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Sample records for demographic transition process

  1. THE PROCESS AND EFFECTS OF DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION IN PENANG, MALAYSIA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Usman Haji Yaakob; Nik Norliati Fitri Md Nor

    2013-01-01

      This article describes the demographic transition in Penang, Malaysia based on the demographic transition theory, which explains the decline of birth and death rates in European countries during the 18th century...

  2. Second demographic transition de-blocked?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobić Mirjana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The text is re-examining the previously established dilemma related to whether Serbia (without Kosovo and Metohija is the country of second demographic transition, i.e.: has the transition been de-blocked, under the assumption that this is a worldwide historical process of transformation of industrialized countries. The last thesis, around which there exists a lot of controversy in the contemporary population theory, is however not dealt with in detail; to the contrary, it is used as the general theoretical framework for the exploration of the most recent tendencies in the transformation of nuptiality and fertility regime in Serbia, as well as in the western and countries in post-socialist transformation. Special attention is given to the ideational changes, more precisely to the specific features of the value profile of the Serbian population, which is one of the most important determinants of the societal framework, that acts in the back of the afore mentioned aggregate demographic indicators. Finally, the hypothesis is posed (which should be further investigated by means of in-depth research and complementary approach that the speeding-up of the second demographic transition and intensification of the individualisation not only of the partnership but of the parenthood as well, accompanied with the rise of living standard and social support to balancing work and family, would have produced important emancipating and, concomitantly, positive socioeconomic and demographic effects.

  3. Mortality versus Morbidity in the Demographic Transition

    OpenAIRE

    Aksan, Anna-Maria; Chakraborty, Shankha

    2014-01-01

    The link between the mortality and epidemiological transitions is used to identify the effect of the former on the fertility transition: a mortality transition that is not accompanied by improving morbidity causes slower demographic and economic change. In a model where children may die from infectious disease, childhood health affects human capital and noninfectious-disease-related adult mortality. When child mortality falls from lower prevalence, as it did in western Europe, labor productiv...

  4. The demographic transition: an attempt to reformulate a population theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofsten, E

    1981-01-01

    In this effort to reformulate the demographic transition theory, attention is directed to the following: Malthus and Karl Marx's criticism of his principle of population; the 1st stage of transition, i.e., high mortality, high fertility, and slow population growth; the 2nd stage of declining mortality; the 3rd stage of declining fertility; the 4th stage when mortality and fertility are both low; the growth potential; and the demographic transition in the 3rd world countries. The demographic transition theory has become popular among demographers, economists, historians, and others interested in studying the development of population over time since the end of World War 2. This interest has most likely been created by the anxiety over the population explosion in the 3rd world countries. Transition has made demographers believe that the period of rapid population growth will be automatically succeeded by a period of more or less constant population size. The question that arises is whether it is as simple as that. Demographic transition has to a great extent taken the place of Malthus' principle of population as a general theory of population. Demographic transition appears to describe in a satisfactory way the development of population which all currently industrialized countires have passed through, when going from the preindustrial to the present industrialized stage. The objectives to demographic transition as a general theory are considered. Some of the factors which have accounted for the decline in fertility in Europe may also apply to the 3rd world countries. 1 such factor is the effect of reduced infant and child mortality on the individual level. The fertility decline, caused by reduced infant and child mortality may, however, be of limited size. The great amount of unemployment in the 3rd world may affect fertility in a downward direction. The fertility decline in Europe occurred simultaneously with an industrialization process, which gradually covered the

  5. Revolution without ideology: demographic transition in East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, T D

    1980-01-01

    The acceleration of demographic transition in East Asia is a process of great potential import for the world. The most rapid and large scale transformation of demographic pattern in world history is being accomplished in this region. Demographic processes in other countries and regions have been viewed in the light of past events. Demographic transition has been accepted as a desirable goal, but its realization was believed subject to certain constraints. These include the need to attain high rates of economic growth in order to stimulate the transition and the longer period of time required to accomplish the transition. It was assumed that at least 2 generations would be subject to gradually diminishing rates of increase and slow cultural modification before transition entered its last phase. This interpretation of the preconditions and specific character of demographic transition has been subject to increasing challenge, and recent events in East Asia accentuate such doubts. Most new views begin with the premises that contemporary pretransition societies are not European in culture and the 1970s are not the 1880s. East Asia also differs culturally from other developing areas, including South and Southeast Asia. The most significant regional features are cultural. Demographic transition in the region began after World War 2 and somewhat differently in each East Asian country. The process began first in Japan. The 3rd phase was accomplished rapidly but not as a specific consequence of the modernization process. The end of World War 2 and the spurt in births accompanying military demobilization contributed to a population surge. The cultural factors of practicality, homogeneity, social discipline, and nearly universial literacy were decisive here. Abortion was legalized in 1948 and other forms of birth control were made readily available. Between 1947 and 1957 the birthrate was halved to 17/1000. In Taiwan and South Korea public concern about high rates of

  6. Turkey's Epidemiological and Demographic Transitions: 1931-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakar, Coşkun; Oymak, Sibel; Maral, Işıl

    2017-08-04

    The causes of death have changed with regard to the epidemiological and demographic events in society. There is no evidence of prior research into the epidemiological transition in Turkey. This transition in Turkey should be observed starting with the Ottoman Empire period (19th to early 20th century). However, information about the Ottoman Empire is quite limited. To discuss the epidemiological and demographic transitions in Turkey, using demographic, educational and urbanization data in our present study. A descriptive archive study. Mortality statistics dating from 1931 and published by the Turkish Statistical Institute were analysed, and the causes of death were coded and classified according to ICD-10. Other data were obtained from the published reports and studies regarding the issue. In the 1930s, Turkey's life expectancy was low (aged 40 years), fertility and mortality rates were high (respectively 45% and 31%), and the main causes of death were infectious diseases. Nowadays, life expectancy is close to 80 years, the total fertility rate has dropped to 2.1 per woman, and the main causes of death are chronic diseases and cancer. The population rate in the urban areas has increased steadily from 24.2% in 1927 to 77.3% in 2012. level of education has also increased during this period. In 1935, less than 10% of women were literate, and in 2013 90% were literate. Qualitative and quantitative increase have been observed in the presentation and access of healthcare services compared to the early years of the Republic. Turkey has been undergoing a modernization period in the last 200 years, and it is believed that the epidemiological and demographic transitions result from this period. This process has led to urbanization and an increase in the level of education, as well as a decrease in premature deaths, lower fertility rates, and an increase in the elderly population and chronic diseases. It is therefore our conclusion that Turkey needs policies regarding the

  7. [The demographic transition in Latin America and Europe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala De Cosio, M E

    1992-12-01

    This work describes and analyzes the "European model of demographic transition" and compares it to the fertility transition in Latin America, arguing that two different types of demographic transition coexist in Latin America. Chesnais has defined 3 principal postulates of the theory of demographic transition that he believes are universally valid: the precedence in time of mortality decline; the occurrence of reproductive transition in 2 phases, limitation of marriages followed by limitation of births; and the influence of economic growth on the initiation of the secular fertiilty decline. This work is largely limited to discussion of the first 2 postulates. In all the European transitions analyzed, mortality has declined before the occurrence of fertility changes. Exceptions cited in the literature have probably been caused by omissions or other problems in the data. The level of mortality at the beginning of the transition and the rate of decline differ, giving unique character to each transition. Imbalances resulting from mortality decline are at the root of modern fertility transitions. The French demographic transition was distinguished by early appearance of birth limitation by married couples, as part of the regulation of population growth. In the rest of Europe, during the pretransitional period, the traditional system of reproduction was regulated primarily by control of nuptiality. Only at a second stage was marital fertiity controlled, when limitation of marriage was no longer sufficient or had exceeded the limits of social acceptability. All countries of Northern and Western Europe recorded increased proportions definitively single as the demographic situation began to change, until the moment when couples began to limit births. The demographic transition in Latin America began at the end of the 19th century, with mortality decline. Fertility increased initially in Latin America as it had in Europe and for the same reasons, but the impact was greater

  8. Demographic shifts in the Czech Republic after 1989 : A second demographic transition view

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sobotka, T.; Zeman, K.; Kantorova, V.

    2003-01-01

    A dramatic change in fertility, family formation and living arrangements took place in the Czech Republic over the 1990s. The establishment of democracy, profound social transformation and transition to the market economy affected the values and demographic behaviour of the young Czech generation.

  9. Russian Federation : From the first to second demographic transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zakharov, Sergei

    2008-01-01

    The demographic transition in Russia was accelerated by several social cataclysms during the "Soviet type" modernization. Frequent changes in the timing of births and marriages engendered a mass "abortion culture". Contraceptive devices of poor quality were produced on a limited scale. The Soviet

  10. Demographic model of the Neolithic transition in Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrik Galeta

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Several recent lines of evidence indicate more intensive contact between LBK farmers and indigenous foragers in Central Europe (5600–5400 calBC. Strong continuity has been identified between Mesolithic and Neolithic material cultures; faunal assemblages, and isotopic analyses of diet have revealed a greater role of hunting in LBK communities; genetic analyses have suggested that the modern Central European gene pool is mainly of Palaeolithic origin. Surprisingly little attention has been paid to demographic aspects of the Neolithic transition. In our study, demographic simulations were performed to assess the demographic conditions that would allow LBK farmers to spread across central Europe without any admixture with Mesolithic foragers. We constructed a stochastic demographic model of changes in farming population size. Model parameters were constrained by data from human demography, archaeology, and human ecology. Our results indicate that the establishment of farming communities in Central Europe without an admixture with foragers was highly improbable. The demographic conditions necessary for colonization were beyond the potential of the Neolithic population. Our study supports the integrationists’ view of the Neolithic transition in Central Europe.

  11. The Second Demographic Transition in Israel: One for All?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgenia Bystrov

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This article explores family behaviours and attitudes in Israel over the last decades through the lens of the Second Demographic Transition (SDT. Israel is divided by religious affiliation, the level of religiosity, ethnic origin and timing of immigration. Although fertility transition to replacement level among certain societal groups has been previously shown, the question of how the transition unfolds in other domains remains open. The goal of this paper is to highlight the diversity of marital and fertility transitions and non-transitions among various groups of this heterogeneous society, and to compare Israel's transitions to European ones. The data sources which are used are cross-national large scale surveys, national representative surveys, and Population Register data. The data were disaggregated by religion, religiousness and ethnic origin. Emancipative value change, postponement of marriage, alternative living arrangements and a growing variety of fertility regimes were analyzed. A full range of pre-transitional, transitional, and post-transitional elements was found among the groups. Such sign of the SDT as growing childlessness was not found, and the spread of other features as unmarried cohabitation and non-marital childbearing was found limited. Population composition effects were isolated. It was found that the level of religiosity and the country of origin are important factors which differentiate family behaviours and attitudes. The connection between value orientation of the groups within Israel and their family behaviours is discussed. The socio-structural and institutional constraints that might impede further progression of the Second Demographic Transition in Israel are also discussed. Further research directions are suggested.

  12. The second demographic transition and the development level of Colombia departments, 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel C. Grajales A

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to analyze the behavior of some demographic characteristics for each department to identify the state of demographic transition and its relationship to the development level. Methodology: descriptive study based on secondary information sources published by the National Statistics Department and the National Planning Department. Results: the global fertility rate of the country was 2.5 in 2005. Chocó reported the highest rate whereas Bogotá reported the lowest. A total of 67% of Colombian states registered higher rates than the average rate in the country. Mortality rate of children in the country was 24.5, with the lowest rates registered in El Valle, Caldas, and Bogotá. The highest rates were registered in Arauca and Chocó. 26.6% of Colombian states show some advance in the demographic transition process. By contrast, 67% of the states are classified as lagged behind. There is a relation between the demographic transition index and the development indicators. Conclusion: Although some departments reach an advanced level of demographic transition, most of them still show high rates of infant mortality or fecundity which keep them behind in this process. Inequalities in living conditions of the country’s departments could be influencing the behavior of the demographic components analyzed.

  13. THE SECOND DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION THEORY: A Review and Appraisal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Batool; Morgan, S. Philip

    2017-01-01

    References to the second demographic transition (SDT) concept/theoretical framework have increased dramatically in the last two decades. The SDT predicts unilinear change toward very low fertility and a diversity of union and family types. The primary driver of these changes is a powerful, inevitable and irreversible shift in attitudes and norms in the direction of greater individual freedom and self-actualization. First, we describe the origin of this framework and its evolution over time. Second, we review the empirical fit of the framework to major changes in demographic and family behavior in the U.S., the West, and beyond. As has been the case for other unilinear, developmental theories of demographic/family change, the SDT failed to predict many contemporary patterns of change/difference. Finally, we review previous critiques and identify fundamental weaknesses of this perspective, and provide brief comparisons to selected alternative approaches. PMID:28798523

  14. Overview Chapter 6: The diverse faces of the Second Demographic Transition in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Sobotka

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This chapter discusses the concept of the second demographic transition (SDT and its relevance for explaining the ongoing changes in family and fertility patterns across Europe. It takes a closer look at the shifts in values and attitudes related to family, reproduction, and children, and their representation in different chapters in this collection. It re-examines the link between the second demographic transition and fertility, highlights its strong positive association with fertility at later childbearing ages, and suggests that the transition does not necessarily lead to sub-replacement fertility levels. Subsequently, it provides an extensive discussion on the progression of the SDT behind the former 'Iron Curtain.' To explain some apparent contradictions in this process, it employs a conceptual model of 'readiness, willingness, and ability' (RWA advocated by Lesthaeghe and Vanderhoeft (2001. It also explores the multifaceted nature of the second demographic transition between different social groups, and points out an apparent paradox: whereas lower-educated individuals often embrace values that can be characterised as rather traditional, they also frequently manifest family behaviour associated with the transition, such as non-marital childbearing, high partnership instability, and high prevalence of long-term cohabitation. This suggests that there may be two different pathways of the progression of the second demographic transition. The concluding section points out the role of structural constraints for the diffusion of the transition among disadvantaged social strata, highlights the importance of the 'gender revolution' for the SDT trends, and discusses the usefulness of the SDT framework.

  15. Which transition comes first? Urban and demographic transitions in Belgium and Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Bocquier

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several theories compete to explain the main drivers of urbanisation, past and present, in relation to both demographic transition and economic development. One hypothesis is that rural-to-urban migration is the driver of urbanisation; another is that urban mortality decline actually triggered urban transition. Objective: This paper reconsiders the relationship between demographic (vital migration and urban transitions by analysing the long-term contribution of natural and migratory movements to urban transition. The respective contributions of birth, death, and migration and their timing will indicate whether economic development, through labour force migration, or vital transition mainly determines urban transition. Methods: After examining the spatial dimension of the demographic transition theory, we use 19th and 20th century series on Sweden and Belgium to better identify the migration component of urban transition through the computation of growth difference between urban and rural areas, accounting for the often neglected reclassification effect. Results: In both Sweden and Belgium, migration is the direct or indirect (through reclassification engine of urban transition and its contribution precedes the onset of vital transition, while the vital transition has a secondary, unstable, and negative role in the urban transition. Conclusions: Changes in the economic sphere are reinstated as the underlying cause of population change, acting through the shift of human capital in space. Methodological consequences are then drawn for analysing vital and urban transitions in an increasingly interdependent world. Contribution: The paper contributes to the theoretical literature on urban and demographic transitions in relation to economic development. The proposed method evaluates migration contribution without having to measure it.

  16. Status competition, inequality, and fertility: implications for the demographic transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenk, Mary K; Kaplan, Hillard S; Hooper, Paul L

    2016-04-19

    The role that social status plays in small-scale societies suggests that status may be important for understanding the evolution of human fertility decisions, and for understanding how such decisions play out in modern contexts. This paper explores whether modelling competition for status--in the sense of relative rank within a society--can help shed light on fertility decline and the demographic transition. We develop a model of how levels of inequality and status competition affect optimal investment by parents in the embodied capital (health, strength, and skills) and social status of offspring, focusing on feedbacks between individual decisions and socio-ecological conditions. We find that conditions similar to those in demographic transition societies yield increased investment in both embodied capital and social status, generating substantial decreases in fertility, particularly under conditions of high inequality and intense status competition. We suggest that a complete explanation for both fertility variation in small-scale societies and modern fertility decline will take into account the effects of status competition and inequality. © 2016 The Author(s).

  17. How does variance in fertility change over the demographic transition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruschka, Daniel J; Burger, Oskar

    2016-04-19

    Most work on the human fertility transition has focused on declines in mean fertility. However, understanding changes in the variance of reproductive outcomes can be equally important for evolutionary questions about the heritability of fertility, individual determinants of fertility and changing patterns of reproductive skew. Here, we document how variance in completed fertility among women (45-49 years) differs across 200 surveys in 72 low- to middle-income countries where fertility transitions are currently in progress at various stages. Nearly all (91%) of samples exhibit variance consistent with a Poisson process of fertility, which places systematic, and often severe, theoretical upper bounds on the proportion of variance that can be attributed to individual differences. In contrast to the pattern of total variance, these upper bounds increase from high- to mid-fertility samples, then decline again as samples move from mid to low fertility. Notably, the lowest fertility samples often deviate from a Poisson process. This suggests that as populations move to low fertility their reproduction shifts from a rate-based process to a focus on an ideal number of children. We discuss the implications of these findings for predicting completed fertility from individual-level variables. © 2016 The Author(s).

  18. On the dynamics of the world demographic transition and financial-economic crises forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akaev, A.; Sadovnichy, V.; Korotayev, A.

    2012-05-01

    The article considers dynamic processes involving non-linear power-law behavior in such apparently diverse spheres, as demographic dynamics and dynamics of prices of highly liquid commodities such as oil and gold. All the respective variables exhibit features of explosive growth containing precursors indicating approaching phase transitions/catastrophes/crises. The first part of the article analyzes mathematical models of demographic dynamics that describe various scenarios of demographic development in the post-phase-transition period, including a model that takes the limitedness of the Earth carrying capacity into account. This model points to a critical point in the early 2050s, when the world population, after reaching its maximum value may decrease afterward stabilizing then at a certain stationary level. The article presents an analysis of the influence of the demographic transition (directly connected with the hyperexponential growth of the world population) on the global socioeconomic and geopolitical development. The second part deals with the phenomenon of explosive growth of prices of such highly liquid commodities as oil and gold. It is demonstrated that at present the respective processes could be regarded as precursors of waves of the global financial-economic crisis that will demand the change of the current global economic and political system. It is also shown that the moments of the start of the first and second waves of the current global crisis could have been forecasted with a model of accelerating log-periodic fluctuations superimposed over a power-law trend with a finite singularity developed by Didier Sornette and collaborators. With respect to the oil prices, it is shown that it was possible to forecast the 2008 crisis with a precision up to a month already in 2007. The gold price dynamics was used to calculate the possible time of the start of the second wave of the global crisis (July-August 2011); note that this forecast has turned out

  19. From First Demographic Transition to Second Demographic Transition: Reflections on the Modern Demographic Transition%从一次人口转变到二次人口转变——现代人口转变及其启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘爽; 卫银霞; 任慧

    2012-01-01

    Based on a brief analysis of the narrowly-defined demographic transition and the classical model, this paper argues that the proposed theory of the second demographic transition broadly interprets the internal motivation and mechanism of action of the demographic changes by drawing upon the demographic "intermediate variables", reflecting on the relationship between modern demographic transition and social changes at the macro, meso and micro levels. Demographic transition is a multidimensional dynamic historical process, involving a set of transitions on marriage, reproduction, family, health, population control etc. Demographic transition is not only demographic change, but more importantly, is its nested social change. The unprecedented close relationship between the two reflects the social changes and social needs. Over the past 30 years China has made its population be adapted to economic development through family planning. In the next 30 to 50 years or even longer, China should make economic and social development be adapted to the changes and needs of the population. The end of development is to improve population survival and enhance life quality.%在扼要解析狭义人口转变及其经典模型的基础上,认为第二次人口转变的提出,是结合人口“中间变量”从广义上阐释了入口变化的内在动因与作用机理,进而在宏观、中观和微观三个层面引入了对现代人口转变与社会变迁关系的思考。主张人口转变是一个多维的动态历史过程,蕴涵着婚姻、生育、家庭、健康、人口调控等系列转变。提出第二次人口转变在中国的城市地区已露端倪。最后特别指出人口转变不仅仅是入口变化,更重要的是将其嵌套的社会变迁,两者关系的空前紧密折射着社会变化与社会需求。过去30年中国通过计划生育让人口“适应”了经济腾飞,而今后三、五十年以至更长时间,应使人口的“主

  20. The demographic effects of technological change and capitalist transformation--a re-interpretation of the demographic transition theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maitra, P

    1992-06-01

    The interrelationship between demographic transition, capitalist transformation, and technological change in the 2 contrasting cases of the UK and India is explored. In the UK, technological change evolved from the extensive to the intensive phase, while technological change was introduced in India from the UK and other developed economies. The Demographic Transition Model is re-examined for these cases while the extensive and intensive phases of technological change with their effects on labor demand and consequent effects on fertility rate are analyzed. Changes in economic structure, demography, and factor pricing systems are presented as indicators of capitalist transformation of an economy. At the onset of capitalist transformation, population growth tends to decline as a result of increasing demand for labor in productive activities. Accordingly, the pattern of population growth depends upon the growth of demand for labor in productive activities which in turn depends upon the nature of the source of technological change; Demographic Transition theory ignores this point. Debate remains over whether imported technology, once reaching maturity, may effect capitalist transformation of economies toward true integrated development.

  1. Demographic transition and the dynamics of measles in six provinces in China: A modeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sheng; Ma, Chao; Hao, Lixin; Su, Qiru; An, Zhijie; Ma, Fubao; Xie, Shuyun; Xu, Aiqiang; Zhang, Yanyang; Ding, Zhengrong; Li, Hui; Cairns, Lisa; Wang, Huaqing; Luo, Huiming; Wang, Ning; Li, Li; Ferrari, Matthew J

    2017-04-01

    changes in response to both demographic and vaccination processes. Combining both processes in a novel catalytic model, we illustrate that age-specific incidence patterns reveal regional differences in the progress to measles elimination and the impact of vaccination controls in China. The shift in the age distribution of measles susceptibility in response to demographic and vaccination processes emphasizes the importance of progressive control strategies and measures to evaluate program success that anticipate and react to this transition in observed incidence.

  2. Demographics of Transition Discs in Ophiuchus and Taurus

    CERN Document Server

    Najita, Joan R; Muzerolle, James

    2015-01-01

    Transition disc systems are young stars that appear to be on the verge of dispersing their protoplanetary discs. We explore the nature of these systems by comparing the stellar accretion rates and disc masses of transition discs and normal T Tauri stars in Taurus and Ophiuchus. After controlling for the known dependencies of stellar accretion rate and disc mass and on age, stellar accretion rate on stellar mass, and disc mass on the presence of stellar or sub-stellar companions, we find that the normal T Tauri stars show a trend of stellar accretion rate increasing with disc mass. The transition discs tend to have higher average disc masses than normal T Tauri stars as well as lower accretion rates than normal T Tauri stars of the same disc mass. These results are most consistent with the interpretation that the transition discs have formed objects massive enough to alter the accretion flow, i.e., single or multiple giant planets. Several Ophiuchus T Tauri stars that are not known transition disc systems also...

  3. Demographic transition and potential for development: the case of Iraqi Kurdistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hadithi, T S; Shabila, N R; Al-Tawil, N G; Othman, S M

    2010-10-01

    The effect of population growth and demographic transitionon economic developmenthas been well documented. The population growth in Iraqi Kurdistan is passing through a critical stage of demographic transition. It is, in fact, extremely likely that the region will fail to efficiently move through the demographic transition and will experience a long period in the demographic trap, i.e. the population will grow steadily and rapidly owing to the high fertility and low mortality rates. With correct government policies in terms of promoting family planning programmes, should the political context allow, demographic transition can pass smoothly through this critical stage. Furthermore, if demographic transition in Kurdistan moves to the next stage, it will provide an important window of opportunity for economic development. Proper exploitation of this demographic window through investment in education, on-the-job training and health services, in addition to proper and appropriate exploitation of economic resources and suitable and productive use of the labour force, will result in significant economic development over the next few decades.

  4. The demographic transition influences variance in fitness and selection on height and BMI in rural Gambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtiol, Alexandre; Rickard, Ian J; Lummaa, Virpi; Prentice, Andrew M; Fulford, Anthony J C; Stearns, Stephen C

    2013-05-20

    Recent human history is marked by demographic transitions characterized by declines in mortality and fertility. By influencing the variance in those fitness components, demographic transitions can affect selection on other traits. Parallel to changes in selection triggered by demography per se, relationships between fitness and anthropometric traits are also expected to change due to modification of the environment. Here we explore for the first time these two main evolutionary consequences of demographic transitions using a unique data set containing survival, fertility, and anthropometric data for thousands of women in rural Gambia from 1956-2010. We show how the demographic transition influenced directional selection on height and body mass index (BMI). We observed a change in selection for both traits mediated by variation in fertility: selection initially favored short females with high BMI values but shifted across the demographic transition to favor tall females with low BMI values. We demonstrate that these differences resulted both from changes in fitness variance that shape the strength of selection and from shifts in selective pressures triggered by environmental changes. These results suggest that demographic and environmental trends encountered by current human populations worldwide are likely to modify, but not stop, natural selection in humans. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Lifetime reproduction and the second demographic transition: Stochasticity and individual variation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Daalen, S.; Caswell, H.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND In the last half of the previous century many developed countries went through a period of decreasing fertility rates, referred to as the second demographic transition. This transition is often measured using the Total Fertility Rate (TFR), which gives the mean number of children produced

  6. Intergenerational Transmission of Reproductive Behavior during the Demographic Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Julia A.; Sullivan, Allison R.; Hacker, J. David

    2012-01-01

    New evidence from the Utah Population Database (UPDB) reveals that at the onset of the fertility transition, reproductive behavior was transmitted across generations--between women and their mothers, as well as between women and their husbands' family of origin. Age at marriage, age at last birth, and the number of children ever born are positively correlated in the data, most strongly among first-born daughters and among cohorts born later in the fertility transition. Intergenerational ties, including the presence of mothers and mothers-in-law, influenced the hazard of progressing to a next birth. The findings suggest that the practice of parity-dependent marital fertility control and inter-birth spacing behavior derived in part from the previous generation and that the potential for mothers and mothers-in-law to help in the rearing of children encouraged higher marital fertility. PMID:22530253

  7. Spatial continuities and discontinuities in two successive demographic transitions: Spain and Belgium, 1880-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron Lesthaeghe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a study of how the synergisms between cultural and structural factors, which played a major role during the historical fertility and nuptiality transition (first demographic transition or FDT, have continued to condition demographic innovations connected to the "second demographic transition" (SDT. The continuity or discontinuity from the "first" to the "second" demographic transition is studied for spatial aggregates over more than a century in two national contexts, i.e., Belgium and Spain. Special attention is paid to the role of successive secularization waves in shaping the geographical patterns of both transitions. The study also shows that the maps of the two aspects of the SDT, i.e., the "postponement" and the "non-conformism" transitions respectively, are shaped by different determinants. Explanations are offered using the "Ready, Willing, and Able" paradigm, which allows us to uncover the different conditioning and limiting factors involved. The "non-conformist" transitions (control of marital fertility during the FDT and rise of cohabitation and non-conventional family formation during the SDT more closely mirror the history of secularization and the "Willingness" condition, whereas the fertility postponement aspect of the SDT mainly reflects female education and employment, or the "Readiness" condition. This generalization holds in both countries. However, in Belgium spatial continuity from FDT to SDT is connected to stable patterns of secularization, whereas in Spain it is linked to long standing differences with respect to female literacy and education.

  8. Mortality-fertility synergies during the demographic transition in the developed world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Barricarte, Jesús J

    2017-07-01

    The classic theory used to explain the demographic transition assumes that mortality is the key explanatory variable influencing the decline in fertility. However, the empirical results obtained in what is known as the Princeton European Fertility Project have led many specialists to question this assumption. Using both national and provincial aggregated data for 25 countries over a long time span, the analysis reported in this paper found that mortality does indeed play a fundamental role in accounting for the main demographic changes that occurred both before and during the transitional period. Others' research based on individual data has shown clearly that the number of surviving children was indeed an important factor for reproductive decisions. My analysis, using aggregated data, reached largely similar conclusions regarding the role of mortality in changing reproductive trends, via its impact on nuptiality and marital fertility at different stages of the demographic transition.

  9. The trade-off between fertility and education : evidence from before the demographic transition

    OpenAIRE

    Becker, Sascha O.; Cinnirella, Francesco; Woessmann, Ludger

    2010-01-01

    The trade-off between child quantity and education is a crucial ingredient of unified growth models that explain the transition from Malthusian stagnation to modern growth. We present first evidence that such a trade-off indeed existed before the demographic transition, exploiting a unique census-based dataset of 334 Prussian counties in 1849. Estimating two separate instrumental-variable models that instrument education by landownership inequality and distance to Wittenberg and fertility by ...

  10. Family Formation Trajectories in Romania, the Russian Federation and France : Towards the Second Demographic Transition?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potarca, Gina; Mills, Melinda; Lesnard, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    This study examines family formation trajectories as a manifestation of the second demographic transition (SDT) in three countries, comparing and contrasting two post-socialist countries (Romania and the Russian Federation) with France as benchmark country advanced in the SDT. By examining combined

  11. Partner relationships in the Netherlands: new manifestations of the Second Demographic Transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J. Latten; C.H. Mulder

    2013-01-01

    Partnership formation has rapidly and profoundly changed in theNetherlandssince the 1960s.Several scholars have placed these changes in the context of the Second Demographic Transition. We describe the main trends in the formation and dissolution of partnerships in theNetherlandsbetween the 1960/197

  12. Socioeconomic status and fertility before, during, and after the demographic transition: An introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Dribe

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite a long interest in the historical fertility transition, there is still a lack of knowledge about disaggregated patterns that could help us understand the mechanisms behind the transition. In previous research the widely held view is that there was a change in the association between social status and fertility in conjunction with the fertility transition, implying that fertility went from being positively connected to social status (higher status was connected with higher fertility to being negatively associated with fertility. Objective: The aim of this collection is to study socioeconomic patterns in the fertility transition in a variety of contexts using similar approaches and measures of socioeconomic status. Methods: All contributions use different kinds of micro-level socioeconomic and demographic data and statistical models in the analysis. Data either come from census-like records or population registers. Conclusions: There is no consistent evidence for the hypothesis that socioeconomic status was positively related to fertility before the demographic transition. While such a correlation was clearly present in some contexts it was clearly not in other contexts. There is more unanimous support for the idea that the upper-and middle classes acted as forerunners in the transition, while especially farmers were late to change their fertility behavior. It is also evident that both parity-specific stopping and prolonged birth intervals (spacing were important in the fertility transition.

  13. The Developed World's Demographic Transition - the Roles of Capital Flows, Immigration, and Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Hans Fehr; Sabine Jokisch; Laurence Kotlikoff

    2003-01-01

    The developed word stands at the fore of a phenomenal demographic transition. Over the next 30 years the number of elderly in the U.S., the EU, and Japan will more than double. At the same time, the number of workers available to pay the elderly their government-guaranteed pension and health care benefits will rise by less than 10 percent. The fiscal implications of these two demographic trends are alarming. Paying promised benefits will, it appears, require a doubling or more of payroll tax ...

  14. Demographic, epidemiological, and health transitions: are they relevant to population health patterns in Africa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuate Defo, Barthélémy

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies of trends in population changes and epidemiological profiles in the developing world have overwhelmingly relied upon the concepts of demographic, epidemiological, and health transitions, even though their usefulness in describing and understanding population and health trends in developing countries has been repeatedly called into question. The issue is particularly relevant for the study of population health patterns in Africa and sub-Saharan Africa, as the history and experience there differs substantially from that of Western Europe and North America, for which these concepts were originally developed. Objective The aim of this study is two-fold: to review and clarify any distinction between the concepts of demographic transition, epidemiological transition and health transition and to identify summary indicators of population health to test how well these concepts apply in Africa. Results Notwithstanding the characteristically diverse African context, Africa is a continent of uncertainties and emergencies where discontinuities and interruptions of health, disease, and mortality trends reflect the enduring fragility and instability of countries and the vulnerabilities of individuals and populations in the continent. Africa as a whole remains the furthest behind the world's regions in terms of health improvements and longevity, as do its sub-Saharan African regions and societies specifically. This study documents: 1) theoretically and empirically the similarities and differences between the demographic transition, epidemiological transition, and health transition; 2) simple summary indicators that can be used to evaluate their descriptive and predictive features; 3) marked disparities in the onset and pace of variations and divergent trends in health, disease, and mortality patterns as well as fertility and life expectancy trajectories among African countries and regions over the past 60 years; 4) the rapid decline in infant mortality and gains

  15. Demographic, epidemiological, and health transitions: are they relevant to population health patterns in Africa?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barthélémy Kuate Defo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies of trends in population changes and epidemiological profiles in the developing world have overwhelmingly relied upon the concepts of demographic, epidemiological, and health transitions, even though their usefulness in describing and understanding population and health trends in developing countries has been repeatedly called into question. The issue is particularly relevant for the study of population health patterns in Africa and sub-Saharan Africa, as the history and experience there differs substantially from that of Western Europe and North America, for which these concepts were originally developed. Objective: The aim of this study is two-fold: to review and clarify any distinction between the concepts of demographic transition, epidemiological transition and health transition and to identify summary indicators of population health to test how well these concepts apply in Africa. Results: Notwithstanding the characteristically diverse African context, Africa is a continent of uncertainties and emergencies where discontinuities and interruptions of health, disease, and mortality trends reflect the enduring fragility and instability of countries and the vulnerabilities of individuals and populations in the continent. Africa as a whole remains the furthest behind the world's regions in terms of health improvements and longevity, as do its sub-Saharan African regions and societies specifically. This study documents: 1 theoretically and empirically the similarities and differences between the demographic transition, epidemiological transition, and health transition; 2 simple summary indicators that can be used to evaluate their descriptive and predictive features; 3 marked disparities in the onset and pace of variations and divergent trends in health, disease, and mortality patterns as well as fertility and life expectancy trajectories among African countries and regions over the past 60 years; 4 the rapid decline in infant

  16. Non-marital pregnancy and the second demographic transition in Australia in historical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon Carmichael

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Australia has remarkably detailed data on non-marital pregnancy dating from 1908. They both offer insight into long-term trends in childbearing resulting from non-marital sexual activity and reveal in historical context key features of the second demographic transition and its genesis. Objective: Trends are traced in rates of non-marital conception of children ultimately born both outside and within marriage. A range of related indices is also presented in examining how demographic behaviour surrounding non-marital pregnancy (i helped generate the second demographic transition and (ii unfolded as a component of it. Methods: Core indices are rates of non-marital conception partitioned into additive components associated with marital and non-marital confinement. Data on non-marital and early marital births (at marriage durations 0-7 months are lagged back 38 weeks to a date of and age at conception basis to facilitate a common, unmarried, population at risk. Results: Post-war weakening of parental oversight of courtship was a fundamental trigger to the broader rejection of normative and institutional values that underpinned the second demographic transition. In tandem with denying the unmarried access to oral contraception it generated rampant youthful non-marital pregnancy, which undermined Judeo-Christian values, especially once abortion law reform occurred. Conclusions: Childbearing following non-marital conception transitioned rapidly after the 1960s from primarily the unintended product of youthful intercourse in non-coresidential relationships to mainly intended behaviour at normative reproductive ages in consensual unions. Family formation increasingly mixed non-marital births and premaritally and/or maritally conceived marital births.

  17. Detecting the Evolution of Deliberate Fertility Control before the Demographic Transition in Germany

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    Aliaksandr Amialchuk

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Pervious literature has established the existence of deliberate non-parity-specific fertility control in pre-transitional populations. However, less focus has been given to the timing of its onset. In addition, previous studies focused on the changes in fertility in response to the local prices of grains, which may be endogenous. OBJECTIVE This paper studies the emergence and evolution of deliberate fertility control by investigating the link between child mortality and economic stress on the one hand and non-parity-specific birth control on the other, in historic German villages between 1700 and 1900. METHODS Birth histories from fourteen German villages (1700-1900 and rye price series are used in a micro-level event history analysis. The fertility response of second and higher-order births to the mortality of children over age two and exogenous fluctuations in rye price are used as measures of the extent of deliberate non-parity-specific birth control. RESULTS Over the course of the demographic transition, the effect of the death of children generally increases after controlling for the effect of the death of children less than two years old. The negative fertility response to high rye prices before and in the year immediately following the price change occurred only after 1800. CONCLUSIONS The replacement and insurance effects associated with child mortality generally increased before the demographic transition. The emergence of the negative effect of high rye prices on fertility after 1800 further supports the presence and evolution of deliberate non-parity-specific fertility control before the demographic transition.

  18. A Life Space Perspective to Approach Individual Demographic Processes

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    Robette, Nicolas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe concept of life space refers to the different locations with which individualsinteract along their life course. In this article we present several methodologicalproposals to describe and measure various territories to which individualsrelate over time, taking advantage of a rich data source, the Biographies etentourage survey. We produce relevant indicators which can be used in thestudy of different demographic processes and demonstrate how this perspectiveelegantly formalizes the linked dynamics of interactive non-independenttrajectories in the case of the couples’ activity space.RésuméLe concept d’espace de vie désigne l’ensemble des lieux avec lesquels unindividu est en relation au cours de sa vie. Dans cet article, plusieurs méthodessont proposées pour décrire et mesurer les différents territoires auxquels lesindividus sont attachés au fil du temps, en mettant pour cela à profit la richessedes données de l’enquête Biographies et entourage. Plusieurs indicateurs sontconstruits, qui peuvent être utilisés pour l’étude de processus démographiquesvariés. La pertinence d’une perspective en termes d’espace de vie est enfinvalidée par l’analyse des interactions dynamiques entre trajectoires nonindépendantes,appliquée aux espaces d’activité des couples.

  19. The neolithic demographic transition in Europe: correlation with juvenility index supports interpretation of the summed calibrated radiocarbon date probability distribution (SCDPD as a valid demographic proxy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean S Downey

    Full Text Available Analysis of the proportion of immature skeletons recovered from European prehistoric cemeteries has shown that the transition to agriculture after 9000 BP triggered a long-term increase in human fertility. Here we compare the largest analysis of European cemeteries to date with an independent line of evidence, the summed calibrated date probability distribution of radiocarbon dates (SCDPD from archaeological sites. Our cemetery reanalysis confirms increased growth rates after the introduction of agriculture; the radiocarbon analysis also shows this pattern, and a significant correlation between both lines of evidence confirms the demographic validity of SCDPDs. We analyze the areal extent of Neolithic enclosures and demographic data from ethnographically known farming and foraging societies and we estimate differences in population levels at individual sites. We find little effect on the overall shape and precision of the SCDPD and we observe a small increase in the correlation with the cemetery trends. The SCDPD analysis supports the hypothesis that the transition to agriculture dramatically increased demographic growth, but it was followed within centuries by a general pattern of collapse even after accounting for higher settlement densities during the Neolithic. The study supports the unique contribution of SCDPDs as a valid demographic proxy for the demographic patterns associated with early agriculture.

  20. The New Demographic Transition: Most Gains in Life Expectancy Now Realized Late in Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggleston, Karen N.; Fuchs, Victor R.

    2013-01-01

    The share of increases in life expectancy realized after age 65 was only about 20 percent at the beginning of the 20th century for the US and 16 other countries at comparable stages of development; but that share was close to 80 percent by the dawn of the 21st century, and is almost certainly approaching 100 percent asymptotically. This new demographic transition portends a diminished survival effect on working life. For high-income countries at the forefront of the longevity transition, expected lifetime labor force participation as a percent of life expectancy is declining. Innovative policies are needed if societies wish to preserve a positive relationship running from increasing longevity to greater prosperity. PMID:25076810

  1. Increase in Preterm Birth during Demographic Transition in Chile from 1991 to 2012

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    Paulina López Orellana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Universally mothers at 35 years or more have had higher maternal and perinatal risks. This study analyzed the trend of this group in maternal population and determined their risk of having premature children, during the demographic transition period in Chile. Materials and Methods. Epidemiological study conducted in the population of simple live births registered in the Chilean National Database Births of 1991–2012. Analyses were performed in three categories of maternal age: 35 or more, under 35, and 20 to 29 years. The risk of prematurity was measured by crude and Adjusted Odds Ratio from logistic regression model. Results. Mothers aged 35 and older increased in population from 10.6% in 1991 to 16.7% in 2012 and presented an overall prevalence of preterm delivery of 6.7%, higher prevalence than 20–29 age group (4.7%. In aging mothers, the Odds Ratio for preterm birth adjusted for education, marital status, and parity was 1.68 (95% CI (1.66–1.70 compared to mothers aged 20–29. All differences were significant (p<0.001. Conclusions. During Chilean demographic transition, mothers aged 35 or older increased steadily and significantly maintaining higher risks of preterm births. Policies to prevent and monitor the late motherhood could contribute to stopping the current trend.

  2. Increase in Preterm Birth during Demographic Transition in Chile from 1991 to 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Orellana, Paulina

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Universally mothers at 35 years or more have had higher maternal and perinatal risks. This study analyzed the trend of this group in maternal population and determined their risk of having premature children, during the demographic transition period in Chile. Materials and Methods. Epidemiological study conducted in the population of simple live births registered in the Chilean National Database Births of 1991–2012. Analyses were performed in three categories of maternal age: 35 or more, under 35, and 20 to 29 years. The risk of prematurity was measured by crude and Adjusted Odds Ratio from logistic regression model. Results. Mothers aged 35 and older increased in population from 10.6% in 1991 to 16.7% in 2012 and presented an overall prevalence of preterm delivery of 6.7%, higher prevalence than 20–29 age group (4.7%). In aging mothers, the Odds Ratio for preterm birth adjusted for education, marital status, and parity was 1.68 (95% CI (1.66–1.70)) compared to mothers aged 20–29. All differences were significant (p < 0.001). Conclusions. During Chilean demographic transition, mothers aged 35 or older increased steadily and significantly maintaining higher risks of preterm births. Policies to prevent and monitor the late motherhood could contribute to stopping the current trend. PMID:26413549

  3. Socioeconomic and demographic diversity in the health status of elderly people in a transitional society, Kerala, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mini, G K

    2009-07-01

    Kerala State in India is the most advanced in terms of demographic and epidemiological transition and has the highest proportion of elderly population. The study examines the socio-demographic correlates of health status of elderly persons in Kerala in terms of three components: perceived health status, physical mobility and morbidity level. Overall health status was measured by combining the above three components of health status. Data from the 60th National Sample Survey Organization (NSSO) on Condition and Health Care of the Aged in Kerala in 2004 was used for the study. Significant socio-demographic differentials in health status were noted. While women report less morbidity, perceived well-being and physical mobility was better for men. This anomaly can be explained by variations in the components of socio-demographic factors. The findings call for urgent health care strategies for elderly persons in different socio-demographic groups in transitional Indian states like Kerala.

  4. Learning-by-doing, population pressure, and the theory of demographic transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strulik, H

    1997-01-01

    The long-term effects of two interdependent relations between economic growth and population growth are discussed. The empirical work of Boserup (1981) was utilized, which focused on rural, sparsely populated economies with low income per capita. According to the formulation of the population-push hypothesis, learning-by-doing effects in production lead to increasing returns to scale and, therefore, to a positive correlation between economic and population growth. In accordance with the theory of demographic transition, the population growth rate initially increases with rising income levels and then declines. The approach originating from Cigno (1984) modified the economic model, which allowed the establishment of two different stable equilibria. Regarding this relationship, the existence and stability of low-income and high-income equilibrium was shown in a neoclassical growth model. Under plausible conditions a demo-economic transition from the first to the second steady-state took place. The instability of the Malthusian steady-state is also possible when a country develops along a path of economic growth which is compatible with the demographic transition. In this context, learning means the application of new techniques of agrarian production. In developed economies with a stable population the learning-or-doing decision lead to accumulation of human capital and the invention of new technologies and goods. The interdependence of income-determined population growth and learning-by-doing may serve as an explanation for the weak and partly controversial empirical support for an overall correlation between income and population growth. The result yielded a meaningful interpretation of the population-push hypothesis, which is consistent with the empirical findings on the correlation between economic and population growth.

  5. Agency in Fertility Decisions in Western Europe During the Demographic Transition: A Comparative Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reher, David Sven; Sandström, Glenn; Sanz-Gimeno, Alberto; van Poppel, Frans W A

    2017-02-01

    We use a set of linked reproductive histories taken from Sweden, the Netherlands, and Spain for the period 1871-1960 to address key issues regarding how reproductive change was linked specifically to mortality and survivorship and more generally to individual agency. Using event-history analysis, this study investigates how the propensity to have additional children was influenced by the number of surviving offspring when reproductive decisions were made. The results suggest that couples were continuously regulating their fertility to achieve reproductive goals. Families experiencing child fatalities show significant increases in the hazard of additional births. In addition, the sex composition of the surviving sibset also appears to have influenced reproductive decisions in a significant but changing way. The findings offer strong proof of active decision-making during the demographic transition and provide an important contribution to the literature on the role of mortality for reproductive change.

  6. Climate change underlies global demographic, genetic, and cultural transitions in pre-Columbian southern Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehren-Schmitz, Lars; Haak, Wolfgang; Mächtle, Bertil; Masch, Florian; Llamas, Bastien; Cagigao, Elsa Tomasto; Sossna, Volker; Schittek, Karsten; Isla Cuadrado, Johny; Eitel, Bernhard; Reindel, Markus

    2014-07-01

    Several archaeological studies in the Central Andes have pointed at the temporal coincidence of climatic fluctuations (both long- and short-term) and episodes of cultural transition and changes of socioeconomic structures throughout the pre-Columbian period. Although most scholars explain the connection between environmental and cultural changes by the impact of climatic alterations on the capacities of the ecosystems inhabited by pre-Columbian cultures, direct evidence for assumed demographic consequences is missing so far. In this study, we address directly the impact of climatic changes on the spatial population dynamics of the Central Andes. We use a large dataset of pre-Columbian mitochondrial DNA sequences from the northern Rio Grande de Nasca drainage (RGND) in southern Peru, dating from ∼840 BC to 1450 AD. Alternative demographic scenarios are tested using Bayesian serial coalescent simulations in an approximate Bayesian computational framework. Our results indicate migrations from the lower coastal valleys of southern Peru into the Andean highlands coincident with increasing climate variability at the end of the Nasca culture at ∼640 AD. We also find support for a back-migration from the highlands to the coast coincident with droughts in the southeastern Andean highlands and improvement of climatic conditions on the coast after the decline of the Wari and Tiwanaku empires (∼1200 AD), leading to a genetic homogenization in the RGND and probably southern Peru as a whole.

  7. Dimensions of Rational Decision-Making during the Demographic Transition; Aranjuez (Spain Revisited

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    David Reher

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A set of linked reproductive histories taken from the Spanish town of Aranjuez during the demographic transition is used to address key issues regarding reproductive change and reproductive choice. This paper builds on the existing literature and especially on the findings first shown in Reher & Sanz-Gimeno (2007 and in Van Poppel et al. (2012 where the links between childhood survival and reproductive decision-making were specified. This paper goes beyond the original ones in two important ways: (a the sex composition of the surviving sibset is included in the analysis and (b behavior is modeled by means of event history analysis. In these models, controls for the survival status of the previous child are introduced so as to distinguish between biological factors related to the cessation of breastfeeding and both short term (child replacement and more long-term reproductive strategies. The results offer convincing proof that couples were continually regulating their fertility in order to achieve reproductive goals both in terms of net fertility and of the sex composition of the resulting sibset. Here results show that both sexes were desired by parents but that lack of surviving males had greater influence on fertility behavior. As expected, controls for the survival status of the previous-born child were important though they did not diminish appreciably the overall effect of the number of surviving offspring. This article offers strong proof for the existence of active decision-making during the demographic transition and applies a method to model these behaviors over the full reproductive history of the couple.

  8. Transition: Intended and unintended processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellman, M.

    2005-01-01

    An analysis of the relationship between transition as that was intended by the international financial institutions and transition as it actually happened. Attention is paid to what has been learned by experience about stabilisation, liberalisation and privatisation. Attention is also given to the

  9. Democratic transition and foreign direct investment: Transition process matters

    OpenAIRE

    Derbali, Ahmed; Trabelsi Masmoudi, Lilia; Zitouna, Habib

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides evidence on the relationship between foreign direct investment (FDI) and democratic transition. We propose first an econometric analysis of the determinants of the democratization process through a "probit" model. We consider a sample of 173 countries, with 44 that have experienced a democratic transition over the period 1980-2010. Our results reveal that variables related to human development and individual freedom facilitate the initiation of the democratic process in co...

  10. Value Orientations and the Second Demographic Transition (SDT in Northern, Western and Southern Europe: An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The core issue in this article is the empirical tracing of the connection between a variety of value orientations and the life course choices concerning living arrangements and family formation. The existence of such a connection is a crucial element in the so-called theory of the Second Demographic Transition (SDT. The underlying model is of a recursive nature and based on two effects: firstly, values-based self-selection of individuals into alternative living arrangement or household types, and secondly, event-based adaptation of values to the newly chosen household situation. Any testing of such a recursive model requires the use of panel data. Failing these, only "footprints" of the two effects can be derived and traced in cross-sectional data. Here, use is made of the latest round of the European Values Surveys of 1999-2000, mainly because no other source has such a large selection of value items. The comparison involves two Iberian countries, three western European ones, and two Scandinavian samples. The profiles of the value orientations are based on 80 items which cover a variety of dimensions (e.g. religiosity, ethics, civil morality, family values, social cohesion, expressive values, gender role orientations, trust in institutions, protest proneness and post-materialism, tolerance for minorities etc.. These are analysed according to eight different household positions based on the transitions to independent living, cohabitation and marriage, parenthood and union dissolution. Multiple Classification Analysis (MCA is used to control for confounding effects of other relevant covariates (age, gender, education, economic activity and stratification, urbanity. Subsequently, Correspondence Analysis is used to picture the proximities between the 80 value items and the eight household positions. Very similar value profiles according to household position are found for the three sets of countries, despite the fact that the onset of the SDT in

  11. Socioeconomic transitions as common dynamic processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gundlach, Erich; Paldam, Martin

    Long-run socioeconomic transitions can be observed as stylized facts across countries and over time. For instance, poor countries have more agriculture and less democracy than rich countries, and this pattern also holds within countries for transitions from a traditional to a modern society....... It is shown that the agricultural and the democratic transitions can be partly explained as the outcome of dynamic processes that are shared among countries. We identify the effects of common dynamic processes with panel estimators that allow for heterogeneous country effects and possible cross......-country spillovers. Common dynamic processes appear to be in line with alternative hypotheses on the causes of socioeconomic transitions....

  12. Prevalence and demographic correlates of overweight and obesity among children in a transitional southeastern European population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyska, Jolanda; Mersini, Ehadu; Mone, Iris; Burazeri, Genc

    2014-10-01

    Our aim was to assess the prevalence and demographic correlates of overweight and obesity among children in Albania, a transitional country in Southeastern Europe. A nationwide survey was conducted in Albania in 2013 including a representative sample of 5,810 schoolchildren aged 7.0-9.9 years (51.5 % boys aged 8.5 ± 0.6 years and 49.5 % girls aged 8.4 ± 0.6 years; overall response: 97 %). All children were measured height and weight, based on which the body mass index (BMI) was calculated. The criteria of the World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) were used to describe the distribution of BMI among children. Overall, mean value of BMI was 16.4 ± 2.4 (16.7 ± 2.5 in boys vs. 16.2 ± 2.4 in girls, P < 0.001). As per WHO criteria, 9.8 % of the boys were obese versus 5.5 % of the girls (P < 0.001). The prevalence of both overweight and obesity were remarkably higher among urban children compared with their rural counterparts (17.9 vs. 10.5 and 11.9 vs. 4.0 %, respectively, P < 0.001). As per IOTF criteria, 3.8 % of the boys were obese compared with 2.8 % of the girls (P < 0.001). The prevalence of overweight and obesity were similarly higher among urban children than in rural children (15.6 vs. 7.3 and 5.5 vs. 1.4 %, respectively, P < 0.001). Our findings indicate that Albania is in the middle of nutritional transition with a high prevalence of overweight and obesity among children aged 7.0-9.9 years. This is particularly evident in urban areas of the country. Conversely, our data do not indicate a double burden of malnutrition among children in Albania.

  13. Mortality decline and reproductive change during the Dutch demographic transition: revisiting a traditional debate with new data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Poppel, F.W.A.; Reher, D.S.; Sanz-Gimeno, A.; Sanchez-Dominguez, M.; Beekink, E.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND According to classic demographic transition theory, mortality change is the key factor that triggers a decline in fertility. Research on this topic has mostly relied on aggregate or time series data. Since fertility is based on the joint decisions of couples when confronted with specific

  14. The neolithic demographic transition and oral health: The Southeast Asian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Anna; Oxenham, Marc F

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this article is to present new oral health data from Neolithic An Son, southern Vietnam, in the context of (1) a reassessment of published data on other Neolithic, Bronze, and Iron Age Southeast Asian dental series, and (2) predictions of the Neolithic Demographic Transition (NDT). To this end, frequencies for three oral conditions (caries, antemortem tooth loss, and alveolar lesions) were investigated for seven Southeast Asian adult dental series from Thailand and Vietnam with respect to time period, age-at-death and sex. A clear pattern of elevated rates for oral disease in the Neolithic followed by a marked improvement in oral health during the Bronze and Iron Ages was observed. Moreover, rates of caries and antemortem tooth loss for females were almost without exception higher than that for males in all samples. The consensus view among Southeast Asian bioarchaeologists that oral health did not decline with the adoption/intensification of agriculture in Southeast Asia, can no longer be supported. In light of evidence for (1) the low cariogenicity of rice; (2) the physiological predisposition of females (particularly when pregnant) to poorer oral health; and (3) health predictions of the NDT model with respect to elevated levels of fertility, the most plausible chief explanation for the observed patterns in oral health in Southeast Asia is increased levels of fertility during the Neolithic, followed by a decline in fertility during the subsequent Bronze and Iron Ages.

  15. Modeling of budgetary funding influence on socio-demographic processes of a region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Vladimirovna Vasil'eva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a method of modeling socio-demographic processes in a region based on the minimax approach. In this method, the simulated socio-demographic processes reflect the performance of a population fertility age model, reproductive systems and the structure of mortality, as management impact tools of fiscal spending on socially significant budget items (health, physical culture and sport, social policy, education, environmental protection are considered. Testing methodology on the examples of the Russian Federation subjects included in the Ural Federal District is presented. Peculiarities of influence of funding of each socially important item on the social and demographic processes in the regions of the Ural Federal District are shown. Priorities of distribution of funds based on the level of budgetary provision in the region to ensure optimization of socio-demographic development of the region are shaped.

  16. The effects of socioeconomic and cultural characteristics of regions on the spatial patterns of the Second Demographic Transition in Finland

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    Elina Mäenpää

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The article studies to what extent regional socioeconomic and cultural characteristics explain spatial patterns in the Second Demographic Transition in Finland. The country's 75 functional regions are used as area units. A summary indicator of the transition based on divorce and cohabitation is used as the dependent variable. The results show that the spatial pattern is mainly determined according to the regional level of urbanization, but the effect is mediated by cultural characteristics (secularization and support for the socialist and green parties. The cultural characteristics have only a modest independent effect.

  17. Testing three evolutionary models of the demographic transition: Patterns of fertility and age at marriage in urban South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenk, Mary K

    2009-01-01

    Over the last three decades many authors have addressed the demographic transition from the perspective of evolutionary theory. Some authors have emphasized parental investment factors such as the costs of raising children, others have emphasized the effects of mortality and other forms of risk, and others have emphasized the biased transmission of cultural norms from people of high status. Yet the literature says little about the relative strengths of each of these types of motivations or about which ones are more likely to serve as the primary impetus for large-scale demographic change. In this paper, I examine how each of these factors has influenced the demographic transition in urban South India during the course of the 20th century using two measures of fertility transition: number of surviving children and age at marriage. I find that investment-related, risk-related, and cultural transmission predictors all have significant individual effects on the outcome variables, which persist when they are entered in combination. When the three types of predictors are compared, however, investment-related models appear to provide more robust explanations for patterns in both fertility and age of marriage. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. [The new aging society: demographic transition and its effects on old-age insurance and care of the elderly in China].

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    Liu, T; Flöthmann, E-J

    2013-07-01

    In China, fundamental changes in population development have occurred during the past 50 years. The demographic transition in China required only a few years, while in most European countries this process took several decades. The fertility and mortality rates have declined very quickly, like in Japan and South Korea. China is one of the countries that has passed through the transition process the quickest. In the following article, this development is considered in more detail. Even if the fertility and mortality rates should stabilize at a new low level, which today certainly cannot be conclusively stated, the age effects will persist for the next few decades. The demographic aging during recent years will increase enormously in the coming decades. This development leads to far-reaching social and political challenges. The demographic aging in China is associated with a loss of function of the family. Both developments have a strong impact on the old-age insurance and on old-age care. Only a few years ago did politics and society start to respond with comprehensive reforms. For example, a modern pension system was introduced, but only in urban areas of China. Rural populations are still waiting for such reforms even today. Currently, there is a pilot project to gain experience with a pension system for the entire population. In contrast to the old-age insurance, in China there is very little public interest in old-age care because the elderly have until now been only a matter for the family. In the near future, the changing role of family and demographic aging will require a greater discussion about the care of older people in China.

