. Future research on child-rearing attitudes among Asian ethnic groups may benefit from (1) measuring multiple dimensions of TCRA, (2) assessing associated cultural variables directly rather than inferring them in an ad hoc fashion based on observed ethnicity

  1. Some Demographic Changes in the Population of Montenegro with the Projection of Future Demographic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Rajović

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Dramatic demographic changes through which in recent decade’s passes Montenegrin society, the consequences arising from the new realities require a serious socio-political engagement. Process of population aging, that began the seventies of the 20th century, represents a significant problem. The process of demographic change was accompanied by an internal migration to major urban centers, primarily Podgorica and Montenegrin coast, leading to emptying the interior of Montenegro. Unfortunately, this development of the population structure of Montenegro opens a series of questions and challenges that would the creators of the future you should put high on the scale of its priorities. In this text we will point out on change of total number of citizens of Montenegro according to the base and chain indexes of 1921-2011 and population in Montenegro 2016–2091 (cohort model projections.

  2. Visual function of Egyptian children with low vision and the demographic determinants

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    El Byoumi Boshra

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To determine whether the LV Prasad-Functional Vision Questionnaire (LVP-FVQ could be used to assess self-reported visual function and quality of visual life in Egyptian school aged children. Materials and Methods: The LVP-FVQ was used to assess the quality of visual function in school-age children. All subjects were students at the time of assessment. Subjects underwent a visual function assessment that included distance and near visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, color vision and visual field examination where possible. Data analysis were for both descriptive and inference statistics. A P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Fifty children aged 11.28 ± 3.5 years (range, 5 years to 18 years with moderate-to-severe visual impairment most of their lives were enrolled. Twenty-two subjects (44% had albinism, 18 (36% subjects had hereditary retinal dystrophy, 6 (12% subjects had cone dystrophy, 2 (4% subjects had bilateral amblyopia and 2 (4% subjects had congenital coloboma without other disabilities. The four most difficult tasks were related to the following daily activities alluded to in the questionnaire such as reading a textbook at arms length, copying from the blackboard, seeing somebody across the road and identifying colors. There was no statistically significant association between the demographic variables and the level of visual functioning, sex, age, type of school, family history or consanguinity (P > 0.05 for all variables. Conclusion: LVP-FVQ can be used to screen Egyptian children with visual impairment. Input and integration of the parents and the school teachers to evaluate the child s behavior at home and the school is essential to developing a balanced questionnaire.

  3. Prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms in hospital nurse technicians and licensed practical nurses: associations with demographic factors

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    Roberta F. C. Moreira

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective : This cross-sectional study aimed at analyzing: 1. the main musculoskeletal symptoms (MSS presented by hospital nursing workers and; 2. personal, occupational, and health factors related to MSS among them. Method : Two questionnaires were filled in by 245 nurse technicians (NTs and licensed practical nurses (LPNs (response rate 95% associated with direct patient care sectors from a hospital. These questionnaires were: the standardized version of the Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire (NMQ and one including questions on 15 demographic independent variables potentially related to outcomes from the NMQ. Univariate analyses and binary logistic regression analyses were performed to identify which variables would explain the occurrence of MSS in different body regions. Results: The low back (57%, shoulder (52%, and neck (48% were identified as the most affected regions. The logistic regression analysis showed that low back symptoms in the last 12 months were significantly associated with LPN activities (OR=2.36; CI=1.24-4.5 and previous sick leave due to MSS (OR=5.97; CI=1.2-29.1. Smoking was significantly associated with symptoms in the low back (OR=2.77; CI=1.13-6.8 and thoracic spine (OR=2.37; CI=1.04-5.40. Physical exercise showed a protective effect on the cervical spine (OR=0.42; CI=0.23-0.77. Previous sick leave was significantly associated with pain in the knees (OR=4.24; CI=1.33-13.5 and in the upper limbs (OR=5.36; CI=1.07-26.7. Conclusions: The nursing workers who were evaluated presented a high prevalence of MSS. Previous history of sick leave was strongly associated with the presence of symptoms in various body regions. These results indicate the need for preventive programs in the hospital environment in order to control more severe MSS in nursing professionals.

