WorldWideScience

Sample records for demographic information age

  1. Organ Donation in the 50+ Age Demographic: Survey Results on Decision Rationale and Information Preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartaglia, Alexander; Dodd-McCue, Diane; Myer, Kevin A; Mullins, Andrew

    2016-09-01

    The rate of organ donation by older potential donors is significantly declining even though recent studies show positive clinical outcomes with organs transplanted from older donors. This study examined the 50+ age demographic to identify the rationale for donation decisions, preferred media methods of donation information delivery, and responsiveness to an age-tailored donation message. Results from 579 surveys, 87% from the 50+ age demographic, found respondents prone to self-select themselves as medically ineligible based on current medication and health status, even though they might be medically suitable donors. Their incentive to pursue additional information on donation is limited except when motivated by personal accounts within their families and communities. In addition, even when computer literate, they continue to favor the printed or spoken word for donation information delivery. The results suggest an opportunity for those working with older adults to develop more personalized, localized donation education programs targeting this age demographic.

  2. Demographic Ageing on Croatian Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Nejašmić

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the changes in the population structure of the Croatian islands by age, warns of the degree of ageing, provides spatial differentiation of this process and presents perspective of ageing at the level of settlement. Typing of population ageing is based on scores and has seven types. The total island population in 2011 belongs to the type 5 – very old population. Almost a half of the settlements (out of 303 have been affected by the highest levels of ageing (types 6 and 7. It was found that a quarter of island settlements will become “dead villages” in a foreseeable future; most of them are on small islands but also in the interior of larger islands. These are villages decaying in every respect, in which the way of life, as we know it, veins and goes out. The present ageing villagers are their last residents in most cases. Eve¬rything suggests that demographic recovery of the islands is not possible with the forces in situ. It is important to strike a balance between the needs and opportunities in order to successfully organize life on the islands, both small and large ones, and the fact is that there is a continuing disparity, which is especially profound in small islands. A sensitive and selective approach is needed to overcome the unfavourable demographic trends. Therefore it is necessary to respect the particularities of indi¬vidual islands and island groups in devising development strategy. Solutions to the problems must come of the local and wider community in synergy with relevant professional and scientific institutions. However, if the solutions are not found or measures do not give results, if the islands are left to desorganisation and senilisation, a part of the islands will become a wasteland. With regard to the value of this area whose wealth are people in the first place, this would be an intolerable civilization decline.

  3. Demographic evidence for adaptive theories of aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitteldorf, J J

    2012-07-01

    Pleiotropic theories for the evolutionary origins of senescence have been ascendant for forty years (see, for example, G. Williams (1957) Evolution, 11, 398-411; T. Kirkwood (1977) Nature, 270, 301-304), and it is not surprising that interpreters of demographic data seek to frame their results in this context. But some of that evidence finds a much more natural explanation in terms of adaptive aging. Here we re-interpret the 1997 results of the Centenarian Study in Boston, which found in their sample of centenarian women an excess of late childbearing. The finding was originally interpreted as a selection effect: a metabolic link between late menopause and longevity. But we demonstrate that this interpretation is statistically strained, and that the data in fact indicate a causal link: bearing a child late in life induces a metabolic response that promotes longevity. This conclusion directly contradicts some pleiotropic theories of aging that postulate a "cost of reproduction", and it supports theories of aging as an adaptive genetic program.

  4. Demographic analysis from summaries of an age-structured population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, William A.; Royle, J. Andrew; Hatfield, Jeff S.

    2003-01-01

    Demographic analyses of age-structured populations typically rely on life history data for individuals, or when individual animals are not identified, on information about the numbers of individuals in each age class through time. While it is usually difficult to determine the age class of a randomly encountered individual, it is often the case that the individual can be readily and reliably assigned to one of a set of age classes. For example, it is often possible to distinguish first-year from older birds. In such cases, the population age structure can be regarded as a latent variable governed by a process prior, and the data as summaries of this latent structure. In this article, we consider the problem of uncovering the latent structure and estimating process parameters from summaries of age class information. We present a demographic analysis for the critically endangered migratory population of whooping cranes (Grus americana), based only on counts of first-year birds and of older birds. We estimate age and year-specific survival rates. We address the controversial issue of whether management action on the breeding grounds has influenced recruitment, relating recruitment rates to the number of seventh-year and older birds, and examining the pattern of variation through time in this rate.

  5. The age demographics of academic librarians a profession apart

    CERN Document Server

    Wilder, Stanley

    2013-01-01

    The Age Demographics of Academic Librarians: A Profession Apart discusses the current demographics of librarianship in North America and examines how a huge retiree rate will affect the profession. With the average age of librarians increasing dramatically since 1990, this book examines the changes that will have to take place in your library, such as recruiting, training, and working with a smaller staff. The Age Demographics of Academic Librarians provides you with insights on how to make your library's transition easier when several of your colleagues leave your library. Valuable and intell

  6. Full likelihood analysis of genetic risk with variable age at onset disease--combining population-based registry data and demographic information.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janne Pitkäniemi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In genetic studies of rare complex diseases it is common to ascertain familial data from population based registries through all incident cases diagnosed during a pre-defined enrollment period. Such an ascertainment procedure is typically taken into account in the statistical analysis of the familial data by constructing either a retrospective or prospective likelihood expression, which conditions on the ascertainment event. Both of these approaches lead to a substantial loss of valuable data. METHODOLOGY AND FINDINGS: Here we consider instead the possibilities provided by a Bayesian approach to risk analysis, which also incorporates the ascertainment procedure and reference information concerning the genetic composition of the target population to the considered statistical model. Furthermore, the proposed Bayesian hierarchical survival model does not require the considered genotype or haplotype effects be expressed as functions of corresponding allelic effects. Our modeling strategy is illustrated by a risk analysis of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D in the Finnish population-based on the HLA-A, HLA-B and DRB1 human leucocyte antigen (HLA information available for both ascertained sibships and a large number of unrelated individuals from the Finnish bone marrow donor registry. The heterozygous genotype DR3/DR4 at the DRB1 locus was associated with the lowest predictive probability of T1D free survival to the age of 15, the estimate being 0.936 (0.926; 0.945 95% credible interval compared to the average population T1D free survival probability of 0.995. SIGNIFICANCE: The proposed statistical method can be modified to other population-based family data ascertained from a disease registry provided that the ascertainment process is well documented, and that external information concerning the sizes of birth cohorts and a suitable reference sample are available. We confirm the earlier findings from the same data concerning the HLA-DR3

  7. An age structured demographic model of technology

    CERN Document Server

    Mercure, J -F

    2013-01-01

    At the heart of technology transitions lie complex processes of technology choices. Understanding and planning sustainability transitions requires modelling work, which necessitates a theory of technology substitution. A theoretical model of technological change and turnover is presented, intended as a methodological paradigm shift from widely used conventional modelling approaches such as cost optimisation. It follows the tradition of evolutionary economics and evolutionary game theory, using ecological population growth dynamics to represent the evolution of technology populations in the marketplace, with substitutions taking place at the level of the decision-maker. Extended to use principles of human demography or the age structured evolution of species in interacting ecosystems, this theory is built from first principles, and through an appropriate approximation, reduces to a form identical to empirical models of technology diffusion common in the technology transitions literature. Using an age structure...

  8. [Demographic information in crisis: one point of view].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelos, J B

    1990-01-01

    This work argues that doubts concerning the reliability of demographic information in Mexico from censuses and other sources should prompt a search for ways of improving existing data rather than developing new data sources and measurement techniques. The example of labor force data is used to illustrate the achievements of past data collection efforts and to suggest a framework for reconciling statistics from diverse sources and exploiting existing sources more fully. From a practical perspective, it would be difficult to identify a nontraditional source of information, statistical procedure, or conceptual framework for collection of labor force and other demographic data that has not been tried somewhere, at some time. Economists and other social scientists who have analyzed the adequacy of existing data sources have pointed to the financial implications of extensive alterations in them and have suggested new questions to be added to censuses and surveys to fill gaps in information. Studies based on census data have been particularly effective in furthering understanding of the supply of labor in Mexico and the factors affecting behavior of the economically active population. Economic surveys have contributed to analysis of employment in the different sectors and the characteristics of workers in different types of establishments and activities. Surveys, both specialized and multipurpose, have also contributed to knowledge of employment and the labor market, especially in urban areas and in aspects related to migration. To classify the different potential sources of labor force data, 2 tables are presented. The 1st lists continuous, periodic, and sporadic sources of data produced in the public, social, and private sectors. The listing of different data sources suggests the rich potential for combining findings from different sources, e.g., correlating deaths occurring in a certain time period to working age adults with information derived from the census to

  9. The effect of age and demographics on rib shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcombe, Sven A; Wang, Stewart C; Grotberg, James B

    2017-08-01

    Elderly populations have a higher risk of rib fractures and other associated thoracic injuries than younger adults, and the changes in body morphology that occur with age are a potential cause of this increased risk. Rib centroidal path geometry for 20 627 ribs was extracted from computed tomography (CT) scans of 1042 live adult subjects, then fitted to a six-parameter mathematical model that accurately characterizes rib size and shape, and a three-parameter model of rib orientation within the body. Multivariable regression characterized the independent effect of age, height, weight, and sex on the rib shape and orientation across the adult population, and statistically significant effects were seen from all demographic factors (P rib end-to-end separation and rib aspect ratio are seen to increase with age, producing elongated and flatter overall rib shapes in elderly populations, with age alone explaining up to 20% of population variability in the aspect ratio of mid-level ribs. Age was not strongly associated with overall rib arc length, indicating that age effects were related to shape change rather than overall bone length. The rib shape effect was found to be more strongly and directly associated with age than previously documented age-related changes in rib angulation. Other demographic results showed height and sex being most strongly associated with rib size, and weight most strongly associated with rib pump-handle angle. Results from the study provide a statistical model for building rib shapes typical of any given demographic by age, height, weight, and sex, and can be used to help build population-specific computational models of the thoracic rib cage. Furthermore, results also quantify normal population ranges for rib shape parameters which can be used to improve the assessment and treatment of rib skeletal deformity and disease. © 2017 Anatomical Society.

  10. The long goodbye: Age, demographics, and flexibility in retirement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David K. Foot

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The current literature on retirement decisions has given inadequate attention to the impacts of increasing life expectancy. This paper examines workforce aging and retirement within a framework that not only includes age, but also integrates increasing life expectancy into the discussion. Employee preference surveys regarding choice in retirement are supported by the demographic and by work-time compression arguments for retirement flexibility. We outlinearguments why partial-retirement policies would be a practical and timely transition strategy for organizations and societies in a world of increasing life expectancies and aging workforces,especially when facing the imminent retirement of the large post-war baby-boom generation.

  11. The long goodbye: Age, demographics, and flexibility in retirement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemary A. Venne

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The current literature on retirement decisions has given inadequate attention to the impacts of increasing life expectancy. This paper examines workforce aging and retirement within a framework that not only includes age, but also integrates increasing life expectancy into the discussion. Employee preference surveys regarding choice in retirement are supported by the demographic and by work-time compression arguments for retirement flexibility. We outlinearguments why partial-retirement policies would be a practical and timely transition strategy for organizations and societies in a world of increasing life expectancies and aging workforces,especially when facing the imminent retirement of the large post-war baby-boom generation.

  12. ECONOMIC PROBLEMS OF EUROPEAN UNION CAUSED BY THE DEMOGRAPHIC AGEING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulia-Alexandra Percă

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to offer a realistic perspective upon the imminent situation of demographic ageing issue in European Union. The forecasts are not reasons to major concern for the society but rather to become more responsible and not to neglect a problem that could affect our future. The demographic overview of Europe for 2011 – 2060 shows low birth rates, an increase in life expectancy and migration flows having an impact on population. As a result, the parent generation will no longer completely be replaced by the next generation of children and the narrowed active population will have to sustain a large number of persons far advanced in the age. Economic consequences of this social trend, such as increased expenditures on pensions, extended health care costs and the employment problems, are also discussed in order to define the best policy option available.

  13. Demographics, societal aging, and meat consumption in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MIN Shi; BAI Jun-fei; James Seale Jr; Thomas Wahl

    2015-01-01

    Drawn on the data col ected by surveying 1 340 urban households from six cities in China, this paper estimates the impacts of demographic structure and population aging on household meat consumption, by jointly considering meat consumed at home and away from home. Based on the trajectories of population, a simple simulation on meat demand trend in China is conducted subsequently. The results suggest:1) Meat consumed away from home averagely accounts for near 30%of household total meat consumption in terms of quantity, so that its omission likely leads to a signiifcant underestimate of total meat consumption and misunderstanding the driving forces;2) population aging signiifcantly and negatively affects per capita meat consumption, suggesting that the expected meat demand in China without considering population aging wil be overestimated. The ifndings from this study have important implications for better understanding the relative issues on China’s meat consumption under the situation of population aging.

  14. Demographic Data, US Census 2000 source data for Rhode Island exerpted from Summary File 1 (SF1) of Population & Housing information including sex, race, age, household and housing unit information to the Census Block level. The spatial base for this data set was derived f, Published in 2007, 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Demographic Data dataset, published at 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Road Centerline Files information as of 2007. It is described...

  15. Proximal attrition facets: morphometric, demographic, and aging characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarig, Rachel; Hershkovitz, Israel; Shvalb, Nir; Sella-Tunis, Tatiana; May, Hila; Vardimon, Alexander D

    2014-08-01

    Although interproximal attrition is considered to be limited in modern populations, it has important clinical implications. However, in contrast to occlusal attrition, proximal attrition receives limited scientific attention. The main purpose of the current study was to fill this void. Seven-hundred and sixty-five teeth were collected from 255 skulls of subjects 18-75 yr of age. For each individual, three mandibular teeth (the first and second premolars and the first molar) were examined for proximal attrition facets (PAFs). The results provide detailed information on the size, shape, and location of the facets according to age cohort, gender, and ethnicity. The validity of the method used to measure the facets was also examined. The major findings were as follows: PAFs are usually located on the upper half of the crown proximal aspect; in each tooth, the mesial facet is more lingually positioned and the distal facet is more buccally positioned; the majority of the facets are subrectangular in shape; the size of the facets tends to increase in an anteroposterior direction (from premolars to molars); and facet size and location are age- and sex-dependent and ethnicity-independent. It is our recommendation that dentists bear in mind that interproximal attrition is a dynamic, long-term process and needs to be considered in many clinical scenarios.

  16. Aging and demographic plasticity in response to experimental age structures in honeybees (Apis mellifera L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueppell, Olav; Linford, Robyn; Gardner, Preston; Coleman, Jennifer; Fine, Kari

    2008-08-01

    Honeybee colonies are highly integrated functional units characterized by a pronounced division of labor. Division of labor among workers is mainly age-based, with younger individuals focusing on in-hive tasks and older workers performing the more hazardous foraging activities. Thus, experimental disruption of the age composition of the worker hive population is expected to have profound consequences for colony function. Adaptive demography theory predicts that the natural hive age composition represents a colony-level adaptation and thus results in optimal hive performance. Alternatively, the hive age composition may be an epiphenomenon, resulting from individual life history optimization. We addressed these predictions by comparing individual worker longevity and brood production in hives that were composed of a single age cohort, two distinct age cohorts, and hives that had a continuous, natural age distribution. Four experimental replicates showed that colonies with a natural age composition did not consistently have a higher life expectancy and/or brood production than the single cohort or double cohort hives. Instead, a complex interplay of age structure, environmental conditions, colony size, brood production, and individual mortality emerged. A general trade-off between worker life expectancy and colony productivity was apparent, and the transition from in-hive tasks to foraging was the most significant predictor of worker lifespan irrespective of the colony age structure. We conclude that the natural age structure of honeybee hives is not a colony-level adaptation. Furthermore, our results show that honeybees exhibit pronounced demographic plasticity in addition to behavioral plasticity to react to demographic disturbances of their societies.

  17. Exploring Demographic Shifts: Aging and Migration Exploratory Group Model Specification & Simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pruyt, E.; Logtens, T.; Gijsbers, G.

    2011-01-01

    Plausible dynamics of a major demographic shift –(societal) aging– is studied in this paper, both from a global perspective and from a national perspective. Several economic, political and social implications of aging and aging-related demographic shifts are explored using System Dynamics models as

  18. WARFARE IN THE INFORMATION AGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurian GHERMAN

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on changes occurred in military organizations in Information Age. During Industrial Age the military structure of forces evolved according with principles of decomposition, specialization, hierarchy, optimization, deconfliction, centralized planning, and decentralized execution. But now the solutions based upon Industrial Age assumptions and practices will break down and fail in the Information Age. This will happen no matter how well intentioned, hardworking, or dedicated the leadership and the force are. Two key force capabilities needed by Information Age militaries are interoperability and agility. Both interoperability and agility are provided by Network centric warfare theory of war.

  19. Young adults' sources of contraceptive information: variations based on demographic characteristics and sexual risk behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurana, Atika; Bleakley, Amy

    2015-02-01

    Sexual information sources used by young adults can influence their contraceptive knowledge and behaviors, yet little is known about sources most frequently used by young adults, especially by groups with histories of sexual risk involvement. Nationally representative data from 1800 unmarried young adults, aged 18-29 years, were analyzed to (1) examine the sources of contraceptive information most frequently used by young adults and (2) assess variations (if any) in source use based on demographic characteristics and sexual risk history (determined based on past sexual behaviors). "Doctors/nurses" was the most frequently used contraceptive information source reported by young adults. Significant variations existed in source use based on demographic characteristics and sexual risk history. Females were more likely to obtain contraceptive information from health care professionals, whereas males were more likely to report friends, partners, internet and television/radio as their frequently used source. Young adults with a sexual risk history were more likely to rely on doctors/nurses and less likely to report friends and internet as their frequently used source than those without a sexual risk history. Receiving contraceptive information from doctors/nurses was associated with greater accuracy in knowledge about contraceptive use and efficacy as compared to all other sources. Young adults' use of specific contraceptive information sources can vary based on their demographic characteristics and sexual risk involvement. Future research should identify better strategies to connect young adults, especially young males, with sexual risk histories to more reliable sources of information. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Social Work Leadership and Aging: Meeting the Demographic Imperative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisco, Sarah; Volland, Patricia; Gorin, Stephen

    2005-01-01

    In 2003 nine aging and social work organizations--Council on Social Work Education, NASW, the National Association of Deans and Directors of Schools of Social Work, the Association of Baccalaureate Program Directors, the Society for Social Work and Research, Institute for the Advancement of Social Work Research, the Action Network for Social Work…

  1. Adaptation, aging, and genomic information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Michael R

    2009-05-21

    Aging is not simply an accumulation of damage or inappropriate higher-order signaling, though it does secondarily involve both of these subsidiary mechanisms. Rather, aging occurs because of the extensive absence of adaptive genomic information required for survival to, and function at, later adult ages, due to the declining forces of natural selection during adult life. This absence of information then secondarily leads to misallocations and damage at every level of biological organization. But the primary problem is a failure of adaptation at later ages. Contemporary proposals concerning means by which human aging can be ended or cured which are based on simple signaling or damage theories will thus reliably fail. Strategies based on reverse-engineering age-extended adaptation using experimental evolution and genomics offer the prospect of systematically greater success.

  2. Evacuee Compliance Behavior Analysis using High Resolution Demographic Information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Wei [ORNL; Han, Lee [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Liu, Cheng [ORNL; Tuttle, Mark A [ORNL; Bhaduri, Budhendra L [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine whether evacuee compliance behavior with route assignments from different resolutions of demographic data would impact the evacuation performance. Most existing evacuation strategies assume that travelers will follow evacuation instructions, while in reality a certain percent of evacuees do not comply with prescribed instructions. In this paper, a comparison study of evacuation assignment based on Traffic Analysis Zones (TAZ) and high resolution LandScan USA Population Cells (LPC) were conducted for the detailed road network representing Alexandria, Virginia. A revised platform for evacuation modeling built on high resolution demographic data and activity-based microscopic traffic simulation is proposed. The results indicate that evacuee compliance behavior affects evacuation efficiency with traditional TAZ assignment, but it does not significantly compromise the efficiency with high resolution LPC assignment. The TAZ assignment also underestimates the real travel time during evacuation, especially for high compliance simulations. This suggests that conventional evacuation studies based on TAZ assignment might not be effective at providing efficient guidance to evacuees. From the high resolution data perspective, traveler compliance behavior is an important factor but it does not impact the system performance significantly. The highlight of evacuee compliance behavior analysis should be emphasized on individual evacuee level route/shelter assignments, rather than the whole system performance.