  19. THE TRANSITION AND PRIVATIZATION PROCESSES IN ROMANIA

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    Razvan HAGIMA

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The transition to an economy that operates on market principles represents a period of profound changes based on redefining the paradigms of development. After more than 20 years from the 1989 events, Romania has already completed some important steps towards an open market economy. The path to this main objective was sinuous, with frequent acceleration and stumbling. This paper offers a view of the complex process of privatization in Romania after the fall of the communist regime, with a detailed approach on the transition process as well. The accent falls on the economic development of the country during the mentioned period.

  20. Mortality decline and reproductive change during the Dutch demographic transition: Revisiting a traditional debate with new data

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    Frans Van Poppel

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND According to classic demographic transition theory, mortality change is the key factor that triggers a decline in fertility. Research on this topic has mostly relied on aggregate or time series data. Since fertility is based on the joint decisions of couples when confronted with specific fertility-childhood mortality outcomes, a focus on the experiences of individual couples is needed. Recently, Reher and Sanz-Gimeno used this approach to analyze individual longitudinal data for the Spanish town of Aranjuez. OBJECTIVE We investigate whether, in a country and in populations characterized by varying cultural and socioeconomic circumstances, family organization, and demographic regimes, the same mechanisms influenced the process of fertility decline as in Spain. METHODS The study uses micro longitudinal data from the Historical Sample of the Netherlands for a period stretching from the last quarter of the 19th century to the middle of the 20th century, and demographic measures identical to those used in the Spanish study to test whether the decline in fertility was triggered by the decline in mortality at the level of the family. As religious groups and social classes differed in their ability to correctly assess the implications of mortality levels, and in their willingness, readiness, and ability to react to these changes by adapting their reproductive behavior, we also compared the effect of mortality decline by the religion and the social class of the couples. RESULTS We observed that childhood survival had clear effects on reproduction, the chances of having another child, and the length of the intervals between births, which indicates that this variable was crucial for fertility decisions. This pattern was especially strong after 1900. There were rather consistent and expected differences in the reactions to the survival of children by social class and religious group. Whereas skilled workers were rather sensitive to the number of

  1. ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL ASPECTS OF THE DEMOGRAPHIC AGEING PROCESS IN THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA

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    Olga SÂRBU

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of this paper consists in analyzing economic and social aspects of demographic aging process in Moldova. To interpret the accumulated data and calculations performed analytical method of calculation tabular method and graphical method was applied. Intense process of aging is associated with changes in all spheres of social and economic life and affects equally the interests of older people and society as a whole. In Republic of Moldova aging population has grown in the last two decades, being conditioned both declining birth rate, which is very low and does not provide simple reproduction of the population and the mass migration of population that leads to the depopulation of the country. Maintaining the natural and migration increase with negative values amplifies the negative demographic deterioration of the country, which influences economic development, competitiveness and stability of the country and welfare of its citizens. In this situation it is necessary to respond positively to the challenges of demographic change through the complex and multisectoral approaches designed to correct current unfavorable demographic evolutions.

  2. The Career Transition Process: A Qualitative Exploration of Korean Middle-Aged Workers in Postretirement Employment

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    Kim, Seon-Joo

    2014-01-01

    Today's society, shaped by demographic changes and a global economy, has created different employment trends and work lives that result in adults' engaging in postretirement second careers. This phenomenon is a common occurrence in rapidly aging societies like Korea. This qualitative study examined the postretirement career transition process of…

  3. Application of Glass Transition in Food Processing.

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    Balasubramanian, S; Devi, Apramita; Singh, K K; Bosco, S J D; Mohite, Ashish M

    2016-01-01

    The phenomenon of glass transition has been employed to food products to study their stability. It can be applied as an integrated approach along with water activity and physical and chemical changes in food in processing and storage to determine the food stability. Also associated with the changes during agglomeration crystallization, caking, sticking, collapse, oxidation reactions, nonenzymatic browning, and microbial stability of food system. Various techniques such as Differential Scanning Calorimetry, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, etc. have been developed to determine the glass transition temperature (Tg) of food system. Also, various theories have been applied to explain the concept of Tg and its relation to changes in food system. This review summarizes the understanding of concept of glass transition, its measurement, and application in food technology.

  4. Correlation analysis of transitional processes of chronorhythms

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    Strinadko, Marina M.; Timochko, Katerina B.; Strinadko, Olena M.; Abramov, Igor V.

    1999-11-01

    The biological system reaction on spasmodic change of a phase of sine wave revolting force is investigated. The model researches for the biosystem unit that is described by linear differential equation of the second order are carried out. Possibility of time asymmetry in adaptation and transitional processes of biological units, at spasmodic change of phase identical modulo and opposite on the sign is shown. The residual in time of adaptation depends on state of biosystem's unit at the moment of perturbation.

  5. Socio-demographic, behavioral, and health correlates of nutrition transition dietary indicators in San Juan, Puerto Rico.

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    Colón-Ramos, Uriyoán; Pérez-Cardona, Cynthia M; Monge-Rojas, Rafael

    2013-11-01

    To identify socio-demographic, behavioral, and health-related correlates of food preferences in Puerto Rico that will help determine Caribbean-region populations vulnerable to nutrition transition. Data from a cross-sectional study of a representative sample of 858 adults residing in the San Juan Metropolitan Area of Puerto Rico were analyzed. Multivariable ordinal logistic regressions were used to model the frequency of consumption of 1) fruits and vegetables, 2) tubers/starchy root vegetables, 3) fried foods, and 4) Western-style fast foods as a function of socio-demographic, behavioral, and health-related characteristics. Higher frequency of consumption of fruits and vegetables was associated with being physically active and older and having a medium to high level of education, whereas intake of tubers was associated with being older, having a low income, not using government insurance, and having elevated levels of triglycerides. Frequency of consumption of fast food was associated with younger age, higher income, 12-15 years of formal education, and a higher body mass index (BMI), whereas frequency of consumption of fried food was associated with being younger and male, not being a smoker, and having elevated levels of fasting blood glucose. The results indicate a nutrition transition in Puerto Rico with health consequences for the Caribbean region. The characteristics of this nutrition transition seem to be determined by income, education, and age, but may also be dictated by access to various food groups. These results set the stage for needed investigation of environmental and individual-level factors that could shape patterns in food consumption.

  6. Changes of marital behavior and family patterns in post-socialist countries: Delayed, incomplete or specific second demographic transition?

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    Petrović Mina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper starts by questioning the theory of second demographic transition (SDT and its universal relevance in the field of marriage behavior and family organization in low fertility context, arguing for more differentiated approaches. With an aim to illustrate the contextual specifics of post-socialist countries in general and of Serbia in particular, the author claims that analyzed changes have not just been delayed or incomplete in comparison to more developed European countries, but shaped by specific modernization processes, which led to rationally developed strategies in overcoming structural risks, although, without ideational changes typical to the theory of SDT. Slow changes in marital behavior and family organization in Serbia are illustrated in recent sociological (empirical research findings. The perceived changes are linked to specific structural risks (war, slow transformation and enduring economic hardships, weak state and low trust in institutions, etc and value characteristics (persistence of materialism and traditionalism, but with increasing ambivalence. The connection between structural and ideational changes is considered through social stratification variable by relying on Coale's model on necessary preconditions for behavioral changes as well as on social deprivation concept. Having in mind upper social strata (more educated and better off, the value changes precede the behavioral that are adapted to economic uncertainty, which still force more traditional marital and family patterns. Therefore, there is a rank of different options, from extended family (for a short period at the beginning of marriage or after divorce to separated leaving (of married partners in parental households (due to refusing the extended family option thus creating quite specific "living apart together" form, combined with dominant strategy of prolonging the marriage. Hence, for upper social strata, marriage is still a universal but negotiable

  7. Empirical Succession Mapping and Data Assimilation to Constrain Demographic Processes in an Ecosystem Model

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    Kelly, R.; Andrews, T.; Dietze, M.

    2015-12-01

    Shifts in ecological communities in response to environmental change have implications for biodiversity, ecosystem function, and feedbacks to global climate change. Community composition is fundamentally the product of demography, but demographic processes are simplified or missing altogether in many ecosystem, Earth system, and species distribution models. This limitation arises in part because demographic data are noisy and difficult to synthesize. As a consequence, demographic processes are challenging to formulate in models in the first place, and to verify and constrain with data thereafter. Here, we used a novel analysis of the USFS Forest Inventory Analysis to improve the representation of demography in an ecosystem model. First, we created an Empirical Succession Mapping (ESM) based on ~1 million individual tree observations from the eastern U.S. to identify broad demographic patterns related to forest succession and disturbance. We used results from this analysis to guide reformulation of the Ecosystem Demography model (ED), an existing forest simulator with explicit tree demography. Results from the ESM reveal a coherent, cyclic pattern of change in temperate forest tree size and density over the eastern U.S. The ESM captures key ecological processes including succession, self-thinning, and gap-filling, and quantifies the typical trajectory of these processes as a function of tree size and stand density. Recruitment is most rapid in early-successional stands with low density and mean diameter, but slows as stand density increases; mean diameter increases until thinning promotes recruitment of small-diameter trees. Strikingly, the upper bound of size-density space that emerges in the ESM conforms closely to the self-thinning power law often observed in ecology. The ED model obeys this same overall size-density boundary, but overestimates plot-level growth, mortality, and fecundity rates, leading to unrealistic emergent demographic patterns. In particular

  8. The transition process: Stimulating free entrepreneurship

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    Stojanović Božo J.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The text consists of two parts. In the first we expound the thesis that transition is actually a process of creation of institutional preconditions for development of private entrepreneurship at a given moment and under the inherited circumstances. To create an environment that stimulates free entrepreneurship and enables a successful transition requires a lot of knowledge, creativity and pragmatism (there is no general model. The rest remains on the entrepreneurs. In the second part we analyse the experience of FRY before and after the change of regime. During the former regime FRY was an example of degenerative connection between politics and economy geared to prevent reforms. The task of the new government is to make a radical break with the earlier practice. If the reform is not radical and not aiming to create an institutional environment that fully stimulates competition and private entrepreneurship (which has not been the case so far, it has no good prospects to succeed.

  9. Maternal risk of breeding failure remained low throughout the demographic transitions in fertility and age at first reproduction in Finland.

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    Jianghua Liu

    Full Text Available Radical declines in fertility and postponement of first reproduction during the recent human demographic transitions have posed a challenge to interpreting human behaviour in evolutionary terms. This challenge has stemmed from insufficient evolutionary insight into individual reproductive decision-making and the rarity of datasets recording individual long-term reproductive success throughout the transitions. We use such data from about 2,000 Finnish mothers (first births: 1880s to 1970s to show that changes in the maternal risk of breeding failure (no offspring raised to adulthood underlay shifts in both fertility and first reproduction. With steady improvements in offspring survival, the expected fertility required to satisfy a low risk of breeding failure became lower and observed maternal fertility subsequently declined through an earlier age at last reproduction. Postponement of the age at first reproduction began when this risk approximated zero-even for mothers starting reproduction late. Interestingly, despite vastly differing fertility rates at different stages of the transitions, the number of offspring successfully raised to breeding per mother remained relatively constant over the period. Our results stress the importance of assessing the long-term success of reproductive strategies by including measures of offspring quality and suggest that avoidance of breeding failure may explain several key features of recent life-history shifts in industrialized societies.

  10. Period and cohort dynamics in fertility norms at the onset of the demographic transition in Kenya 1978-1998.

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    White, R G; Hall, C; Wolff, B

    2007-05-01

    A characteristic of African pre-transitional fertility regimes is large ideal family size. This has been used to support claims of cultural entrenchment of high fertility. Yet in Kenya fertility rates have fallen. In this paper this fall is explored in relation to trends in fertility norms and attitudes using four sequential cross-sectional surveys spanning the fertility transition in Kenya (1978, 1984, 1989 and 1998). The most rapid fall in the reported ideal family size occurred between 1984 and 1989, whilst the most rapid fall in the total fertility rate occurred 5 to 10 years later, between 1989 and 1998. Thus these data, spanning the fertility transition in Kenya, support the traditional demographic model that demand for fertility limitation drives fertility decline. These data also suggest that the decline in fertility norms over time was partly a period effect, as the reported ideal family size was seen to fall simultaneously in all age cohorts, and partly a cohort effect, as older age cohorts reporting higher ideal family sizes were replaced by younger cohorts reporting lower ideal family sizes. These data also suggest that a new fertility norm of four children may have developed by 1989 and continued until 1998. This is consistent with, and perhaps could have been used to predict, the stall in the Kenyan fertility decline after 1998.

  11. Demographic changes and nationalism.

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    Vishnevskii, A G

    1995-01-01

    This article examines the different characteristics of the many peoples inhabiting what used to be the Soviet Union and communist Eastern Europe, including Yugoslavia. The differences among these nationalities, or ethnic groups, are illustrated using the example of demographic modernization, showing how different peoples have or have not passed through the demographic transition process. The author looks at ethnic differences in mortality, fertility, natural increase, and migration, as well as economic and social inequalities among ethnic groups. The prospects for inter-ethnic conflict are assessed.

  12. Hierarchial mark-recapture models: a framework for inference about demographic processes

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    Link, W.A.; Barker, R.J.

    2004-01-01

    The development of sophisticated mark-recapture models over the last four decades has provided fundamental tools for the study of wildlife populations, allowing reliable inference about population sizes and demographic rates based on clearly formulated models for the sampling processes. Mark-recapture models are now routinely described by large numbers of parameters. These large models provide the next challenge to wildlife modelers: the extraction of signal from noise in large collections of parameters. Pattern among parameters can be described by strong, deterministic relations (as in ultrastructural models) but is more flexibly and credibly modeled using weaker, stochastic relations. Trend in survival rates is not likely to be manifest by a sequence of values falling precisely on a given parametric curve; rather, if we could somehow know the true values, we might anticipate a regression relation between parameters and explanatory variables, in which true value equals signal plus noise. Hierarchical models provide a useful framework for inference about collections of related parameters. Instead of regarding parameters as fixed but unknown quantities, we regard them as realizations of stochastic processes governed by hyperparameters. Inference about demographic processes is based on investigation of these hyperparameters. We advocate the Bayesian paradigm as a natural, mathematically and scientifically sound basis for inference about hierarchical models. We describe analysis of capture-recapture data from an open population based on hierarchical extensions of the Cormack-Jolly-Seber model. In addition to recaptures of marked animals, we model first captures of animals and losses on capture, and are thus able to estimate survival probabilities w (i.e., the complement of death or permanent emigration) and per capita growth rates f (i.e., the sum of recruitment and immigration rates). Covariation in these rates, a feature of demographic interest, is explicitly

  13. Socio-demographic factors and selected clinical characteristics of patients with retinal vein occlusions in transitional Albania

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    Manushaqe Rustani-Batku

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of our study was to assess the distribution of socio-demographic factors and the clinical profile of individuals diagnosed with retinal vein occlusion (RVO in Albania, a former communist country in South-eastern Europe which has been undergoing a rapid transition in the past decades. Methods: This study was carried out in 2013-2016 at the Primary Health Care Centre No. 2 in Tirana municipality, which is the capital of Albania. During this timeframe, on the whole, 44 patients were diagnosed with RVO at this primary health care centre (17 women and 27 men; overall mean age: 69.5±11.5 years. The diagnosis of RVO was based on signs and symptoms indicating a quick reduction of the sight (vision, fundoscopy, fluorescein angiography and the optical coherence tomography. Data on socio-demographic factors and clinical characteristics were also gathered for each study participant. Results: The prevalence of glaucoma was considerably higher in men than in women (67% vs. 24%, respectively, P=0.01. Diabetic retinopathy was somehow more prevalent in women than in men (18% vs. 11%, respectively, whereas an opposite finding was noted for the presence of hypertensive retinopathy (6% vs. 11%, respectively. The prevalence of cataract was higher in female patients compared with their male counterparts (18% vs. 7%, respectively, P=0.36. Both macular oedema and papillary oedema were almost equally distributed in men and in women (22% vs. 18% and 4% vs. 6%, respectively. All female patients had comorbid conditions compared to 85% of their male counterparts (P=0.15. The prevalence of hypertension was almost identical in both sexes (52% in men vs. 53% in women, whereas the prevalence of diabetes was somehow higher in men than in women (26% vs. 18%, respectively.   Conclusion: This is one of the very few studies informing about the distribution of socio-demographic factors and selected clinical characteristics of individuals diagnosed with RVO in

  14. A demographic transition altered the strength of selection for fitness and age-specific survival and fertility in a 19th century American population.

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    Moorad, Jacob A

    2013-06-01

    Modernization has increased longevity and decreased fertility in many human populations, but it is not well understood how or to what extent these demographic transitions have altered patterns of natural selection. I integrate individual-based multivariate phenotypic selection approaches with evolutionary demographic methods to demonstrate how a demographic transition in 19th century female populations of Utah altered relationships between fitness and age-specific survival and fertility. Coincident with this demographic transition, natural selection for fitness, as measured by the opportunity for selection, increased by 13% to 20% over 65 years. Proportional contributions of age-specific survival to total selection (the complement to age-specific fertility) diminished from approximately one third to one seventh following a marked increase in infant survival. Despite dramatic reductions in age-specific fertility variance at all ages, the absolute magnitude of selection for fitness explained by age-specific fertility increased by approximately 45%. I show that increases in the adaptive potential of fertility traits followed directly from decreased population growth rates. These results suggest that this demographic transition has increased the adaptive potential of the Utah population, intensified selection for reproductive traits, and de-emphasized selection for survival-related traits. © 2013 The Author(s). Evolution © 2013 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  15. Socioeconomic and demographic drivers of red and processed meat consumption: implications for health and environmental sustainability.

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    Clonan, Angie; Roberts, Katharine E; Holdsworth, Michelle

    2016-08-01

    Red and processed meat (RPM) intake varies widely globally. In some high-income countries (HIC) the last decade has witnessed an overall decline or stabilisation in the consumption of RPM, in contrast to emerging economies where its consumption continues to increase with rising income and rapid urbanisation. The production and consumption of RPM have become major concerns regarding the environmental impacts of livestock in particular, but also because of associations between high RPM consumption and diet-related non-communicable disease. Therefore, it is important to identify socioeconomic and demographic drivers of the consumption of RPM. This paper explores how consumption of RPM differs with age, gender, socioeconomic status and in different global contexts. There are some key socioeconomic and demographic patterns in RPM consumption. Men tend to consume RPM more often and in higher quantities, and there is evidence of a social gradient in HIC, with lower socioeconomic groups consuming RPM more often and in larger quantities. Patterns for consumption with age are less clear cut. It is apparent that consumers in HIC are still consuming high levels of RPM, although the downward shifts in some socioeconomic and demographic groups is encouraging and suggests that strategies could be developed to engage those consumers identified as high RPM consumers. In low- and middle-income countries, RPM consumption is rising, especially in China and Brazil, and in urban areas. Ways of encouraging populations to maintain their traditional healthy eating patterns need to be found in low- and middle-income countries, which will have health, environmental and economic co-benefits.

  16. Transition-Independent Decentralized Markov Decision Processes

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    Becker, Raphen; Silberstein, Shlomo; Lesser, Victor; Goldman, Claudia V.; Morris, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    There has been substantial progress with formal models for sequential decision making by individual agents using the Markov decision process (MDP). However, similar treatment of multi-agent systems is lacking. A recent complexity result, showing that solving decentralized MDPs is NEXP-hard, provides a partial explanation. To overcome this complexity barrier, we identify a general class of transition-independent decentralized MDPs that is widely applicable. The class consists of independent collaborating agents that are tied up by a global reward function that depends on both of their histories. We present a novel algorithm for solving this class of problems and examine its properties. The result is the first effective technique to solve optimally a class of decentralized MDPs. This lays the foundation for further work in this area on both exact and approximate solutions.

  17. Research on Methods of Processing Transit IC Card Information and Constructing Transit OD Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiuhua; Li, Jin; Peng, Han

    Transit OD matrix is of vital importance when planning urban transit system. Traditional transit OD matrix constructing method needs a large range of spot check survey. It is expensive and needs long cycle time to process information. Recently transit IC card charging systems have been widely applied in big cities. Being processed reasonably, transit passenger information stored in IC card database can turn into information resource. It will reduce survey cost a lot. The concept of transit trip chain is put forward in this paper. According to the characteristics of closed transit trip chain, it discusses how to process IC card information and construct transit OD matrix. It also points out that urban transit information platform and data warehouse should be constructed, and how to integrate IC card information.

  18. How do demographic transitions and public health policies affect patients with Parkinson’s disease in Brazil?

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    Bovolenta, Tânia M; Felicio, Andre C

    2017-01-01

    Brazil is currently experiencing a significant demographic transition characterized by a decrease in fertility rates and an exponential increase in the number of elderly citizens, which presents a special challenge for the health care professionals. More than other portions of the population, the elderly are most commonly affected by chronic diseases such as Parkinson’s disease. Policymakers contend that Brazil is reasonably well-prepared regarding elderly health care, with policies that aim to ensure the quality of life and the well-being of this portion of the population. However, what happens in practice falls short of what the Brazilian Constitution sets forth. Specifically, there is a clear contradiction between what the law recognizes as being a citizen’s rights and the implementation of guidelines. Because health financing in Brazil remains relatively low, the civil society tries to fill in the gaps as much as possible in the treatment of elderly patients suffering from chronic diseases such as Parkinson’s disease. In this review, we outline the current legislation in Brazil regarding the elderly and in particular, patients with Parkinson’s disease, in the context of a rapidly aging population. PMID:28182156

  19. Deciphering the relative weights of demographic transition and vaccination in the decrease of measles incidence in Italy.

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    Merler, Stefano; Ajelli, Marco

    2014-02-22

    In Italy, during the course of the past century to the present-day, measles incidence underwent a remarkable decreasing trend that started well before the introduction of the national immunization programme. In this work, we aim at examining to what extent both the demographic transition, characterized by declining mortality and fertility rates over time, and the vaccination programme are responsible for the observed epidemiological pattern. Making use of a non-stationary, age-structured disease transmission model, we show that in the pre-vaccination era, from 1901 to 1982, the decline in birth rates has resulted in a drastic decrease in the effective transmission rate, which in turn has determined a declining trend of measles incidence (from 25.2 to 10.3 infections per 1000 individuals). However, since 1983, vaccination appears to have become the major contributing factor in the decrease of measles incidence, which otherwise would have remained stable as a consequence of the nearly constant birth rates. This led to a remarkable decrease in the effective transmission rate, to a level well below the critical threshold for disease persistence. These findings call for the adoption of epidemiological models, which deviate the age structure from stationary equilibrium solutions, to better understand the biology of infectious diseases and evaluate immunization programmes.

  20. Individuation in Slovene emerging adults: its associations with demographics, transitional markers, achieved criteria for adulthood, and life satisfaction.

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    Zupančič, Maja; Komidar, Luka; Levpušček, Melita Puklek

    2014-12-01

    The study investigated associations of Slovene emerging adults' age, gender, living situation, romantic relationship, and employment status with aspects of individuation in relation to mother and father. Controlling for demographic variables and transitional markers of adulthood, we further explored the contribution of individuation measures to individuals' perceptions of achieved criteria for adulthood and life satisfaction. The participants provided self-reports on the Individuation Test for Emerging Adults, the Satisfaction With Life Scale, and the list of Achieved Criteria for Adulthood. Age and living out of parental home were positively associated with self-reliance in relation to both parents, whereas female gender was related to higher levels of connectedness and seeking parental support. Along with age and involvement in a romantic relationship, connectedness and self-reliance predicted adulthood criteria attainment and life satisfaction. The results support the models of individuation that emphasize growing autonomy and retaining connectedness to parents as pathways towards personal adjustments. Copyright © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Population and development beyond the first demographic transition: a focus on the experience of east and southeast Asian countries

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    Gavin W. Jones

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper covers a wide scope, focusing on some trends in East and Southeast Asia that may be of interest to Latin America. The first demographic transition has essentially been completed in both regions. The issue is what should now be the focus of our consideration of population and development? East Asian countries are now stressing issues of ultra-low fertility, and policies to raise fertility. They are not comfortable with the prospect of making up future deficits through international migration. The paper also deals briefly with studies of dynamics of change in mega-urban regions, and argues that comparative studies on Latin America and Asia could be valuable. Issues of poverty, development, and equity are then addressed, with particular emphasis on the role of education as a key to equality and development. One dilemma is that in East Asia, the generally commendable obsession with education is one factor making for very low levels of fertility. Finally, the paper touches on population and environmental issues.

  2. Density dependence in a recovering osprey population: demographic and behavioural processes.

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    Bretagnolle, V; Mougeot, F; Thibault, J-C

    2008-09-01

    1. Understanding how density-dependent and independent processes influence demographic parameters, and hence regulate population size, is fundamental within population ecology. We investigated density dependence in growth rate and fecundity in a recovering population of a semicolonial raptor, the osprey Pandion haliaetus [Linnaeus, 1758], using 31 years of count and demographic data in Corsica. 2. The study population increased from three pairs in 1974 to an average of 22 pairs in the late 1990s, with two distinct phases during the recovery (increase followed by stability) and contrasted trends in breeding parameters in each phase. 3. We show density dependence in population growth rate in the second phase, indicating that the stabilized population was regulated. We also show density dependence in productivity (fledging success between years and hatching success within years). 4. Using long-term data on behavioural interactions at nest sites, and on diet and fish provisioning rate, we evaluated two possible mechanisms of density dependence in productivity, food depletion and behavioural interference. 5. As density increased, both provisioning rate and the size of prey increased, contrary to predictions of a food-depletion mechanism. In the time series, a reduction in fledging success coincided with an increase in the number of non-breeders. Hatching success decreased with increasing local density and frequency of interactions with conspecifics, suggesting that behavioural interference was influencing hatching success. 6. Our study shows that, taking into account the role of non-breeders, in particular in species or populations where there are many floaters and where competition for nest sites is intense, can improve our understanding of density-dependent processes and help conservation actions.

  3. Europe's Second Demographic Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Kaa, Dirk J.

    1987-01-01

    By 1985, fertility rates in Europe were below the replacement level of 2.1 births per woman in all but Albania, Ireland, Malta, Poland, and Turkey, following a steady decline from a 1965 postwar peak well above 2.5 in Northern, Western, and Southern Europe and an erratic trend from a lower level in Eastern Europe. Natural decrease (fewer births…

  4. Initiating a participatory action research process in the Agincourt health and socio-demographic surveillance site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wariri, Oghenebrume; D'Ambruoso, Lucia; Twine, Rhian; Ngobeni, Sizzy; van der Merwe, Maria; Spies, Barry; Kahn, Kathleen; Tollman, Stephen; Wagner, Ryan G; Byass, Peter

    2017-06-01

    Despite progressive health policy, disease burdens in South Africa remain patterned by deeply entrenched social inequalities. Accounting for the relationships between context, health and risk can provide important information for equitable service delivery. The aims of the research were to initiate a participatory research process with communities in a low income setting and produce evidence of practical relevance. We initiated a participatory action research (PAR) process in the Agincourt health and socio-demographic surveillance site (HDSS) in rural north-east South Africa. Three village-based discussion groups were convened and consulted about conditions to examine, one of which was under-5 mortality. A series of discussions followed in which routine HDSS data were presented and participants' subjective perspectives were elicited and systematized into collective forms of knowledge using ranking, diagramming and participatory photography. The process concluded with a priority setting exercise. Visual and narrative data were thematically analyzed to complement the participants' analysis. A range of social and structural root causes of under-5 mortality were identified: poverty, unemployment, inadequate housing, unsafe environments and shortages of clean water. Despite these constraints, single mothers were often viewed as negligent. A series of mid-level contributory factors in clinics were also identified: overcrowding, poor staffing, delays in treatment and shortages of medications. In a similar sense, pronounced blame and negativity were directed toward clinic nurses in spite of the systems constraints identified. Actions to address these issues were prioritized as: expanding clinics, improving accountability and responsiveness of health workers, improving employment, providing clean water, and expanding community engagement for health promotion. We initiated a PAR process to gain local knowledge and prioritize actions. The process was acceptable to those

  5. Religion-based Urbanization Process in Italy: Statistical Evidence from Demographic and Economic Data

    CERN Document Server

    Ausloos, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes some economic and demographic features of Italians living in cities containing a Saint name in their appellation (hagiotoponyms). Demographic data come from the surveys done in the 15th (2011) Italian Census, while the economic wealth of such cities is explored through their recent [2007-2011] aggregated tax income (ATI). This cultural problem is treated from various points of view. First, the exact list of hagiotoponyms is obtained through linguistic and religiosity criteria. Next, it is examined how such cities are distributed in the Italian regions. Demographic and economic perspectives are also offered at the Saint level, i.e. calculating the cumulated values of the number of inhabitants and the ATI, "per Saint", as well as the corresponding relative values taking into account the Saint popularity. On one hand, frequency-size plots and cumulative distribution function plots, and on the other hand, scatter plots and rank-size plots between the various quantities are shown and discussed ...

  6. Data processing in pulse transit time measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jingmeng Zhang; Ye Li

    2008-01-01

    Pulse transit time(PTT) is used as a noninvasive and cuff-hss parameter to estimate blood pressure.In this paper,we develop an algorithm to obtain PTT rapidly,which is appropriate for micro-processor and could achieve good accuracy in PTT,even in noisy measurements.,The algorithm is based on finite impulse response(FIR) filter to reduce the noise and an adaptive threshold to detect the significant points of ECG and PPG.Evaluation of this method is based on the signals from our PTT-based blood pressure devices.It is shown that the method works well for PPT calculation.

  7. Future forest aboveground carbon dynamics in the central United States: the importance of forest demographic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Wenchi; He, Hong S.; Thompson, Frank R.; Wang, Wen J.; Fraser, Jacob S.; Shifley, Stephen R.; Hanberry, Brice B.; Dijak, William D.

    2017-01-01

    The Central Hardwood Forest (CHF) in the United States is currently a major carbon sink, there are uncertainties in how long the current carbon sink will persist and if the CHF will eventually become a carbon source. We used a multi-model ensemble to investigate aboveground carbon density of the CHF from 2010 to 2300 under current climate. Simulations were done using one representative model for each of the simple, intermediate, and complex demographic approaches (ED2, LANDIS PRO, and LINKAGES, respectively). All approaches agreed that the current carbon sink would persist at least to 2100. However, carbon dynamics after current carbon sink diminishes to zero differ for different demographic modelling approaches. Both the simple and the complex demographic approaches predicted prolonged periods of relatively stable carbon densities after 2100, with minor declines, until the end of simulations in 2300. In contrast, the intermediate demographic approach predicted the CHF would become a carbon source between 2110 and 2260, followed by another carbon sink period. The disagreement between these patterns can be partly explained by differences in the capacity of models to simulate gross growth (both birth and subsequent growth) and mortality of short-lived, relatively shade-intolerant tree species. PMID:28165483

  8. Demographic Processes in the Southern Part of the Hungarian – Romanian Border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EGON NAGY

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a demographic comparative study of two neighboring regions along the southern part of the Romanian-Hungarian border region, which serves as a fundament for further analyses concerning the verification of cohesion between the two parts of the border. We have concluded our study with the statement that in spite of its traditionally low population increase, the Romanian Timiş and Arad counties have a more advantageous demographical condition than the neighboring Hungarian Békés and Csongrád counties, which can be described as having a generalized demographical decline. Though in Romania the Banat region for many decades is classified as a crisis-zone from a demographical point of view, it can show off an impressive attractiveness in terms of inner-migration in contrast to its Hungarian neighbors. In contrast with the northern part of the Romanian-Hungarian border, in this region the border strip does not overlap with a socio-economic periphery, because this phenomenon is more scattered in space.

  9. Using Twitter for Demographic and Social Science Research: Tools for Data Collection and Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Tyler H.; Lee, Hedwig; Cesare, Nina; Shojaie, Ali; Spiro, Emma S.

    2017-01-01

    Despite recent and growing interest in using Twitter to examine human behavior and attitudes, there is still significant room for growth regarding the ability to leverage Twitter data for social science research. In particular, gleaning demographic information about Twitter users--a key component of much social science research--remains a…

  10. The Evolving Demographic and Health Transition in Four Low- and Middle-Income Countries: Evidence from Four Sites in the INDEPTH Network of Longitudinal Health and Demographic Surveillance Systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayaga Bawah

    Full Text Available This paper contributes evidence documenting the continued decline in all-cause mortality and changes in the cause of death distribution over time in four developing country populations in Africa and Asia. We present levels and trends in age-specific mortality (all-cause and cause-specific from four demographic surveillance sites: Agincourt (South Africa, Navrongo (Ghana in Africa; Filabavi (Vietnam, Matlab (Bangladesh in Asia. We model mortality using discrete time event history analysis. This study illustrates how data from INDEPTH Network centers can provide a comparative, longitudinal examination of mortality patterns and the epidemiological transition. Health care systems need to be reconfigured to deal simultaneously with continuing challenges of communicable disease and increasing incidence of non-communicable diseases that require long-term care. In populations with endemic HIV, long-term care of HIV patients on ART will add to the chronic care needs of the community.

  11. The effects of resource availability and the demographic transition on the genetic correlation between number of children and grandchildren in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolund, E; Lummaa, V

    2017-02-01

    Studies of evolutionary change require an estimate of fitness, and lifetime reproductive success is widely used for this purpose. However, many species face a trade-off between the number and quality of offspring and in such cases number of grandoffspring may better represent the genetic contribution to future generations. Here, we apply quantitative genetic methods to a genealogical data set on humans from Finland to address how the genetic correlation between number of children and grandchildren is influenced by the severity of the trade-off between offspring quality and quantity, as estimated by different levels of resource access among individuals in the population. Further, we compare the genetic correlation before and after the demographic transition to low mortality and fertility rates. The genetic correlation was consistently high (0.79-0.92) with the strongest correlations occurring in individuals with higher access to resources and before the demographic transition, and a tendency for lower correlations in resource poor individuals and after the transition. These results indicate that number of grandoffspring is a slightly better predictor of long-term genetic fitness than number of offspring in a human population across a range of environmental conditions, and more generally, that patterns of resource availability need to be taken into account when estimating genetic covariances with fitness.

  12. Factors associated with short-term transitions of non-daily smokers: socio-demographic characteristics and other tobacco product use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yingning; Sung, Hai-Yen; Yao, Tingting; Lightwood, James; Max, Wendy

    2017-05-01

    To examine the transitions in smoking status among non-daily smokers who transitioned to daily or former smokers or remained as non-daily smokers during a 12-month period. We analyzed factors associated with these transitions, including the use of cigars and smokeless tobacco (SLT). Secondary data analyses using pooled data from the 2003, 2006/07 and 2010/11 Tobacco Use Supplements to the Current Population Survey (TUS-CPS). United States. Self-respondents aged 18+ who have smoked for more than 5 years and were non-daily smokers 12 months before the interview (n = 13 673, or 14.5% of current smokers). Multinomial logistic regression model to determine the correlates of non-daily to daily, stable non-daily and non-daily to former smoking transitions among non-daily smokers at baseline. The model controlled for socio-demographic factors and the use of cigars and SLT. Of the adults in our sample, 2.6% were non-daily smokers at baseline. Among these, 69.7% remained non-daily smokers (stable non-daily smokers), 18.4% became daily smokers (non-daily to daily smokers) and 11.9% quit smoking (non-daily to former smokers) after 12 months. The non-daily to daily versus stable non-daily smoking transition was less likely among those who were aged 65+ (P = 0.018), male (P socio-demographic factors and current use of cigars and smokeless tobacco. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  13. Relating transition-state spectroscopy to standard chemical spectroscopic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimers, Jeffrey R.; Hush, Noel S.

    2017-09-01

    Transition-state spectra are mapped out using generalized adiabatic electron-transfer theory. This simple model depicts diverse chemical properties, from aromaticity, through bound reactions such as isomerizations and atom-transfer processes with classic transition states, to processes often described as being ;non-adiabatic;, to those in the ;inverted; region that become slower as they are made more exothermic. Predictably, the Born-Oppenheimer approximation is found inadequate for modelling transition-state spectra in the weak-coupling limit. In this limit, the adiabatic Born-Huang approximation is found to perform much better than non-adiabatic surface-hopping approaches. Transition-state spectroscopy is shown to involve significant quantum entanglement between electronic and nuclear motion.

  14. The Integrity of Process: Is Inner Transition Sufficient?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Power

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Transition movement is based on the notion that peak oil, climate change and the precarious economic situation cause the greatest potential disruptions to human society and therefore require a pre-emptive response. As such its focus is on proactively creating a future in local communities that meets people‘s psychological and physical needs rather than reacting to the crises that seem imminent. This paper draws on research into the Transition movement in the Australian context that considers the role of inner Transition which is one of the features that differentiates Transition from other movements for change. However, inner Transition has tended to be marginalised in the movement, because ultimately, action oriented outcomes take precedence over the often difficult work associated with group dynamics and relational experiences associated with inner Transition, even though they can affect the carriage and outcomes of activities and projects. The privileging of outer over inner Transition and action over process is a reflection of broader society’s grappling with the human dynamics inherent in any process of change. Where such concerns are unproblematised, this raises questions about the extent to which movements replicate existing paradigms and structures or take a prefigurative approach and challenge and re-imagine them in their practice.

  15. Demographic processes underlying subtle patterns of population structure in the scalloped hammerhead shark, Sphyrna lewini.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nance, Holly A; Klimley, Peter; Galván-Magaña, Felipe; Martínez-Ortíz, Jimmy; Marko, Peter B

    2011-01-01

    Genetic diversity (θ), effective population size (N(e)), and contemporary levels of gene flow are important parameters to estimate for species of conservation concern, such as the globally endangered scalloped hammerhead shark, Sphyrna lewini. Therefore, we have reconstructed the demographic history of S. lewini across its Eastern Pacific (EP) range by applying classical and coalescent population genetic methods to a combination of 15 microsatellite loci and mtDNA control region sequences. In addition to significant population genetic structure and isolation-by-distance among seven coastal sites between central Mexico and Ecuador, the analyses revealed that all populations have experienced a bottleneck and that all current values of θ are at least an order of magnitude smaller than ancestral θ, indicating large decreases in N(e) (θ = 4N(e)μ), where μ is the mutation rate. Application of the isolation-with-migration (IM) model showed modest but significant genetic connectivity between most sampled sites (point estimates of Nm = 0.1-16.7), with divergence times (t) among all populations significantly greater than zero. Using a conservative (i.e., slow) fossil-based taxon-specific phylogenetic calibration for mtDNA mutation rates, posterior probability distributions (PPDs) for the onset of the decline in N(e) predate modern fishing in this region. The cause of decline over the last several thousand years is unknown but is highly atypical as a post-glacial demographic history. Regardless of the cause, our data and analyses suggest that S. lewini was far more abundant throughout the EP in the past than at present.

  16. Demographic processes underlying subtle patterns of population structure in the scalloped hammerhead shark, Sphyrna lewini.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly A Nance

    Full Text Available Genetic diversity (θ, effective population size (N(e, and contemporary levels of gene flow are important parameters to estimate for species of conservation concern, such as the globally endangered scalloped hammerhead shark, Sphyrna lewini. Therefore, we have reconstructed the demographic history of S. lewini across its Eastern Pacific (EP range by applying classical and coalescent population genetic methods to a combination of 15 microsatellite loci and mtDNA control region sequences. In addition to significant population genetic structure and isolation-by-distance among seven coastal sites between central Mexico and Ecuador, the analyses revealed that all populations have experienced a bottleneck and that all current values of θ are at least an order of magnitude smaller than ancestral θ, indicating large decreases in N(e (θ = 4N(eμ, where μ is the mutation rate. Application of the isolation-with-migration (IM model showed modest but significant genetic connectivity between most sampled sites (point estimates of Nm = 0.1-16.7, with divergence times (t among all populations significantly greater than zero. Using a conservative (i.e., slow fossil-based taxon-specific phylogenetic calibration for mtDNA mutation rates, posterior probability distributions (PPDs for the onset of the decline in N(e predate modern fishing in this region. The cause of decline over the last several thousand years is unknown but is highly atypical as a post-glacial demographic history. Regardless of the cause, our data and analyses suggest that S. lewini was far more abundant throughout the EP in the past than at present.

  17. Kinetics of quasi-isoenergetic transition processes in biological macromolecules

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2012-01-01

    A master equation describing the evolution of averaged molecular state occupancies in molecular systems where alternation of molecular energy levels is caused by discrete dichotomous and trichotomous stochastic fields, is derived. This study is focused on the kinetics of quasi-isoenergetic transition processes in the presence of moderately high frequency stochastic field. A novel physical mechanism for temperature-independent transitions in flexible molecular systems is proposed. This mechanism becomes effective when the conformation transitions between quasi-isoenergetic molecular states take place. At room temperatures, stochastic broadening of molecular energy levels predominates the energy of low frequency vibrations accompanying the transition. This leads to a cancellation of the temperature dependence in the stochastically averaged rate constants. As examples, physical interpretations of the temperature-independent onset of P2X$_3$ receptor desensitization in neuronal membranes, as well as degradation o...

  18. Emigration from Croatia from 1900 to 2001: Demographic Consequences of the Centuries-Old Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Nejašmić

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the period between 1900 and 2001, about 2.3 million people emigrated from the present-day territory of the Republic of Croatia. Immigration mitigated the outflow of “human capital”; it replaced almost a half of the total emigrated contingent. The migration “balance deficit” took 33.4% of the average population number, or 52% of the total natural change (increase. Only a few countries have had such a significant population loss due to emigration. Total Croatian population losses in the observed period amount to about 1.89 million people, and some categories have the following share: negative emigration balance 63.3%, war losses 32.7% and epidemics 4.0%. If there were no emigration (i.e. in a hypothetical “closed population”, Croatia would have at least 6.22 million people in 2001 or 40.1% more than the registered number. The long-term (delayed effects of emigration have also come to the fore. The emigration of the most vital age groups has led to the narrowing of fertile cohorts, and consequently to a decrease in birth rates and increased mortality. In the early 1990s, negative natural change was recorded. Several factors affected biological (natural depopulation, but emigration took the first place. Continuous and strong emigration, and negative net migration respectively, is one of the main reasons underlying the fact that Croatia belongs to the group of ten European countries with the oldest population. After the 19th century, in which the population of Croatia doubled, and the 20th century, when the country saw weak growth (40.4%, the 21st century will be marked by depopulation. A highly negative migration balance from the analyzed centennial period has an important role among many factors having impact on such Croatian demographic perspective.

  19. MANAGING TRANSITION PROCESSES OF MANUFACTURING CONFIGURATIONS OF GLOBAL OPERATIONS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adeyemi, Oluseyi

    2012-01-01

    Exploration and exploitation excellence is one of the ways of satisfying today’s, tomorrow’s and future customers. Bolwijn and Kumpe (1998) explained that efficiency, quality, flexibility, speed and innovativeness are necessary in order to achieve exploration and exploitation excellence. Western......) with the organization and management of the processes involved (people and organizational innovation) together with the creative recombination of existing techniques, ideas or methods (synthetic innovation) will be adopted in this study to manage the transition processes of manufacturing configurations....

  20. Inferring the demographic history from DNA sequences: An importance sampling approach based on non-homogeneous processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ait Kaci Azzou, S; Larribe, F; Froda, S

    2016-10-01

    In Ait Kaci Azzou et al. (2015) we introduced an Importance Sampling (IS) approach for estimating the demographic history of a sample of DNA sequences, the skywis plot. More precisely, we proposed a new nonparametric estimate of a population size that changes over time. We showed on simulated data that the skywis plot can work well in typical situations where the effective population size does not undergo very steep changes. In this paper, we introduce an iterative procedure which extends the previous method and gives good estimates under such rapid variations. In the iterative calibrated skywis plot we approximate the effective population size by a piecewise constant function, whose values are re-estimated at each step. These piecewise constant functions are used to generate the waiting times of non homogeneous Poisson processes related to a coalescent process with mutation under a variable population size model. Moreover, the present IS procedure is based on a modified version of the Stephens and Donnelly (2000) proposal distribution. Finally, we apply the iterative calibrated skywis plot method to a simulated data set from a rapidly expanding exponential model, and we show that the method based on this new IS strategy correctly reconstructs the demographic history.

  1. Subphase transitions in first-order aggregation processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koci, Tomas; Bachmann, Michael

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we investigate the properties of aggregation transitions in the context of generic coarse-grained homopolymer systems. By means of parallel replica-exchange Monte Carlo methods, we perform extensive simulations of systems consisting of up to 20 individual oligomer chains with five monomers each. Using the tools of the versatile microcanonical inflection-point analysis, we show that the aggregation transition is a first-order process consisting of a sequence of subtransitions between intermediate structural phases. We unravel the properties of these intermediate phases by collecting and analyzing their individual contributions towards the density of states of the system. The central theme of this systematic study revolves around translational entropy and its role in the striking phenomena of missing intermediate phases. We conclude with a brief discussion of the scaling properties of the transition temperature and the latent heat.

  2. Phase transitions in contagion processes mediated by recurrent mobility patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Balcan, Duygu; 10.1038/nphys1944

    2011-01-01

    Human mobility and activity patterns mediate contagion on many levels, including the spatial spread of infectious diseases, diffusion of rumors, and emergence of consensus. These patterns however are often dominated by specific locations and recurrent flows and poorly modeled by the random diffusive dynamics generally used to study them. Here we develop a theoretical framework to analyze contagion within a network of locations where individuals recall their geographic origins. We find a phase transition between a regime in which the contagion affects a large fraction of the system and one in which only a small fraction is affected. This transition cannot be uncovered by continuous deterministic models due to the stochastic features of the contagion process and defines an invasion threshold that depends on mobility parameters, providing guidance for controlling contagion spread by constraining mobility processes. We recover the threshold behavior by analyzing diffusion processes mediated by real human commutin...

  3. Relaxation processes in a lower disorder order transition diblock copolymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanz, Alejandro; Ezquerra, Tiberio A.; Nogales, Aurora, E-mail: aurora.nogales@csic.es [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, IEM-CSIC. C/ Serrano 121, Madrid 28006 (Spain); Hernández, Rebeca [Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnología de Polímeros, ICTP-CSIC. C/ Juan de la Cierva 3, Madrid 28006 (Spain); Sprung, Michael [Petra III at DESY, Notkestr. 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany)

    2015-02-14

    The dynamics of lower disorder-order temperature diblock copolymer leading to phase separation has been observed by X ray photon correlation spectroscopy. Two different modes have been characterized. A non-diffusive mode appears at temperatures below the disorder to order transition, which can be associated to compositional fluctuations, that becomes slower as the interaction parameter increases, in a similar way to the one observed for diblock copolymers exhibiting phase separation upon cooling. At temperatures above the disorder to order transition T{sub ODT}, the dynamics becomes diffusive, indicating that after phase separation in Lower Disorder-Order Transition (LDOT) diblock copolymers, the diffusion of chain segments across the interface is the governing dynamics. As the segregation is stronger, the diffusive process becomes slower. Both observed modes have been predicted by the theory describing upper order-disorder transition systems, assuming incompressibility. However, the present results indicate that the existence of these two modes is more universal as they are present also in compressible diblock copolymers exhibiting a lower disorder-order transition. No such a theory describing the dynamics in LDOT block copolymers is available, and these experimental results may offer some hints to understanding the dynamics in these systems. The dynamics has also been studied in the ordered state, and for the present system, the non-diffusive mode disappears and only a diffusive mode is observed. This mode is related to the transport of segment in the interphase, due to the weak segregation on this system.

  4. TRANSITIONAL PARADIGM AS AN EXPLANATION FOR THE DEMOCRATIZATION PROCESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerti Sqapi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Over the last quarter of the century, the transitional paradigm (or the approach of the transition has been a dominant paradigm that has greatly influenced different studies on democratization. The purpose of this paper, in a general perspective, is to conduct an analysis of the transitional paradigm, assumptions, key concepts, and hypotheses developed thereof, in order to evaluate the validity or at least be able to understand and explain the processes of democratization wave that affected third world countries.  Development of literature and studies within the conceptual framework of this paradigm was mainly conducted during the period of what is known as “the third wave of democratization.” Explanation and direction of change from autocratic to democratic regimes, evident in those countries affected by the third wave, were the main claim of the transition approach.  This paper attempts to investigate the validity of the conceptual framework of this approach with respect to the interpretation (and change of directions of the democratization processes in these countries.

  5. Sport participation among individuals with acquired physical disabilities: group differences on demographic, disability, and Health Action Process Approach constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrier, Marie-Josée; Shirazipour, Celina H; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E

    2015-04-01

    Despite numerous physical, social, and mental health benefits of engaging in moderate and vigorous intensity physical activities (e.g., sport), few individuals with acquired physical disabilities currently participate in adapted sport. Theory-based sport promotion interventions are one possible way to increase the amount of individuals who engage in sport. The primary objective of this study was to examine the profiles of three different sport participation groups with respect to demographic, injury, and Health Action Process Approach (HAPA) constructs. ANOVAs and Chi-square tests were used to determine group differences on demographic and disability-related constructs. A MANCOVA was conducted to determine differences between three sport participation groups (non-intenders, intenders, and actors) with age, years post-injury, mode of mobility, and sex included as covariates. A cohort of 201 individuals was recruited; 56 (27.9%) were non-intenders, 21 (10.4%) were intenders, and 124 (61.7%) were actors. The MANCOVA revealed significant differences between groups on the HAPA constructs, F(22,370) = 9.02, p health behavior constructs differently based on their sport intentions. These results provide an important framework that adapted sport organizations can use to tailor their sport promotion programs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Hysteresis of magnetostructural transitions: Repeatable and non-repeatable processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Provenzano, Virgil [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States); Della Torre, Edward; Bennett, Lawrence H. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States); ElBidweihy, Hatem, E-mail: Hatem@gwmail.gwu.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States)

    2014-02-15

    The Gd{sub 5}Ge{sub 2}Si{sub 2} alloy and the off-stoichiometric Ni{sub 50}Mn{sub 35}In{sub 15} Heusler alloy belong to a special class of metallic materials that exhibit first-order magnetostructural transitions near room temperature. The magnetic properties of this class of materials have been extensively studied due to their interesting magnetic behavior and their potential for a number of technological applications such as refrigerants for near-room-temperature magnetic refrigeration. The thermally driven first-order transitions in these materials can be field-induced in the reverse order by applying a strong enough field. The field-induced transitions are typically accompanied by the presence of large magnetic hysteresis, the characteristics of which are a complicated function of temperature, field, and magneto-thermal history. In this study we show that the virgin curve, the major loop, and sequentially measured MH loops are the results of both repeatable and non-repeatable processes, in which the starting magnetostructural state, prior to the cycling of field, plays a major role. Using the Gd{sub 5}Ge{sub 2}Si{sub 2} and Ni{sub 50}Mn{sub 35}In{sub 15} alloys, as model materials, we show that a starting single phase state results in fully repeatable processes and large magnetic hysteresis, whereas a mixed phase starting state results in non-repeatable processes and smaller hysteresis.

  7. [Spatial pattern and consequences of demographic aging processes for regional planning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, K

    1991-01-01

    The spatial dimension of man-environment interactions in old age is analyzed within urban, suburban, and rural residential environments of the German Rhine-Main-Agglomeration. By comparing the three levels of organization, utilization, and interpretation, housing conditions as well as geographical distribution and redistribution (migrations) our outside-home-activities and environmental perception show a fundamental influence on the everyday lives of the 750 elderly who were interviewed. The majority of the target population and, especially, the rural elderly is characterized by traditional patterns of spatial organization and distribution, mobility, regional attachment, and a concern about preserving the stability of their current residential environment from changes. The suburban and urban seniors, however, exhibit a greater amount of locational flexibility and utility-oriented behavior patterns. These spatial variations are induced by specific regional values and intensity of local and regional identification. They might be interpreted as different stages in the process of modernization within postindustrial societies. Reflecting, however, the paradigms of planning for the elderly, these different patterns are not systematically considered to the necessary and sufficient extent. Instead of promoting regional or local networks that are favored by senior citizens, agencies usually prefer comprehensive approaches on a macrolevel. First steps to improve this situation and to combine life- and system-world demands have been taken by the federal government, which implemented a neighborhood-related research program on housing for the elderly. As a result of this, further research on environmental aspects on aging should pay more methodological attention to the hitherto neglected regional and local level, and also for the transfer of its findings into planning policy.

  8. Contemporary genetic structure, phylogeography and past demographic processes of wild boar Sus scrofa population in Central and Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusza, Szilvia; Podgórski, Tomasz; Scandura, Massimo; Borowik, Tomasz; Jávor, András; Sidorovich, Vadim E; Bunevich, Aleksei N; Kolesnikov, Mikhail; Jędrzejewska, Bogumiła

    2014-01-01

    The wild boar (Sus scrofa) is one of the most widely distributed mammals in Europe. Its demography was affected by various events in the past and today populations are increasing throughout Europe. We examined genetic diversity, structure and population dynamics of wild boar in Central and Eastern Europe. MtDNA control region (664 bp) was sequenced in 254 wild boar from six countries (Poland, Hungary, Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova and the European part of Russia). We detected 16 haplotypes, all known from previous studies in Europe; 14 of them belonged to European 1 (E1) clade, including 13 haplotypes from E1-C and one from E1-A lineages. Two haplotypes belonged respectively to the East Asian and the Near Eastern clade. Both haplotypes were found in Russia and most probably originated from the documented translocations of wild boar. The studied populations showed moderate haplotype (0.714±0.023) and low nucleotide diversity (0.003±0.002). SAMOVA grouped the genetic structuring of Central and Eastern European wild boar into three subpopulations, comprising of: (1) north-eastern Belarus and the European part of Russia, (2) Poland, Ukraine, Moldova and most of Belarus, and (3) Hungary. The multimodal mismatch distribution, Fu's Fs index, Bayesian skyline plot and the high occurrence of shared haplotypes among populations did not suggest strong demographic fluctuations in wild boar numbers in the Holocene and pre-Holocene times. This study showed relatively weak genetic diversity and structure in Central and Eastern European wild boar populations and underlined gaps in our knowledge on the role of southern refugia and demographic processes shaping genetic diversity of wild boar in this part of Europe.

  9. Determinants of fertility in Rwanda in the context of a fertility transition: a secondary analysis of the 2010 Demographic and Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndahindwa, Vedaste; Kamanzi, Collins; Semakula, Muhammed; Abalikumwe, François; Hedt-Gauthier, Bethany; Thomson, Dana R

    2014-12-13

    Major improvements to Rwanda's health system, infrastructure, and social programs over the last decade have led to a rapid fertility transition unique from other African countries. The total fertility rate fell from 6.1 in 2005 to 4.6 in 2010, with a 3-fold increase in contraceptive usage. Despite this rapid national decline, many women still have large numbers of children. This study investigates predictors of fertility during this fertility transition to inform policies that improve individuals' reproductive health and guide national development. We used Poisson regression to separately model number of children born to ever married/cohabitated women (n = 8,309) and never married women (n = 1,220) age 15 to 49 based on 2010 Rwanda Demographic and Health Survey data. We used backward stepwise regression with a time offset to identify individual and household factors associated with woman's fertility level, accounting for sampling weights, clustering, and stratification. In ever married/cohabitating women, high fertility was significantly associated (p fertility in ever married/cohabitating women was associated with women's education (higher versus no education: IRR = 0.66), household wealth (highest versus lowest quintile: IRR = 0.93), and delayed sexual debut (25+ versus 8-18 years: IRR = 0.49). In never married women, low fertility was associated with education (higher versus no education: IRR = 0.22), household wealth (highest versus lowest quintile: IRR = 0.58), delayed sexual debut (25-49 versus 8-18 years: IRR = 0.43), and having an unmet need for contraception (IRR = 0.69). Although the study design does not allow causal conclusions, these results suggest several strategies to further reduce Rwanda's national fertility rate and support families to achieve their desired fertility. Strategies include policies and programs that promote delayed sexual debut via educational and economic opportunities for women, improved access to reproductive health information

  10. The Integrity of Process: Is Inner Transition Sufficient?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clare Power

    2016-01-01

    .... This paper draws on research into the Transition movement in the Australian context that considers the role of inner Transition which is one of the features that differentiates Transition from other...

  11. Two centuries of demographic change in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry Edmonston

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available One key aspect of the demographic transition—the shift from high mortality and high fertility to low mortality and low fertility is a major change in the population’s age distribution from a pyramid-shaped young age structure to a pillar-shaped old age structure. This paper discusses two demographic processes affected by changes in age structure. First, there are effects on vital rates, with important differences in the observed crude rates and the implied intrinsic vital rates. Second, changes in age structure influence population momentum. More recently, demographers have noted that older age distributions associated with fertility levels below replacement have negative population momentum. Although the demographic transition has been well-described for many countries, demographers have seldom analyzed intrinsic vital rates and population momentum over time, which are dynamic processes affected by changes in the population age structure and which, in turn, influence future changes in population growth and size. This paper uses new data and methods to analyze intrinsic vital rates and population momentum across two centuries of demographic change in Canada

  12. INSTITUTIONS IN TRANSITION: IS THE EU INTEGRATION PROCESS RELEVANT FOR INWARD FDI IN TRANSITION EUROPEAN ECONOMIES?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uros Delevic

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This research challenges the contemporary view of economic policy makers in transition European economies that the EU integration process will lead to a greater inflow of Foreign Direct Investments (FDI, thereby increasing living standards. With the Brexit referendum, the integration of the EU has been threatened by a distressing existential question: is EU membership valuable for transition countries if even developed countries (like the UK vote to leave or decided not to align like Switzerland and Norway in the past? Our analysis considers the success of several countries in Eastern Europe in attracting and benefiting from FDI on their way to EU membership. Analyzing a 13-year panel data of 16 transition countries, we found no statistically significant positive association between FDI inflow and EU accession. We argue, that it is also important to consider the welfare for domestic economies that can emerge from those investments. We illustrate this through the case study of a successful combination of institutional development and local content policies implementation accompanied by sufficient FDI inflows in a non-EU country - Kazakhstan.