  4. Total rewards that retain: A study of demographic preferences

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    Monica Pregnolato

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Changing workplace demographics and a dearth of employees with scarce skills have forced employers to better understand the various factors that retain talented employees.Research purpose: In this empirical study, the reward preferences and ideal combination of total reward elements (based on an estimation of their relative importance that retain employees from various demographic groups, including employees of different race, gender and age groups, were investigated.Motivation for study: Organisations are competing for talented employees and to benefit from the value these individuals add, it is required of them to stay at the respective businesses. Previous studies have indicated that employees who are offered a reward package that is aligned to their personal preferences are prone to stay longer at the organisation and to be more engaged at work. However, new and novel ways need to be found to identify the reward preferences of employees.Research design, approach and method: A quantitative approach and descriptive research design was employed to estimate the individual reward preferences and identify an ideal mix of total reward elements that retain different cohorts of employees. Three questionnaires were distributed, including a Remuneration Managers Questionnaire (n = 7, a Remuneration Preference Questionnaire (n = 368 and a Choice-based Conjoint Task Questionnaire (n = 368. The latter two questionnaires were distributed as an online questionnaire to South African businesses and consisted of eight choice-based conjoint tasks, as well as a field survey.Main findings: The results of the choice-based conjoint analysis revealed that all respondents considered financial rewards (Benefits, Performance and Recognition, Remuneration, Career, in that order as relatively speaking, the most important components in their total rewards package that would lead to their retention. For most demographic groups, the remaining three places (i

  5. Quality of demographic data in GGS Wave 1

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    Jorik Vergauwen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: A key feature of the Generations & Gender Programme (GGP is that longitudinal micro-data from the Generations and Gender Surveys (GGS can be combined with indicators from the Contextual Database (CDB that provide information on the macro-level context in which people live. This allows researchers to consider the impact of socio-cultural, economic, and policy contexts on changing demographic behaviour since the 1970s. The validity of longitudinal analyses combining individual-level and contextual data depends, however, on whether the micro-data give a correct account of demographic trends after 1970. Objective: This article provides information on the quality of retrospective longitudinal data on first marriage and fertility in the first wave of the GGS. Methods: Using the union and fertility histories recorded in the GGS, we compare period indicators of women's nuptiality and fertility behaviour for the period 1970-2005 and cohort indicators of nuptiality and fertility for women born after 1925 to population statistics. Results: Results suggest that, in general, period indicators estimated retrospectively from the GGS are fairly accurate from the 1970s onwards, allowing exceptions for specific indicators in specific countries. Cohort indicators, however, were found to be less accurate for cohorts born before 1945, suggesting caution when using the GGS to study patterns of union and family formation in these older cohorts. Conclusions: The assessment of the validity of demographic data in the GGS provides country-specific information on time periods and birth cohorts for which GGS estimates deviate from population statistics. Researchers may use this information to decide on the observation period or cohorts to include in their analysis, or use the results as a starting point for a more detailed analysis of item nonresponse in union and fertility histories, which may further improve the quality of GGS estimates, particularly for these

  6. Nutrient patterns and their association with socio-demographic, lifestyle factors and obesity risk in rural South African adolescents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pisa, Pedro T; Pedro, Titilola M; Kahn, Kathleen; Tollman, Stephen M; Pettifor, John M; Norris, Shane A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify and describe the diversity of nutrient patterns and how they associate with socio-demographic and lifestyle factors including body mass index in rural black South...

  7. Equivalency of Spanish language versions of the trail making test part B including or excluding "CH".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherner, Mariana; Suarez, Paola; Posada, Carolina; Fortuny, Lidia Artiola I; Marcotte, Thomas; Grant, Igor; Heaton, Robert

    2008-07-01

    Spanish speakers commonly use two versions of the alphabet, one that includes the sound "Ch" between C and D and another that goes directly to D, as in English. Versions of the Trail Making Test Part B (TMT-B) have been created accordingly to accommodate this preference. The pattern and total number of circles to be connected are identical between versions. However, the equivalency of these alternate forms has not been reported. We compared the performance of 35 healthy Spanish speakers who completed the "Ch" form (CH group) to that of 96 individuals who received the standard form (D group), based on whether they mentioned "Ch" in their oral recitation of the alphabet. The groups had comparable demographic characteristics and overall neuropsychological performance. There were no significant differences in TMT-B scores between the CH and D groups, and relationships with demographic variables were comparable. The findings suggest that both versions are equivalent and can be administered to Spanish speakers based on their preference without sacrificing comparability.