  3. [Demographic aging and social security. The insufficiency of old age pensions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham Chande, R

    1993-01-01

    The demographic transition is leading to demographic aging in Mexico, as lower fertility and greater life expectancy combine to produce absolute and percentage increases in the elderly population. Concern is growing about satisfying the material needs of the elderly population. Only a few developed countries are able to furnish adequate pensions to their retired workers through social security systems. In Mexico, class inequity is a greater determinant of the level of pension coverage than is generational solidarity. Mexico's 1990 census showed that the population of 81,250,000 was comprised of 24,517,000 economically active and 56,733,000 inactive persons. Of the 24,517,000 economically active, 7,282,000 mostly lower level employees and laborers were affiliated only with the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS). 2,308,000 were covered by the IMSS and one of the complementary pension systems sponsored by the largest and most organized private companies. 2,629,000 were entitled to pensions through public sector employment and 584,000 through quasipublic employment. The remaining 11,571,000 had no rights to a pension. In other words, 47% of the labor force was not covered by any retirement pension system. 375,000 of the 5,007,000 persons over age 60 in the economically inactive population had some sort of pension from the IMSS. In 1990, 92% received the minimum pension, equivalent to 70% of the minimum salary. 229,000 had an IMSS pension and a complementary private pension. 196,000 pensioners in the public sector received an average pension of 1.5 times the minimum salary. 66,000 retired workers in quasipublic enterprises received pensions with automatic adjustments for inflation that frequently equaled 20 times the minimum salary. The total number of recipients of pensions of all types was 888,000,leaving 4,119,000 persons over 60 with no pension. Because of the deficiencies of the social security system, families must continue to be the institution that aids

  4. Forecasting the Effects of Raising the Retirement Age on Russia’s Demographic Struc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Vital’evna Chistova

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper assesses the possibility of raising the retirement age to mitigate the effects of ageing on the pension system of Russia. The authors make demographic forecasts based on hypotheses about the presence of global demographic trends in population reproduction and manifestations of development features specific for Russia. The demographic forecast is based on the age shifting method according to three scenarios. The forecast takes into account the provisions of a draft law that has already been approved and that provides for a gradual increase in age limit for civil servants, both men and women, to 65 years (by six months each year. The following assumption is made for the purpose of studying the effects of raising the retirement age to 65 years for all categories of Russian citizens. The increase in the retirement age begins in 2016 at the rate of 6 months per year, and it will end for men in 2026 and for women – in 2036. Thus, by 2036, the official retirement age will be 65 years for both sexes. The resulting forecasts show that population ageing in Russia is an inevitable process. Depending on whether demographic processes are in line with global trends or whether certain specific Russian features of development are revealed, ageing process will occur in the first case – “from above”, in the second case – “from below”. The forecast has confirmed a well-known paradox that if the situation regarding the decline in mortality is improved further, as has happened in recent years, then the pace of ageing that negatively affects the balance of the pension system will be even higher, at least in the medium term. Forecast calculations have shown that, first, demographic burden on the working population will continue to increase under any demographic development scenario implemented in Russia, and most significantly, under a scenario that describes a successful demographic policy. Second, the number of retirement age women is a

  5. College Students' Health Information Activities on Facebook: Investigating the Impacts of Health Topic Sensitivity, Information Sources, and Demographics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syn, Sue Yeon; Kim, Sung Un

    2016-07-01

    College students tend to lack access to health information. Because social networking sites (SNSs) are popularly adopted by college students, SNSs are considered to be good media channels for college students to obtain health-related information. This study examines the factors that influence college students' health information-seeking and -sharing activities on Facebook. An online survey was distributed to college students between the ages of 18 and 29 to determine intentions pertaining to health information activities according to the factors identified for the study. The factors included both contextual factors (such as health topic sensitivity and health information sources) as well as user factors (such as demographics). Our findings showed that college students are willing to read and post health-related information on Facebook when the health topic is not sensitive. In addition, there are clear differences in preferences between professional sources and personal sources as health information sources. It was found that most user factors, except gender, have no influence on health information activities. The impacts of SNS contexts, awareness of information sources, types of interlocutors, and privacy concerns are further discussed.

  6. Hope and Adaptation to Old Age: Their Relationship with Individual-Demographic Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraitou, Despina; Kolovou, Chrysa; Papasozomenou, Chrysa; Paschoula, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between hope as disposition, adaptation to old age, and individual-demographic factors. One hundred and fifty older adults, aged 60-93 years old, completed the Adult Dispositional Hope Scale developed by Snyder et AL. [1991, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60, pp. 570-585], and the Adaptation to…

  7. [Association of socio-demographic factors with the age at death due to cardiovascular diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, Juan; Lavanderos, Sebastián; Riquelme, Camilo; Morales, Andrea

    2016-11-01

    The association of cardiovascular diseases with socio-demographic factors has not been fully explored. To analyze the association of socio-demographic features with the survival time of individuals who died due to cardiovascular diseases. The death registries published by the Ministry of Health were analyzed. All deaths due to cardiovascular diseases occurred between 2001 and 2013 in people aged over one year were considered. Using a principal component analysis, the age at death was associated with socio-demographic features such as sex, marital status, residence zone, schooling, work status and medical care prior to death. A total of 293,370 cardiovascular deaths were analyzed. The median age at death was 77 years. Not receiving medical care prior to death, was significantly associated with a lower age at the moment of the decease, mainly between 20 and 80 years of age. Among men, being occupationally active (hazard ratio (HR = 1.5 p Socio-demographic profiles are associated with the age at death due to cardiovascular diseases. The effect of not receiving medical care on the age at death is noteworthy and reflects social inequities in the access to health care.

  8. Demographic Data, US Census 2000 source data for Rhode Island excerpted from Summary File 3 (SF3) of Population, Housing & Economic information including sex, race, age, employment, transportation, education, income, household, family, housing unit, place of birth and lang, Published in 2007, 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Demographic Data dataset, published at 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Road Centerline Files information as of 2007. It is described...

  9. Demographic Recommendation by means of Group Profile Elicitation Using Speaker Age and Gender Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shepstone, Sven Ewan; Tan, Zheng-Hua; Jensen, Søren Holdt

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we show a new method of using automatic age and gender recognition to recommend a sequence of multimedia items to a home TV audience comprising multiple viewers. Instead of relying on explicitly provided demographic data for each user, we define an audio-based demographic group......, which itself is the input to a recommender system. The recommender system finds the content items whose demographics best match the group profile. We tested the effectiveness of the system for several typical home audience configurations. In a survey, users were given a configuration and asked to rate...... a set of advertisements on how well each advertisement matched the configuration. Unbeknown to the subjects, half of the adverts were recommended using the derived audio demographics and the other half were randomly chosen. The recommended adverts received a significantly higher median rating of 7...

  10. The Risk of Imbalances in the Financing of Social Protection in the Context of Demographic Ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vergil Voineagu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the next decades, developed countries will experience dramatic changes in their demographic trends. The retirement of the wide baby-boom generations, the increase in life expectancy and the decline in fertility ratios are likely to modify the size and the age-structure of their populations. The expected population ageing in European countries will burden the pension systems, especially wherever the pay-as-you-go pillar is predominant. Recently, migration has received a widespread attention as a solution to expected population decline and ageing in these countries. The flow of (young migrants to developed countries is perceived as a means to alleviate the financial burden of pension systems. The aim of this contribution is to clarify the issue of aging on labour and capital markets in a macroeconomic perspective. A special attention is given to the risk of imbalances in the financing of social protection in the context of demographic ageing.

  11. Thinking about The Information Age

    OpenAIRE

    Antony Bryant

    2014-01-01

    In late October 2014, a new exhibition opened at The Science Museum in London. Titled “The Information Age: Six Networks That Changed Our World” [1], the exhibition received widespread publicity when it was opened by Queen Elizabeth who used this as the opportunity to send her first tweet, using the account @BritishMonarchy.[...

  12. Socio-Demographic Determinants of Economic Growth: Age-Structure, Preindustrial Heritage and Sociolinguistic Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crenshaw, Edward; Robison, Kristopher

    2010-01-01

    This study establishes a socio-demographic theory of international development derived from selected classical and contemporary sociological theories. Four hypotheses are tested: (1. population growth's effect on development depends on age-structure; (2. historic population density (used here as an indicator of preindustrial social complexity)…

  13. Los Ancianos: The Aging of the Hispanic Community. A Preliminary Demographic Profile. Project Anciano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubillos, Herminia L.

    A demographic profile of the aged Hispanic community, a growing population, is provided. Such socioeconomic data on the Hispanic elderly are needed for developing public policies and programs to meet their growing needs. The following topics are presented: (1) changes in the population; (2) living arrangements; (3) education; (4) employment; (5)…

  14. Socio-Demographic Determinants of Economic Growth: Age-Structure, Preindustrial Heritage and Sociolinguistic Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crenshaw, Edward; Robison, Kristopher

    2010-01-01

    This study establishes a socio-demographic theory of international development derived from selected classical and contemporary sociological theories. Four hypotheses are tested: (1. population growth's effect on development depends on age-structure; (2. historic population density (used here as an indicator of preindustrial social complexity)…

  15. Climatic influence on demographic parameters of a tropical seabird varies with age and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oro, Daniel; Torres, Roxana; Rodríguez, Cristina; Drummond, Hugh

    2010-04-01

    In marine ecosystems climatic fluctuation and other physical variables greatly influence population dynamics, but differential effects of physical variables on the demographic parameters of the two sexes and different age classes are largely unexplored. We analyzed the effects of climate on the survival and recruitment of both sexes and several age classes of a long-lived tropical seabird, the Blue-footed Booby (Sula nebouxii), using long-term observations on marked individuals. Results demonstrated a complex interaction between yearly fluctuations in climate (both local and global indexes, during both winter and breeding season) and the sex and age of individuals. Youngest birds' survival and recruitment were commonly affected by local climate, whereas oldest birds' parameters tended to be constant and less influenced by environmental variables. These results confirm the theoretical prediction that sex- and age-related variation in life-history demographic traits is greater under poor environmental conditions, and they highlight the importance of including variability in fitness components in demographic and evolutionary models. Males and females showed similar variation in survival but different recruitment patterns, in relation to both age and the spatial scale of climatic influence (local or global). Results indicate different life-history tactics for each sex and different ages, with birds likely trying to maximize their fitness by responding to the environmental contingencies of each year.

  16. ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL ASPECTS OF THE DEMOGRAPHIC AGEING PROCESS IN THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga SÂRBU

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of this paper consists in analyzing economic and social aspects of demographic aging process in Moldova. To interpret the accumulated data and calculations performed analytical method of calculation tabular method and graphical method was applied. Intense process of aging is associated with changes in all spheres of social and economic life and affects equally the interests of older people and society as a whole. In Republic of Moldova aging population has grown in the last two decades, being conditioned both declining birth rate, which is very low and does not provide simple reproduction of the population and the mass migration of population that leads to the depopulation of the country. Maintaining the natural and migration increase with negative values amplifies the negative demographic deterioration of the country, which influences economic development, competitiveness and stability of the country and welfare of its citizens. In this situation it is necessary to respond positively to the challenges of demographic change through the complex and multisectoral approaches designed to correct current unfavorable demographic evolutions.

  17. [The consequences of the demographic revolution and of the aging of society: restructuring the age groups and modifying intergenerational relations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loriaux, M

    1995-01-01

    The consequences of demographic aging in developed societies are examined. The author notes that "demographic aging has intensified over the last decades, bringing with it a significant modification in relationships between age groups and the sexes.... These changes in demographic structures bring with them the reorganization in intergenerational relations, the most spectacular instance of which...[is] the coexistence at the same time and in the same place of four or five generations of direct descendants." The author develops the hypothesis that a new attitude toward old age is needed in which "the social status of the elderly must be reinstated, and everything must be brought into play to encourage the integration of different age groups and intergenerational solidarity, so as to arrive in the best possible conditions at what [can be termed] the 'era of old age'...which will accompany the coming of the post-industrial society with its orientation toward the mass production of leisure and of services." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND SPA) excerpt

  18. Relationship Between Dietary Patterns and Socio- Demographic or Lifestyle Factors in Urban School- Aged Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huan WANG; Yun CHEN; Wei CHEN; Ai ZHAO; Yu-mei ZHANG; Zhi-shen MU

    2014-01-01

    Objective To identify the dietary patterns in urban school-aged children in China and determine the relations with socio-demographic or lifestyle factors.MethodsA total of 620 school-aged children from 7 cities in China were recruited in a cross-sectional study and their dietary data over the preceding 6 months were recorded via questionnaire between 2011-2012. The dietary patterns were identified using principal components analysis. Mann-Whitney U or Kruskal-Walis H test was preformed to reveal the relationship between dietary patterns and socio-demographic or lifestyle characteristics. Results Three major dietary patterns were identified. The traditional pattern had high positive relationships with grains, potatoes, vegetables, fruits, vegetables and soybeans/soybean products. The high-protein pattern was characterized by large positive coefficient for fruits, fish/shrimps, eggs, milk/milk products, soybeans/soybean products and salt. The oil/fat and beverage pattern with highly related with grains, meat/poultry, eggs, oil/fat, salt and beverages. The relationships between the dietary patterns and various socio-demographic or lifestyle characteristics were analyzed.Conclusion Three dietary patterns were identified. A clear association was found between the dietary patterns and socio-demographic or lifestyle characteristics.

  19. Socio-demographic differences in risk information seeking sources for non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houser, Shannon H; Au, David W; Miller, Michael J; Chen, Lang; Outman, Ryan C; Ray, Midge N; Saag, Kenneth G; Weech-Maldonado, Robert

    2016-10-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are frequently prescribed for musculoskeletal pain and inflammatory conditions. A better understanding of patient information seeking behavior can help bridge the gap between patient knowledge and health care resources. This study examines the primary sources of NSAID risk information and the associations with patient socio-demographic factors. A cross-sectional survey analysis of patients on prescription NSAIDs (n=220) seen by primary care physicians in Alabama. Bivariate and multivariable, multinomial logistic regression analyses were conducted to evaluate the associations among primary NSAID risk information sources used with patient socio-demographic factors. The primary patient source of information on NSAID risks was physician (57.3%), followed by internet (16.8%), pharmacist (16.4%), and other sources, such as nurses and family/friends (9.6%). Compared to people who use the internet as a primary source of NSAID risk information, patients who were Black/African-American (p=0.002) and 65 years of age or older (p=0.009) were more likely to use a physician. Older patients were also more likely to use a pharmacist (p=0.008) than the internet. In contrast, females (p=0.032) were less likely to use the pharmacist compared to the internet (p=0.032). Patients obtain information from a variety of sources, but primarily from health care providers. While the internet is a fast growing source of health information, socio-demographic disparities in internet use for seeking information exist. Health care providers should be aware of their patient preferences for information sources on medication risks to meet the age, race, and gender need differences of all patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Education, Elderly Health, and Differential Population Aging in South Korea: A Demographic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bongoh Kye

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Population aging proceeds with other socioeconomic developments, including educational expansion. Improvements in educational attainment lead to changes in demographic behaviors such as assortative mating, fertility, and the intergenerational transmission of education, which change the health of the elderly and the education of their offspring generation. Objective: We examine such a jointly-changing process in South Korea. Methods: We apply a recursive demographic model (Mare and Maralani 2006 by using the Korean Longitudinal Study of Ageing (KLoSA. Results: First, improvements in education lead to improvements in health among the elderly. Intermediate demographic factors make positive contributions to this improvement. Second, improvements in education lead to a decline in the ratios of offspring to the elderly because better-educated people have fewer children. However, this decrease is not substantial. Third, improvements in education increase the ratio of college-educated offspring to the unhealthy elderly because of improvements in both offspring's education and elderly health. Conclusions: The results suggest that improvements in education change configurations of the elderly and their offspring's generations, mitigating the negative consequences of population aging, such as increasing burdens of elderly support.

  1. Ageing dynamics of a human-capital-specific population: A demographic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimiter Philipov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Research on how rising human capital affects the consequences of population ageing rarely considers the fact that the human capital of the elderly population is composed in a specific way that is shaped by their earlier schooling and work experience. For an elderly population of a fixed size and age-sex composition, this entails that the higher its human capital, the greater the total amount of public pensions to be paid. Objective: The main purpose of this paper is to analyse the link between human capital and retiree benefits and its effect on population ageing from a demographic viewpoint. Methods: We construct an old age dependency ratio (OADR, in which each person, whether in the numerator or the denominator, is assigned the number of units corresponding to his/her level of human capital. Based on data for Italy, we study the dynamics of this human-capital-specific OADR with the help of multistate population projections to 2107. Results: Our results show that under specific conditions a constant or moderately growing human capital may aggravate the consequences of population ageing rather than alleviate them. Conclusions: With those findings, the authors would like to stimulate the debate on the search for demographic and/or socio-economic solutions to the challenges posed by population ageing.

  2. A Study of Age Demographics across the Aviation and Missile Materiel Enterprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-31

    future Aviation and Missile ME may look like. The Defense Civilian Personnel Data System (DCPDS) Human Resource managers across the Aviation and...Missile ME use the Defense Civilian Personnel Data System (DCPDS) as the warehouse for storing employee information. Each of the five organizations...Aviation and Missile Life Cycle Management Command Public Affairs, 25 April 2016 AVIATION AND MISSILE MATERIEL ENTERPRISE DEMOGRAPHICS 2

  3. Demographic Information Sources and Utilization as Determinants of Educational Policy Making in South Western Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gbadamosi, Belau Olatunde

    2013-01-01

    The paper examines demographic information sources and utilization as determinants of educational policy making in South West Nigeria. Using validated and structured questionnaire, the study population of 398 officers in the ministries of education in the affected states were enumerated. The study establishes population census, vital registration,…

  4. Demographic Information Sources and Utilization as Determinants of Educational Policy Making in South Western Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gbadamosi, Belau Olatunde

    2013-01-01

    The paper examines demographic information sources and utilization as determinants of educational policy making in South West Nigeria. Using validated and structured questionnaire, the study population of 398 officers in the ministries of education in the affected states were enumerated. The study establishes population census, vital registration,…

  5. U.S. consumer demand for restaurant calorie information: targeting demographic and behavioral segments in labeling initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodinsky, Jane; Reynolds, Travis William; Cannella, Mark; Timmons, David; Bromberg, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    To identify different segments of U.S. consumers based on food choices, exercise patterns, and desire for restaurant calorie labeling. Using a stratified (by region) random sample of the U.S. population, trained interviewers collected data for this cross-sectional study through telephone surveys. Center for Rural Studies U.S. national health survey. The final sample included 580 responses (22% response rate); data were weighted to be representative of age and gender characteristics of the U.S. population. Self-reported behaviors related to food choices, exercise patterns, desire for calorie information in restaurants, and sample demographics. Clusters were identified using Schwartz Bayesian criteria. Impacts of demographic characteristics on cluster membership were analyzed using bivariate tests of association and multinomial logit regression. Cluster analysis revealed three clusters based on respondents' food choices, activity levels, and desire for restaurant labeling. Two clusters, comprising three quarters of the sample, desired calorie labeling in restaurants. The remaining cluster opposed restaurant labeling. Demographic variables significantly predicting cluster membership included region of residence (p restaurant calorie labeling. Specific demographic clusters could be targeted through labeling initiatives.

  6. Retirees and employees ratio in the context of demographic ageing in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojilković Jelena

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Retirees, as a group of economically inactive population, are especially important for future population trends, since their number is constantly growing. Our pension and disability insurance fund has a problem managing unfavorable socioeconomic trends and demographic reality, considering that the number of employees is steadily declining. Employee to retiree ratio has been affected by serious changes during the last half a century, and it declined from 5:1 in 1960s to 1,4:1 nowadays. This is a result of population ageing (life expectancy rising and dropping of total fertility rate and unrestrictive law that allowed pensions to those who didn't deserve it (the share of disability retirees is significantly higher than that in other countries. An additional issue is the fact that baby boom generations are a few years away from the legal age acquired for the age pension. The data used in this paper are provided by the pension and disability fund. .

  7. Socio-economic and demographic variations in school lunch participation of French children aged 3-17 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubuisson, Carine; Lioret, Sandrine; Dufour, Ariane; Calamassi-Tran, Gloria; Volatier, Jean-Luc; Lafay, Lionel; Turck, Dominique

    2011-02-01

    To assess school canteen attendance in a French nationally representative sample of children and to analyse its association with the socio-economic and demographic characteristics of the children and their families. Data from the second French national cross-sectional food consumption survey (INCA2), performed in 2006-2007, were used. Information on usual weekly school canteen attendance was collected through a self-reported questionnaire, and demographic and socio-economic variables through a face-to-face questionnaire. The associations between school canteen attendance and the socio-economic and demographic variables were investigated by multivariate logistic regression analyses. The INCA2 sample was representative of the children aged 3-17 years in France. Analysis was performed on 1413 schoolchildren who completed the school canteen attendance questions. Some 65·6 % of schoolchildren aged 3-17 years had school lunch at least once weekly. This rate of attendance was positively correlated with age. Whatever the school level, school canteen attendance was positively associated with the educational level of the caregiver/parent. In pre- and elementary-school children, enrolment at the school canteen was also higher when the caregiver/parent worked, or in single-parent families. In secondary-school children, school lunch participation decreased with children living in more densely populated areas and increased with the level of the household's living standards. School canteen attendance was positively associated with children's socio-economic background. This could reduce the effectiveness of the forthcoming school meal composition regulations designed to improve the diet of children from deprived backgrounds, who are more likely to have unhealthy food habits.