  13. Electronic Relaxation Processes of Transition Metal Atoms in Helium Nanodroplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kautsch, Andreas; Lindebner, Friedrich; Koch, Markus; Ernst, Wolfgang E.

    2014-06-01

    Spectroscopy of doped superfluid helium nanodroplets (He_N) gives information about the influence of this cold, chemically inert, and least interacting matrix environment on the excitation and relaxation dynamics of dopant atoms and molecules. We present the results from laser induced fluorescence (LIF), photoionization (PI), and mass spectroscopy of Cr and Cu doped He_N. From these results, we can draw a comprehensive picture of the complex behavior of such transition metal atoms in He_N upon photo-excitation. The strong Cr and Cu ground state transitions show an excitation blueshift and broadening with respect to the bare atom transitions which can be taken as indication for the solvation inside the droplet. From the originally excited states the atoms relax to energetically lower states and are ejected from the He_N. The relaxation processes include bare atom spin-forbidden transitions, which clearly bears the signature of the He_N influence. Two-color resonant two-photon ionization (2CR2PI) also shows the formation of bare atoms and small Cr-He_n and Cu-He_n clusters in their ground and metastable states ^c. Currently, Cr dimer excitation studies are in progress and a brief outlook on the available results will be given. C. Callegari and W. E. Ernst, Helium Droplets as Nanocryostats for Molecular Spectroscopy - from the Vacuum Ultraviolet to the Microwave Regime, in Handbook of High-Resolution Spectroscopy, eds. M. Quack and F. Merkt, John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, 2011. A. Kautsch, M. Koch, and W. E. Ernst, J. Phys. Chem. A, 117 (2013) 9621-9625, DOI: 10.1021/jp312336m F. Lindebner, A. Kautsch, M. Koch, and W. E. Ernst, Int. J. Mass Spectrom. (2014) in press, DOI: 10.1016/j.ijms.2013.12.022 M. Koch, A. Kautsch, F. Lackner, and W. E. Ernst, submitted to J. Phys. Chem. A

  14. Affinity and its derivatives in the glass transition process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garden, J.-L.; Guillou, H.; Richard, J.; Wondraczek, L.

    2012-07-01

    The thermodynamic treatment of the glass transition remains an issue of intense debate. When associated with the formalism of non-equilibrium thermodynamics, the lattice-hole theory of liquids can provide new insight in this direction, as has been shown by Schmelzer and Gutzow [J. Chem. Phys. 125, 184511 (2006)], 10.1063/1.2374894, by Möller et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 125, 094505 (2006)], 10.1063/1.2346673, and more recently by Tropin et al. [J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357, 1291 (2011), 10.1016/j.jnoncrysol.2010.11.111; Tropin et al., J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357, 1303 (2011)], 10.1016/j.jnoncrysol.2010.12.005. Here, we employ a similar approach. We include pressure as an additional variable, in order to account for the freezing-in of structural degrees of freedom upon pressure increase. Second, we demonstrate that important terms concerning first order derivatives of the affinity-driving-force with respect to temperature and pressure have been previously neglected. We show that these are of crucial importance in the approach. Macroscopic non-equilibrium thermodynamics is used to enlighten these contributions in the derivation of Cp,κT, and αp. The coefficients are calculated as a function of pressure and temperature following different theoretical protocols, revealing classical aspects of vitrification and structural recovery processes. Finally, we demonstrate that a simple minimalist model such as the lattice-hole theory of liquids, when being associated with rigorous use of macroscopic non-equilibrium thermodynamics, is able to account for the primary features of the glass transition phenomenology. Notwithstanding its simplicity and its limits, this approach can be used as a very pedagogical tool to provide a physical understanding on the underlying thermodynamics which governs the glass transition process.

  15. Processed foods and the nutrition transition: evidence from Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, P; Friel, S

    2014-07-01

    This paper elucidates the role of processed foods and beverages in the 'nutrition transition' underway in Asia. Processed foods tend to be high in nutrients associated with obesity and diet-related non-communicable diseases: refined sugar, salt, saturated and trans-fats. This paper identifies the most significant 'product vectors' for these nutrients and describes changes in their consumption in a selection of Asian countries. Sugar, salt and fat consumption from processed foods has plateaued in high-income countries, but has rapidly increased in the lower-middle and upper-middle-income countries. Relative to sugar and salt, fat consumption in the upper-middle- and lower-middle-income countries is converging most rapidly with that of high-income countries. Carbonated soft drinks, baked goods, and oils and fats are the most significant vectors for sugar, salt and fat respectively. At the regional level there appears to be convergence in consumption patterns of processed foods, but country-level divergences including high levels of consumption of oils and fats in Malaysia, and soft drinks in the Philippines and Thailand. This analysis suggests that more action is needed by policy-makers to prevent or mitigate processed food consumption. Comprehensive policy and regulatory approaches are most likely to be effective in achieving these goals.

  16. Effect of Attitudinal, Situational and Demographic Factors on Annoyance Due to Environmental Vibration and Noise from Construction of a Light Rapid Transit System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong-McSweeney, Daniel; Woodcock, James; Waddington, David; Peris, Eulalia; Koziel, Zbigniew; Moorhouse, Andy; Redel-Macías, María Dolores

    2016-12-14

    The aim of this paper is to determine what non-exposure factors influence the relationship between vibration and noise exposure from the construction of a Light Rapid Transit (LRT) system and the annoyance of nearby residents. Noise and vibration from construction sites are known to annoy residents, with annoyance increasing as a function of the magnitude of the vibration and noise. There is not a strong correlation between exposure and levels of annoyance suggesting that factors not directly related to the exposure may have an influence. A range of attitudinal, situational and demographic factors are investigated with the aim of understanding the wide variation in annoyance for a given vibration exposure. A face-to-face survey of residents (n = 350) near three sites of LRT construction was conducted, and responses were compared to semi-empirical estimates of the internal vibration within the buildings. It was found that annoyance responses due to vibration were strongly influenced by two attitudinal variables, concern about property damage and sensitivity to vibration. Age, ownership of the property and the visibility of the construction site were also important factors. Gender, time at home and expectation of future levels of vibration had much less influence. Due to the measurement methods used, it was not possible to separate out the effects of noise and vibration on annoyance; as such, this paper focusses on annoyance due to vibration exposure. This work concludes that for the most cost-effective reduction of the impact of construction vibration and noise on the annoyance felt by a community, policies should consider attitudinal factors.

  17. Transitivity Study-Material Process in Business Negotiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘茜

    2013-01-01

    Since China entered into the World Trade Organization and became a member of this institution, business negotiation has become the important implement in communicating and information exchanging in business market. Compared with the past time, more and more companies involve in the business negotiation at present. This paper uses Halliday* s transitivity theory-material process as its theoretical framework to analyze business negotiation. As soon as reading this thesis totally, English teacher, especially business English teachers should add the awareness on considering unconscious points of business negotiation. They should be led to hold the deep cognition and language choice. Moreover, it is hoped for negotiators to have the understanding for choosing the better words and structure in order to make an agreement in business negotiation.

  18. The transition process of spina bifida patients to adult-centred care: An assessment of the Canadian urology landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wajchendler, Amy; Anderson, Peter; Koyle, Martin A.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Due to medical advances over the past three decades, the vast majority of children with spina bifida (SB) now survive into adulthood. As a result, there is a need to implement a well-defined urological transition process for these patients from the pediatric to adult environment. The objective of this study was to identify and analyze the current medical practices employed and the attitudes regarding transition by Canadian pediatric urologists caring for the SB population. Methods: A survey consisting of 14 questions pertaining to physician demographics, current practice, and attitudes towards the transition process of SB patients was distributed at the 2015 annual Pediatric Urologists of Canada (PUC) conference. The survey respondents remained anonymous, and the data were collected and analyzed. Results: A total of 28 surveys were collected from urologists across Canada (25 full-time pediatric, three also providing adult care), representing a >75% response rate. The transition process was suggested to begin at the age of 18 or older by 43% (12/28) of pediatric urologists. The majority, 86% (24/28), do not currently use a questionnaire or a checklist to determine transition readiness of patients. Forty-six percent (13/28) of pediatric urologists do not provide ongoing urological care to their patients after referral has been made to adult-centred care. In the province of Ontario, in which 39% (11/28) of the pediatric urologists practice, 82% (9/11) are full-time pediatric urologists and 78% (7/9) do not provide ongoing care to SB patients after the age of 18. Conclusions: A significant minority of Canadian pediatric urologists perceive that the transition process should begin at the age of 18 or older. As such, it can be inferred that transfer of care and transition are synonymous, not independent. Simplistically, this suggests that transition represents an event rather than a longitudinal process. The fact there is no defined ongoing urological care

  19. The transition process of spina bifida patients to adult-centred care: An assessment of the Canadian urology landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wajchendler, Amy; Anderson, Peter; Koyle, Martin A

    2017-01-01

    Due to medical advances over the past three decades, the vast majority of children with spina bifida (SB) now survive into adulthood. As a result, there is a need to implement a well-defined urological transition process for these patients from the pediatric to adult environment. The objective of this study was to identify and analyze the current medical practices employed and the attitudes regarding transition by Canadian pediatric urologists caring for the SB population. A survey consisting of 14 questions pertaining to physician demographics, current practice, and attitudes towards the transition process of SB patients was distributed at the 2015 annual Pediatric Urologists of Canada (PUC) conference. The survey respondents remained anonymous, and the data were collected and analyzed. A total of 28 surveys were collected from urologists across Canada (25 full-time pediatric, three also providing adult care), representing a >75% response rate. The transition process was suggested to begin at the age of 18 or older by 43% (12/28) of pediatric urologists. The majority, 86% (24/28), do not currently use a questionnaire or a checklist to determine transition readiness of patients. Forty-six percent (13/28) of pediatric urologists do not provide ongoing urological care to their patients after referral has been made to adult-centred care. In the province of Ontario, in which 39% (11/28) of the pediatric urologists practice, 82% (9/11) are full-time pediatric urologists and 78% (7/9) do not provide ongoing care to SB patients after the age of 18. A significant minority of Canadian pediatric urologists perceive that the transition process should begin at the age of 18 or older. As such, it can be inferred that transfer of care and transition are synonymous, not independent. Simplistically, this suggests that transition represents an event rather than a longitudinal process. The fact there is no defined ongoing urological care as a component of this process, suggests the

  20. Student Engagement and Leadership of the Transition Planning Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, James E.; Williams-Diehm, Kendra

    2013-01-01

    The Council for Exceptional Children's Division on Career Development and Transition (DCDT) has been a longstanding leader and advocate in the field of secondary education for students with disabilities. This paper traces the history of student engagement in transition planning primarily through the lens of DCDT's journal "Career…

  1. Student Engagement and Leadership of the Transition Planning Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, James E.; Williams-Diehm, Kendra

    2013-01-01

    The Council for Exceptional Children's Division on Career Development and Transition (DCDT) has been a longstanding leader and advocate in the field of secondary education for students with disabilities. This paper traces the history of student engagement in transition planning primarily through the lens of DCDT's journal "Career…

  2. EXISTENCE OF UNIQUE LIMITING PROBABILITY VECTORS IN STOCHASTIC PROCESSES WITH MULTIPLE TRANSITION MATRICES

    OpenAIRE

    Mjelde, James W.; Harris, Wesley D.; Conner, J. Richard; Schnitkey, Gary D.; Glover, Michael K.; Garoian, Lee

    1992-01-01

    Concepts associated with stochastic process containing multiple transition matricies are discussed. It is proved that under certain conditions, a process with m transition matrices has m unique limiting probability vectors. This result extends the notion of discrete Markov processes to problems with intrayear and interyear dynamics. An example using a large DP model illustrates the usefulness of the concepts developed to applied problems.

  3. 工业化、人口转型与长期农业增长的差异化路径%Industrialization,Demographic Transition and the Differentiation of Long-term Agricultural Growth Path

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭剑雄

    2016-01-01

    传统农业、工业化农业和现代农业分别存在马尔萨斯稳态、索洛稳态和现代持续增长稳态三种不同的产出增长结构。传统农业经由工业化农业向现代农业的发展,亦即马尔萨斯稳态经索洛稳态向现代持续增长稳态的渐进过渡。离开工业化的外部冲击,难以设想突破传统农业低技术均衡的前一种过渡;而人口生产转型则是工业化农业成长为现代农业的内生动力。当前中国农业发展政策调节的基本目标,仍是通过劳动力转移继续完成马尔萨斯稳态向索洛稳态的过渡,同时应前瞻性地为人力资本引入农业生产创设条件。%Malthus steady state,Solow steady state and modern sustainable growth steady state respec-tively exist in traditional agriculture,industrial agriculture and modern agriculture.The process tradi-tional agriculture developing into modern agriculture by industrial agriculture is a gradual transition from Malthus steady state to modern sustainable growth steady state by Solow steady state.It is hard to imagine a breakthrough in low technology balance of traditional agricultural without the external shock of industrialization.While the demographic transition is the endogenous dynamic from industrial agriculture to modern agriculture,at present,the basic aim of China�s agricultural development policy is still to complete the transition from Malthus steady state to Solow steady state by labor transfer, and create conditions for introducing human capital into agricultural production.

  4. Wet Process Induced Phase Transited Drug Delivery System as a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nx 6110

    effect of varying osmotic pressure of the dissolution medium on drug release was studied. ... results of in vivo toxicity studies may support the use of phase transited ... ocular inflammatory conditions [16]. ... Flurbiprofen was obtained from Sun.

  5. [Implementation of the national food program as an important factor in changes in socio-demographic processes and structures in rural areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitenko, V V

    1985-01-01

    The author investigates changes in socio-demographic processes and structures in rural areas of the USSR that have occurred as a result of the national food program. Special attention is given to potential changes in migration, both permanent and seasonal, among villages and towns. Future changes in the age and sex distribution and in marital and family structures are estimated. Trends in rural employment and occupational patterns are also considered. (summary in ENG, RUS)

  6. Transitioning GONG data processing to NOAA SWPC operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinard, Alysha; Marble, Andrew R.; Berger, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    The NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center (SWPC) is the nation's official source of space weather watches, warnings, and alerts, providing 24x7 forecasting and support to critical infrastructure operators around the world. Observations of the conditions on the Sun are crucial for determining when and if a warning is needed. The Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG) operated by the National Solar Observatory (NSO) consists of six ground stations, allowing continuous observations of the Sun. Of particular interest for space weather purposes are the H-alpha images and magnetograms. The H-alpha data are used to identify filaments and their eruptions, to assess active region evolution and plage extent, and to help localize flare locations. The magnetograms are used to identify neutral lines, to examine potential shearing areas and to characterize the magnetic structure of active regions. GONG magnetograms also provide the initial condition for models of solar wind expansion through the heliosphere such as the WSA-Enlil model. Although beyond the scope of current space weather applications, GONG helioseismology products can be used to assess active region emergence on the far side of the Sun and to indicate the flaring potential of a front-side active region. These products are being examined as future tools in flare prediction.NSO has operated GONG as a science facility since 1995 and has provided processed space weather data products to NOAA via for the past several years. In 2014 the White House Office of Management and Budget (OMB) requested that NOAA transition the GONG network to an operational space weather asset in order to ensure the continued flow of critical data for solar wind models. NSO will continue to operate and manage the instruments and sites, but the H-alpha images and 10 minute averaged magnetogram data will be sent directly to SWPC for processing and use in space weather modeling. SWPC will make these data available to NSO and the public via the

  7. Transitioning GONG data processing to NOAA SWPC operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinard, A.; Marble, A.; Hill, F.; Berger, T. E.

    2015-12-01

    The NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center (SWPC) is the nation's official source of space weather watches, warnings, and alerts, providing 24x7 forecasting and support to critical infrastructure operators around the world. Observations of the conditions on the Sun are crucial for determining when and if a warning is needed. The Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG) operated by the National Solar Observatory (NSO) consists of six ground stations, allowing continuous observations of the Sun. Of particular interest for space weather purposes are the H-alpha images and magnetograms. The H-alpha data are used to identify filaments and their eruptions, to assess active region evolution and plage extent, and to help localize flare locations. The magnetograms are used to identify neutral lines, to examine potential shearing areas and to characterize the magnetic structure of active regions. GONG magnetograms also provide the initial condition for models of solar wind expansion through the heliosphere such as the WSA-Enlil model. Although beyond the scope of current space weather applications, GONG helioseismology products can be used to assess active region emergence on the far side of the Sun and to indicate the flaring potential of a front-side active region. These products are being examined as future tools in flare prediction. NSO has operated GONG as a science facility since 1995 and has provided processed space weather data products to NOAA via public internet connections for the past several years. In 2014 the White House Office of Management and Budget (OMB) requested that NOAA transition the GONG network to an operational space weather asset in order to ensure the continued flow of critical magnetogram data for solar wind models. NSO will continue to operate and manage the instruments and sites, but the H-alpha images and 10 minute averaged magnetogram data will be sent directly to SWPC for processing and use in space weather modeling. SWPC will make these data

  8. Fine-scale refuges can buffer demographic and genetic processes against short-term climatic variation and disturbance: a 22-year case study of an arboreal marsupial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Sam C; Lorin, Thibault; Shaw, Robyn E; McBurney, Lachlan; Blair, David; Blyton, Michaela D J; Smith, Annabel L; Pierson, Jennifer C; Lindenmayer, David B

    2015-08-01

    Ecological disturbance and climate are key drivers of temporal dynamics in the demography and genetic diversity of natural populations. Microscale refuges are known to buffer species' persistence against environmental change, but the effects of such refuges on demographic and genetic patterns in response to short-term environmental variation are poorly understood. We quantified demographic and genetic responses of mountain brushtail possums (Trichosurus cunninghami) to rainfall variability (1992-2013) and to a major wildfire. We hypothesized that there would be underlying differences in demographic and genetic processes between an unburnt mesic refuge and a topographically exposed zone that was burnt in 2009. Fire caused a 2-year decrease in survival in the burnt zone, but the population grew after the fire due to immigration, leading to increased expected heterozygosity. We documented a fire-related behavioural shift, where the rate of movement by individuals in the unburnt refuge to the burnt zone decreased after fire. Irrespective of the fire, there were long-term differences in demographic and genetic parameters between the mesic/unburnt refuge and the nonmesic/burnt zone. Survival was high and unaffected by rainfall in the refuge, but lower and rainfall-dependent in the nonmesic zone. Net movement of individuals was directional, from the mesic refuge to the nonmesic zone, suggesting fine-scale source-sink dynamics. There were higher expected heterozygosity (HE ) and temporal genetic stability in the refuge, but lower HE and marked temporal genetic structure in the exposed habitat, consistent with reduced generational overlap caused by elevated mortality and immigration. Thus, fine-scale refuges can mediate the short-term demographic and genetic effects of climate and ecological disturbance. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. The Role of Chance Events in the School-to-Work Transition: The Influence of Demographic, Personality and Career Development Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschi, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Chance events are considered important in career development, yet little empirical research is available on their predictors and consequences. The present study investigated socio-demographic (gender, nationality, school-type), personality (openness, locus of control) and career development variables (career decidedness, career planning) in…

  10. Ethno-Demographic Processes in the North-East Black Sea Area in the 19th – Early 21th Centuries (through the Example of Greater Sochi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr A. Cherkasov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines ethno-demographic processes in the north-east Black Sea area, more specifically the territory of Greater Sochi, in the 19th – early 21th centuries. In writing the article, the authors have relied on archive materials from the archives department of the administration of the city of Novorossiysk and the archives department of the administration of the city of Sochi. The authors have consulted reference pre-revolution literature, Soviet-era and present-day population censuses, as well as the findings of present-day research studies. The methodological basis of this study are the principles of historicism, objectivity, and systemicity, which helps to get an insight into the general patterns and regional peculiarities in the demographic development of the major ethnicities in the north-east Black Sea area in the 19th-20th centuries. The authors touch upon the process of colonization of the territory and its ethnic composition. In the end, the authors come to the conclusion that the ethno-demographic picture of Greater Sochi had been forming in a complicated fashion. As a consequence, in the second half of the 19th century, following the Caucasian War, the territory had to be repopulated. Resettlement flows from different locations in the Russian Empire and overseas had formed by 1917 an ethno-picture that featured Russians and Armenians as two principal ethnicities. The authors note that this picture has not changed in a major way to this day.

  11. A Collaborative Process for Planning Transition Services for All Students with Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspel, Nellie; Bettis, Gail; Quinn, Pat; Test, David W.; Wood, Wendy M.

    1999-01-01

    Describes a multilevel interagency transition-planning process which includes three levels: a community-based team, school-level team, and individual-level team. Evaluation data are discussed that indicate consumer satisfaction with the Teaching All Students Skills for Employment and Life Transition planning process. Three case studies are used to…

  12. 人口结构转变及其对宏观经济运行影响评述%Demographic Transition and Its Effects on Macro Economy: A Literature Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张馨艺; 张琼

    2012-01-01

    人口结构转变如何影响宏观经济运行既是一个国际性的命题也是一个颇具中国特色的典型问题,国内外学者已就此展开了长时间的多角度探索,但鲜有研究对此进行系统性总结.本文以人口结构转变理论演进为切入点,结合现有分析方法和结论对人口结构转变影响宏观经济运行的传导路径进行了回顾性梳理.结论表明,首先就方法论而言,人口对宏观经济影响的文献已经从早期的总量分析过渡到了如今的结构性分析,并且学者在分析过程中也逐渐从人口如何影响一国或地区的消费、储蓄、投资、进出口贸易以及国际资本流动等中间变量的角度来思考人口对宏观经济影响的具体传导路径;其次,尽管文献结论倾向于认为人口结构转变会对这些中间变量产生影响,但影响的方向与幅度远未达成一致,从而意味着人口结构转变对宏观经济运行的最终影响并无定论;这既与理论分析未成定论相对应,也与学者所采用的数据和方法不同等密切相关.因此,本文认为尽管分析人口对宏观经济影响的研究颇多,但在中国特色国情背景下相关方面的研究仍任重道远.%How demographic transition affects macro economy has always been not only an international proposition, but also a typical topic with Chinese characteristics. Therefore both domestic and foreign scholars have considered the relationship between population and economic development from various aspects for a long time, while few studies have reached an agreement on conclusions so far. This paper starts with a review on theoretical evolution of related literature, and then retrospectively summarizes possible mechanisms of demographic transition on macro economy. It finds that, firstly, in terms of methodology, related researches have changed their focus on aggregate analysis at the very early first stage to recent structural investigations, and further

  13. 具有人口转变与人力资本的经济增长模型及仿真%An Economic Growth Model with the Demographic Transitions,Human Capital and Simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡东汉

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we set up a model to inquire the affection of the demographic transition and human capital on the economic growth.Combining the function which describes the population change in the period of the demographic transition and the human growth equation with the Solow model, we obtain a two-dimension dynamical system.It is proved that the dynamical system has at least one equilibrium and the solution of the dynamical system is asymptotically stable, so the economy described by the model has stable growth path when the equilibrium is unique.In the end, the numerical simulation is given to present the affections of the demographic transition and human capital on the economic growth.%建立数学模型探讨了人口转变与人力资本对经济增长的影响.将描述人口转变的倒U字型人口增长率函数和人均人力资本引入Solow模型,结合人均人力资本增长方程得到二维的动力系统.证明动力系统至少存在一个非零平衡点且当非零平衡点惟一时,动力系统的解是渐近稳定的,模型描述的经济具有渐近稳定的经济增长路径.通过数值仿真展现人口转变与人力资本对经济增长的影响.

  14. Phase transitions and hysteresis of cooperative contagion processes

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Li; Brockmann, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the effects of cooperation between two interacting infectious diseases that spread and stabilize in a host population. We propose a model in which individuals that are infected with one disease are more likely to acquire the second disease, both diseases following the susceptible-infected-susceptible reaction scheme. We analyze cooperative coinfection in stochastic network models as well as the idealized, well-mixed mean field system and show that cooperative mechanisms dramatically change the nature of phase transitions compared to single disease dynamics. We show that, generically, cooperative coinfection exhibits discontinuous transitions from the disease free to high prevalence state when a critical transmission rate is crossed. Furthermore, cooperative coinfection exhibits two distinct critical points, one for outbreaks the second one for eradication that can be substantially lower. This implies that cooperative coinfection exhibits hysteresis in its response to changing effective transmis...

  15. Demographic Modelling in Weed Biocontrol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demographic matrix modeling of plant populations can be a powerful tool to identify key life stage transitions that contribute the most to population growth of an invasive plant and hence should be targeted for disruption. Therefore, this approach has the potential to guide the pre-release selection...

  16. Crystallization: A phase transition process driving by chemical potential decrease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Congting; Xue, Dongfeng

    2017-07-01

    A chemical bonding model is established to describe the chemical potential decrease during crystallization. In the nucleation stage, in situ molecular vibration spectroscopy shows the increased vibration energy of constituent groups, indicating the shortened chemical bonding and the decreased chemical potential towards the formation of nuclei. Starting from the Gibbs free energy formula, the chemical potential decrease during crystallization is scaled, which depends on the released chemical bonding energy per unit phase transition zone. In the crystal growth, the direction-dependent growth rate of inorganic single crystals can be quantitatively determined, their anisotropic thermodynamic morphology can thus be constructed on the basis of relative growth rates.

  17. Das causas às conseqüências econômicas da transição demográfica no Brasil From the causes to the economic consequences of the demographic transition in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo de Tarso Almeida Paiva

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available As relações entre crescimento populacional e desenvolvimento desafiam estudiosos por muito tempo e referem-se tanto aos impactos do crescimento e estrutura da população sobre o crescimento e a distribuição da renda (crescimento econômico, quanto sobre os impactos do crescimento econômico sobre o crescimento e a estrutura da população. Há cerca de três décadas discutiam-se as causas e conseqüências do crescimento populacional. Hoje, discutem-se as causas e conseqüências da transição demográfica. Muita coisa mudou no mundo e, do ponto de vista demográfico, a maior mudança foi a universalização do processo de transição demográfica. Expressões como "bomba demográfica" foram substituídas por "bônus demográfico" ou "janela de oportunidades". Este artigo pretende examinar como essas relações entre população e economia foram interpretadas e discutidas e como influenciaram o pensamento, a pesquisa acadêmica e, eventualmente, algumas propostas de políticas públicas no Brasil. O artigo procura sumariar os avanços que estão em curso na pesquisa sobre população e economia e suas implicações para as políticas públicas e o desenvolvimento.Relationships between development and population growth have challenged scholars and researchers for many years, and refer to the impacts of population growth and distribution on economic growth, and to the impacts of economic growth on population. Three decades ago the major issue was the causes and consequences of population growth. The central issue today is about the causes and consequences of demographic transition on the economy. Many changes have taken place over the last thirty years. From the demographic point of view, the most important change has been the generalization of the so-called demographic transition. "Demographic bonus" and "window of opportunities" have become substitutes for "the demographic bomb." This article describes how the relations between population

  18. A Dynamic Process Model for the Beach-Inlet Transition Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-05-01

    A0-A87 096 UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH FLORIDA TAMPA DEPT OF GEOLOGY F/S 8/3 A DYNAMIC PROCESS MODEL FOR THE REACH-INLET TRANSITION ZONE. UI N MAY 80 R A...cz80 7 A DYNAMIC PROCESS MODEL FOR THE BEACH-INLET TRANSITION ZONE by Richard A. Davis, Jr., University of South Florida and William T. Fox, Williams...during the study period have permitted construction of a dynami, process model for the beach-inlet transition zone during the tidal cycle. This model

  19. Exploring business process modelling paradigms and design-time to run-time transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, Filip; Vanthienen, Jan

    2016-09-01

    The business process management literature describes a multitude of approaches (e.g. imperative, declarative or event-driven) that each result in a different mix of process flexibility, compliance, effectiveness and efficiency. Although the use of a single approach over the process lifecycle is often assumed, transitions between approaches at different phases in the process lifecycle may also be considered. This article explores several business process strategies by analysing the approaches at different phases in the process lifecycle as well as the various transitions.

  20. Transition management as a model for managing processes of co-evolution towards sustainable development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Kemp (René); D.A. Loorbach (Derk); J. Rotmans (Jan)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractSustainable development requires changes in socio-technical systems and wider societal change - in beliefs, values and governance that co-evolve with technology changes. In this article we present a practical model for managing processes of co-evolution: transition management. Transition

  1. Kujichagalia! Self-Determination in Young African American Women with Disabilities during the Transition Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis, La Tonya L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the role that self-determination played in the transition process for young African American women with disabilities who exited high school with a special diploma and participated in a local transition program. Factors under study included the young women's autonomy, self-regulation, psychological…

  2. Kujichagalia! Self-Determination in Young African American Women with Disabilities during the Transition Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis, La Tonya L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the role that self-determination played in the transition process for young African American women with disabilities who exited high school with a special diploma and participated in a local transition program. Factors under study included the young women's autonomy, self-regulation, psychological…

  3. The glass transition process in humid biopolymers. DSC study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grunina, N A; Belopolskaya, T V; Tsereteli, G I [V.A. Fock Research Institute for Physics of Saint-Petersburg State University, 198504, Petrodvorets (Russian Federation)

    2006-05-15

    Thermal properties of native and denatured biopolymers with quite different chemical and steric structure (globular and fibrillar proteins, DNA, starches) were studied by means of differential scanning calorimetry in a wide range of temperatures and concentrations of water. It was shown that both native and denatured humid biopolymers are glassy systems. The glass transition temperature of these systems strongly depends on percentage of water, with water being simultaneously an intrinsic element of systems' ordered structure and a plasticizer of its amorphous state. On the base of the absolute values of heat capacities for biopolymer-water systems as a whole, heat capacities for biopolymers themselves were calculated as functions on water concentration at fixed temperatures. The S-shaped change of heat capacity observed on diagrams of state both for native and denatured biopolymers is the manifestation of biopolymers' passing through the vitrification region, as it occurs for denatured samples at heating.

  4. On the optimality equation for average cost Markov control processes with Feller transition probabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaskiewicz, Anna; Nowak, Andrzej S.

    2006-04-01

    We consider Markov control processes with Borel state space and Feller transition probabilities, satisfying some generalized geometric ergodicity conditions. We provide a new theorem on the existence of a solution to the average cost optimality equation.

  5. Quantitative investigation of the transition process in Taylor-Couette flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tu, Xin Cheng; Kim, Hyoung Bum Kim [Gyeongsang National University, Jinju (Korea, Republic of); Liu, Dong [Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang (China)

    2013-02-15

    The transition process from circular Couette flow to Taylor vortex flow regime was experimentally investigated by measuring the instantaneous velocity vector fields at the annular gap flow region between two concentric cylinders. The proper orthogonal decomposition method, vorticity calculation, and frequency analysis were applied in order to analyze the instantaneous velocity fields to identify the flow characteristics during the transition process. From the results, the kinetic energy and corresponding reconstructed velocity fields were able to detect the onset of the transition process and the alternation of the flow structure. The intermittency and oscillation of the vortex flows during the transition process were also revealed from the analysis of the instantaneous velocity fields. The results can be a measure of identifying the critical Reynolds number of the Taylor-Couette flow from a velocity measurement method.

  6. Uniform Labeled Transition Systems for Nondeterministic, Probabilistic, and Stochastic Process Calculi

    CERN Document Server

    Bernardo, Marco; Loreti, Michele; 10.4204/EPTCS.60.5

    2011-01-01

    Labeled transition systems are typically used to represent the behavior of nondeterministic processes, with labeled transitions defining a one-step state to-state reachability relation. This model has been recently made more general by modifying the transition relation in such a way that it associates with any source state and transition label a reachability distribution, i.e., a function mapping each possible target state to a value of some domain that expresses the degree of one-step reachability of that target state. In this extended abstract, we show how the resulting model, called ULTraS from Uniform Labeled Transition System, can be naturally used to give semantics to a fully nondeterministic, a fully probabilistic, and a fully stochastic variant of a CSP-like process language.

  7. Closed-Form Expansions for Transition Densities of Convenience Yield Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanae RUJIVAN

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we derive closed-form expansions for transition densities of convenience yield processes modeled by using extended Cox-Ingersoll-Ross (ECIR processes. The closed-form expansions can be used for all cases of model having appropriate drift and diffusion coefficients. In terms of the efficiency, the closed-form expansions are close to the exact transition densities when the number of terms in the expansions is large and the time step size is small.

  8. Demographic changes and international factor mobility

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews the extent and policy implications of linkages between demographic changes and international factor mobility. Evidence is found of significant demographic effects on both migration and the current account, but for different reasons neither increased migration nor international transfers of savings is expected to offer much assistance in digesting the variety of demographic transitions expected over the next fifty years. The paper also examines more briefly the effects of de...

  9. Wake interaction effects on the transition process on turbine blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainsworth, R. W.; Lagraff, J. E.

    1987-10-01

    The characterization of the nozzle guide vane inlet and exit conditions in the Oxford University Isentropic Light Piston Tunnel fully 3-D annular rotating stage has been undertaken. Measurements included hot wire anemometry and pressure/Mach number distributions. Preparations for the rotor heat transfer instrumentation/data acquisition hardware and software are also in progress. Further development of a numerical model to predict the effects of wake passing and transition is reported. The convection of the wake through the passage is predicted, allowing for estimations of the expected times for which the boundary layer is disturbed by the wake fluid. The new model for the random generation and subsequent growth and convection of the turbulent spots produces a time-resolved prediction of the intermittent heat transfer signals by use of a time-marching procedure. By superimposing the two numerical models it is possible to simulate the measured instantaneous heat transfer characteristics and to estimate the effective average intermittency along the blade surface and compare the results to the measured intermittency values.

  10. Development of a Transition Process Scale for High-risk Infant’s Caregiver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi YU

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Transition into parenthood is a major developmental life event and is very significant because development in infanthood is affected by the transition process of mothers parenting an infant. This study aimed to develop the assessment tool for transition process of high risk infant’s caregiver in Korea.Methods: The participants were 246 mothers of premature infant born with gestational age (< 37 weeks or low birth weight (< 2500 gm, of less than 24 months of age. Preliminary items were derived from transition process scale for parent of children with autism. Factor analysis was performed to test construct validity of the scale, the correlation between transition processes and parenting efficacy was used for testing predictive validity.Results: The final scale was composed of 23 items divided into 5 factors: wandering (7 items, devotion (5 items, acceptance (4 items, denial (4 items, frustration (3 items. The total variance for validity described by the 5 factors was 60.8% and the reliability of the scale was total Cronbach’s α 0.90 and wandering 0.85, devotion 0.78, acceptance 0.72, denial 0.72, and frustration 0.71. Correlation between transition process and parenting efficacy was statistically significant; wandering(r=-0.61, P <.001, devotion (r=-0.60, P<.001, acceptance (r=0.30, P <.001, denial (r=-0.31, P <.001 and frustration (r= -0.27, P <.001.Conclusion: This final assessment scale will be used to investigate high-risk infant caregiver’s transition process and provide basic data for program development to provide differentiated support and care at each process. Keywords: Caregiver, High risk, Infant, Scale, Transition

  11. Transition probabilities in a problem of stochastic process switching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veestraeten, D.

    2009-01-01

    Flood and Garber (1983), Smith (1991), and Froot and Obstfeld (1991a,b) examined the return of the United Kingdom to the gold standard in 1925 as an example of state-contingent process switching. They calculated the exchange rate via the density function of the …rst-passage time through the announce

  12. Relational Processes in Career Transition: Extending Theory, Research, and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motulsky, Sue L.

    2010-01-01

    A growing body of work in relational theory and career decision making explores how relational processes, not just people's relationships but more broadly their connections to self, others, and society, inform career development and counseling. This article presents the results of a qualitative research study of midlife women in career transition…

  13. Unpacking the Evaluation Process: A Study of Transitional Bilingual Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstetter, C.H.

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the process of an ongoing, independent evaluation of atransitional Spanish/English bilingual program housed at a large, urban school district in Northern California. The program is designed to enhance Kindergarten through Grade 5 (K-5) students' English language proficiency, as well as their English performance in academic…

  14. Kindergarten students’ levels of understanding some science concepts and scientific inquiry processes according to demographic variables (the sampling of Kilis Province in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nail İlhan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to identify the kindergarten students’ levels of understanding some science concepts (LUSSC and scientific inquiry processes (SIP and compare their LUSSC and SIP in terms of some demographic variables. Also, another purpose of this study is to identify the predictive power of those demographic variables over the kindergarten students’ LUSSC and SIP. This study was conducted according to quantitative research design. The study group consisted of 335 kindergarten students from 20 different rural and urban schools. In the study, the scale for “Turkish Kindergarten Students’ Understandings of Scientific Concepts and Scientific Inquiry Processes” was used. According to some variables (such as mother’s education level and family structure, there was a statistically significant difference between students’ mean scores for LUSSC and between students’ mean scores for SIP. Within the scope of this study, it was found that among the predictor variables (age, family’s income level, and number of brother/sister were significant predictors for LUSSC, and number of brother/sister was a significant predictor for SIP.

  15. Stakeholder and Process Alignment in Navy Installation Technology Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    technologies, such as renew - able energy , there is an ongoing O&S requirement. Often the decision authority for sustainment funding is different from...Integration program, and the Energy Systems Technology Evaluation Program . Each of these programs has a multigate project review process to ensure...Nussbaum chairs the Energy Academic Group at the NPS. His research and teaching interests include decision analysis and risk assessment. Macias is

  16. Student-Directed Transition Planning: Increasing Student Knowledge and Self-Efficacy in the Transition Planning Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Lee L.; Sylvester, Lorraine; Martin, James E.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of a new school to adult life transition planning lesson package titled "Student-Directed Transition Planning". The "Student-Directed Transition Planning" lessons teach transition terms and concepts to provide a means to increase self-determination skills and student participation in transition IEP…

  17. Demographic processes in the montane Atlantic rainforest: molecular and cytogenetic evidence from the endemic frog Proceratophrys boiei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaro, Renata Cecília; Rodrigues, Miguel Trefaut; Yonenaga-Yassuda, Yatiyo; Carnaval, Ana Carolina

    2012-03-01

    Historical climatic refugia predict genetic diversity in lowland endemics of the Brazilian Atlantic rainforest. Yet, available data reveal distinct biological responses to the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) conditions across species of different altitudinal ranges. We show that species occupying Brazil's montane forests were significantly less affected by LGM conditions relative to lowland specialists, but that pre-Pleistocene tectonics greatly influenced their geographic variation. Our conclusions are based on palaeoclimatic distribution models, molecular sequences of the cytochrome b, 16S, and RAG-1 genes, and karyotype data for the endemic frog Proceratophrys boiei. DNA and chromosomal data identify in P. boiei at least two broadly divergent phylogroups, which have not been distinguished morphologically. Cytogenetic results also indicate an area of hybridization in southern São Paulo. The location of the phylogeographic break broadly matches the location of a NW-SE fault, which underwent reactivation in the Neogene and led to remarkable landscape changes in southeastern Brazil. Our results point to different mechanisms underpinning diversity patterns in lowland versus montane tropical taxa, and help us to understand the processes responsible for the large number of narrow endemics currently observed in montane areas of the southern Atlantic forest hotspot.

  18. The selfish to egalitarian transition in young children: developmental processes versus cooperative interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolis, H; Nicolis, S C

    2010-07-01

    There is evidence that a tendency to share resources equitably among members of a social group emerges in middle childhood. It is regarded by many investigators as a central and unique feature of human social life. In this work the relative roles of developmental processes and collective effects generated by interindividual interactions on the selfish to egalitarian transition observed in middle childhood are analyzed. Using mathematical modeling, conditions are identified under which the transition becomes sharp and gives rise to hysteretic behavior.

  19. Applying Career Development Theories to the School-to-Work Transition Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lent, Robert W.; Worthington, Roger L.

    1999-01-01

    Career development theories do not typically highlight their relevance to the school-to-work transition process. This issue features articles that examine how several prominent career development theories (person-environment fit, social learning, developmental, and social cognitive) can be brought to bear on this process. Three discussants assess…

  20. Faring Forward: The Strategic Planning Process as Talisman during Periods of Institutional Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wharton, Donald P.; Corak, Kathleen A.

    A case study was done of the possible role of strategic planning processes for smoothing the transition period experienced by colleges and universities when changes in top leadership occur. The study was conducted in a medium-sized midwestern state university that had begun, 3 years earlier, a strategic planning process which had been…

  1. Transitioning toward Sustainable Development Goals: The Role of Household Environment in Influencing Child Health in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia Using Recent Demographic Health Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Ankit; Roy, Nobhojit

    2016-01-01

    The Millennium Development Goals are now replaced by 17 sustainable development goals. The emphasis of old goals was on improving water, sanitation, and child mortality conditions in developing countries. The study explored the major question about the association between different household environment conditions with child survival and health in Sub-Saharan African and South Asian countries in the current scenario. This paper estimated the risk of death, morbidity, and undernutrition among children living in households with the improved sources of water, sanitation, and non-solid cooking fuel. Two sources of information are explored in this study. First, data from World Health Statistics (WHS)-2014 for all of the Sub-Saharan African and South Asian countries were used. Second, available standard Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) performed in the countries of Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia after 2010 was included in the study. It resulted in the inclusion of 15 countries which were Bangladesh (2011), Congo Republic (2013-2014), Cote d'Ivoire (2011-2012), Ethiopia (2011), Gambia (2013), Mali (2012-2013), Mozambique (2011), Namibia (2013), Nepal (2011), Niger (2012), Nigeria (2013), Pakistan (2012-2013), Sierra Leone (2013), Uganda (2011), and Zambia (2013). The scatter plot diagram was plotted, and the curve was fitted using the WHS-2014. Cox regression and logistic regression were used to estimate adjusted risks (odds ratio) of child mortality and health outcomes using DHSs. The use of non-solid cooking fuel was very high in most of the Sub-Saharan African and South Asian countries. There was a positive correlation between improving access to safe drinking water and sanitation. The exponential curve fitted well with child mortality and household environmental indicators. The use of improved source of water and sanitation significantly related with the lower odds ratio of death, morbidity, and undernutrition among children aged 12-59 months. The risks were

  2. Transitioning Towards Sustainable Development Goals: The Role of Household Environment in Influencing Child Health in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia using Recent Demographic Health Surveys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankit eAnand

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The millennium development goals are now replaced by seventeen sustainable development goals. The emphasis of old goals was on improving water, sanitation, and child mortality conditions in developing countries. The study explored the major question about the association between different household environment conditions with child survival and health in Sub-Saharan African and South Asian countries in the current scenario. This paper estimated the risk of death, morbidity and under-nutrition among children living in households with the improved sources of water, sanitation and non-solid cooking fuel. Two sources of information explored in this study. First, data from World Health Statistics (WHS -2014 for all of the Sub-Saharan African and South Asian countries were used. Second, available standard Demographic and Health Survey performed in the countries of Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia after 2010, included in the study. It resulted in inclusion of 15 countries which were Bangladesh (2011, Congo Republic (2013-14, Cote d'Ivoire (2011-12, Ethiopia (2011, Gambia (2013, Mali (2012-13, Mozambique (2011, Namibia (2013, Nepal (2011, Niger (2012, Nigeria (2013, Pakistan (2012-13, Sierra Leone (2013, Uganda (2011 and Zambia (2013. The Scatter plot diagram was plotted, and the curve was fitted using the WHS-2014. Cox regression and logistic regression were used to estimate adjusted risks (odds ratio of child mortality and health outcomes using DHS surveys. The use of non-solid cooking fuel was very high in most of the Sub-Saharan African and South Asian Countries. There was a positive correlation between improving access to safe drinking water and sanitation. The exponential curve fitted well with child mortality and Household environmental indicators. The use of improved source of water and sanitation significantly related with the lower odds ratio of death, morbidity and under-nutrition among children aged 12-59 months. The risks were not

  3. A Demographic Perspective on Family Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Suzanne M.

    2014-01-01

    Demographic analysis seeks to understand how individual microlevel decisions about child-bearing, marriage and partnering, geographic mobility, and behaviors that influence health and longevity aggregate to macrolevel population trends and differentials in fertility, mortality and migration. In this review, I first discuss theoretical perspectives—classic demographic transition theory, the perspective of the “second demographic transition,” the spread of developmental idealism—that inform demographers’ understanding of macrolevel population change. Then, I turn to a discussion of the role that demographically informed data collection has played in illuminating family change since the mid-20th century in the United States. Finally, I discuss ways in which demographic theory and data collection might inform future areas of family research, particularly in the area of intergenerational family relationships and new and emerging family forms. PMID:26078785

  4. Student-Directed Transition Planning: Increasing Student Knowledge and Self-Efficacy in the Transition Planning Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Lee L.; Sylvester, Lorraine; Martin, James E.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of a new school to adult life transition planning lesson package titled "Student-Directed Transition Planning". The "Student-Directed Transition Planning" lessons teach transition terms and concepts to provide a means to increase self-determination skills and student participation in…

  5. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT): A biological process in the development, stem cell differentiation, and tumorigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tong; You, Yanan; Jiang, Hua; Wang, Zack Z

    2017-12-01

    The lineage transition between epithelium and mesenchyme is a process known as epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), by which polarized epithelial cells lose their adhesion property and obtain mesenchymal cell phenotypes. EMT is a biological process that is often involved in embryogenesis and diseases, such as cancer invasion and metastasis. The EMT and the reverse process, mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET), also play important roles in stem cell differentiation and de-differentiation (or reprogramming). In this review, we will discuss current research progress of EMT in embryonic development, cellular differentiation and reprogramming, and cancer progression, all of which are representative models for researches of stem cell biology in normal and in diseases. Understanding of EMT and MET may help to identify specific markers to distinguish normal stem cells from cancer stem cells in future. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Relaxation processes and structural transitions in stretched films of polyvinylidene fluoride and its copolymer with hexafluoropropylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frübing, Peter; Wang, Feipeng; Wegener, Michael

    2012-06-01

    Relaxation processes and structural transitions in nonstretched and uniaxially stretched films of poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene) (P(VDF-HFP)) and its homopolymer polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) for comparison were investigated with the aim of understanding the electromechanical properties of this lower-modulus ferroelectric copolymer. The mechanical and the dielectric response at the glass transition ( α a relaxation) exhibit similar temperature dependence of the relaxation time, whereas mechanical and dielectric processes above the glass transition are not related. They represent a continuous softening process within the amorphous phase and the dielectric α c relaxation, respectively. The latter is attributed to conformational changes of VDF segments in lamellae of spherulites constituting the nonpolar crystalline α phase. Furthermore, there is a contribution from melting of secondary crystallites formed in the amorphous phase during annealing or storage. Mechanically, this transition appears in nonstretched and stretched films as an accelerated decrease of the elastic modulus that terminates the rubber plateau. Dielectrically, this transition becomes visible as a frequency-independent loss peak only in stretched films, because stretching removes the α c relaxation, which superimposes the transition in nonstretched films. Melting of secondary crystallites is shown to appear in the homopolymer, too, though less pronounced because of more complete primary crystallisation. Stretching increases the modulus above the glass transition only slightly, and it does not significantly influence the softening process. On the other hand, stretching causes a spontaneous polarisation and introduces order within the amorphous phase, rendering it more polar. Melting of secondary crystallites provides an additional contribution to the polarisation. These findings may explain the relatively high electromechanical activity of P(VDF-HFP) but also its relatively low

  7. Phase Transition Analysis Based Quality Prediction for Multi-phase Batch Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵露平; 赵春晖; 高福荣

    2012-01-01

    Batch processes are usually involved with multiple phases in the time domain and many researches on process monitoring as well as quality prediction have been done using phase information. However, few of them consider phase transitions, though they exit widely in batch processes and have non-ignorable impacts on product qualities. In the present work, a phase-based partial least squares (PLS) method utilizing transition information is proposed to give both online and offline quality predictions. First, batch processes are divided into several phases using regression parameters other than prior process knowledge. Then both steady phases and transitions which have great influences on qualities are identified as critical-to-quality phases using statistical methods. Finally, based on the analysis of different characteristics of transitions and steady phases, an integrated algorithm is developed for quality prediction. The application to an injection molding process shows the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm in comparison with the traditional MPLS method and the phase-based PLS method.

  8. Characterization of Transition Metal Carbide Layers Synthesized by Thermo-reactive Diffusion Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Mads Brink; Fernandes, Frederico Augusto Pires; Christiansen, Thomas Lundin

    2015-01-01

    Hard wear resistant surface layers of transition metal carbides can be produced by thermo-reactive diffusion processes where interstitial elements from a steel substrate together with external sources of transition metals (Ti, V, Cr etc.) form hard carbide and/or nitride layers at the steel surface...... electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and Vickers hardness testing. The study shows that porosityfree, homogenous and very hard surface layers can be produced by thermo-reactive diffusion processes. The carbon availability of the substrate influences thickness of obtained layers, as Vanadis 6 tool steel...

  9. Theory on single molecule_photon cryocooler—— Conception and quantum transition processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦伟平; 陈宝玖; 秦冠仕; 杜国同; 许武; 黄世华

    2001-01-01

    The micro mechanism of anti_Stokes fluorescent cooling was investigated on molecular or ionic scale. A new conception of single molecule_photon cryocooler (SMPC) was given, and the smallest cryocooler in the world was predicted. We described SMPC and its running principle in detail. The quantum transition processes of SMPC and the largest cooling coefficient that SMPC can get in an optical transition were given. Also we studied the random property of SMPC in cooling processes. The thermodynamic behavior of single Yb3+ ion as a photon cryocooler was imitated.

  10. Protonation of transition-metal hydrides: a not so simple process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besora, Maria; Lledós, Agustí; Maseras, Feliu

    2009-04-01

    The protonation of a transition-metal hydride is a formally simple process between a proton donor and a proton acceptor with several potential basic centres. The detailed mechanism is however quite subtle, with multistep reactions and involvement of different intermediates. The process is furthermore very sensitive to the nature of both the proton donor and the transition-metal complex, as well as to the solvent and to the presence and identity of eventual counteranions. This tutorial review summarizes the recent progress in the understanding of the reaction, obtained through the joint application of a number of computational and experimental techniques.

  11. From boy to man: recommendations for the transition process in haemophilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Guy

    2012-07-01

    Haemophilia is a life-long genetic disorder most often diagnosed in early childhood which results in bleeding into deep tissues and can result in arthropathy and, rarely, other serious complications. As a result of the natural physical and cognitive development in children, combined with the manner in which haemophilia is treated, there is a continuous process of changes in the approach to patient management, which collectively are called transitional issues. It is important to point out that while some traditional definitions of transition are limited to the stage when an adolescent becomes an adult and how the mode and delivery of care change during this time, a broader definition incorporating all the changes that occur from birth through adulthood will be described in this article. As such, transition should be thought of as a continuous process, though for the sake of clarity and practicality, we will divide the process into several phases. The transition issues to be discussed will be divided into medical issues and psychosocial issues, though there is clearly overlap between the two. A well-developed transition plan from birth to adulthood for patients with haemophilia facilitates the necessary change from total dependence on caregivers to complete independence by the time one reaches 18 years of age.

  12. Quantitative analysis of non-equilibrium phase transition process by the catastrophe theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xiao; Wu, Jiu Hui; Zhong, H. B.

    2017-08-01

    Catastrophe theory is a highly generalized mathematical theory that summarizes the rules of non-equilibrium phase transition by several catastrophe models. This paper investigates the general non-equilibrium phase transition process quantitatively using catastrophe theory for the first time, to our knowledge. First, a new approach is proposed by combining the catastrophe theory with dimensionless analysis. Second, the new approach is applied to two classic examples: one is the turbulent phase transition and the other is the bottleneck effect of particle flow. For the turbulence phase transition process, the quantitative relationships are obtained. Comparing with Kolmogorov's turbulent theory, the new method proposed in this paper is able to evaluate not only the complete turbulence condition but also the development of turbulence, and Kolmogorov's turbulent theory is only a special case of our results by this new approach. For the particle flow bottleneck effect, the results obtained by this new method correspond with the empirical formulated results. Therefore, the proposed method can solve non-equilibrium phase transition process problems and has the potential to extend to fluid, aerodynamics, and so forth.

  13. Spin reorientation transition process in single crystal NdFeO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Gaibei; Jiang, Junjie; Kang, Baojuan; Zhang, Jincang; Cheng, Zhenxiang; Ma, Guohong; Cao, Shixun

    2015-06-01

    The spin reorientation transition in single crystal NdFeO3 is studied using AC magnetic susceptibility, hysteresis loops, and polarized terahertz (THz) time domain spectroscopy measurements. Different frequency dependence behaviors of AC susceptibility reflect that the dynamic response of magnetization inside the spin reorientation region differs from the phase outside the transition region. The magnetization hysteresis loops at different temperatures reveal that domains formed during the spin reorientation process, which coincides with the abrupt increase of AC magnetic susceptibility during the transition. In addition, temperature dependent THz wave excitation of quasi-antiferromagnetic mode indicates the process of spin reorientation as a continuous rotation of Fe3+ spins rather than a mixed phase of Γ4 and Γ2.

  14. Income Attainment During Transformation Processes : A Meta-Analysis of the Market Transition Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, Willem-Jan; Jansen, Wim; Dessens, Jos

    2005-01-01

    The changing communist regime in China and the ‘velvet’ revolutions in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) have provided an opportunity to investigate trends in income attainment during processes of transformation. Nee (1989) formulated the market transition theory, which indicates the main determinant

  15. Collaborative Assessment for Employment Planning: Transition Assessment and the Discovery Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Bradley S.; Fowler, Catherine H.

    2016-01-01

    As the Workforce Innovation and Opportunities Act (WIOA) is implemented across the nation, special education and vocational rehabilitation professionals will need to increase their level of collaboration. One area of potential collaboration is assessment--transition assessment for the field of special education and the discovery process for adult…

  16. Income Attainment During Transformation Processes : A Meta-Analysis of the Market Transition Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, Willem-Jan; Jansen, Wim; Dessens, Jos

    2005-01-01

    The changing communist regime in China and the ‘velvet’ revolutions in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) have provided an opportunity to investigate trends in income attainment during processes of transformation. Nee (1989) formulated the market transition theory, which indicates the main

  17. Presumption of Incompetence: The Systematic Assignment of Guardianship within the Transition Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rood, Carrie E.; Kanter, Arlene; Causton, Julie

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the potential impact that state guardianship laws may have on the transition planning process for students identified with intellectual and developmental disabilities under the Individuals with Disabilities in Education Improvement Act. The authors utilize a disability studies framework to describe how the goals of…

  18. Involvement of O-glycosylation defining oncofetal fibronectin in epithelial-mesenchymal transition process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freire-de-Lima, Leonardo; Gelfenbeyn, Kirill; Ding, Yao

    2011-01-01

    The process termed "epithelial-mesenchymal transition" (EMT) was originally discovered in ontogenic development, and has been shown to be one of the key steps in tumor cell progression and metastasis. Recently, we showed that the expression of some glycosphingolipids (GSLs) is down-regulated duri...

  19. From Further to Higher Education: Transition as an On-Going Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tett, Lyn; Cree, Viviene E; Christie, Hazel

    2017-01-01

    This paper argues that transition is not a one-off event that occurs when students first enter universities but is an on-going process that is repeated over time. We draw on qualitative data from a longitudinal project on "non-traditional" students who entered a research-intensive university in Scotland direct from further education…

  20. (Re)constructing Myself: the process of transition to motherhood for women with a disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, Denise; Begley, Cecily; Lalor, Joan

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents a substantive theory that explains the transition to motherhood for women with a disability. Over the last thirty years, interest in exploring women's experiences of motherhood has increased. Extant theories on transition to motherhood originate, primarily, from the perspective and experiences of non-disabled women with few exploring the phenomenon from the perspective and experiences of women with a disability. Those that do tend to focus on issues of accessibility, profiling the challenges that women with a disability encounter while accessing maternity services, attaining a maternal role and fulfilling the requirements of that role. Little is known about the experiences of women with a disability and their transition to motherhood and even less about the relationship of this process on the self. The study was conducted using a Strauss and Corbin approach to grounded theory. Individual interviews (n = 22) were conducted over 4 years (2008-2012). Women were interviewed during pregnancy and in the postnatal period. All interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, imported into Nvivo 8 and analysed using the constant comparative method. The substantive theory that emerged from the study provides a conceptual framework clinicians can reference when counselling, assisting and facilitating women with a disability during their preparation for and transition to motherhood. The substantive theory presented in this paper will increase clinicians' understanding of the process involved in the transition to motherhood for women with a disability. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Integration of ICT in everyday life - exploration of transition processes in an environmental perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    2009-01-01

    Presently, one of the fastest growing fields of consumption is the use of information and communication technologies (ICT). The integration of ICT in social practices is part of wide-ranging transition processes constructing new ‘normal standards’ in everyday life, and these changes have large en...... environmental impacts. The paper explores the ongoing processes in order to discuss whether they can be managed so as to better integrate environmental considerations....

  2. Security Transition Program Office (STPO), technology transfer of the STPO process, tools, and techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauth, J.T.; Forslund, C.R.J.; Underwood, J.A.