  8. SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC AND LIFESTYLE CORRELATES OF SELF-PERCEIVED HEALTH STATUS IN A POPULATION-BASED SAMPLE OF ALBANIAN ADULT MEN AND WOMEN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraja, Fatjona; Kraja, Bledar; Cakerri, Luljeta; Burazeri, Genc

    2016-06-01

    Self-perceived health is considered a suitable health indicator, based on a single item asking individuals to rate their health. It has been recommended as a reliable factor to assess the population health. Several socio-demographic and lifestyle determinants of self-perceived health status have been documented in different population. The aim of our study was to assess the socio-demographic and lifestyle correlates of self-perceived health status in a population-based sample of Albanian adult men and women. Data from 12,554 individuals aged ≥35 years collected by the Albania Living Standard Measurement Survey (LSMS) 2012, which is a national population-based cross-sectional study, were analyzed. The study participants rated their health in five categories: very good, good, average, poor and very poor, which in the analyses were dichotomized into "not poor" and "poor health". Other variables included demographic characteristics, economic level, employment status, smoking and alcohol intake. Binary logistic regression was used to assess the association of self-perceived health with demographic and lifestyle factors. Upon multivariate adjustment for all covariates in a backward stepwise elimination procedure, strong and significant "predictors" of poor self-perceived health status were older age (OR=3.0, 95%CI=2.4-3.7), unemployment (OR=5.6, 95%CI=4.0-7.8), male gender (OR=1.2, 95%CI=1.0-1.5), low education (OR=2.0, OR=1.3-3.0), current smoking (OR=1.7, 95%CI=1.2-2.4) and alcohol abstinence (OR=1.4, 95%CI=1.1-1.7). Our findings indicate that the low socioeconomic groups in Albania have a significantly lower self-perceived health status. Furthermore, smoking was a significant "determinant" of poor self-perceived health in this study population, which is compatible with previous reports from other countries.

  9. Burrell-Optical-Kepler Survey (BOKS) II: Early Variability Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Steve B.; Feldmeier, J.; von Braun, K.; Everett, M.; Mihos, C.; Harding, P.; Knox, C.; Sherry, W.; Lee, T.; Ciardi, D.; Rudick, C.; Proctor, M.; van Belle, G.

    2006-12-01

    We present preliminary results for the photometric time-series data obtained with the BOKS survey (see BOKS I poster Feldmeier et al.). The BOKS survey covers about 1 square degree in the constellation of Cygnus. We obtained nearly 2000 SDSS r-band images spanning a total time period of 39 days. Each point source in our BOKS survey is also present in the single epoch, 7-color photometric survey catalogue being produced by the NASA Discovery program Kepler mission. Light curves of approximately 60,000 point sources, spanning r=14 to 20, are examined and discussed. We will present variability demographics for the BOKS survey including characterization of the light curves into variable classes based on type, color, amplitude, and any extra-solar planet transit candidates.

  10. Demographic controls of future global fire risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knorr, W.; Arneth, A.; Jiang, L.

    2016-08-01

    Wildfires are an important component of terrestrial ecosystem ecology but also a major natural hazard to societies, and their frequency and spatial distribution must be better understood. At a given location, risk from wildfire is associated with the annual fraction of burned area, which is expected to increase in response to climate warming. Until recently, however, only a few global studies of future fire have considered the effects of other important global environmental change factors such as atmospheric CO2 levels and human activities, and how these influence fires in different regions. Here, we contrast the impact of climate change and increasing atmospheric CO2 content on burned area with that of demographic dynamics, using ensembles of climate simulations combined with historical and projected population changes under different socio-economic development pathways for 1901-2100. Historically, humans notably suppressed wildfires. For future scenarios, global burned area will continue to decline under a moderate emissions scenario, except for low population growth and fast urbanization, but start to increase again from around mid-century under high greenhouse gas emissions. Contrary to common perception, we find that human exposure to wildfires increases in the future mainly owing to projected population growth in areas with frequent wildfires, rather than by a general increase in burned area.