  8. The Information Age vs. Gender Equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, Suzanne

    1999-01-01

    Considers gender equity in libraries and library education, particularly the identification of men with information science experience involving computers. Discusses the history of gender imbalance in library education; computers and gender; changes in library education; demographic implications of curriculum changes; the use of adjuncts; library…

  9. Changing the balance of social care for older people: simulating scenarios under demographic ageing in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lay-Yee, Roy; Pearson, Janet; Davis, Peter; von Randow, Martin; Kerse, Ngaire; Brown, Laurie

    2017-05-01

    The demographic ageing of New Zealand society, as elsewhere in the developed world, has dramatically increased the proportion of older people (aged 65 years and over) in the population. This has major policy implications for the future organisation of social care. Our objective was to test the effects on social care use, first, of putative changes in the overall disability profile of older people, and second, of alterations to the balance of their care, i.e. whether it was community-based or residential. In order to undertake these experiments, we developed a microsimulation model of the later life course using individual-level data from two official national survey series on health and disability, respectively, to generate a synthetic version which replicated original data and parameter settings. A baseline projection under current settings from 2001 to 2021 showed moderate increases in disability and associated social care use. Artificially decreasing disability levels, below the baseline projection, only moderately reduced the use of community care (both informal and formal). Scenarios implemented by rebalancing towards informal care use moderately reduced formal care use. However, only moderate compensatory increases in community-based care were required to markedly decrease the transition to residential care. The disability impact of demographic ageing may not have a major negative effect on system resources in developed countries like New Zealand. As well as healthy ageing, changing the balance of social care may alleviate the impact of increasing demand due to an expanding population of older people. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Demographic Trends of Adults in New York City Opioid Treatment Programs--An Aging Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Benjamin; Polydorou, Soteri; Ferris, Rosie; Blaum, Caroline S; Ross, Stephen; McNeely, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    The population of adults accessing opioid treatment is growing older, but exact estimates vary widely, and little is known about the characteristics of the aging treatment population. Further, there has been little research regarding the epidemiology, healt h status, and functional impairments in this population. To determine the utilization of opioid treatment services by older adults in New York City. This study used administrative data from New York State licensed drug treatment programs to examine overall age trends and characteristics of older adults in opioid treatment programs in New York City from 1996 to 2012. We found significant increases in utilization of opioid treatment programs by older adults in New York City. By 2012, those aged 50-59 made up the largest age group in opioid treatment programs. Among older adults there were notable shifts in demographic background including gender and ethnicity, and an increase in self-reported impairments. More research is needed to fully understand the specific characteristics and needs of older adults with opioid dependence.

  11. Economic implications of Japan's aging population: a macro-economic demographic modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, N

    1982-01-01

    This paper utilizes a macroeconomic demographic model to analyze the probable impact of population aging on various public programs in Japan. Rapid fertility decline aided by mortality decline has caused the proportion of the Japanese population aged 65 and over to increase from 4.9% in 1950 to 9.0% in 1980. A population projection based on the 1975 population census assumes a recovery of fertility from a total fertility rate (TFR) of 1.9 in 1976 to 2.16 in 1980 and a gradual decline to 2.1 by 1987, while an alternative projection assumes a continuing fertility decline to a TFR of 1.65 in 2025. According to these assumptions, in 2025 18.12% to 21.29% of the total population would be aged 65 or over and 38.66% to 43.80% of the working age population would be aged 45-64. A macroeconomic neoclassical growth model with some Keynesian features was formulated to evaluate the future impact of population aging on social security programs. Population changes are transmitted to economic variables in the model through the supply of labor, level of savings, public health care plans, and old-age pension schemes. The simulation experiments included the 2 population projections and 2 alternative production functions, 1 with the quality of labor incorporated and 1 without. The results indicated that, regardless of the population projection and production function used, the growth of the economy is likely to slow to 1 or 0% in the beginning of the next century due to decreased growth of the labor force and a change in its quality due to age-compositional variations. Public health insurance schemes and pension plans will require increasing financial resources as a result of accelerated population aging; depending on the choice of benefit levels, the proportion of national income allocated to them is expected to range from 14%-40% in the year 2010. Per capita gross national product will continue to grow despite decreased economic growth, but savings might be adversely affected if the

  12. Impact of demographic ageing on sustainability of public finance in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdravković Aleksandar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Population ageing is a global phenomenon without precedent in the history of humanity having implications in all facets of life. From an economic point of view, population ageing is certainly one of the biggest challenges of modern time. A consequence of these global demographic tendencies reflected in growing number of pensioners which negatively affects sustainability of public pension systems financed by the principle of intergenerational solidarity (Pay-As-You-Go - widely represented in public pension schemes of European countries. In this paper, impact of demographic ageing on pension systems is analyzed in the context of sustainability of public finance in Serbia in the period 2010-2050. Although the comparative analysis of the pension expenditure share in gross domestic product (GDP does not point to significant differences between Serbia and the countries in the neighborhood and the European Union, the growth trend of subsidizing the Pension Fund from the government budget endangers medium-term sustainability of the public pension system in Serbia, bearing in mind that the implementation of measures proposed in pension reforms can be valorized only in the long run. The main objective of the analysis is projecting long-term pension expenditure as a share of GDP. The projections were formed indirectly by modeling the average pension expenditure, because this variable incorporates both growth in the total pension expenditure and growth in the number of pensioners as a result of demographic trends, and better reflects the actual growth of pension expenditure. For the purposes of the analysis, in addition to the projection of real GDP growth, size of the inactive population aged 65 and over, as the main contingent of the pension system users and the total number of pensioners, was projected by means of stochastic cohort component methodology. Based on these projections and assumptions about the growth rate of average pension expenditure

  13. Who theorizes age? The "socio-demographic variables" device and age-period-cohort analysis in the rhetoric of survey research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rughiniș, Cosima; Humă, Bogdana

    2015-12-01

    In this paper we argue that quantitative survey-based social research essentializes age, through specific rhetorical tools. We outline the device of 'socio-demographic variables' and we discuss its argumentative functions, looking at scientific survey-based analyses of adult scientific literacy, in the Public Understanding of Science research field. 'Socio-demographics' are virtually omnipresent in survey literature: they are, as a rule, used and discussed as bundles of independent variables, requiring little, if any, theoretical and measurement attention. 'Socio-demographics' are rhetorically effective through their common-sense richness of meaning and inferential power. We identify their main argumentation functions as 'structure building', 'pacification', and 'purification'. Socio-demographics are used to uphold causal vocabularies, supporting the transmutation of the descriptive statistical jargon of 'effects' and 'explained variance' into 'explanatory factors'. Age can also be studied statistically as a main variable of interest, through the age-period-cohort (APC) disambiguation technique. While this approach has generated interesting findings, it did not mitigate the reductionism that appears when treating age as a socio-demographic variable. By working with age as a 'socio-demographic variable', quantitative researchers convert it (inadvertently) into a quasi-biological feature, symmetrical, as regards analytical treatment, with pathogens in epidemiological research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Socio-economic and demographic factors related to HIV status in urban informal settlements in the Eastern Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenkamp, Liana; Venter, Danie; Walsh, Corinna; Dana, Pelisa

    2014-09-01

    The prevalence of HIV&AIDS is embedded in social and economic inequity and the relationship between social determinants and HIV incidence is well established. The aim of this study was to determine which socio-economic and demographic factors are related to HIV status in the age group 18 to 49 years in informal settlements in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 3 informal settlements (n = 752) during March 2013 within the Nelson Mandela Bay and Buffalo City districts. A proportional cluster sample was selected and stratified by area and formal plot/squatter households in open areas. Respondents who volunteered to participate had to provide informed written consent before trained, bilingual peer educators interviewed them and completed the structured questionnaire. HIV status was determined and information on demographic and socio-economic variables was included in the bivariate analysis. The prevalence of HIV was higher, at 17.3%, than the 2011 estimated national prevalence among the general population in South Africa. The level of education (χ(2) = 5.50, df = 1, p food insecurity (χ(2) = 4.77, df = 1, p < 0.05), cooking with cast iron pots (χ(2) = 15.0, df = 3, p < 0.05) and availability of perceived 'wealth' indicators like mobile telephones and refrigerators (χ(2) = 9.67, df = 2, p < 0.05) were significantly associated with HIV-status. No significant associations could be demonstrated between household income, the number of people living in the household and the availability of electricity/water and HIV status. As the observed levels of HIV prevalence underlined gender bias and failure to graduate from high school, future interventions should focus on HIV prevention in female schoolchildren. However, HIV infection is also prevalent among wealthier individuals in informal settlements, which indicates that renewed efforts should be made to improve sexual risk behaviour within this group.

  15. The digital divide: Examining socio-demographic factors associated with health literacy, access and use of internet to seek health information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estacio, Emee Vida; Whittle, Rebecca; Protheroe, Joanne

    2017-02-01

    This article aims to examine the socio-demographic characteristics associated with access and use of Internet for health-related purposes and its relationship with health literacy. Data were drawn from a health literacy survey ( N = 1046) and analysed using logistic regression. Results show a strong association between health literacy, internet access and use. Socio-demographic characteristics particularly age, education, income, perceived health and social isolation also predict internet access. Thus, in addition to widening access, the movement towards digitisation of health information and services should also consider digital skills development to enable people to utilise digital technology more effectively, especially among traditionally hard-to-reach communities.

  16. Oral health related to demographic features in Bosnian children aged six.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratbegović, Amra Arslanagić; Marković, Nina; Zukanović, Amila; Kobaslija, Sedin; Dragas, Mediha Selimović; Jurić, Hrvoje

    2010-09-01

    The main aim of this paper is to present epidemiological indicators of oral health among six-year olds in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BH) and to analyze values of dmft index and dental treatment needs in order to identify differences in parts of the country. Another aim is to identify the needs from the public oral health care system in Bosnia and Herzegovina related to early permanent dentition by analyzing the condition of first permanent molars (FPM) as an indicator of oral health of permanent dentition. Survey was carried out in 2004 in 8 cantons of the Federation of BH (FBH) and in the Republic of Srpska (RS). Final sample included 560 participants aged six (mean 6.2, SD +/- 0.87). One dental team clinically examined all participants according to WHO methodology and criteria. The parameters used were: dmft index, DMFT index of first permanent molars (FPM), presence of sealants and treatment needs. A questionnaire about oral health habits had been administered. Dmft was 6.71 in that the d-component constituted the major part of the index. DMFT index of FPM was 0.61 (SD +/- 1.08). Percentage of caries free participants aged 6 was 6.8%. Average number of FPM with fissure sealants in BH was 0.25 (SD +/- 0.78). Significant demographic differences in dmft index, DMFT FPM and treatment needs were identified. Most participants (48.5%) had their first dental visit between the ages of five and seven. National oral health goal for Bosnia and Herzegovina should be to develop and implement disease prevention programs based on education of both parents and dental practitioners. It is necessary to improve access to dental care and shift focus from curative to preventive procedures. It is also necessary to set real goals for improvement of oral health which can be achieved within a desired time frame, as well as to precisely define measures to be taken.

  17. Using a generalised identity reference model with archetypes to support interoperability of demographics information in electronic health record systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu Chen; Berry, Damon; Stephens, Gaye

    2015-01-01

    Computerised identity management is in general encountered as a low-level mechanism that enables users in a particular system or region to securely access resources. In the Electronic Health Record (EHR), the identifying information of both the healthcare professionals who access the EHR and the patients whose EHR is accessed, are subject to change. Demographics services have been developed to manage federated patient and healthcare professional identities and to support challenging healthcare-specific use cases in the presence of diverse and sometimes conflicting demographic identities. Demographics services are not the only use for identities in healthcare. Nevertheless, contemporary EHR specifications limit the types of entities that can be the actor or subject of a record to health professionals and patients, thus limiting the use of two level models in other healthcare information systems. Demographics are ubiquitous in healthcare, so for a general identity model to be usable, it should be capable of managing demographic information. In this paper, we introduce a generalised identity reference model (GIRM) based on key characteristics of five surveyed demographic models. We evaluate the GIRM by using it to express the EN13606 demographics model in an extensible way at the metadata level and show how two-level modelling can support the exchange of instances of demographic identities. This use of the GIRM to express demographics information shows its application for standards-compliant two-level modelling alongside heterogeneous demographics models. We advocate this approach to facilitate the interoperability of identities between two-level model-based EHR systems and show the validity and the extensibility of using GIRM for the expression of other health-related identities.

  18. Demographic features and premorbid personality disorder traits in relation to age of onset and sex in paranoid schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skokou, Maria; Gourzis, Philippos

    2014-03-30

    Personality disorders in the premorbid period of schizophrenia and particularly in relation to age of onset and sex, seem to be a rather under-researched area. In the present study, 88 patients with paranoid schizophrenia were examined, regarding demographic characteristics and premorbid personality disorder traits, in order to investigate for differences in the premorbid period of the disease, in relation to age of onset and sex. Age cutoff points were set at paranoid schizophrenia.

  19. Socio-Demographic Variables and Successful Aging of the Angolan Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Galiana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The proportion of elderly people is growing faster than any other age group. Amongst them, the group of oldest old is indeed the segment of the elderly population with the fastest growth rate. The increase in the proportion of elderly in the Angolan population makes research on this area badly needed. Within the theoretical framework of successful aging, the study aims to test for sociodemographic group differences in perceived health, life satisfaction, and social relations in Angolan elderly. The dependent variables are three of the components of what has been called successful aging. Data came from a cross-sectional survey of elderly people living in Luanda. 1003 Angolan elderly were surveyed on sociodemographic information, perceived health, life satisfaction, and social support. MANOVAs were calculated to test for mean differences in the dependent variables. Results permit to conclude that the factors associated with the largest differences on the Angolan elderly’s quality of life and social relations were age (becoming oldest old and institutionalization. The interactions of several factors with age pointed out that the oldest old were clearly a group in which the decreased quality of life due to becoming oldest old could not be compensated by other factors, as it was the case in the group of young old.

  20. SOCIO - DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILE OF OLD AGE PEOPLE LIVING IN URBAN & URBAN SLUM AREAS IN MAHARASHTRA, KARAD: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leena Rahul Salunkhe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available NTRODUCTION: Aging refers to normal, progressive and irreversible biological changes that occur over an individual’s life span. The advancement of medical science and increased awareness among the people has brought about a sharp decline in mortality and a steady decline in fertility. This has resulted in a worldwide shift in the demographic profile and has led to significant increase in the aged population. About two thirds of all older people are concentrated in the developing world. OBJECTIVES: to study & compare socio - demographic variables of old age people living in Urban & Urban slum areas. MATERIAL & METHODS: all the old age people living in urb a n slum area & rando mly selected one urban area of K arad town were interviewed by using pre structured proforma about socio - demographic variable & compared with each other. OBSERVATIONS: Total 153 from urban & 135 from urban slum were enrolled for the study. Nearly 2/3 rd subjects were above age 65yrs in both areas with more female proportions in slum area than urban area. Significant difference was found with education, occupation & socio - economic status in both areas. CONCLUSION: Ageing is a universal phenomenon, with advanced fertility control, improvement in health and social services life expectancy has increased. Ageing has profound effect on the individual status in the family, the work force, goals and organization of health, social services, policies and practices of the government

  1. [Information conception of the control at aging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban'kov, V I; Miakotnykh, V S; Talankina, N Z; Lespukh, N I; Borovkova, T A

    2004-01-01

    The exchange of energy between organism and environment perhaps may be to describe with help "entropia"--notion of thermodynamics. Point of view information technologies authors suggest to use "factor of controls", which work with help principle of reverse biological connection. This principle may be to use for control aging, when complicated modulated electromagnetic (information) field has regulationing negative entropic component. There are three principles of information control. All principles have on the basis of utilization by quantitative exponents of functional asymmetry.

  2. LBL Socio-Economic Environmental-Demographic Information System (SEEDIS). Chart: graphic analysis and display system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sventek, V.A.

    1978-03-01

    The Chart Graphic Analysis and Display System was developed as part of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Socio-Economic-Environmental-Demographic Information System (SEEDIS) to provide a tool with which users could draw graphs, print tables of numbers, do analysis, and perform basic statistical operations on the same set of data from a terminal in their own office. The Chart system's operation is completely independent of the type of data being entered and has been used for applications ranging from employment to energy data. Users frequently save the data they put into Chart and add to it on a regular basis, and thereby create personal databases which can be blended with information from the formal databases maintained at LBL. Using any computer system requires that the user learn a set of instructions, which at the onset often seems overwhelming. It is the purpose of this workbook to make this initial learning process less traumatic. The typical use of Chart is to enter a set of numbers, and then tell Chart what should be done with them. Chart commands take the form of gruff pidgin English. There are approximately 50 commands available. This workbook illustrates the basic commands. (RWR)

  3. Dietary patterns of Australian children aged 14 and 24 months, and associations with socio-demographic factors and adiposity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, L K; Golley, R K; Daniels, L; Magarey, A M

    2013-06-01

    Previous research has shown, in predominantly European populations, that dietary patterns are evident early in life. However, little is known about early-life dietary patterns in Australian children. We aimed to describe dietary patterns of Australian toddlers and their associations with socio-demographic characteristics and adiposity. Principal component analysis was applied to 3 days (1 × 24-h recall and 2 × 24-h record) data of 14 (n=552)- and 24 (n=493)-month-old children from two Australian studies, NOURISH and South Australian Infant Dietary Intake (SAIDI). Associations with dietary patterns were investigated using regression analyses. Two patterns were identified at both ages. At 14 months, the first pattern was characterised by fruit, grains, vegetables, cheese and nuts/seeds ('14-month core foods') and the second pattern was characterised by white bread, milk, spreads, juice and ice-cream ('basic combination'). Similarly, at 24 months the '24-month core foods' pattern included fruit, vegetables, dairy, nuts/seeds, meat and water, whereas the 'non-core foods' included white bread, spreads, sweetened beverages, snacks, chocolate and processed meat. Lower maternal age and earlier breastfeeding cessation were associated with higher 'basic combination' and 'non-core foods' pattern scores, whereas earlier and later solid introduction were associated with higher 'basic combination' and '24-month core foods' pattern scores, respectively. Patterns were not associated with body mass index (BMI) z-score. Dietary patterns reflecting core and non-core food intake are identifiable in Australian toddlers. These findings support the need to intervene early with parents to promote healthy eating in children and can inform future investigations on the effects of early diet on long-term health.

  4. Leveraging age diversity in times of demographic change: the crucial role of leadership

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janz, K.; Buengeler, C.; Eckhoff, R.A.; Homan, A.C.; Voelpel, S.C.; Scott, C.L.; Byrd, M.Y.

    2012-01-01

    With demographic change, organizations today are seeing changes in societal make-up translated to the composition of their workforce. In the future, younger and older employees will have to work together synergistically to achieve good performance. The authors argue that it will be largely up to lea

  5. Leveraging age diversity in times of demographic change: the crucial role of leadership

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janz, K.; Buengeler, C.; Eckhoff, R.A.; Homan, A.C.; Voelpel, S.C.; Scott, C.L.; Byrd, M.Y.

    2012-01-01

    With demographic change, organizations today are seeing changes in societal make-up translated to the composition of their workforce. In the future, younger and older employees will have to work together synergistically to achieve good performance. The authors argue that it will be largely up to

  6. Demographic Change across the Globe: Maintaining Social Security in Ageing Economies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, M.; Groot, L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the fiscal pressure from demographic change in relation to the labor market space for fifty countries that cover 75% of the world population. The pressure-to-space indicator ranks Poland, Turkey and Greece high. Apart from Turkey and India, developing countries rank low due t

  7. Aging 2.0: health information about dementia on Twitter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie M Robillard

    Full Text Available Online social media is widespread, easily accessible and attracts a global audience with a widening demographic. As a large proportion of adults now seek health information online and through social media applications, communication about health has become increasingly interactive and dynamic. Online health information has the potential to significantly impact public health, especially as the population gets older and the prevalence of dementia increases. However, little is known about how information pertaining to age-associated diseases is disseminated on popular social media platforms. To fill this knowledge gap, we examined empirically: (i who is using social media to share information about dementia, (ii what sources of information about dementia are promoted, and (iii which dementia themes dominate the discussion. We data-mined the microblogging platform Twitter for content containing dementia-related keywords for a period of 24 hours and retrieved over 9,200 tweets. A coding guide was developed and content analysis conducted on a random sample (10%, and on a subsample from top users' tweets to assess impact. We found that a majority of tweets contained a link to a third party site rather than personal information, and these links redirected mainly to news sites and health information sites. As well, a large number of tweets discussed recent research findings related to the prediction and risk management of Alzheimer's disease. The results highlight the need for the dementia research community to harness the reach of this medium and its potential as a tool for multidirectional engagement.

  8. [The new aging society: demographic transition and its effects on old-age insurance and care of the elderly in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, T; Flöthmann, E-J

    2013-07-01

    In China, fundamental changes in population development have occurred during the past 50 years. The demographic transition in China required only a few years, while in most European countries this process took several decades. The fertility and mortality rates have declined very quickly, like in Japan and South Korea. China is one of the countries that has passed through the transition process the quickest. In the following article, this development is considered in more detail. Even if the fertility and mortality rates should stabilize at a new low level, which today certainly cannot be conclusively stated, the age effects will persist for the next few decades. The demographic aging during recent years will increase enormously in the coming decades. This development leads to far-reaching social and political challenges. The demographic aging in China is associated with a loss of function of the family. Both developments have a strong impact on the old-age insurance and on old-age care. Only a few years ago did politics and society start to respond with comprehensive reforms. For example, a modern pension system was introduced, but only in urban areas of China. Rural populations are still waiting for such reforms even today. Currently, there is a pilot project to gain experience with a pension system for the entire population. In contrast to the old-age insurance, in China there is very little public interest in old-age care because the elderly have until now been only a matter for the family. In the near future, the changing role of family and demographic aging will require a greater discussion about the care of older people in China.

  9. Digital futures strategies for the information age

    CERN Document Server

    Deegan, Marilyn

    2013-01-01

    Examines the strategic issues involved in realizing a digital future for libraries in the information age. It looks at how librarians can locate the electronic resources most relevant to the needs of their users, integrate them into the infrastructure of their institutions, manage the necessary technology and anticipate future trends.

