WorldWideScience

Sample records for demographic variables age

  1. Mixing times towards demographic equilibrium in insect populations with temperature variable age structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damos, Petros

    2015-08-01

    In this study, we use entropy related mixing rate modules to measure the effects of temperature on insect population stability and demographic breakdown. The uncertainty in the age of the mother of a randomly chosen newborn, and how it is moved after a finite act of time steps, is modeled using a stochastic transformation of the Leslie matrix. Age classes are represented as a cycle graph and its transitions towards the stable age distribution are brought forth as an exact Markov chain. The dynamics of divergence, from a non equilibrium state towards equilibrium, are evaluated using the Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy. Moreover, Kullback-Leibler distance is applied as information-theoretic measure to estimate exact mixing times of age transitions probabilities towards equilibrium. Using empirically data, we show that on the initial conditions and simulated projection's trough time, that population entropy can effectively be applied to detect demographic variability towards equilibrium under different temperature conditions. Changes in entropy are correlated with the fluctuations of the insect population decay rates (i.e. demographic stability towards equilibrium). Moreover, shorter mixing times are directly linked to lower entropy rates and vice versa. This may be linked to the properties of the insect model system, which in contrast to warm blooded animals has the ability to greatly change its metabolic and demographic rates. Moreover, population entropy and the related distance measures that are applied, provide a means to measure these rates. The current results and model projections provide clear biological evidence why dynamic population entropy may be useful to measure population stability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Who theorizes age? The "socio-demographic variables" device and age-period-cohort analysis in the rhetoric of survey research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rughiniș, Cosima; Humă, Bogdana

    2015-12-01

    In this paper we argue that quantitative survey-based social research essentializes age, through specific rhetorical tools. We outline the device of 'socio-demographic variables' and we discuss its argumentative functions, looking at scientific survey-based analyses of adult scientific literacy, in the Public Understanding of Science research field. 'Socio-demographics' are virtually omnipresent in survey literature: they are, as a rule, used and discussed as bundles of independent variables, requiring little, if any, theoretical and measurement attention. 'Socio-demographics' are rhetorically effective through their common-sense richness of meaning and inferential power. We identify their main argumentation functions as 'structure building', 'pacification', and 'purification'. Socio-demographics are used to uphold causal vocabularies, supporting the transmutation of the descriptive statistical jargon of 'effects' and 'explained variance' into 'explanatory factors'. Age can also be studied statistically as a main variable of interest, through the age-period-cohort (APC) disambiguation technique. While this approach has generated interesting findings, it did not mitigate the reductionism that appears when treating age as a socio-demographic variable. By working with age as a 'socio-demographic variable', quantitative researchers convert it (inadvertently) into a quasi-biological feature, symmetrical, as regards analytical treatment, with pathogens in epidemiological research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Demographic Consequences of Defeating Aging

    OpenAIRE

    Gavrilov, Leonid A.; Gavrilova, Natalia S.

    2010-01-01

    A common objection against starting a large-scale biomedical war on aging is the fear of catastrophic population consequences (overpopulation). This fear is only exacerbated by the fact that no detailed demographic projections for radical life extension scenario have been conducted so far. This study explores different demographic scenarios and population projections, in order to clarify what could be the demographic consequences of a successful biomedical war on aging. A general conclusion o...

  4. Demographic variables in coal miners’ safety attitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Wen-wen; Wu, Xiang; Ci, Hui-Peng; Qin, Shu-Qi; Liu, Jia-Long

    2017-03-01

    To change unsafe behavior through adjusting people’s safety attitudes has become an important measure to prevent accidents. Demographic variables, as influential factors of safety attitude, are fundamental and essential for the research. This research does a questionnaire survey among coal mine industry workers, and makes variance analysis and correlation analysis of the results in light of age, length of working years, educational level and experiences of accidents. The results show that the coal miners’ age, length of working years and accident experiences correlate lowly with safety attitudes, and those older coal miners with longer working years have better safety attitude, as coal miners without experiences of accident do.However, educational level has nothing to do with the safety attitude. Therefore, during the process of safety management, coal miners with different demographic characteristics should be put more attention to.

  5. Interaction between Helicobacter pylori and latent toxoplasmosis and demographic variables on cognitive function in young to middle-aged adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawn D Gale

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori and latent toxoplasmosis are widespread diseases that have been associated with cognitive deficits and Alzheimer's disease. We sought to determine whether interactions between Helicobacter pylori and latent toxoplasmosis, age, race-ethnicity, educational attainment, economic status, and general health predict cognitive function in young and middle-aged adults. To do so, we used multivariable regression and multivariate models to analyze data obtained from the United States' National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, which can be weighted to represent the US population. In this sample, we found that 31.6 percent of women and 36.2 percent of men of the overall sample had IgG Antibodies against Helicobacter pylori, although the seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori varied with sociodemographic variables. There were no main effects for Helicobacter pylori or latent toxoplasmosis for any of the cognitive measures in models adjusting for age, sex, race-ethnicity, educational attainment, economic standing, and self-rated health predicting cognitive function. However, interactions between Helicobacter pylori and race-ethnicity, educational attainment, latent toxoplasmosis in the fully adjusted models predicted cognitive function. People seropositive for both Helicobacter pylori and latent toxoplasmosis - both of which appear to be common in the general population - appear to be more susceptible to cognitive deficits than are people seropositive for either Helicobacter pylori and or latent toxoplasmosis alone, suggesting a synergistic effect between these two infectious diseases on cognition in young to middle-aged adults.

  6. Interaction between Helicobacter pylori and latent toxoplasmosis and demographic variables on cognitive function in young to middle-aged adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Shawn D; Erickson, Lance D; Brown, Bruce L; Hedges, Dawson W

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori and latent toxoplasmosis are widespread diseases that have been associated with cognitive deficits and Alzheimer's disease. We sought to determine whether interactions between Helicobacter pylori and latent toxoplasmosis, age, race-ethnicity, educational attainment, economic status, and general health predict cognitive function in young and middle-aged adults. To do so, we used multivariable regression and multivariate models to analyze data obtained from the United States' National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, which can be weighted to represent the US population. In this sample, we found that 31.6 percent of women and 36.2 percent of men of the overall sample had IgG Antibodies against Helicobacter pylori, although the seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori varied with sociodemographic variables. There were no main effects for Helicobacter pylori or latent toxoplasmosis for any of the cognitive measures in models adjusting for age, sex, race-ethnicity, educational attainment, economic standing, and self-rated health predicting cognitive function. However, interactions between Helicobacter pylori and race-ethnicity, educational attainment, latent toxoplasmosis in the fully adjusted models predicted cognitive function. People seropositive for both Helicobacter pylori and latent toxoplasmosis - both of which appear to be common in the general population - appear to be more susceptible to cognitive deficits than are people seropositive for either Helicobacter pylori and or latent toxoplasmosis alone, suggesting a synergistic effect between these two infectious diseases on cognition in young to middle-aged adults.

  7. Prediction model for prevalence and incidence of advanced age-related macular degeneration based on genetic, demographic, and environmental variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seddon, Johanna M; Reynolds, Robyn; Maller, Julian; Fagerness, Jesen A; Daly, Mark J; Rosner, Bernard

    2009-05-01

    The joint effects of genetic, ocular, and environmental variables were evaluated and predictive models for prevalence and incidence of AMD were assessed. Participants in the multicenter Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) were included in a prospective evaluation of 1446 individuals, of which 279 progressed to advanced AMD (geographic atrophy or neovascular disease) and 1167 did not progress during 6.3 years of follow-up. For prevalent AMD, 509 advanced cases were compared with 222 controls. Covariates for the incidence analysis included age, sex, education, smoking, body mass index (BMI), baseline AMD grade, and the AREDS vitamin-mineral treatment assignment. DNA specimens were evaluated for six variants in five genes related to AMD. Unconditional logistic regression analyses were performed for prevalent and incident advanced AMD. An algorithm was developed and receiver operating characteristic curves and C statistics were calculated to assess the predictive ability of risk scores to discriminate progressors from nonprogressors. All genetic polymorphisms were independently related to prevalence of advanced AMD, controlling for genetic factors, smoking, BMI, and AREDS treatment. Multivariate odds ratios (ORs) were 3.5 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.7-7.1) for CFH Y402H; 3.7 (95% CI, 1.6-8.4) for CFH rs1410996; 25.4 (95% CI, 8.6-75.1) for LOC387715 A69S (ARMS2); 0.3 (95% CI, 0.1-0.7) for C2 E318D; 0.3 (95% CI, 0.1-0.5) for CFB; and 3.6 (95% CI, 1.4-9.4) for C3 R102G, comparing the homozygous risk/protective genotypes to the referent genotypes. For incident AMD, all these variants except CFB were significantly related to progression to advanced AMD, after controlling for baseline AMD grade and other factors, with ORs from 1.8 to 4.0 for presence of two risk alleles and 0.4 for the protective allele. An interaction was seen between CFH402H and treatment, after controlling for all genotypes. Smoking was independently related to AMD, with a multiplicative joint

  8. Demographic Ageing on Croatian Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Nejašmić

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the changes in the population structure of the Croatian islands by age, warns of the degree of ageing, provides spatial differentiation of this process and presents perspective of ageing at the level of settlement. Typing of population ageing is based on scores and has seven types. The total island population in 2011 belongs to the type 5 – very old population. Almost a half of the settlements (out of 303 have been affected by the highest levels of ageing (types 6 and 7. It was found that a quarter of island settlements will become “dead villages” in a foreseeable future; most of them are on small islands but also in the interior of larger islands. These are villages decaying in every respect, in which the way of life, as we know it, veins and goes out. The present ageing villagers are their last residents in most cases. Eve¬rything suggests that demographic recovery of the islands is not possible with the forces in situ. It is important to strike a balance between the needs and opportunities in order to successfully organize life on the islands, both small and large ones, and the fact is that there is a continuing disparity, which is especially profound in small islands. A sensitive and selective approach is needed to overcome the unfavourable demographic trends. Therefore it is necessary to respect the particularities of indi¬vidual islands and island groups in devising development strategy. Solutions to the problems must come of the local and wider community in synergy with relevant professional and scientific institutions. However, if the solutions are not found or measures do not give results, if the islands are left to desorganisation and senilisation, a part of the islands will become a wasteland. With regard to the value of this area whose wealth are people in the first place, this would be an intolerable civilization decline.

  9. Economic Effects of Demographic Ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Litra A.V.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Romania goes through profound changes due to unprecedented demographic developments. As a result of declining birth rates and emigration after 1990, by the year 2060 is looming a possible doubling of the percentage of the population 65 years and over, from 15 to 30%, and the working age population to fall by about 30 percent. Deterioration of the relationship between labour force and inactive population leads to pressure on the public budget and tax system, strains on pension and social security systems, redefining consumer preferences, type and size of the saved or spent amounts, higher demand for healthcare services, increasing poverty risk for elderly households.

  10. DEMOGRAPHIC VARIABLES INFLUENCING INDIVIDUAL ENTREPRENEURIAL ORIENTATION AND STRATEGIC THINKING CAPABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Jelenc

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Strategic thinking capability is interesting part of the cognitive development of each entrepreneur. This paper develops on notion that there a number of demographic variables that shape the behavior of each particular elements of entrepreneurial orientation and strategic component of each entrepreneur. The demographic variable that have significant role will take the role of moderator in further research. Since both constructs are multidimensional, the demographic variables are not influencing them in the same way. The empirical research has been performed on IT firms in Croatia in 2014. Individual entrepreneurial orientation is measured by the construct developed by Bolton and Lane’s (2012 individual entrepreneurial orientation instrument. The instrument is grounded in the seminal work of Miller (1983, Covin and Slevin (1986; 1988; 1989, Lumpkin and Dess (1996 and Covin and Wales (2011; consisting of three dimensions – risk-taking, innovation, and proactiveness. Strategic thinking was measured by Pisapia’s (2009 Strategic thinking questionnaire (STQ. The STQ asked respondents to rate how often they use systems thinking, reframing, and reflecting skills. Within the framework of individual entrepreneurial orientation the following demographic variables shape the trends: age, gender, education abroad and previous experience. Entrepreneurs between 40-60 years old are less prone to risk, female entrepreneurs are more proactive than men, education abroad provides with the additional proactiveness and the entrepreneur with previous experience is prone to higher risk, proactiveness and innovativeness. Within the framework of strategic thinking capability the following demographic variables shape the trends: age, gender, education and experience. Entrepreneurs older than 60 score high on system thinking as well as females, females also score higher on reframing. Entrepreneurs with PhD degree score lower on reframing, while managers working more

  11. Significance of Demographic Variables for Targeting of Internet Advertisements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Václav Stříteský

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Broad ad targeting options belong among the major advantages of internet advertising. Demographic targeting has become a standard option in most of on-line advertising systems. There are more ways how to target on-line advertisements by using demographic variables. In some cases, e.g., social media, we can use data from user registrations. Modern technologies enable to estimate the demographic profile of internet users using on behavioural data. The traditional approach to the demographic targeting of advertisements based on affinity targeting assumes the existence of internet servers with sufficient homogeneity of visits. The aim of this article is to identify the differences in the internet content consumption habits of Czech internet users based on gender and age. The analysis is based on the data from the extensive research which was carried out by the Netmonitor project, and which was provided for the purposes of this study by the Association for Internet Development (SPIR. The research results show that the traditional affinity-based method of targeting according to gender and age is still suitable on the Czech internet. On the other hand, in some cases, the traditional approach of ad targeting based on affinity leads to wasted ad impressions that miss defined target group.

  12. Attitudes toward Money and Demographic Variables as Related to Income and Life Satisfaction: USA Vs. Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Thomas Li-Ping; Arocas, Roberto Luna; Whiteside, Harold D.

    A study of 207 faculty at a state university in the southeastern United States and 102 faculty members at the University of Valencia (Spain) examined demographic variables and attitudes toward money, income, and life satisfaction. Demographic variables (sex, age, education, marital status, race, current job experience, total work experience, and…

  13. Full likelihood analysis of genetic risk with variable age at onset disease--combining population-based registry data and demographic information.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janne Pitkäniemi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In genetic studies of rare complex diseases it is common to ascertain familial data from population based registries through all incident cases diagnosed during a pre-defined enrollment period. Such an ascertainment procedure is typically taken into account in the statistical analysis of the familial data by constructing either a retrospective or prospective likelihood expression, which conditions on the ascertainment event. Both of these approaches lead to a substantial loss of valuable data. METHODOLOGY AND FINDINGS: Here we consider instead the possibilities provided by a Bayesian approach to risk analysis, which also incorporates the ascertainment procedure and reference information concerning the genetic composition of the target population to the considered statistical model. Furthermore, the proposed Bayesian hierarchical survival model does not require the considered genotype or haplotype effects be expressed as functions of corresponding allelic effects. Our modeling strategy is illustrated by a risk analysis of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D in the Finnish population-based on the HLA-A, HLA-B and DRB1 human leucocyte antigen (HLA information available for both ascertained sibships and a large number of unrelated individuals from the Finnish bone marrow donor registry. The heterozygous genotype DR3/DR4 at the DRB1 locus was associated with the lowest predictive probability of T1D free survival to the age of 15, the estimate being 0.936 (0.926; 0.945 95% credible interval compared to the average population T1D free survival probability of 0.995. SIGNIFICANCE: The proposed statistical method can be modified to other population-based family data ascertained from a disease registry provided that the ascertainment process is well documented, and that external information concerning the sizes of birth cohorts and a suitable reference sample are available. We confirm the earlier findings from the same data concerning the HLA-DR3

  14. Population Ageing and the Theory of Demographic Transition: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Population Ageing and the Theory of Demographic Transition: The Case of Mauritius. ... the life expectancy of the population and consequently, the society is ageing. ... Originality/Value – Although some studies have been done on ageing yet ...

  15. Influence of job frustration, narcissism and demographic variables ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examines the hypothesised relationship among job frustration, narcissism, demographic variables and professional ethical behaviour among Nigerian Police officers. One hundred policemen drawn from four police divisions of Benin Area Command of Edo State participated in the study. There were 18 females ...

  16. Demographic Variables and Fathers' Involvement with Their Child with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragiel, Józefa; Kaniok, Przemyslaw E.

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to examine whether fathers' involvement with their child with disabilities is correlated with some of the demographic variables. Data were collected from 243 Polish fathers who were married and who had at least one child with disabilities. The issue was assessed by two measures: a Questionnaire and the Father…

  17. The effect of demographic variables on STEM educators ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the demographic variables of STEM educators and their perceptions of inclusive STEM education in a regular classroom in Aba education zone of Abia State. A casual-comparativeresearch design was adopted. The study was guided by one research question and five null hypotheses. One hundred ...

  18. Evaluation of Demographic Variables and Socio-economic Status ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated the demographic variables and socio-economic status on the prevalence of health hazards amongst residents of Akure North Local Government, Ondo State, Nigeria. The study was a descriptive research design of the survey type. The population for this study was estimated to be 131,587 residents.

  19. The role of socio demographic variables in predicting patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Radiological examination remains a vital and integral aspect of health services delivery and patient satisfaction with radiological service remains beneficial both to patients and hospitals. Aim: To evaluate the influence of patient's socio demographic variables on satisfaction with radiological services. Subjects ...

  20. Demographic Variables and Recreational Substance Use Among College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, B. Robert; Davis, Jaime L.

    1988-01-01

    Examined relationship between demographic variables and recreational substance use in college students (N=832). Results revealed that persons using certain recreational substances differed significantly from nonusers. Marijuana users differed from nonusers on parental income, high school grade point average, and political orientation. No…

  1. Interaction of Socio-Demographic Background Variables with Inter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Interaction of Socio-Demographic Background Variables with Inter-Spousal Communication Among Married Couples in Alimosho Local Government Area of Lagos State, Nigeria. ... marriage will increase from 20-24years to 25-29years due to the number of years of couple's educational pursuit in Lagos state of Nigeria.

  2. From Demographic Dividend to Demographic Burden? : Regional Trends of Population Aging in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Matytsin, Mikhail; Moorty, Lalita; Richter, Kaspar

    2015-01-01

    Do regions with higher working age populations grow faster? This paper examines this question using data from Russian regions and finds evidence that demographic trends influence regional growth convergence. In other words, keeping other factors constant, poorer regions grow faster than richer regions, and some of the growth convergence is explained by demographic changes: faster growth in...

  3. Knowledge sharing behaviour and demographic variables amongst secondary school teachers in and around Gaborone, Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac C. Mogotsi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between knowledge sharing behaviour and the demographic variables gender, age, organisational tenure and professional tenure. Following a correlational survey approach, the study sourced its data from senior secondary school teachers in and around Gaborone, Botswana. Knowledge sharing behaviour was measured using an instrument sourced from the extant literature. No statistically significant relationship was detected between knowledge sharing behaviour and gender, age, or professional tenure. Only organisational tenure weakly negatively correlated with knowledge sharing behaviour. Thus, according to these findings, demographic variables do not appear to be important determinants of knowledge sharing behaviour.

  4. Estimating demographic contributions to effective population size in an age-structured wild population experiencing environmental and demographic stochasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trask, Amanda E; Bignal, Eric M; McCracken, Davy I; Piertney, Stuart B; Reid, Jane M

    2017-09-01

    key sex-age classes contributing to demographic variance and thus decreasing N e /N in a small age-structured population inhabiting a variable environment. They thereby demonstrate how assessments of N e can incorporate stochastic sex- and age-specific demography and elucidate key demographic processes affecting a population's evolutionary trajectory and viability. Furthermore, our analyses show that N e for the focal chough population is critically small, implying that management to re-establish genetic connectivity may be required to ensure population viability. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2017 British Ecological Society.

  5. Motivations of Marathoners by socio demographic and training variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Zarauz Sancho

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available in the growing population of Spanish and Mexican route runners we analyze their main motivations for running and their main bio-socio-demographic characteristics. It also analyzes the influence on the score of these variables in each of the motivational subscales in both Spanish as in Mexican route runners sample. This gives valuable data describing their motivations and socio-demographic characteristics and training, and concludes that in the Mexican sample route runners were obtained significantly higher scores than in the Spanish in each of the motivations for running analyzed . Moreover, the two motivations accounted for both samples are the most self-determined (meaning of life, self-esteem and health orientation and least valued was the least self-determined (recognition. Also that in bio-socio-demographic characteristics of the Mexican sample, there are many significant differences by gender, while the Spanish sample there are only on primary work activity and BMI. Finally, the influence of biological variables sociodemographic scores on each of the motivational subscales analyzed, there are many significant differences, both by gender and between Spanish and Mexican samples.

  6. The age demographics of academic librarians a profession apart

    CERN Document Server

    Wilder, Stanley

    2000-01-01

    The Age Demographics of Academic Librarians: A Profession Apart discusses the current demographics of librarianship in North America and examines how a huge retiree rate will affect the profession. With the average age of librarians increasing dramatically since 1990, this book examines the changes that will have to take place in your library, such as recruiting, training, and working with a smaller staff. The Age Demographics of Academic Librarians provides you with insights on how to make your library's transition easier when several of your colleagues leave your library. Valuable and intelligent, The Age Demographics of Academic Librarians discusses trends through easy-to-read charts, tables, and comprehensive data analysis. Exploring possible reasons for the anomalies of this trend, this book explores several surprising facts, such as: 16 percent of the 1995 American Research Libraries population of librarians will retire by the year 2000, another 16 percent between 2000 and 2005, 24 percent between 2005 ...

  7. Environmental versus demographic variability in stochastic predator–prey models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobramysl, U; Täuber, U C

    2013-01-01

    In contrast to the neutral population cycles of the deterministic mean-field Lotka–Volterra rate equations, including spatial structure and stochastic noise in models for predator–prey interactions yields complex spatio-temporal structures associated with long-lived erratic population oscillations. Environmental variability in the form of quenched spatial randomness in the predation rates results in more localized activity patches. Our previous study showed that population fluctuations in rare favorable regions in turn cause a remarkable increase in the asymptotic densities of both predators and prey. Very intriguing features are found when variable interaction rates are affixed to individual particles rather than lattice sites. Stochastic dynamics with demographic variability in conjunction with inheritable predation efficiencies generate non-trivial time evolution for the predation rate distributions, yet with overall essentially neutral optimization. (paper)

  8. Attitudes toward Euthanasia as a Function of Death Fears and Demographic Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slezak, Michael E.

    1982-01-01

    Studied the relationship of attitudes toward euthanasia to death fears and demographic variables in a sample of 100 adults. Found the strongest predictors of euthanasia attitude were age and amount of education. Suggests individuals who are more experienced with life and death have a more positive attitude toward euthanasia. (Author)

  9. Do Demographic Variables Moderate the Relationship Between Job Burnout and its Consequences?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Zarei Matin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have already been conducted to understand the various dimensions of the burnout. The purpose of the present research is to investigate the moderating effect of demographic variables on the relationship between job burnout and its consequences among the staff of an Iranian public sector company. In this research, job burnout is considered as independent variable; organizational commitment, intention to leave and the employees‟ job satisfaction are dependent variables; and the age, gender, marital status and educational level are moderating variables. The results of this study show that firstly, the job burnout of employees in organizations leads to the decrease of organizational commitment and job satisfaction, and the increase of intention to leave; secondly, the demographic variables in this research don't affect on the relationship of job burnout with its consequences.

  10. Demographic change in Germany and reversal of spatial ageing patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swiaczny Frank

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the result of a spatial analysis considering the effect of demographic ageing and ageing-in-place processes in Germany according to spatially differentiated ageing patterns among urban, sub-urban and rural counties up to 2025. As to the latest official population forecast counties of urban core regions will undergo a slower ageing process than other types of counties, resulting in a reversal of ageing patterns. Urban core areas in this analysis will gain demographically from their net migration surplus while suburban housing locations of the past will be no longer able to attract enough young migrants to compensate for their now rapidly ageing baby boomer generation. The process presented is typical for the fate of (suburban housing areas with homogenous populations under conditions of ageing and shrinking if spatial mobility in ageing population groups is declining.

  11. Demographic change in Germany and reversal of spatial ageing patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swiaczny F.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the result of a spatial analysis considering the effect of demographic ageing and ageing-in-place processes in Germany according to spatially differentiated ageing patterns among urban, sub-urban and rural counties up to 2025. As to the latest official population forecast counties of urban core regions will undergo a slower ageing process than other types of counties, resulting in a reversal of ageing patterns. Urban core areas in this analysis will gain demographically from their net migration surplus while suburban housing locations of the past will be no longer able to attract enough young migrants to compensate for their now rapidly ageing baby boomer generation. The process presented is typical for the fate of (suburban housing areas with homogenous populations under conditions of ageing and shrinking if spatial mobility in ageing population groups is declining.

  12. Modification of Acute Radiation Response in Different Demographic Age Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-25

    greater radiosensitivity. Other studies provided further mechanistic insight into the observed age effect of radiation responses. For example ...DISTRIBUTION A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. October 2017 HDTRA1-14-0003; 0005 Prepared by: Applied ... Research Associates, Inc. 801 N. Quincy Street Suite 700 Arlington, VA 22203 Modification of Acute Radiation Response in Different Demographic Age

  13. Demographic variables for wild Asian elephants using longitudinal observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Silva, Shermin; Webber, C Elizabeth; Weerathunga, U S; Pushpakumara, T V; Weerakoon, Devaka K; Wittemyer, George

    2013-01-01

    Detailed demographic data on wild Asian elephants have been difficult to collect due to habitat characteristics of much of the species' remaining range. Such data, however, are critical for understanding and modeling population processes in this endangered species. We present data from six years of an ongoing study of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) in Uda Walawe National Park, Sri Lanka. This relatively undisturbed population numbering over one thousand elephants is individually monitored, providing cohort-based information on mortality and reproduction. Reproduction was seasonal, such that most births occurred during the long inter-monsoon dry season and peaked in May. During the study, the average age at first reproduction was 13.4 years and the 50(th) percentile inter-birth interval was approximately 6 years. Birth sex ratios did not deviate significantly from parity. Fecundity was relatively stable throughout the observed reproductive life of an individual (ages 11-60), averaging between 0.13-0.17 female offspring per individual per year. Mortalities and injuries based on carcasses and disappearances showed that males were significantly more likely than females to be killed or injured through anthropogenic activity. Overall, however, most observed injuries did not appear to be fatal. This population exhibits higher fecundity and density relative to published estimates on other Asian elephant populations, possibly enhanced by present range constriction. Understanding the factors responsible for these demographic dynamics can shed insight on the future needs of this elephant population, with probable parallels to other populations in similar settings.

  14. Demographic variables for wild Asian elephants using longitudinal observations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shermin de Silva

    Full Text Available Detailed demographic data on wild Asian elephants have been difficult to collect due to habitat characteristics of much of the species' remaining range. Such data, however, are critical for understanding and modeling population processes in this endangered species. We present data from six years of an ongoing study of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus in Uda Walawe National Park, Sri Lanka. This relatively undisturbed population numbering over one thousand elephants is individually monitored, providing cohort-based information on mortality and reproduction. Reproduction was seasonal, such that most births occurred during the long inter-monsoon dry season and peaked in May. During the study, the average age at first reproduction was 13.4 years and the 50(th percentile inter-birth interval was approximately 6 years. Birth sex ratios did not deviate significantly from parity. Fecundity was relatively stable throughout the observed reproductive life of an individual (ages 11-60, averaging between 0.13-0.17 female offspring per individual per year. Mortalities and injuries based on carcasses and disappearances showed that males were significantly more likely than females to be killed or injured through anthropogenic activity. Overall, however, most observed injuries did not appear to be fatal. This population exhibits higher fecundity and density relative to published estimates on other Asian elephant populations, possibly enhanced by present range constriction. Understanding the factors responsible for these demographic dynamics can shed insight on the future needs of this elephant population, with probable parallels to other populations in similar settings.

  15. Prediction of university student’s addictability based on some demographic variables, academic procrastination, and interpersonal variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Tavakoli

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to predict addictability among the students, based on demographic variables, academic procrastination, and interpersonal variables, and also to study the prevalence of addictability among these students. Method: The participants were 500 students (260 females, 240 males selected through a stratified random sampling among the students in Islamic Azad University Branch Abadan. The participants were assessed through Individual specification inventory, addiction potential scale and Aitken procrastination Inventory. Findings: The findings showed %23/6 of students’ readiness for addiction. Men showed higher addictability than women, but age wasn’t an issue. Also variables such as economic status, age, major, and academic procrastination predicted %13, and among interpersonal variables, the variables of having friends who use drugs and dissociated family predicted %13/2 of the variance in addictability. Conclusion: This study contains applied implications for addiction prevention.

  16. Visualising the demographic factors which shape population age structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Wilson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The population pyramid is one of the most popular tools for visualising population age structure. However, it is difficult to discern from the diagram the relative effects of different demographic components on the size of age-specific populations, making it hard to understand exactly how a population's age structure is formed. Objective: The aim of this paper is to introduce a type of population pyramid which shows how births, deaths, and migration have shaped a population's age structure. Methods: Births, deaths, and population data were obtained from the Human Mortality Database and the Australian Bureau of Statistics. A variation on the conventional population pyramid, termed here a components-of-change pyramid, was created. Based on cohort population accounts, it illustrates how births, deaths, and net migration have created the population of each age group. A simple measure which summarises the impact of net migration on age structure is also suggested. Results: Example components-of-change pyramids for several countries and subnational regions are presented, which illustrate how births, deaths, and net migration have fashioned current population age structures. The influence of migration is shown to vary greatly between populations. Conclusions: The new type of pyramid aids interpretation of a population's age structure and helps to understand its demographic history over the last century.

  17. Baby Boomers and Beds: a Demographic Challenge for the Ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zirui; Ferris, Timothy G

    2018-03-01

    The United States is facing a significant demographic transition, with about 10,000 baby boomers turning age 65 each day. At the same time, the nation is experiencing a similarly striking transition in hospital capacity, as the supply of hospital beds has declined in recent decades. The juxtaposition of population aging and hospital capacity portends a potentially widening divergence between supply and demand for hospital care. We provide a closer look at current hospital capacity and a rethinking of the future role of hospital beds in meeting the needs of an aging population.

  18. Evaluation of socio-demographic variables affecting the periodontal health of pregnant women in Chandigarh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagjit Singh Dhaliwal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The literature is replete with reports that pregnant women have an increased level of periodontal disease as compared with non-pregnant women of the same age. There are many studies correlating the effect of periodontal disease on the adverse pregnancy outcomes. The development of periodontal diseases during pregnancy can be influenced by factors such as preexisting oral conditions, general health, and socio-cultural background. There is very little data studying the effect of socio-demographic factors on the periodontal health of pregnant women. This study evaluated the periodontal status of a sample of pregnant women of Chandigarh and adjoining areas. The study also investigated the relationship between these variables and a series of demographic and clinical variables. Materials and Methods: The participants were 190 pregnant women attending Gynecology and Obstetrics outpatient department of Government Medical College and Hospital, Chandigarh. The participants were examined for their periodontal health and various socio-demographic variables were recorded on performas designed for the purpose of study. Statistical analysis was done. Results: The results revealed that the mean bleeding index scores and probing depth increased with statistical significance when the socio-economic status was lower ( P0.1. The plaque index was not significantly associated with the socio-economic status, profession, place of residence, and trimester of pregnancy ( P>0.1. Conclusion: In the population of pregnant women investigated under this study, the clinical and socio-demographic characteristics showed non-significant correlation except socio-economic status which showed statistically significant correlation with bleeding on probing and pocket depth. Further studies may be required in Indian population to determine the association of periodontal diseases in pregnant women with socio-demographic variables.

  19. Fertility in the Age of Demographic Maturity: An Essay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatole Romaniuk

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available As humanity is moving into a new age of its demographic evolution, I call it demographic maturity, the emerging demographic configurations – generational sub-replacement fertility, advanced aging and potential population implosion – call for new ways of thinking about population and new policy approaches. While we live longer and healthier, we also reproduce less and less. We are stuck in a culture of low fertility. The strong motivations for foregoing motherhood are financial: a two-salary wage is better than one even for the higher middle class. No less important is the woman’s financial independence in a societal environment where marriage as an institution is under considerable stress. Motherhood is to be rewarded adequately for its highly important social role and it has to be sufficient to reassure potential mothers of their financial concerns. What is required is a more balanced resource allocation between production and reproduction. The old welfare type hand-outs like child bonuses do not work. Societies, particularly the rich, ought to realize that to raise fertility, even to generational replacement level, not only is a much greater financial effort called for but some of the tenants of the liberal economy need to be put into question to make room for social concerns such a renewal of generations, if they want to survive as national entities. This essay advocates a stationary population as the best response to challenges such as ecological health, national identity and cohesion, and possibly world peace.

  20. The role of socio-demographic variables and their interaction effect on sense of coherence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Barnard

    2013-10-01

    Research purpose: To explore whether and how socio-demographic variables and their interactive effect determine a distinctively high or low SOC. Motivation for the study: Various studies include an exploration of the role of socio-demographic attributes on SOC, yet do not investigate the interactive effect of these socio-demographics on high or low SOC. Research design, approach and method: Quantitative, cross-sectional survey design. The chi-square interaction detection method (CHAID was applied to a large-scale employee sample (n = 7185. Confirmatory analysis was done by exploring predictor effects on two possible permutations of high or low SOC classifications. Main findings: Results indicated a statistically significant four-factor interactive effect of demographic variables on SOC. Level of income most strongly partitioned high to low SOC ratio groups. Marital status and number of dependants, with level of income, further distinguished statistically distinct high to low SOC ratio groups. Race indicated distinct high to low SOC ratio groups in the higher income group. No statistically significant effects were found for age and gender. Practical/managerial implications: Companies should provide lower income employees with financial counselling and special support for single or divorced employees and employees who are married but the sole household earner. In the middle to high income category employee assistance should cater for employees with dependants and especially for the sole household earners. Contribution/value-add: Establishing whether and how demographic variables predict high to low SOC ratios broadens the theoretical knowledge base of SOC. The study contributes methodologically in its application of CHAID analysis.

  1. Turkish College Students' Subjective Wellbeing in Regard to Psychological Strengths and Demographic Variables: Implications for College Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivis-Cetinkaya, Rahsan

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated Turkish college students' subjective wellbeing in regard to psychological strength and demographic variables. A sample of Turkish college students (N?=?1,052) aged 17-32 (mean age = 21, SD = 1.79) was administered various psychological strength instruments--the Gratitude Scale, the Rosenberg Self Esteem Inventory, the…

  2. [Mali: the offer of education disturbed by demographic variables].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tounkara, B

    1990-12-01

    Although educational reforms in 1962 have played a positive role in the socioeconomic and cultural development of Mali, the most recent analyses of the educational system have shown it to be in crisis for reasons both endogenous and exogenous. Huge class sizes, lack of teaching materials, and insufficient training of teachers have affected the quality of education. 80% of Mali's population is illiterate but the rate of school attendance is under 30%. Financial resources devoted to education have not grown as fast as population. The situation is made worse by structural adjustment programs of the past few years that have encouraged the government share of educational expenses to decline and the role of parents and the private sector to increase. The 1987 Demographic and Health Survey showed that Mali's rate of population growth is 2.7%/year. 45% of the population is under 15, amounting to some 3.5 million children. Great efforts are needed just to provide schools and teachers and to maintain the rate of school attendance at its current level of 27%, 1 of the lowest in the world. To attain the goal of 50% school attendance by the year 2000, the number of students beginning primary school should increase by 11.3% per year. But currently the number of students aged 6-11 is actually shrinking by almost 1% per year. At the level of the family, the expenses of school attendance are an important factor in nonattendance. The high annual costs constitute an insurmountable barrier for parents of large families. The loss of children's labor in rural areas is an added cost of schooling. School attendance in Mali is becoming a source and means of social inequality. The seasonal or permanent migration of a large part of the population has also been an obstacle to school attendance. the unavailability of mothers who teach during their 3 months of maternity leave and 2 hours daily break for breast feeding, in addition to absenteeism when their children are sick, is another effect

  3. Demographic Changes and the Challenge for a Healthy Ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossini, Paolo Maria; Marra, Camillo

    2014-01-01

    Demographic changes bring about a wide range of new research fields including policy topics, health, social welfare, work & productivity, urban & rural development, communication tools, and mobility. This new situation requires a new multi-disciplinary approach bringing together different research programs in order to provide solutions for the upcoming challenges. National Health services are now facing a huge shift in the population structure with a predominance of older generations in the total number of citizens. Good health is the most important factor to live independently in old age. A better understanding of ageing processes and the related "plasticity" of individual performance for environmental adaptation, the prevention for age-related illnesses and healthcare strategies are the basis for keeping very old people healthy and active throughout the course of their lives. We will face mainly the biological, cognitive and psychological dimensions of ageing. Afterwards, we will focus on the relationships linking various biological and lifestyle factors - such as nutrition - that are crucial to obtain a comprehensive picture of ageing and to promote preventing strategies against degenerative neurological diseases. Finally we will investigate which interventions - nutritional and physical - could help in keeping people healthy, in particular which factors could promote people's physical, social and psychological functional abilities and the systemic multilevel consequences induced by a healthy ageing.

  4. A study on effects of demographic variables on success of social media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Mohammadreza

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years, social media have developed significantly and their usages have become main activities of internet users. The proposed study of this paper considers the effects of personal characteristics such as age, gender and marital status on social media. The study designs a questionnaire and distributes 385 questionnaires among students who are enrolled in different educational levels in governmental university named Allameh Tabatabayi university located in Tehran, Iran during the year of 2011. Because of abnormality of data, non-parametric test were used. In this research, we studied the effects of demographic variables on success of social media. The results showed that success of social media is more important among female students. Marriage situation shows that social media success variable is more important among married than single ones and, finally, this variable is more important among older people.

  5. Brand Loyalty Factors Affecting the Hotel Elections of Tourists investigation with Respect to the Demographic Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Tayfun

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to investigate the factors affecting hotel guests’s brand loyalty and these factors is to determine whether there is a difference or not according to the demographic variables. Within this purpose, a survey research was conducted on the guests staying in the five star hotels of Ankara, Turkey. The research was carried out in two stages, namely the pilot study and the main study. As a result of study, while the factors affecting brand loyalty differs based on the gender and the age of the participants (p0,05

  6. Environmental Literacy in Madeira Island (Portugal): The Influence of Demographic Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinola, Hélder

    2016-01-01

    Demographic factors are among those that influence environmental literacy and, particularly, environmentally responsible behaviours, either directly or due to an aggregation effect dependent on other types of variables. Present study evaluates a set of demographic variables as predictors for environmental literacy among 9th grade students from…

  7. Effect of demographic variables on public attitudes towards ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In conclusion, background variables do have a significant effect on some of the dimensions of Malaysians' attitudes towards modern biotechnology. The research findings will be useful for understanding the effect of background variables on public attitudes towards the application of gene technology in medicine.

  8. Empathy, Burnout, Demographic Variables and their Relationships in Oncology Nurses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taleghani, Fariba; Ashouri, Elaheh; Saburi, Morteza

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Development of nurse–patient empathic communication in the oncology ward is of great importance for the patients to relieve their psychological stress, however, nursing care of cancer patients is accompanied with high stress and burnout. The present study aimed to define the level of empathy and its association with burnout and some demographic characteristics of oncology nurses. Materials and Methods: This descriptive/correlation study was conducted in a professional cancer treatment center in Isfahan. Through census sampling, 67 oncology nurses were selected. The data collection tools were Jefferson Scale of Nursing Empathy, Maslach Burnout Inventory, and demographic characteristics questionnaire. Results: Mean nurses’ empathy and overall burnout scores were 62.28 out of 100 and 38.8 out of 100, respectively. Score of empathy showed an inverse correlation with overall burnout score (r = −0.189, P = 0.04), depersonalization (r = −0.218, P = 0.02), and personal accomplishment (r = −0.265, P = 0.01). Multiple regression test was used to detect which dimension of burnout was a better predictor for the reduction of empathy score. Results showed that the best predictors were lack of personal accomplishment (P = 0.02), depersonalization (P = 0.04), and emotional exhaustion (P = 0.14), respectively. The most influential demographic factor on empathy was work experience (r = 0.304, P = 0.004). One-way analysis of variance showed that official staff had a higher empathy score (f = 2.39, P = 0.045) and their burnout was lower (f = 2.56, P = 0.04). Conclusions: Results showed a negative relationship between empathy and burnout in oncology nurses. Therefore, nursing support from managers to reduce burnout increases empathic behavior of nurses. PMID:28382057

  9. Empathy, burnout, demographic variables and their relationships in oncology nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Taleghani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Development of nurse–patient empathic communication in the oncology ward is of great importance for the patients to relieve their psychological stress, however, nursing care of cancer patients is accompanied with high stress and burnout. The present study aimed to define the level of empathy and its association with burnout and some demographic characteristics of oncology nurses. Materials and Methods: This descriptive/correlation study was conducted in a professional cancer treatment center in Isfahan. Through census sampling, 67 oncology nurses were selected. The data collection tools were Jefferson Scale of Nursing Empathy, Maslach Burnout Inventory, and demographic characteristics questionnaire. Results: Mean nurses' empathy and overall burnout scores were 62.28 out of 100 and 38.8 out of 100, respectively. Score of empathy showed an inverse correlation with overall burnout score (r = −0.189, P = 0.04, depersonalization (r = −0.218, P = 0.02, and personal accomplishment (r = −0.265, P = 0.01. Multiple regression test was used to detect which dimension of burnout was a better predictor for the reduction of empathy score. Results showed that the best predictors were lack of personal accomplishment (P = 0.02, depersonalization (P = 0.04, and emotional exhaustion (P = 0.14, respectively. The most influential demographic factor on empathy was work experience (r = 0.304, P = 0.004. One-way analysis of variance showed that official staff had a higher empathy score (f = 2.39, P = 0.045 and their burnout was lower (f = 2.56, P = 0.04. Conclusions: Results showed a negative relationship between empathy and burnout in oncology nurses. Therefore, nursing support from managers to reduce burnout increases empathic behavior of nurses.

  10. Empathy, Burnout, Demographic Variables and their Relationships in Oncology Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taleghani, Fariba; Ashouri, Elaheh; Saburi, Morteza

    2017-01-01

    Development of nurse-patient empathic communication in the oncology ward is of great importance for the patients to relieve their psychological stress, however, nursing care of cancer patients is accompanied with high stress and burnout. The present study aimed to define the level of empathy and its association with burnout and some demographic characteristics of oncology nurses. This descriptive/correlation study was conducted in a professional cancer treatment center in Isfahan. Through census sampling, 67 oncology nurses were selected. The data collection tools were Jefferson Scale of Nursing Empathy, Maslach Burnout Inventory, and demographic characteristics questionnaire. Mean nurses' empathy and overall burnout scores were 62.28 out of 100 and 38.8 out of 100, respectively. Score of empathy showed an inverse correlation with overall burnout score ( r = -0.189, P = 0.04), depersonalization ( r = -0.218, P = 0.02), and personal accomplishment ( r = -0.265, P = 0.01). Multiple regression test was used to detect which dimension of burnout was a better predictor for the reduction of empathy score. Results showed that the best predictors were lack of personal accomplishment ( P = 0.02), depersonalization ( P = 0.04), and emotional exhaustion ( P = 0.14), respectively. The most influential demographic factor on empathy was work experience ( r = 0.304, P = 0.004). One-way analysis of variance showed that official staff had a higher empathy score ( f = 2.39, P = 0.045) and their burnout was lower ( f = 2.56, P = 0.04). Results showed a negative relationship between empathy and burnout in oncology nurses. Therefore, nursing support from managers to reduce burnout increases empathic behavior of nurses.

  11. Demographic Ageing in Romania’s Rural Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Violeta Nancu

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Europe has faced for several decades and is still facing an ageing process of its population. Within it, Romania, a country, striving to successfully integrate into the European Union, is also experiencing the same process. The ageing process of the Romanian population started at the beginning of the 20th century and evolved progressively, ever since, with significant visible rates in the rural areas. Romania’s population age structure, at the beginning of the Third Millennium, was, according to international experts, not significantly aged compared to populations of the economically advanced countries of Europe. Due to falling birth-rates and the labor emigration rush, the ageing process of the Romanian population has become increasingly serious, argued by a rate of 19.4% over 60-year-old population, of which 24.5% (2008 belongs to the rural area. The main responsible reason for this demographic and social situation is the replacement of the traditional reproduction pattern, mainly characterized by high birth and death rates, with a modern one, characterized by very low rates of the same kind. Low values in natality were, on one hand, the result of a steady regression of fertility, and on the other of, a drop in general mortality, hence the lengthening of the average life-span. To be able to cope with a relatively new phenomenon such as ageing of population, Romania needs to seriously consider adequate measures and steps towards achieving balance. Visionary strategy and plans require, well-grounded medium-and-long-term development programmes especially for the Romanian rural area.

  12. An Analysis of the Interactive Effects of Demographic Variables on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the influence of two environmental variables (social density and overcrowding) on students' learning and academic performance in selected Nigerian Universities. 150 undergraduates drawn from two universities within the middle belt region of Nigeria made up of 90 males and 60 females responded ...

  13. 'Fair innings' in the face of ageing and demographic change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazra, Nisha C; Gulliford, Martin C; Rudisill, Caroline

    2018-04-01

    There are now 125 million people aged 80 years and over worldwide, projected by the United Nations to grow threefold by 2050. While increases in life expectancy and rapid increases in the older-age population are considered positive developments, the consequential future health care burden represents a leading concern for health services. We revisit Williams' 'fair innings' argument from 1997, in light of technological and demographic changes, and challenge the notion that greater longevity may impose an unfair burden on younger generations. We discuss perspectives on the equity-efficiency trade-off in terms of their implications for the growing over-80 population, as well as society in general. This includes questioning the comparison of treatment cost-effectiveness in younger vs. older populations when using quality-adjusted life years and the transience of life expectancies over generations. While recognising that there will never be a clear consensus regarding societal value judgements, we present empirical evidence on the very elderly that lends support to a stronger anti-ageist stance given current increases in longevity.

  14. Biographical and demographical variables as moderators in the prediction of turnover intentions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine du Plooy

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The aim of the study was to explore the possible moderation effects of biographical and demographical variables on a prediction model of turnover intention (TI. Research purpose: The main purpose of the study was to determine how biographical and demographical variables have an impact on predictors of turnover intentions. Motivation for the study: Twenty-first century organisations face significant challenges in the management of talent and human capital. One in particular is voluntary employee turnover and the lack of appropriate business models to track this process. Research design, approach, and method: A secondary data analysis (SDA was performed in a quantitative research tradition on the cross-sectional survey sample (n = 2429. Data were collected from a large South African Information and Communication Technologies (ICT sector company (N = 23 134. Main findings: The results of the study confirmed significant moderation effects regarding race, age, and marital status in the prediction equations of TIs. Practical and managerial implications: Practical implications of the study suggested increased understanding of workforce diversity effects within the human resource (HR value chain, with resultant evidence-based, employee retention strategies and interventions. Issues concerning talent management could also be addressed. Contribution and value-add: The study described in this article took Industrial/Organisational (I/O psychological concepts and linked them in unique combinations to establish better predictive validity of a more comprehensive turnover intentions model.

  15. Clinical and Demographic Variables Associated Coping and the Burden of Caregivers of Schizophrenia Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora-Castañeda, Belvy; Márquez-González, María; Fernández-Liria, Alberto; de la Espriella, Ricardo; Torres, Néstor; Arenas Borrero, Álvaro

    To analyse of the relationship between burden of illness and coping strategies and the demographic variables of caregivers, and the demographic and clinical variables of people diagnosed with schizophrenia. Multicentre correlational cross-sectional study including 70 people diagnosed with schizophrenia, or a schizoaffective disorder, and 70 primary informal caregivers. They were evaluated using Zarit Caregiver Burden Inventory, Family Coping Strategies Questionnaire, Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms, Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms, and the brief Disability Assessment Scale. Burden of illness positively associated with patient impairment in occupational and social functioning, and negatively with education level. Avoidance, coercion and positive communication were positively associated with impairment in occupational and social functioning of patients. Social interest and friendships showed a positive association with the education level of caregivers. Spiritual assistance negatively correlated with impairment in social functioning and patient age, and resignation was negatively associated with length of the disorder and patient education level. Burden and dysfunctional coping strategies, such as avoidance and coercion, are associated with functional impairment of the patient. These findings suggest the need to provide support to caregivers, adjusted to the functional level of the patient, in order to prevent burden of care. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  16. Regional differences in low birth weight in Spain: biological, demographic and socioeconomic variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuster, Vicente; Zuluaga, Pilar; Colantonio, S E; Román-Busto, J

    2015-01-01

    The geographic and demographic dimensions of Spain, in terms of surface and number of inhabitants, and its heterogeneous socioeconomic development offer an adequate opportunity to study the provincial differences in birth weight from 1996 to 2010, focusing on possible factors determining the relative frequency of low birth weight. The study analysed geographic differences with regard to biological, demographic and socioeconomic factors that interfere with the female reproductive pattern. The variables considered here were: birth order, proportion of premature deliveries, mother's age, multiparity, mother's country of origin and professional qualifications. Two periods (1996-2000 and 2006-2010) were compared by means of principal components analysis. An increase in the relative frequency of deliveries weighing less than 2500 g occurred in most of the 52 geographic units studied, differences being significant in 42. Only in five cases was there a non-significant reduction in the proportion of low weight births. The first component after principal component analysis indicated that low birth weight was positively related to maternal age and to multiple deliveries, and negatively to the mother's low professional qualification. The second component related positively to the incidence of premature deliveries and to non-Spanish status and negatively in the case of primiparous mothers. The progressive increase in low birth weight incidence observed in Spain from 1996 onwards has occurred with considerable variation in each province. In part, this diversity can be attributed to the unequal reproductive patterns of immigrant mothers.

  17. Students’ attitudes towards learning communication skills : correlating attitudes, demographic and metacognitive variables

    OpenAIRE

    Lumma-Sellenthin, Antje

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed at exploring the relationship of students' attitudes towards learning communication skills to demographic variables, metacognitive skills, and to the appreciation of patient-oriented care. Methods: The cross-sectional survey study involved first- and third-term students from two traditional and two problem-based curricula (N= 351). Demographic variables, attitudes towards communication skills learning, patient orientation, and awareness of learning strategies were...

  18. The Impacts of Demographic Variables on Technological and Contextual Challenges of E-learning Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldowah, Hanan; Ghazal, Samar; Naufal Umar, Irfan; Muniandy, Balakrishnan

    2017-09-01

    Information technology has achieved robust growth which has made it possible for learning to occur quickly. The rapid development of information, communication and technologies (ICT) has initiated an unparalleled transformation in universities all over the world. This development of technology and learning is offering new techniques to represent knowledge, new practices, and new global communities of learners. As a result, today’s economic and social changes force universities to try to find new learning approaches and systems. E-learning seems to be an appropriate approach in this aspect. However, the implementation of e-learning systems in universities is not an easy task because of some challenges related to context, technology, and other challenges. This paper studied the impacts of demographic data and reported the critical points for the decision makers to consider when planning and implementing e-learning in universities. A quantitative approach was used to study the effects of technological and contextual challenges on e-learning implementation in which a questionnaire was used for the data collection. According to the findings of the study, the most important challenges of the implementation of e-learning are related either to organizational (Contextual) and technological (technical) issues. The demographic variables have been found to play a direct and indirect role with the technological and contextual challenges of implementing e-learning. This paper showed that there are some significant differences in the two challenges faced by instructors in terms of the demographic variables. The result revealed that some significant differences exist between demographic variables and the two challenges of e-learning in terms of gender, age, teaching experience, ICT experience and e-learning experience. However, there is no significant difference in terms of e-learning experience. The obtained data, from such study, can provide information about what academic

  19. Demographic and psychological variables affecting test subject evaluations of ride quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, N. C.; Conley, H. W.

    1975-01-01

    Ride-quality experiments similar in objectives, design, and procedure were conducted, one using the U.S. Air Force Total In-Flight Simulator and the other using the Langley Passenger Ride Quality Apparatus to provide the motion environments. Large samples (80 or more per experiment) of test subjects were recruited from the Tidewater Virginia area and asked to rate the comfort (on a 7-point scale) of random aircraft motion typical of that encountered during STOL flights. Test subject characteristics of age, sex, and previous flying history (number of previous airplane flights) were studied in a two by three by three factorial design. Correlations were computed between one dependent measure, the subject's mean comfort rating, and various demographic characteristics, attitudinal variables, and the scores on Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. An effect of sex was found in one of the studies. Males made higher (more uncomfortable) ratings of the ride than females. Age and number of previous flights were not significantly related to comfort ratings. No significant interactions between the variables of age, sex, or previous number of flights were observed.

  20. The relationship between problematic internet use, violence trend and some demographic variables among university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysun Babacan Gumus

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study is to investigate relations between problematic internet use, violence trend and some demographic variables in university students. Methods: The study was conducted with students studying at a state university. The sample consisted of 375 university students as 201 female and 174 male. The data were collected using Demographic Information Form, Internet Addiction Scale (IAS and Violence Proneness Scale (VPS. In the analysis of the data; descriptive statistics student t test, ANOVA, Post hoc Tukey HSD test, pearson correlation analysis and stepwise hierarchical regression analysis were used. Results: The mean age of the students was 21.04+/-1.65 years (age range 18-28 years. It was found that 82.7% of the students in the study group use internet with the purpose of information, and 78.4% of the students use internet for social and entertainment purposes. According to IAS points; 3.7% of the students are problematic internet use, whereas 30.4% show borderline indications in terms of problematic internet use. According to VPS points; 40% of students have high trend of violence and 2.7% of the students have very high trend of violence. A positive relationship was determined between IAS and VPS mean scores (r=0.346, p<0.01. Duration of internet use, violence trend, internet use for social and entertainment purposes and gender are the variables that predict problematic internet use level. Problematic internet use, friend relationships, duration of mother education, gender and duration of internet use are significant predictors of violence trend. Conclusion: The research findings indicate that a significant portion of university students are at risk of problematic internet use and high violence trend. It is believed that the findings obtained in this research will be beneficial in terms of taking necessary measures for groups at risk and of raising awareness among university students. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2015; 14(6.000: 460-467

  1. Corporal punishment in rural Colombian families: prevalence, family structure and socio-demographic variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Martha Rocío; Trujillo, Angela; Pereda, Noemí

    2014-05-01

    To reveal the prevalence of corporal punishment in a rural area of Colombia and its correlates to family structure and other socio-demographic variables. A survey about childrearing and childcare was developed for this study, including a specific question about corporal punishment that was developed based on the Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS). Family structure was categorized as follows, based on previous literature: 'nuclear family,' 'single parent' family, 'extended family,' 'simultaneous family' and 'composed family.' Forty-one percent of the parents surveyed admitted they had used corporal punishment of their children as a disciplinary strategy. The type of family structure, the number of children living at home, the age of the children, the gender of the parent who answered the survey, and the age and gender of the partner were significant predictors of corporal punishment. Family structure is an important variable in the understanding of corporal punishment, especially in regard to nuclear families that have a large number of children and parents who started their parental role early in life. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Demographic Variables of Corruption in the Chinese Construction Industry: Association Rule Analysis of Conviction Records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yao; Martek, Igor; Hosseini, M Reza; Chen, Chuan

    2018-05-02

    Corruption in the construction industry is a serious problem in China. As such, fighting this corruption has become a priority target of the Chinese government, with the main effort being to discover and prosecute its perpetrators. This study profiles the demographic characteristics of major incidences of corruption in construction. It draws on the database of the 83 complete recorded cases of construction related corruption held by the Chinese National Bureau of Corruption Prevention. Categorical variables were drawn from the database, and 'association rule mining analysis' was used to identify associations between variables as a means of profiling perpetrators. Such profiling may be used as predictors of future incidences of corruption, and consequently to inform policy makers in their fight against corruption. The results signal corruption within the Chinese construction industry to be correlated with age, with incidences rising as managers' approach retirement age. Moreover, a majority of perpetrators operate within government agencies, are department deputies in direct contact with projects, and extort the greatest amounts per case from second tier cities. The relatively lengthy average 6.4-year period before cases come to public attention corroborates the view that current efforts at fighting corruption remain inadequate.

  3. An Examination of the Demographic and Environmental Variables Correlated with Lyme Disease Emergence in Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seukep, Sara E; Kolivras, Korine N; Hong, Yili; Li, Jie; Prisley, Stephen P; Campbell, James B; Gaines, David N; Dymond, Randel L

    2015-12-01

    Lyme disease is the United States' most significant vector-borne illness. Virginia, on the southern edge of the disease's currently expanding range, has experienced an increase in Lyme disease both spatially and temporally, with steadily increasing rates over the past decade and disease spread from the northern to the southwestern part of the state. This study used a Geographic Information System and a spatial Poisson regression model to examine correlations between demographic and land cover variables, and human Lyme disease from 2006 to 2010 in Virginia. Analysis indicated that herbaceous land cover is positively correlated with Lyme disease incidence rates. Areas with greater interspersion between herbaceous and forested land were also positively correlated with incidence rates. In addition, income and age were positively correlated with incidence rates. Levels of development, interspersion of herbaceous and developed land, and population density were negatively correlated with incidence rates. Abundance of forest fragments less than 2 hectares in area was not significantly correlated. Our results support some findings of previous studies on ecological variables and Lyme disease in endemic areas, but other results have not been found in previous studies, highlighting the potential contribution of new variables as Lyme disease continues to emerge southward.

  4. The relationship between demographic variables and well-being of women in South African workplaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madelyn Geldenhuys

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: It is important to investigate the determinants of well-being among working women. Given the unique demographic diversity within the South African context, differences in the experience of well-being among women are expected. Purpose: The study investigated the effects of age, race, marital status and educational status on psychological meaningfulness, life satisfaction, work–family conflict and social support of working women. Motivation: With the increase of women in the workplace, there is a need for knowledge and understanding of the factors that influence the well-being of women. This study aims to investigate demographic variables as determinants of well-being among working women. Method: Cross-sectional surveys were used to gather data from a sample (n = 540 of women from various South African companies. The Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES, the Psychological Meaningfulness Scale (PMS, the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS, the WorkRole Conflict Scale and the Job Demands Resources Scale (JDRS were administered. Results: Significant relationships were found between life satisfaction, work-to-family conflict and work engagement, respectively, and marital status. Higher levels of education showed significant relationships with life satisfaction and work-to-family conflict. Being white showed significant positive relationships with life satisfaction, work-to-family conflict and work engagement. With regard to social support and psychological meaningfulness, race explained significant amounts of variance in psychological meaningfulness, as did age. Practical, managerial and methodological implications: The findings indicate that the experiences of well-being among women vary by age, race, marital status and educational status. It is therefore imperative that human resource practitioners appropriately measure these differences, accommodate them in policies through relevant supportive practices and also champion these

  5. Aging and demographic plasticity in response to experimental age structures in honeybees (Apis mellifera L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueppell, Olav; Linford, Robyn; Gardner, Preston; Coleman, Jennifer; Fine, Kari

    2008-08-01

    Honeybee colonies are highly integrated functional units characterized by a pronounced division of labor. Division of labor among workers is mainly age-based, with younger individuals focusing on in-hive tasks and older workers performing the more hazardous foraging activities. Thus, experimental disruption of the age composition of the worker hive population is expected to have profound consequences for colony function. Adaptive demography theory predicts that the natural hive age composition represents a colony-level adaptation and thus results in optimal hive performance. Alternatively, the hive age composition may be an epiphenomenon, resulting from individual life history optimization. We addressed these predictions by comparing individual worker longevity and brood production in hives that were composed of a single age cohort, two distinct age cohorts, and hives that had a continuous, natural age distribution. Four experimental replicates showed that colonies with a natural age composition did not consistently have a higher life expectancy and/or brood production than the single cohort or double cohort hives. Instead, a complex interplay of age structure, environmental conditions, colony size, brood production, and individual mortality emerged. A general trade-off between worker life expectancy and colony productivity was apparent, and the transition from in-hive tasks to foraging was the most significant predictor of worker lifespan irrespective of the colony age structure. We conclude that the natural age structure of honeybee hives is not a colony-level adaptation. Furthermore, our results show that honeybees exhibit pronounced demographic plasticity in addition to behavioral plasticity to react to demographic disturbances of their societies.

  6. Demographic variables, clinical aspects, and medicolegal implications in a population of patients with adjustment disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasia, Annalisa; Colletti, Chiara; Cuoco, Valentina; Quartini, Adele; Urso, Stefania; Rinaldi, Raffaella; Bersani, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Although adjustment disorder (AD) is considered as residual diagnosis and receives little attention in research, it plays an important role in clinical practice and also assumes an increasingly important role in the field of legal medicine, where the majority of diagnostic frameworks (eg, mobbing) often refer to AD. Our study aimed to look for specific stressor differences among demographic and clinical variables in a naturalistic setting of patients with AD. A restrospective statistical analysis of the data of patients diagnosed with AD from November 2009 to September 2012, identified via manual search from the archive of the outpatient setting at the University Unit of Psychiatry "A. Fiorini" Hospital, Terracina (Latina, Italy), was performed. The sample consisted of 93 patients (46 males and 47 females), aged between 26 and 85, with medium-high educational level who were mainly employed. In most cases (54.80%), a diagnosis of AD with mixed anxiety and depressed mood was made. In all, 72% of the sample reported a negative family history for psychiatric disorders. In 22.60%, a previous history of psychopathology, especially mood disorders (76.19%), was reported. The main stressors linked to the development of AD were represented by working problems (32.30%), family problems (23.70%), and/or somatic disease (22.60%) with significant differences with respect to age and sex. Half of the patients were subjected to a single first examination; 24.47% requested a copy of medical records. Confirming previous data from previous reports, our results suggest that AD may have a distinct profile in demographic and clinical terms. Increased scientific attention is hoped, particularly focused on addressing a better definition of diagnostic criteria, whose correctness and accuracy are critical, especially in situations with medicolegal implications.

  7. The IL--6 dependent effect of oral warfarin in heart valve replacement patients by measuring interacting clinical and demographic variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafiq, H.; Rashid, A.; Majeed, A.; Razah, S.; Asghar, I.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To examine an inflammatory effect of warfarin and comparing with IL-6 levels along with different demographic and clinical variables. Study Design: Quasi experimental study. Place and Duration of Study: Center of Research in Experimental and Applied Medicine (CREAM), Army Medical College/National University of Sciences and Technology, Islamabad from Oct 2013 to Oct 2015. Material and Methods: The study design was Quasi Experimental study. Samples were collected by Non probability convenience sampling. Total 76 patients were included according to warfarin dose response in warfarin therapy patients, i.e. 32(42 percent) were taking 10mg/day of warfarin dose. Patient's demographic and clinical variables were noted i.e. age, gender, BMI, duration of therapy, INR history, hepatic, gastrointestinal and diabetic complications. Human IL-6 ELISA assay was performed. Results: The statistically significant difference was found between age groups (in years) and different levels of warfarin dose (p=0.046) along with IL-6 production. There is a negative correlation between warfarin dose and age group i.e. as age increases, the dose of warfarin decreases. Among the inter and intra-patient variability age and serum IL-6 levels were found to be statistically significant with warfarin dose response. BMI and warfarin dose were found to be weak positively correlated. Conclusion: A marked immunomodulatory response of warfarin was noted by measuring IL-6 levels. IL-6 levels retained a significant association with warfarin dose. (author)

  8. Effects of Demographic Variables, Perceived Spousal Support, and Gender Role Attitudes on Taiwanese Women's Employability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Luo

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this research was to explore demographic, familial, and attitudinal correlates of Taiwanese women's employment status. Using data from a representative nationwide sample of female workers aged 21 and above (N = 1,047), the author found that (a) the employment rate of females decreased steadily with age, with no sign of reentry into the…

  9. Exploring Demographic Shifts : Aging and Migration Exploratory Group Model Specification & Simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pruyt, E.; Logtens, T.; Gijsbers, G.

    2011-01-01

    Plausible dynamics of a major demographic shift –(societal) aging– is studied in this paper, both from a global perspective and from a national perspective. Several economic, political and social implications of aging and aging-related demographic shifts are explored using System Dynamics models as

  10. Socioeconomic, demographic, and geographic variables affecting the diverse degrees of consanguineous marriages in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuster, V; Colantonio, S E

    2004-02-01

    In a population the inbreeding coefficient alpha is determined by the relative incidence of the various degrees of consanguineous marriages--uncle-niece or aunt-nephew (C12), first cousin (C22), first cousin once removed (C23), second cousin (C33)--which may be related to temporal, geographic, demographic, and economic factors. Using published information from Spain corresponding to urban and rural areas, in this article we seek to establish how each specific relationship behaves with respect to geographic, demographic, and socioeconomic factors, to determine differential urban-rural patterns, and to study whether the diverse types of consanguineous matings relate homogeneously to these factors. For this purpose we performed multiple regressions in which the dependent variables were the different degrees of consanguinity previously selected and the independent variables were geographic, demographic, and economic factors. Our results indicate that the various types of consanguineous marriages in Spain are more conditioned by geographic, demographic, and economic variables than by the inbreeding level alpha (the coefficient of determination was between 0.22 and 0.72; the maximum for alpha was 0.35). A regional pattern exists in Spain and corresponds to close and to remote kinship, which may be mainly related to economic and family factors. Close relationships appear to be more associated with economic variables, whereas second-cousin marriages correspond largely to rural areas of the Spanish Central Plateau.