    1994-09-01

    In 1990, with the transition from a defense mission to environmental restoration, the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Hanford Site began a significant effort to diagnose, redesign, and implement new safeguards and security (SAS) processes. In 1992 the Security Transition Program Office (STPO) was formed to address the sweeping changes that were being identified. Comprised of SAS and other contractor staff with extensive experience and supported by staff experienced in organizational analysis and work process redesign, STPO undertook a series of tasks designed to make fundamental changes to SAS processes throughout the Hanford Site. The goal of STPO is to align the SAS work and organization with the new Site mission. This report describes the key strategy, tools, methods, and techniques used by STPO to change SAS processes at Hanford. A particular focus of this review is transferring STPO`s experience to other DOE sites and federal agency efforts: that is, to extract, analyze, and provide a critical review of the approach, tools, and techniques used by STPO that will be useful to other DOE sites and national laboratories in transitioning from a defense production mode to environmental restoration and other missions. In particular, what lessons does STPO provide as a pilot study or model for implementing change in other transition activities throughout the DOE complex? More broadly, what theoretical and practical contributions do DOE transition efforts, such as STPO, provide to federal agency streamlining efforts and attempts to {open_quotes}reinvent{close_quotes} government enterprises in the public sector? The approach used by STPO should provide valuable information to those examining their own processes in light of new mission requirements.

  3. THE WESTERN BALKANS BETWEEN INTERNAL TRANSITIONS AND THE EU INTEGRATION PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elira LULI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Balkan region is still a “hot” zone where old legacies of the past interfere with the present and contribute to the transition processes of the countries there. The region seems committed to follow an EU-bound path, although it faces many challenges in terms of meeting the standards for EU and NATO membership. Somehow, persistent conflicts delay finding solutions. The difficult democratic transition, the lack of will and shallow political culture of regional elites delay the process of bringing these countries forward. This profound transition unfortunately occurs while the EU, on one hand, is trying to play the arbitrator part having promised to assume full leadership role and, on the other hand, tries to restrain the voices of those Euro-Sceptics who have been increasing their numbers recently. Meanwhile, a deterioration of the situation in the Balkans might have a negative impact across Europe and decrease the credibility of the EU as the main foreign policy and security actor in the whole region. This paper will first analyse the transition processes in the Balkans and the back and forth efforts to leave behind the past and head toward a common European perspective. Secondly, it will analyse the required active role of the EU and the urgency for a closer monitoring of the situation in this region. Thirdly, it emphasises the need to encourage public diplomacy in the region in order to mitigate conflicts and promote cooperation between the people there.

  4. O envelhecimento da população brasileira: um enfoque demográfico The aging process in the Brazilian population: a demographic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alberto Magno de Carvalho

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Contrariamente ao indicado pelo senso comum, o processo de envelhecimento populacional, tal como observado até hoje, é resultado do declínio da fecundidade, e não da mortalidade. O envelhecimento populacional iniciou-se no final do século XIX em alguns países da Europa Ocidental, espalhou-se pelo resto do Primeiro Mundo, no século passado, e se estendeu, nas últimas décadas, por vários países do Terceiro Mundo, inclusive o Brasil. No caso brasileiro, observou-se, a partir do final dos anos 60, rapidíssima e generalizada queda da fecundidade, e haverá, conseqüentemente, um célere processo de envelhecimento da população. Este processo será, necessariamente, mais rápido e com mudanças estruturais, demograficamente falando, mais profundas do que nos países do Primeiro Mundo por duas razões: o declínio da fecundidade, no País, deu-se em um ritmo maior e origina-se de uma população mais jovem do que aquela dos países desenvolvidos.Contrary to common sense, the population aging process is due to the decline in fertility rather than mortality. The aging process began around the end of the 19th century in a number of Western European countries, expanded to the rest of the so-called First World over the past century, and reached several Third World countries afterwards, including Brazil over the last decades. In the Brazilian case, a sharp and widespread fertility decline began by the end of the 1960s, and an accelerated population aging process can thus be expected. This process will necessarily be faster and with deeper structural changes, demographically speaking, than in First World countries, for two reasons: the fertility decline in Brazil was faster, and it took place in a population with a younger age structure.

  5. The Economic Foundations of Demographic Transition

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo Cerda

    2002-01-01

    The paper develops a general equilibrium model where population sources, such as fertility and mortality rates, are chosen variables. It is shown that the evolution of population over time depends on income and relative prices of mortality and fertility rates. Initially as a country develops, countries should face a period with increasing fertility and higher population growth rates but later fertility and population growth rate should decrease as their relative prices increase. It is also sh...

  6. Product Variety and the Demographic Transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guzmán, Ricardo Andrés; Weisdorf, Jacob Louis

    Why does the rate of population growth decline in the face of economic growth? We show that growing product variety may induce a permanent reduction in the demand for children and a continuous rise in income and consumption.......Why does the rate of population growth decline in the face of economic growth? We show that growing product variety may induce a permanent reduction in the demand for children and a continuous rise in income and consumption....

  7. Product variety and the demographic transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guzmán, Ricardo Andrés; Weisdorf, Jacob Louis

    2010-01-01

    Why does the rate of population growth decline in the face of economic growth? We show that growing product variety may induce a permanent reduction in the demand for children and a continuous rise in income and consumption....

  8. Product Variety and the Demographic Transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guzmán, Ricardo Andrés; Weisdorf, Jacob Louis

    Why does the rate of population growth decline in the face of economic growth? We show that growing product variety may induce a permanent reduction in the demand for children and a continuous rise in income and consumption....

  9. Relaxation process and phase transition of lanthanide liquid crystalline complexes by photoacoustic spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Junjia; YANG Yuetao; LIU Xiaojun; ZHANG Shuyi; ZHANG Zhongning

    2008-01-01

    Lanthanide-containing liquid crystals exhibiting smectic A phase close to room temperature were obtained. Photoacoustic (PA) spectroscopy was used to study the spectral properties and phase transitions of liquid crystalline metal complexes. It was found that PA intensity of the ligand had a relationship with the probability of nonradiative transitions, which increased in the order of Eu(tta)3L2processes of the complexes were studied in depth from two aspects: radiative and non-radiative processes, combining with their fluorescence spectra. Phase transitions of europium(III) and erbium(III) complexes, in the temperature range of 383-358 K, could be clearly monitored by both PA amplitude and PA phase signals. As the temperature crossed the transition point, PA amplitude showed a minimum and PA phase a maximum. The results indicated that PA technique could serve as a new tool for investigating the physicochemical properties of liquid crystals containing metal ions.

  10. Learning in occupational transitions: a study of the process following job loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallqvist, Anders; Hydén, Lars-Christer

    2012-01-01

    This article examines how workers supported by outplacement services engage with an occupational transition through problem solving and learning. The participants were 23 mid-life redundant white collar workers with at least eight years in their sector, organization or occupation. The selected interviewees either participated in training to broaden their professional competence or did not make any such 'expansive' efforts. The study was based on narrative interviews, which enabled a detailed cross case examination of individuals' actions and choices and how the process unfolds over time. The results showed that people treat their job loss as a practical problem to be solved using various strategies. This problem-solving process is structured, with people passing similar crossroads defining particular challenges and opportunities giving people limited sets of choices. The results point to the significance of creativity and learning in occupational transitions.

  11. GATE REGULATION SPEED AND TRANSITION PROCESS OF UNSTEADY FLOW IN CHANNEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN Guang-ming; DING Zhi-liang; WANG Chang-de; YAO Xiong

    2008-01-01

    The operation methods of channel and the speed of gate regulation have great influence on the transformation of flow in water conveyance channels. Based on characteristics method, a 1-D unsteady flow numerical model for gate regulation was established in this study. The process of water flow was simulated under different boundary conditions. The influence of gate regulation speed and channel operation methods on flow transition process was analyzed. The numerical results show that under the same conditions, with increasing regulation speed of the gate, the change rates of discharge and water level increase, while the response time of channel becomes shorter, and ultimately the discharge and water level will transit to the same equilibrium states. Moreover, the flow is easier to reach stable state, if the water level in front of the sluice is kept constant, instead of behind the sluice. This study will be important to the scheme design of automatic operation control in water conveyance channels.

  12. Theory of two-photon micromaser: competition among different transition processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Wei-Hui; Du Si-De; Chen Xiao-Shuang

    2006-01-01

    We have investigated the steady-state cavity-field properties of a single-mode two-photon micromaser when the atoms in a cascade three-level configuration are initially prepared in a mixture of the upper and intermediate states. The mean photon number, trapping state and sub-Poissonian effect are discussed with upper (intermediate)-state population changing from 1(0) to 0(1). These properties are very different from those in a pure two- or one-photon transition process, due to the competition among different transition processes. In particular, the trapping states of nonzero photons are discovered in this system under some conditions, which is contrary to the previous findings.

  13. Some Results on the Analysis of Stochastic Processes with Uncertain Transition Probabilities and Robust Optimal Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keyong Li; Seong-Cheol Kang; I. Ch. Paschalidis

    2007-09-01

    This paper investigates stochastic processes that are modeled by a finite number of states but whose transition probabilities are uncertain and possibly time-varying. The treatment of uncertain transition probabilities is important because there appears to be a disconnection between the practice and theory of stochastic processes due to the difficulty of assigning exact probabilities to real-world events. Also, when the finite-state process comes as a reduced model of one that is more complicated in nature (possibly in a continuous state space), existing results do not facilitate rigorous analysis. Two approaches are introduced here. The first focuses on processes with one terminal state and the properties that affect their convergence rates. When a process is on a complicated graph, the bound of the convergence rate is not trivially related to that of the probabilities of individual transitions. Discovering the connection between the two led us to define two concepts which we call 'progressivity' and 'sortedness', and to a new comparison theorem for stochastic processes. An optimality criterion for robust optimal control also derives from this comparison theorem. In addition, this result is applied to the case of mission-oriented autonomous robot control to produce performance estimate within a control framework that we propose. The second approach is in the MDP frame work. We will introduce our preliminary work on optimistic robust optimization, which aims at finding solutions that guarantee the upper bounds of the accumulative discounted cost with prescribed probabilities. The motivation here is to address the issue that the standard robust optimal solution tends to be overly conservative.

  14. Sharp Transition Multiband Filter in Speech Processing Scheme for Hearing Impaired

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph X. Rodrigues

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: A simple analytical approach to the synthesis of a sharp transition, linear phase, multiband FIR filter is presented. The filter magnitude response is modeled using trigonometric functions of frequency. Approach: Employing variable density of ripple cycles in passband and stopband regions with large density of ripples cycles at the sharp transition edges, reduces the abrupt discontinuities at these edges. Results: As a result, Gibb’s phenomenon is reduced in the filter implementation thus giving a flat passband and good stopband attenuation. A closed form expression for impulse response coefficients is obtained. The filter design is easily tunable and allows for variation in transition bandwidth of each band. A speech processing scheme is implemented using a pair of the proposed sharp transition multiband FIR filters to split the speech spectrum into complementary short time spectral bands. Conclusion: The adjacent speech formants are fed dichotically to the two ears to reduce the effect of spectral masking and hence improve speech perception in sensorineural hearing impaired.

  15. Magnetization processes and transitions between two antiferromagnetic spin configurations in single-crystalline MnSn2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, T. F.; Ren, W. J.; Liu, W.; Zhang, Z. D.

    2016-08-01

    The magnetic structure of MnSn2 and magnetic phase transitions in this compound have been investigated by magnetic measurements on single crystals. The results show that two antiferromagnetic (AFM) states exist below 325 K and that a transition between these two phases occurs at 74 K. Applying a magnetic field (H) has great influence on the transition temperature. An anomalous magnetization process at low fields occurs when the magnetic field applied along the [110] direction, which is ascribed to the contribution of the basal anisotropy. Based on the data for the magnetization processes and the phase transition of the present single crystal, the H-T phase diagram has been established.

  16. Critical behavior of the absorbing state transition in the contact process with relaxing immunization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Claudia P. T.; Lyra, M. L.; Fulco, U. L.; Corso, Gilberto

    2012-11-01

    We introduce a model for the Contact Process with relaxing immunization CPRI. In this model, local memory is introduced by a time and space dependence of the contamination probability. The model has two parameters: a typical immunization time τ and a maximum contamination probability a. The system presents an absorbing state phase transition whenever the contamination probability a is above a minimum threshold. For short immunization times, the system evolves to a statistically stationary active state. Above τc(a), immunization predominates and the system evolves to the absorbing vacuum state. We employ a finite-size scaling analysis to show that the transition belongs to the standard directed percolation universality class. The critical immunization time diverges in the limit of a→1. In this regime, the density of active sites decays exponentially as τ increases, but never reaches the vacuum state in the thermodynamic limit.

  17. Transition Characteristic Analysis of Traffic Evolution Process for Urban Traffic Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong; Li, Yang

    2014-01-01

    The characterization of the dynamics of traffic states remains fundamental to seeking for the solutions of diverse traffic problems. To gain more insights into traffic dynamics in the temporal domain, this paper explored temporal characteristics and distinct regularity in the traffic evolution process of urban traffic network. We defined traffic state pattern through clustering multidimensional traffic time series using self-organizing maps and construct a pattern transition network model that is appropriate for representing and analyzing the evolution progress. The methodology is illustrated by an application to data flow rate of multiple road sections from Network of Shenzhen's Nanshan District, China. Analysis and numerical results demonstrated that the methodology permits extracting many useful traffic transition characteristics including stability, preference, activity, and attractiveness. In addition, more information about the relationships between these characteristics was extracted, which should be helpful in understanding the complex behavior of the temporal evolution features of traffic patterns. PMID:24982969

  18. Domain wall structure transition during magnetization reversal process in magnetic nanowires

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The analytical micromagnetics and numerical simulations were used to investigate the domain wall structure during the magnetization reversal in nanowires. Micromagnetic analysis shows that the domain wall structure is mainly determined by the competition between the demagnetization energy and exchange energy. The wall with vortex magnetization structure in cross-section is energetically more favorable for wires with large diameter. With the reduction of diameter the exchange energy increases. At a critical diameter the vortex structure can not be sustained and the transition from vortex wall to transverse wall occurs. The critical diameters for this transition are about 40 nm for Ni wire and 20 nm for Fe wire, respectively. A series of micromagnetic simulations on the cone-shaped wire confirm the analytical results. The simulations also show that during the reversal process the vortex domain wall moves much faster than the transverse one.

  19. Relaxation transition due to different cooling processes in a superconducting levitation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, You-He; Zhang, Xing-Yi; Zhou, Jun

    2008-06-01

    We present an experimental study of relaxation of vertical and horizontal force components in a high-temperature superconducting levitation system, with different initial cooling process after fixing the levitated body in an expected position statically. In the experiment, the bulk YBaCuO cylinder superconductor and the permanent magnet disk are employed. For a selected levitation height (LH) and a lateral displacement (LD) of the system, the experimental results show that the relaxations of the vertical and horizontal forces are strongly dependent on the initial cooling height (CH). With CH decreasing, the transition of the lateral force from repulsion to attraction is found as well as the changing characteristics with time from decrease to increase. Additionally, when LH is fixed at the CH, the transition phenomenon is also observed in the levitation force behavior and their relaxation under different LDs.

  20. Transition characteristic analysis of traffic evolution process for urban traffic network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Longfei; Chen, Hong; Li, Yang

    2014-01-01

    The characterization of the dynamics of traffic states remains fundamental to seeking for the solutions of diverse traffic problems. To gain more insights into traffic dynamics in the temporal domain, this paper explored temporal characteristics and distinct regularity in the traffic evolution process of urban traffic network. We defined traffic state pattern through clustering multidimensional traffic time series using self-organizing maps and construct a pattern transition network model that is appropriate for representing and analyzing the evolution progress. The methodology is illustrated by an application to data flow rate of multiple road sections from Network of Shenzhen's Nanshan District, China. Analysis and numerical results demonstrated that the methodology permits extracting many useful traffic transition characteristics including stability, preference, activity, and attractiveness. In addition, more information about the relationships between these characteristics was extracted, which should be helpful in understanding the complex behavior of the temporal evolution features of traffic patterns.

  1. Hillslopes to Hollows to Channels: Identifying Process Transitions and Domains using Characteristic Scaling Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, K.; Locke, W. W.

    2011-12-01

    Headwater catchments are partitioned into hillslopes, unchanneled valleys (hollows), and channels. Low order (less than or equal to two) channels comprise most of the stream length in the drainage network so defining where hillslopes end and hollows begin, and where hollows end and channels begin, is important for calibration and verification of hydrologic runoff and sediment production modeling. We test the use of landscape scaling relations to detect flow regimes characteristic of diffusive, concentrated, and incisive runoff, and use these flow regimes as proxies for hillslope, hollow, and channeled landforms. We use LiDAR-derived digital elevation models (DEMs) of two pairs of headwater catchments in southwest and north-central Montana to develop scaling relations of flowpath length, total stream power, and contributing area. The catchment pairs contrast low versus high drainage density and north versus south aspect. Inflections in scaling relations of contributing area and flowpath length in a single basin (modified Hack's law) and contributing area and total stream power were used to identify hillslope and fluvial process domain transitions. In the modified Hack's law, inflections in the slope of the log-log power law are hypothesized to correspond to changes in flow regime used as proxies for hillslope, hollow, and channeled landforms. Similarly, rate of change of total stream power with contributing area is hypothesized to become constant and then decrease at the hillslope to fluvial domain transition. Power law scaling of frequency-magnitude plots of curvature and an aspect-related parameter were also tested as an indicator of the transition from scale-dependent hillslope length to the scale invariant fluvial domain. Curvature and aspect were calculated at each cell in spectrally filtered DEMs. Spectral filtering by fast Fourier and wavelet transforms enhances detection of fine-scale fluvial features by removing long wavelength topography. Using the

  2. Laboratory Demographics Lookup Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This website provides demographic information about laboratories, including CLIA number, facility name and address, where the laboratory testing is performed, the...

  3. Gender inequalities from the demographic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devedžić Mirjana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the meaning of the phrase "the woman’s status in the society" that is recognized in demography as an important cultural factor of demographic development and transitional changes. The analysis indicates qualitative shifts in the woman’s status and simultaneously reveals its importance at present, not only in traditional, but also in modern and developed societies. On the other hand, it explains the importance of sex as a biodemographic determinant, and introduces the concept of gender that sheds another light on the concepts of sex and woman’s status in the society and integrates them. Gender regimes that subsume the inferiority of women in public and private social structures are examined from demographic perspective, albeit only in those phenomenological aspects that can be supported by demographic research, theories, and analyses. To this end, the paper analyzes the effects of strengthening gender equalities on the fertility and mortality transitions, the gender’s impact on the population distribution by sex in South Asian countries, and highlights the key role of gender in interpreting certain social and economic structures. It also stresses the establishing of gender equality as an important element of population policies. The global dimension of the patriarchal society is illustrated through a series of examples of demographic phenomena from various societies. Gender regimes underlie all of these phenomena. The paper puts foreword certain theoretical hypotheses about gender inequalities, and finds their connections with demographic behaviors and demographic indicators. Finally, it summarizes the role of demography in gender (inequality research and the demographic perspective of the way and the speed the demographic equality is being established. Demography is seen as an irreplaceable discipline in examining gender inequalities, especially at the global level. With the advance of qualitative methods in demography

  4. High Speed Pump-Probe Apparatus for Observation of Transitional Effects in Ultrafast Laser Micromachining Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilya Alexeev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A pump-probe experimental approach has been shown to be a very efficient tool for the observation and analysis of various laser matter interaction effects. In those setups, synchronized laser pulses are used to create an event (pump and to simultaneously observe it (probe. In general, the physical effects that can be investigated with such an apparatus are restricted by the temporal resolution of the probe pulse and the observation window. The latter can be greatly extended by adjusting the pump-probe time delay under the assumption that the interaction process remains fairly reproducible. Unfortunately, this assumption becomes invalid in the case of high-repetition-rate ultrafast laser material processing, where the irradiation history strongly affects the ongoing interaction process. In this contribution, the authors present an extension of the pump-probe setup that allows to investigate transitional and dynamic effects present during ultrafast laser machining performed at high pulse repetition frequencies.

  5. Historical education in the process of democratic transition: The Czech case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najbert Jaroslav

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In his article the author focuses on the process of dealing with the past using the example of Czech democratic transition after 1989. First he defines the very concept “dealing with the past” in order to define the role of historiography and school education in a symbolic level of such a process. He deals with three basic problems - cultivation of historical consciousness within school environment, implementation of modern didactical concepts and finally using the Czech experience with post-communist historical education he outlines problematic issues surrounding the process of dealing with the past. Besides other things he concentrates on didactic aspects of the concept of cultural and communicative memory.

  6. Local Signal Processing of the ALICE Transition Radiation Detector at LHC (CERN)

    CERN Document Server

    Gutfleisch, Marcus

    2006-01-01

    The transition radiation detector of the heavy ion experiment ALICE at LHC (CERN) integrates parts of the data acquisition and trigger system. Therefore, a multi chip module has been developped which incorporates two microchips. Detector signals are preamplified and shaped (Preamplifier and Shaper Chip, PASA). Thereafter they are converted from analog to digital and are processed (Tracklet Processing Chip, TRAP). This thesis describes the digital signal processing of the TRAP chip. The input signals are filtered digitally. Then, they are analyzed by a preprocessor and four CPUs with respect to segments of tracks. The thesis covers the complete development from hardware design of filter and preprocessor, their calibration, programming of the CPUs, up to first application studies on a prototype system.

  7. Heterogeneous recurrence representation and quantification of dynamic transitions in continuous nonlinear processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yun; Yang, Hui

    2016-06-01

    Many real-world systems are evolving over time and exhibit dynamical behaviors. In order to cope with system complexity, sensing devices are commonly deployed to monitor system dynamics. Online sensing brings the proliferation of big data that are nonlinear and nonstationary. Although there is rich information on nonlinear dynamics, significant challenges remain in realizing the full potential of sensing data for system control. This paper presents a new approach of heterogeneous recurrence analysis for online monitoring and anomaly detection in nonlinear dynamic processes. A partition scheme, named as Q-tree indexing, is firstly introduced to delineate local recurrence regions in the multi-dimensional continuous state space. Further, we design a new fractal representation of state transitions among recurrence regions, and then develop new measures to quantify heterogeneous recurrence patterns. Finally, we develop a multivariate detection method for on-line monitoring and predictive control of process recurrences. Case studies show that the proposed approach not only captures heterogeneous recurrence patterns in the transformed space, but also provides effective online control charts to monitor and detect dynamical transitions in the underlying nonlinear processes.

  8. Scale Issues in Ecohydrological Processes in Grassland-Shrubland Transitions, Jornada, NM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainwright, J.; Parsons, A. J.; Mueller, E. N.; Schlesinger, W. H.

    2003-12-01

    Rainfall-simulation experiments have proved invaluable in developing our understanding of ecohydrological processes relating to grassland-shrubland transitions in the American Southwest and elsewhere. Grassland communities are effective at buffering the runoff and erosional response, whereas shrublands accelerate runoff and erosion rates leading to local concentrations of resources. Further feedbacks occur in terms of nutrient redistribution both dissolved in overland flow and adsorbed onto transported sediment. Field experiments at the Jornada LTER site over the last ten years have evaluated these processes on undisturbed and grazed black grama grassland, and creosotebush and mesquite shrubland communities. More recently, investigations have been carried out to evaluate the behaviour of these systems at the landscape scale. Low-cost sampling designs have been used so that relatively large spatial samples can be collected. Currently, 96 of these samplers are in operation at Jornada, evaluating water, sediment and nutrient transfers in the interrill zone. A smaller number of samplers are used to characterize rill transfers of water and dissolved nutrients. The samplers are located along ecotones so that the spatial relationship of grassland-shrubland and shrubland-shrubland transitions can be evaluated. An interesting initial result of the use of these samplers is that they provide different relative patterns of fluxes from those that would be estimated using the plot-based studies. These results contribute to the growing body of evidence that the scaling properties of landscape-degradation processes in these environments are non-linear. Further instrumentation of watersheds is being carried out in order to evaluate these non-linearities at larger scales. At the same time, intensive spatial sampling of hydrological, sedimentary and nutrient characteristics of the surfaces of the different vegetation communities is being carried out. The rationale for this sampling

  9. How to measure the agroecological performance of farming in order to assist with the transition process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabelsi, Meriam; Mandart, Elisabeth; Le Grusse, Philippe; Bord, Jean-Paul

    2016-01-01

    The use of plant protection products enables farmers to maximize economic performance and yields, but in return, the environment and human health can be greatly affected because of their toxicity. There are currently strong calls for farmers to reduce the use of these toxic products for the preservation of the environment and the human health, and it has become urgent to invest in more sustainable models that help reduce these risks. One possible solution is the transition toward agroecological production systems. These new systems must be beneficial economically, socially, and environmentally in terms of human health. There are many tools available, based on a range of indicators, for assessing the sustainability of agricultural systems on conventional farm holdings. These methods are little suitable to agroecological farms and do not measure the performance of agroecological transition farms. In this article, we therefore develop a model for the strategic definition, guidance, and assistance for a transition to agroecological practices, capable of assessing performance of this transition and simulating the consequences of possible changes. This model was built by coupling (i) a decision-support tool and a technico-economic simulator with (ii) a conceptual model built from the dynamics of agroecological practices. This tool is currently being tested in the framework of a Compte d'Affectation Spéciale pour le Développement Agricole et Rural (CASDAR) project (CASDAR: project launched in 2013 by the French Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Forestry, on the theme "collective mobilisation for agroecology," http://agriculture.gouv.fr/Appel-a-projets-CASDAR ) using data from farms, most of which are engaged in agroenvironmental process and reducing plant protection treatments since 2008.

  10. Conformational transition of response regulator RR468 in a two-component system signal transduction process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Rahul; Yan, Honggao; Cukier, Robert I

    2014-05-08

    Signal transduction can be accomplished via a two-component system (TCS) consisting of a histidine kinase (HK) and a response regulator (RR). In this work, we simulate the response regulator RR468 from Thermotoga maritima, in which phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of a conserved aspartate residue acts as a switch via a large conformational change concentrated in three proximal loops. A detailed view of the conformational transition is obscured by the lack of stability of the intermediate states, which are difficult to detect using common structural biology techniques. Molecular dynamics (MD) trajectories of the inactive and active conformations were run, and show that the inactive (or active) trajectories do not exhibit sampling of the active (or inactive) conformations on this time scale. Targeted MD (TMD) was used to generate trajectories that span the inactive and active conformations and provide a view of how a localized event like phosphorylation can lead to conformational changes elsewhere in the protein, especially in the three proximal loops. The TMD trajectories are clustered to identify stages along the transition path. Residue interaction networks are identified that point to key residues having to rearrange in the process of transition. These are identified using both hydrogen bond analysis and residue interaction strength measurements. Potentials of mean force are generated for key residue rearrangements to ascertain their free energy barriers. We introduce methods that attempt to extrapolate from one conformation to the other and find that the most fluctuating proximal loop can transit part way from one to the other, suggesting that this conformational information is embedded in the sequence.

  11. DEMOGRAPHIC SECURITY: THEORY, METHODOLOGY, EVALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail V. Karmanov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the theoretical aspects of demographic security. Reviewed and analyzed the point of view of various scholars to the definition of demographic security. The main directions of statistical analysis of demographic security.

  12. [The transition process from paediatric to adult services: A perspective from hospitalised adolescent sufferers of chronic diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inostroza Quezada, Carolina; Correa Venegas, María Loreto; Besoain Arrau, Carolina; Reinoso Medinelli, Alejandro; Velarde Lizama, Macarena; Valenzuela Mujica, María Teresa; Bedregal García, Paula; Zubarew Gurtchin, Tamara

    2016-01-01

    Chronic illnesses during adolescence are a big challenge for the patient, his or her family, and health care providers. The transition from paediatric health services to adult health services involves a programmed and planned transfer process of adolescent sufferers of chronic illnesses, in order to maintain a high quality of life and bio-psycho-social development. There is currently no transition model. The objective of the study is to understand the transition process from the perspective of hospitalised adolescents to collaborate towards the design of a model that meets the needs studied. Semi-structured interviews with 13 adolescent sufferers of chronic illnesses, hospitalised in two healthcare centres in Santiago, Chile, in one analytical-relational study, supported by qualitative methodology. In the analysis, 5 major themes stand out: experience of living with the illness, the importance of the doctor-patient relationship, the concept of limited autonomy to the pharmacology, the absence of the transition process as such, and the identification of barriers and needs for an adequate transition. This study is new in Chile in that it explores the phenomenom of the transition of adolescents with chronic illnesses. It emphasises the need to reinforce the concept of self-care and autonomy from early stages of care, and the importance of early planning of a healthy transition process, in accordance to the detected needs of the adolescents themselves. Copyright © 2015. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  13. ARX-NNPLS Model Based Optimization Strategy and Its Application in Polymer Grade Transition Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    费正顺; 胡斌; 叶鲁彬; 梁军

    2012-01-01

    Since it is often difficult to build differential algebraic equations (DAEs) for chemical processes, a new data-based modeling approach is proposed using ARX (AutoRegressive with eXogenous inputs) combined with neural network under partial least squares framework (ARX-NNPLS), in which less specific knowledge of the process is required but the input and output data. To represent the dynamic and nonlinear behavior of the process, the ARX combined with neural network is used in the partial least squares (PLS) inner model between input and output latent variables. In the proposed dynamic optimization strategy based on the ARX-NNPLS model, neither parameterization nor iterative solving process for DAEs is needed as the ARX-NNPLS model gives a proper representation for the dynamic behavior of the process, and the computing time is greatly reduced compared to conventional control vector parameterization method. To demonstrate the ARX-NNPLS model based optimization strategy, the polyethylene grade transition in gas phase fluidized-bed reactor is taken into account. The optimization results show that the final optimal trajectory of quality index determined by the new approach moves faster to the target values and the computing time is much less.

  14. Chemical and aerosol processes in the transition from closed to open cells during VOCALS-REx

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kazil

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Chemical and aerosol processes in the transition from closed- to open-cell circulation in the remote, cloudy marine boundary layer are explored. It has previously been shown that precipitation can initiate a transition from the closed- to the open-cellular state, but that the boundary layer cannot maintain this open-cell state without a resupply of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN. Potential sources include wind-driven production of sea salt particles from the ocean, nucleation from the gas phase, and entrainment from the free troposphere. In order to investigate aerosol sources in the marine boundary layer and their role in supplying new particles, we have coupled in detail chemical, aerosol, and cloud processes in the WRF/Chem model, and added state-of-the-art representations of sea salt emissions and aerosol nucleation. We introduce the new features of the model and conduct simulations of the marine boundary layer in the transition from a closed- to an open-cell state. Results are compared with observations in the Southeast Pacific boundary layer during the VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study Regional Experiment (VOCALS-REx. The transition from the closed- to the open-cell state generates conditions that are conducive to nucleation by forming a cloud-scavenged, ultra-clean layer below the inversion base. Open cell wall updrafts loft dimethyl sulfide from the ocean surface into the ultra-clean layer, where it is oxidized during daytime to SO2 and subsequently to H2SO4. Low H2SO4 condensation sink values in the ultra-clean layer allow H2SO4 to rise to concentrations at which aerosol nucleation proceeds efficiently. The existence of the ultra-clean layer is confirmed by observations. We find that the observed DMS flux from the ocean in the VOCALS-REx region can support a nucleation source of aerosol in open cells that exceeds sea salt emissions in terms of the number

  15. [Demographic profile of Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero, I

    1984-04-01

    Sources of demographic data for Venezuela include 11 population censuses conducted between 1873-1981, birth and death registration statistics, and the household sample survey. The average annual rate of population growth increase from 2.8% between 1920-40 to 3-4% thereafter. The population at the 1961 census was 7.52 million. According to preliminary data from the 1981 census, the population of 14.57 million is growing at an annual rate of 2.8%. 41.2% of the population is under 15 years old, implying a huge demand for educational and health services, housing and employment. The dependency rate in 1980 was 81.3% for the country as a whole, 100.4% in rural areas, and 76.0% in urban areas. The young age structure means that the population will continue to grow even if natality rates decline. The crude natality rate was estimated at 47.3/1000 for 1950-55, 36.0 for 1970-75, and 32.9 for 1980-85. Some rural areas still have natality rates of over 47/1000. The total fertility rate declined from 6.5 in 1950-55 to 4.1 in 1980-85. The decline in the natality rate reflects improving quality of life, availability of family planning services, urbanization, and access of women to productive activities and educational centers. The mortality rate was 12.3/1000 in 1950-55, 9.1 in 1960-65, in 1970-75, and has been estimated at 5.5 for 1980-85. Some rural areas have mortality rates of 8.1. The infant mortality rate was 50.2/1000 in 1971 and 34.3 in 1980. Life expectancy at birth is about 69 years. During the 1920s, Venezuela unerwent expansion in infrastructure and technological utilization, generating rapid urbanization. 39.2% of the population was urban in 1941, compared to 78.8% in 1980. The significance of urbanization in Venezuela is due to the rapidity as well as the diffusion of the process. The household sample survey for the 2nd half of 1980 indicated a total of 8.16 million employed and an activity rate of 32.1% overall, 46.4% for males and 17.7% for females. The

  16. A Framework for Supporting Organizational Transition Processes Towards Sustainable Energy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buch, Rajesh

    Economic development over the last century has driven a tripling of the world's population, a twenty-fold increase in fossil fuel consumption, and a tripling of traditional biomass consumption. The associated broad income and wealth inequities are retaining over 2 billion people in poverty. Adding to this, fossil fuel combustion is impacting the environment across spatial and temporal scales and the cost of energy is outpacing all other variable costs for most industries. With 60% of world energy delivered in 2008 consumed by the commercial and industrial sector, the fragmented and disparate energy-related decision making within organizations are largely responsible for the inefficient and impacting use of energy resources. The global transition towards sustainable development will require the collective efforts of national, regional, and local governments, institutions, the private sector, and a well-informed public. The leadership role in this transition could be provided by private and public sector organizations, by way of sustainability-oriented organizations, cultures, and infrastructure. The diversity in literature exemplifies the developing nature of sustainability science, with most sustainability assessment approaches and frameworks lacking transformational characteristics, tending to focus on analytical methods. In general, some shortfalls in sustainability assessment processes include lack of: · thorough stakeholder participation in systems and stakeholder mapping, · participatory envisioning of future sustainable states, · normative aggregation of results to provide an overall measure of sustainability, and · influence within strategic decision-making processes. Specific to energy sustainability assessments, while some authors aggregate results to provide overall sustainability scores, assessments have focused solely on energy supply scenarios, while including the deficits discussed above. This paper presents a framework for supporting

  17. Bias and ignorance in demographic perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landy, D; Guay, B; Marghetis, T

    2017-08-31

    When it comes to knowledge of demographic facts, misinformation appears to be the norm. Americans massively overestimate the proportions of their fellow citizens who are immigrants, Muslim, LGBTQ, and Latino, but underestimate those who are White or Christian. Previous explanations of these estimation errors have invoked topic-specific mechanisms such as xenophobia or media bias. We reconsidered this pattern of errors in the light of more than 30 years of research on the psychological processes involved in proportion estimation and decision-making under uncertainty. In two publicly available datasets featuring demographic estimates from 14 countries, we found that proportion estimates of national demographics correspond closely to what is found in laboratory studies of quantitative estimates more generally. Biases in demographic estimation, therefore, are part of a very general pattern of human psychology-independent of the particular topic or demographic under consideration-that explains most of the error in estimates of the size of politically salient populations. By situating demographic estimates within a broader understanding of general quantity estimation, these results demand reevaluation of both topic-specific misinformation about demographic facts and topic-specific explanations of demographic ignorance, such as media bias and xenophobia.

  18. The Gender and Intergenerational Consequences of the Demographic Dividend

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    The demographic transition changes the age composition of a population, potentially affecting resource allocation at the household level and exerting general equilibrium effects at the aggregate level. If age profiles of income, consumption, and savings were stable and estimable for the entire population, they might imply how the demographic transition would affect national savings rates, but there is little agreement on the impact of age composition. These age profiles differ by gender and a...

  19. Transitional processes and the role of cities in east and South-East Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojkov Borislav

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The cities of Eastern and South East Europe, passing through dynamic and uncertain processes of social, economic and political transition, are being confronted with serious challenges in relation to more stabilized cities of Central and, especially, Western Europe. The former policy of centralization is faced with political, administrative and economic changes, as well as with aspirations towards decentralization, regionalization and polycentrism. The confronted tendencies still dominantly influence to the level of Eastern and South East cities' competitiveness. This urgently asks for orientation towards functional positioning of cities within wider metropolitan and regional frameworks. Another crucial orientation is presented by initial tendencies of metropolitan areas linking or networking in wider regional context. Both tendencies indicate the crucial problem of city governance quality level, according to contemporary criteria instead classical and hierarchical model of executing governmental power. Some examples of cities in Eastern and South East Europe are presented in the article, as well as of some cities in Central Europe where initial phase of transition has been completed.

  20. Transition process leading to microbubble emission boiling on horizontal circular heated surface in subcooled pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Ichiro; Ando, Jun; Horiuchi, Kazuna; Saiki, Takahito; Kaneko, Toshihiro

    2016-11-01

    Microbubble emission boiling (MEB) produces a higher heat flux than critical heat flux (CHF) and therefore has been investigated in terms of its heat transfer characteristics as well as the conditions under which MEB occurs. Its physical mechanism, however, is not yet clearly understood. We carried out a series of experiments to examine boiling on horizontal circular heated surfaces of 5 mm and of 10 mm in diameter, in a subcooled pool, paying close attention to the transition process to MEB. High-speed observation results show that, in the MEB regime, the growth, condensation, and collapse of the vapor bubbles occur within a very short time. In addition, a number of fine bubbles are emitted from the collapse of the vapor bubbles. By tracking these tiny bubbles, we clearly visualize that the collapse of the vapor bubbles drives the liquid near the bubbles towards the heated surface, such that the convection field around the vapor bubbles under MEB significantly differs from that under nucleate boiling. Moreover, the axial temperature gradient in a heated block (quasi-heat flux) indicates a clear difference between nucleate boiling and MEB. A combination of quasi-heat flux and the measurement of the behavior of the vapor bubbles allows us to discuss the transition to MEB. This work was financially supported by the 45th Research Grant in Natural Sciences from The Mitsubishi Foundation (2014 - 2015), and by Research Grant for Boiler and Pressurized Vessels from The Japan Boiler Association (2016).

  1. The Infiltration Process and Texture Transition of 2D C/C Composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hejun Li; Guozhong Xu; Kezhi Li; Chuang Wang; Wei Li; Miaoling Li

    2009-01-01

    2D needle-punched fiber felt was infiltrated by a kind of rapid isothermal chemical vapor infiltration technique. The infiltration process and texture transition of the infiltrated C/C composites were investigated. The porosity and the variations of the cumulative pore volume were determined by mercury porosimetry. The texture of matrix carbon was studied under a polarized light microscope. The results show that the relative mass gain of the sample increases directly as the infiltration time at the initial stage until 20 h, and subsequently the increasing rate of the relative mass gain decreases gradually with the prolonging of infiltration time. Three layers of pyrocarbon were formed around fibers. Low-textured pyrocarbon was obtained at the initial stage. With the densification going on, high-textured pyrocarbon was formed on the surface of low-textured pyrocarbon. Then, low-textured pyrocarbon was produced again during the final stage of densification. The texture transition is ascribed to the variation of the ratio of cumulative inner surface area to volume of pores and the gas partial pressure in pores.

  2. Demographic Change and Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haustein, Sonja; Siren, Anu Kristiina; Framke, Elisabeth

    This report is the literature review on demographic changes and transport of Work Package 1 of the EU project CONSOL, “CONcerns and SOLutions – Road Safety in the Ageing Societies” (contract period: 2011-2013). The report is a state-of-the art report that combines current knowledge with new findi...

  3. A New Method to Study the Sol-gel Transition Process of Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Bin; GAO Jian-gang; CHEN Da-zhu; LIU Jian-ping; HE Ping-sheng; ZHANG Qi-jin

    2005-01-01

    The sol-gel transition process of PMMA/SiO2 hybrid materials was first studied by means of the dynamic torsional vibration method. The different stages of the transition can be described by the change of torque. The temperature-dependent measurement of the gel time(tg) gives the possibility to determine the apparent activation energy(Ea) of this transition according to Flory′s gelation theory. The non-equilibrium thermodynamic fluctuation theory was used to predict the transition behavior. The isothermal transition experiments on hybrid sols with different TEOS(tetraethyl orthosilicate) contents were carried out. The results show that the Ea of a hybrid sol is higher than that of a non- hybrid sol of a TEOS-water-ethanol system. The increasing of TEOS content in a hybrid sol has no obvious effect on the Ea value, but it can enhance the sol-gel reaction rate.

  4. High pressure effect on structural transition of Fe cluster during rapid quenching processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations of 21,952 atoms have been performed to study local structure evolution and glass formation in iron melts rapidly cooled under high pressures.In the quenching processes,structural transition details have been analyzed by using the radial distribution function g(r) and bond pair analysis technique.It is shown that high pressure strengthens the order degree of the glass system and favors the glass formation.That means with the increase of pressures,a more compacted local structure with more ideal icosahedra can be obtained.The calculations of free volume of the system indicate that the decrease of the number of the defected ideal icosahedra under high pressure contributes to the glass formation of Fe.

  5. Volcano Relation for the Deacon Process over Transition-Metal Oxides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Studt, Felix; Abild-Pedersen, Frank; Hansen, Heine Anton

    2010-01-01

    We establish an activity relation for the heterogeneous catalytic oxidation of HCI (the Deacon Process) over rutile transition-metal oxide catalysts by combining density functional theory calculations (DFT) with microkinetic modeling. Linear energy relations for the elementary reaction steps...... are obtained from the OFT calculations and used to establish a one-dimensional descriptor for the catalytic activity. The descriptor employed here is the dissociative chemisorption energy of oxygen. It is found that the commonly employed RuO2 catalyst is close to optimal, but that there could still be room...... for improvements. The analysis suggests that oxide surfaces which offer slightly weaker bonding of oxygen should exhibit a superior activity to that of RuO2....

  6. Microscopic study of muon-capture transitions in nuclei involved in double-beta-decay processes

    CERN Document Server

    Kortelainen, M

    2003-01-01

    Total and partial ordinary muon-capture (OMC) rates to 1 sup + and 2 sup - states are calculated in the framework of the proton-neutron quasiparticle random-phase approximation (pnQRPA) for several nuclei involved in double-beta-decay processes. The aim is to obtain information on intermediate states involved in double-beta-decay transitions having these nuclei as either daughter or parent nuclei. It is found that the OMC observables, just like the 2 nu beta beta-decay amplitudes, strongly depend on the particle-particle part of the proton-neutron interaction. First experiments measuring the partial OMC rates for nuclei involved in double beta decays have recently been performed.

  7. Mental health care professionals' experiences with the discharge planning process and transitioning patients attending outpatient clinics into community care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noseworthy, Ann Marie; Sevigny, Elizabeth; Laizner, Andrea M; Houle, Claudine; La Riccia, Pina

    2014-08-01

    Health care reform promotes delivery of mental health care in the community. Outpatient mental healthcare professionals (HCPs) are pressured to discharge patients. This study's purpose: to understand the experience and perceptions of mental HCPs with discharge planning and transitioning patients into community care. Twelve HCPs participated in semi-structured qualitative interviews. Three main categories: engaging in the discharge planning process, making the transition smooth, and guiding values emerged. A conceptual framework was created to explain the phenomenon. HCPs valued strengthening partnerships and building relationships to ensure smooth transition. Sufficient resources and trust imperative for safe patient discharge. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Evolutionary shaping of demographic schedules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachter, Kenneth W.; Steinsaltz, David; Evans, Steven N.

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary processes of natural selection may be expected to leave their mark on age patterns of survival and reproduction. Demographic theory includes three main strands—mutation accumulation, stochastic vitality, and optimal life histories. This paper reviews the three strands and, concentrating on mutation accumulation, extends a mathematical result with broad implications concerning the effect of interactions between small age-specific effects of deleterious mutant alleles. Empirical data from genomic sequencing along with prospects for combining strands of theory hold hope for future progress. PMID:25024186

  9. Study on Optimal Strategy of Grade Transition in Industral Fluidized Bed Gas-Phase Polyethylene Production Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王靖岱; 阳永荣; 等

    2003-01-01

    A model of grade transition is presented for a commercialized fluidized bed gas-phase polyethylene production process.The quantity of off-specification product and the time of grade transition can be minimized by the optimization of operating variables,such as polymerization temperature,the ratio of hydrogen to ethylene,the ratio of co-monomer to ethylene,feed rate of catalyst,and bed level.A new performance index,the ratio of melt flow(MFR),is included in the objective function,for restraining the sharp adjustment of operation variables and narrowing the distribution of molecular weight of the resion.It is recommended that catalyst feed rate and bed level are decreased in order to reduce the grade transition time and the quantity of off-specification product.This optimization problem is solved by an algorithm of sequential quadratic programming (SQP) in MATLAB. There is considerable difference between the forward transition and reverse transition of grade with regard to the operating variables due to the non-linearity of the system.The grade transition model is extended to a high space time yield(STY)Process with the so-called condensed model operation.In the end,an optimization strategy for multi-product transition is proposed with two-level optimization of the objective function J(x,u) on the the basis of the optimal grade transition model.A sequential transition of six commercial polyethylene grades in illustrated for an optimal multi-product operation.

  10. The Cuban-American Transition: Demographic Changes Drive Ideological Changes* La transición Cubano-Americana: Cambios demográficos frente a cambios ideológicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo J. Grenier

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cuban-Americans are changing their attitudes about many of the key components of current US/ Cuba policy. The paper explores some of the social forces creating the patterns associated with the changing attitudes. Based on the data from the 2014 Cuba Poll, a descriptive analysis of relationships among key demographic variables uncovers compelling patterns associated with the ideological shift occurring in the population. Specifically, the patterns associated with ideology shifts and time of arrival of the migrant as well as his/her age and political party preference are explored. The paper makes clear that the new arrivals to Miami, as well as the younger Cubans, are significantly more interested in normalizing relations with the home country. Unfortunately, a large majority of the new arrivals (migrating since 1995, are not citizens and therefore not able to participate in the electoral processes that shape U.S. policy towards the island. Los cubano-americanos están cambiando sus actitudes acerca de muchos de los componentes clave de la política actual de Estados Unidos hacia Cuba. El artículo explora algunas de las fuerzas sociales que crean los patrones asociados a esas actitudes cambiantes. En base a los datos del 2014 Cuba Poll, un análisis descriptivo de las relaciones entre las variables demográficas clave, el texto descubre patrones de peso asociados con el cambio ideológico que ocurre en la población. En concreto, patrones asociados con los cambios y el tiempo de llegada de los migrantes, así como su edad y preferencia de partido político o de ideología. El documento deja claro que las personas recién llegadas a Miami, así como los jóvenes cubanos, están significativamente más interesados en la normalización de las relaciones con su país de origen. Por desgracia, la gran mayoría de los recién llegados (desde 1995, no son ciudadanos estadounidenses y, por tanto, no pueden participar en los procesos electorales que dan

  11. Columnar- Equiaxed Transition in Solidification processing: The ESA-MAP CETSOL project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billia, Bernard; Gandin, Charles-André; Zimmermann, Gerhard; Browne, David; Dupouy, Marie-Danielle

    2005-03-01

    Many castings are the result of a competition between the growth of columnar and equiaxed grains. Indeed, microstructures are at the center of materials science and engineering, and solidification is the most important processing route for structural materials, especially metals and alloys. Presently, microstructure models remain mostly based on diffusive transport mechanisms so that there is a need of critical benchmark data to test fundamental theories of microstructure formation, which often necessitates to have recourse to solidification experiments in the reduced-gravity environment of space. Accordingly, the CETSOL (Columnar-Equiaxed Transition in SOLidification processing)-MAP project of ESA is gathering together European groups with complementary skills to carry out experiments and model the processes, in particular in view of the utilization of reduced-gravity environment that will be afforded by the International Space Station (ISS) to get benchmark data. The ultimate objective of the CETSOL research program is to significantly contribute to the improvement of integrated modeling of grain structure in industrially important castings. To reach this goal, the approach is devised to deepen the quantitative understanding of the basic physical principles that, from the microscopic to the macroscopic scales, govern microstructure formation in solidification processing under diffusive conditions and with fluid flow in the melt. Pending questions are attacked by well-defined model experiments on technical alloys and/or on model transparent systems, physical modeling at microstructure and mesoscopic scales (e.g. large columnar front or equiaxed crystals) and numerical simulation at all scales, up to the macroscopic scales of casting with integrated numerical models.

  12. Microbiological and biochemical survey on the transition of fermentative processes in Fukuyama pot vinegar brewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, Sachiko; Furukawa, Soichi; Ogihara, Hirokazu; Kawarai, Taketo; Kitada, Chika; Komenou, Akiko; Yamasaki, Makari

    2010-06-01

    Traditional brewing of Fukuyama pot vinegar is a process that has been continued in Fukuyama, Kagoshima, Japan, for almost 200 years. The entire process proceeds from raw materials, including steamed rice, rice koji (steamed rice grown with a fungus, Aspergillus oryzae) and water, to produce vinegar in roughly capped large pots laid in the open air. No special fermentative manipulation is required, except for scattering dried rice koji (called furi-koji) on the surface of the mash to form a cap-like mat on the surface at the start of brewing. As the biochemical mechanism of the natural transition of the fermentative processes during brewing has not been fully explained, we conducted a microbiological and biochemical study on the transition. First, a distinct biochemical change was observed in the brewing of spring preparation; that is, a sharp decline in pH from 6.5 to 3.5 within the first 5 days of brewing was observed due to lactic acid fermentation. Alcoholic fermentation also proceeded with a sharp increase to 4.5% ethanol within the first 5 days under the acidic conditions, suggesting that saccharification and both fermentations proceed in parallel. Acidic conditions and ethanol accumulation restricted the growth of most microorganisms in the mash, and in turn provided a favorable growth condition for acetic acid bacteria which are acid resistant and "ethanol-philic." Acetic acid was detected from day 16 and gradually increased in concentration, reaching a maximum of 7% at day 70 that was maintained thereafter. Empirically furi-koji naturally sinks into the mash after around day 40 by an unknown mechanism, allowing acetic acid bacteria to easily form pellicles on the mash surface and promoting efficient acetic acid fermentation. Dominant microbial species involved in the three fermentations were identified by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis using PCR-amplified defined-regions of small rDNA from microorganisms in the brewing mash or colony

  13. ‘Face’ and psychological processes of laid-off workers in transitional China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingxin Wang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective was to explore the psychological experiences of laid-off workers in contemporary transitional China and to formulate a theoretical model of these. Methods: In-depth interviews of 26 laid-off workers were conducted and analysed using grounded theory techniques. Results: Four themes underline the psychological processes of these laid-off workers – feeling of loss, feeling of physical pain, feeling of fatalism, and final acceptance. These are characterized by Chinese culture and its philosophy – feeling of loss is dominated by their loss of face (diu mianzi, physical pain is a somatization of their mental painfulness, their fatalism is traced back to the Chinese ancient theocratic concept of Tian Ming, and their acceptance of reality to their final making face (zheng mianzi is sourced from both Confucianism and Daoism. Conclusion: The psychological experience of laid-off workers (or unemployed workers is likely to have varied manifestations in different cultural contexts. The psychological processes of Chinese laid-off workers (or unemployed workers might be different from those of laid-off workers in Western countries. A therapeutic intervention to cater for the needs of laid-off workers derived from the four themes might be effective.

  14. The magnetization processes and critical transition in a nanogranular magnetic film with perpendicular anisotropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalita, V M; Lozenko, A F; Ryabchenko, S M; Los, A V; Sitnikov, A V; Stognei, O V

    2013-02-13

    The mechanisms and properties of the equilibrium magnetization process for nanogranular films with perpendicular anisotropy placed in a tilted magnetic field are considered. The contributions of the effects of canting and flipping of the granules' magnetic moments to the process of film magnetization are studied. A critical behavior of the film magnetization at the transition, induced by a tilted magnetic field, from a state with non-uniform orientation of the granules' magnetic moments to one with a similar orientation is revealed. The results obtained within the two-level model of the orientation of the particles' magnetic moments are in good agreement with the experimental data for Co-Al(2)O(3) (61 at.% Co) granular film. The perpendicular anisotropy of the granules in this film originates mainly from their elongated shape. It is shown that in the non-uniform state the magnetostatic energy of a granular film with similarly oriented elongated granules can be described by the sum of contributions of two types: quasi-single-granular and quasi-film. The effective constant of the single-particle anisotropy of the granules in this case turns out to be dependent on the factor of volume filling of the film by granules, but not on its magnetization.

  15. A Statistical Assessment of Demographic Bonus towards Poverty Alleviation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Abdul Nasir

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The shift of birth and death rates from high to low level in any population is referred as demographic transition. Mechanically, the transition of a society creates more working member of its own population commonly called demographic bonus. This articleempirically explores the realistic soundness of demographic bonus in reducing the poverty level of the society. Three contrasting regions namely Eastern Asia, Central America and Oceania were selected for analytical purposes. The findings indicate that Eastern Asia and Oceania are currently facing the end of their transition whereas theCentral America is lagged behind in transition. Central America due to last runner in transition race is the sustained recipient of its own demographic bonus by the year 2030.On the basis of three mechanisms namely: labour supply, savings and human capital, the Eastern Asian region is found to be successful beneficiary of its own demographic gift which concludes that many million people have escaped from poverty. Under the right policy environment on the above three mechanisms, Eastern Asia experience indicates the realistic contribution of demographic bonus to reduce poverty.

  16. Land use change emission scenarios: anticipating a forest transition process in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Ana Paula Dutra; Vieira, Ima Célia Guimarães; Assis, Talita Oliveira; Dalla-Nora, Eloi L; Toledo, Peter Mann; Santos-Junior, Roberto Araújo Oliveira; Batistella, Mateus; Coelho, Andrea Santos; Savaget, Elza Kawakami; Aragão, Luiz Eduardo Oliveira Cruz; Nobre, Carlos Afonso; Ometto, Jean Pierre H

    2016-05-01

    Following an intense occupation process that was initiated in the 1960s, deforestation rates in the Brazilian Amazon have decreased significantly since 2004, stabilizing around 6000 km(2) yr(-1) in the last 5 years. A convergence of conditions contributed to this, including the creation of protected areas, the use of effective monitoring systems, and credit restriction mechanisms. Nevertheless, other threats remain, including the rapidly expanding global markets for agricultural commodities, large-scale transportation and energy infrastructure projects, and weak institutions. We propose three updated qualitative and quantitative land-use scenarios for the Brazilian Amazon, including a normative 'Sustainability' scenario in which we envision major socio-economic, institutional, and environmental achievements in the region. We developed an innovative spatially explicit modelling approach capable of representing alternative pathways of the clear-cut deforestation, secondary vegetation dynamics, and the old-growth forest degradation. We use the computational models to estimate net deforestation-driven carbon emissions for the different scenarios. The region would become a sink of carbon after 2020 in a scenario of residual deforestation (~1000 km(2) yr(-1)) and a change in the current dynamics of the secondary vegetation - in a forest transition scenario. However, our results also show that the continuation of the current situation of relatively low deforestation rates and short life cycle of the secondary vegetation would maintain the region as a source of CO2 - even if a large portion of the deforested area is covered by secondary vegetation. In relation to the old-growth forest degradation process, we estimated average gross emission corresponding to 47% of the clear-cut deforestation from 2007 to 2013 (using the DEGRAD system data), although the aggregate effects of the postdisturbance regeneration can partially offset these emissions. Both processes (secondary

  17. Characterisation of UK diets according to degree of food processing and associations with socio-demographics and obesity: cross-sectional analysis of UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (2008-12).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Jean; White, Martin

    2015-12-18

    Food processing alters food from its natural state for safety, convenience, taste or palatability. Previous research suggests that industrially processed foods, and diets high in these products, tend to be less healthful. However, most previous work is based on household, rather than individual-level, data. Little has been reported on the relationship between processed food consumption and markers of health; or on socio-demographic correlates of processed food consumption. Our objective was to describe: the nutritional content of foods classified according to degree of processing; the nutritional content of diets with different relative intakes of processed foods; the socio-demographic characteristics of individuals with different relative intakes of processed foods; and the association between intake of processed foods and body weight. Secondary analysis of data from the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (2008-12), a large national cross-sectional study of diet. Dietary information was collected using four-day, unweighed, food-diaries. Foods were classified as: unprocessed or minimally processed (MPF; foods with no processing or mostly physical processes applied to single whole foods), processed ingredients (PI; extracted and purified components of single whole foods), or ultra-processed food products (UPF; products produced from industrial combining of MPF and PI). Two thousand one hundred seventy four adults were included. MPF and diets high in these foods, had the most healthful nutritional profile. UPF did not necessarily have the least healthful nutritional profile, but diets high in these foods did. Women, and older adults consumed more energy from MPF, and less from UPF. Those living in lower occupation social class households consumed less energy from MPF, but no more from UPF. Only higher intake of PI was consistently, inversely, associated with body weight. This is the first study to explore correlates of processed food consumption, using individual

  18. Building demographic literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crews, K

    1993-01-01

    Students should get in the habit of seeking out the most current projections, estimates, or rates available. Since demographic measures change over time, publications based on the UN's world population projections from 1980 or 1990 may need to be supplemented using the UN's most current, 1992, projections. A 1989 Census Bureau report on the African American Population will not contain data from the 1990 Census or the 1992 Current Population Survey, conducted by the Census Bureau. Some groups collect data with advocacy in mind, as shown by the range of estimates of participants at the 1993 National March on Washington for Lesbian, Gay and Bi Equal Rights and Liberation. The organizers estimated that 1 million people participated; the US Park Police estimated 300,000; and the Washington Blade, a gay newspaper, reported 750,000. A seemingly innocuous choice of phrasing can change the meaning of demographic data. One commonly misreported concept is population doubling time which is not a prediction, but rather a concept designed to accent how fast a population is growing at the present time. At current rates, the population of India would double in size in 34 years, but it is more likely that growth rates will begin to slow down somewhat during that time. Older students may be encouraged to examine the assumptions behind population projections. The UN's long-range projection that world population will grow to 10 billion by 2050 is based on certain assumption about fertility and mortality during the period. With regard to the fastest growing US minority, Hispanics added the largest number of people to the US population during the 1980s, but Asians had the largest percent increase. The time to initiate demographic literacy is in the early grades of school.