  10. [Accessible health information: a question of age?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loos, E F

    2012-04-01

    Aging and digitalisation are important trends which have their impact on information accessibility. Accessible information about products and services is of crucial importance to ensure that all citizens can participate fully as active members of society. Senior citizens who have difficulties using new media run the risk of exclusion in today's information society. Not all senior citizens, however, encounter problems with new media. Not by a long shot. There is much to be said for 'aged heterogeneity', the concept that individual differences increase as people age. In two explorative qualitative case studies related to accessible health information--an important issue for senior citizens--that were conducted in the Netherlands, variables such as gender, education level and frequency of internet use were therefore included in the research design. In this paper, the most important results of these case studies will be discussed. Attention will be also paid to complementary theories (socialisation, life stages) which could explain differences in information search behaviour when using old or new media.

  11. Maternal morbidity and near miss associated with maternal age: the innovative approach of the 2006 Brazilian demographic health survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando César de Oliveira Jr

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study the prevalence of potentially life-threatening maternal conditions and near miss in Brazil according to maternal age. METHODS: A secondary analysis of the 2006 Brazilian demographic health survey database using a validated questionnaire to evaluate maternal morbidity with a focus on age extremes. The study included 5,025 women with at least 1 live birth in the 5-year reference period preceding their interviews. Three age range periods were used: 15-19 years (younger age, 20-34 years (control, and 35-49 years (advanced maternal age. According to a pragmatic definition, any woman reporting eclampsia, hysterectomy, blood transfusion, or admission to the intensive care unit during her pregnancy/childbirth was considered a near-miss case. The associations between age and severe maternal morbidity were further assessed. RESULTS: For the 6,833 reported pregnancies, 73.7% of the women were 20-34 years old, 17.9% were of advanced maternal age, and only 8.4% were of younger age. More than 22% of the women had at least one of the complications appraised, and blood transfusion, which was more prevalent among the controls, was the only variable with a significant difference among the age groups. The overall rate of maternal near miss was 21.1 per 1000 live births. There was a trend of higher maternal near miss with increasing age. The only significant risk factor identified for maternal near miss was a lower literacy level among older women. CONCLUSIONS: There is a trend towards worse results with increasing age. The investigation of the determinants of maternal near miss at the community level using an innovative approach through a demographic health survey is an example suggested for under-resourced settings.

  12. Does exclusion of cancers registered only from death-certificate information diminish socio-demographic disparities in recorded survival?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tervonen, Hanna E; Roder, David; Morrell, Stephen; You, Hui; Currow, David C

    2017-06-01

    Death Certificate Only (DCO) cancer cases are commonly excluded from survival analyses due to unknown survival time. This study examines whether socio-demographic factors are associated with DCO diagnosis, and the potential effects of excluding DCO cases on socio-demographic cancer survival disparities in NSW, Australia. NSW Cancer Registry data for cases diagnosed in 2000-2008 were used in this study. Logistic regression was used to estimate the odds of DCO registration by socio-demographic sub-group (socio-economic disadvantage, residential remoteness, country of birth, age at diagnosis). Cox proportional hazard regression was used to estimate the probability of death from cancer by socio-demographic subgroup when DCO cases were included and excluded from analyses. DCO cases consisted of 1.5% (n=4336) of all cases (n=299,651). DCO diagnosis was associated with living in socio-economically disadvantaged areas (most disadvantaged compared with least disadvantaged quintile: odds ratio OR 1.25, 95%CI 1.12-1.40), living in inner regional (OR 1.16, 95%CI 1.08-1.25) or remote areas (OR 1.48, 95%CI 1.01-2.19), having an unknown country of birth (OR 1.63, 95%CI 1.47-1.81) and older age. Including or excluding DCO cases had no significant impact on hazard ratios for cancer death by socio-economic disadvantage quintile or remoteness category, and only a minor impact on hazard ratios by age. Socio-demographic factors were associated with DCO diagnosis in NSW. However, socio-demographic cancer survival disparities remained unchanged or varied only slightly irrespective of including/excluding DCO cases. Further research could examine the upper limits of DCO proportions that significantly alter estimated cancer survival differentials if DCOs are excluded. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Testing three evolutionary models of the demographic transition: Patterns of fertility and age at marriage in urban South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenk, Mary K

    2009-01-01

    Over the last three decades many authors have addressed the demographic transition from the perspective of evolutionary theory. Some authors have emphasized parental investment factors such as the costs of raising children, others have emphasized the effects of mortality and other forms of risk, and others have emphasized the biased transmission of cultural norms from people of high status. Yet the literature says little about the relative strengths of each of these types of motivations or about which ones are more likely to serve as the primary impetus for large-scale demographic change. In this paper, I examine how each of these factors has influenced the demographic transition in urban South India during the course of the 20th century using two measures of fertility transition: number of surviving children and age at marriage. I find that investment-related, risk-related, and cultural transmission predictors all have significant individual effects on the outcome variables, which persist when they are entered in combination. When the three types of predictors are compared, however, investment-related models appear to provide more robust explanations for patterns in both fertility and age of marriage. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Population ageing in the Netherlands: Demographic and financial arguments for a balanced approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salverda, W.

    2007-01-01

    Dutch policy makers recently set the public debate on ageing alight by enforcing drastic cuts in early retirement opportunities; increasing taxation of the aged and augmenting retirement age are also considered. The prime argument is to diminish a burden on public finances far in future. This paper

  15. Socio-demographic and lifestyle factors associated with folate status among non-supplement-consuming Canadian women of childbearing age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yipu; De Groh, Margaret; MacFarlane, Amanda J

    2014-05-09

    Mandatory folic acid fortification was implemented in Canada in 1998 to reduce the risk of neural tube defects (NTD). Our objective was to assess the relationship between socio-demographic factors and folate status in non-supplement-consuming Canadian women of childbearing age. Data on demographic factors, lifestyle factors, physical measures and red blood cell (RBC) folate concentration were collected from 1,008 non-supplement-consuming women aged 15-49 years in the Canadian Health Measures Survey (2007-2009). RBC folate ³906 nmol/L was used as a cut-off for optimal folate status for protection from NTD. Approximately 75% of non-supplement consuming women had an RBC folate concentration ³906 nmol/L. Young age (15-19 years), White ethnicity, less than secondary education, lowest income adequacy, smoking and high body mass index were associated with a higher prevalence of lower folate status. After adjustment, only young age (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.99-95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.25-3.18) was associated with lower folate status. Less than secondary education (adjusted OR 5.66, 95% CI: 1.10-29.04) and lowest income adequacy (adjusted OR 4.77, 95% CI: 1.06-21.49) were associated with lower folate status in women aged 15-24 and 25-49 years, respectively. Many risk factors for lower folate status identified before food fortification was implemented were not associated with folate status in our representative sample of non-supplement-consuming Canadian women. However, younger women, women aged 15-24 with less than secondary education and women aged 25-49 with low income adequacy remain at risk of lower folate status, supporting the continued promotion of folic acid supplement use to women of childbearing age.

  16. Analysis of demographic characteristics in 3242 young age gastric cancer patients in Korea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hye; Won; Chung; Sung; Hoon; Noh; Jong-Baeck; Lim

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To evaluate the epidemiologic features of young age gastric cancer(GC). METHODS:Retrospectively,a total of 3242 patients with GC between 18 and 45 years of age and 3000 sex-and age-matched controls were reviewed.All subjects were stratified into 3 groups based on age (A,18-30 years;B,31-40 years;C,41-45 years). Epidemiologic characteristics and risk factors were investigated with reference to their age and gender. RESULTS:Compared to controls,more frequent intake of high risk diet(P=0.00075),history of ...

  17. Mother's feeding practices for children 3-10 years of age and their associations with child demographics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendy, Helen M; Williams, Keith E

    2012-04-01

    The present study examined relationships between mothers' feeding practices and child demographics such as gender, age, weight status, and family income. This cross-sectional analysis was conducted using data from 2259 children between 3 and 10 years of age who were sampled for the development of the Parent Mealtime Action Scale. No child gender differences were found in mothers' feeding practices. Older children received more Fat Reduction and Many Food Choices, but less Positive Persuasion, Use of Rewards, Insistence on Eating, and Special Meals, with differences in these feeding practices being most notable from before to after school age. Overweight children received less Insistence on Eating and more Fat Reduction than underweight or normal weight children. Children with the lowest family incomes received less Fat Reduction, less Daily FV Availability, more Use of Rewards. Results suggest that mothers respond to changing conditions, possibly including feedback from school nurses, increases in children's weight status, and availability of financial resources.

  18. Toward a Demographic Understanding of Incarceration Disparities: Race, Ethnicity, and Age Structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogel, M.S.; Porter, L.C.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics in the United States are more likely to be incarcerated than non-Hispanic whites. The risk of incarceration also varies with age, and there are striking differences in age distributions across racial/ethnic groups. Guided by these trends, the present stud

  19. Spatial demographic models to inform conservation planning of golden eagles in renewable energy landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spatial demographic models can help guide monitoring and management activities targeting at-risk species, even in cases where baseline data are lacking. Here, we provide an example of how site-specific changes in land-use and other anthropogenic stressors can be incorporated int...

  20. Adult anthropometric measures and socio-demographic factors influencing age at menarche of university students in malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Md Golam; Wee, Ai-Sze; Ashaie, Maeirah; Kamarul, T

    2013-09-01

    Early onset of menarche has been shown to be associated with breast cancer and ischaemic heart disease. Studies on age at menarche of the Malaysian population are poorly documented. This study aimed to determine the influence of anthropometric and socio-demographic factors on the age at menarche of university students in Malaysia. Data were obtained in 2010-11 from 961 students between the ages of 18 and 25 years from the University of Malaya using stratified sampling, and multiple regression analysis was applied. Sixty-three per cent of students reached menarche at the age of 12 or 13 years, with the mean and median of age at menarche being 12.45 ± 1.17 and 12.01 years, respectively. Menarcheal age was positively associated with height (p<0.05) and negatively associated with BMI (p<0.001). Students from urban areas attained menarche earlier than those from rural areas (p<0.05). Students from small-sized families attained menarche earlier than those from larger families (p<0.05). First-born students experienced menarche earlier than those who were seventh-born or later. Obese and overweight students reached menarche earlier than students who were underweight or of normal weight (p<0.01). The variations in age at menarche among the Malaysian ethnic groups were statistically insignificant. The results suggest that heavier and first-born students from small families are more likely to attain menarche earlier than their counterparts.

  1. demogR: A Package for the Construction and Analysis of Age-structured Demographic Models in R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Holland Jones

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of matrix population models has become a fundamental tool in ecology, conservation biology, and life history theory. In this paper, I present demogR, a package for analyzing age-structured population models in R. The package includes tools for the construction and analysis of matrix population models. In addition to the standard analyses commonly used in evolutionary demography and conservation biology, demogR contains a variety of tools from classical demography. This includes the construction of period life tables, and the generation of model mortality and fertility schedules for human populations. The tools in demogR are generally applicable to age-structured populations but are particularly useful for analyzing problems in human ecology. I illustrate some of the capabilities of the package by doing an evolutionary demographic analysis of several human populations.

  2. Economic Implications of Japan's Ageing Population: A Macro-economic Demographic Modelling Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Naohiro

    1982-01-01

    This study discusses the impact of the aging of the Japanese population upon various socioeconomic factors. Major findings are that the rate of real gross national product growth will decline continuously and that more financial resources will be required for government social security programs. (Editor/CT)

  3. Potential gains in reproductive-aged life expectancy by eliminating maternal mortality: a demographic bonus of achieving MDG 5.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Canudas-Romo

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We assessed the change over time in the contribution of maternal mortality to a life expectancy calculated between ages 15 and 49, or Reproductive-Aged Life Expectancy (RALE. Our goal was to estimate the increase in RALE in developed countries over the twentieth century and the hypothetical gains in African countries today by eliminating maternal mortality. METHODS: Analogous to life expectancy, RALE is calculated from a life table of ages 15 to 49. Specifically, RALE is the average number of years that women at age 15 would be expected to live between 15 and 49 with current mortality rates. Associated single decrement life tables of causes of death other than maternal mortality are explored to assess the possible gains in RALE by reducing or eliminating maternal mortality. We used population-based data from the Human Mortality Database and the Demographic and Health Surveys. FINDINGS: In developed countries, five years in RALE were gained over the twentieth century, of which approximately 10%, or half a year, was attributable to reductions in maternal mortality. In sub-Saharan African countries, the possible achievable gains fluctuate between 0.24 and 1.47 years, or 6% and 44% of potential gains in RALE. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal mortality is a rare event, yet it is still a very important component of RALE. Averting the burden of maternal deaths could return a significant increase in the most productive ages of human life.

  4. Age, period, or birth cohort: What determines demographic differences in seafood consumption?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim; Lund, Eiliv; Trondsen, Torbjørn

    Effects of age, period and birth cohort on consumption of fat fish, lean fish and processed fish were estimated based on panel data from the Norwegian Women and Seafood Consumption Study (NOWAC). Cohorts selected for the present analysis were women born between 1951 and 1966. Survey questionnaires...... fish increased between 1996 and 2001, while consumption of lean fish decreased. All three period effects were stable across birth cohorts. Estimation of polynomial contrasts indicated that birth cohort itself had linear effects on consumption, with older generations consuming significantly more fat...... and lean fish, but less processed fish than younger generations. Finally, the effects of cohort and period on consumption of lean and processed fish remained stable when biological age was controlled for, whilst the effect of period on fat fish consumption vanished. Regarding total consumption of fat fish...

  5. Demographic model of the Swiss cattle population for the years 2009-2011 stratified by gender, age and production type.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Schärrer

    Full Text Available Demographic composition and dynamics of animal and human populations are important determinants for the transmission dynamics of infectious disease and for the effect of infectious disease or environmental disasters on productivity. In many circumstances, demographic data are not available or of poor quality. Since 1999 Switzerland has been recording cattle movements, births, deaths and slaughter in an animal movement database (AMD. The data present in the AMD offers the opportunity for analysing and understanding the dynamic of the Swiss cattle population. A dynamic population model can serve as a building block for future disease transmission models and help policy makers in developing strategies regarding animal health, animal welfare, livestock management and productivity. The Swiss cattle population was therefore modelled using a system of ordinary differential equations. The model was stratified by production type (dairy or beef, age and gender (male and female calves: 0-1 year, heifers and young bulls: 1-2 years, cows and bulls: older than 2 years. The simulation of the Swiss cattle population reflects the observed pattern accurately. Parameters were optimized on the basis of the goodness-of-fit (using the Powell algorithm. The fitted rates were compared with calculated rates from the AMD and differed only marginally. This gives confidence in the fitted rates of parameters that are not directly deductible from the AMD (e.g. the proportion of calves that are moved from the dairy system to fattening plants.

  6. [Spatial pattern and consequences of demographic aging processes for regional planning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, K

    1991-01-01

    The spatial dimension of man-environment interactions in old age is analyzed within urban, suburban, and rural residential environments of the German Rhine-Main-Agglomeration. By comparing the three levels of organization, utilization, and interpretation, housing conditions as well as geographical distribution and redistribution (migrations) our outside-home-activities and environmental perception show a fundamental influence on the everyday lives of the 750 elderly who were interviewed. The majority of the target population and, especially, the rural elderly is characterized by traditional patterns of spatial organization and distribution, mobility, regional attachment, and a concern about preserving the stability of their current residential environment from changes. The suburban and urban seniors, however, exhibit a greater amount of locational flexibility and utility-oriented behavior patterns. These spatial variations are induced by specific regional values and intensity of local and regional identification. They might be interpreted as different stages in the process of modernization within postindustrial societies. Reflecting, however, the paradigms of planning for the elderly, these different patterns are not systematically considered to the necessary and sufficient extent. Instead of promoting regional or local networks that are favored by senior citizens, agencies usually prefer comprehensive approaches on a macrolevel. First steps to improve this situation and to combine life- and system-world demands have been taken by the federal government, which implemented a neighborhood-related research program on housing for the elderly. As a result of this, further research on environmental aspects on aging should pay more methodological attention to the hitherto neglected regional and local level, and also for the transfer of its findings into planning policy.

  7. The Conundrum of Demographic Aging and Policy Challenges: A Comparative Case Study of Canada, Japan and Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McDaniel, Susan A.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractSome analysts lean toward comparative analyses of population aging, then draw potential policy implications. Others lean in the direction of attention to differences in policy regimes and then consider implications of population aging. Key differences among advanced societies may not emanate from demographic aging but from differences in how markets, states, and families work to redistribute societal benefits. In this paper, three countries with contrasting configurations of markets, states, and families, and at different stages of demographic aging, are compared and contrasted: Canada, Japan, and Korea. The paper has three objectives: 1to outline key changes in population, family, and work in the three countries; 2 to consider how knowledge about these changes, their dynamics and interrelationships, is framed with respect to policy options; and 3 to compare Canada, Japan, and Korea in terms of the framing of policy challenges related to demographic aging. It is found that Canada is joining the longstanding pattern of Japan and Korea of late home-leaving by youth, meaning less effective time in the paid labour force. Little deep connection exists between population aging andeconomic productivity or labour force shortages. Differential labour market participation of women mediates the effects of population aging.RésuméIl y a des analystes qui ont un penchant pour les analyses comparatives du vieillissement despopulations, puis en déduisent les implications possibles sur les politiques. D’autres préfèrentporter leur attention sur les différences dans les régimes de politiques, puis considèrent lesimplications sur le vieillissement des populations. Il est possible que les différences majeuresdans les civilisations de pointe ne soient pas apparentes dans le vieillissement démographique mais plutôt dans les différentes manières dont les marchés, les états, et les familles oeuvrent àredistribuer les avantages sociaux. Dans

  8. Who tweets? Deriving the demographic characteristics of age, occupation and social class from twitter user meta-data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, Luke; Morgan, Jeffrey; Burnap, Pete; Williams, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    This paper specifies, designs and critically evaluates two tools for the automated identification of demographic data (age, occupation and social class) from the profile descriptions of Twitter users in the United Kingdom (UK). Meta-data data routinely collected through the Collaborative Social Media Observatory (COSMOS: http://www.cosmosproject.net/) relating to UK Twitter users is matched with the occupational lookup tables between job and social class provided by the Office for National Statistics (ONS) using SOC2010. Using expert human validation, the validity and reliability of the automated matching process is critically assessed and a prospective class distribution of UK Twitter users is offered with 2011 Census baseline comparisons. The pattern matching rules for identifying age are explained and enacted following a discussion on how to minimise false positives. The age distribution of Twitter users, as identified using the tool, is presented alongside the age distribution of the UK population from the 2011 Census. The automated occupation detection tool reliably identifies certain occupational groups, such as professionals, for which job titles cannot be confused with hobbies or are used in common parlance within alternative contexts. An alternative explanation on the prevalence of hobbies is that the creative sector is overrepresented on Twitter compared to 2011 Census data. The age detection tool illustrates the youthfulness of Twitter users compared to the general UK population as of the 2011 Census according to proportions, but projections demonstrate that there is still potentially a large number of older platform users. It is possible to detect "signatures" of both occupation and age from Twitter meta-data with varying degrees of accuracy (particularly dependent on occupational groups) but further confirmatory work is needed.

  9. Socio-demographic predictors of dimensions of the AUDIT score in a population sample of working-age men in Izhevsk, Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Sarah; De Stavola, Bianca; Saburova, Lyudmila; Kiryanov, Nikolay; Vasiljev, Maxim; McCambridge, Jim; McKee, Martin; Polikina, Olga; Gil, Artyom; Leon, David A

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between socio-demographic factors and alcohol drinking patterns identified through a formal analysis of the factor structure of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) score in a population sample of working-age men in Russia. In 2008-2009, a sample of 1005 men aged 25-59 years living in Izhevsk, Russia were interviewed and information collected about socio-demographic circumstances. Responses to the AUDIT questions were obtained through a self-completed questionnaire. Latent dimensions of the AUDIT score were determined using confirmatory factor analysis and expressed as standard deviation (SD) units. Structural equation modelling was used to estimate the strength of association of these dimensions with socio-demographic variables. The AUDIT was found to have a two-factor structure: alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems. Both dimensions were higher in men who were unemployed seeking work compared with those in regular paid employment. For consumption, there was a difference of 0.59 SDs, (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.23, 0.88) and for alcohol-related problems one of 0.66 SD (95% CI: 0.31, 1.00). Alcohol-related problems were greater among less educated compared with more educated men (P-value for trend = 0.05), while consumption was not related to education. Similar results were found for associations with an amenity index based on car ownership and central heating. Neither dimension was associated with marital status. While we found evidence that the consumption component of AUDIT was underestimated, this did not appear to explain the associations of this dimension with socio-demographic factors. Education and amenity index, both measures of socio-economic position, were inversely associated with alcohol-related problems but not with consumption. This discordance suggests that self-reported questions on frequency and volume may be less sensitive markers of socio-economic variation in drinking than are

  10. Reconstruction of a beech population bottleneck using archival demographic information and Bayesian analysis of genetic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lander, Tonya A; Oddou-Muratorio, Sylvie; Prouillet-Leplat, Helene; Klein, Etienne K

    2011-12-01

    Range expansion and contraction has occurred in the history of most species and can seriously impact patterns of genetic diversity. Historical data about range change are rare and generally appropriate for studies at large scales, whereas the individual pollen and seed dispersal events that form the basis of geneflow and colonization generally occur at a local scale. In this study, we investigated range change in Fagus sylvatica on Mont Ventoux, France, using historical data from 1838 to the present and approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) analyses of genetic data. From the historical data, we identified a population minimum in 1845 and located remnant populations at least 200 years old. The ABC analysis selected a demographic scenario with three populations, corresponding to two remnant populations and one area of recent expansion. It also identified expansion from a smaller ancestral population but did not find that this expansion followed a population bottleneck, as suggested by the historical data. Despite a strong support to the selected scenario for our data set, the ABC approach showed a low power to discriminate among scenarios on average and a low ability to accurately estimate effective population sizes and divergence dates, probably due to the temporal scale of the study. This study provides an unusual opportunity to test ABC analysis in a system with a well-documented demographic history and identify discrepancies between the results of historical, classical population genetic and ABC analyses. The results also provide valuable insights into genetic processes at work at a fine spatial and temporal scale in range change and colonization.