  11. Relationships between Teacher Organizational Commitment, Psychological Hardiness and Some Demographic Variables in Turkish Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezgin, Ferudun

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationships between teachers' organizational commitment perceptions and both their psychological hardiness and some demographic variables in a sample of Turkish primary schools. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 405 randomly selected teachers working at primary schools in Ankara…

  12. The Implications of Demographic Variables as Related to Burnout among a Sample of Special Education Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Joy; Dikes, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    The attrition rate of highly qualified special education teachers is a pervasive problem in the United States. This study investigated the association between the burnout subscales of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal accomplishment relative to 10 demographic variables. Sixty-five special education teachers constituted the…

  13. Demographic Ageing in Romania’s Rural Area

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela Violeta Nancu; Liliana Guran-Nica; Mihaela Persu

    2010-01-01

    Europe has faced for several decades and is still facing an ageing process of its population. Within it, Romania, a country, striving to successfully integrate into the European Union, is also experiencing the same process. The ageing process of the Romanian population started at the beginning of the 20th century and evolved progressively, ever since, with significant visible rates in the rural areas. Romania’s population age structure, at the beginning of the Third Millennium, was, according...

  14. Investigating demographic, work-related and job satisfaction variables as predictors of motivation in Greek nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaki, Eleni; Kontodimopoulos, Nick; Niakas, Dimitris

    2013-04-01

    To investigate whether demographic variables and work-related factors predict work motivation in Greek nurses. Nurses' motivation is crucial for an effective health-care system. Herzberg's and Maslow's motivation theories constitute the framework of this study. The sample consisted of 200 nurses from every sector and registration level in a University Hospital in Greece. The response rate was 76%. A previously developed and validated questionnaire addressing four work-related motivators (job attributes, remuneration, co-workers and achievements) on a five-point Likert scale. Most participants were women, married, between 36 years and 45 years old and higher education graduates. The highest mean score was recorded for 'achievements' (mean 4.07, SD 0.72), which emerged as the most important motivator. Job satisfaction, work sector and age were statistically significantly related to motivational factors. Nurses placed emphasis on motivators not strictly relating to economic rewards, but which can be seen as intrinsic and could lead to self-actualization. The constantly changing health sector requires that human resources and job context be a priority for health administrators. By promoting nurses' satisfaction and efficacy, an improvement in service quality is expected. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. SOCIO - DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILE OF OLD AGE PEOPLE LIVING IN URBAN & URBAN SLUM AREAS IN MAHARASHTRA, KARAD: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leena Rahul Salunkhe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available NTRODUCTION: Aging refers to normal, progressive and irreversible biological changes that occur over an individual’s life span. The advancement of medical science and increased awareness among the people has brought about a sharp decline in mortality and a steady decline in fertility. This has resulted in a worldwide shift in the demographic profile and has led to significant increase in the aged population. About two thirds of all older people are concentrated in the developing world. OBJECTIVES: to study & compare socio - demographic variables of old age people living in Urban & Urban slum areas. MATERIAL & METHODS: all the old age people living in urb a n slum area & rando mly selected one urban area of K arad town were interviewed by using pre structured proforma about socio - demographic variable & compared with each other. OBSERVATIONS: Total 153 from urban & 135 from urban slum were enrolled for the study. Nearly 2/3 rd subjects were above age 65yrs in both areas with more female proportions in slum area than urban area. Significant difference was found with education, occupation & socio - economic status in both areas. CONCLUSION: Ageing is a universal phenomenon, with advanced fertility control, improvement in health and social services life expectancy has increased. Ageing has profound effect on the individual status in the family, the work force, goals and organization of health, social services, policies and practices of the government

  16. Age dependant somatometric and cephalometric variables among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The process of growth passes through stages of developmental processes. This stage is the age. Age is known to affect many parameters in the body and this includes somatometric and cephalometric variables. Methods: The study was conducted with a total number of 409 students of university of Jos, ...

  17. Demographic variables, clinical aspects, and medicolegal implications in a population of patients with adjustment disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia A

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Annalisa Anastasia,1 Chiara Colletti,1 Valentina Cuoco,1 Adele Quartini,1 Stefania Urso,2 Raffaella Rinaldi,2 Giuseppe Bersani1 1Department of Medical-Surgical Sciences and Biotechnologies, Faculty of Pharmacy and Medicine, Sapienza University of Rome, 2Department of Anatomical, Istological, Forensic and Locomotor System Sciences, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy Introduction: Although adjustment disorder (AD is considered as residual diagnosis and receives little attention in research, it plays an important role in clinical practice and also assumes an increasingly important role in the field of legal medicine, where the majority of diagnostic frameworks (eg, mobbing often refer to AD. Our study aimed to look for specific stressor differences among demographic and clinical variables in a naturalistic setting of patients with AD.Methods: A restrospective statistical analysis of the data of patients diagnosed with AD from November 2009 to September 2012, identified via manual search from the archive of the outpatient setting at the University Unit of Psychiatry “A. Fiorini” Hospital, Terracina (Latina, Italy, was performed.Results: The sample consisted of 93 patients (46 males and 47 females, aged between 26 and 85, with medium–high educational level who were mainly employed. In most cases (54.80%, a diagnosis of AD with mixed anxiety and depressed mood was made. In all, 72% of the sample reported a negative family history for psychiatric disorders. In 22.60%, a previous history of psychopathology, especially mood disorders (76.19%, was reported. The main stressors linked to the development of AD were represented by working problems (32.30%, family problems (23.70%, and/or somatic disease (22.60% with significant differences with respect to age and sex. Half of the patients were subjected to a single first examination; 24.47% requested a copy of medical records.Conclusion: Confirming previous data from previous reports, our results

  18. Using the University Student Depression Inventory to Investigate the Effect of Demographic Variables on Students' Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khawaja, Nigar G.; Duncanson, Krystle

    2008-01-01

    Depression is a problem in the student population and may impact students of any age, gender and ethnicity. Previous studies have indicated student demographic characteristics are associated with depression; however, these studies have not utilised scales specifically designed to measure depression in the student population. The aim of the present…

  19. Problem-solving skills of futsal players with regard to some socio-demographic variables

    OpenAIRE

    ACAR, Kürşat; CON, Musa; CANKAYA, Soner; TASMEKTEPLIGIL, Mehmet Yalcin

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate problem-solving skills of female futsal teams that compete in the Futsal League of Turkish Universities Sports Federation in terms of some socio-demographic variables. In total, 144 students from female futsal teams of 10 universities competing in the Futsal League of Turkish Universities Sports Federation voluntarily took part in this study. In the study, “Problem-Solving Inventory” that was developed by Heppner & Petersen was used. With this inve...

  20. Personality Traits and Socio-Demographic Variables as Correlates of Counselling Effectiveness of Counsellors in Enugu State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyekuru, Bruno U.; Ibegbunam, Josephat

    2015-01-01

    Quality personality traits and socio-demographic variables are essential elements of effective counselling. This correlational study investigated personality traits and socio-demographic variables as predictors of counselling effectiveness of counsellors in Enugu State. The instruments for data collection were Personality Traits Assessment Scale…

  1. Discrepancies between self and observer ratings of depression. The relationship to demographic, clinical and personality variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enns, M W; Larsen, D K; Cox, B J

    2000-10-01

    The observer-rated Hamilton depression scale (HamD) and the self-report Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) are among the most commonly used rating scales for depression, and both have well demonstrated reliability and validity. However, many depressed subjects have discrepant scores on these two assessment methods. The present study evaluated the ability of demographic, clinical and personality factors to account for the discrepancies observed between BDI and HamD ratings. The study group consisted of 94 SCID-diagnosed outpatients with a current major depressive disorder. Subjects were rated with the 21-item HamD and completed the BDI and the NEO-Five Factor Inventory. Younger age, higher educational attainment, and depressive subtype (atypical, non-melancholic) were predictive of higher BDI scores relative to HamD observer ratings. In addition, high neuroticism, low extraversion and low agreeableness were associated with higher endorsement of depressive symptoms on the BDI relative to the HamD. In general, these predictive variables showed a greater ability to explain discrepancies between self and observer ratings of psychological symptoms of depression compared to somatic symptoms of depression. The study does not determine which aspects of neuroticism and extraversion contribute to the observed BDI/HamD discrepancies. Depression ratings obtained with the BDI and HamD are frequently discordant and a number of patient characteristics robustly predict the discrepancy between these two rating methods. The value of multi-modal assessment in the conduct of research on depressive disorders is re-affirmed.

  2. Analysis of University Organizational Culture Perceptions and Demographic Variables as Predictors of Perceived Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa KESEN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available It has been seen that it is inevitable for individuals to be exposed to stress in their student lives as in their work lives. The aim of this study is to measure perceived stress levels of university students in the university organizational culture setting. To this end, it is investigated the relationship between perceived stress levels of university students and university organizational culture perceptions. By using questionnaire method it is measured that the perceptions of organizational culture in different stress levels and it is analyzed that the differences in students' perceived stress levels according to socio-demographic variables. The population of the study is comprised of randomly chosen 286 students who receive training at Bayburt University Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences. According to the results, it has been found that there is a significant difference between students' perceived stress and gender. While the students stating that they experience low level of stress give maximum points to the variable of adaptation to change, other students expressing that they are exposed high level of stress give minimum score to the variable of cooperation. Besides, it has been found that different demographic variables by various combinations have different effects on perceived stress and university organizational culture.

  3. The relevance of socio-demographic and occupational variables for the assessment of work-related stress risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinaccio, Alessandro; Ferrante, Pierpaolo; Corfiati, Marisa; Di Tecco, Cristina; Rondinone, Bruna M; Bonafede, Michela; Ronchetti, Matteo; Persechino, Benedetta; Iavicoli, Sergio

    2013-12-10

    Work-related stress is widely recognized as one of the major challenges to occupational health and safety. The correlation between work-related stress risk factors and physical health outcomes is widely acknowledged. This study investigated socio-demographic and occupational variables involved in perceived risk of work-related stress. The Italian version of the Health and Safety Executive Management Standards Indicator Tool was used in a large survey to examine the relationship between work-related stress risks and workers' demographic and occupational characteristics. Out of 8,527 questionnaires distributed among workers (from 75 organizations) 6,378 were returned compiled (74.8%); a set of mixed effects models were adopted to test single and combined effects of the variables on work-related stress risk. Female workers reported lower scores on control and peer support and more negative perceptions of relationships and change at work than male workers, most of them with full-time contracts. Age, job seniority, and educational level appeared positively correlated with control at work, but negatively with job demands. Fixed-term workers had positive perceptions regarding job demands and relationships, but more difficulties about their role at work than permanent workers. A commuting time longer than one hour and shift work appeared to be associated with higher levels of risk factors for work-related stress (except for role), the latter having more negative effects, increasing with age. The findings suggest that the assessment and management of work-related stress risk should consider specific socio-demographic and occupational risk factors such as gender, age, educational level, job status, shift work, commuting time, job contracts.

  4. Demographic and placement variables associated with overweight and obesity in children in long-term foster care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiderman, Janet U; Arnold-Clark, Janet S; Smith, Caitlin; Duan, Lei; Fuentes, Jorge

    2013-11-01

    Overweight and obesity is a growing problem for children in foster care. This study describes the prevalence of overweight and obesity in an urban, ethnic minority population of children ages 2-19 in long-term foster care (N = 312) in Los Angeles, California. It also investigates whether demographics or placement settings are related to high body mass index. The estimates of prevalence of overweight/obesity (≥85th percentile) and obesity (≥95th percentile) were presented for gender, age, ethnicity, and placement type. Multiple logistic regression was used to examine potential associations between demographic and placement variables and weight status. The prevalence of overweight/obesity was almost 40 % and obesity was 23 % for the study population. Children placed in a group home had the highest prevalence of overweight/obesity (60 %) and obesity (43 %) compared to other types of placement. Within this study, older children (ages 12-19) were more likely to be overweight/obese than normal weight compared to children between 2 and 5 years old when controlling for gender, ethnicity and placement (OR = 2.10, CI = 1.14-3.87). These findings suggest that older age and long-term foster care in general may be risk factors for obesity. Child welfare agencies and health care providers need to work together to train caregivers with children in long-term foster care in obesity treatment interventions and obesity prevention strategies.

  5. [Demographic aging and social security. The insufficiency of old age pensions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham Chande, R

    1993-01-01

    The demographic transition is leading to demographic aging in Mexico, as lower fertility and greater life expectancy combine to produce absolute and percentage increases in the elderly population. Concern is growing about satisfying the material needs of the elderly population. Only a few developed countries are able to furnish adequate pensions to their retired workers through social security systems. In Mexico, class inequity is a greater determinant of the level of pension coverage than is generational solidarity. Mexico's 1990 census showed that the population of 81,250,000 was comprised of 24,517,000 economically active and 56,733,000 inactive persons. Of the 24,517,000 economically active, 7,282,000 mostly lower level employees and laborers were affiliated only with the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS). 2,308,000 were covered by the IMSS and one of the complementary pension systems sponsored by the largest and most organized private companies. 2,629,000 were entitled to pensions through public sector employment and 584,000 through quasipublic employment. The remaining 11,571,000 had no rights to a pension. In other words, 47% of the labor force was not covered by any retirement pension system. 375,000 of the 5,007,000 persons over age 60 in the economically inactive population had some sort of pension from the IMSS. In 1990, 92% received the minimum pension, equivalent to 70% of the minimum salary. 229,000 had an IMSS pension and a complementary private pension. 196,000 pensioners in the public sector received an average pension of 1.5 times the minimum salary. 66,000 retired workers in quasipublic enterprises received pensions with automatic adjustments for inflation that frequently equaled 20 times the minimum salary. The total number of recipients of pensions of all types was 888,000,leaving 4,119,000 persons over 60 with no pension. Because of the deficiencies of the social security system, families must continue to be the institution that aids

  6. Dose Response Association between Physical Activity and Biological, Demographic, and Perceptions of Health Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul D. Loprinzi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Few population-based studies have examined the association between physical activity (PA and cardiovascular disease risk factors, demographic variables, and perceptions of health status, and we do not have a clear understanding of the dose-response relationship among these variables. Methods: Data from the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey was used to examine the dose-response relationship between objectively measured PA and metabolic syndrome (and its individual cardiovascular disease risk factors, demographic variables, and perceptions of health. After exclusions, 5,538 participants 18 years or older were included in the present study, with 2,538 participants providing fasting glucose and 2,527 providing fasting triglyceride data. PA was categorized into deciles. Results: Overall, the health benefits showed a general pattern of increase with each increasing levels of PA. Of the ten PA classifications examined, participants in the highest moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA category (at least 71 min/day had the lowest odds of developing metabolic syndrome. Conclusion: At a minimum, sedentary adults should strive to meet current PA guidelines (i.e., 150 min/week of MVPA, with additional positive benefits associated with engaging in three times this level of PA.

  7. Organ Donation in the 50+ Age Demographic: Survey Results on Decision Rationale and Information Preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartaglia, Alexander; Dodd-McCue, Diane; Myer, Kevin A; Mullins, Andrew

    2016-09-01

    The rate of organ donation by older potential donors is significantly declining even though recent studies show positive clinical outcomes with organs transplanted from older donors. This study examined the 50+ age demographic to identify the rationale for donation decisions, preferred media methods of donation information delivery, and responsiveness to an age-tailored donation message. Results from 579 surveys, 87% from the 50+ age demographic, found respondents prone to self-select themselves as medically ineligible based on current medication and health status, even though they might be medically suitable donors. Their incentive to pursue additional information on donation is limited except when motivated by personal accounts within their families and communities. In addition, even when computer literate, they continue to favor the printed or spoken word for donation information delivery. The results suggest an opportunity for those working with older adults to develop more personalized, localized donation education programs targeting this age demographic. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. Forecasting the Effects of Raising the Retirement Age on Russia’s Demographic Struc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Vital’evna Chistova

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper assesses the possibility of raising the retirement age to mitigate the effects of ageing on the pension system of Russia. The authors make demographic forecasts based on hypotheses about the presence of global demographic trends in population reproduction and manifestations of development features specific for Russia. The demographic forecast is based on the age shifting method according to three scenarios. The forecast takes into account the provisions of a draft law that has already been approved and that provides for a gradual increase in age limit for civil servants, both men and women, to 65 years (by six months each year. The following assumption is made for the purpose of studying the effects of raising the retirement age to 65 years for all categories of Russian citizens. The increase in the retirement age begins in 2016 at the rate of 6 months per year, and it will end for men in 2026 and for women – in 2036. Thus, by 2036, the official retirement age will be 65 years for both sexes. The resulting forecasts show that population ageing in Russia is an inevitable process. Depending on whether demographic processes are in line with global trends or whether certain specific Russian features of development are revealed, ageing process will occur in the first case – “from above”, in the second case – “from below”. The forecast has confirmed a well-known paradox that if the situation regarding the decline in mortality is improved further, as has happened in recent years, then the pace of ageing that negatively affects the balance of the pension system will be even higher, at least in the medium term. Forecast calculations have shown that, first, demographic burden on the working population will continue to increase under any demographic development scenario implemented in Russia, and most significantly, under a scenario that describes a successful demographic policy. Second, the number of retirement age women is a

  9. Hope and Adaptation to Old Age: Their Relationship with Individual-Demographic Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraitou, Despina; Kolovou, Chrysa; Papasozomenou, Chrysa; Paschoula, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between hope as disposition, adaptation to old age, and individual-demographic factors. One hundred and fifty older adults, aged 60-93 years old, completed the Adult Dispositional Hope Scale developed by Snyder et AL. [1991, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60, pp. 570-585], and the Adaptation to…

  10. Economic implications of Japan's aging population: a macro-economic demographic modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, N

    1982-01-01

    This paper utilizes a macroeconomic demographic model to analyze the probable impact of population aging on various public programs in Japan. Rapid fertility decline aided by mortality decline has caused the proportion of the Japanese population aged 65 and over to increase from 4.9% in 1950 to 9.0% in 1980. A population projection based on the 1975 population census assumes a recovery of fertility from a total fertility rate (TFR) of 1.9 in 1976 to 2.16 in 1980 and a gradual decline to 2.1 by 1987, while an alternative projection assumes a continuing fertility decline to a TFR of 1.65 in 2025. According to these assumptions, in 2025 18.12% to 21.29% of the total population would be aged 65 or over and 38.66% to 43.80% of the working age population would be aged 45-64. A macroeconomic neoclassical growth model with some Keynesian features was formulated to evaluate the future impact of population aging on social security programs. Population changes are transmitted to economic variables in the model through the supply of labor, level of savings, public health care plans, and old-age pension schemes. The simulation experiments included the 2 population projections and 2 alternative production functions, 1 with the quality of labor incorporated and 1 without. The results indicated that, regardless of the population projection and production function used, the growth of the economy is likely to slow to 1 or 0% in the beginning of the next century due to decreased growth of the labor force and a change in its quality due to age-compositional variations. Public health insurance schemes and pension plans will require increasing financial resources as a result of accelerated population aging; depending on the choice of benefit levels, the proportion of national income allocated to them is expected to range from 14%-40% in the year 2010. Per capita gross national product will continue to grow despite decreased economic growth, but savings might be adversely affected if the

  11. Demographic ageing of the population in the County of Šibenik-Knin: grandparent boom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snježana Mrđen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses demographic ageing of the population in the County of Šibenik-Knin by using basic demographic indicators based on data collected from population censuses from 1971 to 2011. It analyses spatial differentiation of the ageing process at the level of the County, micro-regions, towns/municipalities and settlements. The research also provides a comparison of population ageing in different counties of the Republic of Croatia, from which it is evident that the County of Šibenik-Knin, as well as the Country of Lika-Senj, has the oldest population in Croatia. Ageing in the County of Šibenik-Knin, which was triggered by extreme rural exodus that was most intensive from the end of 1960s to the early 1970s, as well as by continuous declining fertility rates and by inherited age composition, was recorded at all territorial levels of the County. Although the ageing process started in littoral area (Primorje, hinterland (Zagora experienced a faster and more intensive ageing. Based on numerous indicators of demographic ageing and its intensity, and compared with the point value indicators of ageing, it is evident that the population of the County of Šibenik-Knin is characterized by advanced old age. However, more than half of the observed settlements are characterized by very advanced or extremely advanced old age.

  12. Bone Mineral Density in Patients with Ankylosing Spondylitis: Incidence and Correlation with Demographic and Clinical Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura MUNTEAN

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate bone mineral density (BMD in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS and determine its correlation with the demographic and clinical characteristics of AS. Patients and Methods: Demographic, clinical and osteodensitometric data were evaluated in a cross-sectional study that included 136 patients with AS. Spine and hip BMD were measured by means of dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA. Using the modified Schober’s test we assessed spine mobility. We examined the sacroiliac, anteroposterior and lateral dorso-lumbar spine radiographs in order to grade sacroiliitis and assess syndesmophytes. Disease activity was evaluated using C-reactive protein (CRP levels and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR. Demographic data and BMD measurements were compared with those of 167 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Results: Patients with AS had a significantly lower BMD at the spine, femoral neck, trochanter and total hip as compared to age-matched controls (all p<0.01. According to the WHO classification, osteoporosis was present in 20.6% of the AS patients at the lumbar spine and in 14.6% at the femoral neck. There were no significant differences in BMD when comparing men and women with AS, except for trochanter BMD that was lower in female patients. No correlations were found between disease activity markers (ESR, CRP and BMD. Femoral neck BMD was correlated with disease duration, Schober’s test and sacroiliitis grade. Conclusion: Patients with AS have a lower spine and hip BMD as compared to age- and sex-matched controls. Bone loss at the femoral neck is associated with disease duration and more severe AS.

  13. Demographic Recommendation by means of Group Profile Elicitation Using Speaker Age and Gender Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shepstone, Sven Ewan; Tan, Zheng-Hua; Jensen, Søren Holdt

    2013-01-01

    , which itself is the input to a recommender system. The recommender system finds the content items whose demographics best match the group profile. We tested the effectiveness of the system for several typical home audience configurations. In a survey, users were given a configuration and asked to rate......In this paper we show a new method of using automatic age and gender recognition to recommend a sequence of multimedia items to a home TV audience comprising multiple viewers. Instead of relying on explicitly provided demographic data for each user, we define an audio-based demographic group...... a set of advertisements on how well each advertisement matched the configuration. Unbeknown to the subjects, half of the adverts were recommended using the derived audio demographics and the other half were randomly chosen. The recommended adverts received a significantly higher median rating of 7...

  14. Assessing age stereotypes in the German population in 1996 and 2011: socio-demographic correlates and shift over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangenberg, Lena; Zenger, Markus; Glaesmer, Heide; Brähler, Elmar; Strauss, Bernhard

    2018-03-01

    The present study aimed to extend the knowledge regarding dimensionality, socio-demographic correlates and shifts in age stereotypes over the past 15 years using a time-sequential design. In 1996 and 2011, we assessed age stereotypes in two independent samples of the German population aged ≥ 45 years ( N  = 970 in sample 1, N  = 1545 in sample 2). Three scales with six items each were assessed. Two scales cover negative (i.e., rigidity/isolation, burden), and one scale covers positive age stereotypes (wisdom/experience). Dimensionality of the scale, associations with socio-demographic variables and whether the stereotypes have shifted were tested using confirmatory factor analyses, structural equation modeling and analyses of variances. Three dimensions were identified and replicated following an exploratory as well as a confirmatory approach. Age stereotypes did shift between 1996 and 2011 in the dimension burden (i.e., becoming more negative). Our results further underpin the finding that age stereotypes are multifaceted and suggest that dimensions do not change over time. Additionally, our data provide some evidence that societal age stereotypes partly change over time.

  15. Demographic transition and population ageing in India: Implications on the elderly of the future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shradha Mathur

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ageing population of India will transform into the elderly in future. The issue of health of the elderly population in India has arrested the attention of health policy makers and the researchers, in the recent past. Demographic structure, quality of life, healthcare services and government planning have serious implications on the ageing population. The objective of the research article is to systematically and critically evaluate the impact of demographic transition, projected demographic indicators and changing population characteristics on the health status of the elderly persons living in India in the coming decades. Analysis and discussions are based on secondary data published by the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare of the Government of India. The results indicate that India will be an ageing nation in the coming years and improvements in health, education and government planning are likely to enhance the life expectancy of the elderly, while the share of children will reduce, suggesting an increase in dependency of the older persons on the adult population. The article provides insights into workable solutions and suggests key recommendations to attain faster demographic dividend. India would be competing with the pressure of a dramatic demographic bulge in future.

  16. The Risk of Imbalances in the Financing of Social Protection in the Context of Demographic Ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vergil Voineagu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the next decades, developed countries will experience dramatic changes in their demographic trends. The retirement of the wide baby-boom generations, the increase in life expectancy and the decline in fertility ratios are likely to modify the size and the age-structure of their populations. The expected population ageing in European countries will burden the pension systems, especially wherever the pay-as-you-go pillar is predominant. Recently, migration has received a widespread attention as a solution to expected population decline and ageing in these countries. The flow of (young migrants to developed countries is perceived as a means to alleviate the financial burden of pension systems. The aim of this contribution is to clarify the issue of aging on labour and capital markets in a macroeconomic perspective. A special attention is given to the risk of imbalances in the financing of social protection in the context of demographic ageing.

  17. Impact of demographic ageing on sustainability of public finance in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdravković Aleksandar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Population ageing is a global phenomenon without precedent in the history of humanity having implications in all facets of life. From an economic point of view, population ageing is certainly one of the biggest challenges of modern time. A consequence of these global demographic tendencies reflected in growing number of pensioners which negatively affects sustainability of public pension systems financed by the principle of intergenerational solidarity (Pay-As-You-Go - widely represented in public pension schemes of European countries. In this paper, impact of demographic ageing on pension systems is analyzed in the context of sustainability of public finance in Serbia in the period 2010-2050. Although the comparative analysis of the pension expenditure share in gross domestic product (GDP does not point to significant differences between Serbia and the countries in the neighborhood and the European Union, the growth trend of subsidizing the Pension Fund from the government budget endangers medium-term sustainability of the public pension system in Serbia, bearing in mind that the implementation of measures proposed in pension reforms can be valorized only in the long run. The main objective of the analysis is projecting long-term pension expenditure as a share of GDP. The projections were formed indirectly by modeling the average pension expenditure, because this variable incorporates both growth in the total pension expenditure and growth in the number of pensioners as a result of demographic trends, and better reflects the actual growth of pension expenditure. For the purposes of the analysis, in addition to the projection of real GDP growth, size of the inactive population aged 65 and over, as the main contingent of the pension system users and the total number of pensioners, was projected by means of stochastic cohort component methodology. Based on these projections and assumptions about the growth rate of average pension expenditure

  18. An aging population: relationships between socio-demographics, motivations and participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karen Robinson; Robert C. Burns; Chad D. Pierskalla; Alan Graefe

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the outdoor recreation behavior of Oregon's aging population, including developing a socio-demographic profile and examining the importance of their current motivations with the importance of their expected motivations 10 years from now. A stratified random sample was drawn of Oregon residents, and a mailback questionnaire...

  19. Socio-Demographic Determinants of Economic Growth: Age-Structure, Preindustrial Heritage and Sociolinguistic Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crenshaw, Edward; Robison, Kristopher

    2010-01-01

    This study establishes a socio-demographic theory of international development derived from selected classical and contemporary sociological theories. Four hypotheses are tested: (1. population growth's effect on development depends on age-structure; (2. historic population density (used here as an indicator of preindustrial social complexity)…

  20. Differences in Demographic and Psychological Variables in Suicide by Self-immolation and Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Memarian

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Self-immolation and intentional poisoning are two common methods for suicidal attempts in developing countries. Few studies have compared the characteristics of people who commit suicide by self-immolation or intentional poisoning. Hence, the aim of this study was to compare demographic, social, and psychological features between these two groups.Methods: In the present study, patients hospitalized after suicide by self-immolation in Shaheed Motahari Hospital, Tehran, were compared to patients hospitalized due to intentional poisoning in Loghman Hakim Hospital, Tehran, in 2011. Demographic and psychological data were collected by interviews and questionnaires and analyzed by SPSS software (version 16.Results: Overall, 50 patients with poisoning and 21 patients with self-immolation were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. The mean age of the patients in the poisoning group was significantly lower than the self-immolation group (P=0.007. The number of married people in the self-immolation group was significantly higher than the poisoning group (P=0.014. Substance abuse was also significantly higher (P=0.048 and educational level was significantly lower (P=0.023 in the self-immolation group. However, the prevalence of anxiety disorders (P=0.001 and adjustment disorders (P=0.007 was significantly higher in the poisoning group than the self-immolation group.Conclusion: The findings of this study suggest the presence of differences between individuals who commit suicide by self-immolation or by poisoning in terms of demographic and psychological factors. Identification of these differences can be important in planning suicide prevention measures and education.

  1. Differences in Demographic and Psychological Variables in Suicide by Self-immolation and Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamran Aghakhani

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Self-immolation and intentional poisoning are two common methods for suicidal attempts in developing countries. Few studies have compared the characteristics of people who commit suicide by self-immolation or intentional poisoning. Hence, the aim of this study was to compare demographic, social, and psychological features between these two groups. Methods: In the present study, patients hospitalized after suicide by self-immolation in Shaheed Motahari Hospital, Tehran, were compared to patients hospitalized due to intentional poisoning in Loghman Hakim Hospital, Tehran, in 2011. Demographic and psychological data were collected by interviews and questionnaires and analyzed by SPSS software (version 16. Results: Overall, 50 patients with poisoning and 21 patients with self-immolation were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. The mean age of the patients in the poisoning group was significantly lower than the self-immolation group (P=0.007. The number of married people in the self-immolation group was significantly higher than the poisoning group (P=0.014. Substance abuse was also significantly higher (P=0.048 and educational level was significantly lower (P=0.023 in the self-immolation group. However, the prevalence of anxiety disorders (P=0.001 and adjustment disorders (P=0.007 was significantly higher in the poisoning group than the self-immolation group. Conclusion: The findings of this study suggest the presence of differences between individuals who commit suicide by self-immolation or by poisoning in terms of demographic and psychological factors. Identification of these differences can be important in planning suicide prevention measures and education.

  2. Changing maternity leave policy: short-term effects on fertility rates and demographic variables in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyrian, Jochen René; Fendrich, Konstanze; Lange, Anja; Haas, Johannes-Peter; Zygmunt, Marek; Hoffmann, Wolfgang

    2010-08-01

    Changes in reproductive behaviour and decreasing fertility rates have recently led to policy actions that attempt to counteract these developments. Evidence on the efficacy of such policy interventions, however, is limited. The present analysis examines fertility rates and demographic variables of a population in Germany in response to new maternity leave regulations, which were introduced in January 2007. As part of a population-based survey of neonates in Pomerania (SNiP), all births in the study region from the period 23 months prior to January 1st, 2007 until 23 months afterwards were examined. Crude Birth Rates (CBR) per month, General Fertility Rates (GFR) per month, parity and sociodemographic variables were compared using bivariate techniques. Logistic regression analysis was performed. No statistically significant difference in the CBR or GFR after Jan. 1st, 2007 was found. There were statistically significant differences in other demographic variables, however. The proportion of mothers who (a) were employed full-time before pregnancy; (b) came from a higher socioeconomic status; and (c) had higher income levels all increased after January 1st, 2007. The magnitude of these effects was higher in multigravid women. Forward stepwise logistic regression found an odds ratio of 1.79 for women with a family income of more than 3000 euro to give birth after the new law was introduced. This is the first analysis of population-based data that examines fertility rates and sociodemographic variables in response to new legal regulations. No short-term effects on birth rates were detected, but there was a differential effect on the subgroup of multigravidae. The focus of this policy was to provide financial support, which is certainly important, but the complexity of having a child suggests that attitudinal and motivational aspects also need to be taken into account. Furthermore, these analyses were only able to evaluate the short-term consequences of the policy

  3. [The consequences of the demographic revolution and of the aging of society: restructuring the age groups and modifying intergenerational relations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loriaux, M

    1995-01-01

    The consequences of demographic aging in developed societies are examined. The author notes that "demographic aging has intensified over the last decades, bringing with it a significant modification in relationships between age groups and the sexes.... These changes in demographic structures bring with them the reorganization in intergenerational relations, the most spectacular instance of which...[is] the coexistence at the same time and in the same place of four or five generations of direct descendants." The author develops the hypothesis that a new attitude toward old age is needed in which "the social status of the elderly must be reinstated, and everything must be brought into play to encourage the integration of different age groups and intergenerational solidarity, so as to arrive in the best possible conditions at what [can be termed] the 'era of old age'...which will accompany the coming of the post-industrial society with its orientation toward the mass production of leisure and of services." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND SPA) excerpt

  4. ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL ASPECTS OF THE DEMOGRAPHIC AGEING PROCESS IN THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga SÂRBU

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of this paper consists in analyzing economic and social aspects of demographic aging process in Moldova. To interpret the accumulated data and calculations performed analytical method of calculation tabular method and graphical method was applied. Intense process of aging is associated with changes in all spheres of social and economic life and affects equally the interests of older people and society as a whole. In Republic of Moldova aging population has grown in the last two decades, being conditioned both declining birth rate, which is very low and does not provide simple reproduction of the population and the mass migration of population that leads to the depopulation of the country. Maintaining the natural and migration increase with negative values amplifies the negative demographic deterioration of the country, which influences economic development, competitiveness and stability of the country and welfare of its citizens. In this situation it is necessary to respond positively to the challenges of demographic change through the complex and multisectoral approaches designed to correct current unfavorable demographic evolutions.

  5. The influence of selected socio-demographic variables on symptoms occurring during the menopause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Makara-Studzińska

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It is considered that the lifestyle conditioned by socio-demographic or socio-economic factors determines the health condition of people to the greatest extent. The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of selected socio-demographic factors on the kinds of symptoms occurring during menopause. Material and methods : The study group consisted of 210 women aged 45 to 65, not using hormone replacement therapy, staying at healthcare centers for rehabilitation treatment. The study was carried out in 2013-2014 in the Silesian, Podlaskie and Lesser Poland voivodeships. The set of tools consisted of the authors’ own survey questionnaire and the Menopause Rating Scale (MRS. Results : The most commonly occurring symptom in the group of studied women was a depressive mood, from the group of psychological symptoms, followed by physical and mental fatigue, and discomfort connected with muscle and joint pain. The greatest intensity of symptoms was observed in the group of women with the lowest level of education, reporting an average or bad material situation, and unemployed women. Conclusions : An alarmingly high number of reported psychological symptoms in the group of menopausal women was observed, and in particular among the group of low socio-economic status. Career seems to be a factor reducing the risk of occurrence of psychological symptoms. There is an urgent need for health promotion and prophylaxis in the group of menopausal women, and in many cases for implementation of specialist psychological assistance.

  6. DEMOGRAPHIC AND LABOUR FORCE AGEING – RISK FACTORS FOR THE SOCIAL PROTECTION SYSTEM IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria POENARU

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Population ageing is one of the main challenges to the economic and social development in the next decades. This article examines the main implications of demographic and labour force ageing on the future of social protection in Romania. The first part presents the mechanisms which define or govern the relationships between social protection and demographic ageing. The second highlights the main risks for the future of the Romanian social protection system and of the people’s social protection derived from increasing dependence rates, including that of older people; also, derived from labour force distribution changing, by gender. The final part focuses on the employment situation of older persons and on trends of paid jobs (employees, both of them having an important impact on social protection.

  7. Relation between Attachment Styles and Marital Conflicts through the Mediation of Demographic Variables in Couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaleh Refahi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to explain the test of the mediating role of demographic features in relation with marital conflicts and attachment styles. The studied samples were 150 couples visiting the consulting centers of the city Shiraz who were selected by the purposeful sampling method among 800 couples. They filed out adult attachment styles and marital conflicts and also emographic questionnaire. The findings showed that secure attachment style has a direct and negative effect on marital conflicts. Besides, avoidant and ambivalent attachment style has a direct and positive effect on it. Moreover, age has a direct and positive effect but education has a direct and negative effect on marital conflicts. Results showed that the conflicts in samples with secure attachment style will be increased by increasing age and they will be reduced by increasing the level of education. Because in people with secure attachment style, increase of age and academic level leads to their intellectual growth and therefore, they adapt more active and flexible approaches to the resolve their problems and conflicts flexibility in solving problems and conflicts. Besides, they use a variety of intellectual methods and pay more attention to their spouses, they use a wide spectrum of solutions so that the level of their conflicts would be reduced.

  8. Demographic Variables and Selective, Sustained Attention and Planning through Cognitive Tasks among Healthy Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsaneh Zarghi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cognitive tasks are considered to be applicable and appropriate in assessing cognitive domains. The purpose of our study is to determine the relationship existence between variables of age, sex and education with selective, sustained attention and planning abilities by means of computerized cognitive tasks among healthy adults. Methods: A cross-sectional study was implemented during 6 months from June to November, 2010 on 84 healthy adults (42 male and 42 female. The whole participants performed computerized CPT, STROOP and TOL tests after being content and trained. Results: The obtained data indicate that there is a significant correlation coefficient between age, sex and education variables (p<0.05. Discussion: The above-mentioned tests can be used to assess selective, sustained attention and planning.

  9. Demographic Variables and Selective, Sustained Attention and Planning through Cognitive Tasks among Healthy Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Afsaneh Zarghi; Zali; A; Tehranidost; M; Mohammad Reza Zarindast; Ashrafi; F; Doroodgar; Khodadadi

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Cognitive tasks are considered to be applicable and appropriate in assessing cognitive domains. The purpose of our study is to determine the relationship existence between variables of age, sex and education with selective, sustained attention and planning abilities by means of computerized cognitive tasks among healthy adults. Methods: A cross-sectional study was implemented during 6 months from June to November, 2010 on 84 healthy adults (42 male and 42 female). The whole part...

  10. An evaluation of FIA's stand age variable

    Science.gov (United States)

    John D. Shaw

    2015-01-01

    The Forest Inventory and Analysis Database (FIADB) includes a large number of measured and computed variables. The definitions of measured variables are usually well-documented in FIA field and database manuals. Some computed variables, such as live basal area of the condition, are equally straightforward. Other computed variables, such as individual tree volume,...

  11. Excessive exercise among adolescents with eating disorders: examination of psychological and demographic variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renz, Jessica A; Fisher, Martin; Vidair, Hilary B; Hirsch, Dina; Malizio, Joan; Barger, Hamutal; Fornari, Victor

    2017-08-29

    Background While a large number of patients with eating disorders (EDs) engage in excessive exercise (EE), both for weight control and mood regulation, there has been minimal research evaluating the relationship between EE and demographic and psychological factors, especially in adolescent patients. Purpose The goals of this study were to identify the occurrence of EE compared to other ED behaviors and to develop a regression model examining psychological, behavioral and demographic predictors of EE among adolescents with EDs. Methods Demographic and clinical information was determined for 217 adolescent patients in several levels of care (126 outpatient, 61 day program, 28 inpatient) with diagnoses of anorexia nervosa (AN) (24.9%), bulimia nervosa (BN) (25.8%), and eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) (49.3%). These patients presented to a large ED program and completed a series of questionnaires on admission to the program. Descriptive statistics, t-tests, chi-square analyses and multiple logistic regression were utilized to describe the population of adolescent patients and develop the model for predicting EE. Results Forty-seven percent of patients indicated they participated in EE in the past 4 weeks, compared to 32% for binge eating, 35% for vomiting and 15% for laxative use; 42% of patients with anorexia nervosa participated in EE, compared to 54% with bulimia nervosa and 49% with EDNOS. The regression model that was developed to predict EE, which included factors of depression, anxiety, dietary restraint, age, body mass index (BMI), diagnosis and level of care, correctly classified EE in 71.5% of cases. Dietary restraint and BMI were the two factors found to be significantly associated with EE. Conclusions Forty-seven percent of adolescent patients presenting for treatment of an ED reported participating in EE. This was larger than the numbers of patients reporting other ED behaviors that are commonly assessed, indicating the need for

  12. Demographic patterns and trends in patenting: Gender, age, and education of inventors

    OpenAIRE

    Ejermo, Olof; Jung, Taehyun

    2012-01-01

    This paper uses register-linked patent records covering an extended period 1985-2007 to analyze detailed demographic profiles of inventors. The analysis covers about 80 percent of all inventors with Swedish addresses listed on European Patent Office records. Examining temporal trends of gender, age, and education shows that the body of inventors is becoming more balanced in gender, younger, and more educated. However, the rate at which female inventors are entering into patenting has slowed d...

  13. Treatment processes and demographic variables as predictors of dropout from trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (TF-CBT) for youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasinski, Carly; Hayes, Adele M; Alpert, Elizabeth; McCauley, Thomas; Ready, C Beth; Webb, Charles; Deblinger, Esther

    2018-05-22

    Premature dropout is a significant concern in trauma-focused psychotherapy for youth. Previous studies have primarily examined pre-treatment demographic and symptom-related predictors of dropout, but few consistent findings have been reported. The current study examined demographic, symptom, and in-session process variables as predictors of dropout from Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT) for youth. Participants were a diverse sample of Medicaid-eligible youth (ages 7-17; n = 108) and their nonoffending caregivers (n = 86), who received TF-CBT through an effectiveness study in a community setting. In-session process variables were coded from audio-recorded sessions, and these and pre-treatment demographic variables and symptom levels were examined as predictors of dropout prior to receiving an adequate dose of TF-CBT (parents or relatives. No other demographic or symptom-related factors predicted dropout. These findings highlight the importance of addressing avoidance and therapeutic relationship difficulties in early sessions of TF-CBT to help reduce dropout, and they have implications for improving efforts to disseminate evidence-based trauma-focused treatments. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Frequency of musculoskeleton health problems and its relation with demographic variables among cherat coal miners district nowshera khyber pukhtunkhwa pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishtiaq, M.; Zehan, N.

    2014-01-01

    The objective was to determine the frequency of musculo-skeleton health problems among the coal miners and to assess the relation of musculo-skeleton with various demographic variables among cherat coal miners of District Nowshera Khyber Pukhtunkhwa Pakistan. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study design was conducted between July and December 2014 at the cherat coal mines of District Nowshera. A sample size of 400 was selected through cluster sampling technique, in which the study area was divided into four clusters and then from each cluster 40% coal miners were selected based on simple random technique. There are approximately 80-90 Cherat coal mines in which around 1000 of coal miners are working. Coal miner's having more than one year of coal mining job were included in the study while those with less than one year or having any pathological problems were excluded from the study population. Field visits were conducted to collect relevant data from the study areas. The structured pretested questionnaire was used to collect data regarding history of musculo-skeleton problems and was evaluated with the selected demographic variables like age, duration of coal mining job, job satisfaction, and previous history of mine injuries. Results: Our study results showed that approximately 61% of coal miners had history of musculo-skeleton problems. Among those coal miners who gave history of musculo-skeleton problems, 76.64% were due to lack of training, 24.59% to early 1-4 years of coal mining job, 60.23% to less than 30 years of coal miner's age, 75.00% to unsatisfied with job, 83.19% to poor/bad knowledge of mine safety measures; 58.87% for not using personnel protective measures; and 67.62% to positive smoking history while the remaining 32.38 were among non-smokers. Conclusion: The frequency of occupational musculo-skeleton problems among coal miners 61% more and had strong relationship with age, duration of coal mining job, smoking behavior, job satisfaction

  15. The Relationship between Demographic Variables and Diabetes Self-Management in Diabetic Patients in Amman City/Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Adwan, Mezyed A.; Najjar, Yahya W.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Diabetes is a chronic disease that requires routine and complicated self care. Although self care can be managed by most diabetes patients, there are many variables that may make diabetes self-management difficult. Aim: The study examined the relationship between clients? demographic variables and diabetes self-management in diabetic clients in Amman city/Jordan. Method: The data were collected through a self-completed questionnaire developed by the researchers and combined with t...

  16. An examination of healthy aging across a conceptual continuum: prevalence estimates, demographic patterns, and validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Sara J; Jette, Alan M; Connell, Cathleen M

    2012-06-01

    Although the notion of healthy aging has gained wide acceptance in gerontology, measuring the phenomenon is challenging. Guided by a prominent conceptualization of healthy aging, we examined how shifting from a more to less stringent definition of healthy aging influences prevalence estimates, demographic patterns, and validity. Data are from adults aged 65 years and older who participated in the Health and Retirement Study. We examined four operational definitions of healthy aging. For each, we calculated prevalence estimates and examined the odds of healthy aging by age, education, gender, and race-ethnicity in 2006. We also examined the association between healthy aging and both self-rated health and death. Across definitions, the prevalence of healthy aging ranged from 3.3% to 35.5%. For all definitions, those classified as experiencing healthy aging had lower odds of fair or poor self-rated health and death over an 8-year period. The odds of being classified as "healthy" were lower among those of advanced age, those with less education, and women than for their corresponding counterparts across all definitions. Moving across the conceptual continuum--from a more to less rigid definition of healthy aging--markedly increases the measured prevalence of healthy aging. Importantly, results suggest that all examined definitions identified a subgroup of older adults who had substantially lower odds of reporting fair or poor health and dying over an 8-year period, providing evidence of the validity of our definitions. Conceptualizations that emphasize symptomatic disease and functional health may be particularly useful for public health purposes.

  17. How well can body size represent effects of the environment on demographic rates? Disentangling correlated explanatory variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Mollie E; Mugabo, Marianne; Rodgers, Gwendolen M; Benton, Timothy G; Ozgul, Arpat

    2016-03-01

    Demographic rates are shaped by the interaction of past and current environments that individuals in a population experience. Past environments shape individual states via selection and plasticity, and fitness-related traits (e.g. individual size) are commonly used in demographic analyses to represent the effect of past environments on demographic rates. We quantified how well the size of individuals captures the effects of a population's past and current environments on demographic rates in a well-studied experimental system of soil mites. We decomposed these interrelated sources of variation with a novel method of multiple regression that is useful for understanding nonlinear relationships between responses and multicollinear explanatory variables. We graphically present the results using area-proportional Venn diagrams. Our novel method was developed by combining existing methods and expanding upon them. We showed that the strength of size as a proxy for the past environment varied widely among vital rates. For instance, in this organism with an income breeding life history, the environment had more effect on reproduction than individual size, but with substantial overlap indicating that size encompassed some of the effects of the past environment on fecundity. This demonstrates that the strength of size as a proxy for the past environment can vary widely among life-history processes within a species, and this variation should be taken into consideration in trait-based demographic or individual-based approaches that focus on phenotypic traits as state variables. Furthermore, the strength of a proxy will depend on what state variable(s) and what demographic rate is being examined; that is, different measures of body size (e.g. length, volume, mass, fat stores) will be better or worse proxies for various life-history processes. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2016 British Ecological Society.

  18. Vulnerability of white spruce tree growth in interior Alaska in response to climate variability: dendrochronological, demographic, and experimental perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.D. McGuire; R.W. Ruess; A. Lloyd; J. Yarie; J.S. Clein; G.P. Juday

    2010-01-01

    This paper integrates dendrochronological, demographic, and experimental perspectives to improve understanding of the response of white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss) tree growth to climatic variability in interior Alaska. The dendrochronological analyses indicate that climate warming has led to widespread declines in white spruce growth...

  19. The Impact of Perceptual, Economic, and Demographic Variables on Entrepreneurial Activity in Globally Diverse Ecosystems: Evidence from GEM Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Kenneth Raymond

    2016-01-01

    Leveraging a sample of more than 198,000 adult entrepreneurs, both currently involved in the startup of a business or formerly involved in business creation, this study investigates the perceptual, societal impression, economic, and demographic variables that are predictive with an individual's decision to engage in entrepreneurial activity.…

  20. Self Efficacy and Some Demographic Variables as Predictors of Occupational Stress among Primary School Teachers in Delta State of Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpochafo, G. O.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated self efficacy and some demographic variables as predictors of occupational stress among primary school teachers in Delta State. Three hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. The study adopted a descriptive survey design that utilized an expost-facto research type. A sample of one hundred and twenty primary school…

  1. [The early bronze age graveyards of Franzhausen I, lower Austria. 2. Demographic analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berner, M

    1992-04-01

    In a recent study of 714 graves of the Early Bronze Age cemetery, Franzhausen I, 658 individuals were demographically analysed. The masculinity rate and the mortality rate in the age groups were of similar order compared with estimates derived from other series of this period. On the base of a stationary population model, life tables were calculated showing life expectancy at birth to be 25.8 years and at the age of 20, 17.7 years. Also computed were: the crude death rate (Z = 38.8); and the population size (P = 31 or 65). The lack of infants were estimated by regressions (5q0 = 58%) and the results are discussed.

  2. Demographic factors and retrieval of object and proper names after age 70.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gitit Kavé

    Full Text Available This research aimed to investigate whether demographic factors are similarly related to retrieval of object and proper names.The sample included 5,907 individuals above age 70 who participated in the Health and Retirement Study between 2004 and 2012. Participants were asked to name two objects as well as the US President and Vice President. Latent growth curve models examined the associations of age, education, and self-rated health with baseline levels and change trajectories in retrieval.Age and education were more strongly related to retrieval of proper names than to retrieval of object names, both for baseline scores and for change trajectory. Similar effects of self-rated health emerged for both types of stimuli.The results show that examining object names and proper names together as indication of cognitive status in the HRS might overlook important differences between the two types of stimuli, in both baseline performance and longitudinal change.

  3. Demographic aging in the United States: implications for population and income redistribution to the year 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serow, W J; Spar, M A

    1982-01-01

    "The purpose of this paper is to analyze the effects of a prolonged period of sustained low fertility upon shifts in the population distribution of the United States among Department of Energy (DOE) regions." The authors also examine the impact of demographic aging on income distribution up to the year 2000 using the assumptions made in the Series III population projections prepared by the U.S. Bureau of the Census in 1977. It is noted that migration will emerge as the primary agent for internal population redistribution. excerpt

  4. The relationship between socio-demographic variables, job stressors, burnout, and hardy personality in nurses: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrosa, Eva; Moreno-Jiménez, Bernardo; Liang, Youxin; González, José Luis

    2008-03-01

    Nursing is considered as a risk profession with high levels of stress and burnout, and these levels are probably increasing. A model of prediction of burnout in nursing that includes socio-demographic variables, job stressors, and personal vulnerability, or resistance, is proposed. A cross-sectional correlational design was used. A sample of 473 nurses and student nurses in practice from three General Hospitals in Madrid (Spain) completed the "Nursing Burnout Scale". The data were analysed using descriptive statistics, Pearson correlations, and hierarchical multiple regression. The proposed model is a good predictor of the diverse burnout sub-dimensions: emotional exhaustion, depersonalisation, and lack of personal accomplishment. Significant predictors of burnout included age, job status, job stressors (workload, experience with pain and death, conflictive interaction, and role ambiguity), and hardy personality (commitment, control, and challenge). Identifying an integrative process of burnout among nurses is an essential step to develop effective managerial strategies so as to reduce the burnout problem. Specifically, the present study suggests that intervention aimed at reducing the risk for burnout may achieve better results if it includes enhancement of workers' hardy personality rather than just decreasing environmental stressors.

  5. Predicting health literacy of students in Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences in 2016: The role of demographic variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Ziapoor

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: Health literacy is a key outcome measures of health education that should be in the context of broader health promotion. This study aims to predict the health literacy of students in Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences in 1395: the role of demographic variables was performed. Methods: A descriptive correlational study on 350 students of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences was done. Sampling was random. Data collection was conducted through a questionnaire of health literacy Montazeri et al. Information collected through software SPSS 23 and using t-tests, ANOVA and Pearson correlation coefficient were analyzed. Results: The mean (SD total score of health literacy in students was 4.04 ± 0.43. T-test and ANOVA between health literacy by gender, age, profession, education level and location have a significant relationship. Pearson correlation coefficient between the components of health literacy in research samples showed high correlation was statistically significant (P <0.01. Conclusion: The importance and need for attention to students' health literacy for health promotion as an essential factor in the impact-transition seems to be. Paper Type: Research Article.

  6. Variability of perfluoroalkyl substance concentrations in pregnant women by socio-demographic and dietary factors in a Spanish birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzano-Salgado, Cyntia B; Casas, Maribel; Lopez-Espinosa, Maria-Jose; Ballester, Ferran; Martinez, David; Ibarluzea, Jesus; Santa-Marina, Loreto; Schettgen, Thomas; Vioque, Jesus; Sunyer, Jordi; Vrijheid, Martine

    2016-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) might affect child health; but maternal determinants of PFAS exposure are unclear. We evaluated the socio-demographic and dietary factors of prenatal PFAS concentrations in a Spanish birth cohort. We analyzed perfluorohexanesulfonic acid (PFHxS), perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) in 1216 plasma samples collected during the 1(ST) trimester of pregnancy (2003-2008). We used multivariable linear regressions to assess the geometric mean (GM) ratios of PFAS concentrations by socio-demographic and dietary factors. We used analysis of variance (ANOVA) to assess the variability of PFAS concentrations by maternal factors. GM PFAS concentrations ranged from 0.55ng/mL for PFHxS to 5.77ng/mL for PFOS. Women born outside of Spain had lower PFAS concentrations (e.g. GM ratio for PFHxS 0.53[95%CI: 0.46, 0.60] than Spanish women. PFHxS and PFOA concentrations were higher in mothers from the regions of Sabadell (2.13[1.93, 2.35] and 1.73[1.60, 1.88], respectively) and Valencia (1.40[1.28, 1.54] and 1.42[1.31, 1.53], respectively) than Gipuzkoa. PFOA and PFNA concentrations decreased with parity (≥2 children: 0.79[0.67, 0.94] and 0.82[0.68, 0.99], respectively). Younger women (i.e. 6months compared to those who never breastfed (0.79[0.67, 0.94] and 0.82[0.71, 0.95], respectively). High intake of fish and shellfish during pregnancy (i.e. ≥5.6 servings/week) was associated with 11% (1.11[1.04, 1.18]) higher PFOS concentrations than the lowest intake group. Our ANOVA models explained 26% to 40% of PFAS concentrations variability. Prenatal PFAS concentrations were mainly determined by maternal country of birth, region of residence, previous breastfeeding and age. Fish and shellfish intake also contributed to PFOS and PFOA concentrations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Research on PTSD prevalence in OEF/OIF Veterans: expanding investigation of demographic variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynnette A. Averill

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: A series of recent articles has reported on well-designed studies examining base rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD screenings within the Operation Enduring Freedom (Afghanistan conflict/Operation Iraqi Freedom (Iraq conflict (OEF/OIF military population. Although these studies have a number of strengths, this line of research points out several key areas in need of further examination. Objective: Many OEF/OIF Veterans do not use available Veterans Affairs (VA services, especially mental health care. This highlights the need to understand the differences between those who use and do not use the VA, especially as research with pre-OEF/OIF Veterans suggests that these two groups differ in significant ways. The high rates of PTSD-related concerns in non-VA users also points to a need to understand whether—and where—Veterans are seeking care outside the VA and the accessibility of evidence-based, trauma-focused treatments in the community and private sectors. Careful examination of relationship status is also paramount as little research has examined relationship status or other relationship context issues. Social support, especially from a spouse, can buffer the development of PTSD; however, relationship discord has the potential to greatly exacerbate PTSD symptomatology. Furthermore, given the additional risk factors for sexual minority Veterans to be exposed to trauma, the 2011 repeal of the US Military “Don't Ask, Don't Tell” policy, and the emergence of the VA as likely the largest health care provider for sexual minority Veterans, it will be critically important to study the trauma and mental health experiences of this group. Conclusions: Studies that examine prevalence rates of PTSD in the returning cohort contribute significantly to our understanding of the US OEF/OIF military population. Further study of PTSD in relation to demographic variables such as VA and non-VA use, relationship status, and sexual

  8. Research on PTSD prevalence in OEF/OIF Veterans: expanding investigation of demographic variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averill, Lynnette A; Eubanks Fleming, C J; Holens, Pamela L; Larsen, Sadie E

    2015-01-01

    A series of recent articles has reported on well-designed studies examining base rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) screenings within the Operation Enduring Freedom (Afghanistan conflict)/Operation Iraqi Freedom (Iraq conflict) (OEF/OIF) military population. Although these studies have a number of strengths, this line of research points out several key areas in need of further examination. Many OEF/OIF Veterans do not use available Veterans Affairs (VA) services, especially mental health care. This highlights the need to understand the differences between those who use and do not use the VA, especially as research with pre-OEF/OIF Veterans suggests that these two groups differ in significant ways. The high rates of PTSD-related concerns in non-VA users also points to a need to understand whether-and where-Veterans are seeking care outside the VA and the accessibility of evidence-based, trauma-focused treatments in the community and private sectors. Careful examination of relationship status is also paramount as little research has examined relationship status or other relationship context issues. Social support, especially from a spouse, can buffer the development of PTSD; however, relationship discord has the potential to greatly exacerbate PTSD symptomatology. Furthermore, given the additional risk factors for sexual minority Veterans to be exposed to trauma, the 2011 repeal of the US Military "Don't Ask, Don't Tell" policy, and the emergence of the VA as likely the largest health care provider for sexual minority Veterans, it will be critically important to study the trauma and mental health experiences of this group. Studies that examine prevalence rates of PTSD in the returning cohort contribute significantly to our understanding of the US OEF/OIF military population. Further study of PTSD in relation to demographic variables such as VA and non-VA use, relationship status, and sexual orientation will provide rich data that will enhance our ability

  9. Plasticity, Variability and Age in Second Language Acquisition and Bilingualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdsong, David

    2018-01-01

    Much of what is known about the outcome of second language acquisition and bilingualism can be summarized in terms of inter-individual variability, plasticity and age. The present review looks at variability and plasticity with respect to their underlying sources, and at age as a modulating factor in variability and plasticity. In this context we consider critical period effects vs. bilingualism effects, early and late bilingualism, nativelike and non-nativelike L2 attainment, cognitive aging, individual differences in learning, and linguistic dominance in bilingualism. Non-uniformity is an inherent characteristic of both early and late bilingualism. This review shows how plasticity and age connect with biological and experiential sources of variability, and underscores the value of research that reveals and explains variability. In these ways the review suggests how plasticity, variability and age conspire to frame fundamental research issues in L2 acquisition and bilingualism, and provides points of reference for discussion of the present Frontiers in Psychology Research Topic.

  10. Of sports and politics: Predicting category-specific retention of news events from demographic variables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeter, M.; Ochtman, D.J.C.; Janssen, S.M.J.; Murre, J.M.J.

    2010-01-01

    Many tests of retrograde amnesia consist of questions on news events. It is therefore important to know how such questions are answered by normal adults. We analysed the retention of news events in a sample of 12,913 participants, who provided basic demographic information and subsequently answered

  11. Of sports and politics: Predicting category-specific retention of news events from demographic variables.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeter, M.; Ochtman, D.J.C.; Janssen, S.M.J.; Murre, J.M.J.

    2010-01-01

    Many tests of retrograde amnesia consist of questions on news events. It is therefore important to know how such questions are answered by normal adults. We analysed the retention of news events in a sample of 12,913 participants, who provided basic demographic information and subsequently answered

  12. Influence of Family and Socio-Demographic Variables on Students with Low Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanova, Pedro F.; Garcia-Linares, M. Cruz; de la Torre, Manuel J.; Carpio, M. de la Villa

    2005-01-01

    In this study we compare the distribution of parental educational styles and the scores reported both by parents and students for various family characteristics (acceptance, control, involvement, and expectations) and socio-demographic factors (socio-economic status, family structure, number of children, and order of birth of the children) in a…

  13. Patterns and processes of habitat-specific demographic variability in exploited marine species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasconcelos, R.P.; Eggleston, D.B.; Pape, le O.; Tulp, I.Y.M.

    2014-01-01

    Population dynamics are governed by four demographic rates: births, deaths, immigration, and emigration. Variation in these rates and processes underlying such variation can be used to prioritize habitat conservation and restoration as well as to parameterize models that predict habitat-specific

  14. Demographic Trends of Adults in New York City Opioid Treatment Programs--An Aging Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Benjamin; Polydorou, Soteri; Ferris, Rosie; Blaum, Caroline S; Ross, Stephen; McNeely, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    The population of adults accessing opioid treatment is growing older, but exact estimates vary widely, and little is known about the characteristics of the aging treatment population. Further, there has been little research regarding the epidemiology, healt h status, and functional impairments in this population. To determine the utilization of opioid treatment services by older adults in New York City. This study used administrative data from New York State licensed drug treatment programs to examine overall age trends and characteristics of older adults in opioid treatment programs in New York City from 1996 to 2012. We found significant increases in utilization of opioid treatment programs by older adults in New York City. By 2012, those aged 50-59 made up the largest age group in opioid treatment programs. Among older adults there were notable shifts in demographic background including gender and ethnicity, and an increase in self-reported impairments. More research is needed to fully understand the specific characteristics and needs of older adults with opioid dependence.

  15. Gender disparity in Socio-Demographic variables among the Tribals of Eastern India: a case study of the Santals

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, Amrita; Murry, Benrithung

    2013-01-01

    This paper gives a glimpse of the possible gender disparities that can be intimidated through various socio-demographic variables that exist among the tribals of eastern India by gaining insights from the Santals of Jharkhand, India. Data was collected from 1000 ever married women of the Santals, the largest tribal group of eastern India. The data analysis was based on data collected directly from the field using interview schedule and conclusions are based on qualitative analysis. Gender dis...

  16. Kindergarten students’ levels of understanding some science concepts and scientific inquiry processes according to demographic variables (the sampling of Kilis Province in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nail İlhan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to identify the kindergarten students’ levels of understanding some science concepts (LUSSC and scientific inquiry processes (SIP and compare their LUSSC and SIP in terms of some demographic variables. Also, another purpose of this study is to identify the predictive power of those demographic variables over the kindergarten students’ LUSSC and SIP. This study was conducted according to quantitative research design. The study group consisted of 335 kindergarten students from 20 different rural and urban schools. In the study, the scale for “Turkish Kindergarten Students’ Understandings of Scientific Concepts and Scientific Inquiry Processes” was used. According to some variables (such as mother’s education level and family structure, there was a statistically significant difference between students’ mean scores for LUSSC and between students’ mean scores for SIP. Within the scope of this study, it was found that among the predictor variables (age, family’s income level, and number of brother/sister were significant predictors for LUSSC, and number of brother/sister was a significant predictor for SIP.

  17. Kindergarten Students' Levels of Understanding Some Science Concepts and Scientific Inquiry Processes According to Demographic Variables (The Sampling of Kilis Province in Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilhan, Nail; Tosun, Cemal

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the kindergarten students' levels of understanding some science concepts (LUSSC) and scientific inquiry processes (SIP) and compare their LUSSC and SIP in terms of some demographic variables. Also, another purpose of this study is to identify the predictive power of those demographic variables over the…

  18. Characterizing relationships between personal exposures to VOCs and socioeconomic, demographic, behavioral variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sheng-Wei; Majeed, Mohammed A.; Chu, Pei-Ling; Lin, Hui-Chih

    Socioeconomic and demographic factors have been found to significantly affect time-activity patterns in population cohorts that can subsequently influence personal exposures to air pollutants. This study investigates relationships between personal exposures to eight VOCs (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, o-xylene, m-,p-xylene, chloroform, 1,4-dichlorobenzene, and tetrachloroethene) and socioeconomic, demographic, time-activity pattern factors using data collected from the 1999-2000 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) VOC study. Socio-demographic factors (such as race/ethnicity and family income) were generally found to significantly influence personal exposures to the three chlorinated compounds. This was mainly due to the associations paired by race/ethnicity and urban residence, race/ethnicity and use of air freshener in car, family income and use of dry-cleaner, which can in turn affect exposures to chloroform, 1,4-dichlorobenzene, and tetrachloroethene, respectively. For BTEX, the traffic-related compounds, housing characteristics (leaving home windows open and having an attached garage) and personal activities related to the uses of fuels or solvent-related products played more significant roles in influencing exposures. Significant differences in BTEX exposures were also commonly found in relation to gender, due to associated significant differences in time spent at work/school and outdoors. The coupling of Classification and Regression Tree (CART) and Bootstrap Aggregating (Bagging) techniques were used as effective tools for characterizing robust sets of significant VOC exposure factors presented above, which conventional statistical approaches could not accomplish. Identification of these significant VOC exposure factors can be used to generate hypotheses for future investigations about possible significant VOC exposure sources and pathways in the general U.S. population.