  19. The effects of radiative and microphysical processes on simulated warm and transition season arctic stratus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Jerry Y.

    ., 1996a). Simulations of transition season ASC shows that boundary layer stability is strongly dependent upon ice processes, illustrating that the rapid reduction in fall stratus cloud cover may be forced, in part, by microphysical processes. Cloud stability is shown to be strongly dependent upon the cloud temperature, ice concentration, precipitation rate and the indirect effects of ice crystals on cloud top radiative cooling while ice aggregation has a weak effect. Transitions from predominately mixed to stable boundary layers occur and are a function of ice sublimation and precipitation; ice habit strongly constrains the effect. Frequently observed autumnal stable layers may be formed in this fashion. A new method of multiple cloud layer formation is discussed and occurs through the rapid loss of ice from the upper cloud layer, which moistens and cools (sublimation and radiation) the lower layers causing droplet activation.

  20. EJSCREEN Version 1, Demographic Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This map service displays demographic data used in EJSCREEN. All demographic data were derived from American Community Survey 2006-2010 estimates. EJSCREEN is an...

  1. Chronological objects in demographic research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans J. Willekens

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Calendar time, age and duration are chronological objects. They represent an instant or a time period. Age and duration are usually expressed in units with varying lengths. The number of days in a month or a year depends on the position on the calendar. The units are also not homogeneous and the structure influences measurement. One solution, common in demography, is to use units that are large enough for the results not to be seriously affected by differences in length and structure. Another approach is to take the idiosyncrasy of calendars into account and to work directly with calendar dates. The technology that enables logical and arithmetic operations on dates is available. OBJECTIVE To illustrate logical and arithmetic operations on dates and conversions between time measurements. METHODS Software packages include utilities to process dates. I use existing and a few new utilities in R to illustrate operations on dates and conversions between calendar dates and elapsed time since a reference moment or a reference event. Three demographic applications are presented. The first is the impact of preferences for dates and days on demographic indicators. The second is event history analysis with time-varying covariates. The third is microsimulation of life histories in continuous time. CONCLUSIONS The technology exists to perform operations directly on dates, enabling more precise calculations of duration and elapsed time in demographic analysis. It eliminates the need for (a approximations and (b transformations of dates, such as Century Month Code, that are convenient for computing durations but are a barrier to interpretation. Operations on dates, such as the computation of age, should consider time units of varying length.

  2. Transition Process from Diffuser Stall to Stage Stall in a Centrifugal Compressor with a Vaned Diffuser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobumichi Fujisawa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The transition process from a diffuser rotating stall to a stage stall in a centrifugal compressor with a vaned diffuser was investigated by experimental and numerical analyses. From the velocity measurements, it was found that the rotating stall existed on the shroud side of the diffuser passage in the off-design flow condition. The numerical results revealed the typical vortical structure of the diffuser stall. The diffuser stall cell was caused by the systematic vortical structure which consisted of the tornado-type vortex, the longitudinal vortex at the shroud/suction surface corner (i.e., leading edge vortex (LEV, and the vortex in the throat area of the diffuser passages. Furthermore, the stage stall, which rotated within both the impeller and diffuser passages, occurred instead of the diffuser stall as the mass flow rate was decreased. According to the velocity measurements at the diffuser inlet, the diffuser stall which rotated on the shroud side was shifted to the hub side. Then, the diffuser stall moved into the impeller passages and formed the stage stall. Therefore, the stage stall was caused by the development of the diffuser stall, which transferred from the shroud side to the hub side in the vaneless space and expanded to the impeller passages.

  3. New insights into the transport processes controlling the sulfate-methane-transition-zone near methane vents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Nabil; Garziglia, Sébastien; Ruffine, Livio

    2016-05-01

    Over the past years, several studies have raised concerns about the possible interactions between methane hydrate decomposition and external change. To carry out such an investigation, it is essential to characterize the baseline dynamics of gas hydrate systems related to natural geological and sedimentary processes. This is usually treated through the analysis of sulfate-reduction coupled to anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM). Here, we model sulfate reduction coupled with AOM as a two-dimensional (2D) problem including, advective and diffusive transport. This is applied to a case study from a deep-water site off Nigeria’s coast where lateral methane advection through turbidite layers was suspected. We show by analyzing the acquired data in combination with computational modeling that a two-dimensional approach is able to accurately describe the recent past dynamics of such a complex natural system. Our results show that the sulfate-methane-transition-zone (SMTZ) is not a vertical barrier for dissolved sulfate and methane. We also show that such a modeling is able to assess short timescale variations in the order of decades to centuries.

  4. The Changing Outplacement Process. New Methods and Opportunities for Transition Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, John L.; Shadle, Carolyn C.

    This book, which is designed for consumers and providers of outplacement services, explores recent changes that have led to an essentially new type of service termed OTR (an acronym that stands for "outplacement, transition, relocation" when focusing on employees and for "outplacement, transition, and restructuring" when…

  5. Processing and accuracy of topobathymetric LiDAR data in land-water transition zones

    OpenAIRE

    M. S. Andersen; A. GERGELY; Al-Hamdani, Z.; Steinbacher, F.; Larsen, L. R.; V. B. Ernstsen

    2016-01-01

    The transition zone between land and water is difficult to map with conventional geophysical systems due to shallow water depth and often harsh environmental conditions. The emerging technology of airborne topobathymetric Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) is capable of providing both topographic and bathymetric elevation information, resulting in a seamless coverage of the land-water transition zone. However, there is ...

  6. The Changing Outplacement Process. New Methods and Opportunities for Transition Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, John L.; Shadle, Carolyn C.

    This book, which is designed for consumers and providers of outplacement services, explores recent changes that have led to an essentially new type of service termed OTR (an acronym that stands for "outplacement, transition, relocation" when focusing on employees and for "outplacement, transition, and restructuring" when…

  7. Altered frontocingulate activation during aversive interoceptive processing in young adults transitioning to problem stimulant use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Lorraine Stewart

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Problems associated with stimulant use have been linked to frontocingulate, insular, and thalamic dysfunction during decision-making and alterations in interoceptive processing. However, little is known about how interoception and decision-making interact and contribute to dysfunctions that promote the transition from recreational drug use to abuse or dependence. Here, we investigate brain activation in response to reward, punishment, and uncertainty during an aversive interoceptive challenge in current and former stimulant (cocaine and amphetamine users using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Young adults previously identified as recreational users (n=184 were followed up three years later. Of these, 18 individuals progressed to problem stimulant use (PSU, whereas 15 desisted stimulant use (DSU. PSU, DSU, and 14 healthy comparison subjects (CTL performed a two-choice prediction task at three fixed error rates (20%=reward, 50%=uncertainty, 80%=punishment during which they anticipated and experienced episodes of inspiratory breathing load. Although groups did not differ in insula activation or subjective breathing load ratings, PSU exhibited lower right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG and bilateral anterior cingulate (ACC activation than DSU and CTL during aversive interoceptive processing as well as lower right IFG in response to decision making involving uncertainty. However, PSU exhibited greater bilateral IFG activation than DSU and CTL while making choices within the context of punishing feedback, and both PSU and DSU showed lower thalamic activation during breathing load than CTL. Findings suggest that frontocingulate attenuation, reflecting reduced resources devoted to goal maintenance and action selection in the presence of uncertainty and interoceptive perturbations, may be a biomarker for susceptibility to problem stimulant use.

  8. Maltodextrin: a novel excipient used in sugar-based orally disintegrating tablets and phase transition process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elnaggar, Yosra Shaaban R; El-Massik, Magda A; Abdallah, Ossama Y; Ebian, Abd Elazim R

    2010-06-01

    The recent challenge in orally disintegrating tablets (ODT) manufacturing encompasses the compromise between instantaneous disintegration, sufficient hardness, and standard processing equipment. The current investigation constitutes one attempt to fulfill this challenge. Maltodextrin, in the present work, was utilized as a novel excipient to prepare ODT of meclizine. Tablets were prepared by both direct compression and wet granulation techniques. The effect of maltodextrin concentrations on ODT characteristics--manifested as hardness and disintegration time--was studied. The effect of conditioning (40 degrees C and 75% relative humidity) as a post-compression treatment on ODT characteristics was also assessed. Furthermore, maltodextrin-pronounced hardening effect was investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray analysis. Results revealed that in both techniques, rapid disintegration (30-40 s) would be achieved on the cost of tablet hardness (about 1 kg). Post-compression conditioning of tablets resulted in an increase in hardness (3 kg), while keeping rapid disintegration (30-40 s) according to guidance of the FDA for ODT. However, direct compression-conditioning technique exhibited drawbacks of long conditioning time and appearance of the so-called patch effect. These problems were, yet, absent in wet granulation-conditioning technique. DSC and X-ray analysis suggested involvement of glass-elastic deformation in maltodextrin hardening effect. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis of meclizine ODT suggested no degradation of the drug by the applied conditions of temperature and humidity. Overall results proposed that maltodextrin is a promising saccharide for production of ODT with accepted hardness-disintegration time compromise, utilizing standard processing equipment and phenomena of phase transition.

  9. Food systems transformations, ultra-processed food markets and the nutrition transition in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Phillip; Friel, Sharon

    2016-12-03

    's nutrition transition. The carbonated soft drink market is the most highly concentrated and likely to be most harmful to population nutrition. The grocery retail sector is, in terms of increasing market concentration and thus market power, likely to be the most important driver of ongoing food systems change and ultra-processed food sales in the region. Given it's rapid growth, the food service sector will also contribute significantly to ongoing dietary change.

  10. Evaluation of dynamic behavior forecasting parameters in the process of transition rule induction of unidimensional cellular automata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinert, Wagner Rodrigo; Lopes, Heitor Silvério

    2010-01-01

    The simulation of the dynamics of a cellular systems based on cellular automata (CA) can be computationally expensive. This is particularly true when such simulation is part of a procedure of rule induction to find suitable transition rules for the CA. Several efforts have been described in the literature to make this problem more treatable. This work presents a study about the efficiency of dynamic behavior forecasting parameters (DBFPs) used for the induction of transition rules of CA for a specific problem: the classification by the majority rule. A total of 8 DBFPs were analyzed for the 31 best-performing rules found in the literature. Some of these DBFPs were highly correlated each other, meaning they yield the same information. Also, most rules presented values of the DBFPs very close each other. An evolutionary algorithm, based on gene expression programming, was developed for finding transition rules according a given preestablished behavior. The simulation of the dynamic behavior of the CA is not used to evaluate candidate transition rules. Instead, the average values for the DBFPs were used as reference. Experiments were done using the DBFPs separately and together. In both cases, the best induced transition rules were not acceptable solutions for the desired behavior of the CA. We conclude that, although the DBFPs represent interesting aspects of the dynamic behavior of CAs, the transition rule induction process still requires the simulation of the dynamics and cannot rely only on the DBFPs.

  11. Forward recursion for Markov decision processes with skip-free-to-the-right transitions - Part II : Non-standard applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijngaard, J.; Stidham, S.

    2000-01-01

    This paper is the sequel to Wijngaard and Stidham (1986). The topic is a countable state, average reward semi-Markov decision process with a transition mechanism that is skip-free to the right. The applications are controlled GI/M/1 queues. Skip-free to the right means that state n cannot be reached

  12. Examining Factors Associated with (In)Stability in Social Information Processing among Urban School Children: A Latent Transition Analytic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldweber, Asha; Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Goodman, Kimberly; Monahan, Kathryn; Cooley-Strickland, Michele

    2011-01-01

    There is compelling evidence for the role of social information processing (SIP) in aggressive behavior. However, less is known about factors that influence stability versus instability in patterns of SIP over time. Latent transition analysis was used to identify SIP patterns over one year and examine how community violence exposure, aggressive…

  13. Viewing brain processes as Critical State Transitions across levels of organization: Neural events in Cognition and Consciousness, and general principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Gerhard

    2009-04-01

    In this theoretical and speculative essay, I propose that insights into certain aspects of neural system functions can be gained from viewing brain function in terms of the branch of Statistical Mechanics currently referred to as "Modern Critical Theory" [Stanley, H.E., 1987. Introduction to Phase Transitions and Critical Phenomena. Oxford University Press; Marro, J., Dickman, R., 1999. Nonequilibrium Phase Transitions in Lattice Models. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK]. The application of this framework is here explored in two stages: in the first place, its principles are applied to state transitions in global brain dynamics, with benchmarks of Cognitive Neuroscience providing the relevant empirical reference points. The second stage generalizes to suggest in more detail how the same principles could also apply to the relation between other levels of the structural-functional hierarchy of the nervous system and between neural assemblies. In this view, state transitions resulting from the processing at one level are the input to the next, in the image of a 'bucket brigade', with the content of each bucket being passed on along the chain, after having undergone a state transition. The unique features of a process of this kind will be discussed and illustrated.

  14. Process induced transformations during tablet manufacturing: phase transition analysis of caffeine using DSC and low frequency micro-Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubert, Sébastien; Briancon, Stéphanie; Hedoux, Alain; Guinet, Yannick; Paccou, Laurent; Fessi, Hatem; Puel, François

    2011-11-25

    The phase transition of a model API, caffeine Form I, was studied during tableting process monitored with an instrumented press. The formulation used had a plastic flow behavior according to the Heckel model in the compression pressure range of 70-170 MPa. The quantitative methods of analysis used were Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and low frequency Micro Raman Spectroscopy (MRS) which was used for the first time for the mapping of polymorphs in tablets. They brought complementary contributions since MRS is a microscopic spectral analysis with a spatial resolution of 5 μm(3) and DSC takes into account a macroscopic fraction (10mg) of the tablet. Phase transitions were present at the surfaces, borders and center of the tablets. Whatever the pressure applied during the compression process, the transition degree of caffeine Form I toward Form II was almost constant. MRS provided higher transition degrees (50-60%) than DSC (20-35%). MRS revealed that caffeine Form I particles were partially transformed in all parts of the tablets at a microscopic scale. Moreover, tablet surfaces showed local higher transition degree compared to the other parts.

  15. Liquid-crystal anchoring transitions on aligning substrates processed by a plasma beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaroshchuk, Oleg V; Kiselev, Alexei D; Kravchuk, Ruslan M

    2008-03-01

    We have studied a sequence of anchoring transitions observed in nematic liquid crystals (NLCs) sandwiched between hydrophobic polyimide substrates treated with a plasma beam. There is a pronounced continuous transition from a homeotropic to a slightly tilted (nearly planar) alignment with the easy axis parallel to the incidence plane of the plasma beam (the zenithal transition) which takes place as the exposure dose increases. In NLCs with positive dielectric anisotropy, a further increase in the exposure dose results in in-plane reorientation of the easy axis by 90 degrees (the azimuthal transition). This transition occurs through the twofold degenerate alignment characteristic of second-order anchoring transitions. In contrast to the critical behavior of anchoring, the contact angle of the NLC and water on the treated substrates declines monotonically with increasing exposure dose. It follows that the surface concentration of hydrophobic chains decreases continuously. The anchoring transitions under consideration are qualitatively interpreted by using a simple phenomenological model of competing easy axes which is studied by analyzing anchoring diagrams of generalized polar and nonpolar anchoring models.

  16. Demographic trends in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present note, we present the main features of recent trends in vital family-demographic behavior in Sweden. For this purpose, published indices of marriage, divorce, and childbearing risks by calendar year are updated by adding another two or three years of observation to our series. We demonstrate that the latest trend reversal in Swedish birth rates, which occurred at the end of the 1990s, continued to manifest itself in increasing propensities for childbearing during the early years of the 21st century. The rise pertains to all birth orders. Marriage propensities showed an increase as well, however, to a large extent expressed in a short-term development that was prevalent at the turn of the millennium. The previous long-term trend of rising divorce risks leveled off during the first two years of the new century.

  17. Transposon mutagenesis identifies genes and cellular processes driving epithelial-mesenchymal transition in hepatocellular carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Takahiro; Newberg, Justin Y.; Kodama, Michiko; Rangel, Roberto; Yoshihara, Kosuke; Tien, Jean C.; Parsons, Pamela H.; Wu, Hao; Finegold, Milton J.; Copeland, Neal G.; Jenkins, Nancy A.

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is thought to contribute to metastasis and chemoresistance in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), leading to their poor prognosis. The genes driving EMT in HCC are not yet fully understood, however. Here, we show that mobilization of Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposons in immortalized mouse hepatoblasts induces mesenchymal liver tumors on transplantation to nude mice. These tumors show significant down-regulation of epithelial markers, along with up-regulation of mesenchymal markers and EMT-related transcription factors (EMT-TFs). Sequencing of transposon insertion sites from tumors identified 233 candidate cancer genes (CCGs) that were enriched for genes and cellular processes driving EMT. Subsequent trunk driver analysis identified 23 CCGs that are predicted to function early in tumorigenesis and whose mutation or alteration in patients with HCC is correlated with poor patient survival. Validation of the top trunk drivers identified in the screen, including MET (MET proto-oncogene, receptor tyrosine kinase), GRB2-associated binding protein 1 (GAB1), HECT, UBA, and WWE domain containing 1 (HUWE1), lysine-specific demethylase 6A (KDM6A), and protein-tyrosine phosphatase, nonreceptor-type 12 (PTPN12), showed that deregulation of these genes activates an EMT program in human HCC cells that enhances tumor cell migration. Finally, deregulation of these genes in human HCC was found to confer sorafenib resistance through apoptotic tolerance and reduced proliferation, consistent with recent studies showing that EMT contributes to the chemoresistance of tumor cells. Our unique cell-based transposon mutagenesis screen appears to be an excellent resource for discovering genes involved in EMT in human HCC and potentially for identifying new drug targets. PMID:27247392

  18. Total fats, saturated Fatty acids, processed foods and acute coronary syndrome in transitional Albania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mone, Iris; Bulo, Anyla

    2012-01-01

    We aimed was to assess the association of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) with selected food groups pertinent to non-Mediterranean prototype in Albania, a transitional post-communist country in Southeast Europe. We conducted a case-control study in Tirana in 2003-2006 including 467 non-fatal consecutive ACS patients (370 men aged 59.1±8.7 years, 97 women aged 63.3±7.1 years; 88% response) and a population-based control group (469 men aged 53.1±10.4 years, 268 women aged 54.0±10.9 years; 69% response). A semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire including 105 food items was administered to all participants based on which the daily calorie intake for selected food groups (meat products, overall oils and fats, sweets, and junk food) was calculated. General linear model was used to assess the association of food groups with ACS. Mean age-adjusted values of meat products, overall oils and fats, sweets and junk food were all considerably higher in cases than controls in both sexes. Cases had significantly higher mean "non-Mediterranean" diet scores (consisting of junk food, sweets, oils and fats except olive oil) than controls (10.3% vs. 5.9% in men and 15.2% vs. 8.3% in women, P<0.01 for both). In this Albanian population, intake of total fats, in particular saturated fatty acids was associated with a higher risk of ACS in both sexes. Furthermore, the consumption of processed foods was associated with considerable excess coronary risk which points to serious health implications for the Albanian adult population.

  19. The Experience and Enlightenment of Sustainable Development of Agriculture in Developed Country---Demographic Transition and Technological Progress%发达国家农业可持续增长的经验及启示--人口转型与技术进步

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杭帆; 郭剑雄

    2014-01-01

    完成人口转型的发达国家中,土地、劳动力等传统农业生产要素已不再是农业增长的主要影响因素。而实际上人口转型已成为影响农业技术进步的决定性因素。文章基于1980-2000年14个已完成人口转型的发达国家面板数据的实证分析,通过农业技术与农业增长、人口转型与技术进步两个模型的检验结果,验证了发达国家农业人口数量的减少、受教育水平的提高对技术进步具有正向影响,通过对发达国家农业可持续增长的经验分析,得出中国农业可持续增长的关键为重视农村教育、加快农业人口转型以及提高农业科技投入。同时给出中国农业可持续增长的政策建议:利用教育投资的外溢效应促进农业人口转型,借助科技投入步入高效益农业可持续增长轨道。%Traditional agricultural production elements such as th land, the labor, is no longer the main influence factors of agricultural growth in the developed countries which have finished demographic transition .While the demographic transition is the decisive factors for the agricultural technology progress. This paper based on empirical analysis of 14 developed countries' panel data from 1980 to 2000. We set two models about the relationship between agriculture technology and agricultural growth, the relationship between the demographic transition and technological progress. The two models are verified the reduction in the number of agricultural population and the improvement of education level have a positive influence on technical progress. Through analyzing the agricultural sustainable growth in the developed world, it is concluded that the keys of agricultural sustainable growth in China are rural education, demographic transition and technological progress. The policy suggestion for China as follows, using the spillover effect of education investment to promote the agricultural demographic transition and

  20. Subcritical transition in plane Poiseuille flow as a linear instability process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roizner, Federico; Karp, Michael; Cohen, Jacob

    2016-05-01

    In this work, a transition scenario is demonstrated, in which most of the stages are followed analytically. The transition is initiated by the linear transient growth mechanism in plane Poiseuille flow subjected to an infinitesimally small secondary disturbance. A novel analytical approximation of the linear transient growth mechanism enables us to perform a secondary linear stability analysis of the modified base-flow. Two possible routes to transition are highlighted here, both correspond to a small secondary disturbance superimposed on a linear transient growth. The first scenario is initiated by four decaying odd normal modes which form a counter-rotating vortex pair; the second is initiated by five even decaying modes which form a pair of counter-rotating pairs. The approximation of the linear transient growth stage by a combination of minimal number of modes allows us to follow the transition stages analytically by employing the multiple time scale method. In particular, the secondary instability stage is followed analytically using linear tools, and is verified by obtaining transition in a direct numerical simulation initiated by conditions dictated by the transient growth analytical expressions. Very good agreement is observed, verifying the theoretical model. The similarities between the two transition routes are discussed and the results are compared with similar results obtained for plane Couette flow.

  1. Processes that Drove the Transition from Chemistry to Biology: Concepts and Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohorille, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    above background was evolved in vitro. This enzyme does not look like any contemporary protein. It is very flexible and its structure is kept together just by a single salt bridge between a charged residue and a coordinating zinc. A similar picture emerges from studies of simple transmembrane channels that mimic those in ancestral cells. Again, they are extremely flexible and do not form a conventional pore. Yet, they efficiently mediate ion transport. Studies on simple proteins that are on-going in several laboratories hold promise of revealing crucial links between chemical and biological catalysis and other ubiquitous cell functions. Interaction between composition, growth and division of protobiologically relevant vesicles and metabolic reactions that they encapsulate is an example of coupling between simple functions that promotes reproduction and evolution. Recent studies have demonstrated possible mechanisms by which vesicles might have evolved their composition from fatty acids to phospholipids, thus facilitating a number of new cellular functions. Conversely, it has been also demonstrated that an encapsulated metabolism might drive vesicle division. These are, again, examples of processes that might have driven the transition from chemistry to biology.

  2. Complexity and demographic explanations of cumulative culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrien Querbes

    Full Text Available Formal models have linked prehistoric and historical instances of technological change (e.g., the Upper Paleolithic transition, cultural loss in Holocene Tasmania, scientific progress since the late nineteenth century to demographic change. According to these models, cumulation of technological complexity is inhibited by decreasing--while favoured by increasing--population levels. Here we show that these findings are contingent on how complexity is defined: demography plays a much more limited role in sustaining cumulative culture in case formal models deploy Herbert Simon's definition of complexity rather than the particular definitions of complexity hitherto assumed. Given that currently available empirical evidence doesn't afford discriminating proper from improper definitions of complexity, our robustness analyses put into question the force of recent demographic explanations of particular episodes of cultural change.

  3. Striving to maintain a dignified life for the patient in transition: Next of kin’s experiences during the transition process of an older person in transition from hospital to home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigrun Hvalvik

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Next of kin represent significant resources in the care for older patients. The aim of this study was to describe and illuminate the meaning of the next of kin’s experiences during the transition of an older person with continuing care needs from hospital to home. The study has a phenomenological hermeneutic design. Individual, narrative interviews were conducted, and the data analysis was conducted in accordance with Lindseth and Norberg’s phenomenological hermeneutic method. Two themes and four subthemes were identified and formulated. The first theme: “Balancing vulnerability and strength,” encompassed the subthemes “enduring emotional stress” and “striving to maintain security and continuity.” The second theme: “Coping with an altered everyday life,” encompassed “dealing with changes” and “being in readiness.” Our findings suggest that the next of kin in striving to maintain continuity and safety in the older person’s transition process are both vulnerable individuals and significant agents. Thus, it is urgent that health care providers accommodate both their vulnerability and their abilities to act, and thereby make them feel valued as respected agents and human beings in the transition process.

  4. Demographic Evolution in Romania – Convergence or Peripherisation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Veronica Litra

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Romania began its demographic transition about one century later than the developed countries. We put the blame of this gap on the delayed economic, social and political development in comparison with the Western Europe. But also, it could not be forgotten the shift from a population forced and subdue by the totalitary regime, to a free people to decide when to have a child or how large should be the family. During transition, Romania has pointed many negative demographic evolutions, as compared with the other european countries. It may be said that the transition in Romania over the period 1990-2004 adjusted the classical pattern of demographic evolution. Not fully felt at this moment, we will probably find ourselves few decades later older, less, deprived of skilled labor force and unbalanced as gender ratio.

  5. Demographic Evolution in Romania – Convergence or Peripherisation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Veronica Litra

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Romania began its demographic transition about one century later than the developed countries. We put the blame of this gap on the delayed economic, social and political development in comparison with the Western Europe. But also, it could not be forgotten the shift from a population forced and subdue by the totalitary regime, to a free people to decide when to have a child or how large should be the family. During transition, Romania has pointed many negative demographic evolutions, as compared with the other european countries. It may be said that the transition in Romania over the period 1990-2004 adjusted the classical pattern of demographic evolution. Not fully felt at this moment, we will probably find ourselves few decades later older, less, deprived of skilled labor force and unbalanced as gender ratio.

  6. The age demographics of academic librarians a profession apart

    CERN Document Server

    Wilder, Stanley

    2013-01-01

    The Age Demographics of Academic Librarians: A Profession Apart discusses the current demographics of librarianship in North America and examines how a huge retiree rate will affect the profession. With the average age of librarians increasing dramatically since 1990, this book examines the changes that will have to take place in your library, such as recruiting, training, and working with a smaller staff. The Age Demographics of Academic Librarians provides you with insights on how to make your library's transition easier when several of your colleagues leave your library. Valuable and intell

  7. Cell surface glycan alterations in epithelial mesenchymal transition process of Huh7 hepatocellular carcinoma cell.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Due to recurrence and metastasis, the mortality of Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is high. It is well known that the epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT and glycan of cell surface glycoproteins play pivotal roles in tumor metastasis. The goal of this study was to identify HCC metastasis related differential glycan pattern and their enzymatic basis using a HGF induced EMT model. METHODOLOGY: HGF was used to induce HCC EMT model. Lectin microarray was used to detect the expression of cell surface glycan and the difference was validated by lectin blot and fluorescence cell lectin-immunochemistry. The mRNA expression levels of glycotransferases were determined by qRT-PCR. RESULTS: After HGF treatment, the Huh7 cell lost epithelial characteristics and obtained mesenchymal markers. These changes demonstrated that HGF could induce a typical cell model of EMT. Lectin microarray analysis identified a decreased affinity in seven lectins ACL, BPL, JAC, MPL, PHA-E, SNA, and SBA to the glycan of cell surface glycoproteins. This implied that glycan containing T/Tn-antigen, NA2 and bisecting GlcNAc, Siaα2-6Gal/GalNAc, terminal α or βGalNAc structures were reduced. The binding ability of thirteen lectins, AAL, LCA, LTL, ConA, NML, NPL, DBA, HAL, PTL II, WFL, ECL, GSL II and PHA-L to glycan were elevated, and a definite indication that glycan containing terminal αFuc and ± Sia-Le, core fucose, α-man, gal-β(α GalNAc, β1,6 GlcNAc branching and tetraantennary complex oligosaccharides structures were increased. These results were further validated by lectin blot and fluorescence cell lectin-immunochemistry. Furthermore, the mRNA expression level of Mgat3 decreased while that of Mgat5, FucT8 and β3GalT5 increased. Therefore, cell surface glycan alterations in the EMT process may coincide with the expression of glycosyltransferase. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study systematically clarify the alterations of cell surface

  8. Viscoelastic processes in non-ergodic states (percolation and glass transitions) of attractive micellar systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallamace, F.; Broccio, M.; Tartaglia, P.; Chen, W. R.; Faraone, A.; Chen, S. H.

    2003-12-01

    We report a set of viscoelastic measurements in aqueous solutions of a copolymer micellar system with attractive interactions, a system characterized by a percolation line (PT), and a structural arrest (SA) in the particle diffusion motions of a kinetic glass transition (KGT). We observe, in both transitions, dramatic variations in both the elastic (or storage G‧( ω)) and loss components ( G″( ω)) of the shear moduli. At the PT, rheological data are characterized by a scaling behavior, whereas at the SA G‧ and G″ develop a plateau and a marked minimum, respectively. These behaviors are described in the frame of percolation models and mode coupling theory (MCT).

  9. The 8200 calBP ‘climate event’ and the process of neolithisation in south-eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihael Budja

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Climate anomalies between 8247–8086 calBP are discussed in relation to the process of transition farming and to demographic dynamics and population trajectories in south-eastern Europe.

  10. Demographic Ageing on Croatian Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Nejašmić

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the changes in the population structure of the Croatian islands by age, warns of the degree of ageing, provides spatial differentiation of this process and presents perspective of ageing at the level of settlement. Typing of population ageing is based on scores and has seven types. The total island population in 2011 belongs to the type 5 – very old population. Almost a half of the settlements (out of 303 have been affected by the highest levels of ageing (types 6 and 7. It was found that a quarter of island settlements will become “dead villages” in a foreseeable future; most of them are on small islands but also in the interior of larger islands. These are villages decaying in every respect, in which the way of life, as we know it, veins and goes out. The present ageing villagers are their last residents in most cases. Eve¬rything suggests that demographic recovery of the islands is not possible with the forces in situ. It is important to strike a balance between the needs and opportunities in order to successfully organize life on the islands, both small and large ones, and the fact is that there is a continuing disparity, which is especially profound in small islands. A sensitive and selective approach is needed to overcome the unfavourable demographic trends. Therefore it is necessary to respect the particularities of indi¬vidual islands and island groups in devising development strategy. Solutions to the problems must come of the local and wider community in synergy with relevant professional and scientific institutions. However, if the solutions are not found or measures do not give results, if the islands are left to desorganisation and senilisation, a part of the islands will become a wasteland. With regard to the value of this area whose wealth are people in the first place, this would be an intolerable civilization decline.

  11. Glass transition and crystallization process of hard magnetic bulk Nd60Al10Fe20Co10 metallic glass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Glass transition and crystallization process of bulk Nd60Al10Fe20Co10 metallic glass were investigated by means of dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). It is shown that the glass transition and onset crystallization temperature determined by DMTA at a heating rate of 0.167 K/s are 480 and 588 K respectively. The crystallization process of the metallic glass is concluded as follows: amorphous α→α′+metastable FeNdAl novel phase →α′+primary δ phase→primary δ phase+eutectic δ phase Nd3Al phase+Nd3Co phase. The appearance of hard magnetism in this alloy is ascribed to the presence of amorphous phase with highly relaxed structure. The hard magnetism disappeared after the eutectic crystallization of amorphous phase.

  12. Material properties and glass transition temperatures of different thermoplastic starches after extrusion processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Léon P.B.M.; Karman, Andre P.; Graaf, Robbert A. de

    2003-01-01

    Four different starch sources, namely waxy maize, wheat, potato and pea starch were extruded with the plasticizer glycerol, the latter in concentrations of 15, 20 and 25% (w/w). The glass transition temperatures of the resulting thermoplastic products were measured by Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Anal

  13. Number of outer electrons as descriptor for adsorption processes on transition metals and their oxides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calle-Vallejo, Federico; Inoglu, Nilay G.; Su, Hai-Yan;

    2013-01-01

    The trends in adsorption energies of the intermediates of the oxygen reduction and evolution reactions on transition metals and their oxides are smoothly captured by the number of outer electrons. This unique descriptor permits the construction of predictive adsorption-energy grids and explains...... the existence of scaling relationships among these compounds....

  14. Theory for Explaining and Comparing the Dynamics of Education in Transitional Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Walt, Johannes L.

    2016-01-01

    Countries all over the world find themselves in the throes of revolution, change, transition or transformation. Because of the complexities of these momentous events, it is no simple matter to describe and evaluate them. This paper suggests that comparative educationists apply a combination of three theories as a lens through which such national…

  15. The Case for a Dual-Process Theory of Transitive Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Barlow C.

    2012-01-01

    Ever since its popularisation by Piaget around 60 years ago, transitive reasoning (deductively-inferring A greater than C from premises A greater than B and B greater than C) has been of psychological interest both as a mental phenomenon and as a tool in areas of psychological discourse. However, the focus of interest in it has shifted…

  16. Decision Process to Identify Lessons for Transition to a Distributed (or Blended) Learning Instructional Format

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    lessons from the total corpus being considered to identify those most suitable for transition to a distributed learning or a blended learning format...grounded theory. Chicago: Aldine. Linge, D. (Trans., Ed.) (1976). Introduction. In Gadamer, H.-G., Philosophical hermeneutics . Berkeley, CA

  17. The "Processes" of Learning: On the Use of Halliday's Transitivity in Academic Skills Advising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Tim

    2007-01-01

    Of the different uses of discourse analysis, one of the more significant is the way it can be used to introduce students to the culture and literary practices of the disciplines. This article describes how one type of analysis--Halliday's transitivity--has been used in an academic advising context to assist students struggling to write effectively…

  18. Russia's transition process in the light of a rising economy: Economic trajectories in Russia's industry and agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinrich Hockmann

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the recent years Russia has faced an astonishing economic growth, coinciding with the era of Vladimir Putin's presidentship. Accordingly, it is not surprising that commonly these rising economic trajectories are attributed to progress in terms of transition initiated and further triggered by Putin's government. This paper is trying to investigate empirically whether the current growth in Russia tends to be caused mainly by (1 success of transition or just by (2 favourable external circumstances such as rising prices for oil, gas, etc. Thus, analytically, progress in transition has been approximated by efficiency estimates, which are - from a theoretical point of view - expected to be rising in course of transition of a formerly planned economy towards a free market system. In order to capture potentially different trajectories of several sectors and regions industry and agriculture have been considered separately, each at regionally aggregated level over a period of 11 years. In general, little evidence of the anticipated rising trends could be found. Instead, notable ups, downs and divergences among regions and sectors were uncovered. According to this analysis, Russia's current growth rates cannot be attributed to general success of transition. Instead, besides reaping the benefits of favourable external circumstances at world markets, from an empirical point of view, scale effects and slightly rising productivity appear to be the main causes of the recent track record. Moreover, in the industry the trend is also triggered by technological progress, which may indicate the turnaround after a decade of decline and give a reason to believe in an initiation of a long-term growth process. Unfortunately, in agriculture little evidence for such a sustainable growth process was evident so far. In general, the inter-sectoral integration in Russia's economy seems to be still quite low.

  19. Gain self-scheduled H∞ control for morphing aircraft in the wing transition process based on an LPV model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yue Ting; Wang Lixin; Ai Junqiang

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates gain self-scheduled H∞ robust control system design for a tailless folding-wing morphing aircraft in the wing shape varying process.During the wing morphing phase,the aircraft's dynamic response will be governed by time-varying aerodynamic forces and moments.Nonlinear dynamic equations of the morphing aircraft are linearized by using Jacobian linearization approach,and a linear parameter varying (LPV) model of the morphing aircraft in wing folding is obtained.A multi-loop controller for the morphing aircraft is formulated to guarantee stability for the wing shape transition process.The proposed controller uses a set of inner-loop gains to provide stability using classical techniques,whereas a gain self-scheduled H∞ outer-loop controller is devised to guarantee a specific level of robust stability and performance for the time-varying dynamics.The closed-loop simulations show that speed and altitude vary slightly during the whole wing folding process,and they converge rapidly after the process ends.This proves that the gain self-scheduled H∞ robust controller can guarantee a satisfactory dynamic performance for the morphing aircraft during the whole wing shape transition process.Finally,the flight control system's robustness for the wing folding process is verified according to uncertainties of the aerodynamic parameters in the nonlinear model.

  20. RNA-sequencing elucidates the regulation of behavioural transitions associated with the mating process in honey bee queens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredini, Fabio; Brown, Mark J F; Vergoz, Vanina; Oldroyd, Benjamin P

    2015-07-31

    Mating is a complex process, which is frequently associated with behavioural and physiological changes. However, understanding of the genetic underpinnings of these changes is limited. Honey bees are both a model system in behavioural genomics, and the dominant managed pollinator of human crops; consequently understanding the mating process has both pure and applied value. We used next-generation transcriptomics to probe changes in gene expression in the brains of honey bee queens, as they transition from virgin to mated reproductive status. In addition, we used CO2-narcosis, which induces oviposition without mating, to isolate the process of reproductive maturation. The mating process produced significant changes in the expression of vision, chemo-reception, metabolic, and immune-related genes. Differential expression of these genes maps clearly onto known behavioural and physiological changes that occur during the transition from being a virgin queen to a newly-mated queen. A subset of these changes in gene expression were also detected in CO2-treated queens, as predicted from previous physiological studies. In addition, we compared our results to previous studies that used microarray techniques across a range of experimental time-points. Changes in expression of immune- and vision-related genes were common to all studies, supporting an involvement of these groups of genes in the mating process. Our study is an important step in understanding the molecular mechanisms regulating post-mating behavioural transitions in a natural system. The weak overlap in patterns of gene expression with previous studies demonstrates the high sensitivity of genome-wide approaches. Thus, while we build on previous microarray studies that explored post-mating changes in honey bees, the broader experimental design, use of RNA-sequencing, and focus on Australian honey bees, which remain free from the devastating parasite Varroa destructor, in the current study, provide unique insights

  1. Demographic Trends: Impact on Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Sylvia N. Y.; Cheah, Horn Mun

    2010-01-01

    Background: Singapore is experiencing great demographic change. These demographic trends show fewer young people and declining birth rates, greater longevity for ageing generations and an increase in the number of non-Singaporean residents. Statistics also show that more than half of the total population increase in the last decades was…

  2. The importance of the timescale of the fitness metric for estimates of selection on phenotypic traits during a period of demographic change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scranton, Katherine; Lummaa, Virpi; Stearns, Stephen C

    2016-08-01

    Although fitness is central to the evolutionary process, metrics vary by timescale. Different timescales may give rise to different estimates of selection, especially during demographic transitions caused by rapid environmental and socioeconomic change. In this study, we used a dataset of a human population in Finland from 1775 to 1950 to compare two fitness metrics and their estimates of selection pressures, before and during a demographic transition. Both metrics, lifetime reproductive success and an annual metric of individual performance, declined while selection on the ages at first and last reproduction remained nearly constant, favouring individuals with wider reproductive windows. The ability to partition the annual metric into contributions from reproduction and survival revealed the short-term effects of a famine and the reversal of selection pressure via the survival component of annual fitness. Although the metrics generally agreed, the annual metric detected the effects of environmental variation and demographic change occurring within a generation. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  3. [[Demographic analysis of the first marriage process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, R

    1991-10-01

    The author analyzes the stages leading to first marriage in Japan, using data concerning the period 1905-1955 to illustrate probability models and life table methods. Factors taken into consideration include type of marriage (choice or arranged), heterogeneity, and waiting times. A trend in marriage postponement at the outbreak of World War II and a decline in marriage age in the postwar period are noted. (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  4. Can the transition process from foundation doctor to neurosurgical specialty trainee be improved through “learner-centered induction programs”?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acharya V

    2015-10-01

    skills in a safe environment under senior supervision, prior to starting on the wards. Finally, as the induction program was of a greater duration than the traditional half day, they felt they had sufficient time to ask questions and address concerns while “on the job”. Overall, “learner-centered induction programs” did appear to show promise in this pilot study with regards to increasing the confidence of junior doctors starting a neurosurgical placement and helped ease the transition process from foundation doctor to specialty trainee in neurosurgery. We believe further work to formalize and quantify these findings using questionnaires and a larger sample group as well as across successive is indicated and may help junior doctor learning and transition processes in future practice. Keywords: induction programs, foundation training, transition processes, junior doctor transitions

  5. Rehabilitation between institutional and non-institutional forensic psychiatric care: important influences on the transition process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, E; Holm, M; Flensner, G

    2012-10-01

    All patients cared for in forensic psychiatric care (FPC) have some kind of psychiatric disorder and most of them have committed one or more criminal acts. One part of the patient's rehabilitation is the transition from institutional to non-institutional FPC, but a number of patients do not succeed. The aim of this study was to elucidate different caregivers' experiences of aspects that influence the patients' ability to manage this rehabilitation. A qualitative approach was chosen. Data were collected by interviews in two focus groups, each group comprising of six caregivers representing both institutional and non-institutional FPC. The transcribed interviews were analysed using a qualitative content analysis. Important aspects influencing the patients' transition described were a well-planned care plan, together with a suitable non-institutional dwelling and a tailored occupation. Other important areas were having a well-functioning and trusting social network and a good relationship with a contact person/advocate. A major barrier to a successful transition was whether the patients managed their own finances or not. It was stated that it is important that the patients participate in the care and that different authorities create individual conditions and flexible solutions. All of these factors are important to focus on when caring for patients during their stay in the institutional FPC.

  6. Facilitators of the transition process for the self-care of the person with stoma: subsidies for Nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Soares Mota

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To know the facilitating factors of the transition process from dependency to the self-care of people with a stoma. METHOD This is a descriptive study of qualitative approach, including 27 people with permanent stomas due to cancer. The data were collected through semi-structured interviews and submitted to content analysis based on the Transition Theory as theoretical reference. RESULTS The self-care facilitators related to the person were the positive significance of ostomy; the preparation for this experience already in the preoperative period; emotional stability; faith; religiousness; and a sense of normalcy acquired from a next image similar to the previous one. The facilitators related to the community were the following: receiving equipment for free from the government; support from family and the multidisciplinary team, especially the nurses; and having contact with other people with stomata. CONCLUSION The results allow that nurses develop strategies to help people with stomata to resume their self-care.

  7. The role of lock-in mechanisms in transition processes: The case of energy for road transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klitkou, Antje; Bolwig, Simon; Hansen, Teis

    2015-01-01

    This paper revisits the theoretical concepts of lock-in mechanisms to analyse transition processes in energy production and road transportation in the Nordic countries, focussing on three technology platforms: advanced biofuels, e-mobility and hydrogen and fuel cell electrical vehicles. The paper...... and the differentiation of power. We show that very different path dependencies have been reinforced by the lock-in mechanisms. Hence, the characteristics of existing regimes set the preconditions for the development of new transition pathways. The incumbent socio-technical regime is not just fossil-based, but may also...... include mature niches specialised in the exploitation of renewable sources. This implies a need to distinguish between lock-in mechanisms favouring the old fossil-based regime, well-established (mature) renewable energy niches, or new pathways....

  8. Fluid Mechanical Processes of Deflagration to Detonation Transition in Beds of Porous Reactive Solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-03-01

    constant (psi)n 2)n b 2 Burning rate constant in/s m/s lbf N B Particle stress proportionality constant l f-N B Density dependent variable covolume in...de- scribe the movement of this stress wave, a pressure - dependent burning rate 𔃻 . .. . .. .. .2 A .... .._ _ . .. . . ., , m . .. . I l I I|1 I I I I... pressure front will depend on the transition mechanism being considered and thus will be deferred until Chapter Three in which particular cases will be

  9. Process and effects of financial liberalization in transition countries: A selective literature survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berthomieu Claude

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at reviewing selected literature on (1 structural financial changes observed in a large sample of transition economies in the Central and/or Oriental Europe during the last two decades, (2 efficiency of this financial liberalization in relative terms (in macroeconomic sense, and (3 impact of liberalization on financial problems of small and medium-size enterprises, a specific 'puzzle' concerning this very important economic sector as for its role in the employment and growth of these economies.

  10. Sociology / Demographics - Cornell University

    OpenAIRE

    Jenkins, Keith

    2012-01-01

    The researchers interviewed for this data curation profile use data from the US Census and other federal and state government sources and process, analyze, and distribute the data on the project website in a way that makes the data more accessible and easier to use. The researchers also produce analytical reports that are also available on the website. The data management needs center around the researchers’ desire to utilize an external data repository to reduce the effort required to mainta...

  11. Lipid mobilisation and oxidative stress as metabolic adaptation processes in dairy heifers during transition period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk, R; Podpečan, O; Mrkun, J; Kosec, M; Flegar-Meštrić, Z; Perkov, S; Starič, J; Robić, M; Belić, M; Zrimšek, P

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate metabolic disorders and oxidative stress in dairy heifers during the transition period. Possible relationships between lipid mobilisation indicators and oxidative stress markers were investigated as well. Nineteen dairy heifers were included in the study. Blood samples were collected at the time of estrus synchronisation in heifers, at insemination, three weeks after insemination, one week before calving, at calving and 1, 2, 4 and 8 weeks postpartum. Common metabolic parameters, beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), free fatty acids (FFA), paraoxonase-1 (PON1) activity and total antioxidative status (TAS) were analysed. Around insemination, no significant difference was observed in the majority of tested parameters (P>0.05). However, the transition period markedly affected the concentration of triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL-C, BHB, FFA, TAS and PON1activity. Positive correlations between PON1 activity and total cholesterol, HDL-C and triglycerides were noted but inverse correlations with FFA, BHB and bilirubin were found indicating that PON1 activity changed with lipid metabolism and was influenced by negative energy balance. These findings suggest that lipid mobilisation and oxidative stress are part of a complex metabolic adaptation to low energy balance which reaches equilibrium later in advanced lactation.

  12. A simple method for finding explicit analytic transition densities of diffusion processes with general diploid selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yun S; Steinrücken, Matthias

    2012-03-01

    The transition density function of the Wright-Fisher diffusion describes the evolution of population-wide allele frequencies over time. This function has important practical applications in population genetics, but finding an explicit formula under a general diploid selection model has remained a difficult open problem. In this article, we develop a new computational method to tackle this classic problem. Specifically, our method explicitly finds the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the diffusion generator associated with the Wright-Fisher diffusion with recurrent mutation and arbitrary diploid selection, thus allowing one to obtain an accurate spectral representation of the transition density function. Simplicity is one of the appealing features of our approach. Although our derivation involves somewhat advanced mathematical concepts, the resulting algorithm is quite simple and efficient, only involving standard linear algebra. Furthermore, unlike previous approaches based on perturbation, which is applicable only when the population-scaled selection coefficient is small, our method is nonperturbative and is valid for a broad range of parameter values. As a by-product of our work, we obtain the rate of convergence to the stationary distribution under mutation-selection balance.

  13. Psychological transition and adjustment processes related to retirement: influence on cognitive functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotz, Catherine; Matharan, Fanny; Amieva, Hélène; Pérès, Karine; Laberon, Sonia; Vonthron, Anne-Marie; Dartigues, Jean-François; Adam, Stéphane; Letenneur, Luc

    2016-08-29

    To investigate the relationship between psychological transition and adjustment to retirement and cognitive performances in older adults. The study's sample was taken from the Approche Multidisciplinaire Intégrée cohort, a French prospective study of retirees from agriculture, aged 65 and over, living in rural settings in southwestern France. The cross-sectional analyses were conducted on a sample of 590 elderly people without dementia at baseline and for whom information on perception of the work setting, experience of the retirement transition and adaptation to retirement life (nine variables) as well as neuropsychological measures (global cognitive functioning, episodic memory, verbal fluency, attention and psychomotor speed) were available at first visit. Multivariable linear regression analyses, including nine variables related to retirement and adjusted for potential confounding factors, indicated that three of them - positive consideration of former work situation, development of new activities during retirement and good adaptation to free time - were associated with better cognitive performances. We found that several factors proved to be determinants of good cognitive functioning at retirement and could serve as a basis for the development of more efficient intervention programs aimed at helping retirees to maintain good cognitive functioning after retirement.

  14. [Reasearch on evolution and transition of processing method of fuzi in ancient and modern times].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chan-Chan; Cheng, Ming-En; Duan, Hai-Yan; Peng, Hua-Sheng

    2014-04-01

    Fuzi is a medicine used for rescuing from collapse by restoring yang as well as a famous toxic traditional Chinese medicine. In order to ensure the efficacy and safe medication, Fuzi has mostly been applied after being processed. There have been different Fuzi processing methods recorded by doctors of previous generations. Besides, there have also been differences in Fuzi processing methods recorded in modern pharmacopeia and ancient medical books. In this study, the authors traced back to medical books between the Han Dynasty and the period of Republic of China, and summarized Fuzi processing methods collected in ancient and modern literatures. According to the results, Fuzi processing methods and using methods have changed along with the evolution of dynasties, with differences in ancient and modern processing methods. Before the Tang Dynasty, Fuzi had been mostly processed and soaked. From Tang to Ming Dynasties, Fuzi had been mostly processed, soaked and stir-fried. During the Qing Dynasty, Fuzi had been mostly soaked and boiled. In the modem times, Fuzi is mostly processed by being boiled and soaked. Before the Tang Dynasty, a whole piece of Fuzi herbs or their fragments had been applied in medicines; Whereas their fragments are primarily used in the modern times. Because different processing methods have great impacts on the toxicity of Fuzi, it is suggested to study Fuzi processing methods.

  15. EJSCREEN Demographic Indicators 2016 Public

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EJSCREEN uses demographic factors as very general indicators of a community's potential susceptibility to the types of environmental factors included in this...

  16. EJSCREEN Demographic Indicators 2015 Internal

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EJSCREEN uses demographic factors as very general indicators of a community's potential susceptibility to the types of environmental factors included in this...

  17. EJSCREEN Demographic Indicators 2015 Public

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EJSCREEN uses demographic factors as very general indicators of a community's potential susceptibility to the types of environmental factors included in this...

  18. Multigrid mapping and box relaxation for simulation of the whole process of flow transition in 3-D boundary layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, C.; Liu, Z. [Univ. of Colorado, Denver, CO (United States)

    1994-12-31

    A new multilevel technology was developed in this study which provides a successful numerical simulation for the whole process of flow transition in 3-D flat plate boundary layers, including linear growth, secondary instability, breakdown, and transition on a relatively coarse grid with low CPU cost. A fourth-order finite difference scheme on stretched and staggered grids, a fully implicit time-marching technique, a semi-coarsening multigrid based on the so-called approximate line-box relaxation, and a buffer domain for the outflow boundary conditions were all employed for high-order accuracy, good stability, and fast convergence. A new fine-coarse-fine grid mapping technique was developed to catch the large eddies and represent main roles of small eddies to keep the code running after the laminar flow breaks down. The computational results are in good agreement with linear stability theory, secondary instability theory, and some experiments. The computation also reproduced the K-type and C-type transition observed by laboratory experiments. The CPU cost for a typical case is around 2-9 CRAY-YMP hours.

  19. DEMOGRAPHIC VULNERABILITIES IN TECUCI PLAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian Adrian ŞORCARU

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The study focuses on analyzing and mapping 8 indicators considered to best reflect the demographic vulnerability in Tecuci Plain in the year 2010 and proposes a model of aggregation which finally allows us to distinguish three major types of demographic vulnerability (low, medium and high. Mapping the final values also shows significant disparities in the territorial administrative units that broadly overlap the plain, the most vulnerable being Tecuci city and the peripheral communes, towards Vrancea and Vaslui Counties.

  20. Using data- and network science to reveal iterations and phase-transitions in the design process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piccolo, Sebastiano; Jørgensen, Sune Lehmann; Maier, Anja

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the role of iterations is a prevalent topic in both design research and design practice. Furthermore, the increasing amount of data produced and stored by companies leaves traces and enables the application of data science to learn from past design processes. In this article, we...... analyse a documentlog to show the temporal evolution of a real design process of a power plant by using exploratory data analysis and network analysis. We show how the iterative nature of the design process is reflected in archival data and how one might re-construct the design process, involving...

  1. Prediction and Analysis of the Nonsteady Transition and Separation Processes on an Oscillating Wind Turbine Airfoil using the \\gamma-Re_\\theta Transition Model.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nandi, Taraj; Brasseur, James; Vijayakumar, Ganesh

    2016-01-04

    This study is aimed at gaining insight into the nonsteady transitional boundary layer dynamics of wind turbine blades and the predictive capabilities of URANS based transition and turbulence models for similar physics through the analysis of a controlled flow with similar nonsteady parameters.

  2. On the way towards greener transition-metal-catalyzed processes as quantified by E factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipshutz, Bruce H; Isley, Nicholas A; Fennewald, James C; Slack, Eric D

    2013-10-11

    Transition-metal-catalyzed carbon-carbon and carbon-heteroatom bond formations are among the most heavily used types of reactions in both academic and industrial settings. As important as these are to the synthetic community, such cross-couplings come with a heavy price to our environment, and sustainability. E Factors are one measure of waste created, and organic solvents, by far, are the main contributors to the high values associated, in particular, with the pharmaceutical and fine-chemical companies which utilize these reactions. An alternative to organic solvents in which cross-couplings are run can be found in the form of micellar catalysis, wherein nanoparticles composed of newly introduced designer surfactants enable the same cross-couplings, albeit in water, with most taking place at room temperature. In the absence of an organic solvent as the reaction medium, organic waste and hence, E Factors, drop dramatically.

  3. Transitions between hyperfine-structure states of the 2s metastable muonic hydrogen in collision processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czaplinski, W.

    1992-12-31

    Hyperfine effects in the symmetric collisions of the 2s metastable muonic hydrogen with hydrogen atoms: (p{mu}){sub 2s} + H, (d{mu}){sub 2s} + D, (t{mu}){sub 2s} + t are presented. Elastic and spin-flip cross sections for the scattering of The 2s muonic atoms are calculated in the two-level approximation as a function of collision energy. The corresponding formulae are derived with inclusion of electron screening and Lamb-shift between 2s and 2p energy levels of the muonic atom. The obtained spin-flip cross sections are about two orders of magnitude higher than their ground state counterparts and are much more influenced by electron screening. The rates of the spin-flip transitions are also calculated and are found to be about three orders of magnitude higher than the decay rate of the 2s state. (author). 65 refs, 15 figs, 4 tabs.

  4. MIGRATION OF SURPLUS AGRICULTURAL LABOR IN THE PROCESS OF ECONOMIC TRANSITION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄祖辉; 鲁柏祥; 陈欣欣

    2001-01-01

    This paper on the migration of the surplus farm labor during the economic transition of China, focuses on a case study of Zhejiang, China's eastern coastal province, with 45 million population and located in relatively developed area since the reform in 1978. The background and mechanism of Chinese surplus farm labor migration are discussed briefly in the first section. Detailed analysis and development of this topic are based on the Zhejiang case, and consists of two parts: a review of the migration history of surplus agricultural labor in Zhejiang since the 1978 reform; and further analysis and key points are given in the second part. The third sector focuses on challenges and recommendation of policies.

  5. Transitioning Science and Technology into Acquisition Programs: Assessing One Government Laboratorys Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    this burden, to Washington headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations and Reports, 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204...importance of operations deployment, and use service acquisition organizations to review the process and R&D adaptability to PM expectations. 14...use service acquisition organizations to review the process and R&D adaptability to PM expectations. vi THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK vii

  6. Correlation of Fracture Mode Transition of Ceramic Particle with Critical Velocity for Successful Deposition in Vacuum Kinetic Spraying Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyungkwon; Kim, Jinyoung; Lee, Sung Bo; Lee, Changhee

    2016-12-01

    Vacuum kinetic spraying (VKS) is a promising room-temperature process to fabricate dense ceramic films. However, unfortunately, the deposition mechanism is still not clearly understood. In this respect, the critical conditions for successful deposition were investigated. Based on simulation and microstructural analysis, it was found that as the particle velocity increased, fracture mode transition from tensile fracture to shear fracture occurred and particle did not bounce off anymore above a certain velocity. Simultaneously, particle underwent shock-induced plasticity and dynamic fragmentation. The plasticity assisted to prevent the fragments from rebounding by spending the excessive kinetic energy and fragmentation is essential for fragment bonding and film growth considering that the deposition rate increased as the fraction of fragmentation increased. Accordingly, plasticity and fragmentation take a crucial role for particle deposition. In this respect, the velocity that fracture mode transition occurs is newly defined as critical velocity. Consequently, for successful deposition, the particle should at least exceed the critical velocity and thus it is very crucial for film fabrication in VKS process at room temperature.