  11. Comorbidity and socio-demographic factors associated with renal lithiasis in persons aged 40 to 65: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias Vega, Raquel; Pérula de Torres, Luis Angel; Jiménez García, Celia; Carrasco Valiente, Julia; Requena Tapia, Maria José; Cano Castiñeira, Roque; Silva Ayçaguer, Luis Carlos

    2017-05-17

    Renal lithiasis is one of the most important urological diseases. It seems to be related to different socio-demographic and climatic factors, lifestyle and pre-existing comorbidity. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between socio-demographic variables, certain risk factors and chronic diseases and the renal lithiasis. A cross-sectional population-based study was carried out, selecting the Spanish population aged from 40 to 65 years, combining 2 random samples (PreLiRenA and PreLiRenE studies). Data were collected by personal telephone surveys, gathering information on socio-demographic variables and perceived morbidity. Data on annual average temperatures in each Spanish region were also collected. A bivariate and multivariate analysis was performed. A total of 4,894 subjects were surveyed; 51.3% were women; 25% were aged 40-45 years, 36% had primary school education and 31.4% were of low social class. The overall prevalence of renal lithiasis was 15.0% (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 14.5-15.5). By means of multivariate analysis, the variables that showed a strong statistical relationship with the presence of renal lithiasis were: older age (61-65 years; OR=1.39; 95% CI 1.06-1.80), high social class (OR=1.98; 95% CI 1.29-2.62), family history of renal lithiasis (OR=2.22; 95% CI 1.88-2.65), high blood pressure (OR=1.68; 95% CI 1.39-2.02) and overweight/obesity (OR=1.31; 95% CI 1.12-1.54). A correlation was observed between renal lithiasis and average annual temperatures in the Spanish regions (r=0.59; P=.013). A relationship was observed between renal lithiasis and older age, belonging to higher social classes, the existence of a family history of urolithiasis, and hypertension and overweight or obesity. The prevalence of renal lithiasis is greater in warmer climate zones. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Demographic and health surveillance of mobile pastoralists in Chad: integration of biometric fingerprint identification into a geographical information system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Weibel

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available There is a pressing need for baseline demographic and health-related data to plan, implement and evaluate health interventions in developing countries, and to monitor progress towards international development goals. However, mobile pastoralists, i.e. people who depend on a livestock production system and follow their herds as they move, remain marginalized from rural development plans and interventions. The fact that mobile people are hard to reach and stay in contact with is a plausible reason why they are underrepresented in national censuses and/or alternative sequential sample survey systems. We present a proof-of-concept of monitoring highly mobile, pastoral people by recording demographic and health-related data from 933 women and 2020 children and establishing a biometric identification system (BIS based on the registration and identification of digital fingerprints. Although only 22 women, representing 2.4% of the total registered women, were encountered twice in the four survey rounds, the approach implemented is shown to be feasible. The BIS described here is linked to a geographical information system to facilitate the creation of the first health and demographic surveillance system in a mobile, pastoralist setting. Our ultimate goal is to implement and monitor interventions with the “one health” concept, thus integrating and improving human, animal and ecosystem health.

  13. A demographic transition altered the strength of selection for fitness and age-specific survival and fertility in a 19th century American population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorad, Jacob A

    2013-06-01

    Modernization has increased longevity and decreased fertility in many human populations, but it is not well understood how or to what extent these demographic transitions have altered patterns of natural selection. I integrate individual-based multivariate phenotypic selection approaches with evolutionary demographic methods to demonstrate how a demographic transition in 19th century female populations of Utah altered relationships between fitness and age-specific survival and fertility. Coincident with this demographic transition, natural selection for fitness, as measured by the opportunity for selection, increased by 13% to 20% over 65 years. Proportional contributions of age-specific survival to total selection (the complement to age-specific fertility) diminished from approximately one third to one seventh following a marked increase in infant survival. Despite dramatic reductions in age-specific fertility variance at all ages, the absolute magnitude of selection for fitness explained by age-specific fertility increased by approximately 45%. I show that increases in the adaptive potential of fertility traits followed directly from decreased population growth rates. These results suggest that this demographic transition has increased the adaptive potential of the Utah population, intensified selection for reproductive traits, and de-emphasized selection for survival-related traits. © 2013 The Author(s). Evolution © 2013 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  14. A New Paradigm for the Information Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brier, Søren; Liqian, Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Review of Wolfgang Hofkirchner's Emergent Information: A Unified Theory of Information Framework. Published in 2013 by World Scientific in Singapore. 280 pages. ISBN 978-981-4313-48-3......Review of Wolfgang Hofkirchner's Emergent Information: A Unified Theory of Information Framework. Published in 2013 by World Scientific in Singapore. 280 pages. ISBN 978-981-4313-48-3...

  15. Information specialist for a coming age (12)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iinuma, Mitsuo

    Since we entered the advanced information society, information activities infiltrated into every aspect of our life such as economy and daily life. In this circumstances, business management is now going to change in its way and policy. Especially, globalization of business activities and shifting to service business have brought a new aspect into the information activities in the business, which has now become a fundamental activity in business management. The new technology of computer and telecommunication network played a key role, and brought electronic information, which was a new type of management information. The electronic information with intellectual property has become valuable as a new resources to be marketable, as well as by its usefulness as management information. Thus, businesses will have to change their policies concerning information from "managing information" to "managing by information."

  16. Prevalence, demographic characteristics and associated risk factors of malnutrition among 0-5 aged children: a cross-sectional study from Van, eastern Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Baran Serdar Kizilyildiz; Bülent Sönmez; Kamuran Karaman; Burhan Beger; Adnan Mercen; Süleyman Alioğlu; Yaşar Cesur

    2016-01-01

    Malnutrition in childhood is a dramatic indicator of poor socio-economical status worldwide. To recognize and reveal the socio-demographic features is crucial, especially for developing countries. Our aim was to investigate the prevalence and association with sociodemographic variables of malnutrition in 0-5 years old children in Van, Turkey. A total of 702 children are included in this cross-sectional study. Demographic features of subject including age, gender, family characteristics and ot...

  17. Prevalence, Demographic Characteristics and Associated Risk Factors of Malnutrition Among 0-5 Aged Children: A Cross-Sectional Study From Van, Eastern Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Kizilyildiz, Baran Serdar; SÖNMEZ Bülent; Karaman, Kamuran; Beger, Burhan; Mercen, Adnan; Alioglu, Süleyman; CESUR, Yasar

    2016-01-01

    Malnutrition in childhood is a dramatic indicator of poor socio-economical status worldwide. To recognize and reveal the socio-demographic features is crucial, especially for developing countries. Our aim was to investigate the prevalence and association with sociodemographic variables of malnutrition in 0-5 years old children in Van, Turkey. A total of 702 children are included in this cross-sectional study. Demographic features of subject including age, gender, family characteristics and ot...

  18. Low-Education Adults' Participation in Informal Learning Activities: Relationships with Selected Demographic Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M. Cecil; Smith, Thomas J.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated informal learning activities among low-education adults, using data from the 2005 National Household Education Survey. Survey respondents were asked about their participation in six types of informal learning activities, from reading books to using computers to attending conventions. Respondents with the lowest educational…

  19. Assessing health consumerism on the Web: a demographic profile of information-seeking behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorence, Daniel P; Park, Heeyoung; Fox, Susannah

    2006-08-01

    The growing diversity of the online health information community is increasingly cited as a limiting factor related to the potential of the Internet as an effective health communication channel and information resource. Public-access Internet portals and decreasing costs of personal computers have created a consensus that unequal access to information, or a "Digital Divide," presents a like problem specific to health care consumers. Access to information, however, is an essential part of the consumer-centric framework outlined in the recently proposed U.S. National Health Information Infrastructure (NHII) and Health Architecture initiatives. To date little research has been done to differentiate the types of health information sought on the Web by different subgroups, linking user characteristics and health-seeking behaviors. Data from a study of consumer Web search activity in a post-intervention era serves as a natural experiment, and can identify whether a "digitally underserved group" persists in the United States. Such an environment would serve to exclude traditionally underserved groups from the benefits of the planned national heath information infrastructure. This exploratory technology assessment study seeks to differentiate and delineate specific behaviors, or lack of desired behaviors, across targeted health care subgroups. Doing so allows the design of more effective strategies to promote the use of the Web as a health education and health promotion tool, under the envisioned shared decision-making, consumer-centric health information model.

  20. Maternal risk of breeding failure remained low throughout the demographic transitions in fertility and age at first reproduction in Finland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianghua Liu

    Full Text Available Radical declines in fertility and postponement of first reproduction during the recent human demographic transitions have posed a challenge to interpreting human behaviour in evolutionary terms. This challenge has stemmed from insufficient evolutionary insight into individual reproductive decision-making and the rarity of datasets recording individual long-term reproductive success throughout the transitions. We use such data from about 2,000 Finnish mothers (first births: 1880s to 1970s to show that changes in the maternal risk of breeding failure (no offspring raised to adulthood underlay shifts in both fertility and first reproduction. With steady improvements in offspring survival, the expected fertility required to satisfy a low risk of breeding failure became lower and observed maternal fertility subsequently declined through an earlier age at last reproduction. Postponement of the age at first reproduction began when this risk approximated zero-even for mothers starting reproduction late. Interestingly, despite vastly differing fertility rates at different stages of the transitions, the number of offspring successfully raised to breeding per mother remained relatively constant over the period. Our results stress the importance of assessing the long-term success of reproductive strategies by including measures of offspring quality and suggest that avoidance of breeding failure may explain several key features of recent life-history shifts in industrialized societies.

  1. Role of the demographic factors in the process of hotel information systems adoption

    OpenAIRE

    Tarcan, Ertugrul; VAROL, Ergin Sait

    2010-01-01

    With the ever changing business environment of more and innovative competitors, information technologies (ITs) have become a strategic tool for attaining competitive advantages in organizations. The hospitality sector also extensively relies on the hotel information systems (HISs) to improve their organizational outputs. HISs being up to the expectations of the stakeholders have a great potential in achieving higher levels of service quality and satisfaction with lower costs. Hence, it should...

  2. Extension Excellence in the Information Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Michael Quinn

    1985-01-01

    The author suggests that the business of extension is getting people to apply knowledge and use information. He makes observations concerning people and their use of information and knowledge. He presents five characteristics upon which future extension programs should be built. (CT)

  3. Teaching Psychology in the Information Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makosky, Vivian Parker

    1985-01-01

    The rapid generation of information today constitutes an imperative for change in the way undergraduate psychology courses are taught. Psychology instructors must carefully select material for their courses, structure courses to maximize student performance, emphasize information retrieval skills, and contribute to the development of general…

  4. The Information Age and the Public Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Thomas

    1988-01-01

    Examines the origins of the new emphasis on information in the public library through the work of such authors as Alvin Toffler and John Naisbitt. The effects of technological change on the future of the public library and the role of the library in meeting society's information needs are considered. (MES)

  5. Resilience and risk: a demographic model to inform conservation planning for polar bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regehr, Eric V.; Wilson, Ryan R.; Rode, Karyn D.; Runge, Michael C.

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is having widespread ecological effects, including loss of Arctic sea ice. This has led to listing of the polar bear (Ursus maritimus) and other ice-dependent marine mammals under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA). Methods are needed to evaluate the effects of climate change on population persistence to inform recovery planning for listed species. For polar bears, this includes understanding interactions between climate and secondary factors, such as subsistence harvest, which provide economic, nutritional, or cultural value to humans.

  6. Demographics and Angiographic Findings in Patients under 35 Years of Age with Acute ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Abbasi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI is a major cause of cardiovascular mortality worldwide.There are differences between very young patients with STEMI and their older counterparts. This study investigates the demographics and clinical findings in very young patients with STEMI.Methods: Through a review of the angiography registry, 108 patients aged ≤ 35 years (Group I were compared with 5544 patients aged > 35 years (Group II who underwent coronary angiography after STEMI.Results: Group I patients were more likely to be male (92.6%, smokers, and have a family history of cardiovascular diseases (34.6%. The prevalence of diabetes, dyslipidemia, and hypertension was higher in the old patients. Triglyceride and hemoglobin were significantly higher in Group I. Normal coronary angiogram was reported in 18.5% of the young patients, and in 2.1% of the older patients. The prevalence of single-vessel and multi-vessel coronary artery disease was similar in the two groups (34.3% vs. 35.2%. The younger subjects were more commonly candidates for medical treatmentand percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI (84.2%, while coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG was considered for the 39.5% of their older counterparts.Conclusion: In the young adults with STEMI, male gender, smoking, family history, and high triglyceride level were moreoften observed. A considerable proportion of the young patients presented with multi-vessel coronary disease. PCI or medicaltreatment was the preferred treatment in the younger patients; in contrast to their older counterparts, in whom CABG was more commonly chosen for revascularization.

  7. Young adult and middle age mortality in Butajira demographic surveillance site, Ethiopia: lifestyle, gender and household economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Högberg Ulf

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Public health research characterising the course of life through the middle age in developing societies is scarce. The aim of this study is to explore patterns of adult (15–64 years mortality in an Ethiopian population over time, by gender, urban or rural lifestyle, causes of death and in relation to household economic status and decision-making. Methods The study was conducted in Butajira Demographic Surveillance Site (DSS in south-central Ethiopia among adults 15–64 years old. Cohort analysis of surveillance data was conducted for the years 1987–2004 complemented by a prospective case-referent (case control study over two years. Rate ratios were computed to assess the relationships between mortality and background variables using a Poisson regression model. In the case-referent component, odds ratios (95% confidence intervals were used to assess the effect of certain risk factors that were not included in the surveillance system. Results A total of 367 940 person years were observed in a period of 18 years, in which 2 860 deaths occurred. One hundred sixty two cases and 486 matched for age, sex and place of residence controls were included in the case referent (case control study. Only a modest downward trend in adult mortality was seen over the 18 year period. Rural lifestyle carried a significant survival disadvantage [mortality rate ratio 1.62 (95% CI 1.44 to 1.82, adjusted for gender, period and age group], while the overall effects of gender were negligible. Communicable disease mortality was appreciably higher in rural areas [rate ratio 2.05 (95% CI 1.73 to 2.44, adjusted for gender, age group and period]. Higher mortality was associated with a lack of literacy in a household, poor economic status and lack of women's decision making. Conclusion A complex pattern of adult mortality prevails, still influenced by war, famine and communicable diseases. Individual factors such as a lack of education, low economic

  8. The Use of Crime Scene and Demographic Information in the Identification of Non-Serial Sexual Homicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Adam J; Hollin, Clive R; Stefanska, Ewa B; Higgs, Tamsin; Bloomfield, Sinead

    2017-10-01

    As with other sexual offenders, sexual homicide perpetrators can be reluctant to talk about their criminal behavior. Therefore, in homicide cases, forensic practitioners frequently rely on crime scene information to identify any sexual behavior associated with the offense. This study aims to identify objective and readily available crime scene information, alongside information about victims and perpetrators, based on 65 cases from England and Wales in the United Kingdom of men convicted of homicide who had committed a non-serial sexual homicide and 64 cases of men convicted of homicide where the available evidence indicated that it was a non-serial non-sexual homicide. Chi-square tests and logistic regression were used to analyze the data. There were few differences in terms of demographic information and criminal histories between the two perpetrator groups. There were crime scene indicators supporting the use of Ressler et al.'s definition of sexual homicide. The victims of sexual homicide were generally found in their home with the lower half of the body exposed and with evidence of vaginal sex. Furthermore, extreme injuries and strangulation were more frequent in sexual homicides. Use of weapon was associated with a non-sexual homicide. Victims of sexual homicide were as likely to know the perpetrator as not. Potential benefits of the characteristics reported to investigators and forensic practitioners tasked with identifying sexual homicides are discussed and areas for further research suggested.

  9. Strategic Enrollment Management in the Age of Austerity and Changing Demographics: Managing Recruitment, Leveraging, Revenue, and Access in Challenging Economic Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langston, Randall; Scheid, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    Ever since the beginning of the Great Recession, higher education has braced for the impending age of austerity and changing demographics. Now a reality, these conditions threaten the ability of institutions of higher education to remain competitive in an ever growing global marketplace. This article presents several core SEM strategies that can…

  10. Strategic Enrollment Management in the Age of Austerity and Changing Demographics: Managing Recruitment, Leveraging, Revenue, and Access in Challenging Economic Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langston, Randall; Scheid, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    Ever since the beginning of the Great Recession, higher education has braced for the impending age of austerity and changing demographics. Now a reality, these conditions threaten the ability of institutions of higher education to remain competitive in an ever growing global marketplace. This article presents several core SEM strategies that can…

  11. Divining Proportions in the Information Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Tallon

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The process of reverse engineering proportional systems of historic buildings has long been fraught with problems. One cannot assume, without knowing the specific conditions of acquisition, that existing plans are accurate enough to sustain the scrutiny necessary to resolve differences among potential proportional schemes. Yet producing a new survey with conventional measurement instruments could take weeks, if not months, and only in the best of situations would it be possible to acquire data in the upper reaches of the building—information required to avoid arbitrary dimensional rectification. With the advent of high-speed and high-precision laser scanning, however, the situation has changed dramatically.

  12. Influence of selected demographic factors on traumas in persons over 65 years of age reporting to the Hospital Medical Ward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateusz Andrzej Pytlak

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Falls and traumas in elderly persons don’t only result in health problems, but they also involve social and economic, psychological and political consequences. The most frequent trauma mechanisms in the elderly include: falls and traffic accidents. ;b:Objectives. The aim of the study was to assess selected factors influencing the energy, type and area of a trauma incurred by elderly people. Material and methods. A group of 108 patients aged 65–93 treated at the SPSK 1 in Szczecin were tested by a diagnostic survey with the use of a questionnaire. The eligibility criteria included a trauma as a result of an accident, the age of the subject above 65 years of age and expressing written, voluntary and informed consent to participation in the study. Results. 177 traumas were recorded in the analysed group of 108 patients. The most frequent traumas included fractures and contusions and the lower limbs and the left arm were the most frequently injured body parts. Men were more often injured during low-energy events. Patients more often had their upper body and left leg injured during low-energy events than during high-energy ones. In persons over 65 years of age, usually one fracture occurred during a low-energy accident. Conclusions. The most common result of injuries among people aged 65+ admitted to the emergency department are fractures. With age the number of LE T increases and the number of HET decreases. It’s necessary therefore to create an appropriate health policy covering education for elderly people and their families to prevent injuries of low energy content.

  13. Higher Education and Happiness in the Age of Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong-Kyu

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses relations between happiness and higher education in the age of information, focusing on the need for the university to pursue happiness. Three questions are addressed. First, why should higher education pursue happiness? Second, what are the shapes and characteristics of higher education in the information age? Third, what…

  14. Higher Education and Happiness in the Age of Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong-Kyu

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses relations between happiness and higher education in the age of information, focusing on the need for the university to pursue happiness. Three questions are addressed. First, why should higher education pursue happiness? Second, what are the shapes and characteristics of higher education in the information age? Third, what…

  15. Cyber Cheating in an Information Technology Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl O. Jones

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Developments in technology have provided new means for students to engage in practices not considered appropriate at Universityuniversity, hence academics need to be more active in the prevention and detection of instances of academic impropriety. As academics we should be aware that scholarship is built on other people's works and ideas. Thus the challenge we have is to help students distinguish between scholarship and cheating. One thing is clear, however, in relation to both coursework and examination. The process of deterring cheating will always be far more effective than the act of detecting the cheating. Additionally the staff time and effort expended in informing students of correct academic practice is significantly lower than that needed to identify and pursue cheating students.

  16. The use of information theory for the evaluation of biomarkers of aging and physiological age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blokh, David; Stambler, Ilia

    2017-01-12

    The present work explores the application of information theoretical measures, such as entropy and normalized mutual information, for research of biomarkers of aging. The use of information theory affords unique methodological advantages for the study of aging processes, as it allows evaluating non-linear relations between biological parameters, providing the precise quantitative strength of those relations, both for individual and multiple parameters, showing cumulative or synergistic effect. Here we illustrate those capabilities utilizing a dataset on heart disease, including diagnostic parameters routinely available to physicians. The use of information-theoretical methods, utilizing normalized mutual information, revealed the exact amount of information that various diagnostic parameters or their combinations contained about the persons' age. Based on those exact informative values for the correlation of measured parameters with age, we constructed a diagnostic rule (a decision tree) to evaluate physiological age, as compared to chronological age. The present data illustrated that younger subjects suffering from heart disease showed characteristics of people of higher age (higher physiological age). Utilizing information-theoretical measures, with additional data, it may be possible to create further clinically applicable information-theory-based markers and models for the evaluation of physiological age, its relation to age-related diseases and its potential modifications by therapeutic interventions.