  19. Demographic variability and heterogeneity among individuals within and among clonal bacteria strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jouvet, Lionel; Rodriguez-Rojas, Alexandro; Steiner, Ulrich

    2018-01-01

    to accurately decompose the drivers of heterogeneity among individuals as genetically fixed or selectively neutral. Rather than working on wild populations we present here data from a simple bacterial system in the lab, Escherichia coli. Our system, based on cutting-edge microfluidic techniques, provides high...... control over the genotype and the environment. It therefore allows to unambiguously decompose and quantify fixed genetic variability and dynamic stochastic variability among individuals. We show that within clonal individual variability (dynamic heterogeneity) in lifespan and lifetime reproduction...

  20. Impact of socio-demographic factors on the mitigating actions for climate change: a path analysis with mediating effects of attitudinal variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masud, Muhammad Mehedi; Akhatr, Rulia; Nasrin, Shamima; Adamu, Ibrahim Mohammed

    2017-12-01

    Socio-demographic factors play a significant role in increasing the individual's climate change awareness and in setting a favorable individual attitude towards its mitigation. To better understand how the adversative effects of climate change can be mitigated, this study attempts to investigate the impact of socio-demographic factors on the mitigating actions of the individuals (MAOI) on climate change. Qualitative data were collected from a face-to-face survey of 360 respondents in the Kuala Lumpur region of Malaysia through a close-ended questionnaire. Analysis was conducted on the mediating effects of attitudinal variables through the path model by using the SEM. Findings indicate that the socio-demographic factors such as gender, age, education, income, and ethnicity can greatly influence the individual's awareness, attitude, risk perception, and knowledge of climate change issues. The results drawn from this study also revealed that the attitudinal factors act as a mediating effect between the socio-demographic factors and the MAOI, thereby, indicating that both the socio-demographic factors and the attitudinal factors have significant effects on the MAOI towards climate change. The outcome of this study can help policy makers and other private organizations to decide on the appropriate actions to take in managing climate change effects. These actions which encompass improving basic climate change education and making the public more aware of the local dimensions of climate change are important for harnessing public engagement and support that can also stimulate climate change awareness and promote mitigating actions to n protect the environment from the impact of climate change.

  1. Population pharmacokinetics and relationship between demographic and clinical variables and pharmacokinetics of gentamicin in neonates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolk, L M L; Degraeuwe, P L J; Nieman, F H M; de Wolf, M C; de Boer, A|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/075097346

    Population pharmacokinetic parameter estimates were calculated from 725 routine plasma gentamicin concentrations obtained in 177 neonates of 24 to 42 weeks' gestational age in their first week of life. Kel increases and V/W decreases with increasing gestational age. Almost identical results were

  2. An Investigation into the Relationship among Psychiatric, Demographic and Socio-Economic Variables with Bayesian Network Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunal Bilek

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate the factors influencing the Beck Depression Inventory score, the Beck Hopelessness Scale score and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem score and the relationships among the psychiatric, demographic and socio-economic variables with Bayesian network modeling. The data of 823 university students consist of 21 continuous and discrete relevant psychiatric, demographic and socio-economic variables. After the discretization of the continuous variables by two approaches, two Bayesian networks models are constructed using the b n l e a r n package in R, and the results are presented via figures and probabilities. One of the most significant results is that in the first Bayesian network model, the gender of the students influences the level of depression, with female students being more depressive. In the second model, social activity directly influences the level of depression. In each model, depression influences both the level of hopelessness and self-esteem in students; additionally, as the level of depression increases, the level of hopelessness increases, but the level of self-esteem drops.

  3. Demographic, clinical, and quality of life variables related to embarrassment in veterans living with an intestinal stoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Kimberly A; Rawl, Susan M; Schmidt, C Max; Grant, Marcia; Ko, Clifford Y; Baldwin, Carol M; Wendel, Christopher; Krouse, Robert S

    2007-01-01

    The study aims were to identify demographic, clinical, and quality of life variables related to embarrassment for people living with ostomies and to determine the experiences and/or feelings of veterans who were embarrassed by their ostomy. This was a cross-sectional, correlational study. A convenience sample of veterans (n = 239) living with ostomies from 3 VA medical centers was studied. The veterans were primarily Caucasian (84%), male (92%), and older (M = 69). The modified City of Hope Quality of Life-Ostomy questionnaire was used. Additionally, an open-ended question related to living with an ostomy was asked. The questionnaire packets were mailed to participants and self-administered. Approximately half of the participants (48%) rated their embarrassment as low, but 26% reported high embarrassment. Participants with high embarrassment were compared to those with low embarrassment on demographic, clinical, and quality of life variables. High embarrassment was associated with poorer total quality of life (P hopefulness were associated with low embarrassment (P < .001). Sources of embarrassment included leakage, odor, and noise. Embarrassment may negatively impact a person's quality of life; therefore, the variables associated with high embarrassment should be recognized and addressed.

  4. Knowledge of the benefits of physical-sport activity in older people according to socio demographic variables

    OpenAIRE

    Clemente Remón, Ángel Luis; Del Hierro Pinés, David; Jiménez Benito, Víctor; Sacedón Ramallo, Diego; Santacruz Lozano, José Antonio; Cerro Herrero, David

    2017-01-01

    This investigation pretends to know the degree of knowledge of the benefits of the practice of physical-sports activities for older people in an urban population of over 100,000 inhabitants (Alcalá de Henares) and the relationship according to socio-demographic variables. The quantitative used methodology has consisted of the realization of interviews face to face to a random sample of 133 people over 65 years of this population. The instrument used in the investigation has consisted of a que...

  5. Investigation of High School Students' Environmental Attitudes in Terms of Some Demographic Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koruoglu, Nergiz; Ugulu, Ilker; Yorek, Nurettin

    2015-01-01

    Studying individuals and students' attitudes towards environment and factors affecting students to be responsible individuals towards their environment may provide help towards the solution of environmental problems. In this study, it is aimed to evaluate environmental attitudes of high school students in terms of some variables. The sample of the…

  6. Age and sex influences on running mechanics and coordination variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Katherine A; Freedman Silvernail, Julia; Hamill, Joseph

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of age on running mechanics separately for male and female runners and to quantify sex differences in running mechanics and coordination variability for older runners. Kinematics and kinetics were captured for 20 younger (10 male) and 20 older (10 male) adults running overground at 3.5 m · s -1 . A modified vector coding technique was used to calculate segment coordination variability. Lower extremity joint angles, moments and segment coordination variability were compared between age and sex groups. Significant sex-age interaction effects were found for heel-strike hip flexion and ankle in/eversion angles and peak ankle dorsiflexion angle. In older adults, mid-stance knee flexion angle, ankle inversion and abduction moments and hip abduction and external rotation moments differed by sex. Older compared with younger females had reduced coordination variability in the thigh-shank transverse plane couple but greater coordination variability for the shank rotation-foot eversion couple in early stance. These results suggest there may be a non-equivalent aging process in the movement mechanics for males and females. The age and sex differences in running mechanics and coordination variability highlight the need for sex-based analyses for future studies examining injury risk with age.

  7. Demographic Predictors of Students' Science Participation over the Age of 16: an Australian Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Grant; Berry, Amanda; Baglin, James

    2018-01-01

    Using the Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) data, this paper aimed to examine if, and to what extent, demographic factors predict students' participation in science over the age of 16 (post-16). While all the students participating in this study are attending Australian schools, the comprehensiveness of these datasets, together with inclusion of studies from around the world provides a useful reference point for an international audience. Over 7000 students are included in the analysis of this paper. Characteristics of focus in this paper include groups who have been identified as being underrepresented in past studies including Indigenous students, those from lower-socio-economic status (SES) backgrounds, sex differences and immigrants. Among the factors tested, Indigenous status was the strongest negative predictor of post-16 science participation. SES was also a relatively strong predictor of post-16 science participation. Compared to students categorised with an Australian-ancestry, first-generation and foreign-background students were more likely to participate in post-16 science. The findings of this study contribute to existing research on debates about equity and trends in science participation.

  8. Effects of aging on blood pressure variability in resting conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veerman, D. P.; Imholz, B. P.; Wieling, W.; Karemaker, J. M.; van Montfrans, G. A.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of aging on beat-to-beat blood pressure and pulse interval variability in resting conditions and to determine the effect of aging on the sympathetic and vagal influence on the cardiovascular system by power spectral analysis of blood pressure

  9. The Conundrum of Demographic Aging and Policy Challenges: A Comparative Case Study of Canada, Japan and Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan A. McDaniel

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Some analysts lean toward comparative analyses of population aging, then draw potential policy implications. Others lean in the direction of attention to differences in policy regimes and then consider implications of population aging. Key differences among advanced societies may not emanate from demographic aging but from differences in how markets, states, and families work to redistribute societal benefits. In this paper, three countries with contrasting configurations of markets, states, and families, and at different stages of demographic aging, are compared and contrasted: Canada, Japan, and Korea. The paper has three objectives: 1 to outline key changes in population, family, and work in the three countries; 2 to consider how knowledge about these changes, their dynamics and interrelationships, is framed with respect to policy options; and 3 to compare Canada, Japan, and Korea in terms of the framing of policy challenges related to demographic aging. It is found that Canada is joining the longstanding pattern of Japan and Korea of late home-leaving by youth, meaning less effective time in the paid labour force. Little deep connection exists between population aging and economic productivity or labour force shortages. Differential labour market participation of women mediates the effects of population aging.

  10. Breastfeeding Practices, Demographic Variables, and Their Association with Morbidities in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipen V. Patel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Appropriate feeding practices are the key contributor to reducing morbidities and mortalities in under-five children. A cross-sectional questionnaire based survey of mothers of children aged less than 5years was conducted in 781 mothers. More than half of mothers (57.5% started feeding within an hour of birth, 55.9% gave exclusive breastfeeding for six months, 89.1% of the mothers stopped breastfeeding before two years of age, 18.2% of the mothers bottle-fed the babies, and 15.6% had problems during breastfeeding in first 6 months. Early initiation of breastfeeding within one hour of birth promoted exclusive breastfeeding, and breastfeeding for longer duration. Exclusive breastfeeding increased frequency of feeds. Multivariable logistic regression showed that initiation of breastfeeding after an hour of birth (p = 0.035, not providing exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months (p < 0.0001, unemployed mothers (p = 0.035, having two or more kids (p = 0.001, and complementary feeds given by person other than mother (p = 0.007 increased hospitalization. Starting breastfeeding after an hour of birth (p = 0.045, severe malnutrition (p = 0.018, and breastfeeding for < two years (p = 0.026 increased rates of diarrhea. Breastfeeding practices were not optimum and interventions to improve these practices need to be strengthened.

  11. Time variable cosmological constants from the age of universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Lixin; Lu Jianbo; Li Wenbo

    2010-01-01

    In this Letter, time variable cosmological constant, dubbed age cosmological constant, is investigated motivated by the fact: any cosmological length scale and time scale can introduce a cosmological constant or vacuum energy density into Einstein's theory. The age cosmological constant takes the form ρ Λ =3c 2 M P 2 /t Λ 2 , where t Λ is the age or conformal age of our universe. The effective equation of state (EoS) of age cosmological constant are w Λ eff =-1+2/3 (√(Ω Λ ))/c and w Λ eff =-1+2/3 (√(Ω Λ ))/c (1+z) when the age and conformal age of universe are taken as the role of cosmological time scales respectively. The EoS are the same as the so-called agegraphic dark energy models. However, the evolution histories are different from the agegraphic ones for their different evolution equations.

  12. Psychosocial and demographic variables associated with consumer intention to purchase sustainably produced foods as defined by the Midwest Food Alliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Ramona; Smith, Chery

    2002-01-01

    To examine psychosocial and demographic variables associated with consumer intention to purchase sustainably produced foods using an expanded Theory of Planned Behavior. Consumers were approached at the store entrance and asked to complete a self-administered survey. Three metropolitan Minnesota grocery stores. Participants (n = 550) were adults who shopped at the store: the majority were white, female, and highly educated and earned >or= 50,000 dollars/year. Participation rates averaged 62%. The major domain investigated was consumer support for sustainably produced foods. Demographics, beliefs, attitudes, subjective norm, and self-identity and perceived behavioral control were evaluated as predictors of intention to purchase them. Descriptive statistics, independent t tests, one-way analysis of variance, Pearson product moment correlation coefficients, and stepwise multiple regression analyses (P Consumers were supportive of sustainably produced foods but not highly confident in their ability to purchase them. Independent predictors of intention to purchase them included attitudes, beliefs, perceived behavioral control, subjective norm, past buying behavior, and marital status. Beliefs, attitudes, and confidence level may influence intention to purchase sustainably produced foods. Nutrition educators could increase consumers' awareness of sustainably produced foods by understanding their beliefs, attitudes, and confidence levels.

  13. The relationship between demographic variables, productivity, and staff burnout among staffs of a hospital located in Ilam city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Kohnavard

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background­ and objectives : Burnout is one of the causes of reduced job performance and productivity, this syndrome in jobs who deal directly with people are more than other professions may be viewed. This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between demographic variables, efficiency, and staff burnout in a hospital. Methods : In this descriptive-analytical study all 100 employees of the hospital were evaluated . People by demographic information , Maslach Burnout questionnaire (MBI and productivity questionnaire were studied . Data analysis was performed using descriptive and inferential statistics . Results : Findings showed there was a significant correlation between the frequency of emotional exhaustion and reduced personal performance scale (the scale of burnout with productivity. Burnout in emotional exhaustion scale for 41 to 50 years and reduction of operation scale for 20 to 30 years old had the highest score . Metamorphosis and efficiency in terms of significant differences between the study found , and those with a bachelor's degree and those with postgraduate highest grade metamorphic and more than had the highest productivity . Respondents with less than 8 hours daily working hours are significantly higher productivity . Metamorphosis in nurses has higher scale scores . Productivity in anesthesia was significantly higher than other occupational groups. Conclusion : According to different levels of burnout and its damaging effects on the health of employees , lower productivity and quality of patient care , while more research on the causes of light , especially in institutional factors . It is suggested to adopt the methods of adjusting and preventive action to reduce this phenomenon .

  14. Demographic models reveal the shape of density dependence for a specialist insect herbivore on variable host plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Tom E X

    2007-07-01

    1. It is widely accepted that density-dependent processes play an important role in most natural populations. However, persistent challenges in our understanding of density-dependent population dynamics include evaluating the shape of the relationship between density and demographic rates (linear, concave, convex), and identifying extrinsic factors that can mediate this relationship. 2. I studied the population dynamics of the cactus bug Narnia pallidicornis on host plants (Opuntia imbricata) that varied naturally in relative reproductive effort (RRE, the proportion of meristems allocated to reproduction), an important plant quality trait. I manipulated per-plant cactus bug densities, quantified subsequent dynamics, and fit stage-structured models to the experimental data to ask if and how density influences demographic parameters. 3. In the field experiment, I found that populations with variable starting densities quickly converged upon similar growth trajectories. In the model-fitting analyses, the data strongly supported a model that defined the juvenile cactus bug retention parameter (joint probability of surviving and not dispersing) as a nonlinear decreasing function of density. The estimated shape of this relationship shifted from concave to convex with increasing host-plant RRE. 4. The results demonstrate that host-plant traits are critical sources of variation in the strength and shape of density dependence in insects, and highlight the utility of integrated experimental-theoretical approaches for identifying processes underlying patterns of change in natural populations.

  15. Young adult and middle age mortality in Butajira demographic surveillance site, Ethiopia: lifestyle, gender and household economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Högberg Ulf

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Public health research characterising the course of life through the middle age in developing societies is scarce. The aim of this study is to explore patterns of adult (15–64 years mortality in an Ethiopian population over time, by gender, urban or rural lifestyle, causes of death and in relation to household economic status and decision-making. Methods The study was conducted in Butajira Demographic Surveillance Site (DSS in south-central Ethiopia among adults 15–64 years old. Cohort analysis of surveillance data was conducted for the years 1987–2004 complemented by a prospective case-referent (case control study over two years. Rate ratios were computed to assess the relationships between mortality and background variables using a Poisson regression model. In the case-referent component, odds ratios (95% confidence intervals were used to assess the effect of certain risk factors that were not included in the surveillance system. Results A total of 367 940 person years were observed in a period of 18 years, in which 2 860 deaths occurred. One hundred sixty two cases and 486 matched for age, sex and place of residence controls were included in the case referent (case control study. Only a modest downward trend in adult mortality was seen over the 18 year period. Rural lifestyle carried a significant survival disadvantage [mortality rate ratio 1.62 (95% CI 1.44 to 1.82, adjusted for gender, period and age group], while the overall effects of gender were negligible. Communicable disease mortality was appreciably higher in rural areas [rate ratio 2.05 (95% CI 1.73 to 2.44, adjusted for gender, age group and period]. Higher mortality was associated with a lack of literacy in a household, poor economic status and lack of women's decision making. Conclusion A complex pattern of adult mortality prevails, still influenced by war, famine and communicable diseases. Individual factors such as a lack of education, low economic

  16. A generic taxonomy of shopping motives among hypermarkets (hyper-stores customers and the relationship with demographic variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dhurup

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the study: Noting that the motive for shopping is located within the paradigm of buying behaviour of consumers; the study seeks to complement existing literature by examining whether a configuration of shopper motives could be developed, thereby revealing taxonomy of hypermarket (hyper-store shoppers. In addition the study seeks to establish whether shopping motives is shaped by demographic variables. Problem statement: Although the motive for shopping and its antecedents has been approached from various perspectives, it has been accentuated in literature that traditional utilitarian aspects of product acquisition explanations may not fully reflect the totality of a shopping experience. With such affirmations, shopping may be harmonised with hedonic activities when considered within a hypermarket/hyper-store South African context. Methodology: The study adopted a conceptual framework for identifying relatable factors (using exploratory factor analysis that influence consumer motivation for shopping within hypermarket (hyper-store environments. Reliability and validity of the scale was established. Findings: A 13 item scale was developed. Shopping seems to be both a utilitarian and a hedonic consumption experience with three auxiliary categories of hedonic motivations, namely diversion, recreational and sensory stimulated shoppers. In examining the motives for shopping and demographic variables, diversion appears to vary with levels of education. Value of the research: Enhancing one's understanding of the "softer" issues of shopping, namely diversion, recreational and sensory stimulated shoppers is essential, as they represent possible differentiating factors in a highly competitive and often commoditised retail market. Acquaintance of distinct shopper segments is useful for retailers in assembling marketing communication strategies and designing appealing store environments. Conclusion: Whilst shopper typologies may hold several

  17. Bilingualism and age are continuous variables that influence executive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incera, Sara; McLennan, Conor T

    2018-05-01

    We analyzed the effects of bilingualism and age on executive function. We examined these variables along a continuum, as opposed to dichotomizing them. We investigated the impact that bilingualism and age have on two measures of executive control (Stroop and Flanker). The mouse-tracking paradigm allowed us to examine the continuous dynamics of the responses as participants completed each trial. First, we found that the Stroop effect was reduced with younger age and higher levels of bilingualism; however, no Bilingualism by Age interaction emerged. Second, after controlling for baseline, the Flanker effect was not influenced by bilingualism or age. These results support the notion that bilingualism is one way of enhancing some aspects of executive function - specifically those related to the Stroop task - across the adult life span. In sum, different levels of bilingualism, and different ages, result in varying degrees of executive function as measured by the Stroop task.

  18. Refractive error magnitude and variability: Relation to age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irving, Elizabeth L; Machan, Carolyn M; Lam, Sharon; Hrynchak, Patricia K; Lillakas, Linda

    2018-03-19

    To investigate mean ocular refraction (MOR) and astigmatism, over the human age range and compare severity of refractive error to earlier studies from clinical populations having large age ranges. For this descriptive study patient age, refractive error and history of surgery affecting refraction were abstracted from the Waterloo Eye Study database (WatES). Average MOR, standard deviation of MOR and astigmatism were assessed in relation to age. Refractive distributions for developmental age groups were determined. MOR standard deviation relative to average MOR was evaluated. Data from earlier clinically based studies with similar age ranges were compared to WatES. Right eye refractive errors were available for 5933 patients with no history of surgery affecting refraction. Average MOR varied with age. Children <1 yr of age were the most hyperopic (+1.79D) and the highest magnitude of myopia was found at 27yrs (-2.86D). MOR distributions were leptokurtic, and negatively skewed. The mode varied with age group. MOR variability increased with increasing myopia. Average astigmatism increased gradually to age 60 after which it increased at a faster rate. By 85+ years it was 1.25D. J 0 power vector became increasingly negative with age. J 45 power vector values remained close to zero but variability increased at approximately 70 years. In relation to comparable earlier studies, WatES data were most myopic. Mean ocular refraction and refractive error distribution vary with age. The highest magnitude of myopia is found in young adults. Similar to prevalence, the severity of myopia also appears to have increased since 1931. Copyright © 2018 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Leveraging age diversity in times of demographic change: the crucial role of leadership

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janz, K.; Buengeler, C.; Eckhoff, R.A.; Homan, A.C.; Voelpel, S.C.; Scott, C.L.; Byrd, M.Y.

    2012-01-01

    With demographic change, organizations today are seeing changes in societal make-up translated to the composition of their workforce. In the future, younger and older employees will have to work together synergistically to achieve good performance. The authors argue that it will be largely up to

  20. A demographic study of the exponential distribution applied to uneven-aged forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey H. Gove

    2016-01-01

    A demographic approach based on a size-structured version of the McKendrick-Von Foerster equation is used to demonstrate a theoretical link between the population size distribution and the underlying vital rates (recruitment, mortality and diameter growth) for the population of individuals whose diameter distribution is negative exponential. This model supports the...

  1. Age-Related Intraindividual Performance Variability with Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Suzanne Bonneau; Odell, Katharine H.

    2007-01-01

    Fluctuations in cognitive task performance in older individuals have been reported. To examine intraindividual variability as a function of practice, 34 younger and 34 older female participants, aged 20-30 years and 70-82 years, respectively, performed a reading span task 16 times over four sessions. Each individual's recall accuracy was analyzed…

  2. Genes, Demography, and Life Span: The Contribution of Demographic Data in Genetic Studies on Aging and Longevity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yashin, AI; De Benedictis, G; Vaupel, JW

    1999-01-01

    In population studies on aging, the data on genetic markers are often collected for individuals from different age groups. The purpose of such studies is to identify, by comparison of the frequencies of selected genotypes, “longevity” or “frailty” genes in the oldest and in younger groups...... of individuals. To address questions about more-complicated aspects of genetic influence on longevity, additional information must be used. In this article, we show that the use of demographic information, together with data on genetic markers, allows us to calculate hazard rates, relative risks, and survival...... functions for respective genes or genotypes. New methods of combining genetic and demographic information are discussed. These methods are tested on simulated data and then are applied to the analysis of data on genetic markers for two haplogroups of human mtDNA. The approaches suggested in this article...

  3. Theoretical statistics of zero-age cataclysmic variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Politano, M.J.

    1988-01-01

    The distribution of the white dwarf masses, the distribution of the mass ratios and the distribution of the orbital periods in cataclysmic variables which are forming at the present time are calculated. These systems are referred to as zero-age cataclysmic variables. The results show that 60% of the systems being formed contain helium white dwarfs and 40% contain carbon-oxygen white dwarfs. The mean dwarf mass in those systems containing helium white dwarfs is 0.34. The mean white dwarf mass in those systems containing carbon-oxygen white dwarfs is 0.75. The orbital period distribution identifies four main classes of zero-age cataclysmic variables: (1) short-period systems containing helium white dwarfs, (2) systems containing carbon-oxygen white dwarfs whose secondaries are convectively stable against rapid mass transfer to the white dwarf, (3) systems containing carbon-oxygen white dwarfs whose secondaries are radiatively stable against rapid mass transfer to the white dwarf and (4) long period systems with evolved secondaries. The white dwarf mass distribution in zero-age cataclysmic variables has direct application to the calculation of the frequency of outburst in classical novae as a function of the mass of the white dwarf. The method developed in this thesis to calculate the distributions of the orbital parameters in zero-age cataclysmic variables can be used to calculate theoretical statistics of any class of binary systems. This method provides a theoretical framework from which to investigate the statistical properties and the evolution of the orbital parameters of binary systems

  4. Population ageing in the Netherlands: Demographic and financial arguments for a balanced approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salverda, W.

    2007-01-01

    Dutch policy makers recently set the public debate on ageing alight by enforcing drastic cuts in early retirement opportunities; increasing taxation of the aged and augmenting retirement age are also considered. The prime argument is to diminish a burden on public finances far in future. This paper

  5. The correlation between effective factors of e-learning and demographic variables in a post-graduate program of virtual medical education in Tehran University of Medical Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golband, Farnoosh; Hosseini, Agha Fatemeh; Mojtahedzadeh, Rita; Mirhosseini, Fakhrossadat; Bigdeli, Shoaleh

    2014-01-01

    E-learning as an educational approach has been adopted by diverse educational and academic centers worldwide as it facilitates learning in facing the challenges of the new era in education. Considering the significance of virtual education and its growing practice, it is of vital importance to examine its components for promoting and maintaining success. This analytical cross-sectional study was an attempt to determine the relationship between four factors of content, educator, learner and system, and effective e-learning in terms of demographic variables, including age, gender, educational background, and marital status of postgraduate master's students (MSc) studying at virtual faculty of Tehran University of Medical Sciences. The sample was selected by census (n=60); a demographic data gathering tool and a researcher-made questionnaire were used to collect data. The face and content validity of both tools were confirmed and the results were analyzed by descriptive statistics (frequency, percentile, standard deviation and mean) and inferential statistics (independent t-test, Scheffe's test, one-way ANOVA and Pearson correlation test) by using SPSS (V.16). The present study revealed that There was no statistically significant relationship between age and marital status and effective e-learning (P>0.05); whereas, there was a statistically significant difference between gender and educational background with effective e-learning (Pe-learning can help managers and designers to make the right decisions about educational components of e-learning, i.e. content, educator, system and learner and improve them to create a more productive learning environment for learners.

  6. Socio-demographic and clinical variables associated with psychological distress 1 and 3 years after breast cancer diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alfonsson, Sven; Olsson, Erik; Hursti, Timo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose A large group of women (20–30 %) report psychological distress shortly after breast cancer diagnosis, and some experience continued or increased symptoms over time. The aim of this study was to investigate socio-demographic and clinical variables associated with sustained psychological di...... of anxiety or depression. Participants with poor financial status, previous psychological problems, or high levels of fatigue may be at increased risk of psychological distress. Such individuals may benefit most from psychosocial interventions....... and Depression Scale was used as a measure of psychological distress at both time points. Results The number of participants who reported elevated levels of anxiety was 231 (28 %) at T1 and 231 (28 %) at T2 while elevated depressive symptoms was reported by 119 (14 %) women at T1 and 92 (11 %) at T2. Despite non......-significant differences in mean scores over time, 91 (15 %) participants reported increased anxiety symptoms and 47 (7 %) reported increased depressive symptoms. Poor financial situation, lack of social support, previous psychiatric treatment, and high levels of fatigue were associated with both anxiety and depressive...

  7. The Demographic and Biomedical Case for Late-Life Interventions in Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rae, Michael J.; Butler, Robert N.; Campisi, Judith; de Grey, Aubrey D. N. J.; Finch, Caleb E.; Gough, Michael; Martin, George M.; Vijg, Jan; Perrott, Kevin M.; Logan, Barbara J.

    2013-01-01

    The social and medical costs of the biological aging process are high and will rise rapidly in coming decades, creating an enormous challenge to societies worldwide. In recent decades, researchers have expanded their understanding of the underlying deleterious structural and physiological changes (aging damage) that underlie the progressive functional impairments, declining health, and rising mortality of aging humans and other organisms and have been able to intervene in the process in model organisms, even late in life. To preempt a global aging crisis, we advocate an ambitious global initiative to translate these findings into interventions for aging humans, using three complementary approaches to retard, arrest, and even reverse aging damage, extending and even restoring the period of youthful health and functionality of older people. PMID:20630854

  8. Relationships between adults` participation in leisure time physical activity and demographic factors. Part I: gender and age – review and update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donata Woitas-Ślubowska

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The benefits of regular moderate-to-vigorous leisure-time physical activity (LTPA are well documented, and include reduced morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, depression, and other pervasive conditions. Despite these benefits, adults` participation in regular LTPA is still low. Many previous studies showed associations between adults` participation in LTPA and demographic factors but the results of these researches are inconsistent. The purpose of this study was to perform a systematic review of studies examining the relation between adults` participation in LTPA and two demographic variables: gender and age. Method: The systematic review was limited to four factors: leisure-time physical activity, adults, gender and age. Literature searches were conducted using predefined keywords in 6 key database. A total of 46 potential papers was identified. Of these 46 papers, 25 passed the eligibility criteria and were included in the systematic review. Results: In most of the analyzed studies  showed no significant differences in the percentage of inactive men and women. Among sufficient active individuals there were more men than women. In all analyzed studies found significant association between the level of LTPA and age of men and women. However, the directions of these connections were different in individual countries, and age and gender groups. Conclusion: Relationships between adults` participation in LTPA and gender, and age are specific for men and women in individual countries, and age groups, therefore there is necessity to monitor the level of LTPA in these subgroups. The results of these studies should be useful in the creation of the strategies supported adults` participation in LTPA.

  9. An assessment of the impact of demographic, cognitive, and non-cognitive variables on student success in a community college science course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Audrey Leroy

    The impact of demographic, cognitive, and non-cognitive variables on academic success among community college science students was studied. Demographic variables included gender, employment status, and ethnicity. Cognitive variables included college grade point average, assessment status, course prerequisites, college course success ratios, final course grade, withdrawal patterns, and curriculum format. Non-cognitive variables included enrollment status, educational objectives, academic expectations, and career goals. The sample population included students enrolled in human anatomy courses (N = 191) at a large metropolitan community college located in central Texas. Variables that potentially influence attrition and achievement in college level science courses were examined. Final course grade and withdrawal phenomena were treated as dependent variables, while all other variables were treated as independent variables. No significant differences were found to exist between any of the demographic variables studied and the numbers of students who withdrew passing or failing. A difference was shown to be associated with the ethnicity variable and achievement levels. Educational objectives and career goals were shown to have an impact on the number of students who withdrew failing. The career goals variable and the academic expectations variable were shown to have an impact on achievement among daytime and evening students. College grade point average and course success ratios were shown to make a difference among students who withdrew passing. None of the other cognitive variables studied were shown to influence the numbers of students who withdrew passing or failing. College grade point average and course prerequisites, however, were shown to make a difference in achievement. The collaborative learning instructional format was found to have no impact on attrition or achievement, however, mean scores earned by students experiencing the collaborative learning format

  10. Toward a Demographic Understanding of Incarceration Disparities : Race, Ethnicity, and Age Structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogel, M.S.; Porter, L.C.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics in the United States are more likely to be incarcerated than non-Hispanic whites. The risk of incarceration also varies with age, and there are striking differences in age distributions across racial/ethnic groups. Guided by these trends, the present

  11. STRATEGIC PLANNING DIMENSIONS IN SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES (SMEs IN SOUTH AFRICA: THEIR RELATIVE IMPORTANCE AND VARIATIONS IN SELECTED DEMOGRAPHIC VARIABLES.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAXWELL SANDADA

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to evaluate the strategic dimensions of SMEs and how each dimension is rated by owners and managers of SMEs. The other objective of the study was to ascertain if differences in strategic planning practices existed with respect to demographic variables namely gender, age and position in the organization. It was found that the main dimensions of strategic planning are mission and vision, environmental scanning, employee participation in the strategic planning process, time horizon of strategic planning, implementation incentives, evaluation and control, formality of strategic planning and source of information about the environment. It was also found that mission and vision, formality of strategic planning and evaluation and control were the most valued factors. No significant statistical difference existed among owners and managers of different age, gender and positions in strategic planning practices. The value of the study is that it offers various dimensions of strategic planning that SMEs can implement to be competitive and sustainable.

  12. Age-Sex Structure of the Population and Demographic Processes in Environmentally Challenged Mining Region (on the example of Kemerovo region)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leshukov, Timofey; Brel, Olga; Zaytseva, Anna; Kaizer, Philipp; Makarov, Kirill

    2017-11-01

    The main goal of the article is to show the influence of the age-sex structure of the population on the basic demographic processes in the Kemerovo region. During research the authors have established correlation links between the sex-age structure of the population and the main demographic indicators (birth and mortality rate, morbidity rate, migration and others) based on the analysis of official statistical data. The direct influence of internal and external factors on the age-sex structure of the population is revealed. Conclusions about the impact of demographic processes on the sex-age structure of the population of the Kemerovo region are drawn.

  13. Antropometric assessment of nutritional status and socio-demographic characteristics in children up to 2 years of age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahid, A.; Ramzan, A.; Memon, A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Malnutrition is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in children. It is important to realize that normal length and weight being attained at 1 year of age, would predict the nutritional status at 3 years of age. To asses the nutritional status and the associated socio-demographic characteristics in supposedly healthy Children of up to 2 years of age and highlight the importance of anthropometric measurements in routine child health care. Anthropometric measurements i.e. height and weight, were measured and a standard Questionnaire was used to interview the mothers regarding socio-demographic back ground information after a verbal informed consent and ensuring confidentiality. Height for age, weight for age and weight for height of the children were compared with the National Centre of Health Statistics (NCHS) reference population of the United States and Z -score< - 2 SD were considered as stunted, under weight and wasted respectively. Data was analyzed using SPSS software package. We observed stunting in 22%, wasting in 15% and under weight in 31.6% children. Majority of children with low weight were between 19 - 24 months of age Regarding socio-economic status of the households, 53.8% had family income less than Rs. 6000 month and almost 50% had a family size of 6-10 persons. Parents' education to the level of illiteracy (father, 27% and mother, 4 0%) and incomplete immunization ( 20%) were other associated factors for stunting, wasting and under weight. About 32% of children up to 2 years of age in the selected population were under weight, followed by stunning (22%). Policy Message: Anthropometric measurement of children is useful in routine child care settings as it will facilitate early identification and timely interventions for emerging health problems. (author)

  14. Prevalence of Chronic Disabling Noncancer Pain and Associated Demographic and Medical Variables: A Cross-Sectional Survey in the General German Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häuser, Winfried; Schmutzer, Gabriele; Hilbert, Anja; Brähler, Elmar; Henningsen, Peter

    2015-10-01

    In population surveys, up to 30% of participants reported chronic pain. Reports of chronic pain do not necessarily imply disability associated with pain. We assessed the prevalence of chronic disabling noncancer pain and associated demographic and medical variables in a sample of the general German population. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 4360 people aged 14 years and above, who were representative of the German population. Measures were obtained for demographic variables, presence of chronic pain (based on the definition of the International Association for the Study of Pain), chronic pain stages (based on a chronic pain grade questionnaire), and disease load (based on the self-reported comorbidity questionnaire). Responses were received from 2508 people. The prevalence of chronic pain was 28.3% (95% [confidence interval] CI, 26.5%-30.1%). In all, 7.3% (95% CI, 5.9%-8.7%) of participants met the criteria of chronic disabling noncancer pain. Chronic disabling noncancer pain was associated with age above 65 years (odds ratios [OR]=4.81 [95% CI, 1.57-14.79]), low family income (OR=2.54 [95% CI, 1.36-4.74]), obesity (OR=3.58 [95% CI, 2.21-5.79]), heart disease (OR=2.23 [95% CI, 3.69-11.40]), stomach disease (OR=4.24 [95% CI, 2.12-8.49]), and rheumatic disease (OR=3.67 [95% CI, 2.16-6.23]) when compared with no chronic pain. Chronic disabling noncancer pain was associated with low family income (OR=2.29 [95% CI, 1.23-4.27]), obesity (OR=2.14 [95% CI, 1.30-3.52]), and depression (OR=3.26 [95% CI, 1.90-5.66]) when compared with chronic nondisabling noncancer pain. Prevalence rates of chronic disabling pain in the general population rather than prevalence rates of chronic pain might provide evidence in support of pain specialist care. The association of chronic disabling noncancer pain with mental disorders highlights the need for psychosocial services in chronic pain management.

  15. Diagnostic and Demographic Differences Between Incarcerated and Nonincarcerated Youth (Ages 6-15) With ADHD in South Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltis, Samuel L; Probst, Janice; Xirasagar, Sudha; Martin, Amy B; Smith, Bradley H

    2017-05-01

    Analyze diagnostic and demographic factors to identify predictors of delinquency resulting in incarceration within a group of children/adolescents diagnosed with ADHD. The study followed a cohort of 15,472 Medicaid covered children/adolescents with ADHD, ages 6 to 15 inclusive, between January 1, 2003, and December 31, 2006. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev. [ DSM-IV-TR]), 2000 Codes were used for qualifying diagnosis codes. Available demographic characteristics included race, sex, and residence. The outcome was incarceration at the South Carolina Department of Juvenile Justice during 2005-2006. Among youth with ADHD, incarceration was more likely among black, male, and urban youth. Children/adolescents with comorbid ODD and/or CD were at greater risk compared with those with ADHD alone. Within ADHD-diagnosed youth, comorbid conditions and demographic characteristics increase the risk of incarceration. Intervention and treatment strategies that address behavior among youth with these characteristics are needed to reduce incarceration.

  16. Socio-demographic factors and psychological distress in Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australian adults aged 18-64 years: analysis of national survey data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cunningham Joan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indigenous Australians are known to be at greater risk of morbidity and mortality from mental health related conditions, but most available data relate to the use of mental health services, and little is known about other aspects of social and emotional wellbeing. Using the first available nationally representative data, we examined the prevalence and patterning of psychological distress among Indigenous Australian adults and compared these with corresponding data from the non-Indigenous population. Methods The analysis used weighted data on psychological distress, as measured by a modified Kessler Psychological Distress score (K5, and a range of socio-demographic measures for 5,417 Indigenous and 15,432 non-Indigenous adults aged 18-64 years from two nationally representative surveys. Very high psychological distress (VHPD was defined as a K5 score ≥ 15 (possible range = 5-25. Results Indigenous adults were about three times more likely than non-Indigenous adults to be classified with VHPD: 14.5% (95% confidence interval (CI 12.9-16.0% versus 5.5% (95% CI 5.0-5.9%. After adjusting for age, most socio-demographic variables were significantly associated with VHPD in both populations, although the relative odds were generally larger among non-Indigenous people. Indigenous people in remote areas had a lower prevalence of VHPD than their non-remote counterparts, and only marital status, main language, and food insecurity were significantly associated with VHPD in remote areas. Conclusions Higher absolute levels of VHPD combined with smaller socio-demographic gradients in the Indigenous population suggest the importance of risk factors such as interpersonal racism, marginalization and dispossession, chronic stress and exposure to violence that are experienced by Indigenous Australians with common and/or cross-cutting effects across the socioeconomic spectrum. The lower prevalence of VHPD and lack of association with many socio-demographic

  17. Prevalence and intensity of infections of Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura and associated socio-demographic variables in four rural Honduran communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith HM

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Between January and March 1998, a cross-sectional survey was carried out in four rural communities in Honduras, Central America. We examined the prevalence and intensity of Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura infections among 240 fecal specimens, and the association between selected socio-demographic variables and infection for 62 households. The overall prevalence of A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura was 45% (95% CI 39.0-51.9 and 38% (95% CI 31.8-44.4 respectively. The most intense infections for Ascaris and Trichuris were found in children aged 2-12 years old. By univariate analysis variables associated with infections of A. lumbricoides were: number of children 2-5 years old (p=0.001, level of formal education of respondents (p=0.01, reported site of defecation of children in households (p=0.02, households with children who had a recent history of diarrhea (p=0.002, and the location of households (p=0.03. Variables associated with both A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura infection included: number of children 6-14 years old (p=0.01, p=0.04, respectively, ownership of a latrine (p=0.04, p=0.03, respectively and coinfection with either helminth (p=0.001, p=0.001, respectively. By multivariate analysis the number of children 2-5 years living in the household, (p=0.01, odds ratio (OR=22.2, children with a recent history of diarrhea (p=0.0, OR=39.8, and infection of household members with T. trichiura (p=0.02, OR=16.0 were associated with A. lumbricoides infection. The number of children 6-14 years old in the household was associated with both A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura infection (p=0.04, p=0.01, OR=19.2, OR=5.2, respectively.

  18. Adult anthropometric measures and socio-demographic factors influencing age at menarche of university students in malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Md Golam; Wee, Ai-Sze; Ashaie, Maeirah; Kamarul, T

    2013-09-01

    Early onset of menarche has been shown to be associated with breast cancer and ischaemic heart disease. Studies on age at menarche of the Malaysian population are poorly documented. This study aimed to determine the influence of anthropometric and socio-demographic factors on the age at menarche of university students in Malaysia. Data were obtained in 2010-11 from 961 students between the ages of 18 and 25 years from the University of Malaya using stratified sampling, and multiple regression analysis was applied. Sixty-three per cent of students reached menarche at the age of 12 or 13 years, with the mean and median of age at menarche being 12.45 ± 1.17 and 12.01 years, respectively. Menarcheal age was positively associated with height (pObese and overweight students reached menarche earlier than students who were underweight or of normal weight (p<0.01). The variations in age at menarche among the Malaysian ethnic groups were statistically insignificant. The results suggest that heavier and first-born students from small families are more likely to attain menarche earlier than their counterparts.

  19. Public Pension Reform, Demographics, and Inequality

    OpenAIRE

    von Weizsäcker, Robert K

    1994-01-01

    Starting from a simple, descriptive model of individual income, an explicit link between the age composition of a population and the personal distribution of incomes is established. Demographic effects on income inequality are derived. Next, a pay-as-you-go financed state pension system is introduced. The resulting government budget constraint entails interrelations between fiscal and demographic variables, causing an additional, indirect demographic impact on the distribution. This is shown ...

  20. The Role of Chance Events in the School-to-Work Transition: The Influence of Demographic, Personality and Career Development Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschi, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Chance events are considered important in career development, yet little empirical research is available on their predictors and consequences. The present study investigated socio-demographic (gender, nationality, school-type), personality (openness, locus of control) and career development variables (career decidedness, career planning) in…

  1. Academic, Socio-Emotional and Demographic Characteristics of Adolescents Involved in Traditional Bullying, Cyberbullying, or Both: Looking at Variables and Persons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomontos-Kountouri, Olga; Tsagkaridis, Konstantinos; Gradinger, Petra; Strohmeier, Dagmar

    2017-01-01

    The present paper (1) examined variables, which could predict traditional bullying, cyberbullying, traditional victimization and cybervictimization and (2) looked at persons to examine whether academic, socio-emotional and demographic characteristics differed between traditional, cyber and mixed bullies, victims and bully-victims. A sample of…

  2. Supplemental Instruction: The Effect of Demographic and Academic Preparation Variables on Community College Student Academic Achievement in STEM-Related Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabitoy, Eric R.; Hoffman, John L.; Person, Dawn R.

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated variables associated with academic preparation and student demographics as predictors of academic achievement through participation in supplemental instruction (SI) programs for community college students in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) fields. The findings suggest a differential impact of SI outcome for…

  3. Ageing, human capital and demographic dividends with endogenous growth, labour supply and foreign capital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edle von Gaessler, Anne; Ziesemer, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    We modify a Lucas-type endogenous growth model to contain endogenous labour supply, imperfect international capital movements, and estimated interest and education time functions. Solutions based on realistic calibrations show that (i) the rate of human capital depreciation through ageing has a much

  4. Age, period, or birth cohort: What determines demographic differences in seafood consumption?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim; Lund, Eiliv; Trondsen, Torbjørn

    Effects of age, period and birth cohort on consumption of fat fish, lean fish and processed fish were estimated based on panel data from the Norwegian Women and Seafood Consumption Study (NOWAC). Cohorts selected for the present analysis were women born between 1951 and 1966. Survey questionnaires...... fish increased between 1996 and 2001, while consumption of lean fish decreased. All three period effects were stable across birth cohorts. Estimation of polynomial contrasts indicated that birth cohort itself had linear effects on consumption, with older generations consuming significantly more fat...... and lean fish, but less processed fish than younger generations. Finally, the effects of cohort and period on consumption of lean and processed fish remained stable when biological age was controlled for, whilst the effect of period on fat fish consumption vanished. Regarding total consumption of fat fish...

  5. Health and socio-demographic profile of women of reproductive age in rural communities of southern Mozambique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charfudin Sacoor

    Full Text Available Reliable statistics on maternal morbidity and mortality are scarce in low and middle-income countries, especially in rural areas. This is the case in Mozambique where many births happen at home. Furthermore, a sizeable number of facility births have inadequate registration. Such information is crucial for developing effective national and global health policies for maternal and child health. The aim of this study was to generate reliable baseline socio-demographic information on women of reproductive age as well as to establish a demographic surveillance platform to support the planning and implementation of the Community Level Intervention for Pre-eclampsia (CLIP study, a cluster randomized controlled trial. This study represents a census of all women of reproductive age (12-49 years in twelve rural communities in Maputo and Gaza provinces of Mozambique. The data were collected through electronic forms implemented in Open Data Kit (ODK (an app for android based tablets and household and individual characteristics. Verbal autopsies were conducted on all reported maternal deaths to determine the underlying cause of death. Between March and October 2014, 50,493 households and 80,483 women of reproductive age (mean age 26.9 years were surveyed. A total of 14,617 pregnancies were reported in the twelve months prior to the census, resulting in 9,029 completed pregnancies. Of completed pregnancies, 8,796 resulted in live births, 466 resulted in stillbirths and 288 resulted in miscarriages. The remaining pregnancies had not yet been completed during the time of the survey (5,588 pregnancies. The age specific fertility indicates that highest rate (188 live births per 1,000 women occurs in the age 20-24 years old. The estimated stillbirth rate was 50.3/1,000 live and stillbirths; neonatal mortality rate was 13.3/1,000 live births and maternal mortality ratio was 204.6/100,000 live births. The most common direct cause of maternal death was eclampsia and

  6. Health and socio-demographic profile of women of reproductive age in rural communities of southern Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacoor, Charfudin; Payne, Beth; Augusto, Orvalho; Vilanculo, Faustino; Nhacolo, Ariel; Vidler, Marianne; Makanga, Prestige Tatenda; Munguambe, Khátia; Lee, Tang; Macete, Eusébio; von Dadelszen, Peter; Sevene, Esperança

    2018-01-01

    Reliable statistics on maternal morbidity and mortality are scarce in low and middle-income countries, especially in rural areas. This is the case in Mozambique where many births happen at home. Furthermore, a sizeable number of facility births have inadequate registration. Such information is crucial for developing effective national and global health policies for maternal and child health. The aim of this study was to generate reliable baseline socio-demographic information on women of reproductive age as well as to establish a demographic surveillance platform to support the planning and implementation of the Community Level Intervention for Pre-eclampsia (CLIP) study, a cluster randomized controlled trial. This study represents a census of all women of reproductive age (12–49 years) in twelve rural communities in Maputo and Gaza provinces of Mozambique. The data were collected through electronic forms implemented in Open Data Kit (ODK) (an app for android based tablets) and household and individual characteristics. Verbal autopsies were conducted on all reported maternal deaths to determine the underlying cause of death. Between March and October 2014, 50,493 households and 80,483 women of reproductive age (mean age 26.9 years) were surveyed. A total of 14,617 pregnancies were reported in the twelve months prior to the census, resulting in 9,029 completed pregnancies. Of completed pregnancies, 8,796 resulted in live births, 466 resulted in stillbirths and 288 resulted in miscarriages. The remaining pregnancies had not yet been completed during the time of the survey (5,588 pregnancies). The age specific fertility indicates that highest rate (188 live births per 1,000 women) occurs in the age 20–24 years old. The estimated stillbirth rate was 50.3/1,000 live and stillbirths; neonatal mortality rate was 13.3/1,000 live births and maternal mortality ratio was 204.6/100,000 live births. The most common direct cause of maternal death was eclampsia and

  7. Recent Demographic Developments in France: Relatively Low Mortality at Advanced Ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prioux, France; Barbieri, Magali

    2012-10-01

    France had 65.3 million inhabitants as of 1 January 2012, including 1.9 million in the overseas départements . The population is slightly younger than that of the European Union as a whole. Population growth continues at the same rate, mainly through natural increase. There are now more African than European immigrants living in France. Fertility was practically stable in 2011 (2.01 children per woman), but the lifetime fertility of the 1971-1972 cohorts reached a historic low in metropolitan France (1.99 children per woman), nevertheless remaining among the highest in Europe. Abortion levels remained stable and rates among young people are no longer increasing. The marriage rate is falling and the divorce rate has stabilized (46.2 divorces per 100 marriages in 2011). The risk of divorce decreases with age, but has greatly increased among the under-70s over the last decade. Life expectancy at birth (78.4 years for men, 85.0 for women) has continued to increase at the same rate, mainly thanks to progress at advanced ages. Among European countries, France has the lowest mortality in the over-65 age group, but it ranks less well for premature mortality.

  8. The effect of demographic variables on the user’s behavior in the Mobile Telecommunication Market of Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikollaq Terezi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the mobile operator users living in Tirana, urban area and its outskirts. The level of confidence for sampling is 95%, (p <0.05. The used methodology is implemented through interviews with experts (the employee of mobile operators, as well as, observation of the service process in general and face to face interview according to a properly designed questionnaire. The evaluation methods for approving the hypothesis are based on linear regression and ÷2 tests. This paper aims to find a significant correlation between the duration of contractual agreement and the occupation of the mobile service users. There is significant dependence between groups of age and the variables like Web-page of the operator, signal coverage and the price of 3Gservice

  9. Pretreatment plasma homovanillic acid in schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder: the influence of demographic variables and the inpatient drug-free period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, R P; Javaid, J I; Davis, J M; Janicak, P G

    1998-09-15

    The relationship between plasma homovanillic acid (pHVA) and schizophrenic symptoms has not been conclusively determined. We reexamine pHVA levels in a new sample of patients with emphasis on demographic variables and the drug-free period. Plasma HVA levels were studied in 54 schizophrenic and schizoaffective-disordered, drug-free inpatients suffering from a psychotic exacerbation. A significant correlation was observed between pHVA levels and the number of inpatient drug-free days in the total sample, as well as the schizophrenic patient subsample. Further, pHVA was significantly and positively correlated with the duration of illness in the schizophrenic patient subsample. Plasma HVA correlations with behavior, as measured by Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale factors (anxiety/depression and hostility/suspiciousness), emerged only when considering schizophrenic patients drug-free for more than 2 weeks. No correlation was found between pHVA and the age of illness onset or the duration of the delay of treatment of the first psychotic episode. The effects of antipsychotic withdrawal on levels of pHVA in clinical populations may have to be examined and controlled for in future studies attempting to study the relationship between this metabolite and behavior in acutely ill, drug-free schizophrenic patients.

  10. Cognitive Intraindividual Variability and White Matter Integrity in Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Mella

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The intraindividual variability (IIV of cognitive performance has been shown to increase with aging. While brain research has generally focused on mean performance, little is known about neural correlates of cognitive IIV. Nevertheless, some studies suggest that IIV relates more strongly than mean level of performance to the quality of white matter (WM. Our study aims to explore the relation between WM integrity and cognitive IIV by combining functional (fMRI and structural (diffusion tensor imaging, DTI imaging. Twelve young adults (aged 18–30 years and thirteen older adults (61–82 years underwent a battery of neuropsychological tasks, along with fMRI and DTI imaging. Their behavioral data were analyzed and correlated with the imaging data at WM regions of interest defined on the basis of (1 the fMRI-activated areas and (2 the Johns Hopkins University (JHU WM tractography atlas. For both methods, fractional anisotropy, along with the mean, radial, and axial diffusivity parameters, was computed. In accord with previous studies, our results showed that the DTI parameters were more related to IIV than to mean performance. Results also indicated that age differences in the DTI parameters were more pronounced in the regions activated primarily by young adults during a choice reaction-time task than in those also activated in older adults.

  11. Sociodemographic Factors on Contraceptive Use among Ever-Married Women of Reproductive Age: Evidence from Three Demographic and Health Surveys in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iqramul Haq

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Contraceptive use among married women of reproductive age has showed a substantial progress over the last few decades in Bangladesh. This study explores the sociodemographic factors associated with contraceptive use among ever-married women of reproductive age in Bangladesh by utilizing the information extracted from three of the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Surveys (BDHSs in 1993–1994, 2004 and 2014. Bivariate analysis was conducted by performing chi-squared test of independence to explore the relationship between selected sociodemographic factors and dependent variables. To know the adjusted effects of covariates, a popular binary logistic regression model was considered. Respondents’ current age, place residence, division religion, education, age at first marriage, family planning (FP media exposure, ideal number of children and fertility preferences are the significant determinants according to the most recent survey, BDHS 2014. However, wealth index and a respondent’s current working status were found to be significant factors only in BDHS 2004. The results of the study strongly recommend efforts to increase the education level among poor people, particularly among women in Bangladesh. Program interventions, including health behavior education and family planning services and counselling, are especially needed for some categories of the population, including those living in rural areas, Sylhet, Chittagong and Dhaka divisions, as well as illiterate and Muslim ever-married women.

  12. Sociodemographic Factors on Contraceptive Use among Ever-Married Women of Reproductive Age: Evidence from Three Demographic and Health Surveys in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haq, Iqramul; Sakib, Saifullah; Talukder, Ashis

    2017-12-06

    Contraceptive use among married women of reproductive age has showed a substantial progress over the last few decades in Bangladesh. This study explores the sociodemographic factors associated with contraceptive use among ever-married women of reproductive age in Bangladesh by utilizing the information extracted from three of the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Surveys (BDHSs) in 1993-1994, 2004 and 2014. Bivariate analysis was conducted by performing chi-squared test of independence to explore the relationship between selected sociodemographic factors and dependent variables. To know the adjusted effects of covariates, a popular binary logistic regression model was considered. Respondents' current age, place residence, division religion, education, age at first marriage, family planning (FP) media exposure, ideal number of children and fertility preferences are the significant determinants according to the most recent survey, BDHS 2014. However, wealth index and a respondent's current working status were found to be significant factors only in BDHS 2004. The results of the study strongly recommend efforts to increase the education level among poor people, particularly among women in Bangladesh. Program interventions, including health behavior education and family planning services and counselling, are especially needed for some categories of the population, including those living in rural areas, Sylhet, Chittagong and Dhaka divisions, as well as illiterate and Muslim ever-married women.

  13. American Indian/Alaska Native Elders: A Growing Demographic that Is Changing How We View Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Jordan P

    2016-01-01

    Today, AIAN Elders are more actively engaged in their families and communities, encouraging the development of intergenerational programs, language and cultural revitalization, being stewards in research conducted in their communities, as well passing on their knowledge and experiences on how to live as healthy Native people. Elders have traditionally been quiet and observant of their environment, but the current and future cohorts of Elders are advocates, leaders, and culture bearers for their families and communities and they are now in positions of leadership. Western society acknowledges the value of traditional knowledge and AIAN Elders are viewed as exemplars of healthy aging and their lessons and experiences can be attributed to our own lives. This commentary highlights the paradigm shift in how society views older adults, specifically AIAN Elders and their role in health and wellbeing.

  14. A Study of Age Demographics across the Aviation and Missile Materiel Enterprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-31

    32 Figure 15: Profile of Job Series at PEO AVN ……………………………………….………….34 Figure 16: Histogram of Age at PEO AVN (FY15)…………………………………….………35...Figure 17: Histogram of Years-Service at PEO AVN (FY15)………………………....……….35 Figure 18: PEO AVN Retirement Eligibility by Labor Category………………………………36...Figure 19: PEO AVN Retirement Eligibility of Managers………..……………………………37 Figure 20: Profile of Job Series at AMRDEC…………………………………………………..39 Figure 21

  15. Demographic features and premorbid personality disorder traits in relation to age of onset and sex in paranoid schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skokou, Maria; Gourzis, Philippos

    2014-03-30

    Personality disorders in the premorbid period of schizophrenia and particularly in relation to age of onset and sex, seem to be a rather under-researched area. In the present study, 88 patients with paranoid schizophrenia were examined, regarding demographic characteristics and premorbid personality disorder traits, in order to investigate for differences in the premorbid period of the disease, in relation to age of onset and sex. Age cutoff points were set at personality disorder traits were retrospectively assessed by using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-Patient Edition for Axis II disorders (SCID-II). Comparisons were performed by applying the two-tailed Wilcoxon rank-sum and the χ(2) statistical tests. Young onset patients were characterized by significantly higher proportion of urban birth, single status, more avoidant premorbid personality disorder traits, and less passive-aggressive premorbid personality disorder traits, than late onset counterparts. Differences were more prominently shown in men. Earlier age of onset seems to be associated to increased social inhibition and worse psychosocial adaptation in the premorbid period of paranoid schizophrenia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Who tweets? Deriving the demographic characteristics of age, occupation and social class from twitter user meta-data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Sloan

    Full Text Available This paper specifies, designs and critically evaluates two tools for the automated identification of demographic data (age, occupation and social class from the profile descriptions of Twitter users in the United Kingdom (UK. Meta-data data routinely collected through the Collaborative Social Media Observatory (COSMOS: http://www.cosmosproject.net/ relating to UK Twitter users is matched with the occupational lookup tables between job and social class provided by the Office for National Statistics (ONS using SOC2010. Using expert human validation, the validity and reliability of the automated matching process is critically assessed and a prospective class distribution of UK Twitter users is offered with 2011 Census baseline comparisons. The pattern matching rules for identifying age are explained and enacted following a discussion on how to minimise false positives. The age distribution of Twitter users, as identified using the tool, is presented alongside the age distribution of the UK population from the 2011 Census. The automated occupation detection tool reliably identifies certain occupational groups, such as professionals, for which job titles cannot be confused with hobbies or are used in common parlance within alternative contexts. An alternative explanation on the prevalence of hobbies is that the creative sector is overrepresented on Twitter compared to 2011 Census data. The age detection tool illustrates the youthfulness of Twitter users compared to the general UK population as of the 2011 Census according to proportions, but projections demonstrate that there is still potentially a large number of older platform users. It is possible to detect "signatures" of both occupation and age from Twitter meta-data with varying degrees of accuracy (particularly dependent on occupational groups but further confirmatory work is needed.

  17. Who Tweets? Deriving the Demographic Characteristics of Age, Occupation and Social Class from Twitter User Meta-Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, Luke; Morgan, Jeffrey; Burnap, Pete; Williams, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    This paper specifies, designs and critically evaluates two tools for the automated identification of demographic data (age, occupation and social class) from the profile descriptions of Twitter users in the United Kingdom (UK). Meta-data data routinely collected through the Collaborative Social Media Observatory (COSMOS: http://www.cosmosproject.net/) relating to UK Twitter users is matched with the occupational lookup tables between job and social class provided by the Office for National Statistics (ONS) using SOC2010. Using expert human validation, the validity and reliability of the automated matching process is critically assessed and a prospective class distribution of UK Twitter users is offered with 2011 Census baseline comparisons. The pattern matching rules for identifying age are explained and enacted following a discussion on how to minimise false positives. The age distribution of Twitter users, as identified using the tool, is presented alongside the age distribution of the UK population from the 2011 Census. The automated occupation detection tool reliably identifies certain occupational groups, such as professionals, for which job titles cannot be confused with hobbies or are used in common parlance within alternative contexts. An alternative explanation on the prevalence of hobbies is that the creative sector is overrepresented on Twitter compared to 2011 Census data. The age detection tool illustrates the youthfulness of Twitter users compared to the general UK population as of the 2011 Census according to proportions, but projections demonstrate that there is still potentially a large number of older platform users. It is possible to detect “signatures” of both occupation and age from Twitter meta-data with varying degrees of accuracy (particularly dependent on occupational groups) but further confirmatory work is needed. PMID:25729900

  18. The Conundrum of Demographic Aging and Policy Challenges: A Comparative Case Study of Canada, Japan and Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McDaniel, Susan A.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractSome analysts lean toward comparative analyses of population aging, then draw potential policy implications. Others lean in the direction of attention to differences in policy regimes and then consider implications of population aging. Key differences among advanced societies may not emanate from demographic aging but from differences in how markets, states, and families work to redistribute societal benefits. In this paper, three countries with contrasting configurations of markets, states, and families, and at different stages of demographic aging, are compared and contrasted: Canada, Japan, and Korea. The paper has three objectives: 1to outline key changes in population, family, and work in the three countries; 2 to consider how knowledge about these changes, their dynamics and interrelationships, is framed with respect to policy options; and 3 to compare Canada, Japan, and Korea in terms of the framing of policy challenges related to demographic aging. It is found that Canada is joining the longstanding pattern of Japan and Korea of late home-leaving by youth, meaning less effective time in the paid labour force. Little deep connection exists between population aging andeconomic productivity or labour force shortages. Differential labour market participation of women mediates the effects of population aging.RésuméIl y a des analystes qui ont un penchant pour les analyses comparatives du vieillissement despopulations, puis en déduisent les implications possibles sur les politiques. D’autres préfèrentporter leur attention sur les différences dans les régimes de politiques, puis considèrent lesimplications sur le vieillissement des populations. Il est possible que les différences majeuresdans les civilisations de pointe ne soient pas apparentes dans le vieillissement démographique mais plutôt dans les différentes manières dont les marchés, les états, et les familles oeuvrent àredistribuer les avantages sociaux. Dans

  19. Moral Intelligence in the Context of Its Questionnaire Psychometric Properties Verification and of Chosen Demographic Variables in the Slovak Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lada Kaliská

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The interest in intelligence construct operationalization is reflected in construction upon new intelligence concepts analyzing it in a wider social context. This scientific study offers the theoretical and empirical analysis of a newly created construct of moral intelligence. Moral intelligence concept was founded in the Multiple Intelligence Theory of H. Gardner (1985, being followed by L. Kuckovsky, A. Dobrin, V. Di Norcia and others in historical-philosophical-evolution-theological context, by D. Lennick, F. Kiel, C. Veach and others in successful management context and by A. Hass, M. Borba, R. Coles, J. Bradshaw and others in school-counselling context. Subsequently moral intelligence is defined as an individual's ability to solve ethical problems ethically right. The application of ethical principles in successful business management formed a theoretical base for moral intelligence characterized by D. Lennick a F. Kiel (2008. They created also a self-report questionnaire Moral Competence Inventory (MCI to assess personal moral competences as a base of moral intelligence. The study provides the results of psychometrical properties (factor structure and reliability in the sense of inner consistency and test-retest result stability of the Slovak, the only available, questionnaire for moral intelligence assessment at a chosen adolescent research sample (N=209. It also analyses the differences in total moral intelligence level and two newly extracted factors (personal and social moral competences in relation to gender, age and religious believes referring to the fact the MCI authors presupposed that there is no relation between moral competences and demographic factors (gender, age, nationality or religion, 2005. The findings prove the significant differences in the overall level of moral intelligence (p≤0,01 and in factors of personal (Standing up for what is right (Courage, p≤0,01 and social (Helping others (Service, p≤0,01 and Actively

  20. The Relationship between Intellectual Intelligence and Emotional Intelligence and some Demographic variables among Students of the Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Ilam University of Medical Sciences in 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Hamed Tavan; Sajjad Tavan; Zahra Ahmadi; Fatemeh Zandnia

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective: There is a relationship between emotional intelligence and spiritual intelligence. Therefore, this study was aimed to investigate the relationship between intellectual intelligence and emotional intelligence and some demographic variables among students of Nursing and Midwifery Faculty, Ilam University of Medical Sciences. Methods: Using a cross-correlation method of study, the standard 24-item questionnaire for spiritual intelligence and the standard 90-item que...

  1. Prevalence of obesity, central obesity, and associated socio-demographic variables in Syrian women using different anthropometric indicators

    OpenAIRE

    Bakir M Adel; Hammad Kholoud; Mohammad Loreen

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing globally in both developing and developed countries, especially, those with rapid cultural and social changes. The aims of current study were twofold: (a) to examine, for the first time in Syria, the prevalence of overweight, obesity and central obesity in Syrian women and obesity-related socio-demographic determinants, and (b) to establish a base line data about obesity related determinants needed to develop appropriate treatment and pre...

  2. The relationship between demographic variables and leisure perceptions of selected South African first year university students / J.T. Weilbach.

    OpenAIRE

    Weilbach, Johannes Theron

    2013-01-01

    Participation in campus leisure and recreation programmes can provide university students with various benefits, but the provision of effective leisure programmes are complicated by the changes that have taken place in the demographic composition of the student population attending South African universities. Increases in the proportion of black students attending university, and decreases in the proportion of white students means that current students possibly exhibit leisure behaviours that...

  3. Demograficheskie izmenenija v Germanii i novaja territorial'naja struktura starenija [Demographic change in Germany and reversal of spatial ageing patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swiaczny Frank

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the result of a spatial analysis considering the effect of demographic ageing and ageing-in-place processes in Germany according to spatially differentiated ageing patterns among urban, sub-urban and rural counties up to 2025. As to the latest official population forecast counties of urban core regions will undergo a slower ageing process than other types of counties, resulting in a reversal of ageing patterns. Urban core areas in this analysis will gain demographically from their net migration surplus while suburban housing locations of the past will be no longer able to attract enough young migrants to compensate for their now rapidly ageing baby boomer generation. The process presented is typical for the fate of (suburban housing areas with homogenous populations under conditions of ageing and shrinking if spatial mobility in ageing population groups is declining.