  7. A Low Power VITERBI Decoder Design With Minimum Transition Hybrid Register Exchange Processing For Wireless Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Haridas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This work proposes the low power implementation of Viterbi Decoder. Majority of viterbi decoder designs in the past use simple Register Exchange or Traceback method to achieve very high speed and low power decoding respectively, but it suffers from both complex routing and high switching activity.Here simplification is made in survivor memory unit by storing only m-1 bits to identify previous state in the survivor path, and by assigning m-1 registers to decision vectors. This approach eliminates unnecessary shift operations. Also for storing the decoded data only half memory is required than register exchange method. In this paper Hybrid approach that combines both Traceback and Register Exchange schemes has been applied to the viterbi decoder design. By using distance properties of encoder we further modified to minimum transition hybrid register exchange method. It leads to lower dynamic power consumption because of lower switching activity. Dynamic power estimation obtained through gate level simulation indicates that the proposed design reduces the power dissipation of a conventional viterbi decoder design by 30%.

  8. A Low Power VITERBI Decoder Design With Minimum Transition Hybrid Register Exchange Processing For Wireless Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Haridas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This work proposes the low power implementation of Viterbi Decoder. Majority of viterbi decoder designs in the past use simple Register Exchange or Trace back method to achieve very high speed and low power decoding respectively, but it suffers from both complex routing and high switching activity.Here simplification is made in survivor memory unit by storing only m-1 bits to identify previous state in the survivor path, and by assigning m-1 registers to decision vectors. This approach eliminates unnecessary shift operations. Also for storing the decoded data only half memory is required than register exchange method. In this paper Hybrid approach that combines both Trace back and Register Exchange schemes has been applied to the viterbi decoder design. By using distance properties of encoder we further modified to minimum transition hybrid register exchange method. It leads to lower dynamic power consumption because of lower switching activity. Dynamic power estimation obtained through gate level simulation indicates that the proposed design reduces the power dissipation of a conventional viterbi decoder design by 30%.

  9. Spin-flip processes and radiative decay of dark intravalley excitons in transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slobodeniuk, A. O.; Basko, D. M.

    2016-09-01

    We perform a theoretical study of radiative decay of dark intravalley excitons in transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers. This decay necessarily involves an electronic spin flip. The intrinsic decay mechanism due to interband spin-flip dipole moment perpendicular to the monolayer plane, gives a rate about 100-1000 times smaller than that of bright excitons. However, we find that this mechanism also introduces an energy splitting due to a local field effect, and the whole oscillator strength is contained in the higher-energy component, while the lowest-energy state remains dark and needs an extrinsic spin-flip mechanism for the decay. Rashba effect due to a perpendicular electric field or a dielectric substrate, gives a negligible radiative decay rate (about 107 times slower than that of bright excitons). Spin flip due to Zeeman effect in a sufficiently strong in-plane magnetic field can give a decay rate comparable to that due to the intrinsic interband spin-flip dipole.

  10. Observations of the evening transition processes on opposing slopes of a north-south oriented mountain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardyjak, E.

    2014-12-01

    The MATERHORN (Mountain Terrain Atmospheric Modeling and Observation) Program is a multiuniversity, multidisciplinary research initiative designed to improve numerical weather prediction in complex terrain and to better understand the physics of complex terrain flow phenomena across a wide range of scales. As part of MATERHORN, field campaigns were conducted at Dugway, UT, USA in Autumn 2012 and Spring 2013. A subset of the campaigns included dense observations along the East Slope of Granite Peak (40.096° N, -113.253° W), as well as additional observations on the opposing west facing slope. East Slope observations included five multi-sonic anemometer eddy covariance towers (two with full energy budget stations), eleven small energy budget stations, fifteen automated weather stations, a distributed temperature sensing (DTS) system, hot-film anemometry, infrared camera surface temperature observations and up to three Doppler lidars. West Slope operations were less intense with three main towers, two of which included sonic anemometry and one, which included full surface energy balance observations. For this presentation, our analysis will focus on characterizing and contrasting the response of mean wind circulations and thermodynamics variables, as well as turbulence quantities during the evening transitions on both the East Slope and West Slope when solar irradiation differences of the slope surfaces is extremely large.

  11. Preparation of transition metal composite graphite felt cathode for efficient heterogeneous electro-Fenton process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Liang; Yu, Fangke; An, Yiran; Liu, Mengmeng; Zhou, Minghua

    2017-01-01

    A composite graphite felt (GF) modified with transition metal was fabricated and used as cathode in heterogeneous electro-Fenton (EF) for methyl orange (MO) degradation. Characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), the morphology and surface physicochemical properties of the cathodes after modification were observed considerably changed. After loading metals, the current response became higher, the accumulation of H2O2 and the degradation efficiency of MO were improved. Under the same conditions, GF-Co had the highest catalytic activity for electro-reduction of O2 to H2O2 and MO degradation. At pH 3, 99 % of MO degradation efficiency was obtained using GF-Co after 120 min treatment and even at initial pH 9, 82 % of that was obtained. TOC removal efficiency reached 93.8 % using GF-Co at pH 3 after 120 min treatment while that was 12.3 % using GF. After ten-time runs, the mineralization ratio of the GF-Co was still 89.5 %, suggesting that GF-Co was very promising for wastewater treatment. The addition of isopropanol proved that (·)OH played an important role in degradation of MO.

  12. The improvement of the field emission properties from graphene films: Ti transition layer and annealing process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Li

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Chemical-reduced graphene oxide (rGO films were deposited on titanium (Ti-coated silicon substrates by a simple electrophoretic deposition. The rGO films were annealed under argon atmosphere at different temperatures. The morphology and microstructure of the rGO films before and after annealing were characterized using scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscope. The field emission behaviors from these rGO films were investigated. The results show that, Ti-based transition layer can improve the stability of field emission from the rGO film, and the annealing at appropriate temperature is in favor of the field emission. Particularly, the rGO film displays an unexpected vacuum breakdown phenomenon at a relatively high current density. In addition, it is found that the field emission property of the rGO film is dependent on anode-sample distance and the film exhibits lower turn on field at larger anode-sample distance.

  13. The Effect of Transition Metal Doping on the Photooxidation Process of Titania-Clay Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judit Ménesi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Montmorillonite-TiO2 composites containing various transition metal ions (silver, copper, or nickel were prepared, and their photocatalytic efficiencies were tested in the degradation of ethanol vapor at 70% relative humidity. Two light sources, UV-rich ( = 254 nm and visible ( = 435 nm, were used. The kinetics of degradation was monitored by gas chromatography. It was established that, in the case of each catalyst, ethanol degradation was more efficient in UV-C ( = 254 nm than in visible light, furthermore, these samples containing silver or copper ions were in each case about twice more efficient than P25 TiO2 (Degussa AG. used as a reference. In photooxidation by visible light, TiO2/clay samples doped with silver or copper were also more efficient than the reference sample, P25 TiO2. We show that doping metal ions can also be delivered to the surface of the support by ion exchange and significantly alters the optical characteristics of the TiO2/clay composite.

  14. How attitude certainty tempers the effects of faultlines in demographically diverse teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grow, Andre; Flache, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Lau and Murnighan's faultline theory suggests that strong demographic faultlines can undermine cohesion in work teams. A strong faultline splits a team into internally homogeneous but mutually dissimilar subgroups based on demographic characteristics. Social influence processes within these subgroup

  15. How attitude certainty tempers the effects of faultlines in demographically diverse teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grow, Andre; Flache, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Lau and Murnighan's faultline theory suggests that strong demographic faultlines can undermine cohesion in work teams. A strong faultline splits a team into internally homogeneous but mutually dissimilar subgroups based on demographic characteristics. Social influence processes within these subgroup

  16. An Integrated Quantitative Methodology to Longitudinally Characterize Complex Dynamic Processes Associated with Ovarian Aging and the Menopausal Transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiyong Zheng

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available An integrative methodology is developed to characterize the complex patterns of change in highly variable dynamic biological processes. The method permits estimatation of the population mean profile, multiple change points and length of time-windows defined by any two change points of interest using a semi-/non-parametric stochastic mixed effect model and a Bayesian Modeling Average (BMA approach to account for model uncertainty. It also allows estimation of the mean rate of change of sub-processes by fitting piecewise linear mixed effect models. The methodology is applied to characterize the stages of female ovarian aging and the menopausal transition defined by hormone measures of estradiol (E2 and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH from two large-scale epidemiological studies with community-based longitudinal designs and ethnic diversity.

  17. An Integrated Quantitative Methodology to Longitudinally Characterize Complex Dynamic Processes Associated with Ovarian Aging and the Menopausal Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Huiyong; Sowers, Maryfran; Randolph, John F; Harlow, Siobán D

    2011-01-01

    An integrative methodology is developed to characterize the complex patterns of change in highly variable dynamic biological processes. The method permits estimatation of the population mean profile, multiple change points and length of time-windows defined by any two change points of interest using a semi-/non-parametric stochastic mixed effect model and a Bayesian Modeling Average (BMA) approach to account for model uncertainty. It also allows estimation of the mean rate of change of sub-processes by fitting piecewise linear mixed effect models. The methodology is applied to characterize the stages of female ovarian aging and the menopausal transition defined by hormone measures of estradiol (E2) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) from two large-scale epidemiological studies with community-based longitudinal designs and ethnic diversity.

  18. Towards a new pattern of transition to adulthood?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Billari, F.; Liefbroer, A.C.

    2010-01-01

    Second Demographic TransitionRecent theories about social and demographic change, such as individualization and the Second Demographic Transition, embed the notion of a convergence towards a specific ideal-typical pathway to adulthood, which we define as late, protracted and complex. After a discuss

  19. Bismaleimide/Preceramic Polymer Blends for Hybrid Material Transition Regions. Part 1. Processing and Characterization (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    polymer matrix composite to a ceramic matrix composite. Thermal and elemental analysis, and morphology characterization of RD-730 preceramic polymer blends, which convert to silicon carbide upon pyrolysis, and Matrimid A/B polymer (a bismaleimide), were carried out as a function of cure cycle. Cure cycles were chosen to vary the resin viscosity during processing in order to affect the amount of phase separation observed. The results were then used to associate processing parameters with the miscibility of the two resins and the likelihood of producing a hybrid

  20. Modeling chemical and aerosol processes in the transition from closed to open cells during VOCALS-REx

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kazil

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Chemical and aerosol processes in the transition from closed- to open-cell circulation in the remote, cloudy marine boundary layer are explored. It has previously been shown that precipitation can initiate a transition from the closed- to the open-cellular state, but that the boundary layer cannot maintain this open-cell state without a resupply of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN. Potential sources of CCN include wind-driven production of sea salt from the ocean, nucleation from the gas phase, and entrainment from the free troposphere. In order to investigate CCN sources in the marine boundary layer and their role in supplying new particles, we have coupled in detail chemical, aerosol, and cloud processes in the WRF/Chem model, and added state-of-the-art representations of sea salt emissions and aerosol nucleation. We conduct numerical simulations of the marine boundary layer in the transition from a closed- to an open-cell state. Results are compared with observations in the Southeast Pacific boundary layer during the VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study Regional Experiment (VOCALS-REx. The transition from the closed- to the open-cell state generates conditions that are conducive to nucleation by forming a cloud-scavenged, ultra-clean layer below the inversion base. Open cell updrafts loft dimethyl sulfide from the ocean surface into the ultra-clean layer, where it is oxidized during daytime to SO2 and subsequently to H2SO4. Low H2SO4 condensation sink values in the ultra-clean layer allow H2SO4 to rise to concentrations at which aerosol nucleation produces new aerosol in significant numbers. The existence of the ultra-clean layer is confirmed by observations. We find that the observed DMS flux from the ocean in the VOCALS-REx region can support a nucleation source of aerosol in open cells that exceeds sea salt emissions in terms of the number of particles produced

  1. Intelligent system to study demographic evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, M. de Fatima; Ramos, Carlos; Henriques, Pedro R.

    1999-02-01

    With three centuries of existence, the study of population's behavior implies the manipulation of large amounts of incomplete and imprecise data with high dimensionality. By virtue of its multidisciplinary character, the work in demography involves at least historicists, statisticians and computer scientists/programmers. Moreover, successful demographic analysis requires qualified experts, who have succeeded in analysing data through many views and relate different sources of information, including their personal knowledge of the epoch or regions under study. In this paper, we present an intelligent system to study demographic evolution (ISSDE). This system has a module based on on-line analytical processing (OLAP), which permits conducting multiple analysis, combining many data dimensions. It has a deductive database system, which allows the execution of elaborated queries through the database. It has another module for date treatment (generalization and/or reduction); and, at last, a data mining module to discover nontrivial relations hidden within data. We discover the data treatment procedure with two phases: data generalization and data reduction. In data generalization, utilizing knowledge about concept hierarchies and relevance of data, aggregation of attribute values is performed. In the data reduction phase, rough set theory is applied to compute the minimal attribute set. We highlight the advantages of combining attribute value generalization with rough set theory, to find a subset of attributes that lets the mining process discover more useful patterns, by providing results from the application of the C5.0 algorithm in a demographic relational database.

  2. Demographic Patterns from the 1960s in France, Italy, Spain and Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Rydell, Ingrid

    2002-01-01

    Demographic behaviour has changed dramatically in the industrialised world after World War II. This literature review describes the demographic development in France, Italy, Spain and Portugal from the 1960s. The general pattern is delayed transition to adulthood and first birth, fertility and marriage-rates have declined, while divorce-rates have increased. But demographic behaviour differs between the countries. In France, cohabitation and births outside marriage are common and the divorce ...

  3. Design principles for corporate venture transition processes in established technology firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burg, van J.C.; Jager, de S.; Reymen, I.M.M.J.; Cloodt, M.

    2012-01-01

    Corporate venturing has become a well known approach towards new business development and strategic renewal for established technology firms. However, without an effectively designed process for aligning and integrating a corporate venture in the established business, the firm increases the risk of

  4. The Role of Multinational Enterprises in the Transition Process of Central and Eastern European Economies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marek, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    Globalisering en de liberalisering van handel en kapitaalstromen hebben grote economische gevolgen in Centraal en Oost Europa, waar het economisch systeem na de val van de Muur opnieuw ingericht diende te worden. Het process van institutionele verandering, structurele economische transformatie en

  5. Multiple Case Comparison of the In-Transit Visibility Business Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-03-01

    Trade, Nov 2002. Goldratt , Eliyahu M. and Jeff Cox. The Goal: A Process of Ongoing Improvements. Great Barrington MA: North River Press, 1984...2002). A for-profit civilian company’s goal is to make money now and in the future ( Goldratt and Cox, 1984). Understanding basic economic principles

  6. A growth state transition model as driver for business process management in small medium enterprises

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jacobs, D

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A key constraint for growing small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in South Africa is the business skills required to grow the enterprises through the stages of transformation. Business process management (BPM) is one of the skills that could add...

  7. Cognitive and Emotional Processes as Predictors of a Successful Transition into School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankson, A. Nayena; Weaver, Jennifer Miner; Leerkes, Esther M.; O'Brien, Marion; Calkins, Susan D.; Marcovitch, Stuart

    2017-01-01

    Research Findings: The aim of this research was to delineate developmental processes that contribute to early school success. To achieve this aim, we examined emotion regulation, executive functioning, emotion knowledge, and metacognition at ages 3 and 4 as distal and proximal predictors of age 5 achievement and school adjustment in a sample of…

  8. Design principles for corporate venture transition processes in established technology firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burg, van J.C.; Jager, de S.; Reymen, I.M.M.J.; Cloodt, M.

    2012-01-01

    Corporate venturing has become a well known approach towards new business development and strategic renewal for established technology firms. However, without an effectively designed process for aligning and integrating a corporate venture in the established business, the firm increases the risk of

  9. Training processes in under 6s football competition: The transition from ingenuity to institutionalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel Merino Orozco

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Under 6s football competition is a school sport that has inherent educational implications. Moreover, it is a booming non-formal socio-educational framework where families and children lay training expectations and dreams. The aim is to comprehend the emerging learning processes promoted in this environment for 6 years-old children, when the child starts the institutionalization process in the ruled sport. The research uses a case study design, the ethnographic mode, through participant observation. It uses the narrative and image data to understand the scenario from the perspective of its builder. The results show that the institutionalization process starts from the ingenuity and lack of understanding of the child, who develops training processes in a prescriptive environment, where the competitive performance of the team is pursued. Promoting certain types of learning which the participant himself consciously considers inappropriate undertakes the presence of different kinds of behaviour, which go against the positive values usually attributed to football. The study claims for the necessity of taking advantage of the training opportunities which football offers to children such as the enhancing of creativity, self-efficacy and self-esteem.

  10. Demographic variables in coal miners’ safety attitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Wen-wen; Wu, Xiang; Ci, Hui-Peng; Qin, Shu-Qi; Liu, Jia-Long

    2017-03-01

    To change unsafe behavior through adjusting people’s safety attitudes has become an important measure to prevent accidents. Demographic variables, as influential factors of safety attitude, are fundamental and essential for the research. This research does a questionnaire survey among coal mine industry workers, and makes variance analysis and correlation analysis of the results in light of age, length of working years, educational level and experiences of accidents. The results show that the coal miners’ age, length of working years and accident experiences correlate lowly with safety attitudes, and those older coal miners with longer working years have better safety attitude, as coal miners without experiences of accident do.However, educational level has nothing to do with the safety attitude. Therefore, during the process of safety management, coal miners with different demographic characteristics should be put more attention to.

  11. Demographic Transformations of the Russian Regional Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Viktorovna Kurushina

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the transformations of the quantitative components of human capital, which is the main driver of economic growth in the material, institutional and mental space. According to the author’s concept of stratified space, the processes of self-reproduction and self-renewal of a system are carried out in the material space. This can be determined by the indicators of fertility, mortality and migration in the demographic subsystem. The process of self-regulation of a system on the basis of legislative acts and behavior patterns is carried out in the institutional space. Institutional transformations are also manifested in the implementation of federal target programs for socio-economic development, affecting the state of the demographic subsystem. The processes of self-reflection, self-determination and self-development are carried out in the mental space. Mental transformations in the demographic subsystem are manifested in the change of value orientations. In accordance with the system of values that are conceptualized in modern development strategies the authors define the following models of Man: Economic Man, Socio-Economic Man (who lives in agglomeration centers and at the periphery, Socio-Natural Man (Environmental Man and Householder Man and Innovative Man. Demographic shifts are investigated in 83 Russian regions on the determinants of birth rate and mortality. The analyzed period of transformation covers 2005 and 2012. Methods of matrix analysis are used to visualize the process of demographic shifts. The assessment of transformation of the stratified regional space spheres is given on the basis of the multifactor models of the population natural growth rate. The paper reveals the reduction in the level and variation of mortality rate, the increasing importance and differentiation of regions according to fertility rate, and the effectiveness of introducing the institution of maternity capital from a perspective of the

  12. Autophagy-like processes are involved in lipid droplet degradation in Auxenochlorella protothecoides during the heterotrophy-autotrophy transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li eZhao

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Autophagy is a cellular degradation process that recycles cytoplasmic components in eukaryotes. Although intensively studied in yeast, plants, and mammals, autophagy in microalgae is not well understood. Auxenochlorella protothecoides is a green microalga that has the ability to grow either autotrophically when under light or heterotrophically when in media containing glucose. The two growth modes are inter-convertible and transition between them is accompanied by drastic changes in morphology and cellular composition; however, the mechanisms underlying these changes are unknown. In this study, we identified autophagy-related genes and characterized their roles in the degradation of lipid droplets during the heterotrophy-to-autotrophy (HA transition in A. protothecoides. Most of the proteins constituting the eukaryotic core machinery were conserved in A. protothecoides. Two proteins, Atg4 and Atg8, were further investigated. A. protothecoides ATG4 was cloned from a cDNA library and expressed within yeast, and was able to functionally restore the autophagy pathway in atg4Δ yeast during nitrogen starvation. Furthermore, Atg8, which displayed high sequence identity with its yeast homolog, was able to conjugate to phosphatidylethanolamine (PE in vitro and was recruited to the phagophore assembly site in yeast. We also identified a C-terminal glycine residue, G118, that was the cleavage site for Atg4. Finally, we used confocal and transmission electron microscopy to reveal that autophagic-like vacuoles were detectable in algal cells during the HA transition. Our data suggested that the lipid droplets in heterotrophic cells were engulfed directly by the autophagic-like vacuole instead of via autophagosomes.

  13. Tourism Market and Demographic Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Nedelea

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper identifies the major demographic trends and their implications for consumer market. It is important to know how will demographic change influence the tourism market in particularly and how can the tourist industry adapt to these. The advancing ageing of society will result in far reaching changes, particularly on the demand side. To profitably seize the opportunities, managers must understand how senior markets evolve and adapt products and service offerings along multiple dimensions to meet the needs of senior consumers.

  14. Segregation process and phase transition in cyclic predator-prey models with even number of species

    CERN Document Server

    Szabo, Gyorgy; Sznaider, Gustavo Ariel

    2007-01-01

    We study a spatial cyclic predator-prey model with an even number of species (for n=4, 6, and 8) that allows the formation of two defective alliances consisting of the even and odd label species. The species are distributed on the sites of a square lattice. The evolution of spatial distribution is governed by iteration of two elementary processes on neighboring sites chosen randomly: if the sites are occupied by a predator-prey pair then the predator invades the prey's site; otherwise the species exchange their site with a probability $X$. For low $X$ values a self-organizing pattern is maintained by cyclic invasions. If $X$ exceeds a threshold value then two types of domains grow up that formed by the odd and even label species, respectively. Monte Carlo simulations indicate the blocking of this segregation process within a range of X for n=8.

  15. From magma-poor Ocean Continent Transitions to steady state oceanic spreading: the balance between tectonic and magmatic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillard, Morgane; Manatschal, Gianreto; Autin, Julia; Decarlis, Alessandro; Sauter, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    The evolution of magma-poor rifted margins is linked to the development of a transition zone whose basement is neither clearly continental nor oceanic. The development of this Ocean-Continent Transition (OCT) is generally associated to the exhumation of serpentinized mantle along one or several detachment faults. That model is supported by numerous observations (IODP wells, dredges, fossil margins) and by numerical modelling. However, if the initiation of detachment faults in a magma-poor setting tends to be better understood by numerous studies in various area, the transition with the first steady state oceanic crust and the associated processes remain enigmatic and poorly studied. Indeed, this latest stage of evolution appears to be extremely gradual and involves strong interactions between tectonic processes and magmatism. Contrary to the proximal part of the exhumed domain where we can observe magmatic activity linked to the exhumation process (exhumation of gabbros, small amount of basalts above the exhumed mantle), in the most distal part the magmatic system appears to be independent and more active. In particular, we can observe large amounts of extrusive material above a previously exhumed and faulted basement (e.g. Alps, Australia-Antarctica margins). It seems that some faults can play the role of feeder systems for the magma in this area. Magmatic underplating is also important, as suggested by basement uplift and anomalously thick crust (e.g. East Indian margin). It results that the transition with the first steady state oceanic crust is marked by the presence of a hybrid basement, composed by exhumed mantle and magmatic material, whose formation is linked to several tectonic and magmatic events. One could argue that this basement is not clearly different from an oceanic basement. However, we consider that true, steady state oceanic crust only exists, if the entire rock association forming the crust is created during a single event, at a localized

  16. Simulation study on the formation and transition properties of cluster structures in liquid metals during rapid cooling processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑采星; 刘让苏; 董科军; 彭平; 刘海蓉; 徐仲榆; 卢小勇

    2002-01-01

    For the first time, a molecular dynamics simulation study has been performed for a liquid metal system consisting of 50000 atoms to deeply investigate the transitions of microstructure configurations dudng the rapid cooling processes. Especially, the cluster-type index method has been adopted to analyze the transforming and evolving processes of clusters and cluster configurations from liquid metal atoms. It has been found that the bigger cluster configurations in the system are formed by means of connecting some small clusters (they are combined by several smaller clusters), and not taken on the multi-shells configuration accumulated with an atom as the center and the surrounding atoms arranged according to some fixed pattern. With the decrease in temperature, the probability of repetitive appearance for clusters increases largely, which reveals that clusters are indeed possessing a certain relative stability and continuity (namely hereditary effect). These results will give us an important enlightenment to understand not only the forming mechanisms and microscopic processes of the short-order sections and disorder sparse sections in amorphous structures but also the freezing processes of liquid metals.``

  17. Correlation between steady-oscillatory flow transition and the interface inversion process during the Czochralski growth of semitransparent oxide crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faiez, Reza; Rezaei, Yazdan

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, steady-oscillatory transition of the convective flow in a Czochralski (Cz) growth system was numerically studied. In this configuration, rapid variations in density across narrow region of the flow in the vicinity of the crystallization front leads to an unstable stratification of the flow in this region. Time-dependent, finite volume method calculation of the momentum and heat transport equations shows that an instability mechanism, giving rise to the formation of cold plumes beneath the phase boundary, might be associated with an irreversible change in the convexity of the front. Dynamics of the crystallization front was found to be correlated with the periodic oscillation of the flow. It was shown that the interface inversion process occurs at a critical Reynolds number significantly (˜25%) lower than that predicted by the steady-state Cz-oxide model analysis. Consistently, the time-averaged maximum value of stream function was found to be larger than its corresponding steady-state value. This indicates that the mechanism behind the oscillatory transition of the flow has a positive feedback on the intensity of forced convection flow. These numerical results were attributed to the baroclinic instability mechanism characterized by oscillations of a cold plume appearing at the crystal periphery and descending along the symmetry axis. The time period of oscillations was found to be considerably (30-40%) decreases and, simultaneously, the inclination angle of isopycnals increases (˜48%) at a critical rotation rate of the crystal for which the interface inversion occurs.

  18. Effect of surfactants or a water soluble polymer on the crystal transition of clarithromycin during a wet granulation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozawa, Kenji; Iwao, Yasunori; Noguchi, Shuji; Itai, Shigeru

    2015-11-10

    To generate products containing a stable form of clarithromycin (CAM) (form II) regardless of the initial crystal form of CAM or type of granulation solvent, the effects of five surfactants, or a water-soluble polymer (macrogol 400) were determined on the crystal transition of CAM. The metastable form (form I) was kneaded with water, after adding surfactants, or a water-soluble polymer. Form II was also kneaded with ethanol, after adding the same additives. The resulting samples were analyzed by powder X-ray diffraction. Form I was completely converted to form II by a wet granulation using water with additives bearing polyoxyethylene chains such as polysorbate 80 (PS80), polyoxyl 40 stearate or macrogol 400. The granulation of the form II using ethanol with these additives did not result in a crystal transition to form I. Furthermore, CAM tablets were manufactured using granules with PS80, and these crystal forms and dissolution behaviors were investigated. As a result, the wet granulation of CAM with PS80 gave CAM tablets containing only form II and PS80 did not have any adverse effects on tablet characteristics. Therefore, these data suggests that the crystal form of CAM can be controlled to be form II using a wet granulation process with additives bearing polyoxyethylene chains regardless of the initial crystal form of CAM or type of granulation solvent. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Optical processes in YVO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 3+}across zircon-to-scheelite phase transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahlik, Sebastian, E-mail: s.mahlik@ug.edu.pl [Institute of Experimental Physics, University of Gdansk, WitaStwosza 57, 80-952 Gdańsk (Poland); Lazarowska, Agata; Szczodrowski, Karol [Institute of Experimental Physics, University of Gdansk, WitaStwosza 57, 80-952 Gdańsk (Poland); Grinberg, Marek, E-mail: fizmgr@ug.edu.pl [Institute of Experimental Physics, University of Gdansk, WitaStwosza 57, 80-952 Gdańsk (Poland); Cavalli, Enrico [Department of Chemistry, Università di Parma, Parma (Italy); Boutinaud, Philippe [Clermont Université, ENSCCF, Institut de Chimie de Clermont-Ferrand, BP 10448, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand (France)

    2015-09-15

    The luminescence processes across zircon-to-scheelite phase transition in undoped YVO{sub 4} and Eu{sup 3+}-doped YVO{sub 4} are investigated by measuring the Raman, excitation and emission spectra and decay characteristics of the compounds with respect to high hydrostatic pressure up to 200 kbar. The scheelite polymorphs obtained after releasing the high pressure show no luminescence when undoped, even down to 10 K, but when activated with Eu{sup 3+} exhibit the characteristic scheelite-related Eu{sup 3+} emission but with low intensity. This emission is produced upon UV excitation in zircon inclusions that remain after the pressure treatment. - Highlights: • We present the pressure dependence of luminescence properties of YVO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 3+}. • The application of a hydrostatic pressure of ≈7.5 GPa leads to a phase transition from zircon to scheelite phase YVO{sub 4}. • Eu{sup 3+} luminescence in scheelite YVO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 3+} cannot be produced upon excitation in the fundamental states.

  20. Skull and limb morphology differentially track population history and environmental factors in the transition to agriculture in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The Neolithic transition in Europe was a complex mosaic spatio-temporal process, involving both demic diffusion from the Near East and the cultural adoption of farming practices by indigenous hunter–gatherers. Previous analyses of Mesolithic hunter–gatherers and Early Neolithic farmers suggest that cranial shape variation preserves the population history signature of the Neolithic transition. However, the extent to which these same demographic processes are discernible in the postcranium is p...

  1. The Role of Chemical Processes in the Transition to Sustainable Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stucki, S.; Palumbo, R.; Baltensperger, U.; Boulouchos, K.; Haas, O.; Scherer, G.G.; Siegwolf, R.; Wokaun, A

    2002-01-01

    Chemical science and engineering play a central role in improving the eco- efficiency of energy services, be it by optimizing fossil fuel utilization from the source to the sinks, be it by exploring new ways of replacing fossil fuels with renewable ones. Catalytic fuel processing is required for providing clean and easy to convert inputs from contaminated and/or high molecular weight primary resources into efficient energy conversion systems such as advanced combustion engines and fuel cells. The switch from conventional fossil fuel resources to renewables such as solar or biomass requires new approaches in chemical engineering. Efficiency vs. emissions trade-offs for improving the eco-performance of combustion engines need to be optimized with improved understanding of the complex chemistry taking place in flames. New materials for fuel cells and batteries provide a means of making these devices applicable, thereby drastically cutting down on emissions from energy systems. Chemistry is not only involved in fuel processing and conversion, but it is also important at the end of the pipe, i.e. in catalytic emission control devices, in the treatment of hazardous residues from the incineration of waste materials, and in the complex interactions of air pollutants with the biosphere. (author)

  2. The Role of Chemical Processes in the Transition to Sustainable Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stucki, S.; Palumbo, R.; Baltensperger, U.; Boulouchos, K.; Haas, O.; Scherer, G.G.; Siegwolf, R.; Wokaun, A

    2002-01-01

    Chemical science and engineering play a central role in improving the eco- efficiency of energy services, be it by optimizing fossil fuel utilization from the source to the sinks, be it by exploring new ways of replacing fossil fuels with renewable ones. Catalytic fuel processing is required for providing clean and easy to convert inputs from contaminated and/or high molecular weight primary resources into efficient energy conversion systems such as advanced combustion engines and fuel cells. The switch from conventional fossil fuel resources to renewables such as solar or biomass requires new approaches in chemical engineering. Efficiency vs. emissions trade-offs for improving the eco-performance of combustion engines need to be optimized with improved understanding of the complex chemistry taking place in flames. New materials for fuel cells and batteries provide a means of making these devices applicable, thereby drastically cutting down on emissions from energy systems. Chemistry is not only involved in fuel processing and conversion, but it is also important at the end of the pipe, i.e. in catalytic emission control devices, in the treatment of hazardous residues from the incineration of waste materials, and in the complex interactions of air pollutants with the biosphere. (author)

  3. Logistics Dynamics and Demographic Change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klumpp, Matthias; Abidi, Hella; Bioly, Sascha; Buchkremer, Rüdiger; Sandhaus, Gregor; Freitag, Michael; Kotzab, Herbert; Pannek, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Change and dynamics in logistics are interestingly driven at the same time by external as well as internal forces. This contribution outlines a big data literature review methodology to overview recognizable external changes and analyzes the interaction of one major trend—demographic change—further

  4. Democratic constraints on demographic policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigsby, J S

    1984-01-01

    The discussion compares the population policies adopted in Sweden during the 1930s to raise fertiity and the policies considered in the US during the 1970s in response to the high fertility experienced in the 1950s. Both sets of policies recommended increased availability of birth control, more liberal abortion laws, and greater employment opportunities for women. It becomes evident that the constraints imposed by a democratic system of government translate into policy recommendations that place individual freedom of choice and equal opportunity for all citizens as higher goals than any specific demographic target. Consequently, the population commissions of Sweden and the US made similar suggestions on how to resolve their opposite demographic problems. The demographic situations in the 2 nations were antipodal, and the countries also had very different social climates. This additional disparity was insufficient to counterbalance the apparently overwhelming influence of the democratic political systems in making virtually identical policy recommendations. Yet, the contrasting social climates of Sweden in 1935 and the US in 1970-72 may explain the different reactions each commission received. In terms of the responses by both citizens and government officials to the commissions' reports, the Swedish commission was more successful. Practically all of their recommendations were enthusiastically received and quickly adopted by the Swedish Riksdag. Yet, when the criterion for success becomes whether or not a demographic target was met, it increased in the 1940s and then dropped again while the same social policies were in effect. Even before the US commission began its study, fertility in the US had fallen and continues to remain low. These findings suggest that commissions in democratic countries will most likely never recommend dramatic measures in population policy. Thus, it is questionable whether such commissions in democratic nations will totally fulfill the

  5. Freeze-Drying Above the Glass Transition Temperature in Amorphous Protein Formulations While Maintaining Product Quality and Improving Process Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depaz, Roberto A; Pansare, Swapnil; Patel, Sajal Manubhai

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the ability to conduct primary drying during lyophilization at product temperatures above the glass transition temperature of the maximally freeze-concentrated solution (Tg′) in amorphous formulations for four proteins from three different classes. Drying above Tg′ resulted in significant reductions in lyophilization cycle time. At higher protein concentrations, formulations freeze dried above Tg′ but below the collapse temperature yielded pharmaceutically acceptable cakes. However, using an immunoglobulin G type 4 monoclonal antibody as an example, we found that as protein concentration decreased, minor extents of collapse were observed in formulations dried at higher temperatures. No other impacts to product quality, physical stability, or chemical stability were observed in this study among the different drying conditions for the different proteins. Drying amorphous formulations above Tg′, particularly high protein concentration formulations, is a viable means to achieve significant time and cost savings in freeze-drying processes.

  6. Youth prolongation and identity: study of the processes of transition to adulthood in Brazilian and Spanish youngsters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Nascimento Coelho

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we investigate the relationship between youth prolongation in Brazilian and Spanish youngsters and the identity construction processes of these individuals. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 50 young men and women aged 25 to 29 years, half of them from Madrid/Spain and the other half from Fortaleza/Brazil. The interviews were recorded and transcribed, the speeches were organized with the Atlas-ti program through a semantic content analysis. We assume that the postponement of the thresholds of transition to adulthood leads to new experiences, discourses and meanings of "being young", creating a new ideal-typical model of "prolonged youth" and turning it into a possibility of identification for a significant group of young people. In Spain, the youth prolongation is a much more pronounced and evident phenomenon than in Brazil. However, the movement towards a youth prolongation, especially concerning the "feeling younger for longer" is also a trend among young Brazilians.

  7. Synthesis and formation mechanism of pinnoite by the phase transition process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Feng; Dong, Yaping; Peng, Jiaoyu; Wang, Liping; Li, Wu

    2016-06-01

    Pinnoite (MgB2O(OH)6) for the first time was synthesized using the solid-liquid-solid conversion method. The effects of reaction time, pH value and concentrations of magnesium and borate were investigated. Pinnoite was synthesized under the optimum condition of 8 mmol hungtsaoite and 1% boric acid solution at 80 °C. The products were determined using X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, TG-DSC and a UV-vis spectrometer. The change processes of the surface morphology of pinnoite were investigated using scanning electron microscopy. In addition, the formation mechanism of pinnoite was discussed according to the changes in the content of precipitation and pH value.

  8. Defect-induced phase transition in the asymmetric simple exclusion process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Johannes; Popkov, Vladislav; Schadschneider, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    We reconsider the long-standing question of the critical defect hopping rate r c in the one-dimensional totally asymmetric exclusion process (TASEP) with a slow bond (defect). For r queuing at the defect site, whereas for r≥ rc the defect site, has only local effects on the stationary state of the homogeneous system. Mean-field theory predicts r_c=1 (when hopping rates outside the defect bond are equal to 1) but numerical investigations seem to indicate rc ≈ 0.80 (2) . Here we improve the numerics to show that r c > 0.99 and give strong evidence that indeed r_c=1 as predicted by mean-field theory, and anticipated by recent theoretical findings.

  9. Stability and activity of doped transition metal zeolites in the hydrothermal processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas François Robin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the stability and activity of HZSM-5 doped with metals such as molybdenum, nickel, copper and iron in under hydrothermal conditions used for the direct liquefaction of microalgae. Catalysts have been prepared by ion exchange techniques, and MoZSM-5 was also prepared by wet incipient impregnation for comparison. Hydrothermal liquefaction is considered as a potential route to convert microalgae into a sustainable fuel. One of the drawbacks of this process is that the bio-crude produced contains significant levels of nitrogen and oxygen compounds which have an impact on the physical and chemical propriety of the fuel. Heterogeneous catalysts have been shown to improve the quality of the bio-crude by reducing nitrogen and oxygen contents. Zeolites, such as HZSM-5, are strong candidates due to their low cost compared to noble metal catalysts but their stability and activity under hydrothermal conditions is not well understood. The stability of the catalysts has been determined under hydrothermal conditions at 350 °C. Catalysts have been characterised before and after treatment using XRD, BET physisorption and STEM microscopy. Metal leaching was determined by analysis of the water phase following hydrothermal treatment. The inserted cation following ion-exchange can influence the physical properties of HZSM-5 for example molybdenum improves the crystallinity of the zeolite. In general, metal doped zeolites were relatively stable under subcritical water. Activity of the catalysts for processing lipids, protein and microalgae has been assessed. Four feedstocks were selected: sunflower oil, soya proteins, Chlorella and P. ellipsoidea. The catalysts exhibited greater activity towards converting lipids for example MoZSM-5 enhanced the formation of aromatic compounds. NiZSM-5 and CuZSM-5 were observed to be more efficient for deoxygenation.

  10. DEMOGRAPHIC PREDICTORS WITHIN LOCAL PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bente Florina Maria

    2014-12-01

    Design/methodology/approach- Using a quantitative methodological approach, a survey based on SERVQUAL instrument was applied in order to evaluate local public communication. Data from a sample of 380 citizens within Western Romanian were analyzed. Specific demographic predictors that can influence citizens' satisfaction regarding the quality of communication are analyzed. Findings-By analyzing data it was possible to determine citizen satisfaction and to assess its relationship with different demographic characteristics. The results illustrate that gender does not significantly affect satisfaction, instead age, marital status, residence location (urban versus rural, income, education and occupational status of the respondents significantly affect satisfaction regarding local public communication. In addition, the findings confirm a relationship between the citizens' satisfaction and the age, income, education and occupational status of the respondents. Research limitations/implications- Owing to the budget and time limits, only a one-shot survey was conducted, therefore the comparison between “before” and “after” analysis could not be performed. In addition, further research should investigate the local public communication within national contexts. Practical implications -The adapted SERVQUAL scale may be used by institution managers to objectively assess communication performance and local authority service quality. Originality/value- There continues to be a lack of research regarding the communication process within local public administration and the effect of demographic predictors of communication satisfaction. This paper examines both the perceptions and the expectations of citizens regarding public communication. The results offer insights into residence location, age, income, education and occupational status effects on evaluations of communication satisfaction. Finally, the study contributes to studies of perceived service quality by bearing out

  11. Quantitative and qualitative transitions of methanogen community structure during the batch anaerobic digestion of cheese-processing wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Changsoo; Kim, Jaai; Shin, Seung Gu; O'Flaherty, Vincent; Hwang, Seokhwan

    2010-08-01

    Qualitative and quantitative shifts in methanogen community structure, associated with process performance data, were investigated during the batch anaerobic digestion of a cheese-processing wastewater, whey permeate. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and real-time PCR techniques were applied to obtain qualitative and quantitative microbial data sets, respectively, based on methanogen 16S rRNA genes. Throughout the operation, dynamic variations in both qualitative and quantitative community structures were observed, with repeated shifts in dominance between the aceticlastic Methanosarcinaceae (suggested mainly by the detection of a Methanosarcina-like population) and the hydrogenotrophic Methanomicrobiales (suggested mainly by the detection of a Methanofollis-like population). This trend corresponded well to the diauxic utilization of acetate and longer-chain fatty acids (C(3)-C(6)), mainly propionate. Joint-plot non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMS) analysis demonstrated that the qualitative and quantitative community shifts had significant correlations with the composition of residual organic acids and the methane production rate, respectively. This suggests the potential use of microbial community shift analysis as an indicative tool for diagnosing anaerobic digestion processes. The results suggest that more attention should be directed to quantitative, as well as qualitative, approaches for a better understanding of anaerobic digestion, particularly in terms of biogas production efficiency, under dynamic and transitional conditions.

  12. The Effects of Using the Transition Planning Inventory and a Structured IEP Process as a Transition Planning Intervention on IEP Meeting Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehfeldt, Jason D.; Clark, Gary M.; Lee, Steven W.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined two areas. First, the authors looked at whether secondary individualized education program (IEP) teams who used the "Transition Planning Inventory" (TPI) in conjunction with a structured IEP meeting that based discussions and decisions on TPI data as a planning intervention generated significantly more…

  13. The Effects of Using the Transition Planning Inventory and a Structured IEP Process as a Transition Planning Intervention on IEP Meeting Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehfeldt, Jason D.; Clark, Gary M.; Lee, Steven W.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined two areas. First, the authors looked at whether secondary individualized education program (IEP) teams who used the "Transition Planning Inventory" (TPI) in conjunction with a structured IEP meeting that based discussions and decisions on TPI data as a planning intervention generated significantly more…

  14. N(2)E: Envisioning a process to support transition from nurse to educator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Margaret; Oprescu, Florin; Jones, Christian

    2013-11-21

    Abstract Rising health inequities, continuing nursing shortages, and overlooked professional development needs of nurse educators are three important issues facing nursing in Australia. This paper argues for an innovative and proactive strategy that could transform the nurse education workforce into one that is repopulated, reinvigorated and refocused. The problem facing nurse educators, and subsequently affecting nurses' preparation for practice and longevity in the profession, was identified by drawing on findings from the literature, extensive educational experience, and an exploratory study of nurse educators working in universities, colleges and health services. A solution has been devised by drawing together the tenets of critical social theory, transformative learning, communities of practice and social media. Nursing educators, refocused around a social justice agenda, may be the remedy that the Australian Health Care System requires to embark on effective action that can benefit everyone, from the health service staff to our most vulnerable groups in society. This refocusing can be achieved in a structured and strategic process that builds confidence and professional capabilities.

  15. N²E: Envisioning a process to support transition from nurse to educator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Margaret; Oprescu, Florin; Jones, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Rising health inequities, continuing nursing shortages, and overlooked professional development needs of nurse educators are three important issues facing nursing in Australia. This paper argues for an innovative and proactive strategy that could transform the nurse education workforce into one that is repopulated, reinvigorated and refocused. The problem facing nurse educators, and subsequently affecting nurses' preparation for practice and longevity in the profession, was identified by drawing on findings from the literature, extensive educational experience, and an exploratory study of nurse educators working in universities, colleges and health services. A solution has been devised by drawing together the tenets of critical social theory, transformative learning, communities of practice and social media. Nursing educators, refocused around a social justice agenda, may be the remedy that the Australian Health Care System requires to embark on effective action that can benefit everyone, from the health service staff to our most vulnerable groups in society. This refocusing can be achieved in a structured and strategic process that builds confidence and professional capabilities.

  16. Process analysis transit of municipal waste. Part II - Domestic provisions of law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Starkowski Dariusz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In 2013, the Polish legal system referring to municipal waste management was restructured in a revolutionary way. The analysis of new provisions of law described in the article requires particular attention, taking into account their place in the entire system of dealing with waste and connections with the remaining elements of this system. At present, Polish regulations lay down the rules of conduct with all types of waste, diversifying a subjective area of responsibility. These assumptions are determined by the provisions of law that are in force in the Republic of Poland. At present, the system of legal provisions is quite complex; however, the provisions of law of the EU constitute its base (the first article. At the level of Polish law, the goals and tasks concerned with dealing with waste were set forth, which leads to tightening of the system. All actions in this respect - from propagating the selective accumulation and collection of municipal waste, keeping the established levels of recycling and recycling of packaging wastes, and limiting the mass of biodegradable waste directed at the storage - is only a beginning of the road to reduction of environmental risks. In this case, permanent monitoring of proper waste dealing in the commune, the province as well as the entire country is essential. Third part of the article will present characterization, division, classification and identification of waste, together with the aspects of logistic process of municipal waste collection and transport.

  17. Thermal Transition Properties of Hoki (Macruronus novaezelandiae and Ling (Genypterus blacodes Skin Collagens: Implications for Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Newberry

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Hoki (Macruronus novaezelandiae and ling (Genypterus blacodes are cold-water fish caught in New Zealand waters. Their skins are a major component of the post-processing waste stream. Valuable products could be developed from the skins, as they are primarily composed of collagen, which has many commercial applications. We prepared acid soluble collagens (ASC from hoki and ling skins, and analyzed their thermal denaturation properties using a Rapid Visco™ Analyzer. At slower heating rates the denaturation temperature (TD of hoki and ling collagens decreased. This result is consistent with the model of irreversible rate kinetics for the denaturation of collagen. We determined the effects of solvents that disrupt hydrogen bonding on ASC stability. Increasing concentrations of urea from 0.1 M to 1.0 M and acetic acid from 0.1 M to 0.5 M decreased TD. This resulted from the effects of these reagents on the hydrogen bonds that stabilize the collagen triple helix.

  18. Crustal construction along arc-backarc transition zone in the Japan Sea and implications for seismogenic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodaira, S.; No, T.; Sato, T.; Sato, H.

    2014-12-01

    The Japan Sea, which is a backarc basin between Japanese island arc and the Asian continent, has a unique setting in terms of a formation process as well as a seismogenic process. The opening of the Japan Sea was initiated by crustal rifting and the separation of Japan Island Arcs from the Asian continent in the early Oligocene (~ 32 Ma), with subsequent ocean floor spreading in the late Oligocene (~ 28 Ma). Then, the opening stopped, between 10 and 3.5 Ma, and at 3.5 Ma, the crustal shortening occurred under a strong compressional stress regime in the eastern margin of the Japan Sea. Several seismic surveys had been conducted in this region since the last more than two decades, however, a conclusive discussion concerning a crustal construction in the arc-backarc transition zone had not been made, due to lack of resolution of structural models and sparse distribution of profiles. Moreover, magnitude-7 class earthquakes repeatedly occurred along this margin, such as, the 1964 Niigata earthquake (M7.5), 1983 Nihonkai-Chubu earthquake (M7.7), 1993 Hokkaido Nansei-oki earthquake (M7.8), and those events are recognized to have compressional fault mechanisms by reflecting a present-day stress regime. However, structural factor controlling the distribution and mechanism of those compressional events has not been well studied. In order to understand a crustal formation process in this margin and its relation to the seismogenic process at the present, we have been carrying our series of active-source seismic survey to cover the eastern margin of the central to northern Japan Sea. Results from those surveys successfully mapped a distribution of the arc crust, the oceanic crust and the amorously thick oceanic crust in the transition zone. From a comparison the rupture zones of the magnitude-7 class earthquake with the detailed crustal structure, we conclude that the large compressional events, more than M>7.5, occurred in a seismogenic zone fault which used to be formed a

  19. Demographic forecasts, migration and transition theory: a labor market perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele BRUNI

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo propone un nuevo sistema lógico para construir escenarios demográficos basados en un modelo que explique los flujos entrantes de migración como una función de las necesidades de mano de obra que países con tasas de fecundidad por debajo de los niveles de remplazo están experimentando como resultado del declive de la población en edad laboral y el crecimiento del empleo. Usando este enfoque mostramos que la población en edad laboral (PEL de los países caracterizados por un bajo nivel de fecundidad necesariamente crecerá; que el balance migratorio de numerosos países cambiará de negativo a positivo bastante antes de 2050; que el nivel de los flujos migratorios internaciones progresivamente incrementará hasta valores no vistos de manera que entre 250 y 300 millones de personas migrarán de países en desarrollo hacia desarrollados en los siguientes 50 años; que el declive en fecundidad y el crecimiento relativo de las tasas de empleo de países desarrollados y en desarrollo determinará cambios radicales en el patrón de las migraciones internacionales.

  20. Fertility, Human Capital, and Economic Growth over the Demographic Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ronald; Mason, Andrew

    2010-05-01

    Do low fertility and population aging lead to economic decline if couples have fewer children, but invest more in each child? By addressing this question, this article extends previous work in which the authors show that population aging leads to an increased demand for wealth that can, under some conditions, lead to increased capital per worker and higher per capita consumption. This article is based on an overlapping generations (OLG) model which highlights the quantity-quality tradeoff and the links between human capital investment and economic growth. It incorporates new national level estimates of human capital investment produced by the National Transfer Accounts project. Simulation analysis is employed to show that, even in the absence of the capital dilution effect, low fertility leads to higher per capita consumption through human capital accumulation, given plausible model parameters.

  1. Predicting Health Care Cost Transitions Using a Multidimensional Adaptive Prediction Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaobo; Gandy, William; Coberley, Carter; Pope, James; Rula, Elizabeth; Wells, Aaron

    2015-08-01

    Managing population health requires meeting individual care needs while striving for increased efficiency and quality of care. Predictive models can integrate diverse data to provide objective assessment of individual prospective risk to identify individuals requiring more intensive health management in the present. The purpose of this research was to develop and test a predictive modeling approach, Multidimensional Adaptive Prediction Process (MAPP). MAPP is predicated on dividing the population into cost cohorts and then utilizing a collection of models and covariates to optimize future cost prediction for individuals in each cohort. MAPP was tested on 3 years of administrative health care claims starting in 2009 for health plan members (average n=25,143) with evidence of coronary heart disease. A "status quo" reference modeling methodology applied to the total annual population was established for comparative purposes. Results showed that members identified by MAPP contributed $7.9 million and $9.7 million more in 2011 health care costs than the reference model for cohorts increasing in cost or remaining high cost, respectively. Across all cohorts, the additional accurate cost capture of MAPP translated to an annual difference of $1882 per member, a 21% improvement, relative to the reference model. The results demonstrate that improved future cost prediction is achievable using a novel adaptive multiple model approach. Through accurate prospective identification of individuals whose costs are expected to increase, MAPP can help health care entities achieve efficient resource allocation while improving care quality for emergent need individuals who are intermixed among a diverse set of health care consumers.

  2. State transitions in the TORC1 signaling pathway and information processing in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes Hallett, James E; Luo, Xiangxia; Capaldi, Andrew P

    2014-10-01

    TOR kinase complex I (TORC1) is a key regulator of cell growth and metabolism in all eukaryotes. Previous studies in yeast have shown that three GTPases-Gtr1, Gtr2, and Rho1-bind to TORC1 in nitrogen and amino acid starvation conditions to block phosphorylation of the S6 kinase Sch9 and activate protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). This leads to downregulation of 450 Sch9-dependent protein and ribosome synthesis genes and upregulation of 100 PP2A-dependent nitrogen assimilation and amino acid synthesis genes. Here, using bandshift assays and microarray measurements, we show that the TORC1 pathway also populates three other stress/starvation states. First, in glucose starvation conditions, the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK/Snf1) and at least one other factor push the TORC1 pathway into an off state, in which Sch9-branch signaling and PP2A-branch signaling are both inhibited. Remarkably, the TORC1 pathway remains in the glucose starvation (PP2A inhibited) state even when cells are simultaneously starved for nitrogen and glucose. Second, in osmotic stress, the MAPK Hog1/p38 drives the TORC1 pathway into a different state, in which Sch9 signaling and PP2A-branch signaling are inhibited, but PP2A-branch signaling can still be activated by nitrogen starvation. Third, in oxidative stress and heat stress, TORC1-Sch9 signaling is blocked while weak PP2A-branch signaling occurs. Together, our data show that the TORC1 pathway acts as an information-processing hub, activating different genes in different conditions to ensure that available energy is allocated to drive growth, amino acid synthesis, or a stress response, depending on the needs of the cell.

  3. History of Turkish Air Force Aviation School and the Process of Transition to Air Force Academy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman YALÇIN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Turkish aviation has started as a military entity. The foundation of ‘’Tayyare Komisyonu’’ (Airplane Comission in June 1, 1911 has been accepted as the official starting point. The organization of aviation includes pilot training, airplane supply, fondation of aviation school, establishment of combatant units, and building the air vehicles with local and national endeavour. Later, air defense systems, meteorology, training observers, machine specialist and technicians has gained importance as well. Turkish aviation has been built upon the ruins of the last wars of Ottoman Empire. After the invasion of the British and the French, Ottoman aviators moved to Maltepe and then to various parts of Anatolia eventually. During the Independence War, aviation school was founded in Eskişehir, moved to Adana, Konya, and came back to Adana again. After the Greek forces were expelled from Anatolia via İzmir, aviation school was moved to İzmir. In 1925, it was brought back to Eskişehir on October 1, 1951. After WWII, the duration of training in order to be a pilot was six years. In 1929, aviation school turned out to be an academic institution as well. On October 1, 1951, Air Force Academy was established in Eskişehir. Due to high sound of jet air planes, the academy was moved to İzmir in 1954. Education and training were restructured there and the quality was raised. In 1967, Air Force Academy was moved back to Yeşilköy where Turkish aviation was born some 47 years ago. Due to academic diversity and rich culture heritage, a productive period has started in Istanbul. Air Force Academy has been an institution offering BA level education since 2001 whose process goes back to 1990s. Around 90 civilian and 50 military academicians conduct education and research per year. Military training including Yalova encampment site, affective domain training, and sports activities are also conducted as well. With a 103 years history and around 16.000 graduates

  4. Demographics of Resonances in Exoplanetary Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragozzine, Darin; Conaway, James L.; MacDonald, Mariah G.; Sallee, Victor

    2016-10-01

    NASA's Kepler Space Telescope has identified ~700 systems of multiple transiting exoplanets containing ~1700 planets. Most of these multi-transiting systems have 3-5 planets small planets with periods of roughly 5-50 days and are known as Systems with Tightly-spaced Inner Planets (STIPs). These information-rich exoplanetary systems have precisely measured period ratios which allows for the identification and characterization of orbital mean motion resonances. Improved understanding of the resonant populations will reveal much about the formation and evolution of planetary systems. Lissauer, Ragozzine, et al. 2011 found that most Kepler systems were not in resonance, but that there was a small excess of planets wide of resonance. We present new analyses that rigorously identify the frequency of planets in multiple resonances (including three-body resonances) and thus identify many specific new results on the demographics of resonances. We also show that the apparent over-abundance of resonances can be attributed to a difference in inclinations (potentially from dissipation) with implications for the true underlying frequency of resonant systems. We compare the period ratio distribution of Kepler (corrected for inclination biases) to Radial Velocity (RV) surveys and conclude that RV systems are often missing small intermediate planets. This has serious implications for the completeness of RV identification of planets in STIPs.

  5. Significant change of sensitivity index d' in sensory processing of human brain during wake-sleep transition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chuang Gao; Fengjuan Zhang; Wei Wei; Yang Zhang; Shanyu Ke

    2011-01-01

    The sensor area in the brain remains active during the wake-sleep transition. However, the behavioral mechanisms of sensor sensitivity involved in the transition from a state of wakefulness to a sleep state remain poorly understood. To detect sensitivity index (d') changes during the wake-sleep transition, the present study recorded response times of wakefulness versus wake-sleep transition in 14 healthy undergraduate volunteers. During wake-sleep transition testing, morphological changes in the time courses of behavior response revealed 2 typical phases (stages A and B). In stage A, subject behavior responses exhibited temporal fluctuations, and all subjects displayed a high accuracy rate. In stage B, subjects did not exhibit behavioral responses. The sensitivity index d' during the wake-sleep transition (stage A) was significantly weaker than during wakefulness. Results demonstrated that at the behavioral level, sensation capacity for transfer information from the external world into the internal system significantly decreased during the transition to sleep.

  6. Some Demographic Changes in the Population of Montenegro with the Projection of Future Demographic Development

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    Goran Rajović

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Dramatic demographic changes through which in recent decade’s passes Montenegrin society, the consequences arising from the new realities require a serious socio-political engagement. Process of population aging, that began the seventies of the 20th century, represents a significant problem. The process of demographic change was accompanied by an internal migration to major urban centers, primarily Podgorica and Montenegrin coast, leading to emptying the interior of Montenegro. Unfortunately, this development of the population structure of Montenegro opens a series of questions and challenges that would the creators of the future you should put high on the scale of its priorities. In this text we will point out on change of total number of citizens of Montenegro according to the base and chain indexes of 1921-2011 and population in Montenegro 2016–2091 (cohort model projections.