  17. Demographic and spatial predictors of anemia in women of reproductive age in Timor-Leste: implications for health program prioritization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew A Lover

    Full Text Available Anemia is a significant risk factor for poor health outcomes for both the mother and neonate; however, the determinants of anemia in many epidemiological settings are poorly understood. Using a subset of a nationally representative cluster survey (2010 Demographic and Health Survey in combination with other non-contemporaneous survey data, the epidemiology of anemia among women of reproductive age in Timor-Leste has been explored. Logistic regression was used to identify risk factors, population-level impacts were estimated as population attributable fractions and spatial analytics were used to identify regions of highest risk. The DHS survey found that ∼ 21% of adult women in Timor-Leste are anemic (49,053; 95% CI: 37,095 to 61,035, with hemoglobin <12.0 g/dL. In this population, the main risk factors (adjusted odds ratio; 95% CI are: currently abstaining from sex for any reason (2.25; 1.50 to 3.38; illiteracy (2.04; 1.49 to 2.80; giving birth within the previous year (1.80; 1.29 to 2.51; consumption of fruits/vegetables low in vitamin A (1.57; 1.13 to 2.20; and the district-level confirmed malaria incidence (1.31; 1.15 to 1.49. A review of prior soil-transmitted helminth surveys in Timor-Leste indicates low-to-moderate prevalence with generally low egg counts, suggesting a limited impact on anemia in this setting, although comprehensive survey data are lacking. Examination of the population-level effects highlights the impacts of both recent births and malaria on anemia, with more limited impacts from diet; the evidence does not suggest a large contribution from geohelminths within Timor-Leste. These patterns are divergent from some other settings in the Asia-Pacific region and highlight the need for further focused research. Targeting high-burden districts and by increasing access to pre/postnatal care, raising literacy levels, increasing access to family planning, and improving malaria control should be prioritized to maximize inherently

  18. Health information literacy in everyday life: a study of Finns aged 65-79 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson-Backa, Kristina; Ek, Stefan; Niemelä, Raimo; Huotari, Maija-Leena

    2012-06-01

    This article examines the health information literacy of elderly Finns. The results are based on a survey conducted in January 2011. The questionnaire was distributed to 1000 persons that were randomly drawn from the Finnish Population Register. The respondents were aged 65-79 years (mean age 70 years) and lived in the Turku region in Finland. A total of 281 questionnaires (28%) were returned. χ(2) analyses were used to find possible relationships between demographic factors, as well as interest, seeking activity, current self-rated health and different dimensions of health information literacy, including needs, seeking and use of health-related information. Significant relationships were found between education level, interest in health information, seeking activity, self-rated current health and dimensions of health information literacy. Some categories of elderly people are more vulnerable regarding obtaining and use of health information: those with lower levels of education, those with poor health, and those who are not interested in and active at seeking information. For people who are found in any of these categories, it is important that available health-related information is understandable and can be accessed without too much effort-something that information providers should take into account.

  19. Web Mining: Penning an Era of Information Age

    OpenAIRE

    Anshika Goel; Dinesh Sahu; Manish Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Today's age is rightly pronounced as "Information Age" which stands on the edifice of Information Technology and is operated by the Internet through the concept of web mining and is maintained & evolved through the high-speed technology of cloud computing. In short, if we try to summarize the situation, we would find that web mining concept has fuelled the entire process. This paper is an attempt to put light on the aspect of how web mining has penned the information age by co...

  20. Aging and the impact of irrelevant information on social judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Thomas M; Smith, Brian T

    2014-09-01

    We conducted 2 experiments to specifically examine whether older adults are more susceptible to the negative impact of irrelevant evaluative information when making social judgments. Young (ages 20-44), middle-aged (ages 45-63), and older (ages 65-85) adults were presented with descriptions of people consisting of positive and negative traits that varied in relevance to specific occupations. They were asked to either form a general impression based on these traits or to evaluate the person's fitness for the specified occupation. In both studies, evaluative content of the descriptions (i.e., the number of positive minus number of negative traits) was a significant predictor of subjective evaluations. Of prime importance, adults of all ages were similarly able to selectively process relevant versus irrelevant information when occupational fitness evaluations required them to focus on a subset of information in the descriptions. Participants also adjusted the specific types of information used in making judgments, with the relative importance of agentic traits and negative information being greater when making occupation evaluations than when forming impressions. The results suggest that age differences in the processing evaluative information are minimal, and that the availability of well-established knowledge structures can help older adults effectively control the impact of irrelevant evaluative information when making social inferences.

  1. An Approach to Ethics in the Information Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judd, Larry R.

    1995-01-01

    Proposes three precepts as an approach to ethics for the information age: accept responsibility when appropriate; anticipate negative effects; and attempt justice through fairness, applying John Rawls' principles of justice. (SR)

  2. An Approach to Ethics in the Information Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judd, Larry R.

    1995-01-01

    Proposes three precepts as an approach to ethics for the information age: accept responsibility when appropriate; anticipate negative effects; and attempt justice through fairness, applying John Rawls' principles of justice. (SR)

  3. Organizational Change for Improved C2 in the Information Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-23

    FINAL 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Organizational Change for Improved C2 in the Information Age 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER... Organizational Change for Improved C2 in the Information Age by Todd A. Beltz CDR USN A paper submitted to the Faculty of the Naval War...reiterated that a SJFHQ is an important step in increasing the ability to respond to… the global security environment.1 This organizational change is an

  4. Human Age Estimation Based on Locality and Ordinal Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Changsheng; Liu, Qingshan; Dong, Weishan; Zhu, Xiaobin; Liu, Jing; Lu, Hanqing

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel feature selection-based method for facial age estimation. The face aging is a typical temporal process, and facial images should have certain ordinal patterns in the aging feature space. From the geometrical perspective, a facial image can be usually seen as sampled from a low-dimensional manifold embedded in the original high-dimensional feature space. Thus, we first measure the energy of each feature in preserving the underlying local structure information and the ordinal information of the facial images, respectively, and then we intend to learn a low-dimensional aging representation that can maximally preserve both kinds of information. To further improve the performance, we try to eliminate the redundant local information and ordinal information as much as possible by minimizing nonlinear correlation and rank correlation among features. Finally, we formulate all these issues into a unified optimization problem, which is similar to linear discriminant analysis in format. Since it is expensive to collect the labeled facial aging images in practice, we extend the proposed supervised method to a semi-supervised learning mode including the semi-supervised feature selection method and the semi-supervised age prediction algorithm. Extensive experiments are conducted on the FACES dataset, the Images of Groups dataset, and the FG-NET aging dataset to show the power of the proposed algorithms, compared to the state-of-the-arts.

  5. The Impact of Extrinsic Demographic Factors on Cantonese Speech Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, Carol K. S.; Cheung, Pamela S. P.; McLeod, Sharynne

    2013-01-01

    This study modeled the associations between extrinsic demographic factors and children's speech acquisition in Hong Kong Cantonese. The speech of 937 Cantonese-speaking children aged 2;4 to 6;7 in Hong Kong was assessed using a standardized speech test. Demographic information regarding household income, paternal education, maternal education,…

  6. Genes and longevity: a genetic-demographic approach reveals sex- and age-specific gene effects not shown by the case-control approach (APOE and HSP70.1 loci).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dato, S; Carotenuto, L; De Benedictis, G

    2007-02-01

    Association analyses between gene variability and human longevity carried out by comparing gene frequencies between population samples of different ages (case/control design) may provide information on genes and pathways playing a role in modulating survival at old ages. However, by dealing with cross-sectional data, the gene-frequency (GF) approach ignores cohort effects in population mortality changes. The genetic-demographic (GD) approach adds demographic information to genetic data and allows the estimation of hazard rates and survival functions for candidate alleles and genotypes. Thus mortality changes in the cohort to which the cross-sectional sample belongs are taken into account. In this work, we applied the GD method to a dataset relevant to two genes, APOE and HSP70.1, previously shown to be related to longevity by the GF method. We show that the GD method reveals sex- and age-specific allelic effects not shown by the GF analysis. In addition, we provide an algorithm for the implementation of a non-parametric GD analysis.

  7. The application of information theory for the research of aging and aging-related diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blokh, David; Stambler, Ilia

    2017-10-01

    This article reviews the application of information-theoretical analysis, employing measures of entropy and mutual information, for the study of aging and aging-related diseases. The research of aging and aging-related diseases is particularly suitable for the application of information theory methods, as aging processes and related diseases are multi-parametric, with continuous parameters coexisting alongside discrete parameters, and with the relations between the parameters being as a rule non-linear. Information theory provides unique analytical capabilities for the solution of such problems, with unique advantages over common linear biostatistics. Among the age-related diseases, information theory has been used in the study of neurodegenerative diseases (particularly using EEG time series for diagnosis and prediction), cancer (particularly for establishing individual and combined cancer biomarkers), diabetes (mainly utilizing mutual information to characterize the diseased and aging states), and heart disease (mainly for the analysis of heart rate variability). Few works have employed information theory for the analysis of general aging processes and frailty, as underlying determinants and possible early preclinical diagnostic measures for aging-related diseases. Generally, the use of information-theoretical analysis permits not only establishing the (non-linear) correlations between diagnostic or therapeutic parameters of interest, but may also provide a theoretical insight into the nature of aging and related diseases by establishing the measures of variability, adaptation, regulation or homeostasis, within a system of interest. It may be hoped that the increased use of such measures in research may considerably increase diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities and the fundamental theoretical mathematical understanding of aging and disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. [THE VALUE OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY IN AGING].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrabal León, Nazaret; Postigo Mota, Salvador; Casado Verdejo, Inés; Muñoz Bermejo, Laura; Rayego Sánchez, Carmen; Pinto Montealegre, Jose Eduardo

    2015-11-01

    Nowadays, acquiring, managing, disseminating and understanding information through new technologies is an important aspect of our daily life. We can search for and store information, but we can also spread it. The proper handling of information and communications technology (TICs) is beneficial, but does not reach all alike. The difficulties posed by the elderly when adapting to TICs are increased by the fact that they are unknown and unfamiliar to them, resulting in rejection from the elderly and thus an increased risk of inequality and social exclusion. TICs value in aging lies in the improvement of self-learning and personal development as well as in promoting participation, social integration and healthy aging.

  9. Laboratory Demographics Lookup Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This website provides demographic information about laboratories, including CLIA number, facility name and address, where the laboratory testing is performed, the...

  10. Prevalence, Demographic Characteristics and Associated Risk Factors of Malnutrition Among 0-5 Aged Children: A Cross-Sectional Study From Van, Eastern Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizilyildiz, Baran Serdar; Sönmez, Bülent; Karaman, Kamuran; Beger, Burhan; Mercen, Adnan; Alioglu, Süleyman; Cesur, Yasar

    2016-11-17

    Malnutrition in childhood is a dramatic indicator of poor socio-economical status worldwide. To recognize and reveal the socio-demographic features is crucial, especially for developing countries. Our aim was to investigate the prevalence and association with sociodemographic variables of malnutrition in 0-5 years old children in Van, Turkey. A total of 702 children are included in this cross-sectional study. Demographic features of subject including age, gender, family characteristics and other data were obtained. Nutritional assessment was done using anthropometric indices including weight-for-age, height-for-age, weight-for-height, head circumference and body mass index-for-age. Multivariate logistic regressions were carried out to assess malnutrition-associated factors. Prevalence of underweight, stunting and wasting were 19.7, 17.7 and 16.2%, respectively. Socio-demographic variables that statistical significantly in association with malnutrition were low monthly family income, educational level and employment status of father, parental consanguinity, number of pregnancies, regular intake of vitamin D and history of prematurity. The prevalence of children with head circumference-z score ≤2SD and body mass index-for-age ≤2SD were 9.8 and 16.3%, respectively. Multivariate analysis detected following risk factors for these indices; low monthly family income, history of prematurity, unemployed father and the period between pregnancies (1-2 years). We found that prevalence of malnutrition in the city of Van, was still higher than more developed regions of Turkey. The associated risk factors of malnutrition should be specifically interpreted by health professionals and also by government authorities that are responsible for making practical politics of public health.

  11. Prevalence, demographic characteristics and associated risk factors of malnutrition among 0-5 aged children: a cross-sectional study from Van, eastern Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baran Serdar Kizilyildiz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Malnutrition in childhood is a dramatic indicator of poor socio-economical status worldwide. To recognize and reveal the socio-demographic features is crucial, especially for developing countries. Our aim was to investigate the prevalence and association with sociodemographic variables of malnutrition in 0-5 years old children in Van, Turkey. A total of 702 children are included in this cross-sectional study. Demographic features of subject including age, gender, family characteristics and other data were obtained. Nutritional assessment was done using anthropometric indices including weight-for-age, height-for-age, weight-for-height, head circumference and body mass index-for-age. Multivariate logistic regressions were carried out to assess malnutrition- associated factors. Prevalence of underweight, stunting and wasting were 19.7, 17.7 and 16.2%, respectively. Socio-demographic variables that statistical significantly in association with malnutrition were low monthly family income, educational level and employment status of father, parental consanguinity, number of pregnancies, regular intake of vitamin D and history of prematurity. The prevalence of children with head circumference-z score ≤−2SD and body mass index-for-age ≤−2SD were 9.8 and 16.3%, respectively. Multivariate analysis detected following risk factors for these indices; low monthly family income, history of prematurity, unemployed father and the period between pregnancies (1- 2 years. We found that prevalence of malnutrition in the city of Van, was still higher than more developed regions of Turkey. The associated risk factors of malnutrition should be specifically interpreted by health professionals and also by government authorities that are responsible for making practical politics of public health.

  12. Relationship between parent demographic characteristics, perinatal and early childhood behaviors, and body mass index among preschool-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messiah, Sarah E; Asfour, Lila; Arheart, Kristopher L; Selem, Sarah M; Uhlhorn, Susan B; Natale, Ruby

    2015-04-01

    Approximately 25% of US 2-to-5-year olds are overweight and ethnic minority groups are disproportionately affected. We explored the relationship between parent demographic characteristics, various perinatal/early childhood (EC) factors, and child body mass index (BMI) to determine possible contributors to these disparities. A preschool-based randomized controlled (N = 28 centers) obesity prevention intervention was conducted among multiethnic 2-to-5 year olds. Baseline assessment of demographic characteristics, various perinatal/EC factors, and child BMI were analyzed via generalized linear mixed models and logistic regression analysis. Foreign-born parents were almost 2.5 times as likely to have an obese child versus children of US-born parents (OR 2.43, 95% CI 1.53-3.87). Families who spoke Spanish only or a combination of Creole/English at home were over twice as likely to have an obese preschool child versus families who spoke English only at home. Parent place of birth and language spoken at home plays a significant role in early childhood obesity. Future early childhood healthy weight initiatives should incorporate strategies that take into account these particular parent characteristics.

  13. Information about the US racial demographic shift triggers concerns about anti-White discrimination among the prospective White “minority”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richeson, Jennifer A.

    2017-01-01

    The United States is undergoing a demographic shift in which White Americans are predicted to comprise less than 50% of the US population by mid-century. The present research examines how exposure to information about this racial shift affects perceptions of the extent to which different racial groups face discrimination. In four experiments, making the growing national racial diversity salient led White Americans to predict that Whites will face increasing discrimination in the future, compared with control information. Conversely, regardless of experimental condition, Whites estimated that discrimination against various racial minority groups will decline. Explorations of several psychological mechanisms potentially underlying the effect of the racial shift information on perceived anti-White discrimination suggested a mediating role of concerns about American culture fundamentally changing. Taken together, these findings suggest that reports about the changing national demographics enhance concerns among Whites that they will be the victims of racial discrimination in the future. PMID:28953971

  14. Volume 2. Information Age Anthology: National Security Implications of the Information Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-08-01

    InfoWar (Wien, Austria: Springer 1998); Ars Electronica Festival 1998 (http:// www.aec.at/infowar). 11Stefan Wray, “Towards Bottom-Up Information Warfare...ZapTactFlood.html). 21Ricardo Dominguez, “SWARM: An ECD Project for Ars Electronica Festival ’98,” Ricardo Dominguez homepage 1998 (http

  15. Parent routines, child routines, and family demographics associated with obesity in parents and preschool-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Blake L; Fiese, Barbara H

    2014-01-01

    Many daily routines and behaviors are related to the prevalence of obesity. This study investigated the association between routines and behaviors that act as protective factors related to lower prevalence of obesity in parents (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2)) and overweight in preschool children (BMI ≥ 85th percentile). Socio-demographic characteristics were assessed in relation to protective routines (PRs), and prevalence of obesity/overweight data from 337 preschool children and their parents. The two PRs assessed with parents included adequate sleep (≥7 h/night) and family mealtime routine (scoring higher than the median score). The four PRs assessed in children included adequate sleep (≥10 h/night), family mealtime routine, limiting screen-viewing time (≤2 h/day of TV, video, DVD), and not having a bedroom TV. Overall, 27.9% of parents were obese and 22.8% of children were overweight, and 39.8% of the parents had both parent PRs, and only 11.6% of children had all four child PRs. Results demonstrated that several demographic factors were significantly related to the use of PRs for parents and children. The lack of PRs was related to increased risk for overweight in children, but not for obesity in parents. However, in the adjusted models the overall cumulative benefits of using PRs was not significant in children either. In the multivariate adjusted logistic regression models, the only significant individual PR for children was adequate sleep. In a path analysis model, parent sleep was related to child sleep, which was in turn related to decreased obesity. Overall, findings suggest that parent and child PRs, especially sleep routines, within a family can be associated and may play an important role in the health outcomes of both parents and children. Understanding the mechanisms that influence how and when parents and children use these PRs may be promising for developing targeted family-based obesity-prevention efforts.

  16. Parent routines, child routines, and family demographics associated with obesity in parents and preschool-aged children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blake Lee Jones

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Many daily routines and behaviors are related to the prevalence of obesity. This study investigated the association between routines and behaviors that act as protective factors related to lower prevalence of obesity in parents (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 and overweight in preschool children (BMI ≥ 85th percentile. Socio-demographic characteristics were assessed in relation to protective routines (PRs, and prevalence of obesity/overweight data from 337 preschool children and their parents. The two PRs assessed with parents included adequate sleep (≥ 7 hours/night and family mealtime routine (scoring higher than the median score. The four PRs assessed in children included adequate sleep (≥ 10 hours/night, family mealtime routine, limiting screen-viewing time (≤ 2 hours/day of TV, video, DVD, and not having a bedroom TV. Overall, 27.9% of parents were obese and 22.8% of children were overweight, and 39.8% of the parents had both parent PRs, and only 11.6% of children had all four child PRs. Results demonstrated that several demographic factors were significantly related to the use of PRs for parents and children. The lack of PRs was related to increased risk for overweight in children, but not for obesity in parents. However, in the adjusted models the overall cumulative benefits of using PRs was not significant in children either. In the multivariate adjusted logistic regression models, the only significant individual PR for children was adequate sleep. In a path analysis model, parent sleep was related to child sleep, which was in turn related to decreased obesity. Overall, findings suggest that parent and child PRs, especially sleep routines, within a family can be associated and may play an important role in the health outcomes of both parents and children. Understanding the mechanisms that influence how and when parents and children use these PRs may be promising for developing targeted family-based obesity-prevention efforts.

  17. Socio-demographic characteristics and factors associated with hospitalization in psychiatry of old age patients: an international comparison between Ireland and Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpar, Elif; McCarthy, Geraldine; Adamis, Dimitrios; Donmezler, Gizem; Cesur, Ender; Fistikci, Nurhan

    2017-08-14

    Taking predictors of hospitalization characteristics into consideration internationally would broaden our understanding of this population on a local basis. We aimed to examine and compare socio-demographic profiles along with hospitalization characteristics including length of hospital stay (LOS), reasons for admission and diagnoses among older adult inpatients hospitalized in Ireland and Turkey, and to assess factors predicting these features. The admission charts of 356 psychiatric inpatients over 65 years of age who were admitted to two different acute psychiatric hospitals (Sligo/Ireland and Istanbul/Turkey) were analysed by means of descriptive modalities and logistic regression. There were significant differences in several domains of socio-demographics, reasons of admission and diagnoses. LOS was significantly longer in Ireland. Living alone was the only significant predictor for longer LOS in both countries, whereas in addition to living alone, younger age was also a contributor for longer LOS in Turkey. Given that the only factor predicting LOS both in Turkey and Ireland was living alone, helping to identify more acceptable ways of providing social support for living arrangements constitutes an important service to shorten LOS in old age psychiatric population. It is possible to infer that independent from the cultural diversities, living arrangement is a consistent entity to influence length of hospital stay in older adult population.

  18. TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION IN HUMAN ACTIVITY OF THE INFORMATION AGE: INFORMATION CHALLENGES AND TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr Yu. Burov

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available It is discussed the role of technology development, especially in connection with social transformation and transition of humanity to the era of information/knowledge, analyzed the trend accelerating technological change and its relation to civil and military changes in society. It is emphasized the fundamental novelty of the information age, namely the transition of mankind from the production of material products mainly to intangible (information, knowledge, human cognitive processes. It is emphasized that ICT gain not only growing importance, but become a driving force of human civilization. The basic features of education in the information age, including ICT educational purpose out technology for distance education are described.