  4. Maternal risk of breeding failure remained low throughout the demographic transitions in fertility and age at first reproduction in Finland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianghua Liu

    Full Text Available Radical declines in fertility and postponement of first reproduction during the recent human demographic transitions have posed a challenge to interpreting human behaviour in evolutionary terms. This challenge has stemmed from insufficient evolutionary insight into individual reproductive decision-making and the rarity of datasets recording individual long-term reproductive success throughout the transitions. We use such data from about 2,000 Finnish mothers (first births: 1880s to 1970s to show that changes in the maternal risk of breeding failure (no offspring raised to adulthood underlay shifts in both fertility and first reproduction. With steady improvements in offspring survival, the expected fertility required to satisfy a low risk of breeding failure became lower and observed maternal fertility subsequently declined through an earlier age at last reproduction. Postponement of the age at first reproduction began when this risk approximated zero-even for mothers starting reproduction late. Interestingly, despite vastly differing fertility rates at different stages of the transitions, the number of offspring successfully raised to breeding per mother remained relatively constant over the period. Our results stress the importance of assessing the long-term success of reproductive strategies by including measures of offspring quality and suggest that avoidance of breeding failure may explain several key features of recent life-history shifts in industrialized societies.

  5. Maternal Risk of Breeding Failure Remained Low throughout the Demographic Transitions in Fertility and Age at First Reproduction in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianghua; Rotkirch, Anna; Lummaa, Virpi

    2012-01-01

    Radical declines in fertility and postponement of first reproduction during the recent human demographic transitions have posed a challenge to interpreting human behaviour in evolutionary terms. This challenge has stemmed from insufficient evolutionary insight into individual reproductive decision-making and the rarity of datasets recording individual long-term reproductive success throughout the transitions. We use such data from about 2,000 Finnish mothers (first births: 1880s to 1970s) to show that changes in the maternal risk of breeding failure (no offspring raised to adulthood) underlay shifts in both fertility and first reproduction. With steady improvements in offspring survival, the expected fertility required to satisfy a low risk of breeding failure became lower and observed maternal fertility subsequently declined through an earlier age at last reproduction. Postponement of the age at first reproduction began when this risk approximated zero–even for mothers starting reproduction late. Interestingly, despite vastly differing fertility rates at different stages of the transitions, the number of offspring successfully raised to breeding per mother remained relatively constant over the period. Our results stress the importance of assessing the long-term success of reproductive strategies by including measures of offspring quality and suggest that avoidance of breeding failure may explain several key features of recent life-history shifts in industrialized societies. PMID:22529952

  6. Association between Work Related Stress and Health Related Quality of Life: The Impact of Socio-Demographic Variables. A Cross Sectional Study in a Region of Central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Torre, Giuseppe; Sestili, Cristina; Mannocci, Alice; Sinopoli, Alessandra; De Paolis, Massimiliano; De Francesco, Sara; Rapaccini, Laura; Barone, Marco; Iodice, Valentina; Lojodice, Bruno; Sernia, Sabina; De Sio, Simone; Del Cimmuto, Angela; De Giusti, Maria

    2018-01-19

    The aim of this work is investigate relationship between health-related quality of life and work-related stress and the impact of gender, education level, and age on this relationship. A cross-sectional study was conducted among workers of various setting in Rome and Frosinone. Work-related stress was measured with a demand-control questionnaire and health-related functioning by SF (short form)-12 health survey. There were 611 participants. Men reported high mental composite summary (MCS) and physical composite summary (PCS). In multivariate analysis age, gender ( p work-related stress should consider socio-demographic factors.

  7. Food insecurity in Denmark-socio-demographic determinants and associations with eating- and health-related variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Thomas B; Holm, Lotte; Tetens, Inge; Smed, Sinne; Nielsen, Annemette L

    2018-04-01

    Food insecurity and its consequences have not received much attention in the Nordic, social-democratic welfare states. This study reports the prevalence of low and very low food security in Denmark, identifies its socio-demographic determinants and examines its associations with eating-related and health-related outcomes. A cross-sectional survey with a mixed-mode response format (telephone interviewing or Internet). A disproportional stratified random sampling design was employed (N = 1877). Main measure was the 6-item gradient food security construct adapted from the US. Prevalence of low and very low food security was 6.0% (95% CI:5.4-8.5%) and 2.4% (95% CI:1.3-3.3%), respectively. Prevalence was highest in households with disposable income below OECD's poverty threshold, households receiving benefits or disability pensions, and single-parent households. After socio-demographic adjustment, adults from low/very low food secure households had a higher probability of eating an unhealthy diet (women: adj.RR 2.82 P food secure households had lower life satisfaction (women: adj.RR 0.49, P food secure women (RR 2.44 P Food insecurity in Denmark is associated with adverse factors such as unhealthy diet, obesity, life satisfaction, and psychological distress. It is important to widen food insecurity research to non-liberal welfare states since low/very low food security is negatively associated with unhealthy eating and other health indicators, even in a social-democratic welfare state.

  8. Can psychosocial and socio-demographic questions help identify sexual risk among heterosexually-active women of reproductive age? Evidence from Britain’s third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Edelman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Contraceptive advice and supply (CAS and sexually transmitted infection (STI testing are increasingly provided in primary care. Most risk assessment tools are based on sexual risk behaviours and socio-demographics, for use online or in specialist services. Combining socio-demographic and psychosocial questions (e.g. religious belief and formative experience may generate an acceptable tool for targeting women in primary care who would benefit from intervention. We aimed to identify psychosocial and socio-demographic factors associated with reporting key sexual risk behaviours among women in the British general population. Methods We undertook complex survey analysis of data from 4911 hetero-sexually active women aged 16–44 years, who participated in Britain’s third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3, a national probability sample survey undertaken 2010–2012. We used multivariable regression to examine associations between the available psychosocial and socio-demographic variables in Natsal-3 and reports of three key sexual behaviours: a 2+ partners in the last year (2PP; b non-use of condoms with 2+ partners in the last year (2PPNC; c non-use of condoms at first sex with most recent sexual partner (FSNC. We adjusted for key socio-demographic factors: age, ethnicity and socio-economic status (measured by housing tenure. Results Weekly binge drinking (6+ units on one occasion, and first sex before age 16 were each positively associated with all three sexual behaviours after adjustment. Current relationship status, reporting drug use (ever, younger age and living in rented accommodation were also associated with 2+ partners and 2 + partners without condoms after adjustment. Currently being a smoker, older age and respondent ethnicity were associated with FSNC after adjustment for all other variables. Current smoking status, treatment for depression (last year, and living at home with both

  9. Prediction of the Dimensions of the Spiritual Well-Being of Students at Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Iran: The Roles of Demographic Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziapour, Arash; Khatony, Alireza; Jafari, Faranak; Kianipour, Neda

    2017-07-01

    Spiritual well-being is one of the aspects of well-being which organize the physical, psychological, and social aspects. Given the outstanding and unique roles of students in society, providing spiritual well-being as well as identifying and eliminating the negative factors affecting their mental well-being are of the essence. The present study aimed to predict the dimensions of the spiritual well-being of students at Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences and to investigate the roles of demographic variables in this respect. In this descriptive and correlational study, the statistical population was comprised of 346 doctoral students in the for-profit Schools of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceuticals in Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences in 2016. For data collection, an instrument comprising the demographic questions and the 20-item spiritual well-being scale by Paloutzian and Ellison (1982) was utilized. To analyze data, the descriptive (frequency distribution, mean, and standard deviation) and inferential statistics (independent t-test, one-way ANOVA, and chi-squared test) were employed in the SPSS Statistics Software Version 21.0. The results of the present study demonstrated that the spiritual well-being of students was average (71.86±4.84), and of all demographic variables under study, only the variable of gender significantly correlated with the mean score of spiritual well-being. Also, the results revealed that the students' score of religious well-being measured higher than that of their existential well-being. However, a significant correlation was found between spiritual well-being and its dimensions. Also, the religious and existential well-being were found to be significantly related (pspirituality among the students of the for-profit Schools at Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences. Therefore, it is recommended that appropriate plans be laid by the culture and education policy makers to promote the spiritual well-being of university

  10. Mathematics Anxiety in College Students in Costa Rica and Their Relatonship with Academic Achievement and Socio-Demographic Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado Monge, Islande C.; Espinoza González, Johan; Fonseca Castro, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    The study tried to determine the relationship between mathematics anxiety and the variables of gender, academic achievement, number of times students have taken the course and type of school in students taking the course MAT-001 General Mathematics of the National University of Costa Rica. To that end, a purposive sample of 472 students of such…

  11. What Predicts Student Success in Introductory Data Management Classes? An Investigation of Demographic, Personality, Computer-Related, and Interaction Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Kenneth J.; Harris, Ranida B.; Lambert, Alysa D.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction to data management classes are often times students' first exposure to advanced material in these areas. Many factors are likely to influence success in these classes, but empirical investigations have focused on relatively few variables. In this study, we extend this research by examining the relative contributions of the previously…

  12. Vertebral fracture prevalence among Greek healthy middle-aged postmenopausal women: association with demographics, anthropometric parameters, and bone mineral density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambrinoudaki, Irene; Flokatoula, Maria; Armeni, Eleni; Pliatsika, Paraskevi; Augoulea, Areti; Antoniou, Aris; Alexandrou, Andreas; Creatsa, Maria; Panoulis, Constantinos; Dendrinos, Spyridon; Papacharalambous, Xenofon

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of skeletal fractures shows a marked geographic variability; however, data regarding the Greek population remain limited. To evaluate the frequency of asymptomatic vertebral fractures (VFs), and potential risk factors, in a large sample of Greek postmenopausal women. A cross-sectional study at the University Menopause Clinic. Four hundred fifty-four postmenopausal women aged 35 to 80 years, with an average menopausal age of 9.2±7.1 years. They included medical history, anthropometric and biochemical parameters, bone mineral density (BMD) at lumbar spine (LS) and femoral neck (FN), and LS lateral radiographs. Lumbar spine lateral radiographs were evaluated according to quantitative procedures, aiming to identify VFs. Anthropometric and biochemical parameters and values of BMD were compared according to the presence of VFs. A total of 37 (8.15%) women had at least one VF. Lumbar spine and FN-osteoporosis was identified in up to 23.1% and 40.9% subjects with prevalent VFs, respectively. The prevalence of VFs was largely associated with age, with women aged 60 years or more presenting an up to fourfold risk compared with younger women. Moreover, the presence of VFs was associated with higher menopausal age, advanced age at menarche, a history of early menopause, and prolonged lactation. Lower LS-BMD and, especially, FN-BMD were negatively associated with VF prevalence (prevalent VF vs. no VF: LS-BMD, 0.89±0.16 g/cm(2) vs. 0.98±0.16 g/cm(2), p=.010; FN-BMD, 0.72±0.10 g/cm(2) vs. 0.81±0.12 g/cm(2), p=.008). Asymptomatic VFs are common among Greek healthy middle-aged postmenopausal women. More than 50% subjects with prevalent VFs present with normal BMD or osteopenia. Age and bone density classification at the FN presented the strongest association with the prevalence of VFs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. EJSCREEN Demographic Indicators 2015 Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    EJSCREEN uses demographic factors as very general indicators of a community's potential susceptibility to the types of environmental factors included in this screening tool. There are six demographic indicators: Demographic Index, Supplementary Demographic Index, Individuals under Age 5, Individuals over Age 64, Percent Low-Income, Linguistic Isolation, Percent Minority, and Less than High School Education.

  14. Genetic variability, local selection and demographic history: genomic evidence of evolving towards allopatric speciation in Asian seabass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Le; Wan, Zi Yi; Lim, Huan Sein; Yue, Gen Hua

    2016-08-01

    Genomewide analysis of genetic divergence is critically important in understanding the genetic processes of allopatric speciation. We sequenced RAD tags of 131 Asian seabass individuals of six populations from South-East Asia and Australia/Papua New Guinea. Using 32 433 SNPs, we examined the genetic diversity and patterns of population differentiation across all the populations. We found significant evidence of genetic heterogeneity between South-East Asian and Australian/Papua New Guinean populations. The Australian/Papua New Guinean populations showed a rather lower level of genetic diversity. FST and principal components analysis revealed striking divergence between South-East Asian and Australian/Papua New Guinean populations. Interestingly, no evidence of contemporary gene flow was observed. The demographic history was further tested based on the folded joint site frequency spectrum. The scenario of ancient migration with historical population size changes was suggested to be the best fit model to explain the genetic divergence of Asian seabass between South-East Asia and Australia/Papua New Guinea. This scenario also revealed that Australian/Papua New Guinean populations were founded by ancestors from South-East Asia during mid-Pleistocene and were completely isolated from the ancestral population after the last glacial retreat. We also detected footprints of local selection, which might be related to differential ecological adaptation. The ancient gene flow was examined and deemed likely insufficient to counteract the genetic differentiation caused by genetic drift. The observed genomic pattern of divergence conflicted with the 'genomic islands' scenario. Altogether, Asian seabass have likely been evolving towards allopatric speciation since the split from the ancestral population during mid-Pleistocene. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Risk adjustment models for interhospital comparison of CS rates using Robson's ten group classification system and other socio-demographic and clinical variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colais, Paola; Fantini, Maria P; Fusco, Danilo; Carretta, Elisa; Stivanello, Elisa; Lenzi, Jacopo; Pieri, Giulia; Perucci, Carlo A

    2012-06-21

    Caesarean section (CS) rate is a quality of health care indicator frequently used at national and international level. The aim of this study was to assess whether adjustment for Robson's Ten Group Classification System (TGCS), and clinical and socio-demographic variables of the mother and the fetus is necessary for inter-hospital comparisons of CS rates. The study population includes 64,423 deliveries in Emilia-Romagna between January 1, 2003 and December 31, 2004, classified according to theTGCS. Poisson regression was used to estimate crude and adjusted hospital relative risks of CS compared to a reference category. Analyses were carried out in the overall population and separately according to the Robson groups (groups I, II, III, IV and V-X combined). Adjusted relative risks (RR) of CS were estimated using two risk-adjustment models; the first (M1) including the TGCS group as the only adjustment factor; the second (M2) including in addition demographic and clinical confounders identified using a stepwise selection procedure. Percentage variations between crude and adjusted RRs by hospital were calculated to evaluate the confounding effect of covariates. The percentage variations from crude to adjusted RR proved to be similar in M1 and M2 model. However, stratified analyses by Robson's classification groups showed that residual confounding for clinical and demographic variables was present in groups I (nulliparous, single, cephalic, ≥37 weeks, spontaneous labour) and III (multiparous, excluding previous CS, single, cephalic, ≥37 weeks, spontaneous labour) and IV (multiparous, excluding previous CS, single, cephalic, ≥37 weeks, induced or CS before labour) and to a minor extent in groups II (nulliparous, single, cephalic, ≥37 weeks, induced or CS before labour) and IV (multiparous, excluding previous CS, single, cephalic, ≥37 weeks, induced or CS before labour). The TGCS classification is useful for inter-hospital comparison of CS section rates, but

  16. Strategic Enrollment Management in the Age of Austerity and Changing Demographics: Managing Recruitment, Leveraging, Revenue, and Access in Challenging Economic Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langston, Randall; Scheid, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    Ever since the beginning of the Great Recession, higher education has braced for the impending age of austerity and changing demographics. Now a reality, these conditions threaten the ability of institutions of higher education to remain competitive in an ever growing global marketplace. This article presents several core SEM strategies that can…

  17. Age as a prognostic variable in patients undergoing transurethral prostatectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, J; Jensen, J S; Iversen, H G

    1993-01-01

    In a retrospective study the outcome of transurethral prostatectomy (TURP) for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in patients more than 80 years old was compared to a control group of patients with a mean age ten years younger. The elderly had significantly more tissue resected and presented...... with a higher rate of preoperative urinary tract infection. More urological complications were seen among the elderly but these were generally short lived and had no influence on the morbidity, mortality and symptomatic outcome. The perioperative mortality was 3.2% among elderly and 0% in the younger age group....... A cardiorespiratory risk score could not predict patients at risk. In conclusion the age per se had no major influence on the outcome of TURP....

  18. Age as a prognostic variable in patients undergoing transurethral prostatectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, J; Jensen, J S; Iversen, H G

    1993-01-01

    In a retrospective study the outcome of transurethral prostatectomy (TURP) for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in patients more than 80 years old was compared to a control group of patients with a mean age ten years younger. The elderly had significantly more tissue resected and presented...

  19. Role of demographic and job-related variables in determining work-related quality of life of hospital employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Shukla

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Considering a huge working population in health sector faced with stressful work life, limited autonomy in work and declining work contentment calls for an overemphasis on evaluating and monitoring their satisfaction associated with work-related quality of life (WRQoL. This study evaluates WRQoL of hospital employees and validates the bilingual (English and Marathi version of WRQoL scale. Methods: The study was conducted during March-April′2014 on employees of a corporate hospital of Pune, India after ethical approval and informed consent from employees. The bilingual WRQoL scale has been tested for reliability and validity, and WRQoL scores have been reported. Results: A total of 132 hospital employees (mean age 31 [±8] years, 55% males who participated in the study reported overall moderate WRQoL scores. The scale showed high internal consistency (Cronbach′s alpha = 0.82, P < 0.0001 and moderate to high validity. WRQoL did not significantly vary across marital status, family size, and gender. "Stress at work" score of WRQoL increased with age of employees. Higher work experience, employment at higher positions and those working in clinical and diagnostic departments reported a higher WRQoL. Conclusion: WRQoL scale is a reliable and valid instrument. Better WRQoL in employees placed in higher organizational positions indicates a need for focused measures to enhance WRQoL of employees in lower hierarchical levels, especially in control at work and home life interface domains. WRQoL needs regular monitoring for employees in lower positions and aging employees.

  20. Demographic and spatial predictors of anemia in women of reproductive age in Timor-Leste: implications for health program prioritization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew A Lover

    Full Text Available Anemia is a significant risk factor for poor health outcomes for both the mother and neonate; however, the determinants of anemia in many epidemiological settings are poorly understood. Using a subset of a nationally representative cluster survey (2010 Demographic and Health Survey in combination with other non-contemporaneous survey data, the epidemiology of anemia among women of reproductive age in Timor-Leste has been explored. Logistic regression was used to identify risk factors, population-level impacts were estimated as population attributable fractions and spatial analytics were used to identify regions of highest risk. The DHS survey found that ∼ 21% of adult women in Timor-Leste are anemic (49,053; 95% CI: 37,095 to 61,035, with hemoglobin <12.0 g/dL. In this population, the main risk factors (adjusted odds ratio; 95% CI are: currently abstaining from sex for any reason (2.25; 1.50 to 3.38; illiteracy (2.04; 1.49 to 2.80; giving birth within the previous year (1.80; 1.29 to 2.51; consumption of fruits/vegetables low in vitamin A (1.57; 1.13 to 2.20; and the district-level confirmed malaria incidence (1.31; 1.15 to 1.49. A review of prior soil-transmitted helminth surveys in Timor-Leste indicates low-to-moderate prevalence with generally low egg counts, suggesting a limited impact on anemia in this setting, although comprehensive survey data are lacking. Examination of the population-level effects highlights the impacts of both recent births and malaria on anemia, with more limited impacts from diet; the evidence does not suggest a large contribution from geohelminths within Timor-Leste. These patterns are divergent from some other settings in the Asia-Pacific region and highlight the need for further focused research. Targeting high-burden districts and by increasing access to pre/postnatal care, raising literacy levels, increasing access to family planning, and improving malaria control should be prioritized to maximize inherently

  1. Mathematics Anxiety in College Students in Costa Rica and their Relatonship with Academic Achievement and Socio-Demographic Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islande C. Delgado Monge

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The study tried to determine the relationship between mathematics anxiety and the variables of gender, academic achievement, number of times students have taken the course and type of school in students taking the course MAT-001 General Mathematics of the National University of Costa Rica. To that end, a purposive sample of 472 students of such course was collected and the instrument of Hopko, Mahadevan, Bare and Hunt was adjusted to it (2003. Data collected were analyzed with the statistical program SPSS applying the corresponding hypothesis tests. According with the results, students showed a medium level of math anxiety and women showed a math anxiety significantly higher than men, while student graduated from private schools showed a significantly lower level of math anxiety than those from public schools or from the modality “General Equivalency Diploma”. Besides, the higher the math anxiety of the student is, the lower their academic achievement will be. Finally, there were no statistically significant differences between math anxiety and the number of times students have taken the course.

  2. Socio-demographic and lifestyle factors associated with overweight in a representative sample of 11-15 year olds in France: Results from the WHO-Collaborative Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godeau Emmanuelle

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of overweight in children and adolescents is high and overweight is associated with poor health outcomes over short- and long-term. Lifestyle factors can interact to influence overweight. Comprehensive studies linking overweight concomitantly with several demographic and potentially-modifiable lifestyle factors and health-risk behaviours are limited in adolescents - an age-group characterized by changes in lifestyle behaviours and high prevalence of overweight. Thus, the objective of the current study was to examine the association of overweight with several socio-demographic and lifestyle variables simultaneously in a representative sample of adolescents. Methods A nationally representative sample of 11-15 year-olds (n = 7154 in France participated as part of the WHO-Collaborative Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC study. Students reported data on their age, height, weight, socio-demographic variables, lifestyle factors including nutrition practices, physical activity at two levels of intensity (moderate and vigorous, sedentary behaviours, as well as smoking and alcohol consumption patterns using standardized HBSC protocols. Overweight (including obesity was defined using the IOTF reference. The multivariate association of overweight with several socio-demographic and lifestyle factors was examined with logistic regression models. Results The adjusted odds ratios for the association with overweight were: 1.80 (95% CI: 1.37-2.36 for low family affluence; 0.73 (0.60-0.88 for eating breakfast daily; 0.69 (0.56-0.84 for moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA; and 0.71 (0.59-0.86 for vigorous physical activity (VPA. Significant interactions between age and gender as well as television (TV viewing and gender were noted: for boys, overweight was not associated with age or TV viewing; in contrast, for girls overweight correlated negatively with age and positively with TV viewing. Fruit and vegetable

  3. CD4+ T cell count, HIV-1 viral loads and demographic variables of newly identified patients with HIV infection in Wuhan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Man-Qing; Tang, Li; Kong, Wen-Hua; Zhu, Ze-Rong; Peng, Jin-Song; Wang, Xia; Yao, Zhong-Zhao; Schilling, Robert; Zhou, Wang

    2013-10-01

    In China, the rate of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing is increasing among men who have sex with men. The purpose of the present study was to describe HIV-related biomarkers and selected demographic variables of persons with newly diagnosed HIV/AIDS, among men who have sex with men in particular, in Wuhan China. Demographic indicators, and CD4+ T cell counts and HIV-1 viral load were collected from individuals newly identified as HIV-1 antibody positive during 2011. Of 176 enrolled patients, 132 (75.0%) were men who have sex with men. This group was significantly younger and had higher CD4+ T cell counts than patients who were likely infected through heterosexual contact. Most men who have sex with men (56.6%) were discovered by initiative investigation. Among heterosexual patients CD4+ T cell counts and HIV-1 viral load were significantly correlated; among the group of men who have sex with men, no such association was found. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Exploring spatial patterns in the associations between local AIDS incidence and socioeconomic and demographic variables in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, André T J; Nobre, Flavio F; Waller, Lance A

    2016-05-01

    Access to antiretroviral therapy (ART), universally provided in Brazil since 1996, resulted in a reduction in overall morbidity and mortality due to AIDS or AIDS-related complications, but in some municipalities of Rio de Janeiro, AIDS incidence remains high. Public health surveillance remains an invaluable tool for understanding current AIDS epidemiologic patterns and local socioeconomic and demographic factors associated with increased incidence. Geographically Weighted Poisson Regression (GWPR) explores spatial varying impacts of these factors across the study area focusing attention on local variations in ecological associations. The set of sociodemographic variables under consideration revealed significant associations with local AIDS incidence and these associations varied geographically across the study area. We find the effects of predictors on AIDS incidence are not constant across the state, contrary to assumptions in the global models. We observe and quantify different local factors driving AIDS incidence in different parts of the state. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Association between Work Related Stress and Health Related Quality of Life: The Impact of Socio-Demographic Variables. A Cross Sectional Study in a Region of Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe La Torre

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is investigate relationship between health-related quality of life and work-related stress and the impact of gender, education level, and age on this relationship. A cross-sectional study was conducted among workers of various setting in Rome and Frosinone. Work-related stress was measured with a demand–control questionnaire and health-related functioning by SF (short form-12 health survey. There were 611 participants. Men reported high mental composite summary (MCS and physical composite summary (PCS. In multivariate analysis age, gender (p < 0.001 and job demand (0.045 predicted low PCS. Low MCS predicted poor PCS. Job demand and educational level resulted negatively associated with MCS. In an analysis stratified for age, gender, and educational level, gender and age resulted effect modifier for MCS, gender and education level for PCS. In women increase of decision latitude predict (p = 0.001 an increase in MCS; a low job demand predict high MCS in male (p ≤ 0.001. In younger workers, a lower level of job demand predicted high MCS (<0.001. For PCS, gender and education level resulted effect modifier. In women, high decision latitude predicted higher PCS (p = 0.001 and lower level of job demand results in higher PCS (p ≤ 0.001. Higher educational level resulted predictor of low PCS. Management of risk about work-related stress should consider socio-demographic factors.

  6. Effect of age on variability in the production of text-based global inferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Lynne J; Dunlop, Joseph P; Abdi, Hervé

    2012-01-01

    As we age, our differences in cognitive skills become more visible, an effect especially true for memory and problem solving skills (i.e., fluid intelligence). However, by contrast with fluid intelligence, few studies have examined variability in measures that rely on one's world knowledge (i.e., crystallized intelligence). The current study investigated whether age increased the variability in text based global inference generation--a measure of crystallized intelligence. Global inference generation requires the integration of textual information and world knowledge and can be expressed as a gist or lesson. Variability in generating two global inferences for a single text was examined in young-old (62 to 69 years), middle-old (70 to 76 years) and old-old (77 to 94 years) adults. The older two groups showed greater variability, with the middle elderly group being most variable. These findings suggest that variability may be a characteristic of both fluid and crystallized intelligence in aging.

  7. Effect of age on variability in the production of text-based global inferences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynne J Williams

    Full Text Available As we age, our differences in cognitive skills become more visible, an effect especially true for memory and problem solving skills (i.e., fluid intelligence. However, by contrast with fluid intelligence, few studies have examined variability in measures that rely on one's world knowledge (i.e., crystallized intelligence. The current study investigated whether age increased the variability in text based global inference generation--a measure of crystallized intelligence. Global inference generation requires the integration of textual information and world knowledge and can be expressed as a gist or lesson. Variability in generating two global inferences for a single text was examined in young-old (62 to 69 years, middle-old (70 to 76 years and old-old (77 to 94 years adults. The older two groups showed greater variability, with the middle elderly group being most variable. These findings suggest that variability may be a characteristic of both fluid and crystallized intelligence in aging.

  8. Demographic, health-related, and work-related factors associated with body mass index and body fat percentage among workers at six Connecticut manufacturing companies across different age groups: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza, Jennifer L; Dugan, Alicia G; Faghri, Pouran D; Gorin, Amy A; Huedo-Medina, Tania B; Kenny, Anne M; Cherniack, Martin G; Cavallari, Jennifer M

    2015-01-01

    Effective workplace interventions that consider the multifactorial nature of obesity are needed to reduce and prevent obesity among adults. Furthermore, the factors associated with obesity may differ for workers across age groups. Therefore, the objective of this study was to identify demographic, health-related, and work-related factors associated with baseline and changes in body mass index (BMI) and body fat percentage (BFP) and among Connecticut manufacturing workers acrossage groups. BMI and BFPof 758 workers from six Connecticut manufacturing companies were objectively measuredat two time points approximately 36 months apart. Demographic, health-related, and work-related factors wereassessed via questionnaire. All variables were included in linear regression models to identify factors associated with baseline and changes in BMI and BFP for workers in 3 age groups: 55 years (28 %). There were differences in baseline and changes in BMI and BFP among manufacturing workers across age groups. Being interested in changing weight was significantly (p gender (BMI p = 0.04), female gender (BFP p gender (BMI p = 0.02), female gender (BFP p gender (BFP p 55 year age category. Few factors were associated with change in BMI or BFP across any age category. Among manufacturing workers, we identified associations between individual, health-related, and work-related factors and baseline BMIand BFP that differed by age. Such results support the use of strategies tailored to the challenges faced by workers in specific age groups rather than adopting a one size fits all approach. Effective interventions should consider a full range of individual, health-related, and work-related factors. More work must be done to identify factors or strategies associated with changes in obesity over time.

  9. The role of self-transcendence: a missing variable in the pursuit of successful aging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Valerie Lander; Ling, Jiying; Carini, Robert M

    2013-07-01

    While successful aging is often defined as the absence of disease and disability or as life satisfaction, self-transcendence may also play an important role. The objective of this research was to test a nursing theory of successful aging proposing that transcendence and adaptation predict successful aging. In this cross-sectional exploratory study, a convenience sample of older adults (N = 152) were surveyed about self-transcendence, proactive coping, and successful aging. Using hierarchical multiple regression, self-transcendence, proactive coping, and all control variables (i.e., sex, race, perceived health, place of residence) together explained 50% of the variance in successful aging (p self-transcendence and proactive coping predict successful aging. Self-transcendence was the only significant contributor to this multidimensional view of successful aging. Self-transcendence is an important variable in the pursuit of successful aging, which merits further investigation. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  10. Relationship between parent demographic characteristics, perinatal and early childhood behaviors, and body mass index among preschool-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messiah, Sarah E; Asfour, Lila; Arheart, Kristopher L; Selem, Sarah M; Uhlhorn, Susan B; Natale, Ruby

    2015-04-01

    Approximately 25% of US 2-to-5-year olds are overweight and ethnic minority groups are disproportionately affected. We explored the relationship between parent demographic characteristics, various perinatal/early childhood (EC) factors, and child body mass index (BMI) to determine possible contributors to these disparities. A preschool-based randomized controlled (N = 28 centers) obesity prevention intervention was conducted among multiethnic 2-to-5 year olds. Baseline assessment of demographic characteristics, various perinatal/EC factors, and child BMI were analyzed via generalized linear mixed models and logistic regression analysis. Foreign-born parents were almost 2.5 times as likely to have an obese child versus children of US-born parents (OR 2.43, 95% CI 1.53-3.87). Families who spoke Spanish only or a combination of Creole/English at home were over twice as likely to have an obese preschool child versus families who spoke English only at home. Parent place of birth and language spoken at home plays a significant role in early childhood obesity. Future early childhood healthy weight initiatives should incorporate strategies that take into account these particular parent characteristics.

  11. Aging and motor variability: a test of the neural noise hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosnoff, Jacob J; Newell, Karl M

    2011-07-01

    Experimental tests of the neural noise hypothesis of aging, which holds that aging-related increments in motor variability are due to increases in white noise in the perceptual-motor system, were conducted. Young (20-29 years old) and old (60-69 and 70-79 years old) adults performed several perceptual-motor tasks. Older adults were progressively more variable in their performance outcome, but there was no age-related difference in white noise in the motor output. Older adults had a greater frequency-dependent structure in their motor variability that was associated with performance decrements. The findings challenge the main tenet of the neural noise hypothesis of aging in that the increased variability of older adults was due to a decreased ability to adapt to the constraints of the task rather than an increment of neural noise per se.

  12. Age and Sex Differences in Intra-Individual Variability in a Simple Reaction Time Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghisletta, Paolo; Renaud, Olivier; Fagot, Delphine; Lecerf, Thierry; de Ribaupierre, Anik

    2018-01-01

    While age effects in reaction time (RT) tasks across the lifespan are well established for level of performance, analogous findings have started appearing also for indicators of intra-individual variability (IIV). Children are not only slower, but also display more variability than younger adults in RT. Yet, little is known about potential…

  13. Health-related quality of life (HRQoL): the impact of medical and demographic variables upon pediatric recipients of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brice, Lisa; Weiss, Rebecca; Wei, Ying; Satwani, Prakash; Bhatia, Monica; George, Diane; Garvin, James; Morris, Erin; Harrison, Lauren; Cairo, Mitchell S; Sands, Stephen A

    2011-12-15

    The trajectory of Heath-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) in pediatric recipients who have undergone hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), as well as the demographic and medical factors that predict HRQoL, has lagged behind the adult research. A prospective longitudinal study of HRQoL in pediatric HSCT recipients was conducted with 95 patients at the Columbia University Medical Center between 2002 and 2009. Both children and parents completed the PedsQL 4.0 prior to HSCT and at days 100, 180, and 365-post-HSCT. The majority of patients and their parents reported linear improvements in HRQoL in the first year post-transplant; however, a portion of patients were in the at-risk group at each time point. Latent growth modeling was utilized to examine demographic and medical factors that predicted initial HRQoL and its trajectory. Older age at transplant significant predicted lowered HRQoL at baseline for self- and parent-report. Female gender significantly impacted lowered self-reported physical HRQoL over time. Ethnicity was a significant predictor of HRQoL at baseline and over time for self- and parent-report, with African-American children reporting the highest HRQoL; whereas, the worst decline in psychosocial HRQoL was often reported by parents and children of Asian descent. This research identifies the significant impact of ethnicity upon HRQoL following pediatric HSCT. It is likely that an individual's pre-morbid experiences and expectations, particularly with regard to culture, behaviors, and values, influence the parent and child's perceptions and expectations of the HSCT process. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. A cross-sectional study of the demographic, cultural, clinical and rehabilitation associated variables predicting return to employment after disability onset in an Asian society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Wai Yin; Chew, Natalie Jin Lin; Nasron, Leila Ilmami Binte; Fook-Chong, Stephanie Man Chung; Ng, Yee Sien

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the rate of return to work, and to find demographic, clinical and functional factors associated with successful re-employment after in-patient rehabilitation. We performed a cross-sectional cohort study of Singaporeans aged 15 and above who underwent inpatient rehabilitation in a Singapore hospital between 2000 and 2007. Phone interviews were conducted in 2007 to 2008, via a structured questionnaire to evaluate factors of return to work. Four hundred and eight patients met with the inclusion criteria, and 123 participants completed the questionnaire. Forty-five (44.7%) participants successfully returned to work with a mean time of 7 months post-discharge. Statistical significant differences were found between the "return to work" group and "non-return to work" group based on age group (p=0.04), education level (p=0.001), pre-morbid job category (0.013) and functional status (p<0.0005) as determined by Functional Independence Measure scores. Cox regression analysis controlling the period between discharge and survey indicated that higher FIM scores and higher education level predicted successful re-employment. This result re-affirmed the importance of functional status to the success of return-to-work in Singapore. Further qualitative studies might be useful in exploring the social or environmental factors affecting return-to-work outcomes.

  15. Dietary patterns in Canadian men and women ages 25 and older: relationship to demographics, body mass index, and bone mineral density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Towheed Tanveer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research has shown that underlying dietary patterns are related to the risk of many different adverse health outcomes, but the relationship of these underlying patterns to skeletal fragility is not well understood. The objective of the study was to determine whether dietary patterns in men (ages 25-49, 50+ and women (pre-menopause, post-menopause are related to femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD independently of other lifestyle variables, and whether this relationship is mediated by body mass index. Methods We performed an analysis of 1928 men and 4611 women participants in the Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study, a randomly selected population-based longitudinal cohort. We determined dietary patterns based on the self-administered food frequency questionnaires in year 2 of the study (1997-99. Our primary outcome was BMD as measured by dual x-ray absorptiometry in year 5 of the study (2000-02. Results We identified two underlying dietary patterns using factor analysis and then derived factor scores. The first factor (nutrient dense was most strongly associated with intake of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains. The second factor (energy dense was most strongly associated with intake of soft drinks, potato chips and French fries, certain meats (hamburger, hot dog, lunch meat, bacon, and sausage, and certain desserts (doughnuts, chocolate, ice cream. The energy dense factor was associated with higher body mass index independent of other demographic and lifestyle factors, and body mass index was a strong independent predictor of BMD. Surprisingly, we did not find a similar positive association between diet and BMD. In fact, when adjusted for body mass index, each standard deviation increase in the energy dense score was associated with a BMD decrease of 0.009 (95% CI: 0.002, 0.016 g/cm2 for men 50+ years old and 0.004 (95% CI: 0.000, 0.008 g/cm2 for postmenopausal women. In contrast, for men 25-49 years old

  16. Demographic and attitudinal factors that modify annoyance from transportation noise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miedema, H.M.E.; Vos, H.

    1999-01-01

    The effect of demographic variables (sex, age, education level, occupational status, size of household, homeownership, dependency on the noise source, and use of the noise source) and two attitudinal variables (noise sensitivity and fear of the noise source) on noise annoyance is investigated. It is

  17. Ageing of the baby boomer generation: how demographic change will impact on city and rural GP and nursing workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, D J; Page, S L; Lyle, D M; Walker, T J

    2006-01-01

    To compare the impact of ageing on the GP and nursing rural and city workforce. Cohort analysis of Australian Bureau of Statistics census data. The data was used to examine the age distribution of the city and rural GP and nursing workforce; patterns of attrition for those 50 years and over; and the impact of changes in working hours. The rural GP and nursing workforce is significantly older than their city counterparts (pbaby boomer' generation making up 52% of city GPs but 59% of rural GPs in 2001. While a large proportion of city and rural GPs continued to work past the age of 65 years, rural GPs left the workforce at a significantly younger age than city doctors (pgeneration X' GPs were no more likely to work long hours than those in the city (pbaby boomers' continued to work long hours. Rural GPs are retiring faster than city GPs and strategies to attract rural GPs and nurses will be critical to ensure adequate rural health care and that current rural workforce shortage do not worsen.

  18. Changes in heart rate and heart rate variability as a function of age in Thoroughbred horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmura, Hajime; Jones, James H

    2017-01-01

    We investigated changes in heart rate (HR) and HR variability as a function of age in newborn foals to old Thoroughbred horses. Experiments were performed on a total of 83 healthy and clinically normal Thoroughbred horses. Resting HR decreased with age from birth. The relationship between age and HR fit the equation Y=48.2X -0.129 (R 2 =0.705); the relationship between age and HR for horses 0-7 years old fit the equation Y=44.1X -0.179 (R 2 =0.882). Seven-day-old horses had the highest HR values (106 ± 10.3 beat/min). The low frequency (LF) and high frequency (HF) powers increased with age in newborn to old horses. These changes in HR and HR variability appear to result from the effects of ageing. Three- to seven-year-old race horses had the lowest HR values (32.9 ± 3.5 beat/min) and the highest LF and HF powers except for the HF powers in the oldest horses. Race training may have contributed to these changes. Horses of ages greater than 25 years old had the highest HF powers and the lowest LF/HF ratios. In individual horses, 8 of the 15 horses over 25 years old had LF/HF ratios of less than 1.0; their HR variability appears to be unique, and they may have a different autonomic balance than horses of younger age.

  19. Determinants of moderate-to-severe anaemia among women of reproductive age in Tanzania: analysis of data from the 2010 Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilunda, Calistus; Massawe, Siriel; Jackson, Caroline

    2013-12-01

    To identify determinants of moderate-to-severe anaemia among women of reproductive age in Tanzania. We included participants from the 2010 Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey, which collected data on socio-demographic and maternal health and determined haemoglobin levels from blood samples. We performed logistic regression to calculate adjusted odds ratios for associations between socio-demographic, contextual, reproductive and lifestyle factors, and moderate-to-severe anaemia and investigated interactions between certain risk factors. Of 9477 women, 20.1% were anaemic. Pregnancy was significantly associated with anaemia (adjusted OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.43-2.15), but the effect varied significantly by urban/rural residence, wealth and education. The effect of pregnancy was stronger in women without education and those who were in lower wealth groups, with significant interactions observed for each of these factors. Education was associated with a lower anaemia risk, particularly in the poorest group (OR 0.58, 95% CI 0.43-0.80), and in pregnant women. The risk of anaemia fell with rising iron supplementation coverage. Lack of toilet facilities increased anaemia risk (OR 1.26, 95% CI 1.00-1.60), whereas using hormonal contraception reduced it. There was no association with age, urban/rural residence, wealth or type of cooking fuel in adjusted analysis. Pregnant women in Tanzania are particularly at risk of moderate-to-severe anaemia, with the effect modified by urban/rural residence, education and wealth. Prevention interventions should target women with lower education or without proper sanitation facilities, and women who are pregnant, particularly if they are uneducated or in lower wealth groups. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Changing demographics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vetter, B.M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on changing population demographics, poor academic preparation for and a decreasing interest in engineering among college students which indicates possible shortages ahead, particularly among chemical and petroleum engineers. The talent pool for engineering must be enlarged to include women and minority men, if we are to ensure an adequate future supply for the U.S

  1. Prevalence and demographic factors associated with vitamin A deficiency in Colombian children aged 12-59 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Torres, Javier; Meneses-Echavéz, José F; Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson

    2014-11-01

    To examine the sociodemographic factors associated with subclinical vitamin A deficiency in a representative sample of Colombian children. Subjects and methods A cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted of data from the 2010 National Nutrition Survey of Colombia (ENSIN 2010) on 4,279 children aged 12 to 59 months. Plasma vitamin A levels were measured using high resolution liquid chromatography (HRLC), and sociodemographic factors (sex, age, ethnicity, SISBEN score, and geographic region) were collected using a structured survey. Prevalence rates and associations were established using a multivariate regression model. Vitamin A levels ranged from 7.5-93.7 μg/dL (mean=26.2; 95% CI, 25.9 to 26.5μg/dL). Vitamin A levels less than 20 μg/dL (subclinical deficiency) were found in 24.3% of children. Children belonging to ethnic groups of African ascent, those living in the Orinoquia and Amazonia regions, and those aged 12-23 months had the greatest subclinical vitamin A deficiencies (29.5%, 31.1%, and 27.6% respectively. Regression models showed that age ranging from 12 and 23 months (OR 1.32; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.73), a SISBEN score 1 (OR 1.66; 95% CI, 1.18 to 2.34), an African ascent (OR 1.35; 95% CI, 1.05 to 1.74), and living in the Orinoquia and Amazonia regions (OR 2.38; 95% CI, 1.62 to 3.51) were factors associated to subclinical vitamin A deficiency. The study population shows a high prevalence of subclinical vitamin A deficiency, and comprehensive interventions involving nutritional and educational components are therefore recommended. Copyright © 2014 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. The Variability of Neural Responses to Naturalistic Videos Change with Age and Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petroni, Agustin; Cohen, Samantha S; Ai, Lei; Langer, Nicolas; Henin, Simon; Vanderwal, Tamara; Milham, Michael P; Parra, Lucas C

    2018-01-01

    Neural development is generally marked by an increase in the efficiency and diversity of neural processes. In a large sample ( n = 114) of human children and adults with ages ranging from 5 to 44 yr, we investigated the neural responses to naturalistic video stimuli. Videos from both real-life classroom settings and Hollywood feature films were used to probe different aspects of attention and engagement. For all stimuli, older ages were marked by more variable neural responses. Variability was assessed by the intersubject correlation of evoked electroencephalographic responses. Young males also had less-variable responses than young females. These results were replicated in an independent cohort ( n = 303). When interpreted in the context of neural maturation, we conclude that neural function becomes more variable with maturity, at least during the passive viewing of real-world stimuli.

  3. Effects of age, task, and frequency on variability of finger tapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommervoll, Yngve; Ettema, Gertjan; Vereijken, Beatrix

    2011-10-01

    The goal was to assess whether prior studies might have overestimated performance variability in older adults in dual task conditions by relying on primary motor tasks that are not constant with aging. 30 younger and 31 older adults performed a bimanual tapping task at four different frequencies in isolation or concurrently with a secondary task. Results showed that performance of younger and older adults was not significantly different in performing the tapping task at all frequencies and with either secondary task, as indicated by mean tapping performance and low number of errors in the secondary tasks. Both groups showed increased variability as tapping frequency increased and with the presence of a secondary task. Tapping concurrently while reading words increased tapping variability more than tapping concurrently while naming colours. Although older participants' performances were overall more variable, no interaction effects with age were found and at the highest frequencies of tapping, younger and older participants did not differ in performance.

  4. Wartościowanie zdrowia w opinii pielęgniarek w odniesieniu do zmiennych społeczno – demograficznych = Health evaluation with relation to socio-demographic variables – nurses’ opinions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Deluga

    2016-05-01

    Conclusions Health evaluation and significance are prominent elements of pro-health awareness in the nurses. Moreover, they/health behaviours depend on socio-demographic variables. The nurses pay much attention to health being associated with property and state, which characterizes an instrumental approach to health.

  5. Variables sociodemográficas y procesos de enfrentamiento al estrés en pacientes portadores de Rectocolitis Ulcerativa Idiopática Socio-demographic variables and stress coping strategies among ulcerative colitis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lucia Siqueira Costa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación tuvo como objetivo verificar la asociación existente entre las variables sociodemográficas y los procesos de enfrentamiento al estrés de los individuos portadores de Rectocolitis Ulcerativa Idiopática atendidos en el Ambulatorio de Enfermedades Inflamatorias de Colon del Hospital de las Clínicas de la Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad de San Pablo. Del total de 100 individuos participantes del estudio se verificó que la variable practicante de creencia religiosa presentó resultado estadísticamente significativo para los factores fuga/ esquiva, aceptación de responsabilidad y alejamiento. Con este estudio se pudo concluir que la creencia religiosa favorece la utilización de diversos factores de enfrentamiento para el manejo de situaciones adversas como la enfermedad y de este modo contribuir para mejorar la calidad de vida de los portadores de la enfermedad aquí estudiada.The objective of this research was verify any association between socio-demographic characteristics and and stress coping strategies among ulcerative colitis patients. This study took place in the Inflammatory Diseases Outpatient Clinic of Hospital das Clinicas of the University of São Paulo Medical School. The 100 individual participants of this study verified that the variable of those who practiced their religious faith presented statistically significant results in the factors disdainful escapement, acceptance of responsibility and separation. Conclusion: individuals of this study who practiced their religious faith predominantly used disdainful escapement, acceptance of responsibility, self-control as a way of coping with adverse situations such as this disease, contributed to an improvement in their quality of life.

  6. The HIV Epidemic in Sub-Saharan Africa is Aging: Evidence from the Demographic and Health Surveys in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, Sebastian; Harttgen, Kenneth; Alfven, Tobias; Padayachy, Jude; Ghys, Peter; Bärnighausen, Till

    2017-07-01

    We use the individual-level data from all available Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) from 27 sub-Saharan African countries conducted between 2003 and 2012 (40 population-based and nationally representative surveys in total) to calculate HIV testing consent rates and HIV prevalence for each country separately, as well as for the pooled sample. The pooled sample comprised of 427,130 individuals. In most countries HIV prevalence in adults aged 45 years and above is higher than in the total population. We further show that over the past decade HIV prevalence has increased in older age groups, while it has decreased in younger ones. While the age patterns of HIV consent rates vary across the 27 countries included in our sample, analysis of the pooled sample across all countries reveals a u-shaped relationship with lowest consent rates around age 35 years and higher consent rates among younger and older people. We argue that future DHS and other population-based HIV surveys should offer HIV testing to all adults without age limits.

  7. Aging increases cell-to-cell transcriptional variability upon immune stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Jimenez, Celia Pilar; Eling, Nils; Chen, Hung-Chang; Vallejos, Catalina A; Kolodziejczyk, Aleksandra A; Connor, Frances; Stojic, Lovorka; Rayner, Timothy F; Stubbington, Michael J T; Teichmann, Sarah A; de la Roche, Maike; Marioni, John C; Odom, Duncan T

    2017-03-31

    Aging is characterized by progressive loss of physiological and cellular functions, but the molecular basis of this decline remains unclear. We explored how aging affects transcriptional dynamics using single-cell RNA sequencing of unstimulated and stimulated naïve and effector memory CD4 + T cells from young and old mice from two divergent species. In young animals, immunological activation drives a conserved transcriptomic switch, resulting in tightly controlled gene expression characterized by a strong up-regulation of a core activation program, coupled with a decrease in cell-to-cell variability. Aging perturbed the activation of this core program and increased expression heterogeneity across populations of cells in both species. These discoveries suggest that increased cell-to-cell transcriptional variability will be a hallmark feature of aging across most, if not all, mammalian tissues. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  8. Envejecimiento demográfico y participación laboral femenina Demographic Aging and Female Labour Participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Adriana Sala

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza la participación laboral de las mujeres de 60 y más años residentes en áreas urbanas argentinas, a partir de procesamientos especiales de la Encuesta Permanente de Hogares del tercer trimestre del 2009. Con este propósito, se enfatiza el análisis de la ocupación principal, entre quienes trabajaban y de la última ocupación entre las desempleadas. Se evalúa la percepción de beneficios previsionales y la intensidad de la ocupación en diferentes edades en aquellos grupos ocupacionales que concentraban a la mayoría de las ocupadas. El articulo muestra la dualidad del perfil de las ocupadas, porque entre las que carecían de educación universitaria predominaba la inserción en los servicios de limpieza domésticos y no domésticos, la comercialización directa, la gestión administrativa planificación y control, la producción industrial y artesanal, en ocupaciones de la salud y sanidad, del cuidado y la atención de personas y de los servicios gastronómicos. Por otra parte, entre las más escolarizadas prevalecían la vinculación a ocupaciones de la educación, la salud, la dirección de pequeñas y medianas empresas, la gestión administrativa y la comercialización.This article analyzes the labour participation of women aged 60 years and over residing in Argentine urban areas, from special tabulations of the Permanent Survey of households in the third quarter of 2009. To this end, the analysis of the main occupational groups among the occupied and the last occupation among the unemployed is emphasized. Also the perception of social security benefits and the intensity of the occupation at different ages and occupational group are evaluated. The article shows the duality of the profile of the aged women occupied, because them who lack of high education predominated the inclusion in occupation linked to domestic and non-domestic cleaning services, the direct commercialization, administrative planning and control

  9. Internal versus external controls on age variability: Definitions, origins and implications in a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harman, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    The unsteadiness of stream water age is now well established, but the controls on the age dynamics, and the adequate representation and prediction of those dynamics, are not. A basic distinction can be made between internal variability that arises from changes in the proportions of flow moving through the diverse flow pathways of a hydrologic system, and external variability that arises from the stochasticity of inputs and outputs (such as precipitation and streamflow). In this talk I will show how these two types of age variability can be formally defined and distinguished within the framework of rank StorAge Selection (rSAS) functions. Internal variability implies variations in time in the rSAS function, while external variability does not. This leads naturally to the definition of several modes of internal variability, reflecting generic ways that system flowpaths may be rearranged. This rearrangement may be induced by fluctuations in the system state (such as catchment wetness), or by longer-term changes in catchment structure (such as land use change). One type of change, the 'inverse storage effect' is characterized by an increase in the release of young water from the system in response to an increase in overall system storage. This effect can be seen in many hydrologic settings, and has important implications for the effect of altered hydroclimatic conditions on solute transport through a landscape. External variability, such as increased precipitation, can induce a decrease in mean transit time (and vice versa), but this effect is greatly enhanced if accompanied by an internal shift in flow pathways that increases the relative importance of younger water. These effects will be illustrated using data from field and experimental studies.

  10. Demographic factors and traffic crashes. Part 1, descriptive statistics and models

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-08-01

    This research analyzes the Department of Highway Safety and Motor Vehicle's (DHSMV) 1993 to 1995 crash data. There are four demographic variables investigated throughout the research, which are age, gender, race, and residency. To show general trends...

  11. Recent and past musical activity predicts cognitive aging variability: direct comparison with general lifestyle activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna-Pladdy, Brenda; Gajewski, Byron

    2012-01-01

    Studies evaluating the impact of modifiable lifestyle factors on cognition offer potential insights into sources of cognitive aging variability. Recently, we reported an association between extent of musical instrumental practice throughout the life span (greater than 10 years) on preserved cognitive functioning in advanced age. These findings raise the question of whether there are training-induced brain changes in musicians that can transfer to non-musical cognitive abilities to allow for compensation of age-related cognitive declines. However, because of the relationship between engagement in general lifestyle activities and preserved cognition, it remains unclear whether these findings are specifically driven by musical training or the types of individuals likely to engage in greater activities in general. The current study controlled for general activity level in evaluating cognition between musicians and nomusicians. Also, the timing of engagement (age of acquisition, past versus recent) was assessed in predictive models of successful cognitive aging. Seventy age and education matched older musicians (>10 years) and non-musicians (ages 59-80) were evaluated on neuropsychological tests and general lifestyle activities. Musicians scored higher on tests of phonemic fluency, verbal working memory, verbal immediate recall, visuospatial judgment, and motor dexterity, but did not differ in other general leisure activities. Partition analyses were conducted on significant cognitive measures to determine aspects of musical training predictive of enhanced cognition. The first partition analysis revealed education best predicted visuospatial functions in musicians, followed by recent musical engagement which offset low education. In the second partition analysis, early age of musical acquisition (memory in musicians, while analyses for other measures were not predictive. Recent and past musical activity, but not general lifestyle activities, predicted variability

  12. Resting heart rate, heart rate variability and functional decline in old age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ogliari, Giulia; Mahinrad, Simin; Stott, David J

    2015-01-01

    variability was defined as the standard deviation of normal-to-normal RR intervals (SDNN). Functional status in basic (ADL) and instrumental (IADL) activities of daily living was measured using Barthel and Lawton scales, at baseline and during follow-up. RESULTS: The mean age of the study population was 75...

  13. Analysis of Autonomic Nervous System Functional Age and Heart Rate Variability in Mine Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasicko T

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Heavy working conditions and many unpropitious factors influencing workers health participate in development of various health disorders, among other autonomic cardiovascular regulation malfunction. The aim of this study is to draw a comparison of autonomic nervous system functional age and heart rate variability changes between workers with and without mining occupational exposure.

  14. The brain map of gait variability in aging, cognitive impairment and dementia. A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Qu; Chastan, Nathalie; Bair, Woei-Nan; Resnick, Susan M.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Studenski, Stephanie A.

    2017-01-01

    While gait variability may reflect subtle changes due to aging or cognitive impairment (CI), associated brain characteristics remain unclear. We summarize structural and functional neuroimaging findings associated with gait variability in older adults with and without CI and dementia. We identified 17 eligible studies; all were cross-sectional; few examined multiple brain areas. In older adults, temporal gait variability was associated with structural differences in medial areas important for lower limb coordination and balance. Both temporal and spatial gait variability were associated with structural and functional differences in hippocampus and primary sensorimotor cortex and structural differences in anterior cingulate cortex, basal ganglia, association tracts, and posterior thalamic radiation. In CI or dementia, some associations were found in primary motor cortex, hippocampus, prefrontal cortex and basal ganglia. In older adults, gait variability may be associated with areas important for sensorimotor integration and coordination. To comprehend the neural basis of gait variability with aging and CI, longitudinal studies of multiple brain areas are needed. PMID:28115194

  15. MUSCLE WEAKNESS, FATIGUE, AND TORQUE VARIABILITY: EFFECTS OF AGE AND MOBILITY STATUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    KENT-BRAUN, JANE A.; CALLAHAN, DAMIEN M.; FAY, JESSICA L.; FOULIS, STEPHEN A.; BUONACCORSI, JOHN P.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Whereas deficits in muscle function, particularly power production, develop in old age and are risk factors for mobility impairment, a complete understanding of muscle fatigue during dynamic contractions is lacking. We tested hypotheses related to torque-producing capacity, fatigue resistance, and variability of torque production during repeated maximal contractions in healthy older, mobility-impaired older, and young women. Methods Knee extensor fatigue (decline in torque) was measured during 4 min of dynamic contractions. Torque variability was characterized using a novel 4-component logistic regression model. Results Young women produced more torque at baseline and during the protocol than older women (P torque variability differed by group (P = 0.022) and was greater in older impaired compared with young women (P = 0.010). Conclusions These results suggest that increased torque variability may combine with baseline muscle weakness to limit function, particularly in older adults with mobility impairments. PMID:23674266

  16. Association between demographic and socioeconomic conditions with exercise practice and physical fitness in community projects participants aged 50 years or more in Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapé, Átila Alexandre; Marques, Renato Francisco Rodrigues; Lizzi, Elisângela Aparecida da Silva; Yoshimura, Fernando Eidi; Franco, Laercio Joel; Zago, Anderson Saranz

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the association between both demographic and socioeconomic conditions with physical fitness and regular practice of physical exercises in participants of community projects, supervised by a physical education teacher. This enabled to investigate whether the adoption of an active lifestyle depends only on the personal choice or has any influence of socioeconomic factors. 213 individuals aged over 50 years joined the study, and provided information about their socioeconomic status (age, gender, education/years of study, and income); usual level of physical activity (ULPA); and physical fitness, by a physical battery tests which allowed the calculation of general functional fitness index (GFFI). The generalized linear model showed that participants ranked in the highest GFFI groups (good and very good) had more years of study and higher income (p 15), income (all groups) and age (p 6 months) were also associated with education and income (p < 0.05); among the groups with exercise practice whether greater than or equal to six months, that supervised showed better results in the GFFI (p < 0.05). The association between variables strengthens the hypothesis that adherence and maintenance of physical exercise might not be only dependent of individual's choice, but also the socioeconomic factors, which can influence the choice for any active lifestyle.

  17. Dietary intake patterns of children aged 6 years and their association with socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, early feeding practices and body mass index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Pozza Santos

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary intake patterns of children from the 2004 Pelotas birth cohort study have been described at 12, 24 and 48 months of age, but there is no information about dietary patterns of these children at 6 years. Then, we aimed to identify and describe dietary intake patterns of children aged 6 years as well as to assess their association with socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, early feeding practices and BMI z-score at 6 years. Methods We used principal components analysis to identify dietary intake patterns of 3,427 children from the 2004 Pelotas (Brazil birth cohort study. We used multiple linear regression models to evaluate whether socioeconomic and demographic characteristics (socioeconomic position, mother’s age at birth, and child’s sex and skin colour, early feeding practices (exclusive breastfeeding duration and age of introduction of complementary foods, and BMI z-score at 6 years were associated with dietary intake patterns. Results We identified seven dietary components of children’s dietary intake patterns, namely: fruits and vegetables, snacks and treats, coffee and bread, milk, cheese and processed meats, rice and beans and carbohydrates. Dietary patterns were socially patterned, since six dietary components were associated with socioeconomic position. Moreover, high intake of snacks and treats and less fruits and vegetables were associated with children born to teenage mothers, with those exclusively breastfed for less than one month, and with those who started on complementary feeding before 4 months. Finally, overweight and obese children at 6 years presented lower intake of four out of seven dietary components, but we need to be cautious in interpretation due to limitations on food consumption reporting and due to possible reverse causality. Conclusion Dietary intake patterns in children are strongly influenced by socioeconomic characteristics. Other factors such as younger maternal

  18. Demographic structure and macroeconomic trends

    OpenAIRE

    Aksoy, Yunus; Basso, H.S.; Smith, Ronald; Grasl, Tobias

    2018-01-01

    We estimate the effect of changes in demographic structure on long term\\ud trends of key macroeconomic variables using a Panel VAR for 21 OECD economies from 1970-2014. The panel data variation assists the identification of demographic effects, while the dynamic structure,\\ud incorporating multiple channels of influence, uncovers long-term effects.\\ud We propose a theoretical model, relating demographics, innovation and\\ud growth, whose simulations match our empirical findings. The current\\ud...

  19. Demographic Change and Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haustein, Sonja; Siren, Anu Kristiina; Framke, Elisabeth

    This report is the literature review on demographic changes and transport of Work Package 1 of the EU project CONSOL, “CONcerns and SOLutions – Road Safety in the Ageing Societies” (contract period: 2011-2013). The report is a state-of-the art report that combines current knowledge with new...

  20. Country Demographic Profiles: Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of the Census (DOC), Suitland, MD. Population Div.

    This profile of the population of Thailand contains 35 tables of selected demographic information, including size of population and estimates of fertility and mortality, beginning in 1950. An adjusted distribution of the population by age and sex is given for the latest census year, as well as for 1976. Projections of the number of women of…

  1. Variability in Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV subtest performance across age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisdom, Nick M; Mignogna, Joseph; Collins, Robert L

    2012-06-01

    Normal Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)-IV performance relative to average normative scores alone can be an oversimplification as this fails to recognize disparate subtest heterogeneity that occurs with increasing age. The purpose of the present study is to characterize the patterns of raw score change and associated variability on WAIS-IV subtests across age groupings. Raw WAIS-IV subtest means and standard deviations for each age group were tabulated from the WAIS-IV normative manual along with the coefficient of variation (CV), a measure of score dispersion calculated by dividing the standard deviation by the mean and multiplying by 100. The CV further informs the magnitude of variability represented by each standard deviation. Raw mean scores predictably decreased across age groups. Increased variability was noted in Perceptual Reasoning and Processing Speed Index subtests, as Block Design, Matrix Reasoning, Picture Completion, Symbol Search, and Coding had CV percentage increases ranging from 56% to 98%. In contrast, Working Memory and Verbal Comprehension subtests were more homogeneous with Digit Span, Comprehension, Information, and Similarities percentage of the mean increases ranging from 32% to 43%. Little change in the CV was noted on Cancellation, Arithmetic, Letter/Number Sequencing, Figure Weights, Visual Puzzles, and Vocabulary subtests (test limitations as well as further our understanding of cognitive domains which remain relatively steady versus those which steadily decline.

  2. Negative aging stereotypes and their relation with psychosocial variables in the elderly population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Palacios, C; Trianes Torres, M V; Blanca Mena, M J

    2009-01-01

    This study explores whether there is a relationship between the level of belief in negative aging stereotypes in 65-year-old people and their results concerning some psychosocial variables. These were selected for their relevance for health and well being in elderly people. These were: living situation, responsibilities toward others, subjective health, frequency of medical appointments, subjective age, participation in community social activities and regular physical activity. The sample consisted of 757 people of low educational level, ranged from 65 to 96 years. Age and gender were homogeneously distributed. Participants were non-institutionalized people. Firstly, the psychosocial variables under focus were assessed by means of seven questions. Secondly, a questionnaire about negative aging stereotypes (CENVE) was administered. It was composed of three factors: health, motivational-social and character-personality. Results show that a high score in negative stereotypes is significantly associated to the studied variables, except for living situation, showing a worse quality of life (QoL) profile. Results are discussed in terms of their utility for assessment and psychosocial intervention, which is meant to improve health in the elderly.

  3. Recent and Past Musical Activity Predicts Cognitive Aging Variability: Direct Comparison with Leisure Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda eHanna-Pladdy

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Studies evaluating the impact of modifiable lifestyle factors on cognition offer potential insights into sources of cognitive aging variability. Recently, we reported an association between extent of musical instrumental practice throughout the life span (greater than 10 years on preserved cognitive functioning in advanced age . These findings raise the question of whether there are training-induced brain changes in musicians that can transfer to nonmusical cognitive abilities to allow for compensation of age-related cognitive declines. However, because of the relationship between engagement in lifestyle activities and preserved cognition, it remains unclear whether these findings are specifically driven by musical training or the types of individuals likely to engage in greater activities in general. The current study examined the type of leisure activity (musical versus other as well as the timing of engagement (age of acquisition, past versus recent in predictive models of successful cognitive aging. Seventy age and education matched older musicians (> 10 years and nonmusicians (ages 59-80 were evaluated on neuropsychological tests and life-style activities (AAP. Partition analyses were conducted on significant cognitive measures to explain performance variance in musicians. Musicians scored higher on tests of phonemic fluency, verbal immediate recall, judgment of line orientation (JLO, and Letter Number Sequencing (LNS, but not the AAP. The first partition analysis revealed education best predicted JLO in musicians, followed by recent musical engagement which offset low education. In the second partition analysis, early age of musical acquisition (< 9 years predicted enhanced LNS in musicians, while analyses for AAP, verbal recall and fluency were not predictive. Recent and past musical activity, but not leisure activity, predicted variability across verbal and visuospatial domains in aging. Early musical acquisition predicted auditory

  4. [The demographic and occupational characteristics of Italian migrants to Argentina, 1880-1930].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacopardo, M C; Moreno, J L

    1984-09-01

    "This essay studies...the demographic and socio-professional characteristics of the Italian emigrants in Argentina during the period 1880-1930. Besides a reconstruction of the demographic variables (age, sex, mortality, and fertility) in the historical series, the essay also depicts the professional profile of the Italians in Argentina...." (summary in ENG, FRE) excerpt

  5. Effective properties of linear viscoelastic heterogeneous media: Internal variables formulation and extension to ageing behaviours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricaud, J.M.; Masson, R.; Masson, R.