  7. Rise of dinosaurs reveals major body-size transitions are driven by passive processes of trait evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sookias, Roland B; Butler, Richard J; Benson, Roger B J

    2012-06-01

    A major macroevolutionary question concerns how long-term patterns of body-size evolution are underpinned by smaller scale processes along lineages. One outstanding long-term transition is the replacement of basal therapsids (stem-group mammals) by archosauromorphs, including dinosaurs, as the dominant large-bodied terrestrial fauna during the Triassic (approx. 252-201 million years ago). This landmark event preceded more than 150 million years of archosauromorph dominance. We analyse a new body-size dataset of more than 400 therapsid and archosauromorph species spanning the Late Permian-Middle Jurassic. Maximum-likelihood analyses indicate that Cope's rule (an active within-lineage trend of body-size increase) is extremely rare, despite conspicuous patterns of body-size turnover, and contrary to proposals that Cope's rule is central to vertebrate evolution. Instead, passive processes predominate in taxonomically and ecomorphologically more inclusive clades, with stasis common in less inclusive clades. Body-size limits are clade-dependent, suggesting intrinsic, biological factors are more important than the external environment. This clade-dependence is exemplified by maximum size of Middle-early Late Triassic archosauromorph predators exceeding that of contemporary herbivores, breaking a widely-accepted 'rule' that herbivore maximum size greatly exceeds carnivore maximum size. Archosauromorph and dinosaur dominance occurred via opportunistic replacement of therapsids following extinction, but were facilitated by higher archosauromorph growth rates.

  8. Transition of the Taiwan-Ryukyu collision-subduction process as revealed by ocean-bottom seismometer observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Shao-Jinn; Lin, Jing-Yi; Chen, Yen-Fu; Wu, Wen-Nan; Liang, Chin-Wei

    2016-10-01

    Located at the arc-continental collision region between the Eurasian (EP) and Philippine Sea Plates (PSP), Taiwan is usually considered to have a complex tectonic environment, particularly along the eastern coast of the island. To gain a better understanding of the geological evolution of the east Taiwan area, the data from 8 Ocean Bottom Seismometers (OBS) acquired during the Across Taiwan Strait Explosion Experiment in 2012 and 14 inland seismic stations were used to determine a more detailed and accurate distribution of marine earthquakes. Based on the 333 relocated earthquakes and available geophysical data, we suggest two main tectonic boundaries for eastern Taiwan. South of 23.25°N, the homogeneous distribution of earthquakes in the crustal portion for both the inland and offshore areas suggests an ongoing collisional process. North of this location, between approximately 23.25°N and 23.8°N, the abrupt increasing of seismicity depth infers that the underthrusted arc/fore-arc material is deforming due to the collisional compression at depth. In this segment, the subsidence of the arc/fore-arc area determines the transition from collision to subduction. North of 23.8°N, the northwestern dipping PSP is well illustrated by the seismicity both onshore and offshore, indicating a dominant subduction process.

  9. Fracture process of a low carbon low alloy steel relevant to charpy toughness at ductile-brittle fracture transition region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani, T.; Nagumo, M.

    1995-02-01

    The fracture process that determines the Charpy energy at the ductile-brittle transition region was investigated by means of the instrumented Charpy test and fractographic analysis with a low carbon low alloy steel subjected to different control-rolling conditions. The decomposition of a Charpy energy into the energies dissipated in the course of the notch-tip blunting, stable crack growth, and brittle crack propagation is unique irrespective of the testing temperatures and specimen series. Toughness level can be divided into four regions according to the pre-dominating fracture process. The temperature dependence of toughness and effects of the an-isotropy of a specimen originates in the brittle fracture initiation stage rather than the resistance against the notch-tip blunting or stable crack growth. From fractographic examination referring to the stress analyses, it is discussed that the brittle fracture initiation is controlled by the local deformation microstructures in the plastic zone together with the stress field ahead of the notch or the stable crack front.

  10. Spatial extent in demographic research - approach and problems

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    Knežević Aleksandar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the starting methodological problems in demographic research is the definition of spatial extent, which mostly doesn’t correspond to spatial extent already defined by different levels of administrative-territorial unitsthat are used for distribution of usable statistical data. That’s why determining the spatial extent of a demographic research is closely tied with administrative-territorial division of the territory that is being researched, wherein the fact that differentiation of demographic phenomena and processes cannot be the only basis of setting the principles of regionalization must be strictly acknowledged. This problem is particularly common in historical demographic analyses of geographically determined wholes, which are in administratively-territorial sense represented by one or more smaller territorial units, with their borders changing through the history, which directly affects comparability of the statistical data, and makes it considerably more difficult to track demographic change through longer time intervals. The result of these efforts is usually a solution based on a compromise which enables us to examine the dynamics of population change with little deviation from already defined borders of regional geographic wholes. For that reason in this paper the problem of defining spatial extent in demographic research is examined trough several different approaches in case of Eastern Serbia, as a geographically determined region, a historic area, a spatially functioning whole and as a statistical unit for demographic research, with no judgment calls in regard to any of the regionalization principles. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 47006

  11. An age structured demographic model of technology

    CERN Document Server

    Mercure, J -F

    2013-01-01

    At the heart of technology transitions lie complex processes of technology choices. Understanding and planning sustainability transitions requires modelling work, which necessitates a theory of technology substitution. A theoretical model of technological change and turnover is presented, intended as a methodological paradigm shift from widely used conventional modelling approaches such as cost optimisation. It follows the tradition of evolutionary economics and evolutionary game theory, using ecological population growth dynamics to represent the evolution of technology populations in the marketplace, with substitutions taking place at the level of the decision-maker. Extended to use principles of human demography or the age structured evolution of species in interacting ecosystems, this theory is built from first principles, and through an appropriate approximation, reduces to a form identical to empirical models of technology diffusion common in the technology transitions literature. Using an age structure...

  12. Exploring the Self-Disclosure Process in Peer Mentoring Relationships for Transition-Age Youth With Developmental Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Cathryn T; Kramer, Jessica M; Cohn, Ellen S

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the role of the self-disclosure process in regard to connection development and relationship quality in peer mentoring relationships between transition-age youth (ages 15-20) and young adults (ages 18-36) with intellectual and/or developmental disabilities. Self-disclosure is defined as "the disclosure of inner feelings and experiences to another person" that "fosters liking, caring, and trust, thereby facilitating the deepening of close relationships" ( Reis & Shaver, 1988 , p. 372). Nine peer mentoring dyads with varied interpersonal connections were purposefully selected from a larger intervention study. Recorded mentoring conversations were analyzed for self-disclosure content and peer mentor response. The findings demonstrated trends related to connection development and differences across degree of connection. In relationships with stronger connections, there was a higher quantity of self-disclosure and more frequent disclosure of emotions, and peer mentors responded more frequently with advice and reciprocated self-disclosure. Implications of findings for promoting higher-quality peer mentoring relationships are discussed.

  13. Snail Enhances Glycolysis in the Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition Process by Targeting FBP1 in Gastric Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jie; Li, Jing; Chen, Yong; Cao, Wenmiao; Lu, Yuanyuan; Yang, Jianqi; Xing, Enmin

    2017-08-24

    Snail is a key regulator of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in cancer. However, the regulatory role and underlying mechanisms of Snail in gastric cancer metabolism are unknown. In this study, we characterized the regulation of aerobic glycolysis by Snail in gastric cancer. The impact of Snail on glucose metabolism was studied in vitro. Combining maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax), which was obtained preoperatively via a PET/CT scan, with immunohistochemistry staining, we further analyzed the correlation between SUVmax and Snail expression in gastric cancer tissues. Increased expression of Snail promoted lactate production, glucose utilization, and decreased FBP1 expression at both mRNA and protein level. The expression level of Snail was positively associated with SUVmax in gastric cancer patients (P=0.022). Snail and FBP1 expression were inversely correlated at both mRNA and protein level (P=0.002 and P=0.015 respectively) in gastric cancer tissues. Further studies demonstrated that Snail inhibited the FBP1 gene expression at the transcriptional level. Restoring FBP1 expression reversed the effects of glycolysis and EMT induced by Snail in gastric cancer cells. Our results thus reveal that Snail serves as a positive regulator of glucose metabolism through regulation of the FBP1 in gastric cancer. Disrupting the Snail-FBP1 signaling axis may be effective to prevent primary tumor EMT and glycolysis process. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Graphite to ultrafine nanocrystalline diamond phase transition model and growth restriction mechanism induced by nanosecond laser processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, X. D., E-mail: renxd@mail.ujs.edu.cn; Liu, R.; Zheng, L. M.; Ren, Y. P.; Hu, Z. Z.; He, H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China)

    2015-10-05

    To have a clear insight into nanocrystal growth from graphite to diamond upon high energy pulsed laser irradiation of graphite suspension, synthesis of ultrafine nanocrystalline diamonds with laser energy set up from 0.3 J to 12 J, repetition rate of 10 Hz has been studied. The method allows synthesizing ultrafine nanocrystalline particles continuously at the ambient temperature and normal pressure. The particle size is shown independent of laser energy, which is ultrafine and ranges in 2–6 nm. The theoretical grown size of nano-diamonds is found in well agreement with the experiment results. Four kinds of production were found: nano-diamond, spherical carbon nano-particles, flocculent amorphous carbon, and graphene nano-ribbon rolls. A solid-vapor-plasma-liquid coexistence model describing phase transition from graphite to diamond induced by nanosecond laser processing was proposed. Graphene nano-ribbon rolls might be the intermediate phase in the conversion from graphite to diamond.

  15. The Effects of Computer-Based Instruction on the Transition Planning Process Knowledge of Parents of Students with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Dawn A.; Test, David W.

    2010-01-01

    Enhancing parents' ability to make informed choices is important to successful transition planning for youth with disabilities. This study used a multiple probe design across content areas replicated across participants to examine the effects of a computer-based instructional program on acquisition of parents' knowledge of the transition planning…

  16. The Effects of Computer-Based Instruction on the Transition Planning Process Knowledge of Parents of Students with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Dawn A.; Test, David W.

    2010-01-01

    Enhancing parents' ability to make informed choices is important to successful transition planning for youth with disabilities. This study used a multiple probe design across content areas replicated across participants to examine the effects of a computer-based instructional program on acquisition of parents' knowledge of the transition planning…

  17. A socio-anthropological analysis of deficits of transition process in Serbia 2005-2006 and possibilities for elaborating alternative projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golubović Zagorka

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is an outline of the author’s research project to be undertaken in 2006. It is focused on the process of transition from authoritarian to democratic order in Serbia after 2000. Starting from the findings of previous studies of transition, in Serbia and in other post socialist countries, the research will adopt a socio-anthropological approach and deal with the following topics: the model of transition being applied in Serbia preconditions for democratic transformation; a balance sheet of positive achievements accomplished and, on the other hand, "lost chances"; socio economic, political and cultural obstacles to articulating a coherent strategy of democratic development; psychological and anthropological aspects of current processes; alternative paths of democratic development feasible within given conditions. A central question the research will aim at resolving is why the current situation in Serbia is often described as suffering from a "democratic deficit".

  18. Neurophysiological Mechanism of Implicit Processing of Vocal Emotion Transition%语音情绪变化内隐加工的神经生理机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈煦海; 杨晓虹; 杨玉芳

    2013-01-01

    Successful decoding of vocal emotion is critical for social interaction. Specifically, it is adaptively important to detect vocal emotion transition in time, since changes in vocal emotion are important signals for detecting the speakers' emotion change and are common in spoken interactions. Despite the fact that human beings are born with competence to process vocal emotion transition efficiently, the underlying neurophysiological mechanism remains largely unclear. To answer this question, the present study acquired electroencephalogram (EEG) during implicit processing of two types of vocal emotion transitions (neutral to angry and angry to neutral) and their control unchanged vocal emotion from 15 healthy volunteers. Fifty sentences of neutral content produced by a trained native male actor of Mandarin Chinese in neutral and angry prosodies served as original materials. Then we constructed sentences with vocal emotion transition through cross-splicing. The participants were required to perform sound intensity change judgment when the EEG was recorded. In addition to the ordinary ERP analysis in time domain, we also conducted the analysis in frequency domain including event related spectral power (ERSP) and inter-trail coherence (ITC) to specify the neurophysiological source of vocal emotion transition processing. The results indicated that vocal emotion transition elicited N2/P3 complex, as well as theta (4~6 HZ) band power (ERSP) and inter-trail coherence (ITC) increase, irrespective of transition types. In addition, vocal emotion transition induced beta band power decrease and ITC increase. Moreover, these effects were modulated by transition types, specifically, the more intense transition of emotion resulted in shorter latency of N2/P3 complex, and much stronger increase of theta band ERSP and ITC enhancement, and different features in beta band power change. These findings suggested that the processing of vocal emotion transition is a process consisting of

  19. Conversion of Verbal Response Scales: Robustness Across Demographic Categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJonge, Tineke; Veenhoven, Ruut; Moonen, Linda; Kalmijn, Wim; van Beuningen, Jacqueline; Arends, Lidia

    Happiness and life satisfaction have traditionally been measured using verbal response scales, however, these verbal scales have not kept up with the present trend to use numerical response scales. A switch from a verbal scale to a numerical scale, however, causes a severe problem for trend analyses, due to the incomparability of the old and new measurements. The Reference Distribution Method is a method that has been developed recently to deal with this comparison problem. In this method use is made of a reference distribution based on responses to a numerical scale which is used to decide at which point verbally labelled response options transit from one state to another, for example from 'happy' to 'very happy'. Next, for each wave of the time series in which the verbal scale is used, a population mean is estimated for the beta distribution that fits best to these transition points and the responses in this wave. These estimates are on a level that is comparable to that of the mean of the reference distribution and are appropriate for use in an extended time series based on the responses measured using a verbal and a numerical scale. In this paper we address the question of whether the transition points derived for the general population can be used for demographic categories to produce reliable, extended time series to monitor differences in trends among these categories. We conclude that this is possible and that it is not necessary to derive transition points for each demographic category separately.

  20. Demographic and labor market in the Chilean countryside Transformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos René Rodríguez Garcés

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on the information provided by the National Socioeconomic Survey of 1990 and 2013, the Chilean countryside reconfigurations are analyzed in terms of their demographic trends and labor market restructuring. A continuous process of depopulation and aging of the rural population is demographically notes. The agricultural activities of the rural labor market charge less important in terms of jobs and income, showing a strong process and favoring deagrarianisation positioning services area. Finally, a growing number of households that hold informal consensual unions and a greater presence of single-parent households, mainly consisting of female-headed households is observed.

  1. Manager's Discretionary Power and Comparability of Financial Reports: An Analysis of the Regulatory Transition Process in Brazilian Accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Mussoi Ribeiro

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to directly evaluate the impact of the accounting regulatory flexibility movement on the comparability of financial reports. The country chosen for the analysis was Brazil, because it was one of the few countries in the world where a process of regulatory change from a completely rule-based standard with a strong link to tax accounting (Lopes, 2011 to a principle-based standard with greater need for decision by managers who prepare the financial reports took place. To measure comparability, the accounting function similarity model developed by DeFranco, Kothari and Verdi (2011 was used. The companies analyzed were all listed ones with full data for the period concerned having, at least, a pair company within the same economic activity sector. To obtain the research results, we adopted a panel data model where the years 2005 to 2012 were compared to the year 2004. The results obtained prove that, on average, there was no significant decrease in the comparability level within country during the regulatory transition period in Brazil. On the contrary, there was an increase in genuine comparability in the year 2012 when compared to 2004. In the model adjusted by stepwise, the years 2011 and 2012 had a significantly higher average comparability when compared to 2004. The results found corroborate other researches addressing the quality of accounting information (Collins, Pasewark, & Riley, 2012; Psaros & Trotman, 2004; Agoglia, Doupnik, & Tsakumis, 2011 and prove the superiority of the principle-based standard also over the comparability of financial reports. The main conclusion of this research is that increasing manager's discretionary power through flexibility of accounting standards does not decrease the comparability of financial reports.

  2. Transcriptomic analysis reveals metabolic switches and surface remodeling as key processes for stage transition in Trypanosoma cruzi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greif, Gonzalo; Rodriguez, Matias; Alvarez-Valin, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    American trypanosomiasis is a chronic and endemic disease which affects millions of people. Trypanosoma cruzi, its causative agent, has a life cycle that involves complex morphological and functional transitions, as well as a variety of environmental conditions. This requires a tight regulation of gene expression, which is achieved mainly by post-transcriptional regulation. In this work we conducted an RNAseq analysis of the three major life cycle stages of T. cruzi: amastigotes, epimastigotes and trypomastigotes. This analysis allowed us to delineate specific transcriptomic profiling for each stage, and also to identify those biological processes of major relevance in each state. Stage specific expression profiling evidenced the plasticity of T. cruzi to adapt quickly to different conditions, with particular focus on membrane remodeling and metabolic shifts along the life cycle. Epimastigotes, which replicate in the gut of insect vectors, showed higher expression of genes related to energy metabolism, mainly Krebs cycle, respiratory chain and oxidative phosphorylation related genes, and anabolism related genes associated to nucleotide and steroid biosynthesis; also, a general down-regulation of surface glycoprotein coding genes was seen at this stage. Trypomastigotes, living extracellularly in the bloodstream of mammals, express a plethora of surface proteins and signaling genes involved in invasion and evasion of immune response. Amastigotes mostly express membrane transporters and genes involved in regulation of cell cycle, and also express a specific subset of surface glycoprotein coding genes. In addition, these results allowed us to improve the annotation of the Dm28c genome, identifying new ORFs and set the stage for construction of networks of co-expression, which can give clues about coded proteins of unknown functions. PMID:28286708

  3. Transcriptomic analysis reveals metabolic switches and surface remodeling as key processes for stage transition in Trypanosoma cruzi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Berná

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available American trypanosomiasis is a chronic and endemic disease which affects millions of people. Trypanosoma cruzi, its causative agent, has a life cycle that involves complex morphological and functional transitions, as well as a variety of environmental conditions. This requires a tight regulation of gene expression, which is achieved mainly by post-transcriptional regulation. In this work we conducted an RNAseq analysis of the three major life cycle stages of T. cruzi: amastigotes, epimastigotes and trypomastigotes. This analysis allowed us to delineate specific transcriptomic profiling for each stage, and also to identify those biological processes of major relevance in each state. Stage specific expression profiling evidenced the plasticity of T. cruzi to adapt quickly to different conditions, with particular focus on membrane remodeling and metabolic shifts along the life cycle. Epimastigotes, which replicate in the gut of insect vectors, showed higher expression of genes related to energy metabolism, mainly Krebs cycle, respiratory chain and oxidative phosphorylation related genes, and anabolism related genes associated to nucleotide and steroid biosynthesis; also, a general down-regulation of surface glycoprotein coding genes was seen at this stage. Trypomastigotes, living extracellularly in the bloodstream of mammals, express a plethora of surface proteins and signaling genes involved in invasion and evasion of immune response. Amastigotes mostly express membrane transporters and genes involved in regulation of cell cycle, and also express a specific subset of surface glycoprotein coding genes. In addition, these results allowed us to improve the annotation of the Dm28c genome, identifying new ORFs and set the stage for construction of networks of co-expression, which can give clues about coded proteins of unknown functions.

  4. [Integration of demographic variables into development plans in the Sahel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wane, H R

    1992-07-01

    in analyses of the extent of changes and the implications of alternative scenarios of development planning. The most frequently used demographic variables in development planning have been spatial distribution of the population and mortality. An examination of past development plans in Mali relating to population and nutrition and population and health reveals several inconsistencies between stated goals and strategies intended to achieve them. The incoherence can be explained in part by the absence of a coherent national population policy, the failure to translate the population policy into programs that take into account reciprocal effects of demographic trends and economic perspectives and their social effects, and the absence of disaggregated population projections. An example from Senegal demonstrates the constraints imposed by structural adjustment programs on the entire planning process.

  5. DEMOGRAPHIC FACTOR OF ECOLOGICAL POLICY

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Demographic factor of ecological policy is analyzed. Анализируется демографическая составляющая экологической политики. Аналізується демографічна складова екологічної політики.

  6. SELECTED DETERMINANTS OF DEMOGRAPHIC SAFETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisława Ostasiewicz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents, in a simplifi ed manner, selected theories of population to explain the current trends of population development in Poland and throughout the world. The aim of the article is to present the demographic threats that have emerged in the last eighty years. Prognosticated age structures have also been predicted. Signifi cant diff erences between the structure of the population now and the future have been indicated, particularly regarding the ageing of the population. Against the background of global transformations analyzes of changes in Poland have been conducted. The comparison shows that changes in Poland are highly analogous to transformations around the world, such as declining birth rates and increasing life expectancy. These changes cause ageing of the population, which could result in the collapse of the functioning of the labor market and the pension system as it currently exists.

  7. Heat and Mass Transfer of the Droplet Vacuum Freezing Process Based on the Diffusion-controlled Evaporation and Phase Transition Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhijun; Gao, Jingxin; Zhang, Shiwei

    2016-10-01

    A frozen phase transition model is developed to investigate the heat and mass transfer of a single water droplet during the vacuum freezing process. The model is based on the diffusion-controlled evaporation mechanism and phase transition characteristics. The droplet vacuum freezing process can be divided into three stages according to the droplet states and the time order. It includes the evaporation freezing stage, the isothermal freezing stage and the sublimation freezing stage. A numerical calculation is performed, and the result is analysed. The effects of the vacuum chamber pressure, initial droplet diameter and initial droplet temperature on the heat and mass transfer characteristics at each stage are studied. The droplet experiences supercooling breakdown at the end of the evaporation freezing stage before the isothermal freezing stage begins. The temperature is transiently raised as a result of the supercooling breakdown phenomenon, whose effects on the freezing process and freezing parameters are considered.

  8. Materials Science Laboratory - Columnar-to-Equiaxed Transition in Solidification Processing and Microstructure Formation in Casting of Technical Alloys under Diffusive and Magnetically Controlled Convective Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandin, Charles-Andre; Ratke, Lorenz

    2008-01-01

    The Materials Science Laboratory - Columnar-to-Equiaxed Transition in Solidification Processing and Microstructure Formation in Casting of Technical Alloys under Diffusive and Magnetically Controlled Convective Conditions (MSL-CETSOL and MICAST) are two investigations which supports research into metallurgical solidification, semiconductor crystal growth (Bridgman and zone melting), and measurement of thermo-physical properties of materials. This is a cooperative investigation with the European Space Agency (ESA) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for accommodation and operation aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Research Summary: Materials Science Laboratory - Columnar-to-Equiaxed Transition in Solidification Processing (CETSOL) and Microstructure Formation in Casting of Technical Alloys under Diffusive and Magnetically Controlled Convective Conditions (MICAST) are two complementary investigations which will examine different growth patterns and evolution of microstructures during crystallization of metallic alloys in microgravity. The aim of these experiments is to deepen the quantitative understanding of the physical principles that govern solidification processes in cast alloys by directional solidification.

  9. The demographic system of a Mediterranean island: Mykonos, Greece 1859-1959.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hionidou, V

    1995-12-01

    "This paper is an attempt to examine the demographic distinctiveness of island populations. The population of the Greek island of Mykonos in the period 1859 to 1959 is used. Using the results obtained from family reconstitution and inverse projection the inter-relations of the major demographic components are described. The pre-transitional demographic system of Mykonos was found to have been characterised by the combination of low mortality and low marital though moderately high overall fertility. The resulting high population growth was counterbalanced by high emigration which kept the island population almost constant. Mortality and fertility experienced parallel and rapid decline. In both pre- and transitional Mykonos fertility rather than mortality seems to have been the main factor responsible for the changes in population growth. The findings point to a demographic distinctiveness of Mediterranean island populations."

  10. Demographics Of Protoplanetary Disks In Nearby Molecular Clouds (A Submm View)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieza, Lucas

    2016-07-01

    Recent observations from ALMA and extreme AO near-IR imagers are revolutionizing our view of disk evolution and planet formation. Resolved disk observations show intriguing features, such as spiral arms, rings, narrow gaps, and asymmetries. These features are often interpreted as evidence for planet formation processes. However, resolved studies have so far been very biased toward the brightest systems and/or transition objects (protoplanetary disks with inner holes and gaps), which are clearly not representative of the entire disk population. Since current statistics on extrasolar planets imply that most circumstellar disks should be forming planets (big or small), it is important to investigate the full distribution of disk properties present in star-forming regions. In this talk, I will review the results from demographic studies in nearby molecular clouds and the constraints they impose to both disk evolution and planet formation theory.

  11. The historical role of demographic change in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Z

    1996-01-01

    In the aftermath of the Opium War, Britain coerced the Manchurian government into signing three treaties under which Britain occupied and leased the territory of Hong Kong and established colonial rule in the region. The rapid development of Hong Kong over the past 30 years has resulted in an increase of the territory's population from 5650 in 1841 to 6,149,000 at the end of 1994. Hong Kong now ranks fourth among the global financial centers, sixth in global foreign exchange reserve, and eighth among the world's trade systems, with per capita output of US$21,760. Demographic change and an exceptional development model were instrumental in building Hong Kong into what it has become. This paper discusses successful demographic transformation as the milestone of Hong Kong's social development, population growth as the basis of the Hong Kong government's economic strategy, and a modernized population management system as an important condition for the smooth transition of Hong Kong.

  12. Transfer-Free Growth of Atomically Thin Transition Metal Disulfides Using a Solution Precursor by a Laser Irradiation Process and Their Application in Low-Power Photodetectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chi-Chih; Medina, Henry; Chen, Yu-Ze; Su, Teng-Yu; Li, Jian-Guang; Chen, Chia-Wei; Yen, Yu-Ting; Wang, Zhiming M; Chueh, Yu-Lun

    2016-04-13

    Although chemical vapor deposition is the most common method to synthesize transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), several obstacles, such as the high annealing temperature restricting the substrates used in the process and the required transfer causing the formation of wrinkles and defects, must be resolved. Here, we present a novel method to grow patternable two-dimensional (2D) transition metal disulfides (MS2) directly underneath a protective coating layer by spin-coating a liquid chalcogen precursor onto the transition metal oxide layer, followed by a laser irradiation annealing process. Two metal sulfides, molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) and tungsten disulfide (WS2), are investigated in this work. Material characterization reveals the diffusion of sulfur into the oxide layer prior to the formation of the MS2. By controlling the sulfur diffusion, we are able to synthesize continuous MS2 layers beneath the top oxide layer, creating a protective coating layer for the newly formed TMD. Air-stable and low-power photosensing devices fabricated on the synthesized 2D WS2 without the need for a further transfer process demonstrate the potential applicability of TMDs generated via a laser irradiation process.

  13. CONSEQUENCES OF THE DEMOGRAPHIC CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIVIU RADU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Major dysfunctionalities can arise from the demographic decline, both on a social level and from the perspective of the economic-financial evolution of the world’s states. The obvious aging of the industrialized states’ population overlapping the import of cheap workforce in the developing countries can start mutations whose consequences are somewhat predictable but discouraging. An accelerated urbanization of the states is foreseen, as well as the decrease of birthrates, negative external migration, increase of mortality and its stagnation in a larger value than that of the birthrate, and not least the population’s aging will hinder a part of the developing countries to sustain a high rhythm of long-term economical increase. The socialeconomic consequences will be reflected in the labor market, the householders’ amount of income as well as in the education’s level. All of these aspects call for a rethinking of the public politics, especially of the social insurance’s system and of the education, a reorientation of the economy based on the increase of specializing in production and productivity, as well as a financial stability unburdened by the politics’ interference in the business environment.

  14. Sequence Analysis in Demographic Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Billari, Francesco C.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available EnglishThis paper examines the salient features of sequence analysis in demogrpahicresearch. The new approach allows a holistic perspective on life course analysis and is based on arepresentation of lives as sequences of states. Some of the methods for analyzing such data aresketched, from complex description to optimal matching ot monoethetic divisive algorithms. Afer ashort ilustration of a demographically-relevant example, the needs in terms of data collection and theopportunities of applying the same aproach to synthetic data are discussed.FrenchOn examine ici les principaux éléments de l’analyse par séquence endémographie. Cette nouvelle technique permet une perspective unifiée del’analyse du cours de la vie, en représentant la vie comme une série d’états.Certaines des méthodes pour de telles analyses sont décrites, en commençant parla description complexe, pour considérer ensuite les alignements optimales, etles algorithmes de division. Après un court exemple en démographie, onconsidère les besoins en données et les possibilités d’application aux donnéessynthétique.

  15. Money attitude of Ukrainian young people: socio-demographic aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIANNA SIMKIV

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of research on social and demographic factors of Ukr health literacy, health culture, young adults, concepts of health and healthy lifestyle, motivations, forms of communication, learning methods ainian youth money attitudes. The aim of the research is to identify dependency between money attitudes of the young people and such social and demographic characteristics as sex, age, education, place of residence, place of employment, employment position and level of income. The research required application of survey and questionnaire methods as well as statistical methods of results processing.

  16. Show me a woman! : narratives of gender and violence in human rights law and processes of transitional justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mibenge, C.S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304834165

    2010-01-01

    ‘Show me a woman who wasn’t raped!’ These words, thrown down like a gauntlet by a genocide survivor disrupted the narrative of transitional justice as the panacea to redressing gross human rights violations committed against civilian women. The challenge to ‘show me a woman’ is made from a local

  17. Show me a woman! : narratives of gender and violence in human rights law and processes of transitional justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mibenge, C.S.

    2010-01-01

    ‘Show me a woman who wasn’t raped!’ These words, thrown down like a gauntlet by a genocide survivor disrupted the narrative of transitional justice as the panacea to redressing gross human rights violations committed against civilian women. The challenge to ‘show me a woman’ is made from a local per

  18. Transition dipole moment orientation in films of solution processed fluorescent oligomers: Investigating the influence of molecular anisotropy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Senes, A.; Meskers, S.C.J.; Dijkstra, W.M.; Franeker, J.J. van; Altazin, S.; Wilson, J.S.; Janssen, R.A.J.

    2016-01-01

    The low light-outcoupling efficiency of organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) is limiting their performance. Orientation of the transition dipole moment of the emitting molecules in the plane of the diodes can improve the luminance of OLEDs. While the orientation of evaporated small-molecule materia

  19. State and transition models: Theory, applications, and challenges. In: Briske, D.D. Rangeland Systems: Processes, Management and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    State and transition models (STMs) are used for communicating about ecosystem change in rangelands and other ecosystems, especially the implications for management. The fundamental premise that rangelands can exhibit multiple states is now widely accepted. The current application of STMs for managem...

  20. Hydride-induced anionic cyclization: an efficient method for the synthesis of 6-H-phenanthridines via a transition-metal-free process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Lin; Chen, Chun-Yuan; Chen, Yan-Fu; Hsieh, Jen-Chieh

    2015-03-20

    A novel procedure for hydride-induced anionic cyclization has been developed. It includes the reduction of a biaryl bromo-nitrile with a nucleophilic aromatic substitution (S(N)Ar). A range of polysubstituted 6-H-phenanthridines were so obtained in moderate to good yield with good substrate tolerance. This method involves a concise transition-metal-free process and was applied to synthesize natural alkaloids.

  1. ANALYSIS OF THE DEMOGRAPHIC POTENTIAL IN FUNCTION OF TOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijalce Gjorgievski

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Man is the prime mover of the overall social economic and political life of the entire globe and therefore he is studied from various aspects depending on the needs of what we want to obtain information on the demographic potential and its features.In this paper, the subject of study will be processing potential through its demographic characteristics (number condition, age structure, natural increase, economic activity, religious composition, etc. for the tourism economy. We know that the basic elements of tourism are the natural and cultural wealth that detect, evaluate and put into operation in tourism. However, it has its function, the basic factor are the people who need to visit those places, so it is very important to understand the demographic characteristics of people in every region of the globe in order to come to some understanding of the habits, needs and affinities of people depending on age, nationality and religious affiliation, etc. when choosing their travel destination.

  2. Sustainable Transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    What. The chapter addresses designing for sustainability as interventions in socio-technical systems and social practices of users and communities. It calls for reflexive design practices challenging dominant regimes and shaping alternative design spaces. The specific case is the reconfiguration...... of agendas/vision, technologies, actors and institutions in the emergent design of an urban mobility system based on an electric car sharing system. Why. Designing for sustainability is a fundamental challenge for future design practices; designers have to obtain an ability to contribute to sustainable...... transition processes. Where. Addresses design processes aimed at sustainable transition enacted in complex social settings, socio-technical systems involving many different actors and agendas. How. The chapter outlines a conceptual and analytic framework for a reflexive design practice for sustainability...

  3. The long goodbye: Age, demographics, and flexibility in retirement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David K. Foot

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The current literature on retirement decisions has given inadequate attention to the impacts of increasing life expectancy. This paper examines workforce aging and retirement within a framework that not only includes age, but also integrates increasing life expectancy into the discussion. Employee preference surveys regarding choice in retirement are supported by the demographic and by work-time compression arguments for retirement flexibility. We outlinearguments why partial-retirement policies would be a practical and timely transition strategy for organizations and societies in a world of increasing life expectancies and aging workforces,especially when facing the imminent retirement of the large post-war baby-boom generation.

  4. The long goodbye: Age, demographics, and flexibility in retirement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemary A. Venne

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The current literature on retirement decisions has given inadequate attention to the impacts of increasing life expectancy. This paper examines workforce aging and retirement within a framework that not only includes age, but also integrates increasing life expectancy into the discussion. Employee preference surveys regarding choice in retirement are supported by the demographic and by work-time compression arguments for retirement flexibility. We outlinearguments why partial-retirement policies would be a practical and timely transition strategy for organizations and societies in a world of increasing life expectancies and aging workforces,especially when facing the imminent retirement of the large post-war baby-boom generation.

  5. Transforming nursing home-based day care for people with dementia into socially integrated community day care: process analysis of the transition of six day care centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Haeften-van Dijk, A M; Meiland, F J M; van Mierlo, L D; Dröes, R M

    2015-08-01

    The community-based Meeting Centres Support Programme for people with dementia and their carers has been proven more effective in influencing behaviour and mood problems of people with dementia and improving sense of competence of carers compared to nursing home-based day care centres for people with dementia. Six Dutch nursing home-based day care centres were transformed into Community-based day care centres with carer support, according to this Meeting Centres model. To determine which factors facilitate or impede the transition to Community-based day care. A process evaluation was conducted with a qualitative study design. Six nursing home-based day care centres transformed into Community-based day care centres for people with dementia and their carers. Stakeholders (n=40) that were involved during the transition. Factors that facilitated or impeded the transition were traced by means of (audiotaped and transcribed) interviews with stakeholders and document analysis. All data were coded by two independent researchers and analyzed using thematic analysis based on the Theoretical framework of adaptive implementation. Six nursing home-based day care centres successfully made the transition to Community-based day care with carer support. Success factors for the start of the project were: the innovation being in line with the current trend towards more outpatient care and having motivated pioneers responsible for the execution of the transition. Barriers were difficulties reaching/recruiting the target group (people with dementia and carers), inflexible staff and little or no experience with collaboration with community-based care and welfare organizations. Facilitating factors during the implementation phase were: finding a suitable location in the community, positive changes in staff attitude and adoption of the new vision, and good cooperation with care and welfare organizations. Barriers were insufficient involvement of, and support from the managers of the

  6. Condition-based maintenance for a system subject to a non-homogeneous wear process with a wear rate transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fouladirad, Mitra, E-mail: mitra.fouladirad@utt.f [Universite de Technologie de Troyes, Institut Charles Delaunay, FRE CNRS 2848, 12 rue Marie Curie, 10010 Troyes (France); Grall, Antoine [Universite de Technologie de Troyes, Institut Charles Delaunay, FRE CNRS 2848, 12 rue Marie Curie, 10010 Troyes (France)

    2011-06-15

    The aim of this paper is to propose an adaptive maintenance model for a gradually deteriorating system. The system considered initially deteriorates with a nominal deterioration rate and at an unknown time the system's deterioration rate changes and the new deterioration rate is a time-dependent function. To deal with the transition of mode of deterioration in the framework of the maintenance decision rule an adequate online change detection algorithm is used. The maintenance decision rule is chosen in order to minimise the total maintenance cost including the cost of unavailability. The main result of this paper is to point out the interest of using a detection algorithm and hence the appreciation of a decision rule which takes into account transitions in the deterioration rate.

  7. The impacts of physical processes on oxygen variations in the North Sea-Baltic Sea transition zone

    OpenAIRE

    Jonasson, L.; Wan, Z.; J. H. S. Hansen; J. She

    2011-01-01

    The bottom water of the North Sea-Baltic Sea transition zone suffers from seasonal hypoxia, usually during late summer and autumn. These hypoxic events are critical for the benthic ecosystems and the concentration of dissolved oxygen is an important measure of the water quality. However, to model the subsurface dissolved oxygen is a major challenge, especially in estuaries and coastal regions. In this study a simple oxygen consumption model is coupled to a 3-D hydrodynamical model in order to...

  8. Crime vs. demographic factors revisited: Application of data mining methods

    OpenAIRE

    Xingan Li; Henry Joutsijoki; Jorma Laurikkala; Martti Juhola

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to inquire about correlations between criminal phenomena and demographic factors. This international-level comparative study used a dataset covering 56 countries and 28 attributes. The data were processed with the Self-Organizing Map (SOM), assisted other clustering methods, and several statistical methods for obtaining comparable results. The article is an exploratory application of the SOM in mapping criminal phenomena through processing of multivariate data. We f...

  9. The State Economic, Demographic & Fiscal Handbook 1993.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, David; Cohen, Lee

    This handbook is an easy-to-use reference book for policymakers, public officials, and policy analysts, as well as anyone else who may need up-to-date information about state economic, demographic, and fiscal data. The book includes data on demographics, poverty rates, per capita state personal income, state and local tax rates, and state and…

  10. 5 CFR 841.404 - Demographic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Demographic factors. 841.404 Section 841... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-GENERAL ADMINISTRATION Government Costs § 841.404 Demographic factors. (a) The Office of Personnel Management (OPM) will consider the factors listed below...

  11. Demographic and clinical features of neuromyelitis optica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pandit, L.; Asgari, Nasrin; Apiwattanakul, M.

    2015-01-01

    The comparative clinical and demographic features of neuromyelitis optica (NMO) are not well known. In this review we analyzed peer-reviewed publications for incidence and prevalence, clinical phenotypes, and demographic features of NMO. Population-based studies from Europe, South East and Southe...

  12. The transition probability and the probability for the left-most particle's position of the q-totally asymmetric zero range process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korhonen, Marko [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Helsinki, FIN-00014 (Finland); Lee, Eunghyun [Centre de Recherches Mathématiques (CRM), Université de Montréal, Quebec H3C 3J7 (Canada)

    2014-01-15

    We treat the N-particle zero range process whose jumping rates satisfy a certain condition. This condition is required to use the Bethe ansatz and the resulting model is the q-boson model by Sasamoto and Wadati [“Exact results for one-dimensional totally asymmetric diffusion models,” J. Phys. A 31, 6057–6071 (1998)] or the q-totally asymmetric zero range process (TAZRP) by Borodin and Corwin [“Macdonald processes,” Probab. Theory Relat. Fields (to be published)]. We find the explicit formula of the transition probability of the q-TAZRP via the Bethe ansatz. By using the transition probability we find the probability distribution of the left-most particle's position at time t. To find the probability for the left-most particle's position we find a new identity corresponding to identity for the asymmetric simple exclusion process by Tracy and Widom [“Integral formulas for the asymmetric simple exclusion process,” Commun. Math. Phys. 279, 815–844 (2008)]. For the initial state that all particles occupy a single site, the probability distribution of the left-most particle's position at time t is represented by the contour integral of a determinant.

  13. [Prevention of medication errors in healthcare transition of patients treated with apomorphine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ucha Sanmartin, M; Martín Vila, A; López Vidal, C; Caaamaño Barreiro, M; Piñeiro Corrales, G

    2014-05-01

    The transition of patients between different levels of care process is a particular risk in the production of medication errors. The aim of this paper is to analyze the role of the pharmacist in preventing errors transition care to ensure a safe and cross pharmacotherapy of patients.Transversal, observational and descriptive study in a University Hospital that has a pharmacy service that integrates specialized inpatient care and health centers. Transition of care a patient treated with Apormorfina was analyzed to determine the keypoints of action of the pharmacist. Demographics, disease and medication history, and care transition episodes were collected through the pharmacy program and electronics history.The pharmacist did tasks adapting, reconciliation, management and reporting of medication to the health care team to prevent medication errors in care transition of patients treated with drugs requiring special handling .In conclusion, this work represents perfectly the key role of the pharmacist as coordinator of safe and transverse pharmacotherapy of patients.

  14. Seamless transitions from early prototypes to mature operational software - A technology that enables the process for planning and scheduling applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornstein, Rhoda S.; Wunderlich, Dana A.; Willoughby, John K.

    1992-01-01

    New and innovative software technology is presented that provides a cost effective bridge for smoothly transitioning prototype software, in the field of planning and scheduling, into an operational environment. Specifically, this technology mixes the flexibility and human design efficiency of dynamic data typing with the rigor and run-time efficiencies of static data typing. This new technology provides a very valuable tool for conducting the extensive, up-front system prototyping that leads to specifying the correct system and producing a reliable, efficient version that will be operationally effective and will be accepted by the intended users.

  15. Strike-Slip Faulting Processes on Ganymede: Global Morphological Mapping and Structural Interpretation of Grooved and Transitional Terrains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhard, L. M.; Cameron, M. E.; Smith-Konter, B. R.; Seifert, F.; Pappalardo, R. T.; Collins, G. C.

    2015-12-01

    Ganymede's fractured surface reveals many large-scale, morphologically distinct regions of inferred distributed shear and strike-slip faulting that may be important to the structural development of its surface and in the transition from dark to light (grooved) materials. To better understand the role of strike-slip tectonism in shaping Ganymede's complex icy surface, we perform a detailed mapping of key examples of strike-slip morphologies (i.e., en echelon structures, strike-slip duplexes, laterally offset pre-existing features, and possible strained craters) from Galileo and Voyager images. We focus on complex structures associated with grooved terrain (e.g. Nun Sulcus, Dardanus Sulcus, Tiamat Sulcus, and Arbela Sulcus) and terrains transitional from dark to light terrain (e.g. the boundary between Nippur Sulcus and Marius Regio, including Byblus Sulcus and Philus Sulcus). Detailed structural interpretations suggest strong evidence of strike-slip faulting in some regions (i.e., Nun and Dardanus Sulcus); however, further investigation of additional strike-slip structures is required of less convincing regions (i.e., Byblus Sulcus). Where applicable, these results are synthesized into a global database representing an inferred sense of shear for many of Ganymede's fractures. Moreover, when combined with existing observations of extensional features, these results help to narrow down the range of possible principal stress directions that could have acted at the regional or global scale to produce grooved terrain on Ganymede.

  16. amily Planning Brings China Demographic Bonus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马瀛通

    2007-01-01

    Editorial note Scholars around the world are voicing their criticisms on China’s family planning policy,which,in their opinions,will lead to an unhealthy population structure.This article reviews the concepts of"rich before old"and"negative demographic bonus",and concludes that with regards to some indicators such as dependency ratio and demographic bonus,there exists a discrepancy between calculations and reality.The author believes that China will continue to witness a surge of demographic bonus in the future.

  17. A unified framework of demographic time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riffe, Tim; Schöley, Jonas; Villavicencio, Francisco

    Demographic thought and practice is largely conditioned by the Lexis diagram, a two-dimensional graphical representation of the identity between age, period, and birth cohort. This relationship does not account for remaining years of life or other related time measures, whose use in demographic...... research is both underrepresented and incompletely situated. We describe a three-dimensional relationship between six different measures of demographic time: chronological age, time to death, lifespan, time of birth, time of death, and period. We describe four identities among subsets of these six measures...

  18. Origins of evolutionary transitions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ellen Clarke

    2014-04-01

    An `evolutionary transition in individuality’ or `major transition’ is a transformation in the hierarchical level at which natural selection operates on a population. In this article I give an abstract (i.e. level-neutral and substrate-neutral) articulation of the transition process in order to precisely understand how such processes can happen, especially how they can get started.

  19. Which came first, people or pollution? Assessing the disparate siting and post-siting demographic change hypotheses of environmental injustice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohai, Paul; Saha, Robin

    2015-11-01

    Although a large body of quantitative environmental justice research exists, only a handful of studies have examined the processes by which racial and socioeconomic disparities in the location of polluting industrial facilities can occur. These studies have had mixed results, we contend, principally because of methodological differences, that is, the use of the unit-hazard coincidence method as compared to distance-based methods. This study is the first national-level environmental justice study to conduct longitudinal analyses using distance-based methods. Our purposes are to: (1) determine whether disparate siting, post-siting demographic change, or a combination of the two created present-day disparities; (2) test related explanations; and (3) determine whether the application of distance-based methods helps resolve the inconsistent findings of previous research. We used a national database of commercial hazardous waste facilities sited from 1966 to 1995 and examined the demographic composition of host neighborhoods around the time of siting and demographic changes that occurred after siting. We found strong evidence of disparate siting for facilities sited in all time periods. Although we found some evidence of post-siting demographic changes, they were mostly a continuation of changes that occurred in the decade or two prior to siting, suggesting that neighborhood transition serves to attract noxious facilities rather than the facilities themselves attracting people of color and low income populations. Our findings help resolve inconsistencies among the longitudinal studies and builds on the evidence from other subnational studies that used distance-based methods. We conclude that racial discrimination and sociopolitical explanations (i.e., the proposition that siting decisions follow the ‘path of least resistance’) best explain present-day inequities.

  20. Large scale evaluation of beta-decay rates of r-process nuclei with the inclusion of first-forbidden transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Marketin, T; Martínez-Pinedo, G

    2015-01-01

    R-process nucleosynthesis models rely, by necessity, on nuclear structure models for input. Particularly important are beta-decay half-lives of neutron rich nuclei. At present only a single systematic calculation exists that provides values for all relevant nuclei making it difficult to test the sensitivity of nucleosynthesis models to this input. Additionally, even though there are indications that their contribution may be significant, the impact of first-forbidden transitions on decay rates has not been systematically studied within a consistent model. We use a fully self-consistent covariant density functional theory (CDFT) framework to provide a table of $\\beta$-decay half-lives and $\\beta$-delayed neutron emission probabilities, including first-forbidden transitions. We observe a significant contribution of the first-forbidden transitions to the total decay rate in nuclei far from the valley of stability. The experimental half-lives are in general well reproduced, both for even-even, odd-A and odd-odd n...

  1. Air Vehicle Technology Integration Program (AVTIP). Delivery Order 0033: Advanced Sol-Gel Adhesion Processes - Transition Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-07-01

    or without an additional acid desmut. The use of an open air plasma process may improve the surface cleanliness, but the results were not conclusive...from PlasmaTreat -North America was used to clean and activate the surface of the aluminum alloy. This process blasts the surface of an object on the...conditioner with or without an additional acid desmut. The use of an open air plasma process may improve the surface cleanliness, but the results

  2. "It's Like a Prison in There": Organizational Fragmentation in a Demographically Diversified Workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak, Michele Wender

    1994-01-01

    Describes how, when a vehicle maintenance unit of a public transit agency underwent extensive demographic diversification of its workforce, original workers escalated shop talk and horse play as vehicles of internal power struggles, leading to dysfunction and even violence. Argues that management failed to provide for the need for newly diverse…

  3. Ultrastructural studies of the transitional zone in the nasopharyngeal epithelium, with special reference to the keratinizing process in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, T

    1986-01-01

    In the nasopharynx of the SMA mouse, the 'intermediate epithelium' occupies the transitional zone between the ciliated columnar and the stratified squamous epithelia. The intermediate epithelium showed gradations ranging from ciliated stratified low-columnar through stratified cuboidal to stratified squamous type. It is suggested that the intermediate epithelium shows the various stages of the epithelium transforming from the ciliated columnar to the stratified squamous epithelium, and that the basal cells of the ciliated columnar epithelium serve as the germinal layer for the transformation. The intermediate epithelium containing a few keratohyalin granules and many membrane-coating granules represented earlier stages of keratinization. The width of the microprojections in the stratified squamous epithelium was about doubled compared to that in the intermediate epithelium. It is suggested that the difference in width is caused by cell membrane distortion associated with keratinization and is regarded as an important marker of the start of keratinization.

  4. Demographic cycles, cohort size, and earnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, M C

    1989-05-01

    This article examines whether position in the demographic cycle is an important factor in determining earnings and earnings growth. Earnings equations for white males are estimated by using March Current Population Survey data. Position in the demographic cycle is captured by including both measures of own cohort size and the size of surrounding cohorts in the estimated earnings equations. Position in the demographic cycle matters. Increases in own cohort size lead to flatter earnings profiles, whereas increases in the size of surrounding cohorts are associated with steeper earnings profiles. The net effect is that those who enter the labor market before or after the peak of the demographic cycle start out with lower earnings but experience faster earnings growth. This pattern is uniform across all schooling groups: high school dropouts, high school graduates, those with some college, and college graduates.

  5. The demographic work of Sir William Wilde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froggatt, P

    2016-05-01

    This paper argues that Sir William Wilde was indeed a pioneering demographer. It also describes the unveiling of the plaque commemorating Sir William Wilde at his home, 1, Merrion Square, Dublin on the 28 October 1971.

  6. Demographics and presenting clinical features of childhood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Demographics and presenting clinical features of childhood systemic lupus ... and characteristics of children with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). ... Rashes were found to be the commonest clinical feature present at the time of diagnosis, ...

  7. The Demographic Crisis and Global Migration - Selected Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frątczak, Ewa Zofia

    2016-01-01

    Currently the world is undergoing a serious demographic shift, characterised by slowing population growth in developed countries. However, the population in certain less-developed regions of the world is still increasing. According to UN data, as of 2015, (World...2015), 244 million people (or 3.3% of the global population) lived outside their country of birth. While most of these migrants travel abroad looking for better economic and social conditions, there are also those forced to move by political crises, revolutions and war. Such migration is being experienced currently in Europe, a continent which is thus going through both a demographic crisis related to the low fertility rate and population ageing, and a migration crisis. Global migrations link up inseparably with demographic transformation processes taking place globally and resulting in the changing tempo of population growth. Attracting and discouraging migration factors are changing at the same time, as is the scale and range of global migration, and with these also the global consequences. The focus of work addressed in this paper is on global population, the demographic transformation and the role of global migrations, as well as the range and scale of international migration, and selected aspects of global migrations including participation in the global labour market, the scale of monetary transfers (remittances) and the place of global migration in the UN 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development (Transforming...2015) and the Europe of two crises (Domeny 2016).

  8. Parents' perspectives on transition and postsecondary outcomes for their children who are d/Deaf or hard of hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawthon, Stephanie W; Caemmerer, Jacqueline M

    2014-01-01

    Parent involvement and parent expectations are important factors in successful academic and career outcomes for students who are d/Deaf or hard of hearing. Parental roles are particularly important during the transition planning process for students with disabilities. Results are presented from an exploratory study of 56 parents that measured their involvement, perceptions, and expectations during the transition process. Parents positively rated their experiences with the individualized education program (IEP) process and held high expectations for both their child's educational attainment and employment. However, differences in expectations and perceptions emerged among parents whose children had co-occurring disabilities. Future directions for research and practice are discussed, including the implications of the demographics of the study sample and the relationship between parental demographics and parents' expectations for their children.

  9. Demographic heterogeneity, cohort selection, and population growth

    OpenAIRE

    Bruce E. Kendall; Fox, Gordon A.; Fujiwara, Masami; Nogeire, Theresa M.

    2011-01-01

    Demographic heterogeneity—variation among individuals in survival and reproduction—is ubiquitous in natural populations. Structured population models address heterogeneity due to age, size, or major developmental stages. However, other important sources of demographic heterogeneity, such as genetic variation, spatial heterogeneity in the environment, maternal effects, and differential exposure to stressors, are often not easily measured and hence are modeled as stochasticity. Recent research ...

  10. Effects of deposition methods and processing techniques on band gap, interband electronic transitions, and optical absorption in perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenwu; Sha, Tingting; Wang, Yan; Yu, Wenlei; Jiang, Kai; Zhou, Hang; Liu, Chuan; Hu, Zhigao; Chu, Junhao

    2017-07-01

    Despite intensive studies on the improvements of conversion efficiencies in solar cells, many questions regarding the effects of deposition techniques on optical properties and electronic band structures of CH3NH3PbI3 (MAPbI3) remain unresolved. Here, perovskite MAPbI3 films were prepared using different deposition methods and processing techniques. The effects of deposition and processing parameters on dielectric functions and optical absorption were investigated by fitting the reflectance spectra in the photon energy range of 0.5-5.16 eV. It is found that the bandgap (Eg) of the films deposited by two-step spinning (1.591 eV) is larger than that prepared by evaporations (1.514 eV), due to different Pb-I orbital hybridization and spin-orbit coupling. Moreover, the Eg value of the films increases from 1.543 eV to 1.591 eV after toluene solution dripping. Five interband electronic transitions ( Ep 1, Ep 2, Ep 3, Ep 4 , and Ep 5 ) are observed, and the origins of Ep 2, Ep 3 , and Ep 4 are assigned to the direct transitions between the highest valence band and the lowest lying conduction band at the R, M, and X symmetry points. Further, the transition energies of the films deposited by evaporation are less than those prepared by two-step spinning. The present results shed light on preparing more reliable and reproducible high performance MAPbI3-based solar cells.

  11. miR-144 functions as a tumor suppressor in breast cancer through inhibiting ZEB1/2-mediated epithelial mesenchymal transition process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Y

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Yuliang Pan,1,2 Jun Zhang,1 Huiqun Fu,1 Liangfang Shen2 1Department of Oncology, The Third Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Oncology Radiotherapy, Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide. Local invasion, metastasis, and chemotherapy resistance are the obstacles for treatment of breast cancer. In this study, we aim to investigate the role of miR-144 in breast cancer. We demonstrate that the expression of miR-144 is downregulated in breast cancer and cell lines, and lower miR-144 expression is associated with poor differentiation, higher clinical stage, and lymph node metastasis in patients with breast cancer. The rescue of miR-144 expression is able to inhibit the cell proliferation and the ability of cell migration and invasion. In addition, we show that miR-144 can directly target at 3'-untranslation region of zinc finger E-box-binding homeobox 1 and 2, that is, ZEB1 and ZEB2, and regulate their expression at transcriptional and translational levels. Moreover, we also demonstrate that ectopic expression of miR-144 can inhibit the process of epithelial mesenchymal transition in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. Thus, we here demonstrate that miR-144 functions as a tumor suppressor in breast cancer at least partly through inhibiting ZEB1/2-mediated epithelial mesenchymal transition process. Our findings indicate that the miR-144-ZEB1/2 signaling could represent a promising therapeutic target for breast cancer treatment. Keywords: breast cancer, miR-144, ZEB1, ZEB2, epithelial mesenchymal transition

  12. Process for Transition of Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act Title II Disposal Sites to the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management for Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-03-01

    This document presents guidance for implementing the process that the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) will use for assuming perpetual responsibility for a closed uranium mill tailings site. The transition process specifically addresses sites regulated under Title II of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) but is applicable in principle to the transition of sites under other regulatory structures, such as the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program.

  13. A study of the typological transitivity systems in oriental and occidental languages: A comparison of relational processes in English, Spanish, Chinese and Japanese in Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Lu

    2012-01-01

    In this dissertation, I aim, firstly, to make a comparison of the transitivity systems of two occidental languages (English and Spanish) and two oriental languages (Japanese and Chinese). More concretely, this dissertation will focus on relational processes. I also aim to study the problems of translating different relational processes in Spanish, Japanese and Chinese as the second research aim by the typological transitivity system in the area of systemic functional linguistics. The re...

  14. User Demographics for Embodiment Customization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowell, Andrew J.; Stanney, Kay M.

    2002-11-15

    Attempts at interface agent personalization are usually aimed at helping the user perform a task or service. For example,scheduling of appointments, inspection of messages, discovering items of interest and different forms of negotiation. While this is very noble undertaking, it makes assumptions about the level of trust and credibility a user may place in such an agent in a realworld setting. If Microsoft's experiments in social user interfaces teach us anything, it is that a ''one size fits all'' solution does not truly engage the user and encourage reuse. This ''relationship management'' between the user and the character begins when the two first meet. As with human-human relationships, first impressions are essential. Instead of looking at the functional aspects of the relationship, we believe the characters embodiment is the best place to start the personalization process. We describe a study in which participants from several different age ranges,genders and ethnic groups were asked their preference of anthropomorphic character, based on a cooperative computer task. We found that participants generally selected characters from the same ethic group as themselves and that almost all participants selected a young character (instead of a middle aged or elderly character). No significant preference was found for character gender.

  15. Roles of blocking layer and anode bias in processes of impurity-band transition and transport for GaAs-based blocked-impurity-band detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaodong; Wang, Bingbing; Chen, Xiaoyao; Chen, Yulu; Hou, Liwei; Xie, Wei; Pan, Ming

    2016-11-01

    Recently, GaAs-based BIB detector has attracted a lot of attention in the area of THz photovoltaic detection due to potential application values in security check and drug inspection. However, the physical mechanisms involving in carrier transition and transport are still unclear due to the poor material quality and immature processing technique. In this paper, the dark current and THz response characteristics have thus been numerically studied for GaAs-based blocked-impurity-band (BIB) detectors. The key parameters and physical models are constructed by simultaneously considering carrier freeze-out and impurity-band broadening effects. Roles of blocking layer and anode bias in processes of impurity-band transition and transport are intensively investigated, and the results can be well explained by numerical models. It is demonstrated that the effective electric field for the detector is only located in the absorbing layer, and can determine to a large extent the magnitude of the dark current and THz response. While the blocking layer not only can suppress dark current but also can attenuate responsivity due to its electric-field modulation effect.