  19. The impact of nutrients on the aging rate: A complex interaction of demographic, environmental and genetic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dato, Serena; Bellizzi, Dina; Rose, Giuseppina; Passarino, Giuseppe

    2016-03-01

    Nutrition has a strong influence on the health status of the elderly, with many dietary components associated to either an increased risk of disease or to an improvement of the quality of life and to a delay of age-related pathologies. A direct effect of a reduced caloric intake on the delay of aging phenotypes is documented in several organisms. The role of nutrients in the regulation of human lifespan is not easy to disentangle, influenced by a complex interaction of nutrition with environmental and genetic factors. The individual genetic background is fundamental for mediating the effects of nutritional components on aging. Classical genetic factors able to influence nutrient metabolism are considered those belonging to insulin/insulin growth factor (INS/IGF-1) signaling, TOR signaling and Sirtuins, but also genes involved in inflammatory/immune response and antioxidant activity can have a major role. Considering the worldwide increasing interest in nutrition to prevent age related diseases and achieve a healthy aging, in this review we will discuss this complex interaction, in the light of metabolic changes occurring with aging, with the aim of shedding a light on the enormous complexity of the metabolic scenario underlying longevity phenotype.

  20. Determinants of moderate-to-severe anaemia among women of reproductive age in Tanzania: analysis of data from the 2010 Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilunda, Calistus; Massawe, Siriel; Jackson, Caroline

    2013-12-01

    To identify determinants of moderate-to-severe anaemia among women of reproductive age in Tanzania. We included participants from the 2010 Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey, which collected data on socio-demographic and maternal health and determined haemoglobin levels from blood samples. We performed logistic regression to calculate adjusted odds ratios for associations between socio-demographic, contextual, reproductive and lifestyle factors, and moderate-to-severe anaemia and investigated interactions between certain risk factors. Of 9477 women, 20.1% were anaemic. Pregnancy was significantly associated with anaemia (adjusted OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.43-2.15), but the effect varied significantly by urban/rural residence, wealth and education. The effect of pregnancy was stronger in women without education and those who were in lower wealth groups, with significant interactions observed for each of these factors. Education was associated with a lower anaemia risk, particularly in the poorest group (OR 0.58, 95% CI 0.43-0.80), and in pregnant women. The risk of anaemia fell with rising iron supplementation coverage. Lack of toilet facilities increased anaemia risk (OR 1.26, 95% CI 1.00-1.60), whereas using hormonal contraception reduced it. There was no association with age, urban/rural residence, wealth or type of cooking fuel in adjusted analysis. Pregnant women in Tanzania are particularly at risk of moderate-to-severe anaemia, with the effect modified by urban/rural residence, education and wealth. Prevention interventions should target women with lower education or without proper sanitation facilities, and women who are pregnant, particularly if they are uneducated or in lower wealth groups. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Sexual Perceptions among People Aged 45 years, Association of Reproductive Health and Socio-Demographic Factors in Klang Valley, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latiffah Latiff

    2008-03-01

    Conclusion: The findings indicate that older people present as wide a variety of sexual problem areas as younger individuals. Accurate information about sexuality in later life will enable professionals to better provide a desirable environment.

  2. Interaction between Helicobacter pylori and latent toxoplasmosis and demographic variables on cognitive function in young to middle-aged adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawn D Gale

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori and latent toxoplasmosis are widespread diseases that have been associated with cognitive deficits and Alzheimer's disease. We sought to determine whether interactions between Helicobacter pylori and latent toxoplasmosis, age, race-ethnicity, educational attainment, economic status, and general health predict cognitive function in young and middle-aged adults. To do so, we used multivariable regression and multivariate models to analyze data obtained from the United States' National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, which can be weighted to represent the US population. In this sample, we found that 31.6 percent of women and 36.2 percent of men of the overall sample had IgG Antibodies against Helicobacter pylori, although the seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori varied with sociodemographic variables. There were no main effects for Helicobacter pylori or latent toxoplasmosis for any of the cognitive measures in models adjusting for age, sex, race-ethnicity, educational attainment, economic standing, and self-rated health predicting cognitive function. However, interactions between Helicobacter pylori and race-ethnicity, educational attainment, latent toxoplasmosis in the fully adjusted models predicted cognitive function. People seropositive for both Helicobacter pylori and latent toxoplasmosis - both of which appear to be common in the general population - appear to be more susceptible to cognitive deficits than are people seropositive for either Helicobacter pylori and or latent toxoplasmosis alone, suggesting a synergistic effect between these two infectious diseases on cognition in young to middle-aged adults.

  3. Interaction between Helicobacter pylori and latent toxoplasmosis and demographic variables on cognitive function in young to middle-aged adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Shawn D; Erickson, Lance D; Brown, Bruce L; Hedges, Dawson W

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori and latent toxoplasmosis are widespread diseases that have been associated with cognitive deficits and Alzheimer's disease. We sought to determine whether interactions between Helicobacter pylori and latent toxoplasmosis, age, race-ethnicity, educational attainment, economic status, and general health predict cognitive function in young and middle-aged adults. To do so, we used multivariable regression and multivariate models to analyze data obtained from the United States' National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, which can be weighted to represent the US population. In this sample, we found that 31.6 percent of women and 36.2 percent of men of the overall sample had IgG Antibodies against Helicobacter pylori, although the seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori varied with sociodemographic variables. There were no main effects for Helicobacter pylori or latent toxoplasmosis for any of the cognitive measures in models adjusting for age, sex, race-ethnicity, educational attainment, economic standing, and self-rated health predicting cognitive function. However, interactions between Helicobacter pylori and race-ethnicity, educational attainment, latent toxoplasmosis in the fully adjusted models predicted cognitive function. People seropositive for both Helicobacter pylori and latent toxoplasmosis - both of which appear to be common in the general population - appear to be more susceptible to cognitive deficits than are people seropositive for either Helicobacter pylori and or latent toxoplasmosis alone, suggesting a synergistic effect between these two infectious diseases on cognition in young to middle-aged adults.

  4. Socio-demographic factors and psychological distress in Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australian adults aged 18-64 years: analysis of national survey data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Indigenous Australians are known to be at greater risk of morbidity and mortality from mental health related conditions, but most available data relate to the use of mental health services, and little is known about other aspects of social and emotional wellbeing. Using the first available nationally representative data, we examined the prevalence and patterning of psychological distress among Indigenous Australian adults and compared these with corresponding data from the non-Indigenous population. Methods The analysis used weighted data on psychological distress, as measured by a modified Kessler Psychological Distress score (K5), and a range of socio-demographic measures for 5,417 Indigenous and 15,432 non-Indigenous adults aged 18-64 years from two nationally representative surveys. Very high psychological distress (VHPD) was defined as a K5 score ≥ 15 (possible range = 5-25). Results Indigenous adults were about three times more likely than non-Indigenous adults to be classified with VHPD: 14.5% (95% confidence interval (CI) 12.9-16.0%) versus 5.5% (95% CI 5.0-5.9%). After adjusting for age, most socio-demographic variables were significantly associated with VHPD in both populations, although the relative odds were generally larger among non-Indigenous people. Indigenous people in remote areas had a lower prevalence of VHPD than their non-remote counterparts, and only marital status, main language, and food insecurity were significantly associated with VHPD in remote areas. Conclusions Higher absolute levels of VHPD combined with smaller socio-demographic gradients in the Indigenous population suggest the importance of risk factors such as interpersonal racism, marginalization and dispossession, chronic stress and exposure to violence that are experienced by Indigenous Australians with common and/or cross-cutting effects across the socioeconomic spectrum. The lower prevalence of VHPD and lack of association with many socio-demographic variables in

  5. Socio-demographic factors and psychological distress in Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australian adults aged 18-64 years: analysis of national survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Joan; Paradies, Yin C

    2012-02-01

    Indigenous Australians are known to be at greater risk of morbidity and mortality from mental health related conditions, but most available data relate to the use of mental health services, and little is known about other aspects of social and emotional wellbeing. Using the first available nationally representative data, we examined the prevalence and patterning of psychological distress among Indigenous Australian adults and compared these with corresponding data from the non-Indigenous population. The analysis used weighted data on psychological distress, as measured by a modified Kessler Psychological Distress score (K5), and a range of socio-demographic measures for 5,417 Indigenous and 15,432 non-Indigenous adults aged 18-64 years from two nationally representative surveys. Very high psychological distress (VHPD) was defined as a K5 score ≥ 15 (possible range = 5-25). Indigenous adults were about three times more likely than non-Indigenous adults to be classified with VHPD: 14.5% (95% confidence interval (CI) 12.9-16.0%) versus 5.5% (95% CI 5.0-5.9%). After adjusting for age, most socio-demographic variables were significantly associated with VHPD in both populations, although the relative odds were generally larger among non-Indigenous people. Indigenous people in remote areas had a lower prevalence of VHPD than their non-remote counterparts, and only marital status, main language, and food insecurity were significantly associated with VHPD in remote areas. Higher absolute levels of VHPD combined with smaller socio-demographic gradients in the Indigenous population suggest the importance of risk factors such as interpersonal racism, marginalization and dispossession, chronic stress and exposure to violence that are experienced by Indigenous Australians with common and/or cross-cutting effects across the socioeconomic spectrum. The lower prevalence of VHPD and lack of association with many socio-demographic variables in remote areas suggests either that the

  6. Resource Gleaning, From Earlier Times to the Information Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William W. Bostock

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Inspired by the film documentary The Gleaners and I, the paper defines two senses of gleaning: (1 generally, the collection of items in small quantities, and (2 more specifically, the collection of items missed or rejected during previous harvesting. As an activity, gleaning in both senses is a neglected but essential activity in the solving of problems of lack of resource, especially now in the Information Age. A classic example of the gleaning process is provided by psychoanalysis, which gleans information which would normally be seen as trivial or unacceptable, to be used in the analysis and treatment of a personality disorder. The need to glean information to break secret codes in World War II provided the impetus to create the world's first programmable electronic computer, the Colossus. The invention of the computer has brought in the Information Age, but in so doing, it has created a need for information gleaning. The publishing of research findings on the Internet is discussed and the current status of some gleaning software is commented upon.

  7. Survey of independent inventors: An overview. [Includes information on demographics, gender, ethnicity, education, income, employment, areas of invention, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whalley, P.

    1992-01-01

    Independent inventors are important but little-researched members of the US technical community. The survey reported on here is the first in modern times to attempt to provide a profile of the US independent inventor that goes beyond a single geographical or organizational locale. The report that follows provides an overview of the demographics, practices and concerns of the modern US inventor as represented by the members of leading US inventor organizations. It is by no means comprehensive but seeks to be indicative of the issues raised in the survey each which will be dealt with more comprehensively in future publications.

  8. Influence of selected demographic factors on traumas in persons over 65 years of age reporting to the Hospital Medical Ward

    OpenAIRE

    Mateusz Andrzej Pytlak; Natalia Tomska; Andrzej Bohatyrewicz; Aleksandra Rył; Iwona Rotter

    2016-01-01

    Background. Falls and traumas in elderly persons don’t only result in health problems, but they also involve social and economic, psychological and political consequences. The most frequent trauma mechanisms in the elderly include: falls and traffic accidents. ;b:Objectives. The aim of the study was to assess selected factors influencing the energy, type and area of a trauma incurred by elderly people. Material and methods. A group of 108 patients aged 65–93 treated at the SPSK 1...

  9. [Skeletochronological determination of age and demographic analysis of a population of Acanthodactylus pardalis (Lischenstein, 1823) of the Kerkennah islands (Tunisia)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouira, S

    1987-07-01

    The skeletochronological analysis of 34 adult lizards from population of Acanthodactylus pardalis of Kerkennah islands in Tunisia enabled to: determine the individual age of the animals; delineate four various cohorts making up the studied population; evaluate around 4 years life span in nature of this species; point out that the renewal rate accounts for 41% of its population. Moreover the method of "maximums successifs" is applied on sizeable sample in order to shore up the obtained results.

  10. Google as God? Opportunities and Risks of the Information Age

    CERN Document Server

    Helbing, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    If God did not exist - people would invent one. The development of human civilization requires mechanisms promoting cooperation and social order. One of these mechanisms is based on the idea that everything we do is seen and judged by God - bad deeds will be punished, while good ones will be rewarded. The Information Age has now fueled the dream that God-like omniscience and omnipotence can be created by man.

  11. Adaptive evolvement of information age C4ISR structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yushi Lan; Kebo Deng; Shaojie Mao; Heng Wang; Kan Yi; Ming Lei

    2015-01-01

    Command, control, communication, computing, intel-ligence, surveil ance and reconnaissance (C4ISR) in information age is a complex system whose structure always changes ac-tively or passively during the warfare. Therefore, it is important to optimize the structure, especial y in ambiguous and quick-tempo modern warfare. This paper proposes an adaptive evolvement mechanism for the C4ISR structure to survive the changeable warfare. Firstly, the information age C4ISR structure is defined and modeled based on the complex network theory. Secondly, taking the observe, orient, decide and act (OODA) model into consideration, four kinds of loops in the C4ISR structure are pro-posed and their coefficient of networked effects (CNE) is further defined. Then, the adaptive evolvement mechanisms of the four kinds of loops are presented respectively. Final y, taking the joint air-defense C4ISR as an example, simulation experiments are im-plemented, which validate the evolvement mechanism and show that the information age C4ISR structure has some characteristics of smal-world network and scale-free network.

  12. Confidence in the use of information management and technology (IM and T) in radiography: Is age a barrier?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, Hywel, E-mail: rogershj1@cf.ac.u [Department of Radiography, School of Healthcare Studies, Cardiff University, Heath Park, Cardiff, CF14 4XN (United Kingdom); Pratt, Shaaron; Brown, Paul; Gambling, Tina [Department of Radiography, School of Healthcare Studies, Cardiff University, Heath Park, Cardiff, CF14 4XN (United Kingdom)

    2010-08-15

    Introduction: Age has been reported as a barrier to the use of Information Management and Technology (IM and T). Radiographers' confidence and ability in IM and T may be related to age and it is the aim of this research to investigate this relationship. Method: An online survey method gathered views from the radiographic population, between 31st August 2008 and 10th October 2008. The questionnaire encompassed IM and T ability, work based IM and T usage, personal IM and T usage, security and governance issues, education and training experience, the future and demographic details. For the purpose of this paper the first three sections and demographic section were considered. Results: Radiographers showed a good level of ability and confidence in the use of IM and T. Some general applications such as word processing showed a decreased confidence with age. Confidence in all radiography specific applications was scored highly although confidence in the use of Hospital Information Systems (HIS) and radiotherapy Treatment Planning Systems (TPS) showed the least confidence. Statistical analysis did not reveal a strong link between age and confidence in all applications. Discussion: While a link between age and confidence was not found in this study, frequency of use and training in IM and T require further investigation in relation to specific roles.

  13. Personality-Informed Interventions for Healthy Aging: Conclusions from a National Institute on Aging Work Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Benjamin P.; Hampson, Sarah; Clarkin, John

    2014-01-01

    We describe 2 frameworks in which personality dimensions relevant to health, such as Conscientiousness, can be used to inform interventions designed to promote health aging. First, contemporary data and theory do not suggest that personality is "immutable," but instead focus on questions of who changes, in what way, why, when, and how.…

  14. Personality-Informed Interventions for Healthy Aging: Conclusions from a National Institute on Aging Work Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Benjamin P.; Hampson, Sarah; Clarkin, John

    2014-01-01

    We describe 2 frameworks in which personality dimensions relevant to health, such as Conscientiousness, can be used to inform interventions designed to promote health aging. First, contemporary data and theory do not suggest that personality is "immutable," but instead focus on questions of who changes, in what way, why, when, and how.…

  15. Age-specific malaria mortality rates in the KEMRI/CDC health and demographic surveillance system in western Kenya, 2003-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Meghna; Buff, Ann M; Khagayi, Sammy; Byass, Peter; Amek, Nyaguara; van Eijk, Annemieke; Slutsker, Laurence; Vulule, John; Odhiambo, Frank O; Phillips-Howard, Penelope A; Lindblade, Kimberly A; Laserson, Kayla F; Hamel, Mary J

    2014-01-01

    Recent global malaria burden modeling efforts have produced significantly different estimates, particularly in adult malaria mortality. To measure malaria control progress, accurate malaria burden estimates across age groups are necessary. We determined age-specific malaria mortality rates in western Kenya to compare with recent global estimates. We collected data from 148,000 persons in a health and demographic surveillance system from 2003-2010. Standardized verbal autopsies were conducted for all deaths; probable cause of death was assigned using the InterVA-4 model. Annual malaria mortality rates per 1,000 person-years were generated by age group. Trends were analyzed using Poisson regression. From 2003-2010, in children malaria mortality rate decreased from 13.2 to 3.7 per 1,000 person-years; the declines were greatest in the first three years of life. In children 5-14 years, the malaria mortality rate remained stable at 0.5 per 1,000 person-years. In persons ≥15 years, the malaria mortality rate decreased from 1.5 to 0.4 per 1,000 person-years. The malaria mortality rates in young children and persons aged ≥15 years decreased dramatically from 2003-2010 in western Kenya, but rates in older children have not declined. Sharp declines in some age groups likely reflect the national scale up of malaria control interventions and rapid expansion of HIV prevention services. These data highlight the importance of age-specific malaria mortality ascertainment and support current strategies to include all age groups in malaria control interventions.

  16. Age-Specific Malaria Mortality Rates in the KEMRI/CDC Health and Demographic Surveillance System in Western Kenya, 2003–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Meghna; Buff, Ann M.; Khagayi, Sammy; Byass, Peter; Amek, Nyaguara; van Eijk, Annemieke; Slutsker, Laurence; Vulule, John; Odhiambo, Frank O.; Phillips-Howard, Penelope A.; Lindblade, Kimberly A.; Laserson, Kayla F.; Hamel, Mary J.

    2014-01-01

    Recent global malaria burden modeling efforts have produced significantly different estimates, particularly in adult malaria mortality. To measure malaria control progress, accurate malaria burden estimates across age groups are necessary. We determined age-specific malaria mortality rates in western Kenya to compare with recent global estimates. We collected data from 148,000 persons in a health and demographic surveillance system from 2003–2010. Standardized verbal autopsies were conducted for all deaths; probable cause of death was assigned using the InterVA-4 model. Annual malaria mortality rates per 1,000 person-years were generated by age group. Trends were analyzed using Poisson regression. From 2003–2010, in children malaria mortality rate decreased from 13.2 to 3.7 per 1,000 person-years; the declines were greatest in the first three years of life. In children 5–14 years, the malaria mortality rate remained stable at 0.5 per 1,000 person-years. In persons ≥15 years, the malaria mortality rate decreased from 1.5 to 0.4 per 1,000 person-years. The malaria mortality rates in young children and persons aged ≥15 years decreased dramatically from 2003–2010 in western Kenya, but rates in older children have not declined. Sharp declines in some age groups likely reflect the national scale up of malaria control interventions and rapid expansion of HIV prevention services. These data highlight the importance of age-specific malaria mortality ascertainment and support current strategies to include all age groups in malaria control interventions. PMID:25180495

  17. Age-specific malaria mortality rates in the KEMRI/CDC health and demographic surveillance system in western Kenya, 2003-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghna Desai

    Full Text Available Recent global malaria burden modeling efforts have produced significantly different estimates, particularly in adult malaria mortality. To measure malaria control progress, accurate malaria burden estimates across age groups are necessary. We determined age-specific malaria mortality rates in western Kenya to compare with recent global estimates. We collected data from 148,000 persons in a health and demographic surveillance system from 2003-2010. Standardized verbal autopsies were conducted for all deaths; probable cause of death was assigned using the InterVA-4 model. Annual malaria mortality rates per 1,000 person-years were generated by age group. Trends were analyzed using Poisson regression. From 2003-2010, in children <5 years the malaria mortality rate decreased from 13.2 to 3.7 per 1,000 person-years; the declines were greatest in the first three years of life. In children 5-14 years, the malaria mortality rate remained stable at 0.5 per 1,000 person-years. In persons ≥15 years, the malaria mortality rate decreased from 1.5 to 0.4 per 1,000 person-years. The malaria mortality rates in young children and persons aged ≥15 years decreased dramatically from 2003-2010 in western Kenya, but rates in older children have not declined. Sharp declines in some age groups likely reflect the national scale up of malaria control interventions and rapid expansion of HIV prevention services. These data highlight the importance of age-specific malaria mortality ascertainment and support current strategies to include all age groups in malaria control interventions.

  18. Network model of human aging: Frailty limits and information measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Spencer G.; Mitnitski, Arnold B.; Rockwood, Kenneth; Rutenberg, Andrew D.

    2016-11-01

    Aging is associated with the accumulation of damage throughout a persons life. Individual health can be assessed by the Frailty Index (FI). The FI is calculated simply as the proportion f of accumulated age-related deficits relative to the total, leading to a theoretical maximum of f ≤1 . Observational studies have generally reported a much more stringent bound, with f ≤fmaxcomputationally accelerated network model that also allows us to tune the scale-free network exponent α . The network exponent α significantly affects the growth of mortality rates with age. However, we are only able to recover fmax by also introducing a deficit sensitivity parameter 1 -q , which is equivalent to a false-negative rate q . Our value of q =0.3 is comparable to finite sensitivities of age-related deficits with respect to mortality that are often reported in the literature. In light of nonzero q , we use mutual information I to provide a nonparametric measure of the predictive value of the FI with respect to individual mortality. We find that I is only modestly degraded by q topology of aging populations.