    2009-01-01

    The Laplace-Carson transform classically used for homogenization of linear viscoelastic heterogeneous media yields integral formulations of effective behaviours. These are far less convenient than internal variables formulations with respect to computational aspects as well as to theoretical extensions to closely related problems such as ageing viscoelasticity. Noticing that the collocation method is usually adopted to invert the Laplace-Carson transforms, we first remark that this approximation is equivalent to an internal variables formulation which is exact in some specific situations. This result is illustrated for a two-phase composite with phases obeying a compressible Maxwellian behaviour. Next, an incremental formulation allows to extend at each time step the previous general framework to ageing viscoelasticity. Finally, with the help of a creep test of a porous viscoelastic matrix reinforced with elastic inclusions, it is shown that the method yields accurate predictions (comparing to reference results provided by periodic cell finite element computations). (authors)

  6. Dietary Diversity and Meal Frequency Practices among Infant and Young Children Aged 6–23 Months in Ethiopia: A Secondary Analysis of Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melkam Aemro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Appropriate complementary feeding practice is essential for growth and development of children. This study aimed to assess dietary diversity and meal frequency practice of infants and young children in Ethiopia. Methods. Data collected in the Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS from December 2010 to June 2011 were used for this study. Data collected were extracted, arranged, recoded, and analyzed by using SPSS version 17. A total of 2836 children aged 6–23 months were used for final analysis. Both bivariate and multivariate analysis were done to identify predictors of feeding practices. Result. Children with adequate dietary diversity score and meal frequency were 10.8% and 44.7%, respectively. Children born from the richest households showed better dietary diversity score (OR = 0.256. Number of children whose age less than five years was important predictor of dietary diversity (OR = 0.690. Mothers who had exposure to media were more likely to give adequate meal frequency to their children (OR = 0.707. Conclusion. Dietary diversity and meal frequency practices were inadequate in Ethiopia. Wealth quintile, exposure to media, and number of children were affecting feeding practices. Improving economic status, a habit of eating together, and exposure to media are important to improve infant feeding practices in Ethiopia.

  7. Factors associated with acute respiratory infection in children under the age of 5 years: evidence from the 2011 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geberetsadik, Achamyelesh; Worku, Alemayehu; Berhane, Yemane

    2015-01-01

    Acute respiratory tract infection (ARI) remains the major cause of child mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa. Various factors are associated with its occurrence and vary by context. However, available large-scale, population-based data are not fully exploited to identify locally relevant risk factors. The objective of this study was to identify factors associated with ARI in children under the age of 5 years in Ethiopia. Further analysis of the 2011 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey was carried out involving 11,645 children under the age of 5 years and their mothers. Information relevant to the current study was extracted from the main data set and a working data set was prepared. A complex survey logistic regression analysis was applied. Acute ARI in this study was associated with severe malnutrition. Children who were severely wasted were highly likely to develop ARI (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.7; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1-2.5). ARI was less likely to occur in children from families with an educated father and professional mother (AOR 0.4; 95% CI 0.2-0.6 and AOR 0.1; 95% CI 0.01-0.6, respectively). Malnourished children from a lower socioeconomic category are more likely to suffer from ARI. Targeting disadvantaged children for effective interventions can help reduce the burden of morbidity and death due to ARI.

  8. Do cognitive leisure activities really matter in the relationship between education and cognition? Evidence from the aging, demographics, and memory study (ADAMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yura; Chi, Iris

    2016-01-01

    Increasing demand for early detection and prevention of dementia has shifted recent attention toward cognitive impairment with no dementia (CIND), which is often considered a possible risk path to dementia. Education and cognitive leisure activities are major predictors featured in dementia studies. However, the definition of cognitive leisure activities often has been inconsistent and diverse. This study explored different domains of these activities and their moderating roles on the relationship between education and cognition. A sample of 704 participants aged 70 or older was drawn from the national Aging, Demographics, and Memory Study. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted to assess two domains from cognitive leisure activities: literacy and visuospatial activities. Multinomial logistic regression tested the main and moderating roles of each domain on cognition categorized as no impairment, CIND, and dementia. Individuals with greater engagement in both literacy and visuospatial activities were more likely to have no cognitive impairment than CIND. Individuals with greater engagement in literacy activities were less likely to have dementia compared to CIND. Literacy activities and education years had a significant interaction effect. Individuals with higher education seem to benefit more by engaging in literacy activities, as evidenced by decreased odds of having dementia. Engagement in cognitive leisure activities for both cognitively intact and impaired older adults is suggested, with more focus on literacy activities for cognitively impaired and highly educated older adults.

  9. Prevalence, demographic and psychosocial correlates for school truancy among students aged 13-15 in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) member states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pengpid, Supa; Peltzer, Karl

    2017-11-01

    Truancy among adolescents may negatively affect the achievement of academic goals. The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence and correlates of school truancy in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) member states. The analysis included 28 419 school children aged 13-15 years from seven ASEAN member states that participated in the Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS) between 2007 and 2013. The overall prevalence of past 30 day truancy across six ASEAN countries (excluding Brunei) was 24.8%; ranging from below 20% in Myanmar, Thailand, and Vietnam to more than 30% in Brunei Darussalam, Indonesia, and the Philippines. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, socio-demographic factors (older age, being male, the experience of hunger), externalising behaviour (tobacco use, alcohol use, having been in a physical fight, being bullied, having sustained an injury), and lack of protective social-familial factors (lack of peer support and lack of parental or guardian support) were found to be associated with truancy. High rates of truancy were found in ASEAN member states calling for interventions aimed to reduce truancy considering identified associated factors.

  10. The Golden Age of Cataclysmic Variables and Related Objects - II Concluding Address

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Giovannelli

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Before to conclude officially this workshop — far from me the idea to attempt some concluding remarks already dealt at the meeting with various burning by Joseph Patterson, Mariko Kato, Dmitry Bisikalo, and Rene Hudec —, I would like to comment few highlights coming out from our fruitful week of discussions about The Golden Age of Cataclysmic Variables and Related Objects - II, without any pretension of completeness.

  11. Distribution of peak expiratory flow variability by age, gender and smoking habits in a random population sample aged 20-70 yrs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boezen, H M; Schouten, J. P.; Postma, D S; Rijcken, B

    1994-01-01

    Peak expiratory flow (PEF) variability can be considered as an index of bronchial lability. Population studies on PEF variability are few. The purpose of the current paper is to describe the distribution of PEF variability in a random population sample of adults with a wide age range (20-70 yrs),

  12. Toxicology and senescence: Baseline variability and toluene effects on the motor function of aging brown Norway rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The rapidly expanding population of older adults raises concern in EPA over aging-related vulnerability to environmental exposures. Deficits in motor function are frequent with advancing age. An increase in interindividual variability is also commonly accepted. Increased variabil...

  13. Body posture in the sagittal plane and scoliotic variables in girls aged 7-18

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Wilczyński

    2018-02-01

    Introduction. The aim of the study was to analyze the correlation between the variable posture in the sagittal plane and the scoliotic variables. Material and methods. The study involved 28 girls aged 7-18 years with scoliotic posture and scoliosis. Body posture as well as the spine were examined using Moiré’s spatial photogrammetry and the Exhibeon digital radiography method. Based on the size of the spinal curvature, the following were distinguished: scoliotic postures: 1-9° and scoliosis: ≥10°. Results. There were 21 (75% with scoliotic posture and 7 (25% with scoliosis. The size of the thoracic kyphosis and lumbar lordosis was normal. Conclusions. Between the body postural variables in the sagittal plane and the scoliotic variables, both positive (direct proportional and negative (inversely proportional correlations occurred. In the selection of scoliosis treatment method, the size of the postural variables in the sagittal plane should be taken into account, and each patient’s case should be individually considered.

  14. Association of socio-economic and demographic factors with physical activity of males and females aged 20–69 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Biernat

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available [b]Objective[/b]. To assess the physical activity of working residents of Warsaw aged 20–69 years, as well as to identify the socio-demographic factors associated with their levels of physical activity. [b]Materials and method[/b]. The study involved 2,544 working residents of Warsaw aged 20–69 years. The short version of the IPAQ was applied and four physical activity levels (insufficient, sufficient, augmented, high were distinguished. The relationships between physical activity and gender, age, BMI, education, economic and martial status as well as participation in recreation were determined. [b]Results[/b]. High levels of physical activity were reached by 8% of respondents, 22% achieved augmented level, 32% were sufficiently and 32% insufficiently active. Out of 2544 studied subjects, 6% declared complete sedentariness. Females were, as compared to males, more frequently (p<0.05 insufficiently active (35.9 vs. 31.9%. In obese and overweight subjects insufficient physical activity predominated (42.9 and 36.2%, respectively and was significantly more frequent than in subjects with normal BMI (31.0%. Moreover, the subjects living in partner relationships were significantly (p<0.05 more frequently insufficiently active than those staying single (36.3 vs. 30.3%. Respondents who declared regular participation in leisure activities were less frequently insufficiently active (20.0% and more frequently met the criteria of sufficient (37.6%, augmented (28.0% or high (14.4% level of physical activity. No significant effects were found with respect to education of respondents. [b]Conclusions[/b]. Prophylactic schedules associated with the improvement of physical activity level should be addressed particularly to females, people taking up recreation occasionally or to those not involved in recreation at all, living in partner relationships, youngest (21–30 years, in obese and overweight and in the lowest economic category.

  15. Intraindividual Variability in Basic Reaction Time Predicts Middle-Aged and Older Pilots’ Flight Simulator Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. Intraindividual variability (IIV) is negatively associated with cognitive test performance and is positively associated with age and some neurological disorders. We aimed to extend these findings to a real-world task, flight simulator performance. We hypothesized that IIV predicts poorer initial flight performance and increased rate of decline in performance among middle-aged and older pilots. Method. Two-hundred and thirty-six pilots (40–69 years) completed annual assessments comprising a cognitive battery and two 75-min simulated flights in a flight simulator. Basic and complex IIV composite variables were created from measures of basic reaction time and shifting and divided attention tasks. Flight simulator performance was characterized by an overall summary score and scores on communication, emergencies, approach, and traffic avoidance components. Results. Although basic IIV did not predict rate of decline in flight performance, it had a negative association with initial performance for most flight measures. After taking into account processing speed, basic IIV explained an additional 8%–12% of the negative age effect on initial flight performance. Discussion. IIV plays an important role in real-world tasks and is another aspect of cognition that underlies age-related differences in cognitive performance. PMID:23052365

  16. Intraindividual variability in basic reaction time predicts middle-aged and older pilots' flight simulator performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Quinn; Taylor, Joy; Heraldez, Daniel; Noda, Art; Lazzeroni, Laura C; Yesavage, Jerome

    2013-07-01

    Intraindividual variability (IIV) is negatively associated with cognitive test performance and is positively associated with age and some neurological disorders. We aimed to extend these findings to a real-world task, flight simulator performance. We hypothesized that IIV predicts poorer initial flight performance and increased rate of decline in performance among middle-aged and older pilots. Two-hundred and thirty-six pilots (40-69 years) completed annual assessments comprising a cognitive battery and two 75-min simulated flights in a flight simulator. Basic and complex IIV composite variables were created from measures of basic reaction time and shifting and divided attention tasks. Flight simulator performance was characterized by an overall summary score and scores on communication, emergencies, approach, and traffic avoidance components. Although basic IIV did not predict rate of decline in flight performance, it had a negative association with initial performance for most flight measures. After taking into account processing speed, basic IIV explained an additional 8%-12% of the negative age effect on initial flight performance. IIV plays an important role in real-world tasks and is another aspect of cognition that underlies age-related differences in cognitive performance.

  17. Clinical and demographic correlates of unilateral spatial neglect ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information on age, gender, stroke laterality, time after stroke and motor function assessed using modified motor assessment scale were also documented. Prevalence of USN was determined while differences in prevalence by demographic and clinical variables were analyzed using Chi-square and Mann Whitney U tests ...

  18. Comparative Genetic Variability in HIV-1 Subtype C vpu Gene in Early Age Groups of Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Uma; Gupta, Poonam; Gupta, Sunil; Venkatesh, S; Husain, Mohammad

    2018-01-01

    Identifying the genetic variability in vertically transmitted viruses in early infancy is important to understand the disease progression. Being important in HIV-1 disease pathogenesis, vpu gene, isolated from young infants was investigated to understand the viral characteristics. Blood samples were obtained from 80 HIV-1 positive infants, categorized in two age groups; acute (6-18 months). A total of 77 PCR positive samples, amplified for vpu gene, were sequenced and analyzed. 73 isolates belonged to subtype C. Analysis of heterogeneity of amino acid sequences in infant groups showed that in the sequences of acute age group both insertions and deletions were present while in the early age group only deletions were present. In the acute age group, a deletion of 3 residues (RAE) in the first alfa helix in one sequence and insertions of 1-2 residues (DM, GH, G and H) in the second alfa helix in 4 sequences were observed. In the early age group, deletion of 2 residues (VN) in the cytoplasmic tail region in 2 sequences was observed. Length of the amino terminal was observed to be gradually increasing with the increasing age of the infants. Protein Variation Effect Analyzer software showed that deleterious mutations were more in the acute than the early age group. Entropy analysis revealed that heterogeneity of the residues was comparatively higher in the sequences of acute than the early age group. Mutations observed in the helixes may affect the conformation and lose the ability to degrade CD4 receptors. Heterogeneity was decreasing with the increasing ages of the infants, indicating positive selection for robust virion survival. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  19. Physiological Study on the Relation of Heart Rate Variability in Ageing and Thyroid Hormone Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsayed A. M. Shokr

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate whether cardiac autonomic dysfunction in aging human might be related to an underlying thyroid disturbance. ageing has been associated with hypothyroidism and cardiac autonomic dysfunction. On the basis of body mass index (BMI, 150 patients were grouped into three groups (n = 50 48 years ± 2, 55 years ± 2 and 63 years ± 2. Electrocardiogram was recorded using PowerLab system and the time and frequency domain measures of heart rate variability (HRV were calculated. Fasting blood samples were drawn for measurement of serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH, total thyroxin (T4 and total triiodothyronine (T3 concentrations. The levels of TSH, T4 and T3 were not significantly different between the groups. The frequency domain HRV parameter reflecting parasympathetic tone (high-frequency normalized units, HFnu was significantly reduced in aging third groups group. The parameters which reflect sympathetic activation (Heart rate, low-frequency normalized units; LFnu and the LF/HF ratio were significantly increased in the aging group. HFnu was significantly and negatively correlated with age, whereas LFnu and LF/HF ratio were significantly and positively correlated with the above mentioned parameters. No significant relationships were noted between the HRV parameters and the levels of TSH or thyroid hormones. Cardiac autonomic dysfunction in aging human is not linked with underlying thyroid disturbance.

  20. Influence of age, sexual maturation, anthropometric variables and body composition on flexibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keila Donassolo Santos

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Since flexibility is an important component of health-related physical fitness at all ages, this parameter should be evaluated in chi ldren and adolescent s because the abi l ity to acquire and maintain levels of flexibility is greater in this age group. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate body weight, height, BMI and flexibility according to chronological age and sexual maturat ion and to determine the influence of these var iables on flexibi l ity in student s f rom publ ic and private schools. A cross-sectional descriptive and analytical study was conducted. The sample consisted of 2604 girls aged 8 to 17 years. Body weight, height, BMI, sexual maturation, and flexibility were evaluated. The data were analyzed descriptively using the following inferential tests: two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA followed by the Tukey post-hoc test, Pearson’s and Spearman’s simple correlation coefficients, and stepwise multiple regression analysis. The SPSS® 13.0 program was used for all statistical analyses, with a level of significance of p<0.05. Significant differences with increasing age and maturation stage were observed for the variables body weight, height and BMI when compared to the subsequent year. In conclusion, body wei-ght and height increased with increasing age, especially between 8 and 13 years, and flexibility remained stable throughout childhood and adolescence.

  1. Customers Demographics Influence on Usage of Retail Banking Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha GUPTA

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The study presents the usage of retail banking influenced by customers’ demographics of selected Public Sector Banks (PSBs of India. The study was based on primary data collected through structured questionnaire. The simple random sampling technique used for data collection for sample size 692. The study finds that public sector banks need to understand the usage pattern of an individual customer using delivery channel to add greater value to customers. Respondent age groups influence ATMs usage. Internet banking is majorly influenced by the customers’ demographics. Respondents’ age group and qualification influence mobile banking. Branch lobby kiosk is not influenced by any demographics. The identification of most influential demographic variable will help to build strong and effective cross-selling and up-selling of financial products and services. Our study was limited to the customers of PSBs of India. This study may be helpful to PSBs for enhancing effective usage of delivery channels.

  2. Variability of age at onset in siblings with familial Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Tortosa, Estrella; Barquero, M Sagrario; Barón, Manuel; Sainz, M Jose; Manzano, Sagrario; Payno, Maria; Ros, Raquel; Almaraz, Carmen; Gómez-Garré, Pilar; Jiménez-Escrig, Adriano

    2007-12-01

    Variability of age at onset (AO) of Alzheimer disease (AD) among members of the same family is important as a biological clue and because of its clinical effects. To evaluate which clinical variables influence the discrepancy in AO among affected relatives with familial AD. Clinical genetic project of Spanish kindred with AD conducted by 4 academic hospitals in Madrid, Spain. Age at onset of AD in 162 families and discrepancy in AO in intragenerational and intergenerational affected pairs were analyzed in relation to age, sex, maternal or paternal transmission, pattern of inheritance, and apolipoprotein E genotype. Maternal transmission of AD was significantly more frequent than paternal transmission (P patient was 65 years old. Discrepancy in AO among siblings was within 5 years in 44% of the families, 6 to 10 years in 29%, and more than 10 years in 27% (range, 0-22). This discrepancy was independent of the sex of the sibling pairs and was significantly lower with maternal transmission of AD (P = .02). Segregation analysis showed no differences in the inheritance pattern between families with low (5 years) AO discrepancy. Age at onset in carriers of the apolipoprotein E epsilon4 allele was slightly younger. However, among siblings, an extra apolipoprotein E epsilon4 allele was not consistently associated with earlier onset of AD. Eighty percent of patients, independent of sex or mode of transmission, were already affected at their parents' reported AO. There is a wide discrepancy in AO in affected siblings that is not clearly explained by a single clinical variable or apolipoprotein E genotype. The interaction of many factors probably determines AO in each affected individual. However, maternal transmission of AD seems to result in a similar AO in offspring, and the risk of developing dementia after the parent's reported AO decreases significantly.

  3. Age Is Associated with Reduced Sharp-Wave Ripple Frequency and Altered Patterns of Neuronal Variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegand, Jean-Paul L; Gray, Daniel T; Schimanski, Lesley A; Lipa, Peter; Barnes, C A; Cowen, Stephen L

    2016-05-18

    Spatial and episodic memory performance declines with age, and the neural basis for this decline is not well understood. Sharp-wave ripples are brief (∼70 ms) high-frequency oscillatory events generated in the hippocampus and are associated with the consolidation of spatial memories. Given the connection between ripple oscillations and memory consolidation, we investigated whether the structure of ripple oscillations and ripple-triggered patterns of single-unit activity are altered in aged rats. Local field and single-unit activity surrounding sharp-wave ripple events were examined in the CA1 region of the hippocampus of old (n = 5) and young (n = 6) F344 rats during periods of rest preceding and following performance on a place-dependent eyeblink-conditioning task. Neural responses in aged rats differed from responses in young rats in several ways. First, compared with young rats, the rate of ripple occurrence (ripple density) is reduced in aged rats during postbehavior rest. Second, mean ripple frequency during prebehavior and postbehavior rest is lower in aged animals (aged: 132 Hz; young: 146 Hz). Third, single neurons in aged animals responded more consistently from ripple to ripple. Fourth, variability in interspike intervals was greater in aged rats. Finally, neurons were tuned to a narrower range of phases of the ripple oscillation relative to young animals. Together, these results suggest that the CA1 network in aged animals has a reduced "vocabulary" of available representational states. The hippocampus is a structure that is critical for the formation of episodic memories. Sharp-wave ripple events generated in the hippocampus have been implicated in memory consolidation processes critical to memory stabilization. We examine here whether these ripple oscillations are altered over the course of the life span, which could contribute to hippocampus-dependent memory deficits that occur during aging. This experiment used young and aged memory-impaired rats

  4. Demographic Trends: Impact on Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Sylvia N. Y.; Cheah, Horn Mun

    2010-01-01

    Background: Singapore is experiencing great demographic change. These demographic trends show fewer young people and declining birth rates, greater longevity for ageing generations and an increase in the number of non-Singaporean residents. Statistics also show that more than half of the total population increase in the last decades was…

  5. The relationship between sun protection policies and practices in schools with primary-age students: the role of school demographics, policy comprehensiveness and SunSmart membership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dono, J; Ettridge, K A; Sharplin, G R; Wilson, C J

    2014-02-01

    Schools can implement evidence-based sun protection policies that guide practices to help protect children from harmful sun exposure. This national study assessed the relationship between the existence and comprehensiveness of written policies and the comprehensiveness of sun protection practices. The impact of school demographics on the strength of the relationship was also examined, as was the possibility that 'SunSmart' membership would have an additional impact on practices, beyond having any formal policy. In 2011-12, staff members of 1573 schools catering to primary-age students completed a self-administered survey about sun protection policies and practices (response rate of 57%). Results showed that schools with a written policy had more comprehensive practices than schools without a written policy. The relationship between having a written policy and sun protection practices was stronger for remote schools compared with metropolitan and regional schools, and for schools catering to both primary and secondary students compared with primary students only. In addition, policy comprehensiveness was associated with practice comprehensiveness, and SunSmart membership was indirectly related to practice comprehensiveness via policy comprehensiveness. These results indicate that written policies relate to practice comprehensiveness, but the strength of the association can vary according to the characteristics of the organization.

  6. Correlation between perception of quality of life and social/demographic/medical variables as well as anti-health behaviours among alcohol-dependent individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Makara-Studzińska

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The level of life quality of people with alcohol dependence is significantly influenced by socio-demographic factors such as: gender, marital status and having a family. Additionally promoting anti-health behaviors such as smoking or using psychoactive substances among those with alcohol dependence also reduces the quality of life in this population. Aim of the research: The purpose of this project was to determine the impact of selected psycho-social and medical factors on the quality of life in alcohol-dependent patients in relation to the duration of abstinence. Study data served to determine whether there is a correlation between the presence of selected psycho-social and medical factors and a patient’s subjective perception of his/her quality of life. Material and methods: The study involved alcohol-dependent patients undergoing treatment in the Residential Alcohol Addiction Therapy Department of the Neuropsychiatric Hospital in Lublin. In the first stage of the study, the severity of the alcohol problem was assessed with the MAST and CAGE tests and quality of life was assessed with the SF-36 questionnaire. An Original Socio-Demographic Questionnaire was also used. In the second stage of the study, the SF-36 scale was used to evaluate the quality of life. The Original Socio-Demographic Questionnaire was also used. Results : The socio-economic factors that had a statistically significant impact on the quality of life of the alcohol-dependent individuals comprised sex, marital status and having a family. Marital status was shown to be one of the most important family-related factors significantly influencing the quality of life. Having a family was not a factor associated with subjective improvement of the quality of life during abstinence for alcohol-dependent individuals. Awareness of socio-economic and medical factors influencing quality of life in individuals addicted to alcohol and gambling is an important

  7. Adélie penguin survival: age structure, temporal variability and environmental influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmerson, Louise; Southwell, Colin

    2011-12-01

    The driving factors of survival, a key demographic process, have been particularly challenging to study, especially for winter migratory species such as the Adélie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae). While winter environmental conditions clearly influence Antarctic seabird survival, it has been unclear to which environmental features they are most likely to respond. Here, we examine the influence of environmental fluctuations, broad climatic conditions and the success of the breeding season prior to winter on annual survival of an Adélie penguin population using mark-recapture models based on penguin tag and resight data over a 16-year period. This analysis required an extension to the basic Cormack-Jolly-Seber model by incorporating age structure in recapture and survival sub-models. By including model covariates, we show that survival of older penguins is primarily related to the amount and concentration of ice present in their winter foraging grounds. In contrast, fledgling and yearling survival depended on other factors in addition to the physical marine environment and outcomes of the previous breeding season, but we were unable to determine what these were. The relationship between sea-ice and survival differed with penguin age: extensive ice during the return journey to breeding colonies was detrimental to survival for the younger penguins, whereas either too little or too much ice (between 15 and 80% cover) in the winter foraging grounds was detrimental for adults. Our results demonstrate that predictions of Adélie penguin survival can be improved by taking into account penguin age, prior breeding conditions and environmental features.

  8. Prejudices in Cultural Contexts: Shared Stereotypes (Gender, Age) Versus Variable Stereotypes (Race, Ethnicity, Religion).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiske, Susan T

    2017-09-01

    Some prejudices share cross-cultural patterns, but others are more variable and culture specific. Those sharing cross-cultural patterns (sexism, ageism) each combine societal status differences and intimate interdependence. For example, in stereotypes of sex and age, lower status groups-women and elders-gain stereotypic warmth (from their cooperative interdependence) but lose stereotypic competence (from their lower status); men and middle-aged adults show the opposite trade-off, stereotypically more competent than warm. Meta-analyses support these widespread ambivalent (mixed) stereotypes for gender and age across cultures. Social class stereotypes often share some similarities (cold but competent rich vs. warm but incompetent poor). These compensatory warmth versus competence stereotypes may function to manage common human dilemmas of interacting across societal and personal positions. However, other stereotypes are more variable and culture specific (ethnicity, race, religion). Case studies of specific race/ethnicities and religions reveal much more cultural variation in their stereotype content, supporting their being responses to particular cultural contexts, apparent accidents of history. To change stereotypes requires understanding their commonalities and differences, their origins and patterns across cultures.

  9. Sociocultural variability in the Latino population: Age patterns and differences in morbidity among older US adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Garcia

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The US Latino population is rapidly aging and becoming increasingly diverse with respect to nativity and national origin. Increased longevity along with medical advancements in treatment have resulted in a higher number of older Latinos living with morbidity. Therefore, there is a need to understand variability in Latino health among older adults. Objective: This paper documents mid- and late-life health differences in morbidity by race/ethnicity, nativity, and country of origin among adults aged 50 and older. Methods: We use data from the 2000-2015 National Health Interview Survey to calculate age- and gender-specific proportions based on reports of five morbidity measures: hypertension, heart disease, stroke, cancer, and diabetes among non-Latino Whites and seven Latino subgroups. Results: The foreign-born from Mexico, Cuba, and Central/South America, regardless of gender, exhibit an immigrant advantage for heart disease and cancer in comparison to non-Latino Whites across all age categories. Conversely, island-born Puerto Ricans are generally characterized with higher levels of morbidity. Similarly, US-born Puerto Ricans and Mexicans exhibit morbidity patterns indicative of their minority status. Latinos, regardless of gender, were more likely to report diabetes than non-Latino Whites. Hypertension and stroke have significant variability in age patterns among US- and foreign-born Latinos. Conclusions: Recognizing the importance of within-Latino heterogeneity in health is imperative if researchers are to implement social services and health policies aimed at ameliorating the risk of disease. Contribution: Considering intersectional ethnic, nativity, and country-of-origin characteristics among older Latinos is important to better understand the underlying causes of racial/ethnic disparities in morbidity across the life course.

  10. Relational Aggression in Preschool Students: An Exploration of the Variables of Sex, Age, and Siblings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen A. Morine

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, researchers wished to ascertain whether there were age (three- and four-year old, sibling (with or without older siblings, and sex (male and female differences in the use of relational aggression in preschool students as rated by peers and teachers. In order to answer this research question, two 2 × 2 × 2 factorial ANOVA procedures with the relational aggression composite score as the dependent variable on the PSBS-P and PSBS-T were used for peer and teacher assessment, respectively, of relational aggression. Results revealed that in the peer ratings of preschool students' relationally aggressive behavior, there was an disordinal age by sibling interaction, in which four-year-old children with siblings were significantly more likely to be rated by their peers as using relational aggression than three-year-old children without siblings. In the teacher ratings of preschool students' relationally aggressive behavior, a main effect for age was observed. Teachers rated four-year old children as evidencing significantly higher levels of relational aggression as compared to three-year-olds. No sex differences were observed in the use of relational aggression either at age three or age four in this sample. Implications for these findings are presented.

  11. Relationship between 24- hour Holter variables, chest discomfort and syncope: Does age matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Kanti Saha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available One hundred and forty four ambulatory, non-emergent human subjects from 20-88 years of age were investigated following routine 24 hour Holter monitoring referred by primary and tertiary care centers primarily for evaluation of palpitations and syncope. The patients were grouped into 3 different age categories: A 20-59 years of age (16%, B 60-69 years of age (26.4% and C > 70 years of age (57.6%. Heart rate profile, RR intervals, symptoms, frequency of premature supra ventricular and ventricular complexes were registered. The data show that though the occurrence and frequency of premature atrial and ventricular contractions over a period of 24 hours did not differ between the groups, the younger subjects documented more subjective discomforts during the Holter monitoring. Extra-systoles in excess of 1000 beats / 24 hour occured incessantly throughout the registration. Patients with syncope and those without did not differ as regards the Holter variables. However, subjects with atrial fibrillation had acceptable rate control and had significantly lower incidence of syncope than those with sinus rhythm. The findings suggest that in a county setting, Holter monitoring for evaluation of syncope may not be the first hand mode of investigation in a non emergent setting. On the contrary, the modality appears to be valuable for monitoring patients with atrial fibrillation. Even mild symptoms in the elderly population may warrant closer clinical follow up to prevent cardiac events and/or syncope leading to serious physical injury.

  12. Intraindividual variability in vigilance performance: does degrading visual stimuli mimic age-related "neural noise"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Stuart W S; Hultsch, David F; Bunce, David

    2006-07-01

    Intraindividual performance variability, or inconsistency, has been shown to predict neurological status, physiological functioning, and age differences and declines in cognition. However, potential moderating factors of inconsistency are not well understood. The present investigation examined whether inconsistency in vigilance response latencies varied as a function of time-on-task and task demands by degrading visual stimuli in three separate conditions (10%, 20%, and 30%). Participants were 24 younger women aged 21 to 30 years (M = 24.04, SD = 2.51) and 23 older women aged 61 to 83 years (M = 68.70, SD = 6.38). A measure of within-person inconsistency, the intraindividual standard deviation (ISD), was computed for each individual across reaction time (RT) trials (3 blocks of 45 event trials) for each condition of the vigilance task. Greater inconsistency was observed with increasing stimulus degradation and age, even after controlling for group differences in mean RTs and physical condition. Further, older adults were more inconsistent than younger adults for similar degradation conditions, with ISD scores for younger adults in the 30% condition approximating estimates observed for older adults in the 10% condition. Finally, a measure of perceptual sensitivity shared increasing negative associations with ISDs, with this association further modulated as a function of age but to a lesser degree by degradation condition. Results support current hypotheses suggesting that inconsistency serves as a marker of neurological integrity and are discussed in terms of potential underlying mechanisms.

  13. Behavior problems at ages 6 and 11 and high school academic achievement: longitudinal latent variable modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslau, Naomi; Breslau, Joshua; Miller, Elizabeth; Raykov, Tenko

    2011-02-28

    Previous studies documented long-run effects of behavior problems at the start of school on academic achievement. However, these studies did not examine whether the observed effects of early behavior problems are explained by more proximate behavior problems, given the tendency of children's behavior problems to persist. Latent variable modeling was applied to estimate the effects of behavior problems at ages 6 and 11 on academic achievement at age 17, using data from a longitudinal study (n=823). Behavior problems at ages 6 and 11, each stage independently of the other, predicted lower math and reading test scores at age 17, controlling for intelligence quotient (IQ), birth weight, maternal characteristics, family and community environment, and taking into account behavior problems at age 17. Behavior problems at the start of school, independent of later behavior problems, exert lingering effects on achievement by impeding the acquisition of cognitive skills that are the foundation for later academic progress. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Causes of Death among Children Aged 5 to 14 Years Old from 2008 to 2013 in Kersa Health and Demographic Surveillance System (Kersa HDSS, Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melkamu Dedefo

    Full Text Available The global burden of mortality among children is still very huge though its trend has started declining following the improvements in the living standard. It presents serious challenges to the well-being of children in many African countries. Today, Sub-Saharan Africa alone accounts for about 50% of global child mortality. The overall objective of this study was to determine the magnitude and distribution of causes of death among children aged 5 to 14 year olds in the population of Kersa HDSS using verbal autopsy method for the period 2008 to 2013.Kersa Health and Demographic Surveillance System(Kersa HDSS was established in September 2007. The center consists of 10 rural and 2 urban kebeles which were selected randomly from 38 kebeles in the district. Thus this study was conducted in Kersa HDSS and data was taken from Kersa HDSS database. The study population included all children aged 5 to 14 years registered during the period of 2008 to 2013 in Kersa HDSS using age specific VA questionnaires. Data were extracted from SPSS database and analyzed using STATA.A total of 229 deaths were recorded over the period of six years with a crude death rate of 219.6 per 100,000 population of this age group over the study period. This death rate was 217.5 and 221.5 per 100,000 populations for females and males, respectively. 75% of deaths took place at home. The study identified severe malnutrition(33.9%, intestinal infectious diseases(13.8% and acute lower respiratory infections(9.2% to be the three most leading causes of death. In broad causes of death classification, injuries have been found to be the second most cause of death next to communicable diseases(56.3% attributing to 13.1% of the total deaths.In specific causes of death classification severe malnutrition, intestinal infectious diseases and acute lower respiratory infections were the three leading causes of death where, in broad causes of death communicable diseases and injuries were among the

  15. Causes of Death among Children Aged 5 to 14 Years Old from 2008 to 2013 in Kersa Health and Demographic Surveillance System (Kersa HDSS), Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedefo, Melkamu; Zelalem, Desalew; Eskinder, Biniyam; Assefa, Nega; Ashenafi, Wondimye; Baraki, Negga; Damena Tesfatsion, Melake; Oljira, Lemessa; Haile, Ashenafi

    2016-01-01

    The global burden of mortality among children is still very huge though its trend has started declining following the improvements in the living standard. It presents serious challenges to the well-being of children in many African countries. Today, Sub-Saharan Africa alone accounts for about 50% of global child mortality. The overall objective of this study was to determine the magnitude and distribution of causes of death among children aged 5 to 14 year olds in the population of Kersa HDSS using verbal autopsy method for the period 2008 to 2013. Kersa Health and Demographic Surveillance System(Kersa HDSS) was established in September 2007. The center consists of 10 rural and 2 urban kebeles which were selected randomly from 38 kebeles in the district. Thus this study was conducted in Kersa HDSS and data was taken from Kersa HDSS database. The study population included all children aged 5 to 14 years registered during the period of 2008 to 2013 in Kersa HDSS using age specific VA questionnaires. Data were extracted from SPSS database and analyzed using STATA. A total of 229 deaths were recorded over the period of six years with a crude death rate of 219.6 per 100,000 population of this age group over the study period. This death rate was 217.5 and 221.5 per 100,000 populations for females and males, respectively. 75% of deaths took place at home. The study identified severe malnutrition(33.9%), intestinal infectious diseases(13.8%) and acute lower respiratory infections(9.2%) to be the three most leading causes of death. In broad causes of death classification, injuries have been found to be the second most cause of death next to communicable diseases(56.3%) attributing to 13.1% of the total deaths. In specific causes of death classification severe malnutrition, intestinal infectious diseases and acute lower respiratory infections were the three leading causes of death where, in broad causes of death communicable diseases and injuries were among the leading

  16. Cross-Sectional Associations between Home Environmental Factors and Domain-Specific Sedentary Behaviors in Adults: The Moderating Role of Socio-Demographic Variables and BMI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busschaert, Cedric; Cardon, Greet; Chastin, Sebastien F. M.; Van Cauwenberg, Jelle; De Cocker, Katrien

    2017-01-01

    Despite the negative health effects of too much sitting, the majority of adults are too sedentary. To develop effective interventions, insight is needed into home environmental correlates of adults’ sedentary behaviors, and into the susceptibility of population subgroups to these home environmental cues. In total, 559 Flemish adults reported socio-demographics, weight and height, home environmental factors and domain-specific sedentary behaviors. Generalized linear modeling was conducted to examine main associations between home environmental factors and domain-specific sedentary behaviors, and to test the moderating role of socio-demographics and BMI on these associations. In case of significant interactions, stratified analyses were performed. Results showed that, among those who did use a computer/laptop during the last week, a one-unit increase in the number of computers or laptops was associated with 17% (OR = 1.17; 95% CI = 1.02, 1.34) and 24% (OR = 1.24; 95% CI = 1.08, 1.43) more minutes computer time per day, respectively. The proximity of the remote controller (p moderated by BMI, with significant positive associations limited to those not overweight. To conclude, home environmental factors were associated with domain-specific sedentary behaviors, especially in healthy weight adults. If confirmed by longitudinal studies, public health professionals should encourage adults to limit the number of indoor entertainment devices and motorized vehicles. PMID:29088089

  17. Molecular Classification Substitutes for the Prognostic Variables Stage, Age, and MYCN Status in Neuroblastoma Risk Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Rosswog

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Current risk stratification systems for neuroblastoma patients consider clinical, histopathological, and genetic variables, and additional prognostic markers have been proposed in recent years. We here sought to select highly informative covariates in a multistep strategy based on consecutive Cox regression models, resulting in a risk score that integrates hazard ratios of prognostic variables. METHODS: A cohort of 695 neuroblastoma patients was divided into a discovery set (n = 75 for multigene predictor generation, a training set (n = 411 for risk score development, and a validation set (n = 209. Relevant prognostic variables were identified by stepwise multivariable L1-penalized least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO Cox regression, followed by backward selection in multivariable Cox regression, and then integrated into a novel risk score. RESULTS: The variables stage, age, MYCN status, and two multigene predictors, NB-th24 and NB-th44, were selected as independent prognostic markers by LASSO Cox regression analysis. Following backward selection, only the multigene predictors were retained in the final model. Integration of these classifiers in a risk scoring system distinguished three patient subgroups that differed substantially in their outcome. The scoring system discriminated patients with diverging outcome in the validation cohort (5-year event-free survival, 84.9 ± 3.4 vs 63.6 ± 14.5 vs 31.0 ± 5.4; P < .001, and its prognostic value was validated by multivariable analysis. CONCLUSION: We here propose a translational strategy for developing risk assessment systems based on hazard ratios of relevant prognostic variables. Our final neuroblastoma risk score comprised two multigene predictors only, supporting the notion that molecular properties of the tumor cells strongly impact clinical courses of neuroblastoma patients.

  18. Molecular Classification Substitutes for the Prognostic Variables Stage, Age, and MYCN Status in Neuroblastoma Risk Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosswog, Carolina; Schmidt, Rene; Oberthuer, André; Juraeva, Dilafruz; Brors, Benedikt; Engesser, Anne; Kahlert, Yvonne; Volland, Ruth; Bartenhagen, Christoph; Simon, Thorsten; Berthold, Frank; Hero, Barbara; Faldum, Andreas; Fischer, Matthias

    2017-12-01

    Current risk stratification systems for neuroblastoma patients consider clinical, histopathological, and genetic variables, and additional prognostic markers have been proposed in recent years. We here sought to select highly informative covariates in a multistep strategy based on consecutive Cox regression models, resulting in a risk score that integrates hazard ratios of prognostic variables. A cohort of 695 neuroblastoma patients was divided into a discovery set (n=75) for multigene predictor generation, a training set (n=411) for risk score development, and a validation set (n=209). Relevant prognostic variables were identified by stepwise multivariable L1-penalized least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) Cox regression, followed by backward selection in multivariable Cox regression, and then integrated into a novel risk score. The variables stage, age, MYCN status, and two multigene predictors, NB-th24 and NB-th44, were selected as independent prognostic markers by LASSO Cox regression analysis. Following backward selection, only the multigene predictors were retained in the final model. Integration of these classifiers in a risk scoring system distinguished three patient subgroups that differed substantially in their outcome. The scoring system discriminated patients with diverging outcome in the validation cohort (5-year event-free survival, 84.9±3.4 vs 63.6±14.5 vs 31.0±5.4; P<.001), and its prognostic value was validated by multivariable analysis. We here propose a translational strategy for developing risk assessment systems based on hazard ratios of relevant prognostic variables. Our final neuroblastoma risk score comprised two multigene predictors only, supporting the notion that molecular properties of the tumor cells strongly impact clinical courses of neuroblastoma patients. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Age-associated bone loss and intraskeletal variability in the Imperial Romans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Helen; Stout, Sam Darrel

    2011-01-01

    An Imperial Roman sample from the Isola Sacra necropolis (100-300 A.D.) offered an opportunity to histologically examine bone loss and intraskeletal variability in an urban archaeological population. Rib and femur samples were analyzed for static indices of bone remodeling and measures of bone mass. The Imperial Romans experienced normal age-associated bone loss via increased intracortical porosity and endosteal expansion, with females exhibiting greater bone loss and bone turnover rates than in males. Life events such as menopause and lactation coupled with cultural attitudes and practices regarding gender and food may have led to increased bone loss in females. Remodeling dynamics differ between the rib and femur and the higher remodeling rates in the rib may be attributed to different effective age of the adult compacta or loading environment. This study demonstrates that combining multiple methodologies to examine bone loss is necessary to shed light on the biocultural factors that influence bone mass and bone loss.

  20. Somatic, Endurance Performance and Heart Rate Variability Profiles of Professional Soccer Players Grouped According to Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botek Michal

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study compared somatic, endurance performance determinants and heart rate variability (HRV profiles of professional soccer players divided into different age groups: GI (17–19.9 years; n = 23, GII (20–24.9 years; n = 45, GIII (25–29.9 years; n = 30, and GIV (30–39 years; n = 26. Players underwent somatic and HRV assessment and maximal exercise testing. HRV was analyzed by spectral analysis of HRV, and high (HF and low (LF frequency power was transformed by a natural logarithm (Ln. Players in GIV (83 ± 7 kg were heavier (p 25 years showed negligible differences in Pmax unlike the age group differences demonstrated in VO2max. A shift towards relative sympathetic dominance, particularly due to reduced vagal activity, was apparent after approximately 8 years of competing at the professional level.

  1. Millennial-scale variability in the local radiocarbon reservoir age of south Florida during the Holocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Lauren T.; Cheng, Hai; Edwards, R. Lawrence; Ashe, Erica; Richey, Julie N.

    2017-01-01

    A growing body of research suggests that the marine environments of south Florida provide a critical link between the tropical and high-latitude Atlantic. Changes in the characteristics of water masses off south Florida may therefore have important implications for our understanding of climatic and oceanographic variability over a broad spatial scale; however, the sources of variability within this oceanic corridor remain poorly understood. Measurements of ΔR, the local offset of the radiocarbon reservoir age, from shallow-water marine environments can serve as a powerful tracer of water-mass sources that can be used to reconstruct variability in local-to regional-scale oceanography and hydrology. We combined radiocarbon and U-series measurements of Holocene-aged corals from the shallow-water environments of the Florida Keys reef tract (FKRT) with robust statistical modeling to quantify the millennial-scale variability in ΔR at locations with (“nearshore”) and without (“open ocean”) substantial terrestrial influence. Our reconstructions demonstrate that there was significant spatial and temporal variability in ΔR on the FKRT during the Holocene. Whereas ΔR was similar throughout the region after ∼4000 years ago, nearshore ΔR was significantly higher than in the open ocean during the middle Holocene. We suggest that the elevated nearshore ΔR from ∼8000 to 5000 years ago was most likely the result of greater groundwater influence associated with lower sea level at this time. In the open ocean, which would have been isolated from the influence of groundwater, ΔR was lowest ∼7000 years ago, and was highest ∼3000 years ago. We evaluated our open-ocean model of ΔR variability against records of local-to regional-scale oceanography and conclude that local upwelling was not a significant driver of open-ocean radiocarbon variability in this region. Instead, the millennial-scale trends in open-ocean ΔR were more likely a result of broader

  2. Serbian demographers on demography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rašević Mirjana

    2013-01-01

    ageing were singled out the most as significant for examining in the immediate future. The inclusion of Stanovništvo on the Science Citation Information Journal List and expanding the circle of authors were the basic recommendations of the respondents regarding better quality of the journal. All interviewed experts mentioned various kinds of knowledge and characteristics necessary for demographers to posses in order to be successful. Contrary to the homogeneous opinion that a demographer should be a superior-researcher, a wide range of responses were given to the question regarding selecting the best indicator for determining the successfulness of researchers in the study of population. As many as eight out of ten interviewed experts believe population ageing is the greatest population challenge which Serbia is facing. However, a low level of consensus appeared among the demographers as regards the range of the political response. Namely, five experts declared they were pessimists in view of the possibilities for mitigating the challenge they singled out. On the contrary, five interviewed experts expressed optimism, as they believe in the economic development of Serbia, the possibilities of institutional adjustments to demographic changes, and/or in man and his rationality. Conclusion: Demographers in Serbia highly appreciate the discipline they belong to. At the same time they are strict critics and have high expectations in all matters dealing with demography. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 47006: Istraživanje demografskih fenomena u funkciji javnih politika u Srbiji

  3. Cross-Sectional Associations between Home Environmental Factors and Domain-Specific Sedentary Behaviors in Adults: The Moderating Role of Socio-Demographic Variables and BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compernolle, Sofie; Busschaert, Cedric; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Cardon, Greet; Chastin, Sebastien F M; Van Cauwenberg, Jelle; De Cocker, Katrien

    2017-10-31

    Despite the negative health effects of too much sitting, the majority of adults are too sedentary. To develop effective interventions, insight is needed into home environmental correlates of adults' sedentary behaviors, and into the susceptibility of population subgroups to these home environmental cues. In total, 559 Flemish adults reported socio-demographics, weight and height, home environmental factors and domain-specific sedentary behaviors. Generalized linear modeling was conducted to examine main associations between home environmental factors and domain-specific sedentary behaviors, and to test the moderating role of socio-demographics and BMI on these associations. In case of significant interactions, stratified analyses were performed. Results showed that, among those who did use a computer/laptop during the last week, a one-unit increase in the number of computers or laptops was associated with 17% (OR = 1.17; 95% CI = 1.02, 1.34) and 24% (OR = 1.24; 95% CI = 1.08, 1.43) more minutes computer time per day, respectively. The proximity of the remote controller ( p vehicles (95% CI = 0.001, 0.12) was positively associated with the odds of participation in transport-related sitting time. The latter two associations were moderated by BMI, with significant positive associations limited to those not overweight. To conclude, home environmental factors were associated with domain-specific sedentary behaviors, especially in healthy weight adults. If confirmed by longitudinal studies, public health professionals should encourage adults to limit the number of indoor entertainment devices and motorized vehicles.

  4. Spatial variability of turbulent fluxes in the roughness sublayer of an even-aged pine forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katul, G.; Hsieh, C.-I.; Bowling, D.; Clark, K.; Shurpali, N.; Turnipseed, A.; Albertson, J.; Tu, K.; Hollinger, D.; Evans, B. M.; Offerle, B.; Anderson, D.; Ellsworth, D.; Vogel, C.; Oren, R.

    1999-01-01

    The spatial variability of turbulent flow statistics in the roughness sublayer (RSL) of a uniform even-aged 14 m (= h) tall loblolly pine forest was investigated experimentally. Using seven existing walkup towers at this stand, high frequency velocity, temperature, water vapour and carbon dioxide concentrations were measured at 15.5 m above the ground surface from October 6 to 10 in 1997. These seven towers were separated by at least 100 m from each other. The objective of this study was to examine whether single tower turbulence statistics measurements represent the flow properties of RSL turbulence above a uniform even-aged managed loblolly pine forest as a best-case scenario for natural forested ecosystems. From the intensive space-time series measurements, it was demonstrated that standard deviations of longitudinal and vertical velocities (??(u), ??(w)) and temperature (??(T)) are more planar homogeneous than their vertical flux of momentum (u(*)2) and sensible heat (H) counterparts. Also, the measured H is more horizontally homogeneous when compared to fluxes of other scalar entities such as CO2 and water vapour. While the spatial variability in fluxes was significant (> 15%), this unique data set confirmed that single tower measurements represent the 'canonical' structure of single-point RSL turbulence statistics, especially flux-variance relationships. Implications to extending the 'moving-equilibrium' hypothesis for RSL flows are discussed. The spatial variability in all RSL flow variables was not constant in time and varied strongly with spatially averaged friction velocity u(*), especially when u(*) was small. It is shown that flow properties derived from two-point temporal statistics such as correlation functions are more sensitive to local variability in leaf area density when compared to single point flow statistics. Specifically, that the local relationship between the reciprocal of the vertical velocity integral time scale (I(w)) and the arrival

  5. Analysis of agility, reaction time and balance variables at badminton players aged 9-14 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seydi Ahmet Ağaoğlu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was investigated agility, static and dynamic balance and reaction time variables of badminton players aged between 9-14 and relate with among variables. Material and Methods: In Samsun, 19 males (sport age, 3.42±1.64 years and 12 females (3.00±1.28 years active badminton players were voluntarily participated in who are in 9-14 ages range. Agility was measured by “T” test, CSMI-Tecnobody Pk-252 isokinetic balance system measuring instrument was used to test static balance and dynamic balance and Mozart Lafayette reaction measuring instrument was used to test visual and auditory reaction times of players. Spearman correlation analysis was applied so as to correlation analysis. The level of significance was taken as p<0.05. Results: For female athletes, a positive relation was determined between the agility and the perimeter (mm used (r=0.727; p<0.01 through the static balance measure double foot and eyes are open. For male athletes, a positive relation was determined between the visual reaction time and the perimeter (mm used (r=0.725; p<0.01 through the static balance measure dominant foot and eyes are open. For male and female athletes were not found any correlation between reaction time and dynamic balance. Conclusion: It was determined that audio (ears and visual (eyes reaction time was effective on balance. While badminton players are closed eyes, audio sensors are more influence on balance test through measure dominant foot.

  6. Analysis of Scientific Attitude, Computer Anxiety, Educational Internet Use, Problematic Internet Use, and Academic Achievement of Middle School Students According to Demographic Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekmezci, Mehmet; Celik, Ismail; Sahin, Ismail; Kiray, Ahmet; Akturk, Ahmet Oguz

    2015-01-01

    In this research, students' scientific attitude, computer anxiety, educational use of the Internet, academic achievement, and problematic use of the Internet are analyzed based on different variables (gender, parents' educational level and daily access to the Internet). The research group involves 361 students from two middle schools which are…

  7. Predicting bicycle helmet stage-of-change among middle school, high school, and college cyclists from demographic, cognitive, and motivational variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Jeffrey; Okun, Morris; Quay, Nancy

    2004-09-01

    To apply Prochaska's Transtheoretical model of behavior change to bicycle helmet use among middle school, high school, and college students. A battery of questionnaires was administered to cyclists in the seventh and ninth grades and to college students in Phoenix, Arizona (N=797). The battery included: (1) a question to determine respondent's stage of behavior change in Prochaska's Transtheoretical model; (2) items assessing the perceived pros and cons of helmet use; (3) a bicycle safety knowledge test; and (4) demographic information. Forty-three percent of the students were in "Precontemplation," 17% were in either "Contemplation" or "Preparation," 16% were in either "Action" or "Maintenance," and 24% were in the "Relapse" stage of change. Grade, Sex, Knowledge, Pros, and Cons, and the Grade by sex and the Grade by knowledge interactions were significant predictors of helmet use stages. Compared with students in Precontemplation, students in the Contemplation stage were disproportionately younger and had higher Pro scores, lower Con scores, and more knowledge (except in the ninth grade). The Transtheoretical model of behavior change is a viable theoretical framework for designing interventions aimed at increasing bicycle helmet use in children and adolescents.

  8. Relative influence of age, resting heart rate and sedentary life style in short-term analysis of heart rate variability

    OpenAIRE

    E.R. Migliaro; P. Contreras; S. Bech; A. Etxagibel; M. Castro; R. Ricca; K. Vicente

    2001-01-01

    In order to assess the relative influence of age, resting heart rate (HR) and sedentary life style, heart rate variability (HRV) was studied in two different groups. The young group (YG) consisted of 9 sedentary subjects aged 15 to 20 years (YG-S) and of 9 nonsedentary volunteers (YG-NS) also aged 15 to 20. The elderly sedentary group (ESG) consisted of 16 sedentary subjects aged 39 to 82 years. HRV was assessed using a short-term procedure (5 min). R-R variability was calculated in the time-...

  9. A variable age of onset segregation model for linkage analysis, with correction for ascertainment, applied to glioma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Xiangqing; Vengoechea, Jaime; Elston, Robert

    2012-01-01

    We propose a 2-step model-based approach, with correction for ascertainment, to linkage analysis of a binary trait with variable age of onset and apply it to a set of multiplex pedigrees segregating for adult glioma....

  10. Interplay of demographic variables, birth experience, and initial reactions in the prediction of symptoms of posttraumatic stress one year after giving birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia König

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: There has been increasing research on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD following childbirth in the last two decades. The literature on predictors of who develops posttraumatic stress symptoms (PSS suggests that both vulnerability and birth factors have an influence, but many studies measure predictors and outcomes simultaneously. Objective: In this context, we aimed to examine indirect and direct effects of predictors of PSS, which were measured longitudinally. Method: We assessed women within the first days (n=353, 6 weeks, and 12 months (n=183 after having given birth to a healthy infant. The first assessment included questions on demographics, pregnancy, and birth experience. The second and third assessments contained screenings for postpartum depression, PTSD, and general mental health problems, as well as assessing social support and physical well-being. We analysed our data using structural equation modelling techniques (n=277. Results: Our final model showed good fit and was consistent with a diathesis-stress model of PSS. Women who had used antidepressant medication in the 10 years before childbirth had higher PSS at 6 weeks, independent of birth experiences. Subjective birth experience was the early predictor with the highest total effect on later PSS. Interestingly, a probable migration background also had a small but significant effect on PSS via more episiotomies. The null results for social support may have been caused by a ceiling effect. Conclusions: Given that we measured predictors at different time points, our results lend important support to the etiological model, namely, that there is a vulnerability pathway and a stress pathway leading to PSS. PSS and other psychological measures stayed very stable between 6 weeks and 1 year postpartum, indicating that it is possible to identify women developing problems early.

  11. A database of [(18)F]-altanserin binding to 5-HT(2A) receptors in normal volunteers: normative data and relationship to physiological and demographic variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adams, Karen H; Pinborg, Lars H; Svarer, Claus

    2004-01-01

    This study presents the results of an analysis of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)(2A) receptors in 52 healthy subjects. Thirty men and twenty-two women aged between 21 and 79 years were investigated with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and [(18)F]-altanserin positron emission tomography (PET). The di...

  12. Genetic Variability in DNA Repair Proteins in Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Blasiak

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD is complex and involves interactions between environmental and genetic factors, with oxidative stress playing an important role inducing damage in biomolecules, including DNA. Therefore, genetic variability in the components of DNA repair systems may influence the ability of the cell to cope with oxidative stress and in this way contribute to the pathogenesis of AMD. However, few reports have been published on this subject so far. We demonstrated that the c.977C>G polymorphism (rs1052133 in the hOGG1 gene and the c.972G>C polymorphism (rs3219489 in the MUTYH gene, the products of which play important roles in the repair of oxidatively damaged DNA, might be associated with the risk of AMD. Oxidative stress may promote misincorporation of uracil into DNA, where it is targeted by several DNA glycosylases. We observed that the g.4235T>C (rs2337395 and c.−32A>G (rs3087404 polymorphisms in two genes encoding such glycosylases, UNG and SMUG1, respectively, could be associated with the occurrence of AMD. Polymorphisms in some other DNA repair genes, including XPD (ERCC2, XRCC1 and ERCC6 (CSB have also been reported to be associated with AMD. These data confirm the importance of the cellular reaction to DNA damage, and this may be influenced by variability in DNA repair genes, in AMD pathogenesis.

  13. Envejecer en Cuba: mucho más que un indicador demográfico. Ageing in Cuba: much more that a demographic feature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elena Benítez Pérez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available El envejecimiento demográfico ha transformado el panorama social en la mayoría de las naciones y requerido de numerosas investigaciones, con enfoques diversos, que lo aborden desde la multidimensionalidad de la sociedad como un fenómeno nuevo y complejo que modificará la agenda de las políticas públicas dirigidas a la población adulta mayor. La familia tiene, en este entramado, un papel predominante en la provisión de cuidados a las personas ancianas. Por eso, el objetivo del presente trabajo estará dirigido a demostrar algunas acciones que la sociedad cubana ha desarrollado para fortalecer la capacidad de las familias cuando alguno de sus miembros es un adulto mayor. Su desarrollo parte de la hipótesis general de que la familia sola no podrá responder a las múltiples repercusiones que acompañan el proceso de envejecimiento poblacional y necesitarán de una mayor atención social. No hay dudas de que, a escala social, se viene produciendo en el país una redefinición de la vejez en la conciencia de las personas. Ello no quiere decir que todo esté resuelto, sino que hay una mayor sensibilidad y se trabaja para atender una situación que el país ya tiene y que se agudizará en los próximos años. Las nuevas experiencias implementadas -sin ser suficientes- han demostrado los beneficios -sin grandes costos- producidos en la calidad de vida de los ancianos y de sus familias. The demographic ageing has transformed the social context in the majority of the nations and requires a quite large number of researches, which focuses on diverse issues that assume it since the multidimensional of the society, as a new and complex phenomenon, that will modify the agenda of public politics targeted to adult old population. The family plays, in this network, a predominant role in the provision of support to the old people. That is why; the aim of the present work is to demonstrate the several actions that the Cuban society has developed, to

  14. The concise cognitive test for dementia screening: reliability and effects of demographic variables as compared to the mini mental state examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Srikanth

    2010-01-01

    The Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) is widely used for dementia screening but has several shortcomings such as prominent ceiling effects, inadequate sensitivity to mild cognitive impairment, and uneven sampling of the major cognitive domains. In this study, we pilot a new dementia screening test - the Concise Cognitive Test (CONCOG) - designed to overcome the above short comings and describe the reliability measures and age, education, and gender effects. The CONCOG has a total score of 30, and has subtests for orientation, naming, registration, free recall and recognition of four words, semantic verbal fluency and copying. Participants were screened to exclude those with any neurological or psychiatric disease, simultaneously administered the CONCOG, and a Hybrid Mini Mental State Examination (HMMSE) adapted from Folstein's MMSE and Ganguli's Hindi Mental State Examination. The study sample had 204 subjects over the age of 60 years with a mean of 73 years and education level of 8 (4.5) years. Internal consistency for the CONCOG (Cronbach's alpha) was 0.74, inter-rater reliability (Kendall's tau-b) was 0.9, and the one-month test-retest reliability (Kendall's tau-b) was 0.7. Age and education level, but not gender, significantly influenced performance on both scales. Although the influence of age on the two scales was to a similar degree, the HMMSE was more affected by education than the CONCOG. Of 204 subjects, only 12 (5.7%) subjects obtained the maximum score on the CONCOG compared with 30 (14.1%) subjects on the HMMSE. The CONCOG took less than 10 minutes to complete in this sample. Age and education stratified norms are presented for the CONCOG. The CONCOG is a reliable cognitive screening measure. It has negligible ceiling effects, is less influenced by education compared with the HMMSE, and offers subscale scores for the major cognitive domains.

  15. Effect of Weather Variability on Seasonal Influenza Among Different Age Groups in Queensland, Australia: A Bayesian Spatiotemporal Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaodong; Mengersen, Kerrie; Milinovich, Gabriel; Hu, Wenbiao

    2017-06-01

    The effects of weather variability on seasonal influenza among different age groups remain unclear. The comparative study aims to explore the differences in the associations between weather variability and seasonal influenza, and growth rates of seasonal influenza epidemics among different age groups in Queensland, Australia. Three Bayesian spatiotemporal conditional autoregressive models were fitted at the postal area level to quantify the relationships between seasonal influenza and monthly minimum temperature (MIT), monthly vapor pressure, school calendar pattern, and Index of Relative Socio-Economic Advantage and Disadvantage for 3 age groups (Weather variability appears to be more influential on seasonal influenza transmission in younger (0-14) age groups. The growth rates of influenza at postal area level were relatively small for older (≥65) age groups in Queensland, Australia. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Feeling old today? Daily health, stressors, and affect explain day-to-day variability in subjective age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotter-Grühn, Dana; Neupert, Shevaun D; Stephan, Yannick

    2015-01-01

    Subjective age is an important correlate of health, well-being, and longevity. So far, little is known about short-term variability in subjective age and the circumstances under which individuals feel younger/older in daily life. This study examined whether (a) older adults' felt age fluctuates on a day-to-day basis, (b) daily changes in health, stressors, and affect explain fluctuations in felt age, and (c) the daily associations between felt age and health, stressors, or affect are time-ordered. Using an eight-day daily diary approach, N = 43 adults (60-96 years, M = 74.65, SD = 8.19) filled out daily questionnaires assessing subjective age, health, daily stressors, and affect. Data were analysed using multilevel modelling. Subjective age, health, daily stressors, affect. Intra-individual variability in felt age was not explained by time but by short-term variability in other variables. Specifically, on days when participants experienced more than average health problems, stress, or negative affect they felt older than on days with average health, stress, or negative affect. No time-ordered effects were found. Bad health, many stressors, and negative affective experiences constitute circumstances under which older adults feel older than they typically do. Thus, daily measures of subjective age could be markers of health and well-being.

  17. Stuck in gear: age-related loss of variable gearing in skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Natalie C; Danos, Nicole; Roberts, Thomas J; Azizi, Emanuel

    2016-04-01

    Skeletal muscles power a broad diversity of animal movements, despite only being able to produce high forces over a limited range of velocities. Pennate muscles use a range of gear ratios, the ratio of muscle shortening velocity to fiber shortening velocity, to partially circumvent these force-velocity constraints. Muscles operate with a high gear ratio at low forces; fibers rotate to greater angles of pennation, enhancing velocity but compromising force. At higher forces, muscles operate with a lower gear ratio; fibers rotate little so limiting muscle shortening velocity, but helping to preserve force. This ability to shift gears is thought to be due to the interplay of contractile force and connective tissue constraints. In order to test this hypothesis, gear ratios were determined in the medial gastrocnemius muscles of both healthy young rats, and old rats where the interaction between contractile and connective tissue properties was assumed to be disrupted. Muscle fiber and aponeurosis stiffness increased with age (PGear ratio decreased with increasing force in young (Pgearing is lost in old muscle. These findings support the hypothesis that variable gearing results from the interaction between contractile and connective tissues and suggest novel explanations for the decline in muscle performance with age. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  18. The misunderstood variable: Age effects as a function of type of instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone E. Pfenninger

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the effects of age of onset and type of instruction on ultimate EFL attainment at the end of the period of normal schooling in Switzerland, measured in terms of written fluency, complexity, morphosyntactic accuracy, vocabulary size, and listening skills. Data were gathered from four groups of 18-year-old Swiss German learners of English: 50 were early starters who had attended an immersion (CLIL program in elementary school and who continued CLIL in secondary school (EARLY CLIL, 50 had followed the same elementary school program but then received traditional EFL instruction after elementary school (EARLY MIX, 50 were late starters who began learning English immersively in secondary school, (LATE CLIL, while the other 50 attended a traditional EFL program in secondary school (LATE NON-CLIL. Results show that age of onset alone does not seem to be the distinguishing variable since early introduction of English in elementary school did not result in a higher level of roficiency when exposure to the language was limited to a few hours of class per week. The performance of the EARLY MIX participants was equaled and in certain areas significantly surpassed by the other groups, despite the additional five years of English study they had had in elementary school. The best results were found when early CLIL instruction was followed up by the use of English as an additional language of instruction in secondary school (EARLY CLIL group, which confirms the link between young starting age, implicit learning and long and massive exposure.

  19. The magnitude of interannual variability of ecosystem photosynthetic capacity is controled by stand age and biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musavi, Talie; Migliavacca, Mirco; Mahecha, Miguel D.; Reichstein, Markus; Kattge, Jens; Wirth, Christian; Black, T. Andrew; Janssens, Ivan; Knohl, Alexander; Loustau, Denis; Roupsard, Olivier; Varlagin, Andrej; Rambal, Serge; Cescatti, Alessandro; Gianelle, Damiano; Kondo, Hiroaki; Tamrakar, Rijan

    2017-04-01

    Gross primary productivity, GPP, the total uptake of carbon dioxide (CO2) by ecosystems via photosynthesis, is the largest flux in the global carbon cycle. The photosynthetic capacity at light saturation (GPPsat) is a fundamental ecosystem functional property and its interannual variability (IAV) is propagated to the net ecosystem exchange of CO2. In this contribution we made use of a variety of data streams consisting of ecosystem-atmosphere CO2 fluxes measured at eddy covariance flux sites with more than 4 years of data, the GPPsat derived at the different sites, information about climate (temperature, precipitation, and water availability index - WAI), biodiversity information and species richness, stand age, and plant traits, nutrient availability indexes derived from field campaigns, ancillary databases, and the literature. We also used data about forest structure derived from satellite products. Sites were selected according to the availability of eddy covariance flux measurements for at least 4 years, information about stand age, canopy cover, canopy height, and species abundance. The resulting global database consisted of 50 sites with different vegetation types across different climatic regions. Considering the importance of the understanding of IAV in CO2 fluxes to improve the predictive capacity of the global carbon cycle we analyzed a range of alternative hypotheses and potential drivers of the magnitude of IAV in GPPsat in forest ecosystems. The results show that the IAV in GPPsat within sites is driven by climate (i.e. fluctuations in air temperature and soil water availability), but the magnitude of IAV in GPPsat is related to ecosystem structure, and more in details to stand age and biodiversity (R2=0.55, p<0.0001). We conclude that irrespective of forest type the IAV of GPPsat in older and more diverse forests is dampened, and is higher in younger forests with few dominant species.