  16. The impact of the EU accession process to the organizational culture of the companies operating in the transition countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Dj. Djakovic

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to reveal the direction of change the cultural dimensions of companies in AP Vojvodina, when the Republic of Serbia – as a country in transition – was being included in the European division of labor. Foreign direct investments from EU countries are used as a method of transposing cultural patterns. The research methodology used here included the application of the Mann Whitney and the Chi square tests to compare the attitudes of the managers of these two groups of companies in AP Vojvodina. The results indicate that there is no statistically significant difference in the attitudes of managers of the two groups of companies, in terms of the questionnaire items that explore the power distance dimension. In AP Vojvodina, masculinity and individualism are still valued to a greater extent by the managers of companies with foreign capital than by those with domestic capital. Managers of the companies with foreign capital show a higher degree of uncertainty avoidance than those with domestic capital, which is contrary to authors’ expectations, though explicable in the context of the recessionary business conditions under which the research was conducted.

  17. A time-resolved x-ray scattering experiment for the study of phase transitions and crystallization processes in metallic alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelletier, J. F.; Sutton, M.; Altounian, Z.; Saini, S.; Luriom L. B.; Sandy, A. R.; Lumma, D.; Borthwick, M. A.; Falus, P.; Mochrie, S. G. J.; Stephenson, G. B.

    1999-10-29

    An experimental setup to perform high-resolution time-resolved X-ray scattering has been commissioned on the side station of beamline 8-ID at the Advanced Photon Source. A Peltier-cooled diode detector array covering an angle range of 20 degrees is mounted on a 4-circle goniometer and is used to temporally resolve X-ray scattering patterns with a resolution up to 10 ms. Metallic ribbon samples can be quickly heated and cooled from temperatures up to 500 C inside a furnace with controllable atmosphere and equipped with a beryllium window. A description of the setup is presented along with actual results showing time-resolved phase transitions and crystallization processes in AlYNi metallic alloys. These results demonstrate the power of this technique to investigate complex crystallization processes as well as the versatility of this time-resolved X-ray scattering spectrometer.

  18. Extracellular vesicles from women with breast cancer promote an epithelial-mesenchymal transition-like process in mammary epithelial cells MCF10A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo-Hernandez, Octavio; Gonzales-Vazquez, Cristina; Cortes-Reynosa, Pedro; Reyes-Uribe, Emmanuel; Chavez-Ocaña, Sonia; Reyes-Hernandez, Octavio; Sierra-Martinez, Mónica; Salazar, Eduardo Perez

    2015-12-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) mediate many stages of tumor progression including angiogenesis, escape from immune surveillance, and extracellular matrix degradation. We studied whether EVs from plasma of women with breast cancer are able to induce an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process in mammary epithelial cells MCF10A. Our findings demonstrate that EVs from plasma of breast cancer patients induce a downregulation of E-cadherin expression and an increase of vimentin and N-cadherin expression. Moreover, EVs induce migration and invasion, as well as an increase of NFκB-DNA binding activity and MMP-2 and MMP-9 secretions. In summary, our findings demonstrate, for the first time, that EVs from breast cancer patients induce an EMT-like process in human mammary non-tumorigenic epithelial cells MCF10A.

  19. Transition between process models (BPMN and service models (WS-BPEL and other standards: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Jurišić

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available BPMN and BPEL have become de facto standards for modeling of business processes and imple-mentation of business processes via Web services. There is a quintessential problem of discrep-ancy between these two approaches as they are applied in different phases of lifecycle and theirfundamental concepts are different — BPMN is a graph based language while BPEL is basicallya block-based programming language. This paper shows basic concepts and gives an overviewof research and ideas which emerged during last two years, presents state of the art and possiblefuture research directions. Systematic literature review was performed and critical review wasgiven regarding the potential of the given solutions.

  20. Effects of Holocene vegetation change on soils across the forest-grassland transition, northern Minnesota, and implications for erosion processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Joseph; Kasmerchak, Chase; Keita, Hawa; Liang, Mengyu; Gruley, Kristine

    2016-04-01

    Boundaries between forest and grassland in the midlatitudes and their shifts in response to Holocene climatic change, provide opportunities to detect effects of life on landscapes. In northern Minnesota, USA, paleoecological research has documented that grassland and/or savanna expanded eastward in the dry early to middle Holocene. In the late Holocene, forest cover expanded westward at the expense of savanna and grassland. We studied soils at 20 sites spanning the forest-grassland transition. A dramatic change in soil morphology coincides approximately, though not exactly, with that transition as recorded in 1870s-1880s land surveys, suggesting that soils change rapidly in response to forest expansion (we are attempting to constrain the timescale of response through radiocarbon dating of deep soil organic matter in which stable C isotopes record past presence of grassland). The key changes from grassland to forest are loss of organic matter below a thin surface A horizon and greatly enhanced mobility and downward translocation of clay - particularly smectite - in forest soils. This results in upper soil horizons that have relatively low smectite content and low microaggregate stability (as detected through laser diffraction analysis of aggregate disintegration in laboratory experiments), especially below the thin A horizon. The best explanation for this change appears to involve differences in how OM is added to and accumulated in the soil under forest and grassland; soil acidity and base saturation change more gradually eastward along a gradient more likely to reflect climate than vegetation. Evidence of bioturbation (especially gopher burrowing) is much more common at former grassland sites. In addition to mixing OM downward in the soil, burrowing moves detrital carbonates upward, probably enhancing OM accumulation and aggregate stability. Research on geomorphic response to Holocene climatic change in the Midwestern US has often emphasized higher potential

  1. Demographic and Related Determinants of Recent Cuban Emigration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briquets, Sergio Diaz

    1983-01-01

    Examines principal demographic determinants of recent Cuban emigration and discusses how these demographic variables interact with other social, economic, and political determinants. Suggests that Cuban labor migration is more responsive to demographic factors than some theorists assume. (Author/MJL)

  2. Uneven dietary development: linking the policies and processes of globalization with the nutrition transition, obesity and diet-related chronic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, Corinna

    2006-03-28

    In a "nutrition transition", the consumption of foods high in fats and sweeteners is increasing throughout the developing world. The transition, implicated in the rapid rise of obesity and diet-related chronic diseases worldwide, is rooted in the processes of globalization. Globalization affects the nature of agri-food systems, thereby altering the quantity, type, cost and desirability of foods available for consumption. Understanding the links between globalization and the nutrition transition is therefore necessary to help policy makers develop policies, including food policies, for addressing the global burden of chronic disease. While the subject has been much discussed, tracing the specific pathways between globalization and dietary change remains a challenge. To help address this challenge, this paper explores how one of the central mechanisms of globalization, the integration of the global marketplace, is affecting the specific diet patterns. Focusing on middle-income countries, it highlights the importance of three major processes of market integration: (I) production and trade of agricultural goods; (II) foreign direct investment in food processing and retailing; and (III) global food advertising and promotion. The paper reveals how specific policies implemented to advance the globalization agenda account in part for some recent trends in the global diet. Agricultural production and trade policies have enabled more vegetable oil consumption; policies on foreign direct investment have facilitated higher consumption of highly-processed foods, as has global food marketing. These dietary outcomes also reflect the socioeconomic and cultural context in which these policies are operating. An important finding is that the dynamic, competitive forces unleashed as a result of global market integration facilitates not only convergence in consumption habits (as is commonly assumed in the "Coca-Colonization" hypothesis), but adaptation to products targeted at different

  3. Uneven dietary development: linking the policies and processes of globalization with the nutrition transition, obesity and diet-related chronic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hawkes Corinna

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In a "nutrition transition", the consumption of foods high in fats and sweeteners is increasing throughout the developing world. The transition, implicated in the rapid rise of obesity and diet-related chronic diseases worldwide, is rooted in the processes of globalization. Globalization affects the nature of agri-food systems, thereby altering the quantity, type, cost and desirability of foods available for consumption. Understanding the links between globalization and the nutrition transition is therefore necessary to help policy makers develop policies, including food policies, for addressing the global burden of chronic disease. While the subject has been much discussed, tracing the specific pathways between globalization and dietary change remains a challenge. To help address this challenge, this paper explores how one of the central mechanisms of globalization, the integration of the global marketplace, is affecting the specific diet patterns. Focusing on middle-income countries, it highlights the importance of three major processes of market integration: (I production and trade of agricultural goods; (II foreign direct investment in food processing and retailing; and (III global food advertising and promotion. The paper reveals how specific policies implemented to advance the globalization agenda account in part for some recent trends in the global diet. Agricultural production and trade policies have enabled more vegetable oil consumption; policies on foreign direct investment have facilitated higher consumption of highly-processed foods, as has global food marketing. These dietary outcomes also reflect the socioeconomic and cultural context in which these policies are operating. An important finding is that the dynamic, competitive forces unleashed as a result of global market integration facilitates not only convergence in consumption habits (as is commonly assumed in the "Coca-Colonization" hypothesis, but adaptation to

  4. The Evolution of English Language Teaching during Societal Transition in Finland--A Mutual Relationship or a Distinctive Process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaatinen, Riitta; Saarivirta, Toni

    2014-01-01

    This study describes the evolution of English language teaching in Finland and looks into the connections of the societal and educational changes in the country as explanatory factors in the process. The results of the study show that the language teaching methodology and the status of foreign languages in Finland are clearly connected to the…

  5. Tuning the field-induced magnetic transition in a layered cobalt phosphonate by reversible dehydration-hydration process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ting-Hai; Liao, Yi; Zheng, Li-Min; Dinnebier, Robert E; Su, Yan-Hui; Ma, Jing

    2009-06-07

    A layered cobalt phosphonate, Co(2-pmp)(H(2)O)(2) (1) (2-pmpH(2) = 2-pyridylmethylphosphonic acid) is reported, which provides the first example of metamagnetic cobalt system that shows reversible changes in both structures and magnetic behaviors upon dehydration-hydration process.

  6. Physician executive promotes process for managing change. Building consensus for group plan is key to successful transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrigan, V M

    2001-01-01

    Thrust into a leadership position after years in solo practice demanded quick thinking for one physician executive. Faced with a need for change, he developed his own process for turning an individual's idea into a plan of action for an entire group. Learn the steps he took to build consensus and ease resistance to change.

  7. Pregnancy intention, demographic differences, and psychosocial health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxson, Pamela; Miranda, Marie Lynn

    2011-08-01

    We explore the psychosocial, demographic, and maternal characteristics across wanted, mistimed, and unwanted pregnancies. Data from 1321 women from a prospective cohort study of pregnant women in Durham, NC, are analyzed. Psychosocial correlates were obtained through prenatal surveys; electronic medical records were used to ascertain maternal health and pregnancy outcomes. Sixty-two percent of the women indicated an unintended pregnancy, with 44% (578) mistimed and 18% (245) unwanted. Only 38% of the pregnancies were characterized as wanted. Women with unwanted and with mistimed pregnancies were similar demographically, but they differed significantly on psychosocial profiles and maternal characteristics. Women with mistimed and with wanted pregnancies differed in demographics and psychosocial profiles. Wanted pregnancies had the healthiest, mistimed an intermediate, and unwanted the poorest psychosocial profile. Women with unwanted pregnancies had the highest depression, perceived stress, and negative paternal support scores (ppsychosocial profiles had higher odds of being in the unwanted category. Controlling for psychosocial and demographic variables, perceived stress and positive paternal support remained significant predictors of belonging to the unwanted and mistimed groups. Fully characterizing pregnancy intention and its relationship to psychosocial profiles may provide a basis for identifying women with highest risk during pregnancy and early motherhood. Women with unwanted and mistimed pregnancies may appear similar demographically but are different psychosocially. Women with unwanted pregnancies have multiple risk factors and would benefit from targeted interventions.

  8. Demographic Profile of Older Adults Using Wheeled Mobility Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amol M. Karmarkar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine whether the use of wheeled mobility devices differed with respect to age, gender, residential setting, and health-related factors among older adults. A total of 723 adults ageing 60 and older are representing three cohorts, from nursing homes, the Center for Assistive Technology, and the wheelchair registry from the Human Engineering Research Laboratories. Wheeled mobility devices were classified into three main groups: manual wheelchairs, power wheelchairs, and scooters. Our results found factors including age, gender, diagnosis, and living settings to be associated with differences in use of manual versus powered mobility devices. Differences in use were also noted for subtypes of manual (depot, standard, and customized and powered (scooter, standard, and customized mobility devices, on demographic, living arrangements, and health-related factors. Consideration of demographic, health-related, and environmental factors during the prescription process may help clinicians identify the most appropriate mobility device for the user.

  9. The influence of passenger demographics on airport attribute evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Carstens

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available It is imperative for airport operators and airlines to have a clear understanding of the factors which influence the passenger’s decision with regard to which airport/airline combination to use in a multi-airport scenario. Interactions between demographic variables, such as gender and purpose of travel, and the choice attributes in the decision-making process exist. The extent to which specific attributes influence the passenger’s decision could be invaluable to service providers (airport operators and airlines in allocating and employing limited resources. The purpose of this article is to investigate the extent of the interactions between passenger demographics and attribute evaluation by taking into account the ordinal nature of the measurement scale.

  10. Internally- and Externally-Driven Network Transitions as a Basis for Automatic and Strategic Processes in Semantic Priming: Theory and Experimental Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itamar eLerner

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available For the last four decades, semantic priming – the facilitation in recognition of a target word when it follows the presentation of a semantically related prime word – has been a central topic in research of human cognitive processing. Studies have drawn a complex picture of findings which demonstrated the sensitivity of this priming effect to a unique combination of variables, including, but not limited to, the type of relatedness between primes and targets, the prime-target SOA, the relatedness proportion in the stimuli list and the specific task subjects are required to perform. Automatic processes depending on the activation patterns of semantic representations in memory and controlled strategies adapted by individuals when attempting to maximize their recognition performance have both been implicated in contributing to the results. Lately, we have published a new model of semantic priming that addresses the majority of these findings within one conceptual framework. In our model, semantic memory is depicted as an attractor neural network in which stochastic transitions from one stored pattern to another are continually taking place due to synaptic depression mechanisms. We have shown how such transitions, in combination with a reinforcement-learning rule that adjusts their pace, resemble the classic automatic and controlled processes involved in semantic priming and account for a great number of the findings in the literature. Here, we review the core findings of our model and present new simulations that show how similar principles of parameter-adjustments could account for additional data not addressed in our previous studies, such as the relation between expectancy and inhibition in priming, target frequency and target degradation effects. Finally, we describe two human experiments that validate several key predictions of the model.

  11. Demographic aspects of social security in region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alla Gennad'evna Leont'eva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a situational analysis of the level of life safety in the field of demographic regions of the Ural Federal District. The analysis is based on data from the Federal Statistics and covers the period 2000-2010. We have developed a system of indicators for evaluating safety in the demographic sphere. We set the main threats to the social and economic stability in the regions. The system of thresholds includes three blocks: the reproduction of the population, marriage and family relationships and health. We have presented a quantitative description of the main threats. Identified priority areas of social protection, providing increased stability of the regional socio-economic development, reducing the likelihood of social conflicts and improve the demographic situation.

  12. Demographic and affective covariates of pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garron, D C; Leavitt, F

    1979-11-01

    Relationships of four demographic variables and five affective variables to eight attributes of low back pain were investigated in 251 patients by stepwise, multivariate analysis. The demographic variables are age, sex, race, and education. The affective variables are state anxiety, trait anxiety anxiety, hostility, and depression. Seven of the pain variables are from the factorially derived Low Back Pain Questionnaire. The eighth pain variable is a self-estimate of intensity. Relationships among demographic and pain variables are small and unsystematic. Hostility has a small, systematically inverse relation to pain variables, supporting theories relating low back pain to inhibition of anger. Anxiety has a small positive relationship, and depression has no relationship to pain variables. In general, the small relationships indicate that the Low Back Pain Questionnaire provides descriptions of pain that are not confounded by social characteristics or current emotional states of patients.

  13. Spacelab data processing facility (SLDPF) Quality Assurance (QA)/Data Accounting (DA) expert systems: Transition from prototypes to operational systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basile, Lisa

    1988-01-01

    The SLDPF is responsible for the capture, quality monitoring processing, accounting, and shipment of Spacelab and/or Attached Shuttle Payloads (ASP) telemetry data to various user facilities. Expert systems will aid in the performance of the quality assurance and data accounting functions of the two SLDPF functional elements: the Spacelab Input Processing System (SIPS) and the Spacelab Output Processing System (SOPS). Prototypes were developed for each as independent efforts. The SIPS Knowledge System Prototype (KSP) used the commercial shell OPS5+ on an IBM PC/AT; the SOPS Expert System Prototype used the expert system shell CLIPS implemented on a Macintosh personal computer. Both prototypes emulate the duties of the respective QA/DA analysts based upon analyst input and predetermined mission criteria parameters, and recommended instructions and decisions governing the reprocessing, release, or holding for further analysis of data. These prototypes demonstrated feasibility and high potential for operational systems. Increase in productivity, decrease of tedium, consistency, concise historial records, and a training tool for new analyses were the principal advantages. An operational configuration, taking advantage of the SLDPF network capabilities, is under development with the expert systems being installed on SUN workstations. This new configuration in conjunction with the potential of the expert systems will enhance the efficiency, in both time and quality, of the SLDPF's release of Spacelab/AST data products.

  14. Crime vs. demographic factors revisited: Application of data mining methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingan Li

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to inquire about correlations between criminal phenomena and demographic factors. This international-level comparative study used a dataset covering 56 countries and 28 attributes. The data were processed with the Self-Organizing Map (SOM, assisted other clustering methods, and several statistical methods for obtaining comparable results. The article is an exploratory application of the SOM in mapping criminal phenomena through processing of multivariate data. We found out that SOM was able to group efficiently the present data and characterize these different groups. Other machine learning methods were applied to ensure groups computed with SOM. The correlations obtained between attributes were chiefly weak.

  15. Quantum analysis in the transition process to excited state of an oxygen molecule induced by electron collisions; Denshi shototsu ni tomonau sanso bunshi ni okeru reiki jotai sen`i no ryoshironteki kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishimaru, K. [Gifu National College of Technology, Gifu (Japan); Okazaki, K. [Tokyo Inst. of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-06-25

    For understanding of fundamental chemical reactions under a highly non equilibrium condition which is quite often used in plasma processing, the relevant atomic and molecular processes must be clarified. In this study, an analysis of the transition process to the excited state of an oxygen molecule induced by electron collisions in the oxygen plasma has been carried out. First, the electron density distribution in an oxygen molecule has been calculated using the extended Huckel molecular orbital method. Then, the electron potential energy distribution in the transition process to the excited state has been estimated. The electron behavior has been calculated using the estimated unidimensional electron potential energy distribution and unsteady quantum mechanics. As a result, the transition process to the excited state of an oxygen molecule induced by electron collisions and its conditions have been clarified qualitatively. 9 refs., 9 figs.

  16. Febrile Seizure: Demographic Features and Causative Factors

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    How to cite this article: Esmaili Gourabi H, Bidabadi E, Cheraghalipour  F, Aarabi  Y, Salamat F. Febrile Seizure: Demographic Features and Causative Factors. Iran J Child Neurol Autumn 2012; 6(4):33-37.Abstract Objective Because of geographical and periodical variation, we prompted to determine the demographic features and causative factors for febrile seizure in Rasht. Materials & Methods In this cross-sectional study, all 6–month- to 6-year-old children with the diagnosis of febrile s...

  17. Evolution of a detailed physiological model to simulate the gastrointestinal transit and absorption process in humans, part II: extension to describe performance of solid dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelen, Kirstin; Coboeken, Katrin; Willmann, Stefan; Dressman, Jennifer B; Lippert, Jörg

    2012-03-01

    The physiological absorption model presented in part I of this work is now extended to account for dosage-form-dependent gastrointestinal (GI) transit as well as disintegration and dissolution processes of various immediate-release and modified-release dosage forms. Empirical functions of the Weibull type were fitted to experimental in vitro dissolution profiles of solid dosage forms for eight test compounds (aciclovir, caffeine, cimetidine, diclofenac, furosemide, paracetamol, phenobarbital, and theophylline). The Weibull functions were then implemented into the model to predict mean plasma concentration-time profiles of the various dosage forms. On the basis of these dissolution functions, pharmacokinetics (PK) of six model drugs was predicted well. In the case of diclofenac, deviations between predicted and observed plasma concentrations were attributable to the large variability in gastric emptying time of the enteric-coated tablets. Likewise, oral PK of furosemide was found to be predominantly governed by the gastric emptying patterns. It is concluded that the revised model for GI transit and absorption was successfully integrated with dissolution functions of the Weibull type, enabling prediction of in vivo PK profiles from in vitro dissolution data. It facilitates a comparative analysis of the parameters contributing to oral drug absorption and is thus a powerful tool for formulation design.

  18. Improved Laboratory Transition Probabilities for Er II and Applications to the Erbium Abundances of the Sun and Five r-Process Rich, Metal-Poor Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Lawler, J E; Cowan, J J; Wyart, J -F; Ivans, I I; Sobeck, J S; Stockett, M H; Hartog, E A Den

    2008-01-01

    Recent radiative lifetime measurements accurate to +/- 5% (Stockett et al. 2007, J. Phys. B 40, 4529) using laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) on 8 even-parity and 62 odd-parity levels of Er II have been combined with new branching fractions measured using a Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) to determine transition probabilities for 418 lines of Er II. This work moves Er II onto the growing list of rare earth spectra with extensive and accurate modern transition probability measurements using LIF plus FTS data. This improved laboratory data set has been used to determine a new solar photospheric Er abundance, log epsilon = 0.96 +/- 0.03 (sigma = 0.06 from 8 lines), a value in excellent agreement with the recommended meteoric abundance, log epsilon = 0.95 +/- 0.03. Revised Er abundances have also been derived for the r-process-rich metal-poor giant stars CS 22892-052, BD+17 3248, HD 221170, HD 115444, and CS 31082-001. For these five stars the average Er/Eu abundance ratio, = 0.42, is in very good agreement ...

  19. Process Analysis of the Russian State Transition in the Past 20 Years%20年来俄罗斯国家转型进程分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆南泉

    2012-01-01

    Russia has different tasks and objectives of transition in different eras; to solve the problems of institutional change and framework establishment for a market economy ; to improve a constitutional system of the sep- aration of the three powers and to switch the market from disorder to order through policies of patching and harness- ing in the Putin administration; to transit Russia toward state modernization in the Medvedev-Putin tandem period. The prospects of Russia' s economic development significantly depend on the modernization process of the state.%俄罗斯不同时期有其不同的转型任务与力求达到的目标:解决制度变迁与确立市场经济体制框架问题;普京执政时期通过实行修补与整治等政策,使三权分立的宪政制度完善,使混乱无序的市场转向有序;梅普组合后俄罗斯向国家现代化方向转型。俄罗斯经济发展前景在很大程度上取决于国家现代化的进程。

  20. A landscape-scale assessment of plant communities, hydrologic processes, and state-and-transition theory in a western juniper dominated ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Steven L.

    Western juniper has rapidly expanded into sagebrush steppe communities in the Intermountain West during the past 120 years. This expansion has occurred across a wide range of soil types and topographic positions. These plant communities, however, are typically treated in current peer-reviewed literature generically. The focus of this research is to investigate watershed level response to Western juniper encroachment at multiple topographic positions. Data collected from plots used to measure vegetation, soil moisture, and infiltration rates show that intercanopy sites within encroached Western juniper communities generally exhibit a significant decrease in intercanopy plant density and cover, decreased infiltration rates, increased water sediment content, and lower soil moisture content. High-resolution remotely sensed imagery and Geographic Information Systems were used with these plot level measurements to characterize and model the landscape-scale response for both biotic and abiotic components of a Western juniper encroached ecosystem. These data and their analyses included an inventory of plant density, plant cover, bare ground, gap distance and cover, a plant community classification of intercanopy patches and juniper canopy cover, soil moisture estimation, solar insulation prediction, slope and aspect. From these data, models were built that accurately predicted shrub density and shrub cover throughout the watershed study area, differentiated by aspect. We propose a new model of process-based plant community dynamics associated with current state-and-transition theory. This model is developed from field measurements and spatially explicit information that characterize the relationship between the matrix mountain big sagebrush plant community and intercanopy plant community patterns occurring within a Western juniper dominated woodland at a landscape scale. Model parameters (states, transitions, and thresholds) are developed based on differences in shrub

  1. Birth tourism: socio-demographic and statistical aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoly V. Korotkov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to research birth tourism issue. The article gives the socio-demographic and statistical aspects of research problems of birth inbound tourism in the Russian Federation. Following the literature analysis, the degree of study for birth tourism lags behind its actual size. Currently, the media has accumulated a significant amount of information on birth tourism in Russia, that requires processing, systematization and understanding that can and should become an independent area of study of sociologists and demographers to develop recommendations for the management of socio-demographic processes in birth tourism in our country. It is necessary to identify the problems that will inevitably arise. At present, this process is almost not regulated.These problems are complex, it requires the joint efforts of sociologists and demographers. However, it is impossible to obtain reliable results and to develop management decisions without attention to the statistical aspect of this problem. It is necessary to create methodological support for collecting and information processing and model development of the birth tourism. At the initial stage it is necessary to identify the direction and objectives of the analysis to determine the factors in the development of this process, to develop a hierarchical system of statistical indicators, to receive the information, needed for calculating of specific indicators.The complex research of the birth tourism issues should be based on the methodology of sociology, demography and statistics, including statistical observation, interviews with residents, structure analysis and birth tourism concentration in the country, the analysis of the dynamics, classification of factors and reasons, the grouping of regions for the development of the studied processes and, of course, the development of economic-statistical indicators.The article reveals the problem of the significant influence of the

  2. Transition of the Russian federation to new educational standard: independent work of students as a factor in the quality of educational process*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kremlev Artem

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to changes in the organization of independent work of students. These changes are associated with transition of the Russian Federation to new educational standards. In this regard, systemically-active approach to educational process, which is also called competence-based approach, comes to replace the knowledge-based model of education. Independent work of students as one of the main components of the competence-based approach is aimed not only at achieving of educational goals, but mainly on the formation of personal qualities of the future specialist - self-knowledge, self-development and self-realization. These qualities form a new competent person who meets the requirements of the labor market. The research includes consideration of issues such as organization, planning, monitoring methods of self-dependent student work taking into account the requirements of the educational standard.

  3. Food Insecurity in Urban and Rural Areas in Central Brazil: Transition from Locally Produced Foods to Processed Items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Livia Penna Firme; Carvalho, Raissa Costa; Maciel, Agatha; Otanasio, Polyanna Nunes; Garavello, Maria Elisa de Paula Eduardo; Nardoto, Gabriela Bielefeld

    2016-01-01

    Aiming to investigate the effect of diet and food consumption with regard to health, environment, and economy in light of nutrition ecology, we studied the dimensions of nutrition and food security in urban and rural settings in the region of Chapada dos Veadeiros, Central Brazil. We tracked diet and food consumption through carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios in fingernails of these inhabitants together with food intake data as a proxy for their diet patterns. We estimated household food insecurity by using the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale. Nutrition and food insecurity was observed in both urban and rural areas, but was accentuated in rural settings. The diet pattern had high δ(13)C values in fingernails and low δ(15)N. Both urban and rural areas have diets with low diversity and relying on low-quality processed food staples at the same time that nutrition and food insecurity is quite high in the region.

  4. Relaxation processes and glass transition of confined polymer melts: A molecular dynamics simulation of 1,4-polybutadiene between graphite walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solar, M.; Binder, K.; Paul, W.

    2017-05-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations of a chemically realistic model for 1,4-polybutadiene in a thin film geometry confined by two graphite walls are presented. Previous work on melts in the bulk has shown that the model faithfully reproduces static and dynamic properties of the real material over a wide temperature range. The present work studies how these properties change due to nano-confinement. The focus is on orientational correlations observable in nuclear magnetic resonance experiments and on the local intermediate incoherent neutron scattering function, Fs(qz, z, t), for distances z from the graphite walls in the range of a few nanometers. Temperatures from about 2Tg down to about 1.15Tg, where Tg is the glass transition temperature in the bulk, are studied. It is shown that weakly attractive forces between the wall atoms and the monomers suffice to effectively bind a polymer coil that is near the wall. For a wide regime of temperatures, the Arrhenius-like adsorption/desorption kinetics of the monomers is the slowest process, while very close to Tg the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann-like α-relaxation takes over. The α-process is modified only for z ≤1.2 nm due to the density changes near the walls, less than expected from studies of coarse-grained (bead-spring-type) models. The weakness of the surface effects on the glass transition in this case is attributed to the interplay of density changes near the wall with the torsional potential. A brief discussion of pertinent experiments is given.

  5. Life Potential as a Basic Demographic Indicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goerlich, Francisco J.; Soler, Angel

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes an indicator that integrates life expectancy with the demographic structure of the population for a given society. By doing this, we have a simple indicator of mortality and aging combined, which could be very useful for developed societies. As is widely known, life expectancy at birth is independent of the demographic…

  6. Demographic development in ASEAN: a comparative overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrin, A N; Pardoko, H; Lim, L L; Hongladorom, C

    1981-01-01

    A comparative overview of recent demographic developments in the ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations) region is presented. Countries discussed include Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. Separate consideration is given to mortality; fertility; and migration, spatial distribution, and employment. A final section is concerned with emerging issues and directions for population policy.

  7. The Demographics of Corporal Punishment in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examined the student discipline policies of 1,025 Texas school districts, as well as data from the Texas Education Agency's Academic Excellence Indicator System in order to identify demographic patterns regarding corporal punishment policies in Texas schools. The study also studied the relationship between a district's…

  8. The Demographics of Corporal Punishment in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examined the student discipline policies of 1,025 Texas school districts, as well as data from the Texas Education Agency's Academic Excellence Indicator System in order to identify demographic patterns regarding corporal punishment policies in Texas schools. The study also studied the relationship between a district's corporal…

  9. Economic and Demographic Predictors of Inclusive Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosier, Meghan E.; Causton-Theoharis, Julie

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated economic and demographic predictors of levels of inclusion of students with disabilities in 129 school districts. Multiple regression analysis was utilized to address the following research questions: (a) Is there a relationship between economic factors and percentage of highly included students with disabilities in general…

  10. Demographic Group Differences in Adolescents' Time Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andretta, James R.; Worrell, Frank C.; Mello, Zena R.; Dixson, Dante D.; Baik, Sharon H.

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, we examined demographic differences in time attitudes in a sample of 293 adolescents. Time attitudes were measured using the Adolescent Time Attitude Scale (Mello & Worrell, 2007; Worrell, Mello, & Buhl, 2011), which assesses positive and negative attitudes toward the past, the present, and the future. Generally, African…

  11. The Macroeconomic Dynamics of Demographic Shocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijdra, B.J.; Ligthart, J.E.

    2004-01-01

    The paper employs an extended Yaari-Blanchard model of overlapping generations to study how the macroeconomy is affected over time by various demographic changes.It is shown that a proportional decline in fertility and death rates has qualitatively similar effects to capital income subsidies; both p

  12. Climate variability, precipitation trends, and impacts on surface processes in humid to arid climate transition zones of the NW Argentine Andes (24° S, 65° W)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castino, Fabiana; Bookhagen, Bodo; Strecker, Manfred

    2015-04-01

    In the Andes of NW Argentina the distribution and amount of rainfall and associated surface processes are intimately correlated with pronounced topographic gradients and relief contrasts that intercept easterly moisture-bearing winds related to the South American Monsoon System. These conditions have led to a pronounced elevation-dependent distribution of rainfall, which involves areally limited transition zones between the humid eastern flanks of the orogen (eastern foreland and eastern flanks of the E Cordillera) and the arid orogen interior (Puna Plateau). At interannual scales rainfall patterns in this area can be modulated by different atmospheric disturbances, such as the South Atlantic Convergent Zone and the El Niño Southern Oscillation, resulting in drought or flooding events. During the last two decades, field observations document fluvial aggradation in many intermontane valleys along the eastern flanks of the orogen. This may be related to changing overall climatic conditions, impacting hillslope erosion processes at high elevation, but contemporaneously overwhelming the fluvial system and reducing transport capacity, leading to transient sediment storage. We analyzed rainfall trends in the humid to arid climatic transition zone in the NW Argentine Andes over different time periods to characterize the spatiotemporal variability of rainfall patterns during the last five decades. We relied on both daily ground station (40 stations, 1956-2012) and three-hourly remote sensing rainfall data (3B42 V7 TRMM data, 1998-2014). Seasonal total anomalies analysis shows a complex rainfall pattern, reflected both in station data and remote sensing observations with clear positive (negative) statistically significant trends in the northern Puna Plateau and in the northern part of the foreland basin (southern part of the eastern foreland basin) of up to +20mm/yr (-20mm/yr). Quantile regression of three-hourly and daily data furthermore shows that, on average

  13. Demographic variation in how the social brain processes news messages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driel, I.I. van; Grabe, M.E.; Bas, O.; Kleemans, M.

    2016-01-01

    A high capacity for visual perception distinguishes Homo sapiens from other primates. This human ability to detect social cues and retain visual records of social networks has been tested mostly with static facial images in laboratory settings. However, media consumption has become closely entangled

  14. Epidemiologic transition in an isolated indigenous community in the Valley of Oaxaca, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malina, Robert M; Peña Reyes, Maria Eugenia; Little, Bertis B

    2008-09-01

    The objective of the present study is to analyze age-specific mortality in a rural indigenous community in the throes of a secular increase in size in the Valley of Oaxaca, southern Mexico, over 30 years, 1970-1999. Variation in mortality by age group was analyzed over time for evidence of an epidemiological transition. The seasonal rain pattern in the Valley of Oaxaca (83% from May through September) was evaluated for its relationship with mortality in wet and dry months. Mortality and causes of death changed markedly over the 30-year interval. Infant and preschool mortality, overall mortality, and causes of death changed from the 1970s through the 1990s. Prereproductive deaths (<15 years) predominated in the 1970s and were largely due to gastrointestinal and respiratory diseases, with periodic outbreaks of measles. Deaths of adults 65+ years predominated in the 1990s and were largely due to degenerative diseases usually associated with aging. The marked changes in age and causes of death over the three decades (epidemiologic transition from Stage I to Stage II) occurred concurrently with significant secular increases in body size in children, adolescents, and young adults, highlighting improved health and nutritional conditions in the community which is in early Stage II of the demographic transition. The demographic transition to Stage II is a leading indicator (15-25 years lag) for the onset of the secular trend, while the epidemiologic transition to Stage II is a predictor that the secular increase is in process in the study community.

  15. The Occupational Transition Process to Upper Secondary School, Further Education and/or Work in Sweden: As Described by Young Adults with Asperger Syndrome and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baric, Vedrana Bolic; Hemmingsson, Helena; Hellberg, Kristina; Kjellberg, Anette

    2017-03-01

    The aim was to describe the occupational transition process to upper secondary school, further education and/or work, and to discover what support influences the process from the perspectives of young adults with Asperger syndrome or attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. This qualitative study was performed in Sweden and comprised interviews with 15 young adults recruited from community based day centres. Support influencing the process included: occupational transition preparation in compulsory school, practical work experience in a safe environment, and support beyond the workplace. The overall understanding shows that the occupational transition process was a longitudinal one starting as early as in middle school, and continuing until the young adults obtained and were able to remain in employment or further education.

  16. GIS and the Analytic Hierarchy Process for Regional Landfill Site Selection in Transitional Countries: A Case Study From Serbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelenović Vasiljević, Tamara; Srdjević, Zorica; Bajčetić, Ratko; Vojinović Miloradov, Mirjana

    2012-02-01

    The Serbian National Waste Management Strategy for the Period 2010-2019, harmonized with the European Union Directives, mandates new and very strict requirements for landfill sites. To enable analysis of a number of required qualitative and quantitative factors for landfill site selection, the traditional method of site selection must be replaced with a new approach. The combination of GIS and the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) was selected to solve this complex problem. The Srem region in northern Serbia, being one of the most environmentally sensitive areas, was chosen as a case study. Seventeen factors selected as criteria/sub-criteria were recognized as most important, divided into geo-natural, environmental, social and techno-economic factors, and were evaluated by experts from different fields using an AHP extension in Arc GIS. Weighted spatial layers were combined into a landfill suitability map which was then overlapped with four restriction maps, resulting in a final suitability map. According to the results, 82.65% of the territory of Srem is unsuitable for regional landfill siting. The most suitable areas cover 9.14%, suitable areas 5.24%, while areas with low and very low suitability cover 2.21 and 0.76% of the territory, respectively. Based on these findings, five sites close to two large urban agglomerations were suggested as possible locations for a regional landfill site in Srem. However, the final decision will require further field investigation, a public acceptance survey, and consideration of ownership status and price of the land.

  17. Effect of Trivalent Additions and Processing on Structural and Magnetic Transitions in Ni-Mn-Ga Ferromagnetic Shape Memory Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. P. Mathur

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Ferromagnetic shape memory Ni50Mn30Ga15Al5-xBx (x = 0, 1, and 4 alloys were prepared by vacuum arc melting and subsequent heat-treatment as well as by melt spinning to investigate the effect of trivalent element additions in ternary Ni-Mn-Ga alloys. The heat-treated alloys containing Al were reported to possess a modulated martensite structure, however alloy containing both Al and B showed a loss of modulated structure in martensite formed. The rapidly solidified alloys on the other hand showed the formation of a similar modulated structure without composition change in alloys containing Al and the alloys containing Al and B. In addition, the former showed a presence of an amorphous phase with latter showing crystalline boron rich phases. The magnetisation of the B containing alloys in both the processing technique was however very low, showing lower magnetic exchange interaction in such alloys.Defence Science Journal, 2012, 62(4, pp.252-260, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.62.1279

  18. Nonstationary plasma-thermo-fluid dynamics and transition in processes of deep penetration laser beam-matter interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golubev, Vladimir S.; Banishev, Alexander F.; Azharonok, V. V.; Zabelin, Alexandre M.

    1994-09-01

    A qualitative analysis of the role of some hydrodynamic flows and instabilities by the process of laser beam-metal sample deep penetration interaction is presented. The forces of vapor pressure, melt surface tension and thermocapillary forces can determined a number of oscillatory and nonstationary phenomena in keyhole and weld pool. Dynamics of keyhole formation in metal plates has been studied under laser beam pulse effect ((lambda) equals 1.06 micrometers ). Velocities of the keyhole bottom motion have been determined at 0.5 X 105 - 106 W/cm2 laser power densities. Oscillatory regime of plate break- down has been found out. Small-dimensional structures with d-(lambda) period was found on the frozen cavity walls, which, in our opinion, can contribute significantly to laser beam absorption. A new form of periodic structure on the frozen pattern being a helix-shaped modulation of the keyhole walls and bottom relief has been revealed. Temperature oscillations related to capillary oscillations in the melt layer were discovered in the cavity. Interaction of the CW CO2 laser beam and the matter by beam penetration into a moving metal sample has been studied. The pulsed and thermodynamic parameters of the surface plasma were investigated by optical and spectroscopic methods. The frequencies of plasma jets pulsations (in 10 - 105 Hz range) are related to possible melt surface instabilities of the keyhole.

  19. The Occupational Transition Process to Upper Secondary School, Further Education and/or Work in Sweden: As Described by Young Adults with Asperger Syndrome and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baric, Vedrana Bolic; Hemmingsson, Helena; Hellberg, Kristina; Kjellberg, Anette

    2017-01-01

    The aim was to describe the occupational transition process to upper secondary school, further education and/or work, and to discover what support influences the process from the perspectives of young adults with Asperger syndrome or attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. This qualitative study was performed in Sweden and comprised interviews…

  20. [Demographic projections for Latin American countries prepared by CELADE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somoza, J L

    1978-04-01

    The CELADE (Centro Latinoamericano de Demografia) prepares population projections for 20 Latin American countries, a difficult task considering the lack of reliable census data on births, deaths, and other demographic information. Nevertheless, the demographic situation can be estimated by distinguishing two states in the process: estimating past and present population history and formulating hypotheses regarding the future trends of demographic variables. In a typical situation for most Latin American countries, the first stage is the most difficult; results are mostly approximations of the reality. Thus, projections based on these data are unreliable. The present demographic situation in Latin America was analyzed by estimating fertility, mortality and international migration. Fertility rate was calculated based on the following data: number of children born to the female population, number of live births during the year prior to the census classified according to mother's age and number of children registered according to age up to 10 or 15 years of age. Fertility was thus calculated within 5 years prior to the census. Mortality was roughly estimated by calculating the annual death distribution by age. This promoted questions relating to orphans and the relative number of children who survived out of total number of children born to a woman. Little data was available on migration due to lack of registries on annual migration. It was estimated based on the number of people who left the country for 5 years, and promoted questions such as which country is one native of and year of entry into the country. The most important task relating to population projection of Latin America is the improvement of knowledge on fertility, mortality and migration.

  1. Transition and duration in disability: New evidence from administrative data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez Casasnovas, Guillem; Nicodemo, Catia

    2016-01-01

    In recent decades demographic changes (low fertility rates, increased life expectancy…) in most OECD countries, have brought profound changes in the population pyramid, with several effects in the welfare of society. One of them is the increase in the number of people with disabilities, since age is a determining factor in the emergence of this dependency. This paper studies the probability to enter and transit in and from a disability state, as well as its associated mortality, by attending to the distinction between the initial disability level and the process that leads on from it, and by addressing whether and how education, age and income affect this transition. Applying a Markov model and a survival analysis to new Spanish administrative data set (Muestra Continua de Vida Laboral (MCVL)) we estimate the probability that a person changes the state of disability and the duration of her progression in each case. We find that people with an initial state of disability have a higher propensity to change status and take less time to transit amongst different stages than those who have no disability. Men do so more frequently than women and income have negative effects on the transition. These results may help to incorporate into welfare programs some protection mechanisms for delaying transitions and target the most fragile population groups. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Energetics, transition states, and intrinsic reaction coordinates for reactions associated with O(3P) processing of hydrocarbon materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Tianying; Hase, William L.; Doubleday, Charles

    2004-05-01

    Electronic structure calculations based on multiconfiguration wave functions are used to investigate a set of archetypal reactions relevant to O(3P) processing of hydrocarbon molecules and surfaces. These include O(3P) reactions with methane and ethane to give OH plus methyl or ethyl radicals, O(3P)+ethane to give CH3O+CH3, and secondary reactions of the OH product radical with ethane and the ethyl radical. Geometry optimization is carried out with CASSCF/cc-pVTZ for all reactions, and with CASPT2/cc-pVTZ for O(3P)+methane/ethane. Single-point energy corrections are applied with CASPT2, CASPT3, and MRCI+Q with the cc-pVTZ and cc-pVQZ basis sets, and the energies extrapolated to the complete basis set limit (CBL). Where comparison of computed barriers and energies of reaction with experiment is possible, the agreement is good to excellent. The best agreement (within experimental error) is found for MRCI+Q/CBL applied to O(3P)+methane. For the other reactions, CASPT2/CBL and MRCI+Q/CBL predictions differ from experiment by 1-5 kcal/mol for 0 K enthalpies of reaction, and are within 1 kcal/mol of the best-estimate experimental range of 0 K barriers for O(3P)+ethane and OH+ethane. The accuracy of MRCI+Q/CBL is limited mainly by the quality of the active space. CASPT2/CBL barriers are consistently lower than MRCI+Q/CBL barriers with identical reference spaces.

  3. Differential resetting process of circadian gene expression in rat pineal glands after the reversal of the light/dark cycle via a 24 h light or dark period transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tao; Dong, Yue; Yang, Zhiqiu; Kato, Hisanori; Ni, Yinhua; Fu, Zhengwei

    2009-07-01

    Although studies involving the circadian response to time-zone transitions indicate that the circadian clock usually takes much longer to phase advance than delay, the discrepancy between the circadian resetting induced by photoperiod alteration via a dark or light period transition has yet to be investigated. In mammals, the pineal gland is an important component in the photoneuroendocrine axis, regulating biological rhythms. However, few studies have systematically examined the resetting process of pineal clock-gene expression to date. We investigated the resetting processes of four clock genes (Bmal1, Cry1, Per1, Dec1) and AANAT in the rat pineal gland after the light-dark (LD) reversal via a 24 h light or dark period transition. The resynchronization of the SCN-driven gene AANAT was nearly complete in three days in both situations, displaying similar resetting rates and processes after the differential LD reversals. The resetting processes of the clock genes were characterized by gene-specific, phase-shift modes and differential phase-shift rates between the two different LD reversal modes. The resetting processes of these clock genes were noticeably lengthened after the LD reversal via the light period transition in comparison to via the dark period transition. In addition, among the four examined clock genes, Per1 adjusted most rapidly after the differential LD reversals, while the rhythmic Cry1 expression adjusted most slowly.

  4. The future of higher education in BRIC countries: a demographic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Rangel de Meireles Guimarães

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In regard to the development and reform of higher education (HE, recent and projected evidence suggest that enrollment growth is likely to be slower than it is at present (or even negative as a result of ageing populations. The case of the BRIC countries is particularly interesting for the study of the impact of demographic changes on HE because these countries show considerable diversity regarding their demographic transition. This paper explores how demographic changes are likely to affect the demand for higher education in BRIC countries. I argue that these countries are now facing a great expansion of enrollment but, given declining fertility levels, diversification of the HE clientele will become a common strategy. But diversification of the student population will place a new and complex set of demands on HE institutions, and equity in higher education in the near future will depend on how HE systems are structured in these countries.

  5. Increasing awareness about self and facilitation practice in preparation for transitioning to a new role – the critical reflective process of becoming a certified professional facilitator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Bergin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and context: I have been working as a practice developer in the Australian healthcare system for more than 10 years. For the last seven of those I was a lead facilitator for a practice development programme that is being implemented across a large statewide health service. The programme’s purpose is to create person-centred care environments that enable patient and staff empowerment. My role was in a small team that supported facilitators predominantly at local health district and state levels. The intent was to phase out the team over time as capacity increased and local teams gained the required skills and knowledge to continue implementing the programme. During the two-year final transition phase, a strategic plan was implemented to guide the development of systems and capacity that would support the programme once the team had exited. A decision was made to shorten the phasing-out period and during this transition period I found myself facing an unknown and unpredictable future, for the first time in my career promoting something other than my clinical nursing skills. As I transitioned into an independent facilitator role I wanted to consolidate my expertise as a facilitator, to gain further learning in specific areas and to achieve recognition of the facilitation skill set I had honed over time, and which has now become my way of working. Given that my experience was limited to the healthcare context, diverse though it is, I pondered which of my skills would stand me in good stead to enable groups and organisations as an independent professional facilitator and what additional skills I’d need. I was encouraged to become a certified professional facilitator by colleagues who were using process facilitation and person-centredness more broadly. This paper reflects my experience of the preparation, assessment and accreditation process, the feedback I received from my international assessors and how these are influencing my

  6. Single-step purification of recombinant proteins using elastin-like peptide-mediated inverse transition cycling and self-processing module from Neisseria meningitides FrpC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen-Jun; Wu, Qian; Xu, Bi; Zhang, Xin-Yu; Xia, Xiao-Li; Sun, Huai-Chang

    2014-06-01

    Purification of recombinant proteins is a major task and challenge in biotechnology and medicine. In this paper we report a novel single-step recombinant protein purification system which was based on elastin-like peptide (ELP)-mediated reversible phase transition and FrpC self-processing module (SPM)-mediated cleavage. After construction of a SPM-ELP fusion expression vector, we cloned the coding sequence for green fluorescent protein (GFP), the Fc portion of porcine IgG (pFc) or human β defensin 3 (HBD3) into the vector, transformed the construct into Escherichia coli, and induced the fusion protein expression with IPTG. The target-SPM-ELP fusion proteins GFP-SPM-ELP, Fc-SPM-ELP and HBD3-SPM-ELP were expressed in a soluble form and efficiently purified from the clarified cell extracts by two rounds of inverse transition cycling (ITC). Under the optimized conditions, the SPM-mediated cleavage efficiencies for the three fusion proteins ranged from 92% to 93%. After an additional round of ITC, the target proteins GFP, pFc and HBD3 were recovered with purities ranging from 90% to 100% and yields ranging from 1.1 to 36mg/L in shake flasks. The endotoxin levels in all of the three target proteins were proteins were functionally active with the expected molecular weights. These experimental results confirmed the high specificity and efficiency of SPM-mediated cleavage, and suggested the applicability of SPM-ELP fusion system for purification of recombinant proteins.

  7. Demographics of mass customization: a global study of manufacturing plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovani José Caetano da Silveira

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study explores the demographic configuration of mass customization (MC manufacturing plants. It uses cluster analysis, ANOVA and correspondence analysis to test for differences in business unit size, location, and supply chain structure between MC and non-MC producers across the globe. The analysis uses data from an international survey of manufacturers of metal products, machinery, and instruments from 21 countries. Results indicate no significant differences in size, but significant differences in location and supply chain indicators between MC and non-MC plants. We also find renewed evidence of the positioning of MC plants in Hayes & Wheelwright's (1979 product and process matrix.

  8. Stock vs. Bond Yields, and Demographic Fluctuations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gozluklu, Arie; Morin, Annaïg

    that the slow-evolving time-series covariation due to changing population age structure accounts for the equilibrium relation between stock and bond markets. As a result, by exploiting the demographic information into distant future, the forecasting performance of evaluation models improves. Finally, using...... a cross-country panel, we document the cross-sectional variation of the demographic effect and explain the cross-country differences in comovement between stock and bond markets.......This paper analyzes the strong comovement between real stock and nominal bond yields at generational (low) frequencies. Life-cycle patterns in savings behavior in an overlapping generations model with cash-in-advance constraints explain this persistent comovement between financial yields. We argue...

  9. The AAVSO 2011 Demographic and Background Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Price, C Aaron

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, the AAVSO conducted a survey of 615 people who are or were recently active in the 101-year old organization. The survey included questions about their demographic background and variable star interests. Data are descriptively analyzed and compared with prior surveys. Results show an organization of very highly educated, largely male amateur and professional astronomers distributed across 108 countries. Participants tend to be loyal, with the average time of involvement in the AAVSO reported as 14 years. Most major demographic factors have not changed much over time. However, the average age of new members is increasing. Also, a significant portion of the respondents report being strictly active in a non-observing capacity, reflecting the growing mission of the organization. Motivations of participants are more aligned with scientific contribution than with that reported by other citizen science projects. This may help explain why a third of all respondents are an author or co-author of a paper in an ...

  10. Stock vs. Bond Yields, and Demographic Fluctuations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gozluklu, Arie; Morin, Annaïg

    that the slow-evolving time-series covariation due to changing population age structure accounts for the equilibrium relation between stock and bond markets. As a result, by exploiting the demographic information into distant future, the forecasting performance of evaluation models improves. Finally, using...... a cross-country panel, we document the cross-sectional variation of the demographic effect and explain the cross-country differences in comovement between stock and bond markets.......This paper analyzes the strong comovement between real stock and nominal bond yields at generational (low) frequencies. Life-cycle patterns in savings behavior in an overlapping generations model with cash-in-advance constraints explain this persistent comovement between financial yields. We argue...

  11. New Approaches to Demographic Data Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treiman, Donald J.; Lu, Yao; Qi, Yaqiang

    2013-01-01

    As population scientists have expanded the range of topics they study, increasingly considering the interrelationship between population phenomena and social, economic, and health conditions, they have expanded the kinds of data collected and have brought to bear new data collection techniques and procedures, often borrowed from other fields. These new approaches to demographic data collection are the concern of this essay. We consider three main topics: new developments in sampling procedures; new developments in fieldwork procedures; and new developments in the kind of information collected in demographic and social surveys. We conclude with some comments on data sharing in the social research community and a list of major Chinese surveys publicly available to researchers. Where possible we illustrate our points with Chinese examples. PMID:23844330

  12. The demographic cycle and optimal schooling choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, B P; Berger, M C

    1996-10-01

    A model is developed that enables the authors to estimate the effects of demographic cycles on both earnings and schooling. The model is tested using data from the 1991 Korean Occupational Wage Survey. The results indicate that cohorts following large birth cohorts in the cycle choose relatively less formal schooling compared to pre-peak cohorts, and that post-peak cohorts also have lower incomes. This result concerning South Korea is consistent with findings from previous studies concerning the United States.

  13. Regions of Demographic Dynamism in Haryana

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjeev Goel

    2014-01-01

    There are different types of population structures in different parts of the world, the nature of demographic challenges also differ accordingly. The developed countries like USA, Canada, Japan, Australia and many European countries face a problem of slow or even negative population growth. The main concern of the government in these countries remains on population ageing, decline in working force and increasing dependency ratio. The developing countries like India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and L...

  14. TEENAGE PREGNANCY: DEMOGRAPHICS, MATERNAL AND FOETAL OUTCOME

    OpenAIRE

    Radhika Gollapudi; Jagadeeshwari Sistla

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Pregnancy though is a physiological event in a woman’s life, it has its own associated complications. In teenage pregnancies, the physical and emotional state of stress coupled with biological immaturity leads to adverse effect both on the health of the mother and the foetus. METHODS This study is a clinical prospective study analysing the demographics, maternal health issues and the foetal outcome in teenage pregnancies. The study was conducted over a period of o...

  15. Demographic Pressure in the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Peeters, Marga; Groot, Loek

    2012-01-01

    On top of the sovereign debt crisis in the European Union, demographic change is exerting enormous pressure on public finances. We analyse four policy options: lowering pension benefits, increasing labour market participation of the native population, immigration and participation of older people. Our results show that the most publically indebted EU economies face the highest increases in public spending on the retiring baby boom generations over the coming decades. Fortunately for these eco...

  16. Evolving demographics of advanced dental education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldman, H Barry; Perlman, Steven P; Cinotti, Debra A

    2009-01-01

    The numbers of dental school graduates and students enrolled in post graduate programs have increased. Decreases are noted in the enrollment in Periodontics and Prosthodontics programs and a marked increase in the enrollment in Pediatric Dentistry programs. A review of these changes, by gender and race/ethnicity provides an overview of the future demographics of the profession. Some concerns regarding the future are considered.

  17. [[Demographic characteristics of "business bachelors" in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, C

    1987-01-01

    The demographic characteristics of those obliged to live away from their families because of the distance between their normal homes and places of work or education in Japan are described. Data are from a variety of official and other sources. The author notes that such persons are generally male. Factors affecting the growth of this phenomenon in Japan are the concept of lifetime employment with the same company and the popularity of sending children away to school.

  18. Socio-Demographic Moderators of Environment-Physical Activity Associations: Results From the International Prevalence Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Lilian G; Conway, Terry L; Bauman, Adrian; Kerr, Jacqueline; Elder, John P; Arredondo, Elva M; Sallis, Jim F

    2017-08-03

    Associations between the built environment and physical activity (PA) may vary by socio-demographic factors. However, such evidence from international studies is limited. This study tested moderating effects of socio-demographic factors on associations between perceived environment and self-report total PA among adults from the International Prevalence Study. Between 2002-2003, adults from nine countries (N=10,258) completed surveys assessing total PA (IPAQ-short), perceived environment, and socio-demographics (age, gender, and education). Total PA was dichotomized as meeting/not meeting a) high PA levels and b) minimum PA guidelines (PAG). Logistic models tested environment by socio-demographic interactions (24 total). Education and gender moderated the association between safety from crime and meeting high PA levels (interaction p<0.05), with inverse associations found only among the high-education group and men. Education and gender also moderated associations of safety from crime and the presence of transit stops with meeting minimum PAG (interaction p<0.05), with positive associations found for safety from crime only among women and presence of transit stops only among men and the high-education group. The limited number of moderating effects found provides support for population-wide environment-PA associations. International efforts to improve built environments are needed to promote health-enhancing PA, and maintain environmental sustainability.

  19. Entropy Based Modelling for Estimating Demographic Trends.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoqi Li

    Full Text Available In this paper, an entropy-based method is proposed to forecast the demographical changes of countries. We formulate the estimation of future demographical profiles as a constrained optimization problem, anchored on the empirically validated assumption that the entropy of age distribution is increasing in time. The procedure of the proposed method involves three stages, namely: 1 Prediction of the age distribution of a country's population based on an "age-structured population model"; 2 Estimation the age distribution of each individual household size with an entropy-based formulation based on an "individual household size model"; and 3 Estimation the number of each household size based on a "total household size model". The last stage is achieved by projecting the age distribution of the country's population (obtained in stage 1 onto the age distributions of individual household sizes (obtained in stage 2. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated by feeding real world data, and it is general and versatile enough to be extended to other time dependent demographic variables.

  20. Rural Household Demographics, Livelihoods and the Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sherbinin, Alex; Vanwey, Leah; McSweeney, Kendra; Aggarwal, Rimjhim; Barbieri, Alisson; Henry, Sabina; Hunter, Lori M; Twine, Wayne

    2008-02-01

    This paper reviews and synthesizes findings from scholarly work on linkages among rural household demographics, livelihoods and the environment. Using the livelihood approach as an organizing framework, we examine evidence on the multiple pathways linking environmental variables and the following demographic variables: fertility, migration, morbidity and mortality, and lifecycles. Although the review draws on studies from the entire developing world, we find the majority of micro-level studies have been conducted in either marginal (mountainous or arid) or frontier environments, especially Amazonia. Though the linkages are mediated by many complex and often context-specific factors, there is strong evidence that dependence on natural resources intensifies when households lose human and social capital through adult morbidity and mortality, and qualified evidence for the influence of environmental factors on household decision-making regarding fertility and migration. Two decades of research on lifecycles and land-cover change at the farm level have yielded a number of insights about how households make use of different land-use and natural resource management strategies at different stages. A thread running throughout the review is the importance of managing risk through livelihood diversification, ensuring future income security, and culture-specific norms regarding appropriate and desirable activities and demographic responses. Recommendations for future research are provided.