  11. Demographic impact of vaccination: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonanni, P

    1999-10-29

    Vaccination is one of the most powerful means to save lives and to increase the level of health of mankind. However, the impact of immunization against the most threatening infectious agents on life expectancy has been the object of a still open debate. The main issues are: the relative influence of nutrition and infectious diseases on demographic patterns of populations; the possibility that lives saved thanks to vaccination are subsequently lost due to other competing causes of death; the positive indirect effect of immunization on other causes of death. With regard to past evidence, several data from the United Kingdom and Scandinavian countries show that the widespread use of smallpox vaccination starting at the beginning of the nineteenth century resulted in a marked and sustained decline not only of smallpox-related deaths, but also of the overall crude death rate, and contributed greatly to an unprecedented growth of European population. As to the present, it is estimated that 3 million children are saved annually by vaccination, but 2 million still die because they are not immunized. Tetanus, measles and pertussis are the main vaccine-preventable killers in the first years of life. Data from Bangladesh show that full implementation of EPI vaccines has the potential of reducing mortality by almost one half in children aged 1-4 years. Recent progress in the development of vaccines against agents responsible for much mortality in the developing countries make it possible to forecast a further substantial reduction of deaths for infectious diseases in the next century.

  12. The shifting demographic landscape of pandemic influenza.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweta Bansal

    Full Text Available As Pandemic (H1N1 2009 influenza spreads around the globe, it strikes school-age children more often than adults. Although there is some evidence of pre-existing immunity among older adults, this alone may not explain the significant gap in age-specific infection rates.Based on a retrospective analysis of pandemic strains of influenza from the last century, we show that school-age children typically experience the highest attack rates in primarily naive populations, with the burden shifting to adults during the subsequent season. Using a parsimonious network-based mathematical model which incorporates the changing distribution of contacts in the susceptible population, we demonstrate that new pandemic strains of influenza are expected to shift the epidemiological landscape in exactly this way.Our analysis provides a simple demographic explanation for the age bias observed for H1N1/09 attack rates, and suggests that this bias may shift in coming months. These results have significant implications for the allocation of public health resources for H1N1/09 and future influenza pandemics.

  13. Febrile Seizure: Demographic Features and Causative Factors

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    Hamed ESMAILI GOURABI

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available How to cite this article: Esmaili Gourabi H, Bidabadi E, Cheraghalipour  F, Aarabi  Y, Salamat F. Febrile Seizure: Demographic Features and Causative Factors. Iran J Child Neurol Autumn 2012; 6(4:33-37.Abstract Objective Because of geographical and periodical variation, we prompted to determine the demographic features and causative factors for febrile seizure in Rasht. Materials & Methods In this cross-sectional study, all 6–month- to 6-year-old children with the diagnosis of febrile seizure admitted to 17 Shahrivar hospital in Rasht, from August, 2009 to August, 2010 were studied. Age, sex, family history of the disease, seizure types, body temperature upon admission and infectious causes of the fever were recorded. All statistical analysis was performed with SPSS software, version 16. Results Of the 214 children (mean age, 25.24±15.40 months, 124 were boys and 109 had a positive family history. Complex seizures were seen in 39 cases. In patients with a complex febrile seizure, 59% had the repetitive type, 20.5% had the focal type and 20.5% had more than 15 minutes duration of seizures. Most of the repetitive seizures (78.3% occurred in patients under 2 years old; the difference between under and over 2-year-old patients was statistically significant (P=0.02. Study results did not show significant differences between the two genders for simple or complex seizures. The mean body temperature upon admission was 38.2±1.32◦C (38.31±0.82 degrees in boys and 38.04±1.78 in girls. Upper respiratory infections were seen in most patients (74.29%. All cases of lower respiratory infections were boys. There was a statistically significant difference between boys and girls in causes of fever. Conclusion Most of the children had a positive family history and the most common causative factor was upper respiratory infection.  References: Huang MC, Huang CC, Thomas K. Febrile convulsions: development and validation of a questionnaire to measure

  14. Demographic evidence for adaptive theories of aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitteldorf, J J

    2012-07-01

    Pleiotropic theories for the evolutionary origins of senescence have been ascendant for forty years (see, for example, G. Williams (1957) Evolution, 11, 398-411; T. Kirkwood (1977) Nature, 270, 301-304), and it is not surprising that interpreters of demographic data seek to frame their results in this context. But some of that evidence finds a much more natural explanation in terms of adaptive aging. Here we re-interpret the 1997 results of the Centenarian Study in Boston, which found in their sample of centenarian women an excess of late childbearing. The finding was originally interpreted as a selection effect: a metabolic link between late menopause and longevity. But we demonstrate that this interpretation is statistically strained, and that the data in fact indicate a causal link: bearing a child late in life induces a metabolic response that promotes longevity. This conclusion directly contradicts some pleiotropic theories of aging that postulate a "cost of reproduction", and it supports theories of aging as an adaptive genetic program.

  15. Examination of recreational motives of individuals: Demographic differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)