  20. Learning and Active Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulton-Lewis, Gillian M.; Buys, Laurie; Lovie-Kitchin, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Learning is an important aspect of aging productively. This paper describes results from 2645 respondents (aged from 50 to 74+ years) to a 165-variable postal survey in Australia. The focus is on learning and its relation to work; social, spiritual, and emotional status; health; vision; home; life events; and demographic details. Clustering…

  1. Testing a Model of the Relationship of Demographic, Affective, and Fitness Variables to Academic Achievement among Non-Science Majors at an Independent University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, Andrew Martin

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship of specific attributes of college students to their academic achievement at an independent university in central Florida. Academic achievement was measured as the numeric score on the final exam in a survey-of-science course (EDS 1032) required for non-science majors. Attribute sets included personological, affective, and fitness variables. A hypothesized diagram of the direct and indirect effects among these attributes relative to academic achievement was developed and tested using data collected Spring 2014 from 168 students in four sections of EDS 1032 at Florida Institute of Technology. Multiple regression results revealed that 19% of the variance in a students' academic achievement was due to the influence of these three sets of research factors; this was found to be statistically significant. The results of mediation analyses also indicated that three variables had significant direct effects on academic achievement, namely gender, number of academic credits, and sports motivation. In addition, gender had a significant indirect effect on academic achievement via stress, and the number of academic credits had a significant indirect effect on academic achievement via sports motivation. These findings indicated that female students scored roughly six points higher than male students on this final exam. Also, gender's influence on academic achievement was partially attributable to the student's level of stress (e.g., male students with high levels of stress had lower grades on this final exam than female students with the same level of stress). In addition, it was found that students taking more academic credits were likely to score higher on this final exam than those students taking fewer credits. Further, as students' level of sports amotivation increased, the strength of the relationship between the number of student academic credits and academic achievement decreased. These results support Self

  2. How are Closeness and Conflict in Student-Teacher Relationships Associated with Demographic Factors, School Functioning and Mental Health in Norwegian Schoolchildren Aged 6-13?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drugli, May Britt

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the association between teacher-reported student-teacher relationship quality (closeness and conflict) and demographic factors, school functioning and child mental health in a cross-sectional study. The study was conducted among a national sample of Norwegian school children (N?=?825) in grades 1 to 7. Bivariate analyses and…

  3. Vascular injuries in the state of Pará, Brazil, 2011-2013 and their relation with demographic and clinical variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmylla Teixeira Soares

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND:Vascular traumas are associated with high morbidity rates.OBJECTIVE: To report the characteristics of vascular traumas in the Brazilian state of Pará, in trauma victims treated at the Hospital Metropolitano de Urgência e Emergência (HMUE, from 2011 to 2013.METHOD: This was a descriptive, cross-sectional, retrospective and quantitative study that analyzed data on sex, age group, geographical origin, time waiting for care, mechanism of trauma, clinical status, anatomic site of injury, prevalence of associated fractures, vascular structures injured, types of vascular injury, principal types of surgery, early postoperative outcomes, level of amputation, number of deaths, length of hospital stay and multidisciplinary care for 264 medical records.RESULTS: The majority of victims were male and the most common age group was from 16 to 30 years. The majority of cases were from towns other than the state capital, accounting for 169 cases (64.02%. The principal mechanism of injury was firearm wounding - 110 (41.67% followed by cold weapon wounds - 65 (24.62% and traffic accidents - 42 (15.91%. The segments of the body and the vascular structures most often injured were lower limbs - 120 (45.45% and injuries to the popliteal and femoral arteries and veins. The most common clinical presentation at admission was hemorrhage - 154 (58.33%. The most common surgeries were ligatures of veins and arteries. There were 163 (61.74% hospital discharges and 33 (12.5% deaths.CONCLUSIONS: The greatest prevalence observed was related to traumas caused by urban violence. Victims were most frequently male, of working age and from towns other than the capital of the state of Pará.

  4. Antioxidants and Quality of Aging: Further Evidences for a Major Role of TXNRD1 Gene Variability on Physical Performance at Old Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Dato

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is a major determinant of human aging and common hallmark of age-related diseases. A protective role against free radicals accumulation was shown for thioredoxin reductase TrxR1, a key antioxidant selenoprotein. The variability of encoding gene (TXNRD1 was previously found associated with physical status at old age and extreme survival in a Danish cohort. To further investigate the influence of the gene variability on age-related physiological decline, we analyzed 9 tagging SNPs in relation to markers of physical (Activity of Daily Living, Hand Grip, Chair stand, and Walking and cognitive (Mini Mental State Examination status, in a Southern-Italian cohort of 64–107 aged individuals. We replicated the association of TXNRD1 variability with physical performance, with three variants (rs4445711, rs1128446, and rs11111979 associated with physical functioning after 85 years of age (p<0.022. In addition, we found two SNPs borderline influencing longevity (rs4964728 and rs7310505 in our cohort, the last associated with health status and survival in Northern Europeans too. Overall, the evidences of association in a different population here reported extend the proposed role of TXNRD1 gene in modulating physical decline at extreme ages, further supporting the investigation of thioredoxin pathway in relation to the quality of human aging.

  5. Antioxidants and Quality of Aging: Further Evidences for a Major Role of TXNRD1 Gene Variability on Physical Performance at Old Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dato, Serena; De Rango, Francesco; Crocco, Paolina; Passarino, Giuseppe; Rose, Giuseppina

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress is a major determinant of human aging and common hallmark of age-related diseases. A protective role against free radicals accumulation was shown for thioredoxin reductase TrxR1, a key antioxidant selenoprotein. The variability of encoding gene (TXNRD1) was previously found associated with physical status at old age and extreme survival in a Danish cohort. To further investigate the influence of the gene variability on age-related physiological decline, we analyzed 9 tagging SNPs in relation to markers of physical (Activity of Daily Living, Hand Grip, Chair stand, and Walking) and cognitive (Mini Mental State Examination) status, in a Southern-Italian cohort of 64-107 aged individuals. We replicated the association of TXNRD1 variability with physical performance, with three variants (rs4445711, rs1128446, and rs11111979) associated with physical functioning after 85 years of age (p longevity (rs4964728 and rs7310505) in our cohort, the last associated with health status and survival in Northern Europeans too. Overall, the evidences of association in a different population here reported extend the proposed role of TXNRD1 gene in modulating physical decline at extreme ages, further supporting the investigation of thioredoxin pathway in relation to the quality of human aging.

  6. Longitudinal Reliability of Self-Reported Age at Menarche in Adolescent Girls: Variability across Time and Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorn, Lorah D.; Sontag-Padilla, Lisa M.; Pabst, Stephanie; Tissot, Abbigail; Susman, Elizabeth J.

    2013-01-01

    Age at menarche is critical in research and clinical settings, yet there is a dearth of studies examining its reliability in adolescents. We examined age at menarche during adolescence, specifically, (a) average method reliability across 3 years, (b) test-retest reliability between time points and methods, (c) intraindividual variability of…

  7. Excess Weight, Anthropometric Variables and Blood Pressure in Schoolchildren aged 10 to 18 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schommer, Vânia Ames; Barbiero, Sandra Mari; Cesa, Cláudia Ciceri; Oliveira, Rosemary; Silva, Anelise Damiani; Pellanda, Lucia Campos

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of hypertension among children and adolescents is estimated to range between 1% and 13%. Excess weight and central obesity are related to blood pressure levels in adults, and may be important in the early pathogenesis of SH when present in childhood. To study the association between anthropometric variables and blood pressure levels in schoolchildren from the 5 th and 8 th grades, and to identify which parameter was more strongly correlated with blood pressure levels. Contemporary cross-sectional study with probabilistic population-based cluster sampling of schoolchildren enrolled from the 5 th to the 8 th grades in public elementary schools of Porto Alegre. Data on familial risk factors and anthropometry were collected. Statistical analysis included correlations and cluster-adjusted confidence intervals. The mean age of participants was 12.57 (± 1.64) years, and 55.2% of them were females. Abnormal blood pressure levels were found in 11.3% of the sample and borderline values, in 16.2%. Among the anthropometric variables analyzed, hip circumference was the one with the strongest correlation with increased blood pressure (r = 0.462, p < 0.001), followed by waist circumference (r = 0.404, p < 0.001) and abdominal skinfold (r = 0.291, p < 0.001). We observed an association of waist circumference and skinfolds with increased blood pressure levels in the schoolchildren of the sample. Therefore, it is of the utmost importance that early measurements of blood pressure, and waist and hip circumferences become a routine in health services in order to prevent this condition

  8. Excess Weight, Anthropometric Variables and Blood Pressure in Schoolchildren aged 10 to 18 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schommer, Vânia Ames [Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre (UFCSPA), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Barbiero, Sandra Mari; Cesa, Cláudia Ciceri; Oliveira, Rosemary [Instituto de Cardiologia/Fundação Universitária de Cardiologia (IC/FUC), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Silva, Anelise Damiani [Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre (UFCSPA), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Pellanda, Lucia Campos, E-mail: luciapell.pesquisa@cardiologia.org.br [Instituto de Cardiologia/Fundação Universitária de Cardiologia (IC/FUC), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre (UFCSPA), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2014-04-15

    The prevalence of hypertension among children and adolescents is estimated to range between 1% and 13%. Excess weight and central obesity are related to blood pressure levels in adults, and may be important in the early pathogenesis of SH when present in childhood. To study the association between anthropometric variables and blood pressure levels in schoolchildren from the 5{sup th} and 8{sup th} grades, and to identify which parameter was more strongly correlated with blood pressure levels. Contemporary cross-sectional study with probabilistic population-based cluster sampling of schoolchildren enrolled from the 5{sup th} to the 8{sup th} grades in public elementary schools of Porto Alegre. Data on familial risk factors and anthropometry were collected. Statistical analysis included correlations and cluster-adjusted confidence intervals. The mean age of participants was 12.57 (± 1.64) years, and 55.2% of them were females. Abnormal blood pressure levels were found in 11.3% of the sample and borderline values, in 16.2%. Among the anthropometric variables analyzed, hip circumference was the one with the strongest correlation with increased blood pressure (r = 0.462, p < 0.001), followed by waist circumference (r = 0.404, p < 0.001) and abdominal skinfold (r = 0.291, p < 0.001). We observed an association of waist circumference and skinfolds with increased blood pressure levels in the schoolchildren of the sample. Therefore, it is of the utmost importance that early measurements of blood pressure, and waist and hip circumferences become a routine in health services in order to prevent this condition.

  9. The Cluster AgeS Experiment (CASE). Variable Stars in the Field of the Globular Cluster M22

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozyczka, M.; Thompson, I. B.; Pych, W.; Narloch, W.; Poleski, R.; Schwarzenberg-Czerny, A.

    2017-09-01

    The field of the globular cluster M22 (NGC 6656) was monitored between 2000 and 2008 in a search for variable stars. BV light curves were obtained for 359 periodic, likely periodic, and long-term variables, 238 of which are new detections. 39 newly detected variables, and 63 previously known ones are members or likely members of the cluster, including 20 SX Phe, 10 RRab and 16 RRc type pulsators, one BL Her type pulsator, 21 contact binaries, and 9 detached or semi-detached eclipsing binaries. The most interesting among the identified objects are V112 - a bright multimode SX Phe pulsator, V125 - a β Lyr type binary on the blue horizontal branch, V129 - a blue/yellow straggler with a W UMa-like light curve, located halfway between the extreme horizontal branch and red giant branch, and V134 - an extreme horizontal branch object with P=2.33 d and a nearly sinusoidal light curve. All four of them are proper motion members of the cluster. Among nonmembers, a P=2.83 d detached eclipsing binary hosting a δ Sct type pulsator was found, and a peculiar P=0.93 d binary with ellipsoidal modulation and narrow minimum in the middle of one of the descending shoulders of the sinusoid. We also collected substantial new data for previously known variables. In particular we revise the statistics of the occurrence of the Blazhko effect in RR Lyr type variables of M22.

  10. Tooth cleaning frequency in relation to socio-demographic variables and personal hygiene measures among school children of Udaipur district, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S; Panwar, J; Vyas, A; Sharma, J; Goutham, B; Duraiswamy, P; Kulkarni, S

    2011-02-01

    The aim of the study was to determine if frequency of tooth cleaning varies with social group, family size, bedtime and other personal hygiene habits among school children. Target population comprised schoolchildren aged 8-16 years of Udaipur district attending public schools. A two stage cluster random sampling procedure was executed to collect the representative sample, consequently final sample size accounted to 852 children. Data were collected by means of structured questionnaires which consisted of questions related to oral hygiene habits including a few general hygiene habits, bed time, family size, family income and dental visiting habits. The results show that 30.5% of the total sample cleaned their teeth twice or more daily and there was no significant difference between the genders for tooth cleaning frequency. Logistic regression analysis revealed that older children and those having less than two siblings were more likely to clean their teeth twice a day than the younger ones and children with more than two siblings. Furthermore, frequency of tooth cleaning was significantly lower among children of parents with low level of education and less annual income as compared with those of high education and more annual income. In addition, tooth cleaning habits were more regular in children using tooth paste and regularly visiting to the dentist. This study observed that tooth cleaning is not an isolated behaviour, but is a part of multifarious pattern of various social and behavioural factors. © 2009 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2009 Blackwell Munksgaard.

  11. Marital stability, satisfaction and well-being in old age: variability and continuity in long-term continuously married older persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margelisch, Katja; Schneewind, Klaus A; Violette, Jeanine; Perrig-Chiello, Pasqualina

    2017-04-01

    Recent research shows that the well-documented positive effects of marital stability on well-being and health outcomes are conditional upon the quality of marriage. To date, few studies have explored the relationship between marital satisfaction, well-being and health among very long-term married individuals. This study aims at identifying groups of long-term married persons with respect to marital satisfaction and comparing them longitudinally concerning their well-being outcomes, marital stressors, personality and socio-demographic variables. Data are derived from a survey (data collection 2012 and 2014) with 374 continuously married individuals at wave 1 (mean age: 74.2 years, length of marriage: 49.2 years) and 252 at wave 2. Cluster analyses were performed comparing the clusters with regard to various well-being outcomes. The predictive power of cluster affiliation and various predictors at wave 1 on well-being outcomes at wave 2 was tested using regression analyses. Two groups were identified, one happily the other unhappily married, with the happily married scoring higher on all well-being and health outcomes. Regression analyses revealed that group affiliation at wave 1 was not any longer predictive of health, emotional loneliness and hopelessness two years later, when taking into account socio-demographic variables, psychological resilience and marital strain, whereas it remained an important predictor of life satisfaction and social loneliness. Marital satisfaction is associated with health and well-being in older couples over time, whereas psychological resilience and marital strain are major predictors explaining the variance of these outcomes.

  12. Socio-Demographic, Social-Cognitive, Health-Related and Physical Environmental Variables Associated with Context-Specific Sitting Time in Belgian Adolescents: A One-Year Follow-Up Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busschaert, Cedric; Ridgers, Nicola D.; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Cardon, Greet; Van Cauwenberg, Jelle; De Cocker, Katrien

    2016-01-01

    Introduction More knowledge is warranted about multilevel ecological variables associated with context-specific sitting time among adolescents. The present study explored cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of ecological domains of sedentary behaviour, including socio-demographic, social-cognitive, health-related and physical-environmental variables with sitting during TV viewing, computer use, electronic gaming and motorized transport among adolescents. Methods For this longitudinal study, a sample of Belgian adolescents completed questionnaires at school on context-specific sitting time and associated ecological variables. At baseline, complete data were gathered from 513 adolescents (15.0±1.7 years). At one-year follow-up, complete data of 340 participants were available (retention rate: 66.3%). Multilevel linear regression analyses were conducted to explore cross-sectional correlates (baseline variables) and longitudinal predictors (change scores variables) of context-specific sitting time. Results Social-cognitive correlates/predictors were most frequently associated with context-specific sitting time. Longitudinal analyses revealed that increases over time in considering it pleasant to watch TV (p electronic gaming. Conclusions Future intervention studies aiming to decrease TV viewing and computer use should acknowledge the importance of the behaviour of siblings and the pleasure adolescents experience during these screen-related behaviours. In addition, more time parents or care givers spent sitting may lead to more sitting during TV viewing of the adolescents, so that a family-based approach may be preferable for interventions. Experimental study designs are warranted to confirm the present findings. PMID:27936073

  13. Socio-Demographic, Social-Cognitive, Health-Related and Physical Environmental Variables Associated with Context-Specific Sitting Time in Belgian Adolescents: A One-Year Follow-Up Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busschaert, Cedric; Ridgers, Nicola D; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Cardon, Greet; Van Cauwenberg, Jelle; De Cocker, Katrien

    2016-01-01

    More knowledge is warranted about multilevel ecological variables associated with context-specific sitting time among adolescents. The present study explored cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of ecological domains of sedentary behaviour, including socio-demographic, social-cognitive, health-related and physical-environmental variables with sitting during TV viewing, computer use, electronic gaming and motorized transport among adolescents. For this longitudinal study, a sample of Belgian adolescents completed questionnaires at school on context-specific sitting time and associated ecological variables. At baseline, complete data were gathered from 513 adolescents (15.0±1.7 years). At one-year follow-up, complete data of 340 participants were available (retention rate: 66.3%). Multilevel linear regression analyses were conducted to explore cross-sectional correlates (baseline variables) and longitudinal predictors (change scores variables) of context-specific sitting time. Social-cognitive correlates/predictors were most frequently associated with context-specific sitting time. Longitudinal analyses revealed that increases over time in considering it pleasant to watch TV (p time of parents/care givers (p time of siblings (p time in considering it pleasant to use a computer in leisure time (p time of siblings (p importance of the behaviour of siblings and the pleasure adolescents experience during these screen-related behaviours. In addition, more time parents or care givers spent sitting may lead to more sitting during TV viewing of the adolescents, so that a family-based approach may be preferable for interventions. Experimental study designs are warranted to confirm the present findings.

  14. High Resolution Spatiotemporal Climate Reconstruction and Variability in East Asia during Little Ice Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, K. H. E.; Wang, P. K.; Lee, S. Y.; Liao, Y. C.; Fan, I. C.; Liao, H. M.

    2017-12-01

    The Little ice Age (LIA) is one of the most prominent epochs in paleoclimate reconstruction of the Common Era. While the signals of LIA were generally discovered across hemispheres, wide arrays of regional variability were found, and the reconstructed anomalies were sometimes inconsistent across studies by using various proxy data or historical records. This inconsistency is mainly attributed to limited data coverage at fine resolution that can assist high-resolution climate reconstruction in the continuous spatiotemporal trends. Qing dynasty (1644-1911 CE) of China existed in the coldest period of LIA. Owing to a long-standing tradition that acquired local officials to record odds and social or meteorological events, thousands of local chronicles were left. Zhang eds. (2004) took two decades to compile all these meteorological records in a compendium, for which we then digitized and coded all records into our REACHS database system for reconstructing climate. There were in total 1,435 points (sites) in our database for over 80,000 events in the period of time. After implementing two-rounds coding check for data quality control (accuracy rate 87.2%), multiple indexes were retrieved for reconstructing annually and seasonally resolved temperature and precipitation series for North, Central, and South China. The reconstruction methods include frequency count and grading, with usage of multiple regression models to test sensitivity and to calculate correlations among several reconstructed series. Validation was also conducted through comparison with instrumental data and with other reconstructed series in previous studies. Major research results reveal interannual (3-5 years), decadal (8-12 years), and interdecadal (≈30 years) variabilities with strong regional expressions across East China. Cooling effect was not homogenously distributed in space and time. Flood and drought conditions frequently repeated but the spatiotemporal pattern was variant, indicating likely

  15. Neural correlates of language variability in preschool-aged boys with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naigles, Letitia R; Johnson, Ryan; Mastergeorge, Ann; Ozonoff, Sally; Rogers, Sally J; Amaral, David G; Nordahl, Christine Wu

    2017-06-01

    Children with autism vary widely in their language abilities, yet the neural correlates of this language variability remain unclear, especially early in development. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was used to examine diffusivity measures along the length of 18 major fiber tracts in 104 preschool-aged boys with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The boys were assigned to subgroups according to their level of language development (Low: no/low language, Middle: small vocabulary, High: large vocabulary and grammar), based on their raw scores on the expressive language (EL) and receptive language (RL) sections of the Mullen Scales of Early Learning (MSEL). Results indicate that the subgroups differed in fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), and radial diffusivity (RD) along the inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF) in both hemispheres. Moreover, FA correlated significantly with Mullen EL and RL raw scores, but not ADOS severity score, along the left and right ILF. Subgroups also differed in MD (but not FA) along the left superior longitudinal fasiculus and left corticospinal tract, but these differences were not correlated with language scores. These findings suggest that white matter microstructure in the left and right ILF varies in relation to lexical development in young males with ASD. The findings also support the use of raw scores on language-relevant standardized tests for assessing early language-brain relationships. Autism Res 2017. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Autism Res 2017, 10: 1107-1119. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Does the Early Bird Catch the Worm? Instrumental Variable Estimates of Educational Effects of Age of School Entry in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Puhani, Patrick A.; Weber, Andrea M.

    2006-01-01

    We estimate the effect of age of school entry on educational outcomes using two different data sets for Germany, sampling pupils at the end of primary school and in the middle of secondary school. Results are obtained based on instrumental variable estimation exploiting the exogenous variation in month of birth. We find robust and significant positive effects on educational outcomes for pupils who enter school at seven instead of six years of age: Test scores at the end of primary school incr...

  17. The impact of bilinguism on cognitive aging and dementia:Finding a path through a forest of confounding variables

    OpenAIRE

    Bak, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Within the current debates on cognitive reserve, cognitive aging and dementia, showing increasingly a positive effect of mental, social and physical activities on health in older age, bilingualism remains one of the most controversial issues. Some reasons for it might be social or even ideological. However, one of the most important genuine problems facing bilingualism research is the high number of potential confounding variables. Bilingual communities often differ from monolingual ones in a...

  18. Demographic Variability of Inhalation Mechanics: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    McCawley and Lippmann (58) Dispersion of a 0.5 micron aerosol bolus during tidal breathing is significantly greater for smokers compared to non ...exhibited significantly lower vital capacities compared to non - smokers . Wang et al. (62) Current and cumulative cigarette smoking were significant...members of the population may choose to start (or stop) smoking at random times, and many will never smoke at all in their lives. So, smoking can be

  19. Aging and Variability of Individual Differences: A Longitudinal Analysis of Social, Psychological, and Physiological Indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddox, George L.; Douglass, Elizabeth B.

    This paper explores the relationship between age and individual differences. Two hypotheses were tested through the use of repeated measures of functioning in terms of social, psychological, and physiological parameters: (1) individual differences do not decrease with age, and (2) individuals tend to maintain the same rank in relation to age peers…

  20. The Medieval Warm Period, the Little Ice Age and simulated climatic variability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, B.G. [CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research, Aspendale, VIC (Australia)

    2006-12-15

    The CSIRO Mark 2 coupled global climatic model has been used to generate a 10,000-year simulation for 'present' climatic conditions. The model output has been analysed to identify sustained climatic fluctuations, such as those attributed to the Medieval Warm Period (MWP) and the Little Ice Age (LIA). Since no external forcing was permitted during the model run all such fluctuations are attributed to naturally occurring climatic variability associated with the nonlinear processes inherent in the climatic system. Comparison of simulated climatic time series for different geographical locations highlighted the lack of synchronicity between these series. The model was found to be able to simulate climatic extremes for selected observations for century timescales, as well as identifying the associated spatial characteristics. Other examples of time series simulated by the model for the USA and eastern Russia had similar characteristics to those attributed to the MWP and the LIA, but smaller amplitudes, and clearly defined spatial patterns. A search for the frequency of occurrence of specified surface temperature anomalies, defined via duration and mean value, revealed that these were primarily confined to polar regions and northern latitudes of Europe, Asia and North America. Over the majority of the oceans and southern hemisphere such climatic fluctuations could not be sustained, for reasons explained in the paper. Similarly, sustained sea-ice anomalies were mainly confined to the northern hemisphere. An examination of mechanisms associated with the sustained climatic fluctuations failed to identify a role for the North Atlantic Oscillation, the El Nino-Southern Oscillation or the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. It was therefore concluded that these fluctuations were generated by stochastic processes intrinsic to the nonlinear climatic system. While a number of characteristics of the MWP and the LIA could have been partially caused by natural processes within

  1. Impact of demographic and clinical variables on the oral health-related quality of life among five-year-old children: a population-based study using self-reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abanto, Jenny; Panico, Claudia; Bönecker, Marcelo; Frazão, Paulo

    2018-01-01

    Although SOHO-5 has been validated, there is no study testing this instrument in population-based samples. To evaluate the impact of demographic and oral clinical variables on the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) in 5-year-old children from a socially deprived Brazilian area using selfreports. Data from 588 children were analyzed. Examinations included untreated dental caries and occlusal deviations. Children answered the Brazilian SOHO-5 version and interviewers collected demographic characteristics of the child (sex and skin color). Robust Poisson regression associated outcome and exposures. General, the oral impacts were reported by 71.1% of children. The mean and standard deviation total score of the Brazilian SOHO-5 were 3.51 and 3.82, respectively. Children with untreated dental caries (PR = 1.28; P = 0.004) and increased overjet (PR = 1.35; P = 0.002) experienced a worse OHRQoL. Dark and mixed skin color children did not have a good impact on their OHRQoL (PR = 1.53; P = 0.006 and PR = 1.44; P < 0.000, respectively) compared to light ones. Untreated dental caries and increased overjet were independently associated with worst OHRQoL in 5-year-old children. As an indication of social deprivation, dark and mixed skin color children compared to light ones presented higher probability for reporting worst OHRQoL independently of the oral clinical conditions. © 2017 BSPD, IAPD and John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Are demographics, work and health associated with the ability and motivation to continue working until the age of 65 in construction workers?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Hengel, K.; Blatter, B.; Geuskens, G.; Koppes, L.; Bongers, P.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Because of the ageing and decreasing working population in the construction industry, it is important to encourage workers to prolong their working life. The objective of this study was to explore factors associated with the ability and motivation to continue working until the age of 65

  3. Hypocretin measurement: shelf age of radioimmunoassay kit, but not freezer time, influences assay variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Glenda; Bliwise, Donald L; Saini, Prabhjyot; Rye, David B; Trotti, Lynn Marie

    2017-09-01

    The hypothalamic peptide hypocretin 1 (orexin A) may be assayed in cerebrospinal fluid to diagnose narcolepsy type 1. This testing is not commercially available, and factors contributing to assay variability have not previously been comprehensively explored. In the present study, cerebrospinal fluid hypocretin concentrations were determined in duplicate in 155 patient samples, across a range of sleep disorders. Intra-assay variability of these measures was analyzed. Inter-assay correlation between samples tested at Emory and at Stanford was high (r = 0.79, p hypocretin values, such that kits closer to expiration exhibit significantly more variability.

  4. Mid- to late-Holocene reservoir-age variability and isotope-based palaeoenvironmental reconstruction in the Limfjord, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippsen, Bente; Olsen, Jesper; Lewis, Jonathan P.

    2013-01-01

    Palaeoenvironmental and 14C reservoir age variability in the Limfjord, a sound through northern Jutland, Denmark, was investigated for the period 7300 to 1300 cal yr BP. Shells and bulk sediment samples from a core from a former inlet, Kilen, were analysed by radiocarbon dating and stable isotope....... They are therefore used to differentiate between brackish and marine palaeo-conditions. 14C reservoir ages of shells vary from ΔR=−140 to +300 14C years. Between 7300 and 5400 cal. yr BP, reservoir age and stable isotope values are highly variable and indicate mixing of marine water and brackish surface waters...... with hard water effects. After 5400 cal. yr BP, the ΔR values stabilise and show an increasingly marine environment, with 14C reservoir ages close to 400 years (ΔR=0). After 2000 cal. yr BP, Kilen becomes brackish. Reservoir ages and stable isotope values are again highly variable and δ13C and C/N values...

  5. The Use of Multiple Correspondence Analysis to Explore Associations between Categories of Qualitative Variables in Healthy Ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Patrício Soares; Santos, Nadine Correia; Cunha, Pedro; Cotter, Jorge; Sousa, Nuno

    2013-01-01

    The main focus of this study was to illustrate the applicability of multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) in detecting and representing underlying structures in large datasets used to investigate cognitive ageing. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to obtain main cognitive dimensions, and MCA was used to detect and explore relationships between cognitive, clinical, physical, and lifestyle variables. Two PCA dimensions were identified (general cognition/executive function and memory), and two MCA dimensions were retained. Poorer cognitive performance was associated with older age, less school years, unhealthier lifestyle indicators, and presence of pathology. The first MCA dimension indicated the clustering of general/executive function and lifestyle indicators and education, while the second association was between memory and clinical parameters and age. The clustering analysis with object scores method was used to identify groups sharing similar characteristics. The weaker cognitive clusters in terms of memory and executive function comprised individuals with characteristics contributing to a higher MCA dimensional mean score (age, less education, and presence of indicators of unhealthier lifestyle habits and/or clinical pathologies). MCA provided a powerful tool to explore complex ageing data, covering multiple and diverse variables, showing if a relationship exists and how variables are related, and offering statistical results that can be seen both analytically and visually.

  6. Variability in age and size at maturation, reproductive longevity, and long-term growth dynamics for Kemp's ridley sea turtles in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goshe, Lisa R.; Coggins, Lewis; Shaver, Donna J.; Higgins, Ben; Landry, Andre M.; Bailey, Rhonda

    2017-01-01

    Effective management of protected sea turtle populations requires knowledge not only of mean values for demographic and life-history parameters, but also temporal and spatial trends, variability, and underlying causes. For endangered Kemp’s ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys kempii), the need for baseline information of this type has been emphasized during attempts to understand causes underlying the recent truncation in the recovery trajectory for nesting females. To provide insight into variability in age and size at sexual maturation (ASM and SSM) and long-term growth patterns likely to influence population trends, we conducted skeletochronological analysis of humerus bones from 333 Kemp’s ridleys stranded throughout the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) from 1993 to 2010. Ranges of possible ASMs (6.8 to 21.8 yr) and SSMs (53.3 to 68.3 cm straightline carapace length (SCL)) estimated using the “rapprochement” skeletal growth mark associated with maturation were broad, supporting incorporation of a maturation schedule in Kemp’s ridley population models. Mean ASMs estimated from rapprochement and by fitting logistic, generalized additive mixed, and von Bertalanffy growth models to age and growth data ranged from 11 to 13 yr; confidence intervals for the logistic model predicted maturation of 95% of the population between 11.9 and 14.8 yr. Early juvenile somatic growth rates in the GOM were greater than those previously reported for the Atlantic, indicating potential for differences in maturation trajectories between regions. Finally, long-term, significant decreases in somatic growth response were found for both juveniles and adults, which could influence recruitment to the reproductive population and observed nesting population trends. PMID:28333937

  7. Variability in age and size at maturation, reproductive longevity, and long-term growth dynamics for Kemp's ridley sea turtles in the Gulf of Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Avens

    Full Text Available Effective management of protected sea turtle populations requires knowledge not only of mean values for demographic and life-history parameters, but also temporal and spatial trends, variability, and underlying causes. For endangered Kemp's ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys kempii, the need for baseline information of this type has been emphasized during attempts to understand causes underlying the recent truncation in the recovery trajectory for nesting females. To provide insight into variability in age and size at sexual maturation (ASM and SSM and long-term growth patterns likely to influence population trends, we conducted skeletochronological analysis of humerus bones from 333 Kemp's ridleys stranded throughout the Gulf of Mexico (GOM from 1993 to 2010. Ranges of possible ASMs (6.8 to 21.8 yr and SSMs (53.3 to 68.3 cm straightline carapace length (SCL estimated using the "rapprochement" skeletal growth mark associated with maturation were broad, supporting incorporation of a maturation schedule in Kemp's ridley population models. Mean ASMs estimated from rapprochement and by fitting logistic, generalized additive mixed, and von Bertalanffy growth models to age and growth data ranged from 11 to 13 yr; confidence intervals for the logistic model predicted maturation of 95% of the population between 11.9 and 14.8 yr. Early juvenile somatic growth rates in the GOM were greater than those previously reported for the Atlantic, indicating potential for differences in maturation trajectories between regions. Finally, long-term, significant decreases in somatic growth response were found for both juveniles and adults, which could influence recruitment to the reproductive population and observed nesting population trends.

  8. Age-related decline in verbal learning is moderated by demographic factors, working memory capacity, and presence of amnestic mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantinidou, Fofi; Zaganas, Ioannis; Papastefanakis, Emmanouil; Kasselimis, Dimitrios; Nidos, Andreas; Simos, Panagiotis G

    2014-09-01

    Age-related memory changes are highly varied and heterogeneous. The study examined the rate of decline in verbal episodic memory as a function of education level, auditory attention span and verbal working memory capacity, and diagnosis of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (a-MCI). Data were available on a community sample of 653 adults aged 17-86 years and 70 patients with a-MCI recruited from eight broad geographic areas in Greece and Cyprus. Measures of auditory attention span and working memory capacity (digits forward and backward) and verbal episodic memory (Auditory Verbal Learning Test [AVLT]) were used. Moderated mediation regressions on data from the community sample did not reveal significant effects of education level on the rate of age-related decline in AVLT indices. The presence of a-MCI was a significant moderator of the direct effect of Age on both immediate and delayed episodic memory indices. The rate of age-related decline in verbal episodic memory is normally mediated by working memory capacity. Moreover, in persons who display poor episodic memory capacity (a-MCI group), age-related memory decline is expected to advance more rapidly for those who also display relatively poor verbal working memory capacity.

  9. Speech production accuracy and variability in young cochlear implant recipients: comparisons with typically developing age-peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertmer, David J; Goffman, Lisa

    2011-02-01

    The speech production accuracy and variability scores of 6 young cochlear implant (CI) recipients with 2 years of device experience were compared with those of typically developing (TD) age-peers. Words from the First Words Speech Test (FWST; Ertmer, 1999) were imitated 3 times to assess the accuracy and variability of initial consonants, vowels, and words. The initial consonants in the 4 sets of the FWST followed a typical order of development. The TD group produced targets with high accuracy and low variability. Their scores across FWST sets reflected the expected order of development. The CI group produced most targets less accurately and with more variability than the TD children. Relatively high accuracy for the consonants of Sets 1 and 2 indicated that these phonemes were acquired early and in a typical developmental order. A trend toward greater accuracy for Set 4 as compared with Set 3 suggested that later-emerging consonants were not acquired in the expected order. Variability was greatest for later-emerging initial consonants and whole words. Although considerable speech production proficiency was evident, age-level performance was not attained after 2 years of CI experience. Factors that might influence the order of consonant acquisition are discussed.

  10. Effects of water gymnastics on anthropometric variables of women aged 60 - 80 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adair da Silva Lopes

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the effects of eight months of water gymnastics on the anthropometric variables of women aged 60 - 80 years. The sample comprised formed by 62 women (Experimental Group, EG, n = 50; Control Group, CG, n = 12, who were measured for body mass (kg, stature (cm, circumferences in cm (arms, normal chest, abdomen waist, hip, mid-thigh and calf and sum of skinfolds representing regional fat (trunk, limbs, central and peripheral, and total fat. The EG participated at all water activities for 32 weeks which, a total of 64 sessions, each lasting for about 45 min. Alpha level was set at p ≤ 0.05 for all comparisons. For pre-and-post test comparison of the EG, Student’s t test for dependent samples was used. The independent t test was used to compare both groups at the beginning and at the end of the experiment. According to the results the following can be stated: the water gymnastics program followed for 8 months, helped to statistically reduce body mass and body circumferences at waist, hip, mid-thigh and calf levels. Signifi cant differences in the distribution of regional body fat and total fat were observed found (p ≤ 0.05 at trunk and limbs and in peripheral and total body fat. ABSTRACT O presente estudo teve como objetivo analisar os efeitos de oito meses de hidroginástica sobre indicadores antropométricos de mulheres entre 60 e 80 anos de idade. Participaram da amostra 62 mulheres, divididas em dois grupos: experimental (GE, n = 50 e controle (GC, n = 12. Mediu-se a massa corporal (kg, estatura corporal (cm, perímetros, cm (tronco normal, abdômen na região da cintura, glútea, coxa e panturrilha e somatórios de dobras cutâneas (mm, representando a gordura por região (tronco, membros, central e periférica e a gordura total. O grupo experimental participou das atividades de hidroginástica durante 32 semanas, totalizando 64 sessões, com duração aproximada de 45 minutos. Para a análise dos dados entre o

  11. Microscopic age determination of human skeletons including an unknown but calculable variable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallin, Johan Albert; Tkocz, Izabella; Kristensen, Gustav

    1994-01-01

    estimation, which includes the covariance matrix of four single equation residuals, improves the accuracy of age determination. The standard deviation, however, of age prediction remains 12.58 years. An experimental split of the data was made in order to demonstrate that the use of subgroups gives a false...

  12. Relative influence of age, resting heart rate and sedentary life style in short-term analysis of heart rate variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.R. Migliaro

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess the relative influence of age, resting heart rate (HR and sedentary life style, heart rate variability (HRV was studied in two different groups. The young group (YG consisted of 9 sedentary subjects aged 15 to 20 years (YG-S and of 9 nonsedentary volunteers (YG-NS also aged 15 to 20. The elderly sedentary group (ESG consisted of 16 sedentary subjects aged 39 to 82 years. HRV was assessed using a short-term procedure (5 min. R-R variability was calculated in the time-domain by means of the root mean square successive differences. Frequency-domain HRV was evaluated by power spectrum analysis considering high frequency and low frequency bands. In the YG the effort tolerance was ranked in a bicycle stress test. HR was similar for both groups while ESG showed a reduced HRV compared with YG. Within each group, HRV displayed a negative correlation with HR. Although YG-NS had better effort tolerance than YG-S, their HR and HRV were not significantly different. We conclude that HRV is reduced with increasing HR or age, regardless of life style. The results obtained in our short-term study agree with others of longer duration by showing that age and HR are the main determinants of HRV. Our results do not support the idea that changes in HRV are related to regular physical activity.

  13. Relative influence of age, resting heart rate and sedentary life style in short-term analysis of heart rate variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliaro, E R; Contreras, P; Bech, S; Etxagibel, A; Castro, M; Ricca, R; Vicente, K

    2001-04-01

    In order to assess the relative influence of age, resting heart rate (HR) and sedentary life style, heart rate variability (HRV) was studied in two different groups. The young group (YG) consisted of 9 sedentary subjects aged 15 to 20 years (YG-S) and of 9 nonsedentary volunteers (YG-NS) also aged 15 to 20. The elderly sedentary group (ESG) consisted of 16 sedentary subjects aged 39 to 82 years. HRV was assessed using a short-term procedure (5 min). R-R variability was calculated in the time-domain by means of the root mean square successive differences. Frequency-domain HRV was evaluated by power spectrum analysis considering high frequency and low frequency bands. In the YG the effort tolerance was ranked in a bicycle stress test. HR was similar for both groups while ESG showed a reduced HRV compared with YG. Within each group, HRV displayed a negative correlation with HR. Although YG-NS had better effort tolerance than YG-S, their HR and HRV were not significantly different. We conclude that HRV is reduced with increasing HR or age, regardless of life style. The results obtained in our short-term study agree with others of longer duration by showing that age and HR are the main determinants of HRV. Our results do not support the idea that changes in HRV are related to regular physical activity.

  14. Rural Household Demographics, Livelihoods and the Environment

    OpenAIRE

    de Sherbinin, Alex; VanWey, Leah; McSweeney, Kendra; Aggarwal, Rimjhim; Barbieri, Alisson; Henry, Sabina; Hunter, Lori M.; Twine, Wayne

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews and synthesizes findings from scholarly work on linkages among rural household demographics, livelihoods and the environment. Using the livelihood approach as an organizing framework, we examine evidence on the multiple pathways linking environmental variables and the following demographic variables: fertility, migration, morbidity and mortality, and lifecycles. Although the review draws on studies from the entire developing world, we find the majority of micro-level studie...

  15. Association among nursing diagnoses, demographic variables, and clinical characteristics of patients with high blood pressure Asociación entre diagnósticos de enfermería y variables sociales/clinicas en pacientes hipertensos Associação entre diagnósticos de enfermagem e variáveis sociais/clínicas em pacientes hipertensos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca de Fátima Vasconcelos

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To analyze the association among diagnoses, demographic variables, and clinical characteristics of patients with high blood pressure. METHODS: The data were collected in 67 patients from a primary care unit in Fortaleza, Brazil. The NANDA Taxonomy was used to determine the nursing diagnoses. Data analysis consisted of Fisher's exact test, Chi-square test, and likelihood ratio test. RESULTS: Fifty four nursing diagnoses were identified; fifteen were above the 75th percentile. Ineffective individual therapeutic regimen management and number of medication, sleep pattern disturbance and marital status, activity intolerance and education, activity intolerance and time of diagnoses, sexual dysfunction and gender, sexual dysfunction and education, risk for falls and age, marital status and time of diagnoses, chronic pain and marital status all had significant association coefficients. CONCLUSION: Some demographic characteristics were associated with nursing diagnoses.OBJETIVO: Analizar la asociación estadística entre diagnósticos y características sociales / clínicas de pacientes hipertensos. MÉTODOS: Los datos fueron recolectados en una unidad básica de salud de Fortaleza-Ceará con 67 pacientes. La identificación de los diagnósticos se llevó a cabo según la taxonomía de la NANDA. Para el análisis de los datos se utilizó test de Fisher, Chi-Cuadrado de Pearson y Razón de Verosemejanza. RESULTADOS: Se encontró 54 diagnósticos de enfermería y 15 sobre el percentil 75. Se verificó asociación estadística entre: Control eficaz del régimen terapéutico y número de medicamentos; Patrón de sueño perturbado y estado civil; Intolerancia a la actividad y escolaridad y años de diagnóstico; Disfunción sexual y sexo y escolaridad; Riesgo para caídas y edad, estado civil y tiempo de diagnóstico de la enfermedad; Dolor crónico y estado civil. CONCLUSIÓN: Algunas características demográficas están asociadas a la

  16. The effects of age, illustrations, and task variables on the performance of procedural assembly tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrell, R W; Park, D C

    1993-09-01

    Older adults may be disadvantaged in the performance of procedural assembly tasks because of age-related declines in working memory operations. It was hypothesized that adding illustrations to instructional text may lessen age-related performance differences by minimizing processing demands on working memory in the elderly. In the present study, younger and older adults constructed a series of 3-dimensional objects from 3 types of instructions (text only, illustration only, or text and illustrations). Results indicated that instructions consisting of text and illustrations reduced errors in construction for both age groups compared with the other formats. Younger adults, however, outperformed older adults under all instructional format conditions. Measures of spatial and verbal working memory and text comprehension ability accounted for substantial age-related variance across the different format conditions but did not fully account for the age differences observed.

  17. Socio-demographic predictors of sleep complaints in indigenous Siberians with a mixed economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Hannah J; Klimova, Tatiana M; Knuston, Kristen L; Fedorova, Valentina I; Fedorov, Afanasy; Yegorovna, Baltakhinova M; Leonard, William R

    2015-08-01

    Socio-demographic indicators closely relate to sleep in industrialized populations. However we know very little about how such factors impact sleep in populations undergoing industrialization. Within populations transitioning to the global economy, the preliminary evidence has found an inconsistent relationship between socio-demographics and sleep complaints across countries and social strata. Surveys were conducted on a sample of rural Sakha (Yakut) adults (n = 168) during the autumn of 2103 to assess variation in socio-demographics and sleep complaints, including trouble sleeping and daytime sleepiness. Socio-demographic variables included age, gender, socioeconomic measures, and markers of traditional/market-based lifestyle. We tested whether the socio-demographic variables predicted sleep complaints using bivariate analyses and multiple logistic regressions. Trouble sleeping was reported by 18.5% of the participants and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) by 17.3%. Trouble sleeping was significantly predicted by older age, female gender, and mixing traditional and market-based lifestyles. EDS was not significantly predicted by any socio-demographic variable. These findings support the few large-scale studies that found inconsistent relationships between measures of socioeconomic status and sleep complaints in transitioning populations. Employing a mix of traditional and market-based lifestyles may leave Sakha in a space of vulnerability, leading to trouble sleeping. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Childbearing in adolescents aged 12-15 years in low resource countries: a neglected issue. New estimates from demographic and household surveys in 42 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Sarah; Matthews, Zoë; Frost, Melanie; Fogstad, Helga; Camacho, Alma V; Laski, Laura

    2012-09-01

    There is strong evidence that the health risks associated with adolescent pregnancy are concentrated among the youngest girls (e.g. those under 16 years). Fertility rates in this age group have not previously been comprehensively estimated and published. By drawing data from 42 large, nationally representative household surveys in low resource countries carried out since 2003 this article presents estimates of age-specific birth rates for girls aged 12-15, and the percentage of girls who give birth at age 15 or younger. From these we estimate that approximately 2.5 million births occur to girls aged under 16 in low resource countries each year. The highest rates are found in Sub-Saharan Africa, where in Chad, Guinea, Mali, Mozambique, Niger and Sierra Leone more than 10% of girls become mothers before they are 16. Strategies to reduce these high levels are vital if we are to alleviate poor reproductive health. © 2012 The Authors  Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica© 2012 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  19. Age-related variability of some characters of karyotype instability in the mouse line CC57W/Mv

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glazko, T.T.; Safonova, N.A.; Kovaleva, O.A.; Stolina, M.P.; Solomko, A.P.; Malyuta, S.S.; Glazko, V.I.; AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev

    1995-01-01

    The investigations of relations between cytogenetical variability in cells of bone marrow of the mouse line CC57W/Mv and factors of age and radioactivity pollution (the specific vivarium in the 30-km Chernobyl zone) were carried out. The karyotype instability on some characters were similarly between young mice in the Chernobyl zone and old mice under control conditions. The old Chernobyl mice differentiated from old control ones by a low frequency of some cytogenetic anomalies and higher values of the mitotic index. The contribution of the intensity of cell division into observed variabilities of cytogenetic character between different mouse groups was discussed

  20. Stellar Variability at the Main-sequence Turnoff of the Intermediate-age LMC Cluster NGC 1846

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, R.; Pajkos, M. A.; Vivas, A. K.; Strader, J.; Contreras Ramos, R.

    2018-04-01

    Intermediate-age (IA) star clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) present extended main-sequence turn-offs (MSTO) that have been attributed to either multiple stellar populations or an effect of stellar rotation. Recently it has been proposed that these extended main sequences can also be produced by ill-characterized stellar variability. Here we present Gemini-S/Gemini Multi-Object Spectrometer (GMOS) time series observations of the IA cluster NGC 1846. Using differential image analysis, we identified 73 new variable stars, with 55 of those being of the Delta Scuti type, that is, pulsating variables close the MSTO for the cluster age. Considering completeness and background contamination effects, we estimate the number of δ Sct belonging to the cluster between 40 and 60 members, although this number is based on the detection of a single δ Sct within the cluster half-light radius. This amount of variable stars at the MSTO level will not produce significant broadening of the MSTO, albeit higher-resolution imaging will be needed to rule out variable stars as a major contributor to the extended MSTO phenomenon. Though modest, this amount of δ Sct makes NGC 1846 the star cluster with the highest number of these variables ever discovered. Lastly, our results present a cautionary tale about the adequacy of shallow variability surveys in the LMC (like OGLE) to derive properties of its δ Sct population. Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Productiva (Argentina), and Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação (Brazil).

  1. Social demographic change and autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kayuet; Zerubavel, Noam; Bearman, Peter

    2010-05-01

    Parental age at child's birth--which has increased for U.S. children in the 1992-2000 birth cohorts--is strongly associated with an increased risk of autism. By turning a social demographic lens on the historical patterning of concordance among twin pairs, we identify a central mechanism for this association: de novo mutations, which are deletions, insertions, and duplications of DNA in the germ cells that are not present in the parents' DNA. Along the way, we show that a demographic eye on the rising prevalence of autism leads to three major discoveries. First, the estimated heritability of autism has been dramatically overstated. Second, heritability estimates can change over remarkably short periods of time because of increases in germ cell mutations. Third, social demographic change can yield genetic changes that, at the population level, combine to contribute to the increased prevalence of autism.

  2. An Ego Depletion Account of Aging Stereotypes' Effects on Health-Related Variables

    OpenAIRE

    Emile, Mélanie; d'Arripe-Longueville, Fabienne; Cheval, Boris; Amato, Massimiliano; Chalabaev, Aïna

    2017-01-01

    Objectives. This study examined whether stereotypes may predict health outcomes independently from their internalization into the self. Specifically, we tested whether endorsement of negative age stereotypes in the physical activity (PA) domain is related to decreased subjective vitality among active older adults, illustrating ego depletion. Method. This longitudinal study included 192 retired individuals aged 60-92 years who regularly participated in organized PA, and who completed the measu...

  3. Leadership and Small Firm Performance: The Moderating Effects of Demographic Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanigan, Rod L.; Bishop, Jacob L.; Brachle, Ben J.; Winn, Bradley A.

    2017-01-01

    The present study builds on extant leadership literature by examining the role demographic variables (including age, tenure as a leader at the current company, experience in the industry, and level of education) play as moderating effects on the relationship between leadership style and small business financial performance in the national…

  4. Paternal Age Explains a Major Portion of De Novo Germline Mutation Rate Variability in Healthy Individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon L Girard

    Full Text Available De novo mutations (DNM are an important source of rare variants and are increasingly being linked to the development of many diseases. Recently, the paternal age effect has been the focus of a number of studies that attempt to explain the observation that increasing paternal age increases the risk for a number of diseases. Using disease-free familial quartets we show that there is a strong positive correlation between paternal age and germline DNM in healthy subjects. We also observed that germline CNVs do not follow the same trend, suggesting a different mechanism. Finally, we observed that DNM were not evenly distributed across the genome, which adds support to the existence of DNM hotspots.

  5. Demographic and Economic Changes and Postsecondary Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charner, Ivan

    The interaction of demographic and economic shifts has led to, and will continue to effect, changes in the postsecondary education system and institutions. Demographic shifts include aging of the population, more women in the paid labor force, and increased numbers of minorities. Economic shifts include the growth of the information sector,…

  6. Age at disease onset and peak ammonium level rather than interventional variables predict the neurological outcome in urea cycle disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posset, Roland; Garcia-Cazorla, Angeles; Valayannopoulos, Vassili; Teles, Elisa Leão; Dionisi-Vici, Carlo; Brassier, Anaïs; Burlina, Alberto B; Burgard, Peter; Cortès-Saladelafont, Elisenda; Dobbelaere, Dries; Couce, Maria L; Sykut-Cegielska, Jolanta; Häberle, Johannes; Lund, Allan M; Chakrapani, Anupam; Schiff, Manuel; Walter, John H; Zeman, Jiri; Vara, Roshni; Kölker, Stefan

    2016-09-01

    Patients with urea cycle disorders (UCDs) have an increased risk of neurological disease manifestation. Determining the effect of diagnostic and therapeutic interventions on the neurological outcome. Evaluation of baseline, regular follow-up and emergency visits of 456 UCD patients prospectively followed between 2011 and 2015 by the E-IMD patient registry. About two-thirds of UCD patients remained asymptomatic until age 12 days [i.e. the median age at diagnosis of patients identified by newborn screening (NBS)] suggesting a potential benefit of NBS. In fact, NBS lowered the age at diagnosis in patients with late onset of symptoms (>28 days), and a trend towards improved long-term neurological outcome was found for patients with argininosuccinate synthetase and lyase deficiency as well as argininemia identified by NBS. Three to 17 different drug combinations were used for maintenance therapy, but superiority of any single drug or specific drug combination above other combinations was not demonstrated. Importantly, non-interventional variables of disease severity, such as age at disease onset and peak ammonium level of the initial hyperammonemic crisis (cut-off level: 500 μmol/L) best predicted the neurological outcome. Promising results of NBS for late onset UCD patients are reported and should be re-evaluated in a larger and more advanced age group. However, non-interventional variables affect the neurological outcome of UCD patients. Available evidence-based guideline recommendations are currently heterogeneously implemented into practice, leading to a high variability of drug combinations that hamper our understanding of optimised long-term and emergency treatment.

  7. Role of Micro-Topographic Variability on the Distribution of Inorganic Soil-Nitrogen Age in Intensively Managed Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Dong K.; Kumar, Praveen

    2017-10-01

    How does the variability of topography structure the spatial heterogeneity of nutrient dynamics? In particular, what role does micro-topographic depression play in the spatial and temporal dynamics of nitrate, ammonia, and ammonium? We explore these questions using the 3-D simulation of their joint dynamics of concentration and age. To explicitly resolve micro-topographic variability and its control on moisture, vegetation, and carbon-nitrogen dynamics, we use a high-resolution LiDAR data over an agricultural site under a corn-soybean rotation in the Intensively Managed landscapes Critical Zone Observatory in the U.S. Midwest. We utilize a hybrid CPU-GPU parallel computing architecture to reduce the computational cost associated with such high-resolution simulations. Our results show that in areas that present closed topographic depressions, relatively lower nitrate concentration and age are observed compared to elsewhere. The periodic ponding in depressions increases the downward flux of water that carries more dissolved nitrate to the deeper soil layer. However, the variability in the depressions is relatively higher as a result of the episodic ponding pattern. When aggregate efflux from the soil domain at the bottom of the soil is considered, we find a gradual decrease in the age on the rising limb of nitrate efflux and a gradual increase on the falling limb. In addition, the age of the nitrate efflux ranges from 4 to 7 years. These are significantly higher as compared to the ages associated with a nonreactive tracer indicating that they provide an inaccurate estimate of residence time of a reactive constituent through the soil column.

  8. Extracting information on the spatial variability in erosion rate stored in detrital cooling age distributions in river sands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Jean; Gemignani, Lorenzo; van der Beek, Peter

    2018-03-01

    One of the main purposes of detrital thermochronology is to provide constraints on the regional-scale exhumation rate and its spatial variability in actively eroding mountain ranges. Procedures that use cooling age distributions coupled with hypsometry and thermal models have been developed in order to extract quantitative estimates of erosion rate and its spatial distribution, assuming steady state between tectonic uplift and erosion. This hypothesis precludes the use of these procedures to assess the likely transient response of mountain belts to changes in tectonic or climatic forcing. Other methods are based on an a priori knowledge of the in situ distribution of ages to interpret the detrital age distributions. In this paper, we describe a simple method that, using the observed detrital mineral age distributions collected along a river, allows us to extract information about the relative distribution of erosion rates in an eroding catchment without relying on a steady-state assumption, the value of thermal parameters or an a priori knowledge of in situ age distributions. The model is based on a relatively low number of parameters describing lithological variability among the various sub-catchments and their sizes and only uses the raw ages. The method we propose is tested against synthetic age distributions to demonstrate its accuracy and the optimum conditions for it use. In order to illustrate the method, we invert age distributions collected along the main trunk of the Tsangpo-Siang-Brahmaputra river system in the eastern Himalaya. From the inversion of the cooling age distributions we predict present-day erosion rates of the catchments along the Tsangpo-Siang-Brahmaputra river system, as well as some of its tributaries. We show that detrital age distributions contain dual information about present-day erosion rate, i.e., from the predicted distribution of surface ages within each catchment and from the relative contribution of any given catchment to the

  9. Extracting information on the spatial variability in erosion rate stored in detrital cooling age distributions in river sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Braun

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the main purposes of detrital thermochronology is to provide constraints on the regional-scale exhumation rate and its spatial variability in actively eroding mountain ranges. Procedures that use cooling age distributions coupled with hypsometry and thermal models have been developed in order to extract quantitative estimates of erosion rate and its spatial distribution, assuming steady state between tectonic uplift and erosion. This hypothesis precludes the use of these procedures to assess the likely transient response of mountain belts to changes in tectonic or climatic forcing. Other methods are based on an a priori knowledge of the in situ distribution of ages to interpret the detrital age distributions. In this paper, we describe a simple method that, using the observed detrital mineral age distributions collected along a river, allows us to extract information about the relative distribution of erosion rates in an eroding catchment without relying on a steady-state assumption, the value of thermal parameters or an a priori knowledge of in situ age distributions. The model is based on a relatively low number of parameters describing lithological variability among the various sub-catchments and their sizes and only uses the raw ages. The method we propose is tested against synthetic age distributions to demonstrate its accuracy and the optimum conditions for it use. In order to illustrate the method, we invert age distributions collected along the main trunk of the Tsangpo–Siang–Brahmaputra river system in the eastern Himalaya. From the inversion of the cooling age distributions we predict present-day erosion rates of the catchments along the Tsangpo–Siang–Brahmaputra river system, as well as some of its tributaries. We show that detrital age distributions contain dual information about present-day erosion rate, i.e., from the predicted distribution of surface ages within each catchment and from the relative contribution of

  10. Pathological gambling and age: differences in personality, psychopathology, and response to treatment variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Ibáñez, A; Mora, M; Gutiérrez-Maldonado, J; Ariza, A; Lourido-Ferreira, M R

    2005-02-01

    The aim of this study was to ascertain the possible differences in personality, psychopathology, and response to treatment in pathological gambling according to age. The sample, comprising 67 participants, was divided into three groups: 32.6% with ages ranging between 17 and 26 years, 31.3% between 27 and 43 years, and 35.8% over 44 years of age. The participants were administered the following tests, Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory [MMPI; Hathaway, S.R. & McKinley, J.C. (1943, 1961). Cuestionario de personalidad MMPI. Madrid Seccion de Estudios de TEA ed. 1970, 1975], sensation-seeking questionnaire [SSS; Zuckerman, M. (1979). Sensation seeking; beyond the optimal level of arousal. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates], and the Symptom Check List Revised [SCL-90-R; Derogatis, L.R. (1977). Symptom check list-90 revised. Administration scoring and procedures manual. Baltimore]. All underwent a group treatment programme that was carried out in the Pathological Gambling Unit at Ciutat Sanitaria i Universitaria de Bellvitge (CSUB), Teaching hospital, Barcelona, Spain. The findings show differences depending on age in the participants' personality and in psychopathology and in their response to treatment.

  11. Plant responses to variable timing of aboveground clipping and belowground herbivory depend on plant age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Minggang; Bezemer, T. Martijn; van der Putten, W.H.; Brinkman, Pella; Biere, Arjen

    2017-01-01

    Aims Plants use different types of responses such as tolerance and induced defense to mitigate the effects of herbivores. The direction and magnitude of both these plant responses can vary with plant age. However, most studies have focused on aboveground herbivory, whereas important feeding occurs

  12. Cuticular Hydrocarbons of the South American Fruit Fly Anastrepha fraterculus: Variability with Sex and Age

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vaníčková, Lucie; Svatoš, Aleš; Kroiss, J.; Kaltenpoth, M.; do Nascimento, R. R.; Hoskovec, Michal; Břízová, Radka; Kalinová, Blanka

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 9 (2012), s. 1133-1142 ISSN 0098-0331 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : Anastrepha fratercules species complex * cuticular hydrocarbons * sex-specific differences * age-dependent production Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.462, year: 2012

  13. Postural orientation : Age-related changes in variability and time-to-boundary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Wegen, E. E.H.; Van Emmerik, R. E.A.; Riccio, G. E.

    2002-01-01

    The relation between age-specific postural instability and the detection of stability boundaries was examined. Balance control was investigated under different visual conditions (eyes open/closed) and postural orientations·(forward/backward lean) while standing on a force platform. Dependent

  14. Ethics and Retail Management Professionals: An Examination of Age, Education, and Experience Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujtaba, Bahaudin G.; Cavico, Frank J.; McCartney, Timothy O.; DiPaolo, Peter T.

    2009-01-01

    Ethical maturity and behavior are of great concern to all educators, firms, and investors, and even more so in a recession. This research surveyed managers and employees in the retail environment to measure their Personal Business Ethics Scores (PBES) to see if age, education, and management experience makes a difference in making more ethical…

  15. Bone densitometry in normal women of reproductive age: Correlation with reference values and anthropometric variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobo, G.; Palma, T.; Ladron de Guevara, D.

    2002-01-01

    Bone mass density measurements using X rays is considered to be the non-invasive reference method to measure bone mineral density. Even though the technology has reached a high level of development, precision and reproducibility must be optimised to assure that the observed variations are due solely to the variations in bone mineral content, and not to other associated variables, either technical or biological. The main factors affecting bone density measurements are those that depend on the technique used and those which depend on characteristics of the individuals. The variability associated with the technique can be minimised by an adequate standardisation and quality control. Among those characteristics of the individuals, which have been mentioned as a source of variability, the most important are related to the anthropomorphic characteristics such as size and depth of osseous structures, and thickness and characteristics of soft tissues. These factors may be especially important because the interpretation of bone mass density measurements depends on values obtained for reference normal populations, which are incorporated into the bone mass densitometers as reference value databases. Usually the anthropomorphic characteristics of this reference population are unknown and can be different from those of the local population, independently of genetic or ethnic factors. This situation leads to error both in the definition of basic concepts such as osteopenia and osteoporosis, and in the interpretation of individual results for population studies. The purpose of this study is to correlate bone density measurements of normal Chilean women with reference value databases and with parameters, which depend on body size

  16. Impact of Hydrologic and Micro-topographic Variabilities on Spatial Distribution of Mean Soil-Nitrogen Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, D.; Kumar, P.

    2015-12-01

    Excess reactive nitrogen in soils of intensively managed agricultural fields causes adverse environmental impact, and continues to remain a global concern. Many novel strategies have been developed to provide better management practices and, yet, the problem remains unresolved. The objective of this study is to develop a 3-dimensional model to characterize the spatially distributed ``age" of soil-nitrogen (nitrate and ammonia-ammonium) across a watershed. We use the general theory of age, which provides an assessment of the elapsed time since nitrogen is introduced into the soil system. Micro-topographic variability incorporates heterogeneity of nutrient transformations and transport associated with topographic depressions that form temporary ponds and produce prolonged periods of anoxic conditions, and roadside agricultural ditches that support rapid surface movement. This modeling effort utilizes 1-m Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data. We find a significant correlation between hydrologic variability and mean nitrate age that enables assessment of preferential flow paths of nitrate leaching. The estimation of the mean nitrogen age can thus serve as a tool to disentangle complex nitrogen dynamics by providing the analysis of the time scales of soil-nitrogen transformation and transport processes without introducing additional parameters.

  17. Socio-demographic factors and edentulism: the Nigerian experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akeredolu Patricia

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rate of total edentulism is said to be increasing in developing countries and this had been attributed mainly to the high prevalence of periodontal diseases and caries. Several reports have shown that non-disease factors such as attitude, behavior, dental attendance, characteristics of health care systems and socio-demographic factors play important roles in the aetiopathogenesis of edentulism. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between socio-demographic factors and edentulism. Methods A total of 152 patients made up of 80 (52.6% males and 72 (47.4% females who presented in two prosthetic clinics located in an urban and a rural area were included in the study. The relationship between gender, age, socio-economic status and edentulism in this study population was established. Results No significant relationship between gender and denture demand was noted in the study. The demand for complete dentures increased with age while the demand for removable partial dentures also increased with age until the 3rd decade and then started to decline. A significant relationship was found between denture demand and the level of education with a higher demand in lower educational groups (p Conclusions The findings in this study revealed a significant relationship between socio-demographic variables and edentulism with age, educational level and socio-economic status playing vital roles in edentulism and denture demand.

  18. Dancing with Demographers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Heather-Jane

    2000-01-01

    Demographic projections concerning the shortage of teachers in Canada, their pay scale, the feminization of teaching, the gender gap in salaries, and teacher autonomy have often been incorrect, or correct for the wrong reasons. Instead of relying on demographic predictions, teachers should contemplate who they really want to be professionally,…

  19. DEVELOPMENT VARIABILITY OF LONGITUDINAL SPINE FEATURES IN CHILDREN AGING 7-15 YEARS OLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Kochan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Increased body growth is connected with higher sensitivity to environmental influence and may be a cause of instability of body posture. This happens when trunk and lower limbs growth is more intense. Because body posture disorders are most often diagnosed in children and school adolescents, the sample chosen were subjects between 7 and 15 years old. Material and methods. The data was gathered in 2002 in the town of Polkowice. Examination concerned 2706 boys and girls aged 7 to 15 years old. The measurement included basic somatic features and for the body posture photogrammetric method was used. Results. It was indicated that the relative trunk length in both sexes was decreasing in early school period but in the three oldest groups of age there was a significant increase. The height of kyphosis was increasing significantly in both sexes with age. Most intensive growth of this parameter was observed between 12 and 13 years old subjects. In both sexes there could be seen significant increase of kyphosis depth between 12 and 14 years old and also the decrease of lumbar lordosis between 12 and 13 years old subjects. Conclusion. Significant increase of thoracical spine relative height and lumbar lordosis depth in adolescents in both sexes can be one of the causes of weakening spine stability and affect correct body posture development.

  20. The AAVSO 2011 Demographic and Background Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, A.

    2012-04-01

    In 2011, the AAVSO conducted a survey of 615 people who are or were recently active in the organization. The survey included questions about their demographic background and variable star interests. Data are descriptively analyzed and compared with prior surveys. Results show an organization of very highly educated, largely male amateur and professional astronomers distributed across 108 countries. Participants tend to be loyal, with the average time of involvement in the AAVSO reported as 14 years. Most major demographic factors have not changed much over time. However, the average age of new members is increasing. Also, a significant portion of the respondents report being strictly active in a non-observing capacity, reflecting the growing mission of the organization. Motivations of participants are more aligned with scientific contribution than with that reported by other citizen science projects. This may help explain why a third of all respondents are an author or co-author of a paper in an astronomical journal. Finally, there is some evidence that participation in the AAVSO has a greater impact on the respondents' view of their role in astronomy compared to that expected through increasing amateur astronomy experience alone.

  1. Annual variability in the radiocarbon age and source of dissolved CO2 in a peatland stream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnett, Mark H.; Dinsmore, Kerry J.; Billett, Michael F.

    2012-01-01

    Radiocarbon dating has the capacity to significantly improve our understanding of the aquatic carbon cycle. In this study we used a new passive sampler to measure the radiocarbon ( 14 C) and stable carbon (δ 13 C) isotopic composition of dissolved CO 2 for the first time in a peatland stream throughout a complete year (May 2010–June 2011). The in-stream sampling system collected time-integrated samples of CO 2 continuously over approximately 1 month periods. The rate of CO 2 trapping was proportional to independently measured streamwater CO 2 concentrations, demonstrating that passive samplers can be used to estimate the time-averaged dissolved CO 2 concentration of streamwater. While there was little variation and no clear trend in δ 13 CO 2 values (suggesting a consistent CO 2 source), we found a clear temporal pattern in the 14 C concentration of dissolved CO 2 . The 14 C age of CO 2 varied from 707 ± 35 to 1210 ± 39 years BP, with the youngest CO 2 in the autumn and oldest in spring/early summer. Mean stream discharge and 14 C content of dissolved CO 2 were positively correlated. We suggest that the observed pattern in the 14 C content of dissolved CO 2 reflects changes in its origin, with older carbon derived from deeper parts of the peat profile contributing proportionally more gaseous carbon during periods of low stream flow. - Highlights: ► Dissolved CO 2 was sampled from a peatland stream and radiocarbon dated. ► Samples collected using new passive sampler are suitable for integrated monthly samples. ► Age of CO 2 ranged from 707 to 1210 years old and seasonal pattern is observed. ► Age correlated with discharge and reflected source of dissolved CO 2 . ► Study highlights the value of 14 C analysis and potential of new method.

  2. Age, gender, and interracial variability of normal lacrimal gland volume using MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukhari, Amal A; Basheer, Naushad A; Joharjy, Heba I

    2014-01-01

    Aimed to evaluate normal volume of the lacrimal gland in patients of different age groups and race. All MRI studies of the brain that were done between June 2012 and April 2013 were examined. Lacrimal glands were identified using fat-saturated fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images, and the volumes were calculated using TeraRecon iNtuition viewer. Volumes for the right and left lacrimal glands were recorded for persons of different age groups and race, and the results were compared with those of a randomly selected group of patients who had undergone the same calculation method using CT of the brain, orbit, or paranasal sinuses. The authors included 998 lacrimal glands of 499 patients. The mean volumes for the right and left lacrimal glands were 0.770 and 0.684 cm, respectively. Lacrimal glands were larger in women; the largest volumes were observed during the second decade of life. Mean volumes also varied with race: 0.840 cm in Asians, 0.790 cm in Africans, 0.760 cm in Indians, and 0.710 cm in Middle Easterners. The consultant neuroradiologist and the intern showed excellent agreement for measurements of lacrimal gland volume. No significant difference was observed between lacrimal gland measurements method on MRI and CT. Lacrimal gland volume varies according to age, gender, race, and laterality. Measurements with MRI using fat-saturated FLAIR images and TeraRecon iNtuition viewer software are reliable, accurate, and can be used by junior staff with less radiation exposure to patients.

  3. A preliminary study to assess the impact of maternal age on stress-related variables in healthy nulliparous women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Blanco, Ana; Monferrer, Alberto; Grimaldos, Jorge; Hervás, David; Balanzá-Martínez, Vicent; Diago, Vicente; Vento, Máximo; Cháfer-Pericás, Consuelo

    2017-04-01

    Childbearing age has progressively increased in industrialized countries. The impact of this delay on motherhood, however, requires further research. The study sample included a prospective cohort of healthy nulliparous pregnant women aged between 18 and 40 years (n=148) assessed at 38 weeks gestation (Time#1, T1), 48h after birth (Time#2, T2), and 3 months after birth (Time#3, T3). The effect of age on psychological, biological, and social variables was evaluated. Maternal psychological symptoms in terms of depression and anxiety were assessed at T1-T3; and parenting stress at T3. Stress biomarkers (cortisol, α-amylase) were determined in mothers at T1-T3. Questionnaires addressing social functioning (i.e., family functioning, maternal attitudes, and social support) were conducted at T3. Bayesian additive models were used to analyze the data. Depressive symptoms showed a steep increase starting from 35 years of age at T1 and an U-shaped relationship with a minimum around 30 years old at T3. The same results were observed for parenting stress. Cortisol levels increased sharply from 30 years of age at T3. Family functioning, maternal attitudes, and social support improved moderately from 30 years of age. Prenatal depressive symptoms were higher in older women, but postpartum depressive symptoms and parenting stress increased in both younger and older women. Nevertheless, cortisol levels just increased in older ages at postpartum. In contrast, social functioning (family functioning, maternal attitudes, and social support) improved with age. We conclude that these social advantages may compensate for other disadvantages of delayed childbearing (i.e., depressive symptoms, parenting stress, and high cortisol level). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Variability of sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence according to stand age-related processes in a managed loblolly pine forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Roberto; Celesti, Marco; Bianchi, Remo; Campbell, Petya K E; Cogliati, Sergio; Cook, Bruce D; Corp, Lawrence A; Damm, Alexander; Domec, Jean-Christophe; Guanter, Luis; Julitta, Tommaso; Middleton, Elizabeth M; Noormets, Asko; Panigada, Cinzia; Pinto, Francisco; Rascher, Uwe; Rossini, Micol; Schickling, Anke

    2018-02-20

    Leaf fluorescence can be used to track plant development and stress, and is considered the most direct measurement of photosynthetic activity available from remote sensing techniques. Red and far-red sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) maps were generated from high spatial resolution images collected with the HyPlant airborne spectrometer over even-aged loblolly pine plantations in North Carolina (United States). Canopy fluorescence yield (i.e., the fluorescence flux normalized by the light absorbed) in the red and far-red peaks was computed. This quantifies the fluorescence emission efficiencies that are more directly linked to canopy function compared to SIF radiances. Fluorescence fluxes and yields were investigated in relation to tree age to infer new insights on the potential of those measurements in better describing ecosystem processes. The results showed that red fluorescence yield varies with stand age. Young stands exhibited a nearly twofold higher red fluorescence yield than mature forest plantations, while the far-red fluorescence yield remained constant. We interpreted this finding in a context of photosynthetic stomatal limitation in aging loblolly pine stands. Current and future satellite missions provide global datasets of SIF at coarse spatial resolution, resulting in intrapixel mixture effects, which could be a confounding factor for fluorescence signal interpretation. To mitigate this effect, we propose a surrogate of the fluorescence yield, namely the Canopy Cover Fluorescence Index (CCFI) that accounts for the spatial variability in canopy structure by exploiting the vegetation fractional cover. It was found that spatial aggregation tended to mask the effective relationships, while the CCFI was still able to maintain this link. This study is a first attempt in interpreting the fluorescence variability in aging forest stands and it may open new perspectives in understanding long-term forest dynamics in response to future climatic

  5. Exploring the Role of Genetic Variability and Lifestyle in Oxidative Stress Response for Healthy Aging and Longevity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Passarino

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is both the cause and consequence of impaired functional homeostasis characterizing human aging. The worsening efficiency of stress response with age represents a health risk and leads to the onset and accrual of major age-related diseases. In contrast, centenarians seem to have evolved conservative stress response mechanisms, probably derived from a combination of a diet rich in natural antioxidants, an active lifestyle and a favorable genetic background, particularly rich in genetic variants able to counteract the stress overload at the level of both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA. The integration of these factors could allow centenarians to maintain moderate levels of free radicals that exert beneficial signaling and modulator effects on cellular metabolism. Considering the hot debate on the efficacy of antioxidant supplementation in promoting healthy aging, in this review we gathered the existing information regarding genetic variability and lifestyle factors which potentially modulate the stress response at old age. Evidence reported here suggests that the integration of lifestyle factors (moderate physical activity and healthy nutrition and genetic background could shift the balance in favor of the antioxidant cellular machinery by activating appropriate defense mechanisms in response to exceeding external and internal stress levels, and thus possibly achieving the prospect of living a longer life.

  6. Variability in lateralised blood flow response to language is associated with language development in children aged 1-5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, M; Keage, H A D; Spooner, R; Flitton, A; Hofmann, J; Churches, O F; Elliott, S; Badcock, N A

    2015-01-01

    The developmental trajectory of language lateralisation over the preschool years is unclear. We explored the relationship between lateralisation of cerebral blood flow velocity response to object naming and cognitive performance in children aged 1-5 years. Functional transcranial Doppler ultrasound was used to record blood flow velocity bilaterally from middle cerebral arteries during a naming task in 58 children (59% male). At group level, the Lateralisation Index (LI) revealed a greater relative increase in cerebral blood flow velocity within the left as compared to right middle cerebral artery. After controlling for maternal IQ, left-lateralised children displayed lower expressive language scores compared to right- and bi-lateralised children, and reduced variability in LI. Supporting this, greater variability in lateralised response, rather than mean response, was indicative of greater expressive language ability. Findings suggest that a delayed establishment of language specialisation is associated with better language ability in the preschool years. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Altered postural control variability in older-aged individuals with a history of lateral ankle sprain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terada, Masafumi; Kosik, Kyle; Johnson, Nathan; Gribble, Phillip

    2018-02-01

    The current study aimed to examine postural control performance during a single-leg balance task in elderly individuals with and without a previous history of lateral ankle sprain (LAS). Eighteen adults with a previous history of LAS (mean age = 66 years old) and 12 healthy controls (mean age = 65 years old) were included in the study. Participants performed three trials of a single-leg balance task during an eyes-opened condition for 20-s. Center of pressure (COP) trajectories in the anteroposterior (AP) and mediolateral (ML) directions were collected with a force plate. The following postural control measures were calculated in the AP and ML directions: 1) Sample Entropy (SampEn); 2) Approximate Entropy (ApEn); 3) mean of Time-to-Boundary minima (mean TTB); and 4) COP velocity (COPV). Older-age participants with a history LAS exhibited lower ApEn-AP, SampEn-AP, and SampEn-ML values compared to healthy controls (p postural control patterns, less adaptability, and more difficulty maintaining COP during a single-leg balance task in adults with a previous history of LAS. Our data suggest that there is a need to consider history of musculoskeletal injury when evaluating factors for postural control and fall risk in the elderly. Future investigations are needed to assess the effect of LAS on age-related declines in postural control and discern associations between potential risk factors of fall-related injuries and LAS in an elderly population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. [Recent demographic trends in Turkey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behar, C

    1993-01-01

    Coverage of Turkey's vital registration system remains incomplete, and it cannot yet be used to measure annual population changes. Data and demographic indices based on the 1990 census and the 1989 National Demographic Survey are the most recent available. Turkey's population in 1990 was 56 million. The proportion urban increased to 59% from 49.2% in 1980. Nearly 35% of the population was under 15 years old, and the median age was 21.6 for males and 22.3 for females. The average age at first marriage in 1989 was 24.8 for men and 21.8 for women. Mortality has been in continuous decline. The crude death rate dropped from 16.4/1000 in 1960-65 to slightly under 8 in 1989. Life expectancy at birth was 63.3 for men and 66 for women. The infant mortality rate declined from 166 in 1965-70 to 85 in 1989. Rural or urban residence and maternal educational level were the most significant determinants of infant mortality differentials. Turkey's total fertility rate declined from 6.2 in 1960 to 4.3 in 1978 and 3.4 in 1988-89. The crude birth rate declined from around 40/1000 in 1968 to under 28/1000 in 1989. Fertility began to decline in the last third of the nineteenth century in Istanbul and other large cities of the Ottoman Empire. Istanbul's total fertility rate was a relatively low 3.9 even before World War I. Turkey adopted a policy to slow demographic growth in the mid 1960s, and family planning activities were supported by nongovernmental organizations. The direct impact of these policies on demographic behavior appears to have been somewhat limited, and the use of traditional methods of birth limitation remains widespread. Abortion was legalized in 1983 and is available at public hospitals. The proportion of married women aged 15-49 who use contraception increased from 38% in 1973 to 63% in 1988. Regional differentials in demographic indices are significant in Turkey, with the Anatolian East and Southeast lagging behind other regions in fertility and mortality decline

  9. {sup 99m}Tc-ECD brain perfusion SPET: variability, asymmetry and effects of age and gender in healthy adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Laere, K.; Versijpt, J.; Goethals, I.; Dierckx, R. [Div. of Nuclear Medicine, Ghent University Hospital (Belgium); Audenaert, K. [Dept. of Psychiatry and Medical Psychology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium); Koole, M. [Medical Signal and Image Processing Department (MEDISIP), Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Achten, E. [Division of Neuroradiology, Radiology Department, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium)

    2001-07-01

    Reliable and high-resolution reference data for regional cerebral blood flow measured with single-photon emission tomography (SPET) are necessary for optimal clinical and research use. Therefore, a large dataset of normal technetium-99m labelled ethylene cysteine dimer (ECD) perfusion SPET in carefully screened healthy volunteers with an age range spanning six decades was created, with correction for non-uniform attenuation and scatter and based on an anatomically standardised analysis. Eighty-nine healthy volunteers, stratified for gender (46 females, 43 males; age 20-81 years), were included. Twelve volunteers underwent repeated {sup 99m}Tc-ECD SPET after 2.5{+-}2.3 weeks. An automated whole-brain volume of interest analysis with MANOVA as well as voxelwise analysis using SPM99 was conducted. Average intersubject variability was 4.8% while intrasubject reproducibility was 3.0%. An age-related decline in tracer uptake was found in the anterior cingulate gyrus, bilateral basal ganglia, left prefrontal, left lateral frontal and left superior temporal and insular cortex (all P=0.001-0.02). There was an overall increase in right/left asymmetry with age, which was most pronounced in the frontal and temporal neocortex. The most significant correlations between AI and age decade were found in the prefrontal (R=0.35, P=0.001) and superior temporal neocortex (R=0.43, P<0.001). Women had significantly higher uptake in the right parietal cortex (P<0.001), while men showed higher uptake in the cerebellum and the left anterior temporal and orbitofrontal cortex (all P<0.01). This normative dataset allows age- and gender-specific patient and group assessment of {sup 99m}Tc-ECD perfusion SPET under a wide variety of clinical circumstances in relation to normal variations and highlights the importance of both age- and gender-specific normal datasets for optimal analysis sensitivity. (orig.)

  10. Overweight in school-aged children and its relationship with demographic and lifestyle factors: Results from the WHO-Collaborative Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haug, E; Rasmussen, Mette; Samdal, O

    2009-01-01

    samples in 41 countries (n=204,534). RESULTS: Overweight prevalence was highest in USA (28.8 %) and lowest in Latvia (7.6 %). In most countries, overweight was more prevalent in boys than girls. Overweight was consistently negatively associated with breakfast consumption and moderate to vigorous physical......OBJECTIVES: To examine overweight prevalence and its association with demographic and lifestyle factors in 11-15 year olds in the HBSC 2005-2006 survey. METHODS: Self-reports of height, weight, eating patterns, physical activity and sedentary behaviours were obtained from nationally representative...... activity; OR range: 0.48-0.79 and 0.50-0.78, respectively. CONCLUSION: Overweight prevalence in youth remained high across the countries examined. The primary factors linked to overweight were breakfast consumption and physical activity. These data should contribute to formulating preventive programs...

  11. Respiratory Syncytial Virus Disease Is Mediated by Age-Variable IL-33.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordy Saravia

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV is the most common cause of infant hospitalizations and severe RSV infections are a significant risk factor for childhood asthma. The pathogenic mechanisms responsible for RSV induced immunopathophysiology remain elusive. Using an age-appropriate mouse model of RSV, we show that IL-33 plays a critical role in the immunopathogenesis of severe RSV, which is associated with higher group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s specifically in neonates. Infection with RSV induced rapid IL-33 expression and an increase in ILC2 numbers in the lungs of neonatal mice; this was not observed in adult mice. Blocking IL-33 with antibodies or using an IL-33 receptor knockout mouse during infection was sufficient to inhibit RSV immunopathogenesis (i.e., airway hyperresponsiveness, Th2 inflammation, eosinophilia, and mucus hyperproduction; whereas administration of IL-33 to adult mice during RSV infection was sufficient to induce RSV disease. Additionally, elevated IL-33 and IL-13 were observed in nasal aspirates from infants hospitalized with RSV; these cytokines declined during convalescence. In summary, IL-33 is necessary, either directly or indirectly, to induce ILC2s and the Th2 biased immunopathophysiology observed following neonatal RSV infection. This study provides a mechanism involving IL-33 and ILC2s in RSV mediated human asthma.

  12. Variability of disease activity in patients treated with ranibizumab for neovascular age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enders, P; Scholz, P; Muether, P S; Fauser, S

    2016-08-01

    PurposeTo analyze choroidal neovasularization (CNV) activity and recurrence patterns in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) treated with ranibizumab, and the correlation with individual intraocular vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) suppression time (VST).MethodsPost-hoc analysis of data from a prospective, non-randomized clinical study. Patients with nAMD treated with ranibizumab on a pro re nata regimen. Disease activity was analyzed monthly by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography and correlated with VSTs.ResultsOverall, 73 eyes of 73 patients were included in the study with a mean follow-up of 717 days (range: 412-1239 days). Overall, the mean CNV-activity-free interval was 76.5 days (range: 0-829 days). The individual range of the length of dry intervals was high. A total of 42% of patients had a range of more than 90 days. Overall, 16% of patients showed persistent activity. And 12% stayed dry after the initial ranibizumab treatment. No significant correlation was found between the CNV-recurrence pattern and VST (P=0.12).ConclusionsCNV activity in nAMD is irregular, which is reflected in the range of the duration of dry intervals and late recurrences. The biomarker VST solely seems not to be sufficient to explain recurrence pattern of CNV in all AMD patients.

  13. Modeling the impacts of two age-related portfolio effects on recruitment variability with and without a marine reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGilliard, Carey R; Punt, André E; Hilborn, Ray; Essington, Tim

    2017-10-01

    Many rockfish species are long-lived and thought to be susceptible to being overfished. Hypotheses about the importance of older female rockfish to population persistence have led to arguments that marine reserves are needed to ensure the sustainability of rockfish populations. However, the implications of these hypotheses for rockfish population dynamics are still unclear. We modeled two mechanisms by which reducing the proportion of older fish in a population has been hypothesized to influence sustainability, and explored whether these mechanisms influenced mean population dynamics and recruitment variability. We explored whether populations with these mechanisms could be managed more sustainably with a marine reserve in addition to a constant fishing mortality rate (F) than with a constant F alone. Both hypotheses can be seen as portfolio effects whereby risk of recruitment failure is spread over a "portfolio" of maternal ages. First, we modeled a spawning window effect whereby mothers of different ages spawned in different times or locations (windows) with local environmental conditions. Second, we modeled an offspring size effect whereby older mothers produced larger offspring than younger mothers, where length of a starvation period over which offspring could survive increased with maternal age. Recruitment variability resulting from both models was 55-65% lower than for models without maternal age-related portfolio effects in the absence of fishing and increased with increases in Fs for both models. An offspring size effect caused lower output reproductive rates such that the specified reproductive rate input as a model parameter was no longer the realized rate measured as the reproductive rate observed in model results; this quirk is not addressed in previous analyses of offspring size effects. We conducted a standardization such that offspring size effect and control models had the same observed reproductive rates. A comparison of long-term catch, the

  14. Laboratory Demographics Lookup Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This website provides demographic information about laboratories, including CLIA number, facility name and address, where the laboratory testing is performed, the...

  15. A proposta biomecânica para a avaliação de sobrecarga na coluna lombar: efeito de diferentes variáveis demográficas na fadiga muscular A biomechamical approach for assessment of overload on lumbar spine: the effects of different demographic variables on muscle fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Sérgio Silva Barbosa

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Analisar a fadiga de músculos lombares e determinar as variáveis demográficas relacionadas com a fadiga destes músculos. MÉTODOS: A atividade eletromiográfica (EMG dos músculos iliocostal direito (IL-D, iliocostal esquerdo (IL-E, multífido direito (MU-D e multífido esquerdo (MU-E de 18 voluntários foi captada durante contrações isométricas sub-máximas. Valores de root mean square (RMS e freqüência mediana (FM foram correlacionados com o tempo de resistência isométrica (TRI. Slopes de RMS positivos e de FM negativos indicaram a ocorrência da fadiga muscular. Procedimentos de regressão múltipla foram realizados para verificar as variáveis demográficas relacionadas com a fadiga muscular. RESULTADOS: A fadiga foi identificada em todos os músculos e intensidades de contração (pOBJECTIVES: To assess low back muscles fatigue and to determine the demographic variables associated to fatigue on these muscles. METHODS: The electromyographic (EMG activity of the right iliocostal (R-IL, left iliocostal (L-IL, right multifidus (R-MU and left multifidus (L-MU of 18 volunteers was recorded during submaximal isometric contractions. Root mean square (RMS and median frequency (MF values were correlated with isometric endurance time (IET. Positive RMS and negative MF slopes indicated occurrence of muscle fatigue. Multiple regression procedures were performed in order to verify the demographic variables related with the muscle fatigue. RESULTS: Fatigue was identified in all muscles and contraction intensities (p<0.01, except for MU-E at 5% in RMS slope analysis. Significant differences were found between the endurance time of 5% and 15% (p=0.01, 5% and 20% (p=0.0002. Higher levels of fatigue were found bilaterally in the multifidus muscles in the MF slope analysis. The combination of endurance time, age and body mass of the volunteers was identified as the determinant factor for the occurrence of muscle fatigue in the assessed

  16. Spillover effects of community uninsurance on working-age adults and seniors: an instrumental variables analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gresenz, Carole Roan; Escarce, José J

    2011-09-01

    : Previous research suggests, but does not definitively establish, that a high level of uninsurance in a community may negatively affect access to and quality of health care for insured persons. : To assess the effect of the level of uninsurance in a community on access to and satisfaction with care-an important dimension of quality-among insured persons. : The 1996 to 2006 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey Household Component data linked to data from the Current Population Survey, Area Resource File, and the InterStudy Competitive Edge. Analyses include 86,928 insured adult respondents living in approximately 200 large metropolitan areas. : Measures of whether an individual had a usual source of care, had any delay/difficulty obtaining needed care, used office-based services, used prescription drug services, and used any medical services, and measures of satisfaction with care. : Among privately insured adults, a higher community uninsurance rate resulted in a lower probability of having a usual source of care, having an office-based visit, having any medical expenditures, and reporting being satisfied with the quality of care provided by the usual source of care. A higher community uninsurance rate also led to a higher probability of reporting difficulty obtaining needed care. Among Medicare enrollees, a higher community uninsurance rate resulted in lower reported satisfaction with care and higher probability of experiencing difficulty or delay in getting needed care. : Our results suggest substantial spillover effects of the community uninsurance rate on access to and satisfaction with health care among insured working-age adults and seniors. Consequently, new efforts to address the problem of the uninsured may bring significant benefits to persons who already have insurance.

  17. 99mTc-ECD brain perfusion SPET: variability, asymmetry and effects of age and gender in healthy adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Laere, K.; Versijpt, J.; Goethals, I.; Dierckx, R.; Audenaert, K.; Koole, M.; Achten, E.

    2001-01-01

    Reliable and high-resolution reference data for regional cerebral blood flow measured with single-photon emission tomography (SPET) are necessary for optimal clinical and research use. Therefore, a large dataset of normal technetium-99m labelled ethylene cysteine dimer (ECD) perfusion SPET in carefully screened healthy volunteers with an age range spanning six decades was created, with correction for non-uniform attenuation and scatter and based on an anatomically standardised analysis. Eighty-nine healthy volunteers, stratified for gender (46 females, 43 males; age 20-81 years), were included. Twelve volunteers underwent repeated 99m Tc-ECD SPET after 2.5±2.3 weeks. An automated whole-brain volume of interest analysis with MANOVA as well as voxelwise analysis using SPM99 was conducted. Average intersubject variability was 4.8% while intrasubject reproducibility was 3.0%. An age-related decline in tracer uptake was found in the anterior cingulate gyrus, bilateral basal ganglia, left prefrontal, left lateral frontal and left superior temporal and insular cortex (all P=0.001-0.02). There was an overall increase in right/left asymmetry with age, which was most pronounced in the frontal and temporal neocortex. The most significant correlations between AI and age decade were found in the prefrontal (R=0.35, P=0.001) and superior temporal neocortex (R=0.43, P 99m Tc-ECD perfusion SPET under a wide variety of clinical circumstances in relation to normal variations and highlights the importance of both age- and gender-specific normal datasets for optimal analysis sensitivity. (orig.)

  18. Effect of gender, age and anthropometric variables on plantar fascia thickness at different locations in asymptomatic subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pascual Huerta, Javier [Department of Podiatry, Universidad Europea de Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: javier.pascual@uem.es; Alarcon Garcia, Juan Maria [Ultrasound Unit, Hospital Nuestra Senora de America, Madrid (Spain)

    2007-06-15

    Purpose: The study was aimed to investigate plantar fascia thickness at different locations in healthy asymptomatic subjects and its relationship to the following variables: weight, height, sex and age. Material and methods: The study evaluates 96 feet of healthy asymptomatic volunteers. The plantar fascia thickness was measured at four different locations: 1 cm proximal to the insertion of the plantar fascia, at the insertion of the plantar fascia on the calcaneus and separate out 1 cm + 2 cm distal to the insertion. A 10 MHz linear-array transducer was used. Results: There were statistically significant differences in plantar fascia thickness at the four different locations (p < 0.001) although no differences in PF thickness were found between the two distal from insertion locations (1 and 2 cm). Multiple regression analysis showed sex as independent predictor of plantar fascia thickness at 1 cm proximal to the insertion. At origin and 1 cm distal to insertion weight was an independent predictor of plantar fascia thickness. Conclusions: There are differences of thickness at different locations of plantar fascia measured by ultrasonography. Thickness at 1 cm proximal to the insertion is influenced by sex and thickness at origin and at 1 cm distal to the insertion has a direct relationship with body weight. This could be attributed to the overloading effect that weight has on plantar fascia in healthy symptomatic subjects at these two locations. Height and age did not seem to influence as independent variables in plantar fascia thickness among non-painful subjects.

  19. Effect of gender, age and anthropometric variables on plantar fascia thickness at different locations in asymptomatic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual Huerta, Javier; Alarcón García, Juan María

    2007-06-01

    The study was aimed to investigate plantar fascia thickness at different locations in healthy asymptomatic subjects and its relationship to the following variables: weight, height, sex and age. The study evaluates 96 feet of healthy asymptomatic volunteers. The plantar fascia thickness was measured at four different locations: 1cm proximal to the insertion of the plantar fascia, at the insertion of the plantar fascia on the calcaneus and separate out 1 cm + 2 cm distal to the insertion. A 10 MHz linear-array transducer was used. There were statistically significant differences in plantar fascia thickness at the four different locations (pplantar fascia thickness at 1cm proximal to the insertion. At origin and 1cm distal to insertion weight was an independent predictor of plantar fascia thickness. There are differences of thickness at different locations of plantar fascia measured by ultrasonography. Thickness at 1cm proximal to the insertion is influenced by sex and thickness at origin and at 1cm distal to the insertion has a direct relationship with body weight. This could be attributed to the overloading effect that weight has on plantar fascia in healthy symptomatic subjects at these two locations. Height and age did not seem to influence as independent variables in plantar fascia thickness among non-painful subjects.

  20. Effect of gender, age and anthropometric variables on plantar fascia thickness at different locations in asymptomatic subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascual Huerta, Javier; Alarcon Garcia, Juan Maria

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The study was aimed to investigate plantar fascia thickness at different locations in healthy asymptomatic subjects and its relationship to the following variables: weight, height, sex and age. Material and methods: The study evaluates 96 feet of healthy asymptomatic volunteers. The plantar fascia thickness was measured at four different locations: 1 cm proximal to the insertion of the plantar fascia, at the insertion of the plantar fascia on the calcaneus and separate out 1 cm + 2 cm distal to the insertion. A 10 MHz linear-array transducer was used. Results: There were statistically significant differences in plantar fascia thickness at the four different locations (p < 0.001) although no differences in PF thickness were found between the two distal from insertion locations (1 and 2 cm). Multiple regression analysis showed sex as independent predictor of plantar fascia thickness at 1 cm proximal to the insertion. At origin and 1 cm distal to insertion weight was an independent predictor of plantar fascia thickness. Conclusions: There are differences of thickness at different locations of plantar fascia measured by ultrasonography. Thickness at 1 cm proximal to the insertion is influenced by sex and thickness at origin and at 1 cm distal to the insertion has a direct relationship with body weight. This could be attributed to the overloading effect that weight has on plantar fascia in healthy symptomatic subjects at these two locations. Height and age did not seem to influence as independent variables in plantar fascia thickness among non-painful subjects

  1. Variability and accuracy in interpretation of consolidation on chest radiography for diagnosing pneumonia in children under 5 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Gabrielle J; Macaskill, Petra; Kerr, Marianne; Fitzgerald, Dominic A; Isaacs, David; Codarini, Miriam; McCaskill, Mary; Prelog, Kristina; Craig, Jonathan C

    2013-12-01

    Consolidation on chest radiography is widely used as the reference standard for defining pneumonia and variability in interpretation is well known but not well explored or explained. Three pediatric sub-specialists (infectious diseases, radiology and respiratory medicine) viewed 3,033 chest radiographs in children aged under 5 years of age who presented to one Emergency Department (ED) with a febrile illness. Radiographs were viewed blind to clinical information about the child and blind to findings of other readers. Each chest radiograph was identified as positive or negative for consolidation. Percentage agreement and kappa scores were calculated for pairs of readers. Prevalence of consolidation and reader sensitivity/specificity was estimated using latent class analysis. Using the majority rule, 456 (15%) chest radiographs were positive for consolidation while the latent class estimate was 17%. The radiologist was most likely (21.3%) and respiratory physician least likely (13.7%) to diagnose consolidation. Overall percentage agreement for pairs of readers was 85-90%. However, chance corrected agreement between the readers was moderate, with kappa scores 0.4-0.6 and did not vary with patient characteristics (age, gender, and presence of chronic illness). Estimated sensitivity ranged from 0.71 to 0.81 across readers, and specificity 0.91 to 0.98. Overall agreement for identification of consolidation on chest radiographs was good, but agreement adjusted for chance was only moderate and did not vary with patient characteristics. Clinicians need to be aware that chest radiography is an imperfect test for diagnosing pneumonia and has considerable variability in its interpretation. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Association of Seasonal Climate Variability and Age-Specific Mortality in Northern Sweden before the Onset of Industrialization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joacim Rocklöv

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims: Little is known about health impacts of climate in pre-industrial societies. We used historical data to investigate the association of temperature and precipitation with total and age-specific mortality in Skellefteå, northern Sweden, between 1749 and 1859. Methods: We retrieved digitized aggregated population data of the Skellefteå parish, and monthly temperature and precipitation measures. A generalized linear model was established for year to year variability in deaths by annual and seasonal average temperature and cumulative precipitation using a negative binomial function, accounting for long-term trends in population size. The final full model included temperature and precipitation of all four seasons simultaneously. Relative risks (RR with 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated for total, sex- and age-specific mortality. Results: In the full model, only autumn precipitation proved statistically significant (RR 1.02; CI 1.00–1.03, per 1cm increase of autumn precipitation, while winter temperature (RR 0.98; CI 0.95–1.00, per 1 °C increase in temperature and spring precipitation (RR 0.98; CI 0.97–1.00 per 1 cm increase in precipitation approached significance. Similar effects were observed for men and women. The impact of climate variability on mortality was strongest in children aged 3–9, and partly also in older children. Infants, on the other hand, appeared to be less affected by unfavourable climate conditions. Conclusions: In this pre-industrial rural region in northern Sweden, higher levels of rain during the autumn increased the annual number of deaths. Harvest quality might be one critical factor in the causal pathway, affecting nutritional status and susceptibility to infectious diseases. Autumn rain probably also contributed to the spread of air-borne diseases in crowded living conditions. Children beyond infancy appeared most vulnerable to climate impacts.

  3. Studying variability in human brain aging in a population-based German cohort – Rationale and design of 1000BRAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svenja eCaspers

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The ongoing 1000 brains study (1000BRAINS is an epidemiological and neuroscientific investigation of structural and functional variability in the human brain during aging. The two recruitment sources are the 10-year follow-up cohort of the German Heinz Nixdorf Recall (HNR Study, and the HNR MultiGeneration Study cohort, which comprises spouses and offspring of HNR subjects. The HNR is a longitudinal epidemiological investigation of cardiovascular risk factors, with a comprehensive collection of clinical, laboratory, socioeconomic, and environmental data from population-based subjects aged 45-75 years on inclusion. HNR subjects underwent detailed assessments in 2000, 2006, and 2011, and completed annual postal questionnaires on health status. 1000BRAINS accesses these HNR data and applies a separate protocol comprising: neuropsychological tests of attention, memory, executive functions & language; examination of motor skills; ratings of personality, life quality, mood & daily activities; analysis of laboratory and genetic data; and state-of-the-art magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, 3 Tesla of the brain. The latter includes (i 3D-T1- and 3D-T2-weighted scans for structural analyses and myelin mapping; (ii three diffusion imaging sequences optimized for diffusion tensor imaging, high-angular resolution diffusion imaging for detailed fibre tracking and for diffusion kurtosis imaging; (iii resting-state and task-based functional MRI; and (iv fluid-attenuated inversion recovery and MR angiography for the detection of vascular lesions and the mapping of white matter lesions. The unique design of 1000BRAINS allows: (i comprehensive investigation of various influences including genetics, environment and health status on variability in brain structure and function during aging; and (ii identification of the impact of selected influencing factors on specific cognitive subsystems and their anatomical correlates.

  4. Needle-Age Related Variability in Nitrogen, Mobile Carbohydrates, and δ13C within Pinus koraiensis Tree Crowns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Cai-Feng; Han, Shi-Jie; Zhou, Yu-Mei; Wang, Cun-Guo; Dai, Guan-Hua; Xiao, Wen-Fa; Li, Mai-He

    2012-01-01

    For both ecologists and physiologists, foliar physioecology as a function of spatially and temporally variable environmental factors such as sunlight exposure within a tree crown is important for understanding whole tree physiology and for predicting ecosystem carbon balance and productivity. Hence, we studied concentrations of nitrogen (N), non-structural carbohydrates (NSC = soluble sugars + starch), and δ13C in different-aged needles within Pinus koraiensis tree crowns, to understand the needle age- and crown position-related physiology, in order to test the hypothesis that concentrations of N, NSC, and δ13C are needle-age and crown position dependent (more light, more photosynthesis affecting N, NSC, and δ13C), and to develop an accurate sampling strategy. The present study indicated that the 1-yr-old needles had significantly higher concentration levels of mobile carbohydrates (both on a mass and an area basis) and Narea (on an area basis), as well as NSC-N ratios, but significantly lower levels of Nmass (on a mass basis) concentration and specific leaf area (SLA), compared to the current-year needles. Azimuthal (south-facing vs. north-facing crown side) effects were found to be significant on starch [both on a mass (STmass) and an area basis (STarea)], δ13C values, and Narea, with higher levels in needles on the S-facing crown side than the N-facing crown side. Needle Nmass concentrations significantly decreased but needle STmass, STarea, and δ13C values significantly increased with increasing vertical crown levels. Our results suggest that the sun-exposed crown position related to photosynthetic activity and water availability affects starch accumulation and carbon isotope discrimination. Needle age associated with physiological activity plays an important role in determining carbon and nitrogen physiology. The present study indicates that across-scale sampling needs to carefully select tissue samples with equal age from a comparable crown position

  5. A comparison of heart rate variability, n-3 PUFA status and lipid mediator profile in age- and BMI-matched middle-aged vegans and omnivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Ana M; Sanders, Thomas A B; Kendall, Alexandra C; Nicolaou, Anna; Gray, Robert; Al-Khatib, Haya; Hall, Wendy L

    2017-03-01

    Low heart rate variability (HRV) predicts sudden cardiac death. Long-chain (LC) n-3 PUFA (C20-C22) status is positively associated with HRV. This cross-sectional study investigated whether vegans aged 40-70 years (n 23), whose diets are naturally free from EPA (20 : 5n-3) and DHA (22 : 6n-3), have lower HRV compared with omnivores (n 24). Proportions of LC n-3 PUFA in erythrocyte membranes, plasma fatty acids and concentrations of plasma LC n-3 PUFA-derived lipid mediators were significantly lower in vegans. Day-time interbeat intervals (IBI), adjusted for physical activity, age, BMI and sex, were significantly shorter in vegans compared with omnivores (mean difference -67 ms; 95 % CI -130, -3·4, P50 % and high-frequency power) were similarly lower in vegans, with no differences during sleep. In conclusion, vegans have higher 24 h SDNN, but lower day-time HRV and shorter day-time IBI relative to comparable omnivores. Vegans may have reduced availability of precursor markers for pro-resolving lipid mediators; it remains to be determined whether there is a direct link with impaired cardiac function in populations with low-n-3 status.

  6. Heart rate variability and the relationship between trauma exposure age, and psychopathology in a post-conflict setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddell, Belinda J; Kemp, Andrew H; Steel, Zachary; Nickerson, Angela; Bryant, Richard A; Tam, Natalino; Tay, Alvin Kuowei; Silove, Derrick

    2016-05-10

    Cumulative exposure to potentially traumatic events (PTEs) increases risk for mental distress in conflict-affected settings, but the psychophysiological mechanisms that mediate this dose-response relationship are unknown. We investigated diminished heart rate variability (HRV) - an index of vagus nerve function and a robust predictor of emotion regulation capacity - as a vulnerability marker that potentially mediates the association between PTE exposure, age and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), psychological distress and aggressive behavior, in a community sample from Timor-Leste - a post-conflict country with a history of mass violence. Resting state heart rate data was recorded from 45 cases of PTSD, depression and intermittent explosive disorder (IED); and 29 non-case controls. Resting HRV was significantly reduced in the combined case group compared with non-cases (p = .021; Cohen's d = 0.5). A significant mediation effect was also observed, whereby a sequence of increased age, reduced HRV and elevated PTSD symptoms mediated the association between PTE exposure and distress (B = .06, SE = .05, 95% CI = [.00-.217]) and aggression (B = .02, SE = .02, 95% CI = [.0003-.069])). The findings demonstrate an association between diminished resting HRV and psychopathology. Moreover, age-related HRV reductions emerged as a potential psychophysiological mechanism that underlies enhanced vulnerability to distress and aggression following cumulative PTE exposure.

  7. Age and seasonal variability of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in free-ranging East Greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietz, Rune; Riget, Frank F.; Sonne, Christian; Letcher, Robert J.; Backus, Sean; Born, Erik W.; Kirkegaard, Maja; Muir, Derek C.G.

    2007-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were analysed in adipose tissue from 92 East Greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus) sampled during 1999-2001. Mean ΣPBDE concentrations were 70 ng/g lipid weight (lw) (range: 22-192 ng/g lw) and showed no relationship with age or sex. Of the 32 analysed PBDE congeners; BDE47, BDE153, BDE99 and BDE100 dominated, and comprised 99.6% of the ΣPBDE concentration. The ΣPBDE concentration had a highly significant correlation with ΣPCB, ΣCHL, dieldrin, HCB and ΣHCH concentrations. We found a seasonal pattern of median ΣPBDE concentration with 1.2 to 1.8 times higher concentrations in March to July than the rest of the year. The seasonal variation also provides a clue to the seasonal exposure, bio-availability, toxic exposure and degradation. We suggest that future geographical PBDE data comparisons may not need corrections for sex or age, but such data sets should be corrected for seasonal variability, using the presented correctional trigonometric regression. - Mean ΣPBDE concentrations of East Greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus) were 69.5 ng/g lw (range: 21.7-192 ng/g lw) and showed a seasonal pattern with no relationship with age and sex

  8. Age-related decline of gait variability in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Support for the maturational delay hypothesis in gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manicolo, Olivia; Grob, Alexander; Lemola, Sakari; Hagmann-von Arx, Priska

    2016-02-01

    Previous findings showed a tendency toward higher gait variability in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) compared to controls. This study examined whether gait variability in children with ADHD eventually approaches normality with increasing age (delay hypothesis) or whether these gait alterations represent a persistent deviation from typical development (deviation hypothesis). This cross-sectional study compared 30 children with ADHD (25 boys; Mage=10 years 11 months, range 8-13 years; n=21 off medication, n=9 without medication) to 28 controls (25 boys; Mage=10 years 10 months, range 8-13 years). Gait parameters (i.e. velocity and variability in stride length and stride time) were assessed using an electronic walkway system (GAITRite) while children walked at their own pace. Children with ADHD walked with significantly higher variability in stride time compared to controls. Age was negatively associated with gait variability in children with ADHD such that children with higher age walked with lower variability, whereas in controls there was no such association. Children with ADHD displayed a less regular gait pattern than controls, indicated by their higher variability in stride time. The age-dependent decrease of gait variability in children with ADHD showed that gait performance became more regular with age and converged toward that of typically developing children. These results may reflect a maturational delay rather than a persistent deviation of gait regularity among children with ADHD compared to typically developing children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. [Effects of growth hormone treatment on anthropometrics, metabolic risk, and body composition variables in small for gestational age patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurensanz Clemente, Esther; Samper Villagrasa, Pilar; Ayerza Casas, Ariadna; Ruiz Frontera, Pablo; Bueno Lozano, Olga; Moreno Aznar, Luis Alberto; Bueno Lozano, Gloria

    2017-05-01

    Small for gestational age (SGA) children without catch-up growth can benefit from treatment with growth hormone (rhGH). However, they should be monitored very closely because they are at increased risk of metabolic syndrome. A group of 28 SGA children with a mean age of 8.79 years and undergoing treatment with rhGH were selected for evaluation. Over the course of 4 years, an annual evaluation was performed on the anthropometric variables (weight, height, body mass index [BMI], growth rate, blood pressure and waist perimeter), metabolic risk variables (glycaemia, glycosylated haemoglobin, cholesterol ratio, insulinaemia, insulin-like growth factor 1[IGF1], IGF binding protein-3 [IGFBP-3], IGF1/IGFBP3 ratio, and HOMA index), and body composition variables. Treatment with rhGH was associated with a significant increase in height (-2.76±.11 SD to -1.53±.17 SD, P=.000), weight (-1.50±.09 SD to -1.21±.13 SD; P=.016), and growth rate (-1.43±.35 SD to .41±.41 SD; P=.009), without a corresponding change in the BMI. Insulinaemia (9.33±1.93mU/ml to 16.55±1.72mU/ml; P=.044) and the HOMA index (3.63±.76 to 6.43±.67; P=.042) increased, approaching insulin resistance levels. No changes were observed in the lipid profile. Body composition changes were observed, with a significant increase in lean mass (73.19±1.26 to 78.74±1.31; P=.037), and a reduction of fat mass (26.81±1.26 to 21.26±1.31; P=.021). Treatment with rhGH is effective for improving anthropometric variables in SGA patients who have not experienced a catch-up growth. It also produces changes in body composition, which may lead to a reduction in risk of metabolic syndrome. However, some insulin resistance was observed. It is important to follow up this patient group in order to find out whether these changes persist into adulthood. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Dog and owner demographic characteristics and dog personality trait associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubinyi, Eniko; Turcsán, Borbála; Miklósi, Adám

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the relationships between four personality traits (calmness, trainability, dog sociability and boldness) of dogs (Canis familiaris) and dog and owner demographics on a large sample size with 14,004 individuals. German speaking dog owners could characterize their dog by filling out a form on the Internet. There were five demographic variables for dogs and nine for owners. Two statistical methods were used for investigating the associations between personality and demographic traits: the more traditional general linear methods and regression trees that are ideal for analyzing non-linear relationships in the structure of the data. The results showed that calmness is influenced primarily by the dog's age, the neutered status, the number of different types of professional training courses (e.g. obedience, agility) the dog had experienced and the age of acquisition. The least calm dogs were less than 2.5 years old, neutered and acquired after the first 12 weeks of age, while the calmest dogs were older than 6.9 years. Trainability was affected primarily by the training experiences, the dog's age, and the purpose of keeping the dog. The least trainable dogs had not received professional training at all and were older than 3 years. The most trainable dogs were those who participated in three or more types of professional training. Sociability toward conspecifics was mainly determined by the age, sex, training experience and time spent together. The least sociable dogs were older than 4.8 years and the owners spent less than 3h with the dog daily. The most sociable dogs were less than 1.5 years old. Males were less sociable toward their conspecifics than females. Boldness was affected by the sex and age of the dog and the age of acquisition. The least bold were females acquired after the age of 1 year or bred by the owner. The boldest dogs were males, acquired before the age of 12 weeks, and were younger than 2 years old. Other variables

  11. Spatial variability in the abundance, composition, and age of organic matter in surficial sediments of the East China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ying; Eglinton, Timothy; Yang, Liyang; Deng, Bing; Montluçon, Daniel; Zhang, Jing

    2013-12-01

    the sources and fate of organic matter (OM) sequestered in continental margin sediments is of importance because the mode and efficiency of OM burial impact the carbon cycle and the regulation of atmospheric CO2 over long time scales. We carried out molecular (lignin-derived phenols from CuO oxidation), elemental, isotopic (δ13C, Δ14C), and sedimentological (grain size and mineral surface area) analyses in order to examine spatial variability in the abundance, source, age of surface sediments of the East China Sea. Higher terrigenous organic matter values were found in the main accumulating areas of fluvial sediments, including the Changjiang (Yangtze) Estuary and Zhejiang-Fujian coastal zone. Isotopic and biomarker data suggest that the sedimentary OM in the inner shelf region was dominated by aged (Δ14C = -423 ± 42‰) but relatively lignin-rich OM (Λ = 0.94 ± 0.57 mg/100 mg OC) associated with fine-grained sediments, suggesting important contributions from soils. In contrast, samples from the outer shelf, while of similar age (Δ14 C = -450 ± 99‰), are lignin poor (Λ = 0.25 ± 0.14 mg/100 mg OC) and associated with coarse-grained material. Regional variation of lignin phenols and OM ages indicates that OM content is fundamentally controlled by hydrodynamic sorting (especially, sediment redistribution and winnowing) and in situ primary production. Selective sorption of acid to aldehyde in clay fraction also modified the ratios of lignin phenols. The burial of lignin in East China Sea is estimated to be relatively efficient, possibly as a consequence of terrigenous OM recalcitrance and/or relatively high sedimentation rates in the Changjiang Estuary and the adjacent Zhejing-Fujian mud belt.

  12. ADOPTING SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS IN PROFILING GREEN CONSUMERS: A REVIEW OF HYPOTHESES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Hartono

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available In the last three decades worldwide environmental consciousness has increased dramatically as well as profiling green consumers have gained tremendous attention in the past. Segmenting and targeting markets base on pro-environmental purchase behavior are essential when companies positioning their green products. Socio-demographic characteristics have gained a lot of attention as the key profiling variables. Such characteristics have been employed by many scholars more frequently for the bases of segmenting and profiling green consumers. However, most existing studies of green consumers’ socio-demographic were US based. The present article attempts to review the common hypotheses of socio-demographic characteristics in profiling green consumers. The present article reviews five general hypotheses relating to socio-demographics and environmental consciousness of green consumers, namely the gender, age, education level, income, and occupation hypotheses, as well as the theoretical explanation for each hypothesis. Most previous studies tend to have the same conclusion in the gender, age, education level, and  income characteristics. Critics to socio-demographic characteristics and a need to conduct green marketing research in Indonesia was also reviewed.Key words: profiling, socio-demographic, green consumer, hypotheses.

  13. Variability of the hemodynamic response as a function of age and frequency of epileptic discharge in children with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Julia; Hawco, Colin; Kobayashi, Eliane; Boor, Rainer; LeVan, Pierre; Stephani, Ulrich; Siniatchkin, Michael; Gotman, Jean

    2008-04-01

    EEG-fMRI is a non-invasive tool to investigate epileptogenic networks in patients with epilepsy. Different patterns of BOLD responses have been observed in children as compared to adults. A high intra- and intersubject variability of the hemodynamic response function (HRF) to epileptic discharges has been observed in adults. The actual HRF to epileptic discharges in children and its dependence on age are unknown. We analyzed 64 EEG-fMRI event types in 37 children (3 months to 18 years), 92% showing a significant BOLD response. HRFs were calculated for each BOLD cluster using a Fourier basis set. After excluding HRFs with a low signal-to-noise ratio, 126 positive and 98 negative HRFs were analyzed. We evaluated age-dependent changes as well as the effect of increasing numbers of spikes. Peak time, amplitude and signal-to-noise ratio of the HRF and the t-statistic score of the cluster were used as dependent variables. We observed significantly longer peak times of the HRF in the youngest children (0 to 2 years), suggesting that the use of multiple HRFs might be important in this group. A different coupling between neuronal activity and metabolism or blood flow in young children may cause this phenomenon. Even if the t-value increased with frequent spikes, the amplitude of the HRF decreased significantly with spike frequency. This reflects a violation of the assumptions of the General Linear Model and therefore the use of alternative analysis techniques may be more appropriate with high spiking rates, a common situation in children.

  14. Does psychotherapy work with school-aged youth? A meta-analytic examination of moderator variables that influence therapeutic outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedewa, Alicia L; Ahn, Soyeon; Reese, Robert J; Suarez, Marietta M; Macquoid, Ahjane; Davis, Matthew C; Prout, H Thompson

    2016-06-01

    The present study is a quantitative synthesis of the available literature to investigate the efficacy of psychotherapy for children's mental health outcomes. In particular, this study focuses on potential moderating variables-study design, treatment, client, and therapist characteristics-that may influence therapeutic outcomes for youth but have not been thoroughly accounted for in prior meta-analytic studies. An electronic search of relevant databases resulted in 190 unpublished and published studies that met criteria for inclusion in the analysis. Effect sizes differed by study design. Pre-post-test designs resulted in absolute magnitudes of treatment effects ranging from |-0.02| to |-0.76| while treatment versus control group comparison designs resulted in absolute magnitudes of treatment effects ranging from |-0.14| to |-2.39|. Changes in youth outcomes larger than 20% were found, irrespective of study design, for outcomes focused on psychosomatization (29% reduction), school attendance (25% increase), and stress (48% reduction). The magnitude of changes after psychotherapy ranged from 6% (externalizing problems) to 48% (stress). Several moderator variables significantly influenced psychotherapy treatment effect sizes, including frequency and length of treatment as well as treatment format. However, results did not support the superiority of a single type of intervention for most outcomes. Implications for therapy with school-aged youth and future research are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Socio-demographics characteristics and health conditions of older homeless persons of Lima, Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Moquillaza-Risco, Marlene; Programa Nacional Vida Digna (PNVD), Ministerio de la Mujer y Poblaciones Vulnerables. Lima, Perú.; León, Elsa; Programa Nacional Vida Digna (PNVD), Ministerio de la Mujer y Poblaciones Vulnerables. Lima, Perú.; Dongo, Mario; Programa Nacional Vida Digna (PNVD), Ministerio de la Mujer y Poblaciones Vulnerables. Lima, Perú.; Munayco, César V.; Programa Nacional Vida Digna (PNVD), Ministerio de la Mujer y Poblaciones Vulnerables. Lima, Perú.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Determine the socio-demographics characteristics and health conditions of older homeless persons at the time of enrollment into the National Program “Vida Digna” and the probability of functional dependency by age, and stratified by gender and cognitive impairment. Materials ande methods. We performed a cross sectional study, reviewing all registration forms of the program in order to identify socio-demographic variables and health conditions of older homeless persons at the time ...

  16. Socioeconomic, emotional, and physical execution variables as predictors of cognitive performance in a Spanish sample of middle-aged and older community-dwelling participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Mari Feli; Facal, David; Juncos-Rabadán, Onésimo; Yanguas, Javier

    2017-10-01

    Cognitive performance is not easily predicted, since different variables play an important role in the manifestation of age-related declines. The objective of this study is to analyze the predictors of cognitive performance in a Spanish sample over 50 years from a multidimensional perspective, including socioeconomic, affective, and physical variables. Some of them are well-known predictors of cognition and others are emergent variables in the study of cognition. The total sample, drawn from the "Longitudinal Study Aging in Spain (ELES)" project, consisted of 832 individuals without signs of cognitive impairment. Cognitive function was measured with tests evaluating episodic and working memory, visuomotor speed, fluency, and naming. Thirteen independent variables were selected as predictors belonging to socioeconomic, emotional, and physical execution areas. Multiple linear regressions, following the enter method, were calculated for each age group in order to study the influence of these variables in cognitive performance. Education is the variable which best predicts cognitive performance in the 50-59, 60-69, and 70-79 years old groups. In the 80+ group, the best predictor is objective economic status and education does not enter in the model. Age-related decline can be modified by the influence of educational and socioeconomic variables. In this context, it is relevant to take into account how easy is to modify certain variables, compared to others which depend on each person's life course.

  17. Beyond demographics is destiny: understanding economic mitigation strategies for demographic change in China

    OpenAIRE

    Judy, John B.

    2015-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The favorable demographics that have contributed to China’s rapid economic growth are changing. China’s working-age population is currently peaking and within two decades its overall population will begin to shrink. In addition to a shrinking working-age population, China will see an increase in the elderly population and a rising dependency ratio. This demographic change may have an economically significant impact. If China’s enormous...

  18. Relationship between socio-demographic and clinical variables, and health-related quality of life in patients with inflammatory bowel disease Relación entre variables sociodemográficas y clínicas y calidad de vida relacionada con la salud en pacientes con enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. López Blanco

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: the principal aim of the present study is to evaluate the influence of socio-demographic and clinical variables on health-related quality of life (HRQL in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Patients and method: this was a cross-sectional study. health-related quality of life was measured with the Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire (IBDQ. A total of 120 patients, 60 with ulcerative colitis and 60 with Crohn's disease, participated in the study. Results: no significant differences were observed between ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease patients in IBDQ dimensions. However, a multivariate analysis revealed that sex, type of treatment, extraintestinal symptoms, number of relapses in previous year, satisfaction with surgery, and need for psychological support were related to HRQL. Conclusions: the identification of these variables associated with HRQL in patients with inflammatory bowel disease shows them to be basically non-disease factors. Knowledge of such elements can turn out to be very useful in order to guide future research and modify specific factors in further interventions.Objetivo: el objetivo principal del presente trabajo consiste en evaluar la influencia de las variables sociodemográficas y clínicas en la calidad de vida relacionada con la salud de los pacientes con enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal. Pacientes y método: se trata de un estudio transversal. La calidad de vida relacionada con la salud se investigó utilizando el "Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire" (IBDQ. Un total de 120 pacientes, 60 con colitis ulcerosa y 60 con enfermedad de Crohn participaron en el estudio. Resultados: no se apreciaron diferencias significativas en la calidad de vida relacionada con la salud en las dimensiones del IBDQ en función de la enfermedad, sin embargo, tras el análisis multivariante, el sexo, el tipo de tratamiento, las manifestaciones extradigestivas, el número de recaídas anual, la satisfacción con

  19. Reexamining age, race, site, and thermometer type as variables affecting temperature measurement in adults – A comparison study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Linda S

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As a result of the recent international vigilance regarding disease assessment, accurate measurement of body temperature has become increasingly important. Yet, trusted low-tech, portable mercury glass thermometers are no longer available. Thus, comparing accuracy of mercury-free thermometers with mercury devices is essential. Study purposes were 1 to examine age, race, site as variables affecting temperature measurement in adults, and 2 to compare clinical accuracy of low-tech Galinstan-in-glass device to mercury-in-glass at oral, axillary, groin, and rectal sites in adults. Methods Setting 176 bed accredited healthcare facility, rural northwest US Participants Convenience sample (N = 120 of hospitalized persons ≥ 18 years old. Instruments Temperatures (°F measured at oral, skin (simultaneous, immediately followed by rectal sites with four each mercury-glass (BD and Galinstan-glass (Geratherm thermometers; 10 minute dwell times. Results Participants averaged 61.6 years (SD 17.9, 188 pounds (SD 55.3; 61% female; race: 85% White, 8.3% Native Am., 4.2% Hispanic, 1.7 % Asian, 0.8% Black. For both mercury and Galinstan-glass thermometers, within-subject temperature readings were highest rectally; followed by oral, then skin sites. Galinstan assessments demonstrated rectal sites 0.91°F > oral and ≅ 1.3°F > skin sites. Devices strongly correlated between and across sites. Site difference scores between devices showed greatest variability at skin sites; least at rectal site. 95% confidence intervals of difference scores by site (°F: oral (0.142 – 0.265, axilla (0.167 – 0.339, groin (0.037 – 0.321, and rectal (-0.111 – 0.111. Race correlated with age, temperature readings each site and device. Conclusion Temperature readings varied by age, race. Mercury readings correlated with Galinstan thermometer readings at all sites. Site mean differences between devices were considered clinically insignificant. Still considered

  20. Demographic features of subjects with congenital glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamçelik, Nevbahar; Atalay, Eray; Bolukbasi, Selim; Çapar, Olgu; Ozkok, Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    Context: Congenital glaucoma is a potentially blinding ocular disease of the childhood. Identification of the possible associated risk factors and may be helpful for prevention or early detection of this public health problem. Aims: To demonstrate the demographic features of congenital glaucoma subjects. Setting and Design: The charts of congenital glaucoma patients referred to Tamcelik Glaucoma Center were retrospectively reviewed through the dates of 2000 and 2013. Materials and Methods: Analyzed data included diagnosis, age at first presentation, symptoms at first presentation, laterality of the disease, sex, presence of consanguinity, family history of congenital glaucoma, maturity of the fetus at delivery, and maternal age at conception. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 19.0 by IBM (SPSS Inc, Chicago, Illinois, USA) was used to compare the mean of continuous variables with Student's t-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) and χ2 test was used to test differences in proportions of categorical variables. Results: The data of 600 eyes of 311 patients were analyzed. The distribution of primary and secondary congenital glaucoma among the patients were 63.3% (n = 197) and 36.7% (n = 114), respectively. Of the 311 patients, 57.2% (n = 178) were male and 42.8% (n = 133) were female. The overall frequency of bilateral disease was 92.3% (n = 287). Overall rate of consanguinity and positive family history was 45.3% (n = 141) and 21.2% (n = 66), respectively. Conclusions: Bilateral disease in this study was more common than previously reported studies. Positive family history was more frequent in primary congenital glaucoma although not statistically significant. PMID:24881602

  1. The Relationships Among Socio-Demographics, Perceived Health, and Happiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weech-Maldonado, Robert; Miller, Michael J.; Lord, Justin C.

    2017-01-01

    This article explores explore the relationships among socio-demographics, perceived health, and happiness in a patient population of 221 adults recruited from 39 primary care practices in Alabama. We also explored whether the relationship between socio-demographics and happiness is mediated by perceived health. The dependent variable, happiness, was dichotomized as happy versus unhappy. Independent variables or correlates of happiness included race (Black or White), age (happiness and its correlates. Our findings suggest that adequate health literacy and better perceived health are associated with an increase in the likelihood of happiness. In addition, the relationship between perceived sufficient income and happiness is mediated by perceived health; whereas, individuals with sufficient income are more likely to have better perceived health, and as a result more likely to be happy. Other individual factors, such as gender, age, and race were not significantly associated with being happy or having higher perceived health in any of the models. Results suggest that policies aimed at increasing health literacy, promoting health, and reducing income disparities may be associated with greater happiness. PMID:28757904

  2. Socio-demographic predictors of person–organization fit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Merecz-Kot

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between socio-demographic characteristics and the level of complementary and supplementary person–organization fit (P–O fit. Material and Methods: The study sample was a group of 600 Polish workers, urban residents aged 19–65. Level of P–O fit was measured using the Subjective Person–Organization Fit Questionnaire by Czarnota-Bojarska. The binomial multivariate logistic regression was applied. The analyzes were performed separately for the men and women. Results: Socio-demographic variables explained small percentage of the outcome variability. Gender differences were found. In the case of men shift work decreased complementary and supplementary fit, while long working hours decreased complementary fit. In the women, age was a stimulant of a complementary fit, involuntary job losses predicted both complementary and supplementary misfit. Additionally, relational responsibilities increased probability of supplementary P–O fit in the men. Conclusions: Going beyond personality and competences as the factors affecting P–O fit will allow development of a more accurate prediction of P–O fit. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2017;30(1:133–149

  3. Examination of socio-demographics and job satisfaction in Australian registered nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Carol; Hurst, Cameron; Anderson, Debra

    2013-01-01

    The results of the few studies found investigating relationships between sociodemographic variables and job satisfaction in nurses are mixed. Nevertheless some evidence exists which indicates that some socio-demographic variables are related to nurses' job satisfaction. Moreover reports indicate that job satisfaction is Linked to the retention of nurses. Relationships between socio-demographics and job satisfaction of Australian nurses are examined in the current study. To examine relationships between socio-demographic factors and job satisfaction and identify if these factors predicted job satisfaction Levels in Australian nurses. A cross sectional survey was conducted of 2000 Australian registered nurses who were at the time members of an industrial and professional organisation. The nurses were randomised and stratified according to gender and were asked to answer questions on a socio-demographic questionnaire developed by the researcher. The majority of respondents showed positive job satisfaction scores. Pearson's correlation coefficients (r) found the covariates age, years of experience and years in current job were all moderately to highly positively correlated with each other (all r > 0.40, p Job Satisfaction. Multivariable analysis found significant positive relationships existed between job satisfaction, specialty area and health sector. Specialty area and health sector showed significant associations with job satisfaction in nurses. These variables should be considered by governments, nursing, organisational leaders and policy makers when developing future policies and strategies aimed at retention. These variables should be investigated further in relation to nursing job satisfaction.

  4. Knowledge of Aging and Life Satisfaction among Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Neil C.; Friedrich, Douglas

    2004-01-01

    Four hundred young-, middle-, and old-old adults responded to a battery of quizzes dealing with life satisfaction and objective aging knowledge in the physical, psychological, and social domains. Analyses incorporated domains of aging knowledge, life satisfaction, age, gender, and demographic variables. Both means difference and regression…

  5. Transtorno mental, indicadores demográficos e satisfação com a vida Trastorno mental, indicadores demográficos y satisfacción con la vida Mental disorder, demographic variables and life satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Maffasioli Gonçalves

    2008-12-01

    -report Questionnaire-20 items y a la Escala de Satisfacción Con la Vida, ésta para evaluar el componente cognitivo del bienestar subjetivo. RESULTADOS: El total de individuos participantes del estudio fue de 625. Ser del sexo femenino reflejó asociación significativa e inversa con la satisfacción con la vida. Lo mismo ocurrió entre los puntajes de seguimiento psiquiátrico y de la Escala de Satisfacción Con la Vida. Por otro lado, la edad presentó asociación significativa y positiva con la Escala. Posterior al análisis multivariado, todas las tres variables permanecieron asociadas en el resultado. Individuos con enfermedad crónica no psiquiátrica no se diferenciaron de los que no presentaron enfermedad en el puntaje de la Escala de Satisfacción Con la Vida. CONCLUSIONES: La asociación positiva entre la Escala de Satisfacción Con la Vida y edad está de acuerdo con su validez en Brasil. La relación inversa entre puntaje del instrumento de seguimiento psiquiátrico y la Escala confirma el impacto negativo de los trastornos mentales.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of positive screening of non-psychotic mental disorders, sociodemographic variables, and concomitant non-psychiatric chronic diseases on the Satisfaction with Life Scale scores. METHODS: The study included residents of an area covered by the Health Family Program in Santa Cruz do Sul, Southern Brazil, between June 30 and August 30, 2006. Respondents answered a psychiatric screening tool, the Self-report Questionnaire-20, and the Satisfaction with Life Scale to assess the cognitive component of subjective well-being. RESULTS: A total of 625 respondents were included in the study. Females showed significant inverse association with life satisfaction. The same association was seen between psychiatric screening and Satisfaction with Life Scale scores. Age had a significant positive association with the Scale scores. After the multivariate analysis, these three variables remained significantly associated to the

  6. Clinico - demographic factors associated with diarrhoeal disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To determine the proportion of under-5 children presenting with diarrhoeal disease, and the clinicodemographic variables associated with the outcome at the emergency paediatric ward (CHER) of the Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, South- East Nigeria. Methods: Clinical and demographic ...

  7. A unified framework of demographic time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riffe, Tim; Schöley, Jonas; Villavicencio, Francisco

    Demographic thought and practice is largely conditioned by the Lexis diagram, a two-dimensional graphical representation of the identity between age, period, and birth cohort. This relationship does not account for remaining years of life or other related time measures, whose use in demographic...... research is both underrepresented and incompletely situated. We describe a three-dimensional relationship between six different measures of demographic time: chronological age, time to death, lifespan, time of birth, time of death, and period. We describe four identities among subsets of these six measures......, and a full identity that relates the six of them. One of these identities is the age-period-cohort identity, while the other three are relatively novel. We provide a topological overview of the diagrams that pertain to these identities. The 3-d geometric representation of the full six-way identity...

  8. A literature review and emotion-based model of age and leadership : New directions for the trait approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walter, F.; Scheibe, S.

    2013-01-01

    Despite renewed interest in traditional trait approaches to leadership and despite recent demographic trends towards an aging workforce, research on leaders' age as a specific demographic trait variable has remained surprisingly sparse and fragmented. This article provides a comprehensive review of

  9. Age differences in big five behavior averages and variabilities across the adult life span: moving beyond retrospective, global summary accounts of personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noftle, Erik E; Fleeson, William

    2010-03-01

    In 3 intensive cross-sectional studies, age differences in behavior averages and variabilities were examined. Three questions were posed: Does variability differ among age groups? Does the sizable variability in young adulthood persist throughout the life span? Do past conclusions about trait development, based on trait questionnaires, hold up when actual behavior is examined? Three groups participated: young adults (18-23 years), middle-aged adults (35-55 years), and older adults (65-81 years). In 2 experience-sampling studies, participants reported their current behavior multiple times per day for 1- or 2-week spans. In a 3rd study, participants interacted in standardized laboratory activities on 8 occasions. First, results revealed a sizable amount of intraindividual variability in behavior for all adult groups, with average within-person standard deviations ranging from about half a point to well over 1 point on 6-point scales. Second, older adults were most variable in Openness, whereas young adults were most variable in Agreeableness and Emotional Stability. Third, most specific patterns of maturation-related age differences in actual behavior were more greatly pronounced and differently patterned than those revealed by the trait questionnaire method. When participants interacted in standardized situations, personality differences between young adults and middle-aged adults were larger, and older adults exhibited a more positive personality profile than they exhibited in their everyday lives.

  10. Demographic Ranking of the Baltic Sea States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sluka N.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of the study lies in the acute need to modernise the tools for a more accurate and comparable reflection of the demographic reality of spatial objects of different scales. This article aims to test the methods of “demographic rankings” developed by Yermakov and Shmakov. The method is based on the principles of indirect standardisation of the major demographic coefficients relative to the age structure.The article describes the first attempt to apply the method to the analysis of birth and mortality rates in 1995 and 2010 for 140 countries against the global average, and for the Baltic Sea states against the European average. The grouping of countries and the analysis of changes over the given period confirmed a number of demographic development trends and the persistence of wide territorial disparities in major indicators. The authors identify opposite trends in ranking based on the standardised birth (country consolidation at the level of averaged values and mortality (polarisation rates. The features of demographic process development in the Baltic regions states are described against the global and European background. The study confirmed the validity of the demographic ranking method, which can be instrumental in solving not only scientific but also practical tasks, including those in the field of demographic and social policy.

  11. Local Public Libraries Serve Important Functions as Meeting Places, but Demographic Variables Appear Significant, Suggesting a Need for Extensive Further Research. A Review of: Aabø, S., Audunson, R., & Vårheim, A. (2010. How do public libraries function as meeting places? Library & Information Science Research, 32(1, 16-26. doi: 10.1016/j.lisr.2009.07.008.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Laval Hunsucker

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – The investigators hoped to gain an understanding of the extent to which local public libraries are used by their visitors as meeting places, and in what ways. Furthermore, they sought to determine whether certain demographic variables correlate with variations in these ways of using the library. Finally, they were looking for evidence of a relationship between the degree of the subjects’ general community involvement on the one hand, and their participation in various types of meetings in the library on the other.Design – Questionnaire-based telephone survey.Setting – Oslo, Norway.Subjects – 750 adult residents (eighteen years or older from 3 of Oslo’s 15 boroughs.Methods – The researchers selected these boroughs (not identified in this article and referred to, unusually, as “townships” because they judged them to represent three demographically varying types of urban community. In March of 2006, a professional survey organization drew numbers at random from a database of telephone numbers in each borough, continuing until it had reached the desired number of 250 actual survey respondents, including cell phone users, for each borough. It weighted the sample according to gender and age, and administered the telephone interviews on the basis of a questionnaire which the researchers had designed to yield quantitative data for ten independent, and seven dependent, variables. Interviewers asked the respondents to answer questions on the basis of their entire recollected personal history of public library use, rather than during a specific defined period.Six of the independent variables were demographic: borough of residence, occupational category, age category, educational level, cultural/linguistic background (dichotomous: either non-Norwegian or Norwegian, and household income category. The other four were: level of participation in local activities, degree of involvement in community improvement activities, degree to

  12. [Recent demographic trends].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    A review of demographic trends in Luxembourg in 1982 is presented. A decline in fertility, the first since 1977, is noted, together with an increase in divorce, as well as a negative migration balance for the first time since 1967. Topics covered include natural increase and migration, fertility, marriage and divorce, mortality, adoption, and legislation affecting the family. Special consideration is given to the mortality experience of those who were subjected to compulsory labor during World War II.

  13. Age differences in coupling of intraindividual variability in mnemonic strategies and practice-related associative recall improvements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertzog, Christopher; Lövdén, Martin; Lindenberger, Ulman; Schmiedek, Florian

    2017-09-01

    The importance of encoding strategies for associative recall is well established, but there have been no studies of aging and intraindividual variability (IAV) in strategy use during extended practice. We observed strategy use and cued-recall test performance over 101 days of practice in 101 younger adults (M = 25.6 years) and 103 older adults (M = 71.3 years) sandwiched by a pretest and posttest battery including an associative recall test. Each practice session included 2 lists of 12 number-noun paired-associate (PA) items (e.g., 23-DOGS), presented for brief exposures titrated to maintain below-ceiling performance throughout practice. Participants reported strategy use (e.g., rote repetition, imagery) after each test. Substantial IAV in strategy use was detected that was coupled with performance; lists studied with normatively effective strategies (e.g., imagery) generated higher PA recall than lists studied with less effective strategies (e.g., rote repetition). In comparison to younger adults, older adults' practice (a) relied more on repetition and less on effective strategies, (b) showed lower levels of IAV in effective strategy use, and (c) had lower within-person strategy-recall coupling, especially late in practice. Individual differences in pretest-posttest gains in PA recall were predicted by average level of effective strategy use in young adults but by strategy-recall coupling in older adults. Results are consistent with the hypothesis that experiencing variability in strategic outcomes during practice helps hone the effectiveness of strategic encoding behavior, and that older adults' reduced degree of pretest-posttest gains is influenced by lower likelihood of using and optimizing effective strategies through practice. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Evaluation of Respiratory Muscle Strength in the Acute Phase of Stroke: The Role of Aging and Anthropometric Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luvizutto, Gustavo José; Dos Santos, Maria Regina Lopes; Sartor, Lorena Cristina Alvarez; da Silva Rodrigues, Josiela Cristina; da Costa, Rafael Dalle Molle; Braga, Gabriel Pereira; de Oliveira Antunes, Letícia Cláudia; Souza, Juli Thomaz; de Carvalho Nunes, Hélio Rubens; Bazan, Silméia Garcia Zanati; Bazan, Rodrigo

    2017-10-01

    During hospitalization, stroke patients are bedridden due to neurologic impairment, leading to loss of muscle mass, weakness, and functional limitation. There have been few studies examining respiratory muscle strength (RMS) in the acute phase of stroke. This study aimed to evaluate the RMS of patients with acute stroke compared with predicted values and to relate this to anthropometric variables, risk factors, and neurologic severity. This is a cross-sectional study in the acute phase of stroke. After admission, RMS was evaluated by maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP) and maximal expiratory pressure (MEP); anthropometric data were collected; and neurologic severity was evaluated by the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale. The analysis of MIP and MEP with predicted values was performed by chi-square test, and the relationship between anthropometric variables, risk factors, and neurologic severity was determined through multiple linear regression followed by residue analysis by the Shapiro-Wilk test; P < .05 was considered statistically significant. In the 32 patients studied, MIP and MEP were reduced when compared with the predicted values. MIP declined significantly by 4.39 points for each 1 kg/m 2 increase in body mass index (BMI), and MEP declined significantly by an average of 3.89 points for each 1 kg/m 2 increase in BMI. There was no statistically significant relationship between MIP or MEP and risk factors, and between MIP or MIP and neurologic severity in acute phase of stroke. There is a reduction of RMS in the acute phase of stroke, and RMS was lower in individuals with increased age and BMI. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Demographic correlates of children and adolescents with Autistic disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayyoub Malek

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Comparison of the demographic characteristics of patients provides useful information to their identification. This study aimed to determine the demographic characteristics of children and adolescents with autistic disorder (AD. Methods: In this cross-sectional case-control study, 115 children and adolescents with AD were selected from Autism Society Rehabilitation Center in Tabriz, Iran, and 112 normal children and adolescents from the public schools, in 2014. The participants in both groups were matched regarding age and gender. Diagnosis of AD was performed using diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders-4th edition (DSM-IV criteria and clinical diagnostic interviews by two child and adolescent psychiatrists. The demographic information of children and adolescents and their parents were collected from the medical records of children and interviews with their mothers. Results: Most of the children with autism had second or higher birth order and had families with more than three members. Mothers of children with autism had significantly lower levels of education and were mostly housewives. Fathers of autistic children mostly had high school diploma and fewer had university education, and most of them were employed. However, there was no statistically significant difference between the AD group and the control group regarding the average height and weight of children and the residence (urban or rural and age of parents at childbirth.Conclusion: The demographic characteristics of the two groups of children and adolescents with AD and normal controls were different from each other regarding family size, birth order, parent occupation, and parent education variables.

  16. VARIABLES QUE INTERVIENEN EN LA PERSONALIDAD RESISTENTE Y LAS ESTRATEGIAS DE AFRONTAMIENTO EN ADULTOS MAYORES/ VARIABLES INTERVENING IN RESISTANT PERSONALITY AND MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES IN AGED PEOPLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoila Edith Hernández Zamora*

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Resumen:El objetivo de esta investigación fue determinar el nivel de Personalidad Resistente (PR, su relación con el nivel deestrategias de afrontamiento así como con otras variables psicológicas y sociodemográficas de una muestra de 102 adultosmayores que asisten a una estancia diurna especial para este grupo etario. Los resultados muestran que la mayoría de losparticipantes tienen un nivel alto de PR y ninguna resultó con un nivel bajo en este constructo. Las variables asociadassignificativamente con una PR alta son: sexo, independencia, escolaridad, autopercepción de salud y repercusión en elestado de ánimo de sus enfermedades. En cuanto al nivel de estrategias de afrontamiento la mayoría se ubicó en el nivelmedio, no existiendo correlaciones en este aspecto con otras variables de estudio. Se recomienda hacer otras investigacionescon poblaciones de este mismo grupo etario aunque en diferentes hábitats, así como con otros grupos etarios para compararresultados.Abstract:The purpose of this research was to determine the level of Resistant Personality (RP, its relationship with the level ofmanagement strategies, as well as with other psychological and sociodemographic variables of a sample of 102 agedpersons who attend a diurnal home special for this kind of people. The results show that most of the participants have a highlevel of RP, and no one resulted with a low level in this constructo. The variables significantly associated with a high RP are:sex, independence, education, self perception of health, and repercussion on their mood of their illnesses. According to thelevel of management strategies, most of them were placed at middle level, without exixting correlations in this aspect withother variables of study. Werecommend to carry out further research with populations of this same kind of group, althoughin different habitas, as well as with other groups to compare the results.

  17. Genetic variability of the length of postpartum anoestrus in Charolais cows and its relationship with age at puberty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ménissier François

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Fertility records (n = 1 802 were collected from 615 Charolais primiparous and multiparous cows managed in an experimental herd over an 11-year period. The objectives of the study were to describe the genetic variability of the re-establishment of postpartum reproductive activity and the relationship with body weight (BW and body condition score (BCS at calving and age at puberty. The length of postpartum anoestrus was estimated based on weekly blood progesterone assays and on twice daily detection of oestrus behaviour. The first oestrus behaviour was observed 69 days (± 25 days s.d. post-calving and the first positive progesterone measurement (≥ 1 ng mL-1 was observed at 66 days (± 22 days s.d. for the group of easy-calving multiparous suckling cows. Estimates of heritability and repeatability were h2 = 0.12 and r = 0.38 respectively, for the interval from calving to first oestrus (ICO. Corresponding values were h2 = 0.35 and r = 0.60 for the interval from calving to the first positive progesterone test (ICP. The genetic correlation between both criteria was high (rg = 0.98. The genetic relationships between postpartum intervals and BW and BCS of the female at calving were negative: the genetic aptitude to be heavier at calving and to have high body reserves was related to shorter postpartum intervals. A favourable genetic correlation between age at puberty and postpartum intervals was found (rg between 0.45 and 0.70. The heifers which were genetically younger at puberty also had shorter postpartum intervals.

  18. Relationship between food insecurity and nutritional status of Brazilian children under the age of five

    OpenAIRE

    Santos,Leonardo Pozza dos; Gigante,Denise Petrucci

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between food insecurity and nutritional status of Brazilian children. METHODS: The National Demographic and Health Survey 2006 database is available on the worldwide web. Thus, the analyzed variables were obtained in this study, including nutritional indices, food insecurity and other socioeconomic and demographic variables. The height-for-age, weight-for-age and weight-for-height indices were evaluated as the Z-score of the...

  19. Outcome prediction in mild traumatic brain injury: age and clinical variables are stronger predictors than CT abnormalities.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, B.; Beems, T.; Stulemeijer, M.; Vugt, A.B. van; Vliet, A.M. van der; Borm, G.F.; Vos, P.E.

    2010-01-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is a common heterogeneous neurological disorder with a wide range of possible clinical outcomes. Accurate prediction of outcome is desirable for optimal treatment. This study aimed both to identify the demographic, clinical, and computed tomographic (CT)

  20. Bolivia 1998: results from the Demographic and Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-09-01

    This document presents the results of the Bolivia Demographic and Health Survey (DHS), or Encuesta Nacional de Demografia y Salud 1998, conducted by the Instituto Nacional de Estadistica, La Paz, Bolivia, within the framework of the DHS Program of Macro International. Data were collected from 12,109 households and complete interviews were conducted with 11,187 women aged 15-49. A male survey was also conducted, which collected data from 3780 men aged 15-64. The information collected include the following: 1) general characteristics of the population, 2) fertility, 3) fertility preferences, 4) current contraceptive use, 5) contraception, 6) marital and contraceptive status, 7) postpartum variables, 8) infant mortality, 9) health: disease prevention and treatment, and 10) nutritional status: anthropometric measures.

  1. Implications of Demographic Change for the Design of Retirement Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, John H.

    1994-01-01

    The influences that demographic changes may have on the design of private pension plans in the twenty-first century are examined. Major demographic factors to be considered include the aging of the population, declining mortality rate, potential for an even lower mortality rate, improved health for all ages and especially for older workers, and…

  2. Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... adults? How can you reduce anesthesia risks in older patients? Age Age may bring wisdom but it also brings ... Ask your physician to conduct a pre-surgery cognitive test — an assessment of your mental function. The physician can use the results as a ...

  3. Anemia, malnutrition and their correlations with socio-demographic characteristics and feeding practices among infants aged 0–18 months in rural areas of Shaanxi province in northwestern China: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Wenfang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The first 18 months of life are the most important for long-term childhood well-being. Anemia and malnutrition occurring in this key period have serious implications for individuals and societies, especially in rural areas in developing country. We conducted a cross-sectional study as the baseline survey to provide data for developing a policy-based approach to controlling infant anemia and malnutrition in rural areas of Shaanxi province in northwestern China. Methods We randomly sampled 336 infants aged 0–18 months in 28 rural villages from 2 counties of Shaanxi province. Anthropometric measurements and household interviews were carried out by well-trained researchers. The hemoglobin concentration was measured for 336 infants and serum concentrations of iron, zinc, and retinol (vitamin A were measured for a stratified subsample of 55 infants. Anemia was defined using World Health Organization (WHO standards combined with the Chinese standard for infants Results We found that 35.12% of infants in rural Shaanxi suffered from anemia, and the malnutrition prevalence rates were 32.14% for underweight, 39.58% for stunting, and 11.31% for wasting. Anemia was significantly associated with malnutrition (underweight, OR: 2.42, 95%CI: 1.50-3.88; stunting, OR: 1.65, 95%CI: 1.05-2.61; wasting, OR: 2.89, 95%CI: 1.45-5.76. Low birth weight, more siblings, less maternal education, low family income, crowded living conditions, and inappropriate complementary food introduction significantly increased the risk for infant anemia. Serum concentrations of iron, zinc, and retinol (vitamin A were significantly lower in anemic infants compared with non-anemic infants. Conclusions Specific socio-demographic characteristics and feeding patterns were highly associated with infant anemia in rural areas of Shaanxi province. Health education focusing on feeding practices and nutrition education could be a practical strategy for preventing anemia and

  4. The relationship between prostate volume and prostate-specific antigen variability: data from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging and the Johns Hopkins Active Surveillance Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, John H; Loeb, Stacy; Metter, E Jeffrey; Ferrucci, Luigi; Carter, H Ballentine

    2012-05-01

    Study Type--Prognostic (cohort). Level of Evidence 2b. What's known on the subject? And what does the study add? Previous studies have attempted to characterize the normal biological variability in PSA among men without prostate cancer. These reports suggest that PSA variability is unrelated to age, but there are conflicting data on its association with the baseline PSA level. There are limited published data regarding the effects of prostate volume on PSA variability. A prior study assessing whether prostate volume changes would confound the use of PSA velocity in clinical practice reported that prostate volume changes were not significantly related to PSA changes. This study did not directly address the effect of baseline prostate volume on serial PSA variability. The objective of the current study was to further examine the relationship between prostate volume and PSA variability. Our hypothesis was that larger baseline prostate volume would be associated with increased PSA variability in men without known prostate cancer and in those with suspected small-volume disease. The results of the study suggest that baseline PSA, not prostate volume, is the primary driver of PSA variability in these populations. • To clarify the relationship between serial prostate-specific antigen (PSA) variability and prostate volume in both cancer-free participants from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA) and patients with low-risk prostate cancer from the Johns Hopkins Active Surveillance Program (AS). • In all, 287 men from the BLSA and 131 patients from the AS were included in the analysis, all with at least two PSA measurements and concurrent prostate volume measurements. • PSA variability was calculated in ng/mL per year, and a linear mixed-effects model was used to determine the relative effects of prostate volume, baseline PSA and age on PSA change over time. • In a model with prostate volume, age and baseline PSA, there was no significant relationship

  5. Demographic Composition of the Online Buyers in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Sinan NARDALI

    2011-01-01

    Demographic variables may have an impact on Internet usage patterns. Online buyers’ characteristics keeps changing time along with the shifting dynamics of Turkish consumers’ demographic profile and day by day online shopping becomes a safe and popular option in Turkey. Current study investigates demographic composition of the online buyers that influence consumer attitudes towards online shopping behavior in Izmir, the third largest city in Turkey. This study examines attitudes toward online...

  6. Demographic and social factors associated with homophobia and fear of AIDS in a community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walch, Susan E; Orlosky, Paula M; Sinkkanen, Kimberly A; Stevens, Heather R

    2010-01-01

    Examinations of demographic and social factors associated with homophobia and fear of AIDS are limited by the frequent use of homogeneous, college student samples and limited examination of interrelationships among variables. The present study examined community attitudes toward homosexuality and fear of HIV/AIDS as a function of age, education, race/ethnicity, religious affiliation, political party affiliation, and personal contact with homosexual individuals and persons living with HIV/AIDS. A community sample of 463 adults completed standardized measures of homophobia and fear of AIDS as well as demographic and social background items. When examined separately, each demographic and social factor assessed, with the exception of race/ethnicity, was associated with homophobia and all but race/ethnicity and political party affiliation were associated with fear of AIDS. However, when entered into multiple regression analyses, 24% of the variance in homophobia was predicted by a single variable, including only personal contact with homosexual individuals, while 18% of the variance in fear of AIDS was accounted for by five variables, including personal contact with homosexual individuals, religious affiliation, political affiliation, education, and personal contact with someone living with HIV/AIDS. Findings suggest that it is important to consider intercorrelations among social and demographic factors, particularly when considering homophobia.

  7. Age-related Multiscale Changes in Brain Signal Variability in Pre-task versus Post-task Resting-state EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongye; McIntosh, Anthony R; Kovacevic, Natasa; Karachalios, Maria; Protzner, Andrea B

    2016-07-01

    Recent empirical work suggests that, during healthy aging, the variability of network dynamics changes during task performance. Such variability appears to reflect the spontaneous formation and dissolution of different functional networks. We sought to extend these observations into resting-state dynamics. We recorded EEG in young, middle-aged, and older adults during a "rest-task-rest" design and investigated if aging modifies the interaction between resting-state activity and external stimulus-induced activity. Using multiscale entropy as our measure of variability, we found that, with increasing age, resting-state dynamics shifts from distributed to more local neural processing, especially at posterior sources. In the young group, resting-state dynamics also changed from pre- to post-task, where fine-scale entropy increased in task-positive regions and coarse-scale entropy increased in the posterior cingulate, a key region associated with the default mode network. Lastly, pre- and post-task resting-state dynamics were linked to performance on the intervening task for all age groups, but this relationship became weaker with increasing age. Our results suggest that age-related changes in resting-state dynamics occur across different spatial and temporal scales and have consequences for information processing capacity.

  8. Aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Hideo; Kodama, Kazunori; Yamada, Michiko

    1991-01-01

    The hypothesis that exposure to ionizing radiation accelerates the aging process has been actively investigated at ABCC-RERF since 1958, when longitudinal cohort studies of the Adult Health Study (AHS) and the Life Span Study (LSS) were initiated. In their 1975 overall review of aging studies related to the atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors, Finch and Beebe concluded that while most studies had shown no correlation between aging and radiation exposure, they had not involved the large numbers of subjects required to provide strong evidence for or against the hypothesis. Extending LSS mortality data up to 1978 did not alter the earlier conclusion that any observed life-shortening was associated primarily with cancer induction rather than with any nonspecific cause. The results of aging studies conducted during the intervening 15 years using data from the same populations are reviewed in the present paper. Using clinical, epidemiological, and laboratory techniques, a broad spectrum of aging parameters have been studied, such as postmortem morphological changes, tests of functional capacity, physical tests and measurements, laboratory tests, tissue changes, and morbidity. With respect to the aging process, the overall results have not been consistent and are generally thought to show no relation to radiation exposure. Although some preliminary results suggest a possible radiation-induced increase in atherosclerotic diseases and acceleration of aging in the T-cell-related immune system, further study is necessary to confirm these findings. In the future, applying the latest gerontological study techniques to data collected from subjects exposed 45 years ago to A-bomb radiation at relatively young ages will present a new body of data relevant to the study of late radiation effects. (author) 103 refs

  9. Aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finch, S.C.; Beebe, G.W.

    1975-01-01

    The hypothesis that ionizing radiation accelerates natural aging has been under investigation at the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission since 1959. Postmortem observations of morphologic and chemical changes, tests of functional capacity, physical tests and measurements, clinical laboratory tests, tissue changes, morbidity, and mortality have all been examined by ABCC investigators interested in this hypothesis. These studies have been beset with conceptual difficulties centered on the definition and measurement of aging. An empirical approach early led to the calculation of an index of physiologic age as a linear combination of age-related tests of various organ systems. Most studies have been negative but have not involved the large numbers that might be required to provide strong evidence for or against the hypothesis. Mortality, however, has been examined on the basis of a large sample and over the period 1950-1972 had provided no support for the hypothesis of radiation-accelerated aging. Ionizing radiation dose, of course shorten human life, but its life-shortening effect appears to be the result of specific radiation-induced disease, especially neoplasms. The hypothesis is now much less attractive than it was 10-20 years ago but still has some value in stimulating research on aging. The experience of the A-bomb survivors provides an unusual opportunity for a definitive test of the hypothesis. (auth.)

  10. EJSCREEN Version 1, Demographic Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This map service displays demographic data used in EJSCREEN. All demographic data were derived from American Community Survey 2006-2010 estimates. EJSCREEN is an...

  11. Demographic profile of patients diagnosed with intracranial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Background: Meningiomas are common brain tumours and display gender, racial and ethnic differences in their demographic profile. ... The mean age of patients was 45.7 ± 10.5 years with a female-to-male ratio of 3.8:1. The mean ...

  12. Is the demographic dividend an education dividend?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo Cuaresma, Jesús; Lutz, Wolfgang; Sanderson, Warren

    2014-02-01

    The effect of changes in age structure on economic growth has been widely studied in the demography and population economics literature. The beneficial effect of changes in age structure after a decrease in fertility has become known as the "demographic dividend." In this article, we reassess the empirical evidence on the associations among economic growth, changes in age structure, labor force participation, and educational attainment. Using a global panel of countries, we find that after the effect of human capital dynamics is controlled for, no evidence exists that changes in age structure affect labor productivity. Our results imply that improvements in educational attainment are the key to explaining productivity and income growth and that a substantial portion of the demographic dividend is an education dividend.

  13. Exercise performance and cardiovascular health variables in 70-year-old male soccer players compared to endurance-trained, strength-trained and untrained age-matched men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randers, Morten Bredsgaard; Andersen, Jesper Løvind; Petersen, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The aim was to investigate performance variables and indicators of cardiovascular health profile in elderly soccer players (SP, n = 11) compared to endurance-trained (ET, n = 8), strength-trained (ST, n = 7) and untrained (UT, n = 7) age-matched men. The 33 men aged 65-85 years underwent...

  14. Managers’ perspectives: practical experience and challenges associated with variable-density operations and uneven-aged management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtis E. Steele

    2013-01-01

    Variable-density thinning has received a lot of public attention in recent years and has subsequently become standard language in most of the Willamette National Forest’s timber management projects. Many techniques have been tried, with varying on-the-ground successes. To accomplish variable-density thinning, the McKenzie River Ranger District currently uses...

  15. Modifiable Risk factors of Hypertension and Socio‑demographic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , Hypertension, Modifiable risk factors, Oghara ... to 140/90 mmHg is the most common Non Communicable .... In the first part, data on socio‑demographic variables of the ... blood pressure, and it was measured using sphygmomanometer.

  16. Physical activity during work, transport and leisure in Germany--prevalence and socio-demographic correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallmann-Sperlich, Birgit; Froboese, Ingo

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed 1) to provide data estimates concerning overall moderate- and vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) as well as MVPA during work, transport and leisure in Germany and 2) to investigate MVPA and possible associations with socio-demographic correlates. A cross-sectional telephone survey interviewed 2248 representative participants in the age of 18-65 years (1077 men; 42.4 ± 13.4 years; body mass index: 25.3 ± 4.5 kg • m(-2)) regarding their self-reported physical activity across Germany. The Global Physical Activity Questionnaire was applied to investigate MVPA during work, transport and leisure and questions were answered concerning their demographics. MVPA was stratified by gender, age, body mass index, residential setting, educational and income level. To identify socio-demographic correlates of overall MVPA as well as in the domains, we used a series of linear regressions. 52.8% of the sample achieved physical activity recommendations (53.7% men/52.1% women). Overall MVPA was highest in the age group 18-29 years (p importance of a comprehensive view on physical activity engagement according to the different physical activity domains and discloses a need for future physical activity interventions that consider socio-demographic variables, residential setting as well as the physical activity domain in Germany.

  17. Convergence Analysis of Semi-Implicit Euler Methods for Solving Stochastic Age-Dependent Capital System with Variable Delays and Random Jump Magnitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghui Du

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider semi-implicit Euler methods for stochastic age-dependent capital system with variable delays and random jump magnitudes, and investigate the convergence of the numerical approximation. It is proved that the numerical approximate solutions converge to the analytical solutions in the mean-square sense under given conditions.

  18. Age-Related Patterns in Cancer Pain and Its Psychosocial Impact: Investigating the Role of Variability in Physical and Mental Health Quality of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Lynn R; Dworkin, Robert H; Warr, David; Pillai Riddell, Rebecca; Macpherson, Alison K; Rodin, Gary; Zimmermann, Camilla; Lawrence Librach, S; Moore, Malcolm; Shepherd, Frances A; Gagliese, Lucia

    2017-03-03

    Age-related patterns in cancer pain remain equivocal. Most studies ignore heterogeneity across multiple domains of well-being, and the potential role of physical (PH) and mental health (MH) quality of life (QOL) in these age-related patterns is unknown. We investigated the relationships between age and cancer pain intensity, qualities, and interference, and physical and psychosocial adaptation and the interaction between age and PH and MH QOL on pain and adaptation to cancer pain. In this cross-sectional study, 244 patients with advanced cancer and pain completed measures of pain, QOL, physical function, and psychosocial well-being. Pearson's correlations and ANOVAs assessed relationships between age and demographic and clinical factors, pain, and physical and psychosocial measures. Regression models tested the role of age and its interaction with PH and MH QOL on pain and physical and psychosocial adaptation. Older age was associated with a lower likelihood of receiving an opioid prescription, greater likelihood of having comorbidities, and worse functional status. When we did not account for these factors, age was not associated with pain and most adaptation indices. When we did account for these factors and PH QOL, older age was associated with lower non-neuropathic and neuropathic pain and several indices of psychosocial adaptation. Most interestingly, older age was associated with lower non-neuropathic pain among those with high, but not low, MH QOL. This study addresses knowledge gaps about factors underlying age-related patterns in cancer pain. Impaired MH QOL may be a proxy for age-related patterns in cancer pain. This study investigated age-related patterns in the experience of cancer pain and the role of quality of life in resilience and vulnerability to pain and adaptation to pain. Older age is associated with lower non-neuropathic pain among those with high, but not low, mental health quality of life, suggesting that impaired mental health quality of

  19. CONSEQUENCES OF THE DEMOGRAPHIC CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIVIU RADU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Major dysfunctionalities can arise from the demographic decline, both on a social level and from the perspective of the economic-financial evolution of the world’s states. The obvious aging of the industrialized states’ population overlapping the import of cheap workforce in the developing countries can start mutations whose consequences are somewhat predictable but discouraging. An accelerated urbanization of the states is foreseen, as well as the decrease of birthrates, negative external migration, increase of mortality and its stagnation in a larger value than that of the birthrate, and not least the population’s aging will hinder a part of the developing countries to sustain a high rhythm of long-term economical increase. The socialeconomic consequences will be reflected in the labor market, the householders’ amount of income as well as in the education’s level. All of these aspects call for a rethinking of the public politics, especially of the social insurance’s system and of the education, a reorientation of the economy based on the increase of specializing in production and productivity, as well as a financial stability unburdened by the politics’ interference in the business environment.

  20. Simulation of Demographic Change in Palestinian Territories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumour, M. A.; El-Astal, A. H.; Shabat, M. M.; Radwan, M. A.

    Mortality, birth rates and retirement play a major role in demographic changes. In most cases, mortality rates decreased in the past century without noticeable decrease in fertility rates, leading to a significant increase in population growth. In many poor countries like Palestinian Territories the number of births has fallen and the life expectancy increased. In this paper we concentrate on measuring, analyzing and extrapolating the age structure in Palestine a few decades ago into the future. A Fortran program has been designed and used for the simulation and analysis of our statistical data. This study of demographic change in Palestine has shown that Palestinians will have in future problems as the strongest age cohorts are the above-60-year olds. We therefore recommend the increase of both the retirement age and female employment.

  1. Felicidade, bem-estar subjetivo e variáveis sociodemográficas, em grupos de estudantes universitários Felicidad, bienestar subjetivo y variables sociodemográficas, en grupos de estudiantes universitarios Happiness, subjective well-being and socio-demographic variables in groups of college students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Augusto Dela Coleta

    2012-04-01

    padres, con más altos niveles socioeconómicos se mostraron significativamente más populares, menos solitarios, más satisfechos con la vida y más felices.This study was developed with 388 college students using a set of scales to measure variables associated to happiness, subjective well-being, social behavior and some questions on demographic data. The results showed that the scales usually present high levels of reliability, average results superior to those expected in the subjective well-being measures and multiple correlation coefficient of 0.79 on the prediction of total happiness. When testing the differences among the several groups, it was verified that women, young people, those married or dating, those who had a religion, studied the first grade in a private school or the college in a public institution, those who know other languages with higher family income, having parents with high level of education or social-economic status, showed to be significantly more popular, less solitaires, more satisfied with their lives and happier.

  2. [Socio-demographics characteristics and health conditions of older homeless persons of Lima, Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moquillaza-Risco, Marlene; León, Elsa; Dongo, Mario; Munayco, César V

    2015-10-01

    Determine the socio-demographics characteristics and health conditions of older homeless persons at the time of enrollment into the National Program "Vida Digna" and the probability of functional dependency by age, and stratified by gender and cognitive impairment. MATERIALS ANDE METHODS: We performed a cross sectional study, reviewing all registration forms of the program in order to identify socio-demographic variables and health conditions of older homeless persons at the time of enrollment in the program. We did a descriptive analysis of the socio-demographic variables and we also determined the frequency of health conditions. Furthermore, we determined the probability of functional dependency by age, and stratified by gender and cognitive impairment through a logistic regression model. The older homeless persons at the time of enrollment in the program were mostly single men, with a primary education or no education. The study subjects had a high frequency of chronic and mental diseases. 50% of them had certain level of functional impairment and roughly 70% had a certain level of cognitive impairment. The probability of functional dependency increased by age, and it was higher in women than in men. This probability increased according to the level of cognitive impairment. This study shows that older homeless persons are a vulnerable population not only because they live outdoors but also because they a have also for the high prevalence of chronic and mental diseases. These diseases prevent the homeless persons from living by themselves special care to overcome their situations.

  3. Presentation of valid correlations in some morphological variables and basic and specific motor skills in young people aged 13-14 years engaged in basketball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Miftari

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Study-research deals with younger students of both sexes aged 13-14, who, besides attending classes of physical education and sports, also practice in basketball schools in the city of Pristina. The experiment contains a total of 7 morphological variables, while four tests of basic motion skills and seven variables are from specific motion skills. In this study, the verification and analysis of the correlation of morphological characteristics and basic and situational motor skills in both groups of both sexes (boys and girls were treated. Based on the results obtained between several variables, valid correlations with high coefficients are presented, whereas among the variables are presented correlations with optimal values. The experimentation in question includes the number of 80 entities of both sexes; the group of 40 boys and the other group consisting of 40 girls who have undergone the tests for this study-experiment.

  4. Influences of obstructive sleep apnea on blood pressure variability might not be limited only nocturnally in middle-aged hypertensive males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Liang; Heizhati, Mulalibieke; Yao, Xiaoguang; Wang, Yingchun; Abulikemu, Suofeiya; Zhang, Delian; Zhou, Ling; Hong, Jing; Li, Nanfang

    2018-05-01

    In this cross-sectional study, we analyzed the potential association between sleep measures and blood pressure variability. Ninety-three middle-aged hypertensive males, who underwent polysomnography and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, were enrolled. Blood pressure variability was assessed by blood pressure standard deviation. Obstructive sleep apnea (apnea hypopnea index ≥ 15) was diagnosed in 52 (55.91%) patients. Mean body mass index and age were 27.77 ± 3.11 kg/m 2 and 44.05 ± 8.07 years, respectively. Hypertensive males with obstructive sleep apnea showed significantly higher 24-h, diurnal, and nocturnal diastolic blood pressure variability, compared to those without obstructive sleep apnea. While total cohort was further divided into two groups using the median of oxygen desaturation index, another indicator for severity of OSA, significant differences were also observed in 24-h, diurnal, and nocturnal diastolic blood pressure variability between two groups with higher and lower oxygen desaturation index. While subjects were also divided into two groups via the mean of sleep stage 1, hypertensive males with sleep stage 1 ≥ 8.1% showed significantly higher diurnal diastolic blood pressure variability than those with sleep stage 1 blood pressure variability; oxygen desaturation index of 3% with 24-h diastolic, diurnal, and nocturnal diastolic blood pressure; and sleep stage 1 was with 24-h and with diurnal diastolic blood pressure variability in all study subjects. Effects of obstructive sleep apnea on blood pressure variability may not be limited nocturnally.

  5. Demographics and remote locations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coppus, G. [Dynawise Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    Within the next decade, the number of people leaving the workforce will exceed the number of new entrants. The demand for workers is expected to increase in Alberta due to oil sands industry growth. Sixty-four per cent of all responding federal, provincial, and municipal government organizations have reported shortages in their work environments, and almost 8 in 10 organizations predict they will continue to be understaffed in the next 3 to 5 years. Tightness in the general labour market will have an impact on employers in remote locations, and planning is essential to avoid the creation of a mercenary culture and a reliance on compensation. Challenges found in remote locations include high turnover rates among recent hires; critical gaps in service length; aggressive retirement; and the fact that the local population is often seen as unqualified for many industrial jobs. This Power Point presentation suggested that although decisions to join or quit a company are often based on considerations such as the organizational environment and amount of compensation, the relationship between employees and management is the most important attribute in many career decisions. Rigorous quantitative analysis of current demographics combined with forecasting analysis may help to forestall recruitment difficulties for many companies. Productivity analyses, and the effects of work overload on absenteeism, attrition and quality of workmanship must also be examined. Many companies are now focusing on retention and development strategies on mid-career staff to address depletion, as well as redesigning procedures to operate with less skilled staff. It was concluded that extra efforts are now being made to attract non-traditional employees, and non-traditional employment models are being considered by some companies. refs., tabs., figs.

  6. Demographic, maternal, and infant health correlates of post-partum depression in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safadi, Reema R; Abushaikha, Lubna A; Ahmad, Muayyad M

    2016-09-01

    This cross-sectional correlational study examined post-partum depression and its relationship with demographic, maternal, and infant health problems in urban Jordanian women. Participants (n = 315) were selected from five maternal child healthcare centers and one major hospital in Amman, Jordan. Patient Health Questionnaire-9 was used to measure post-partum depression within 12 weeks of birth. A number of socio-demographic and health problems were examined for an association with post-partum depression. Results showed that 25% of post-partum women suffered moderate to severe depression and 50% of the sample had mild depression. None of the socio-demographic variables (age, education, employment, income) were significantly related to post-partum depression; however, two obstetric/infant variables (mode of birth and breastfeeding), were significantly associated with post-partum depression. There was a significant association between post-partum depression and 15 health problems of obstetric, gynecologic (i.e. episiotomy pain, infection), and general health conditions (i.e. fatigue, headache). Nurses and midwives need to emphasize post-partum depression screening, follow-up, and proper management of maternal and infant health factors predisposing to post-partum depression rather than merely focusing on women's inherent demographic factors. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  7. Influence of age, sexual maturation, anthropometric variables and body composition on flexibility DOI:10.5007/1980-0037.2010v12n3p151

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giseli Minatto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Since flexibility is an important component of health-related physical fitness at all ages, this parameter should be evaluated in children and adolescents because the ability to acquire and maintain levels of flexibility is greater in this age group. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate body weight, height, BMI and flexibility according to chronological age and sexual maturation and to determine the influence of these variables on flexibility in students from public and private schools. A cross-sectional descriptive and analytical study was conducted. The sample consisted of 2604 girls aged 8 to 17 years. Body weight, height, BMI, sexual maturation, and flexibility were evaluated. The data were analyzed descriptively using the following inferential tests: two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA followed by the Tukey post-hoc test, Pearson’s and Spearman’s simple correlation coefficients, and stepwise multiple regression analysis. The SPSS® 13.0 program was used for all statistical analyses, with a level of significance of p< 0.05. Significant differences with increasing age and maturation stage were observed for the variables body weight, height and BMI when compared to the subsequent year. In conclusion, body wei-ght and height increased with increasing age, especially between 8 and 13 years, and flexibility remained stable throughout childhood and adolescence.

  8. An assessment of the demographic and clinical correlates of the dimensions of alcohol use behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Gillian W; Shevlin, Mark; Murphy, Jamie; Houston, James E

    2010-01-01

    To identify population-based clinical and demographic correlates of alcohol use dimensions. Using data from a population-based sample of Great Britain (n = 7849), structural equation modelling (SEM) was used to identify associations between demographic and clinical variables and two competing dimensional models of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). A two-factor SEM fit best. In this model, Factor 1, alcohol consumption, was associated with male sex, younger age, lower educational attainment, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and suicide attempts. Factor 2, alcohol-related problems, was associated with the demographic variables (to a lesser extent) and to a wider range of clinical variables, including depressive episode, GAD, mixed anxiety and depressive disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, phobia, suicidal thoughts and suicide attempts. The one-factor SEM was associated with demographic and all assessed clinical correlates; however, this model did not fit the data well. Two main conclusions justify the two-factor approach to alcohol use classification. First, the model fit was considerably superior and, second, the dimensions of alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems vary considerably in their associations with measures of demographic and clinical risk. A one-factor representation of alcohol use, for instance, would fail to recognize that measures of affective/anxiety disorders are more consistently related to alcohol-related problems than to alcohol consumption. It is suggested therefore that to fully understand the complexity of alcohol use behaviour and its associated risk, future research should acknowledge the basic underlying dimensional structure of the construct.

  9. The intermediate-age pre-cataclysmic variables SDSS J172406+562003 and RE J2013+4002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimansky, V. V.; Borisov, N. V.; Nurtdinova, D. N.; Mitrofanova, A. A.; Vlasyuk, V. V.; Spiridonova, O. I.

    2012-06-01

    We have analyzed the physical status of the pre-cataclysmic variables SDSSJ172406+562003 and RE J2013+4002, which have evolved after their common-envelope stage a time t = 106-107 years. Spectroscopy and photometry of these systems were performed with the 6-m and 1-m telescopes of the Special Astrophysical Observatory. We demonstrate that emission lines in the spectra were formed solely by the reflection of radiation emitted by the white dwarfs on the surfaces of their cool companions, under conditions close to local thermodynamic equilibrium. These effects are also responsible for most of the objects' photometric variability amplitude. However, comparing the light curves of SDSS 172406 from different epochs, we find aperiodic brightness variations, probably due to spottedness of the surface of the secondary. Jointly analyzing the spectra, radial-velocity curves, and light curves of the pre-cataclysmic variables and modeling the reflection effects, we have derived their fundamental parameters. We demonstrate that the secondaries in these systems are consistent with evolutionary models for main-sequence stars and do not have the luminosity excesses characteristic of cool stars in young pre-cataclysmic variables.

  10. Frailty Across Age Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Zepeda, M U; Ávila-Funes, J A; Gutiérrez-Robledo, L M; García-Peña, C

    2016-01-01

    The implementation of an aging biomarker into clinical practice is under debate. The Frailty Index is a model of deficit accumulation and has shown to accurately capture frailty in older adults, thus bridging biological with clinical practice. To describe the association of socio-demographic characteristics and the Frailty Index in different age groups (from 20 to over one hundred years) in a representative sample of Mexican subjects. Cross-sectional analysis. Nationwide and population-representative survey. Adults 20-years and older interviewed during the last Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey (2012). A 30-item Frailty Index following standard construction was developed. Multi-level regression models were performed to test the associations of the Frailty Index with multiple socio-demographic characteristics across age groups. A total of 29,504 subjects was analyzed. The 30-item Frailty Index showed the highest scores in the older age groups, especially in women. No sociodemographic variable was associated with the Frailty Index in all the studied age groups. However, employment, economic income, and smoking status were more consistently found across age groups. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing the Frailty Index in a representative large sample of a Latin American country. Increasing age and gender were closely associated with a higher score.

  11. Variability of 14C reservoir age and air-sea flux of CO2 in the Peru-Chile upwelling region during the past 12,000 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carré, Matthieu; Jackson, Donald; Maldonado, Antonio; Chase, Brian M.; Sachs, Julian P.

    2016-01-01

    The variability of radiocarbon marine reservoir age through time and space limits the accuracy of chronologies in marine paleo-environmental archives. We report here new radiocarbon reservoir ages (ΔR) from the central coast of Chile ( 32°S) for the Holocene period and compare these values to existing reservoir age reconstructions from southern Peru and northern Chile. Late Holocene ΔR values show little variability from central Chile to Peru. Prior to 6000 cal yr BP, however, ΔR values were markedly increased in southern Peru and northern Chile, while similar or slightly lower-than-modern ΔR values were observed in central Chile. This extended dataset suggests that the early Holocene was characterized by a substantial increase in the latitudinal gradient of marine reservoir age between central and northern Chile. This change in the marine reservoir ages indicates that the early Holocene air-sea flux of CO2 could have been up to five times more intense than in the late Holocene in the Peruvian upwelling, while slightly reduced in central Chile. Our results show that oceanic circulation changes in the Humboldt system during the Holocene have substantially modified the air-sea carbon flux in this region.

  12. A Community Patient Demographic System

    OpenAIRE

    Gabler, James M.; Simborg, Donald W.

    1985-01-01

    A Community Patient Demographic System is described. Its purpose is to link patient identification, demographic and insurance information among multiple organizations in a community or among multiple registration systems within the same organization. This function requires that there be a competent patient identification methodology and clear definition of local responsibilities for number assignment and database editing.

  13. [Demographic characteristics of consumers in Indonesia?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananta, A

    1993-06-01

    "This paper presents a mosaic of business opportunities arising from the different demographic characteristics of the provinces in the western part of Indonesia. The author discusses the total number of population, density, and per capita income to [shed] some light on the volume of the market. He also presents the business impact of the [changes] in fertility, mortality, and the...life style of those aged 40-64." (SUMMARY IN ENG) excerpt

  14. A Preliminary Numerical Investigation on the Influence of Material Variability in the Early-Age Cracking Behavior of Restrained Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radlinska, Aleksandra; Pease, Bradley Justin; Weiss, Jason

    2007-01-01

    The restraint of drying, autogenous, or thermal shrinkage can result in the development of tensile residual stresses. If the residual stresses that develop are large enough, they may cause cracking in the concrete. Substantial research has focused on the development of test methods to assess stress...... development and the corresponding potential for cracking. These test methods frequently focus on the determination of material properties that can be used in deterministic computer programs to simulate stress development and cracking. While these models are a great step forward, variability is inherent...... in the material properties, the construction processes, and the environmental conditions (i.e., temperature and relative humidity). This paper presents results of considering variability in a model for predicting the time of shrinkage cracking. A Monte Carlo simulation procedure has been adopted to account...

  15. The impact of geographic, ethnic, and demographic dynamics on the perception of beauty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broer, Peter Niclas; Juran, Sabrina; Liu, Yuen-Jong; Weichman, Katie; Tanna, Neil; Walker, Marc E; Ng, Reuben; Persing, John A

    2014-01-01

    Beauty lies in the eyes of the beholder, but influenced by the individual's geographic, ethnic, and demographic background and characteristics. In plastic surgery, objective measurements are used as a foundation for aesthetic evaluations. This study assumes interdependence between variables such as country of residence, sex, age, occupation, and aesthetic perception. Computerized images of a model's face were generated with the ability to alter nasal characteristics and the projection of the lips and chin. A survey containing these modifiable images was sent to more than 13,000 plastic surgeons and laypeople in 50 different countries, who were able to virtually create a face that they felt to be the aesthetically "ideal" and most pleasing. Demographic information about the interviewees was obtained. Values of various aesthetic parameters of the nose were described along with their relationship to geography, demography, and occupation of the respondents. Interregional and ethnic comparison revealed that variables of country of residence, ethnicity, occupation (general public vs surgeon), and sex correlate along a 3-way dimension with the ideal projection of the lips and the chin. Significant interaction effects were found between variables of country of residence or ethnicity with occupation and sex of the respondents. What are considered the "ideal" aesthetics of the face are highly dependent on the individual's cultural and ethnic background and cannot simply and solely be defined by numeric values and divine proportions. As confirmed with this study, ethnic, demographic, and occupational factors impact peoples' perception of beauty significantly.

  16. Effects of Demographic Factors, Body Mass Index, Alcohol Drinking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    9.6) and in females, lower ... fill in a demographic self‑questionnaire that included information about age, gender, ..... of irritable bowel syndrome in young adult Malaysians: A survey .... the development of irritable bowel syndrome in adolescents:.

  17. Visit-to-Visit Blood Pressure Variability in Young Adulthood and Hippocampal Volume and Integrity at Middle Age: The CARDIA Study (Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Yuichiro; Reis, Jared P; Levine, Deborah A; Bryan, R Nick; Viera, Anthony J; Shimbo, Daichi; Tedla, Yacob G; Allen, Norrina B; Schreiner, Pamela J; Bancks, Michael P; Sidney, Stephen; Pletcher, Mark J; Liu, Kiang; Greenland, Philip; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M; Launer, Lenore J

    2017-12-01

    The aims of this study are to assess the relationships of visit-to-visit blood pressure (BP) variability in young adulthood to hippocampal volume and integrity at middle age. We used data over 8 examinations spanning 25 years collected in the CARDIA study (Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults) of black and white adults (age, 18-30 years) started in 1985 to 1986. Visit-to-visit BP variability was defined as by SD BP and average real variability (ARV BP , defined as the absolute differences of BP between successive BP measurements). Hippocampal tissue volume standardized by intracranial volume (%) and integrity assessed by fractional anisotropy were measured by 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging at the year-25 examination (n=545; mean age, 51 years; 54% women and 34% African Americans). Mean systolic BP (SBP)/diastolic BP levels were 110/69 mm Hg at year 0 (baseline), 117/73 mm Hg at year 25, and ARV SBP and SD SBP were 7.7 and 7.9 mm Hg, respectively. In multivariable-adjusted linear models, higher ARV SBP was associated with lower hippocampal volume (unstandardized regression coefficient [standard error] with 1-SD higher ARV SBP : -0.006 [0.003]), and higher SD SBP with lower hippocampal fractional anisotropy (-0.02 [0.01]; all P young adulthood may be useful in assessing the potential risk for reductions in hippocampal volume and integrity in midlife. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. Physiological age at harvest regulates the variability in postharvest ripening, sensory and nutritional characteristics of mango (Mangifera indica L.) cv. Coghshall due to growing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joas, Jacques; Vulcain, Emmanuelle; Desvignes, Claire; Morales, Emeline; Léchaudel, Mathieu

    2012-04-01

    Climacteric fruits are harvested at the green-mature stage and ripen during their marketing cycle. However, growing conditions induce variability into the maturity stage of mangoes at harvest, with an impact on their final quality. Assuming that the physiological age can be correctly evaluated by a criterion based on the variable chlorophyll fluorescence of the skin (F(v)) and that differences in physiological age depend on growing conditions, controlled stress experiments were carried out on mango fruit by manipulating either the leaf/fruit ratio or the light environment. Delays from 9 to 30 days were observed, depending on stress level and harvest stage, to obtain the same F(v) value. For moderate stress, fruit composition after ripening was partially compensated for, with little or no difference in sugar, dry matter, carotenoid and aroma contents. For more pronounced stress, the major metabolites were not particularly affected, but the synthesis capacity of carotenoids and aromas was lower after maturity. The ripening ability of a fruit is acquired on the tree and defines its postharvest changes. Control of the physiological age at harvest can minimise the variability observed under natural conditions and guarantee fruit batches whose postharvest changes will be relatively homogeneous. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Demographic corrections for the modified Telephone Screening for Cognitive Status

    OpenAIRE

    Dennett, Kathryn; Tometich, Danielle; Duff, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Despite the growing use of the modified Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status (mTICS) as a cognitive screening instrument, it does not yet have demographic corrections. Demographic data, mTICS, and a neuropsychological battery were collected from 274 community dwelling older adults with intact cognition or mild cognitive impairments. Age, education, premorbid intellect, and depression were correlated with mTICS scores. Using regression equations, age and education significantly predicted m...

  20. Age-related individual variability in memory performance is associated with amygdala-hippocampal circuit function and emotional pattern separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Stephanie L.; Noche, Jessica A.; Murray, Elizabeth A.; Yassa, Michael A.

    2018-01-01

    While aging is generally associated with episodic memory decline, not all older adults exhibit memory loss. Furthermore, emotional memories are not subject to the same extent of forgetting and appear preserved in aging. We conducted high-resolution fMRI during a task involving pattern separation of emotional information in older adults with and without age-related memory impairment (characterized by performance on a word-list learning task: low performers: LP vs. high performers: HP). We found signals consistent with emotional pattern separation in hippocampal dentate (DG)/CA3 in HP but not in LP individuals, suggesting a deficit in emotional pattern separation. During false recognition, we found increased DG/CA3 activity in LP individuals, suggesting that hyperactivity may be associated with overgeneralization. We additionally observed a selective deficit in basolateral amygdala—lateral entorhinal cortex—DG/CA3 functional connectivity in LP individuals during pattern separation of negative information. During negative false recognition, LP individuals showed increased medial temporal lobe functional connectivity, consistent with overgeneralization. Overall, these results suggest a novel mechanistic account of individual differences in emotional memory alterations exhibited in aging. PMID:27723500

  1. Age-related individual variability in memory performance is associated with amygdala-hippocampal circuit function and emotional pattern separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Stephanie L; Noche, Jessica A; Murray, Elizabeth A; Yassa, Michael A

    2017-01-01

    While aging is generally associated with episodic memory decline, not all older adults exhibit memory loss. Furthermore, emotional memories are not subject to the same extent of forgetting and appear preserved in aging. We conducted high-resolution fMRI during a task involving pattern separation of emotional information in older adults with and without age-related memory impairment (characterized by performance on a word-list learning task: low performers: LP vs. high performers: HP). We found signals consistent with emotional pattern separation in hippocampal dentate (DG)/CA3 in HP but not in LP individuals, suggesting a deficit in emotional pattern separation. During false recognition, we found increased DG/CA3 activity in LP individuals, suggesting that hyperactivity may be associated with overgeneralization. We additionally observed a selective deficit in basolateral amygdala-lateral entorhinal cortex-DG/CA3 functional connectivity in LP individuals during pattern separation of negative information. During negative false recognition, LP individuals showed increased medial temporal lobe functional connectivity, consistent with overgeneralization. Overall, these results suggest a novel mechanistic account of individual differences in emotional memory alterations exhibited in aging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Between-Individual Variability and Interpretation of Associations between Neurophysiological and Behavioral Measures in Aging Populations: Comment on Salthouse (2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbitt, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Salthouse (2011) argued that (a) variance between individuals on cognitive test scores remains constant between 20 and 90 years of age and (b) widely recognized problems of deducing functional relationships from patterns of correlations between measurements become especially severe for neuropsychological indices, especially for gross indices of…

  3. Age-Specific And Sexual Variability Of Morphological And Biomechanical Parameters Of Anterior Cerebral Artery Of Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.V. Kirillova

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In the experiment on monoaxonic longitudinal distension by tensile-testing machine Tira Test 28005 (Germany with loading unit - 100 N the general rigidity, breaking point and relative lengthening of anterior cerebral artery (АСА of adult people have been under study. Under the microscope on transverse sections the external diameter of the artery, its wall thickness have been measured and diameter of lumen have been calculated. In total 228 АСА (132 - from corpses of men, 92-from corpses of women have been investigated. They have been received in 16 hours after autopsy of adult people whose cause of death has not been connected with vascular cerebral pathology. It has been revealed that right АСА is longer and narrower than left one. ACA's wall length and thickness predominate in men in comparison with women in average of 5,4 - 13,0%. With years АСА lengthens, its external diameter increases. Biomechanical parameters of ACA's wall do not have any authentic sexual differences, they don't depend on the side of the arterial ring. With years the rigidity of АСА decreases, especially in middle age. In old age its general rigidity increases. It is connected with the increase of ACA's wall thickness. The ability of АСА to lengthening doesn't depend upon age. Experimental findings may be used as criteria of age standard of morphological and biomechanical parameters of АСА

  4. Children's Age, Intelligence and Sex as Variables Mediating Reactions to TV Commercials: Repetition and Content Complexity Implications for Advertisers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendon, Donald W.; And Others

    To learn if differences in age, intelligence, and sex account for differences in children's recall of TV commercials and in the degree of insistence with which they request that the advertised product be purchased, 54 gifted, 71 normal, and 53 educable mentally retarded children of both sexes were questioned after viewing commercials for breakfast…

  5. Disparities in Management of Cardiovascular Disease in Rural South Africa: Data From the HAALSI Study (Health and Aging in Africa: Longitudinal Studies of International Network for the Demographic Evaluation of Populations and Their Health Communities).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardim, Thiago Veiga; Reiger, Sheridan; Abrahams-Gessel, Shafika; Crowther, Nigel J; Wade, Alisha; Gómez-Olivé, F Xavier; Salomon, Joshua; Tollman, Stephen; Gaziano, Thomas A

    2017-11-01

    Optimal secondary prevention is critical for the reduction of repeated cardiovascular events, and the control of cardiovascular risk factors in this context is essential. Data on secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in sub-Saharan Africa are needed to inform intervention strategies with a particular focus on local disparities. The aim of this study was to assess CVD management in a rural community in northeast South Africa. We recruited adults aged ≥40 years residing in the Agincourt subdistrict of Mpumalanga province. Data collection included socioeconomic and clinical data, anthropometric measures, blood pressure, human immunodeficiency virus status, and point-of-care glucose and lipid levels. CVD was defined as self-report of myocardial infarction and stroke or angina diagnosed by Rose Criteria. A linear regression model was built to identify variables independently associated with the number of cardiovascular risk factors controlled. Of 5059 subjects, 592 (11.7%) met CVD diagnostic criteria. Angina was reported in 77.0% of these subjects, stroke in 25.2%, and myocardial infarction in 3.7%. Percent controlled of the 5 individual risk factors assessed were as follows: tobacco 92.9%; blood pressure 51.2%; body mass index 33.8%; low-density lipoprotein 31.4%; and waist-to-hip ratio 29.7%. Only 4.4% had all 5 risk factors controlled and 42.4% had ≥3 risk factors controlled. Male sex (β coefficient=0.44; 95% confidence interval, 0.25-0.63; P physical disability (β coefficient=0.40; 95% confidence interval, 0.16-0.65; P =0.001), and socioeconomic status (β coefficient=0.10; 95% confidence interval, 0.01-0.19; P =0.035) were directly associated with the number of risk factors controlled. Currently, CVD is not being optimally managed in this rural area of South Africa. There are significant disparities in control of CVD risk factors by sex, socioeconomic status, and level of disability. Efforts to improve secondary prevention in this population

  6. [The demographic potential of Russia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishnevskii, A

    1998-05-01

    This is a general review of current demographic trends in Russia. The author analyzes the decline in population size that is taking place at the end of the twentieth century, and traces its origins as far back as the disturbances associated with World War I, the Communist revolution, and the civil war that followed it. Political repression during the Stalinist period and the tribulations experienced during World War II also contributed to the current demographic crisis. The author discusses the changes in migration patterns and the declining fertility and increasing mortality rates. The decline in life expectancy is also addressed. Some comparisons are made with the demographic situation in other European countries.

  7. Risk stratification in middle-aged patients with congestive heart failure: prospective comparison of the Heart Failure Survival Score (HFSS) and a simplified two-variable model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zugck, C; Krüger, C; Kell, R; Körber, S; Schellberg, D; Kübler, W; Haass, M

    2001-10-01

    The performance of a US-American scoring system (Heart Failure Survival Score, HFSS) was prospectively evaluated in a sample of ambulatory patients with congestive heart failure (CHF). Additionally, it was investigated whether the HFSS might be simplified by assessment of the distance ambulated during a 6-min walk test (6'WT) instead of determination of peak oxygen uptake (peak VO(2)). In 208 middle-aged CHF patients (age 54+/-10 years, 82% male, NYHA class 2.3+/-0.7; follow-up 28+/-14 months) the seven variables of the HFSS: CHF aetiology; heart rate; mean arterial pressure; serum sodium concentration; intraventricular conduction time; left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF); and peak VO(2), were determined. Additionally, a 6'WT was performed. The HFSS allowed discrimination between patients at low, medium and high risk, with mortality rates of 16, 39 and 50%, respectively. However, the prognostic power of the HFSS was not superior to a two-variable model consisting only of LVEF and peak VO(2). The areas under the receiver operating curves (AUC) for prediction of 1-year survival were even higher for the two-variable model (0.84 vs. 0.74, P<0.05). Replacing peak VO(2) with 6'WT resulted in a similar AUC (0.83). The HFSS continued to predict survival when applied to this patient sample. However, the HFSS was inferior to a two-variable model containing only LVEF and either peak VO(2) or 6'WT. As the 6'WT requires no sophisticated equipment, a simplified two-variable model containing only LVEF and 6'WT may be more widely applicable, and is therefore recommended.

  8. Biological Variability and Impact of Oral Contraceptives on Vitamins B6, B12 and Folate Status in Women of Reproductive Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Samman

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Vitamins B6, B12 and folate play crucial metabolic roles especially during the reproductive years for women. There is limited reporting of within-subject variability of these vitamins. This study aimed to determine the within and between subject variability in serum vitamins B6, B12, folate and erythrocyte folate concentrations in young women; identify factors that contribute to variability; and determine dietary intakes and sources of these vitamins. Data were obtained from the control group of a trial aimed at investigating the effect of iron on the nutritional status of young women (age 25.2 ± 4.2 year; BMI 21.9 ± 2.2 kg/m2. The coefficients of variability within-subject (CVI and between-subject (CVG for serum vitamins B6, B12 and folate, and erythrocyte folate were calculated. Food frequency questionnaires provided dietary data. CVI and CVG were in the range 16.1%–25.7% and 31.7%–62.2%, respectively. Oral contraceptive pill (OCP use was associated (P = 0.042 with lower serum vitamin B12 concentrations. Initial values were 172 ± 16 pmol/L and 318 ± 51 pmol/L for OCP and non-OCP users, respectively; with differences maintained at four time points over 12 weeks. BMI, age, physical activity, alcohol intake and haematological variables did not affect serum or erythrocyte vitamin concentrations. Vitamin B12 intakes were derived from traditional and unexpected sources including commercial energy drinks. Young women using OCP had significantly lower serum vitamin B12 concentrations. This should be considered in clinical decision making and requires further investigation.

  9. Variability of the geothermal gradient across two differently aged magma-rich continental rifted margins of the Atlantic Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Gholamrezaie, Ershad; Scheck-Wenderoth, Magdalena (Dr.); Sippel, Judith (Dr.); Strecker, Manfred R. (Prof. Dr.)

    2018-01-01

    Abstract. The aim of this study is to investigate the shallow thermal field differences for two differently aged passive continental margins by analyzing regional variations in geothermal gradient and exploring the controlling factors for these variations. Hence, we analyzed two previously published 3-D conductive and lithospheric-scale thermal models of the Southwest African and the Norwegian passive margins. These 3-D models differentiate various sedimentary, crustal, and mantle units and i...

  10. Effects of paternal phenotype and environmental variability on age and size at maturity in a male dimorphic mite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smallegange, Isabel M.

    2011-04-01

    Investigating how the environment affects age and size at maturity of individuals is crucial to understanding how changes in the environment affect population dynamics through the biology of a species. Paternal phenotype, maternal, and offspring environment may crucially influence these traits, but to my knowledge, their combined effects have not yet been tested. Here, I found that in bulb mites ( Rhizoglyphus robini), maternal nutrition, offspring nutrition, and paternal phenotype (males are fighters, able to kill other mites, or benign scramblers) interactively affected offspring age and size at maturity. The largest effect occurred when both maternal and offspring nutrition was poor: in that case offspring from fighter sires required a significantly longer development time than offspring from scrambler sires. Investigating parental effects on the relationship between age and size at maturity revealed no paternal effects, and only for females was its shape influenced by maternal nutrition. Overall, this reaction norm was nonlinear. These non-genetic intergenerational effects may play a complex, yet unexplored role in influencing population fluctuations—possibly explaining why results from field studies often do not match theoretical predictions on maternal effects on population dynamics.

  11. Longitudinal variability of time-location/activity patterns of population at different ages: a longitudinal study in California