  19. Envejecimiento demográfico y participación laboral femenina Demographic Aging and Female Labour Participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Adriana Sala

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza la participación laboral de las mujeres de 60 y más años residentes en áreas urbanas argentinas, a partir de procesamientos especiales de la Encuesta Permanente de Hogares del tercer trimestre del 2009. Con este propósito, se enfatiza el análisis de la ocupación principal, entre quienes trabajaban y de la última ocupación entre las desempleadas. Se evalúa la percepción de beneficios previsionales y la intensidad de la ocupación en diferentes edades en aquellos grupos ocupacionales que concentraban a la mayoría de las ocupadas. El articulo muestra la dualidad del perfil de las ocupadas, porque entre las que carecían de educación universitaria predominaba la inserción en los servicios de limpieza domésticos y no domésticos, la comercialización directa, la gestión administrativa planificación y control, la producción industrial y artesanal, en ocupaciones de la salud y sanidad, del cuidado y la atención de personas y de los servicios gastronómicos. Por otra parte, entre las más escolarizadas prevalecían la vinculación a ocupaciones de la educación, la salud, la dirección de pequeñas y medianas empresas, la gestión administrativa y la comercialización.This article analyzes the labour participation of women aged 60 years and over residing in Argentine urban areas, from special tabulations of the Permanent Survey of households in the third quarter of 2009. To this end, the analysis of the main occupational groups among the occupied and the last occupation among the unemployed is emphasized. Also the perception of social security benefits and the intensity of the occupation at different ages and occupational group are evaluated. The article shows the duality of the profile of the aged women occupied, because them who lack of high education predominated the inclusion in occupation linked to domestic and non-domestic cleaning services, the direct commercialization, administrative planning and control

  20. Demographic Change and Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haustein, Sonja; Siren, Anu Kristiina; Framke, Elisabeth

    This report is the literature review on demographic changes and transport of Work Package 1 of the EU project CONSOL, “CONcerns and SOLutions – Road Safety in the Ageing Societies” (contract period: 2011-2013). The report is a state-of-the art report that combines current knowledge with new findi...

  1. Research Students in the Electronic Age: Impacts of Changing Information Behavior on Information Literacy Needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsty Williamson

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Because of the rapid uptake of information and communication technology (ICT, understanding the ways in which information seeking has changed over the past decade is crucial to gaining a picture of how information literacy needs may also be changing in the electronic age. This qualitative research took an interpretivist/ constructivist approach in examining the ways in which access to electronic information-seeking affects the information literacy needs of 15 research students in an Australian university setting. An ethnographic technique, the interview, was used for the data collection. Three particular areas, related to information seeking and use, were selected: (1 information source use because of the burgeoning availability of electronic sources; (2 knowing when to stop collecting information because the advent of the Internet has the consequence of greater quantities of information being more easily available than was the case in the past; and 3 managing information following its collection, which has also been affected by the vast amount of information that is now accessible. The conclusion points to enhanced roles for both supervisors and academic librarians, with the need for the latter to become perceived as educators within their university communities.

  2. Demographic Estimation from Face Images: Human vs. Machine Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hu; Otto, Charles; Liu, Xiaoming; Jain, Anil K

    2015-06-01

    Demographic estimation entails automatic estimation of age, gender and race of a person from his face image, which has many potential applications ranging from forensics to social media. Automatic demographic estimation, particularly age estimation, remains a challenging problem because persons belonging to the same demographic group can be vastly different in their facial appearances due to intrinsic and extrinsic factors. In this paper, we present a generic framework for automatic demographic (age, gender and race) estimation. Given a face image, we first extract demographic informative features via a boosting algorithm, and then employ a hierarchical approach consisting of between-group classification, and within-group regression. Quality assessment is also developed to identify low-quality face images that are difficult to obtain reliable demographic estimates. Experimental results on a diverse set of face image databases, FG-NET (1K images), FERET (3K images), MORPH II (75K images), PCSO (100K images), and a subset of LFW (4K images), show that the proposed approach has superior performance compared to the state of the art. Finally, we use crowdsourcing to study the human perception ability of estimating demographics from face images. A side-by-side comparison of the demographic estimates from crowdsourced data and the proposed algorithm provides a number of insights into this challenging problem.

  3. Privacy and human behavior in the age of information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acquisti, Alessandro; Brandimarte, Laura; Loewenstein, George

    2015-01-30

    This Review summarizes and draws connections between diverse streams of empirical research on privacy behavior. We use three themes to connect insights from social and behavioral sciences: people's uncertainty about the consequences of privacy-related behaviors and their own preferences over those consequences; the context-dependence of people's concern, or lack thereof, about privacy; and the degree to which privacy concerns are malleable—manipulable by commercial and governmental interests. Organizing our discussion by these themes, we offer observations concerning the role of public policy in the protection of privacy in the information age. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  4. On English Teachers' Roles in the Information Age

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽

    2016-01-01

    Teachers play an important role in both the traditional and modern teaching process. The role of the teacher as a topic has been discussed in the field of general education as well as the language education for many years. The main purpose of the paper is to analyze the historical roles of English teachers in three different periods and to reorient English teachers' roles in the new teaching model. With the support of the modern teaching means, English teachers can play roles as organizers, participants, prompters and supervisors in the Information Age.

  5. Gate-Keeping in the Age of Information Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kim Normann; Zinner Henriksen, Helle; Medaglia, Rony

    Despite ten years of direct regulation, our study of Danish lower secondary schools shows that they do not provide online access to the GPA for individual public schools (N=1,592). Using Lipsky’s gate-keeping theory, we investigate the lack of data provision as indicator not only of professionals...... in the age of information society where expectations of end-of-gatekeeping by providing accessibility and transparency using information systems has been outnumbered by classical forces of gate-keeping.......’ being reluctant to accept imposed standards and control from central level (top-down) but also avoiding demands from parents (and children) on transparency and accountability (bottom-up). The lack of accessibility of grades on the web can thus be seen as a classical gate-keeping mechanism evolving...

  6. American AV: Edgar Dale and the Information Age Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acland, Charles R

    2017-01-01

    This article demonstrates how the influential scholar Edgar Dale, alongside a generation of educational technologists, helped build an essential place for AV materials and pedagogical methods in the American classroom. It also shows that, for decades, the Payne Fund philanthropy supported multimedia research agendas that shaped ideas about teaching and technology, far beyond involvement in their famed studies on motion pictures and children in the 1930s. With his writings and research programs, Dale advanced concepts of media experience and systematicity, which came to be understood as common sense to the information society. In so doing he was a leading contributor to the discursive and ideological structure of our age of technological and informational abundance.

  7. Practising science communication in the information age theorising professional practices

    CERN Document Server

    Holliman, Richard

    2008-01-01

    What is the impact of open access on science communication? How can scientists effectively engage and interact with the public? What role can science communication have when scientific controversies arise? Practising science communication in the information age is a collection of newly-commissioned chapters by leading scholars and practitioners of science communication. It considers how scientists communicate with each other as part of their professional practice, critically evaluating how this forms the basis of the documenting of scientific knowledge, and investigating how open access publication and open review are influencing current practices. It also explores how science communication can play a crucial role when science is disputed, investigating the role of expertise in the formation of scientific controversy and consensus. The volume provides a theoretically informed review of contemporary trends and issues that are engaging practitioners of science communication, focusing on issues such as the norms...

  8. Information Needs Assessment for Coastal and Marine Management and Policy: Ecosystem Services Under Changing Climatic, Land Use, and Demographic Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Kaitlin A; Granek, Elise F; Lubitow, Amy

    2015-12-01

    Changing climatic, demographic, and land use conditions are projected to alter the provisioning of ecosystem services in estuarine, coastal, and nearshore marine ecosystems, necessitating mitigation and adaptation policies and management. The current paradigm of research efforts occurring in parallel to, rather than in collaboration with, decision makers will be insufficient for the rapid responses required to adapt to and mitigate for projected changing conditions. Here, we suggest a different paradigm: one where research begins by engaging decision makers in the identification of priority data needs (biophysical, economic, and social). This paper uses synthesized interview data to provide insight into the varied demands for scientific research as described by decision makers working on coastal issues in Oregon, USA. The findings highlight the need to recognize (1) the differing framing of ecosystem services by decision makers versus scientists; and (2) the differing data priorities relevant to inland versus coastal decision makers. The findings further serve to highlight the need for decision makers, scientists, and funders to engage in increased communication. This research is an important first step in advancing efforts toward evidence-based decision making in Oregon and provides a template for further research across the US.

  9. Environmental governance in the Information Age: the emergence of informational governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, A.P.J.

    2006-01-01

    Castells's influential work on the Information Age has hardly impacted on the environmental social sciences; and where it has, it has been mainly in terms of intrusions of global flows and networks in fragile environments. This paper explores to what extent and how environmental governance is changi

  10. Consumer preference and effect of correct or misleading information after ageing beef longissimus muscle using vacuum, dry ageing, or a dry ageing bag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenström, Helena; Li, Xin; Hunt, Melvin C; Lundström, Kerstin

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine which ageing treatment of beef was sensorially preferred by consumers and how their preference changed when given information about the ageing treatment used. Longissimus thoracis et lumborum from four young bulls were randomly assigned three ageing treatments: dry ageing, vacuum ageing and ageing in a highly moisture permeable bag (bag dry-ageing); each was aged at 1.6 °C for another 13 days. A preference test (171 consumers) with questions about overall liking, tenderness, and juiciness was performed. Thereafter, a deceptive test (61 consumers) was performed with two taste samples, the first taste sample with correct information about ageing treatment and the second with false information. In the preference test, consumers preferred dry ageing and bag dry-ageing to vacuum ageing. In the deceptive test, dry ageing was preferred, but the information given influenced preference.

  11. Healthy Aging Promotion through Neuroscientific Information-Based Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seinfeld, Sofia; Sanchez-Vives, Maria V

    2015-09-28

    To ensure the well-being of a rapidly growing elderly population, it is fundamental to find strategies to foster healthy brain aging. With this intention, we designed a program of scientific-based lectures aimed at dissemination by established neuroscientists about brain function, brain plasticity and how lifestyle influences the brain. We also carried out a pilot study on the impact of the lectures on attendees. The objective was to provide information to elderly people in order to encourage them to identify unhealthy and healthy daily habits, and more importantly, to promote behavioral changes towards healthy brain aging. Here we report on our experience. In order to determine the impact of the lectures in the daily routine of the attendees, we asked them to fill out questionnaires. Preliminary results indicate that neuroscientific information-based strategies can be a useful method to have a positive impact on the lives of elderly, increase their awareness on how to improve brain function and promote positive lifestyle modifications. Furthermore, based on self-reported data, we also found that through this strategy it is possible to promote behavioral changes related to nutrition, sleep, and realization of physical and cognitively stimulating activities. Finally, based on the results obtained, the importance of promoting self-efficacy and the empowerment of the older populations is highlighted.

  12. The Influences of Socio-demographic Factors, and Non-formal and Informal Learning Participation on Adult Environmental Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia L. B. DIGBY

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple factors are likely to influence adult literacy regarding the natural environment and environmental issues, but very little research has been carried out in this area. The research presented in this article is intended to help address this information gap, by investigating influences on adult environmental literacy using data from a Minnesota environmental literacy survey. The article presents the research findings regarding the influence of demographicfactors and of non-formal and informal learning on environmental behavior, one of the key dimensions of environmental literacy. Results from this study indicated that environmental behavior prediction was most improved by adding non-formal and informal learningparticipation. These results suggest that non-formal and informal learning options should be looked at more carefully for predictive possibilities.

  13. Folate status and socio-demographic predictors of folate status, among a national cohort of women aged 26-36 in Australia, 2004-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gall, Seana; Seal, Judy; Taylor, Roscoe; Dwyer, Terry; Venn, Alison

    2012-10-01

    To describe serum folate status and the socio-demographic correlates of serum folate status in a national sample of women aged 26-36 years in Australia, 2004-2006. Stored serum samples from 1,046 women, collected as part of the Childhood Determinants of Adult Health study, were analysed for serum folate. Median (IQR) serum folate was 27.1 nmol/L (18.8-35.0 nmol/L) with only 7.0% of samples below 11 nmol/L. Serum folate was positively associated with supplement use, educational level, occupational status and urban dwelling. In this population-based sample, most women had folate levels in the normal range with few having low serum folate. Those of lower socioeconomic position or with poorer health behaviours had lower folate levels, though most were still within the normal range. In the absence of comprehensive national survey data on the folate status of women of child-bearing age, these data provide a valuable baseline for evaluating the impact of mandatory folic acid fortification in Australia, which commenced in 2009. It is likely that mandatory fortification of the food supply with folic acid will reduce the disparities in folate status between socioeconomic groups and in people with poorer health behaviours. © 2012 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2012 Public Health Association of Australia.

  14. [Socio-demographic and nutritional characteristics of Brazilian children under 2 years of age who were beneficiaries of conditional cash transfer programs in 2006].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Juliana Bergamo; Taddei, José Augusto de Aguiar Carrazedo; Poblacion, Ana Paula

    2014-03-01

    The conditional cash transfer programs (PTCR) seek to combat poverty and hunger and to ensure food security. Children under the age of two of beneficiary families are more vulnerable to environmental conditions. This study seeks to describe this population according to socio-economic, demographic and nutritional variables. Secondary data from the National Survey on Demography and Health of Women and Children (PNDS-2006) were used. Data were described using mean and standard deviations. Associations were described using the chi-square test with confidence intervals of 95%. Of the 1735 children, 29.4% were PCTR beneficiaries with average family income of R$430.20 and average benefits of R$75. Among those living in the Northeast or in the rural area of the country, one in every three received benefits. Among those experiencing severe food insecurity, 52.3% were PTCR beneficiaries. Children from socio-economic classes D and E and whose mothers had less than four years education were associated with PTCR. Among the nutritional disorders of child beneficiaries, overweight for age prevailed. Of those who ceased exclusive breastfeeding in less than two months, 31.2% were beneficiaries. The need for preventive nutritional education was identified in order to optimize the use of benefits.

  15. Dietary Diversity and Meal Frequency Practices among Infant and Young Children Aged 6–23 Months in Ethiopia: A Secondary Analysis of Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melkam Aemro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Appropriate complementary feeding practice is essential for growth and development of children. This study aimed to assess dietary diversity and meal frequency practice of infants and young children in Ethiopia. Methods. Data collected in the Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS from December 2010 to June 2011 were used for this study. Data collected were extracted, arranged, recoded, and analyzed by using SPSS version 17. A total of 2836 children aged 6–23 months were used for final analysis. Both bivariate and multivariate analysis were done to identify predictors of feeding practices. Result. Children with adequate dietary diversity score and meal frequency were 10.8% and 44.7%, respectively. Children born from the richest households showed better dietary diversity score (OR = 0.256. Number of children whose age less than five years was important predictor of dietary diversity (OR = 0.690. Mothers who had exposure to media were more likely to give adequate meal frequency to their children (OR = 0.707. Conclusion. Dietary diversity and meal frequency practices were inadequate in Ethiopia. Wealth quintile, exposure to media, and number of children were affecting feeding practices. Improving economic status, a habit of eating together, and exposure to media are important to improve infant feeding practices in Ethiopia.

  16. Demographic Trends: Impact on Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Sylvia N. Y.; Cheah, Horn Mun

    2010-01-01

    Background: Singapore is experiencing great demographic change. These demographic trends show fewer young people and declining birth rates, greater longevity for ageing generations and an increase in the number of non-Singaporean residents. Statistics also show that more than half of the total population increase in the last decades was…

  17. The Influences of Socio-Demographic Factors, and Non-Formal and Informal Learning Participation on Adult Environmental Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digby, Cynthia L. B.

    2013-01-01

    Multiple factors are likely to influence adult literacy regarding the natural environment and environmental issues, but very little research has been carried out in this area. The research presented in this article is intended to help address this information gap, by investigating influences on adult environmental literacy using data from a…

  18. IN TODAY'S INFORMATION AGE ORGANISATIONS EXECUTIVE ASSISTANT PROFESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekir DEĞİRMENCİ

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available It's as old as human history in the Executive Office and of the concept has caused the unborn. From the industrial revolution, they perform the organizational activities of all employees in the area are the name of the Office. Businesses are not just places that made production. Businesses also allows the production of all kinds of people have seen the need, the important strategic decisions, increase the quali ty of production and employees must work efficiently and effectively - conscious upon arrival places always have been offices. Marketing, management, human resources, accounting, as units have been operating in all offices within the organization. In today' s information age, information offices are produced, distributed to individuals and corporations concerned, but also has been the destruction of redundant information and important information later when needed has been used places. Today's globalization i s rapid change in knowledge and technology organizations in the management of business owners and managers will help many professions on WikiMapia. Office; Administrator, officer, Secretary, will serve the objectives of the business class ser vices help kin d of elements are needed. Businesses in maintaining vital activities, production and service provision of the activities of the Organization in ensuring an effective and efficient manner within the framework of the team spirit in the conduct of managers with the most important requirements for an Assistant Manager's position has been. Most modern - day organizations close to the administrator should be looking to key features of the Administrative Assistant; the Office of the administrator, who knows how t o keep a secret is not a characteristic of people who best represent the Bureau. When a business can stand in straight execution activities Administrative Assistant has important tasks to. Executive Assistants are indispensable ingredients of today's mode rn office.

  19. Low Contraceptive Use among Young Females in Uganda: Does Birth History and Age at Birth have an Influence? Analysis of 2011 Demographic and Health Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabagenyi, Allen; Habaasa, Gilbert; Rutaremwa, Gideon

    2017-01-01

    Background Globally adolescent fertility has been associated with increased risk to maternal and child health morbidity and mortality. The low use of contraception has been associated with high fertility levels, which is remains a public health concern that efforts have been raised to avert this. We examine the influence history of a previous birth and age at first birth would have on young women’s use of contraception. Methods Using the 2011 Uganda Demographic and Health Survey data, we examine the predictors of contraceptive use on a sample of 3692 young females in Uganda. While controlling for education and age of respondents, logistic regression analyses were run to provide the net effect of the examined predictors on contraceptive use. The study variables included age of respondents, marital status, age at first birth, births in past five years, socioeconomic status, residence, region, education level, religion, occupation and whether the last child was wanted. Results The findings show that only 12% of the adolescents were using contraception at the time of the survey. The key predictors of contraceptive use among young women in Uganda were age at first birth, history of previous birth, current age, and place of residence, education and socioeconomic status. Respondents who had a birth in the 5 years prior to the survey had five times (OR = 5.0, 95% CI = 3.7-6.5) the odds of contraceptive use compared to those who had never had a birth. Further, adolescent females with at least a secondary education were more likely to use contraceptives (OR = 1.55, 95% CI = 1.2-2.0) than those with primary education. The odds of contraceptive use were least among adolescents from Northern region (OR = 0.39, 95% CI = 0.2-0.6) compared to those from central region of Uganda. Muslim adolescent females were more likely to use contraceptives compared to Catholics (OR = 1.59, 95% CI = 1.1-2.3). Conclusion There is great need to address issues that hinder young people from using

  20. Association of socio-economic and demographic factors with physical activity of males and females aged 20–69 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Biernat

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available [b]Objective[/b]. To assess the physical activity of working residents of Warsaw aged 20–69 years, as well as to identify the socio-demographic factors associated with their levels of physical activity. [b]Materials and method[/b]. The study involved 2,544 working residents of Warsaw aged 20–69 years. The short version of the IPAQ was applied and four physical activity levels (insufficient, sufficient, augmented, high were distinguished. The relationships between physical activity and gender, age, BMI, education, economic and martial status as well as participation in recreation were determined. [b]Results[/b]. High levels of physical activity were reached by 8% of respondents, 22% achieved augmented level, 32% were sufficiently and 32% insufficiently active. Out of 2544 studied subjects, 6% declared complete sedentariness. Females were, as compared to males, more frequently (p<0.05 insufficiently active (35.9 vs. 31.9%. In obese and overweight subjects insufficient physical activity predominated (42.9 and 36.2%, respectively and was significantly more frequent than in subjects with normal BMI (31.0%. Moreover, the subjects living in partner relationships were significantly (p<0.05 more frequently insufficiently active than those staying single (36.3 vs. 30.3%. Respondents who declared regular participation in leisure activities were less frequently insufficiently active (20.0% and more frequently met the criteria of sufficient (37.6%, augmented (28.0% or high (14.4% level of physical activity. No significant effects were found with respect to education of respondents. [b]Conclusions[/b]. Prophylactic schedules associated with the improvement of physical activity level should be addressed particularly to females, people taking up recreation occasionally or to those not involved in recreation at all, living in partner relationships, youngest (21–30 years, in obese and overweight and in the lowest economic category.

  1. AN EMPIRICAL INVESTIGATION OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DEMOGRAPHICS AND THE USAGE AND PERCEIVED CREDIBILITY OF SOURCES OF INFORMATION ON ACCOMMODATION PROVIDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu I. MOISESCU

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between the usage and perceived credibility of several sources of information domestic travelers take into consideration when gathering information on potential accommodation providers, on one hand, and, respectively, travelers’ demographic characteristics, on the other hand. After analyzing data from an online questionnaire based study conducted among a sample of 346 young Romanian Facebook users (between 19 and 35 years old, the results showed that, considering types of information sources usually taken into consideration, personal sources and Facebook are more frequently found among travelers with a lower income, travel agencies are more frequently mentioned as usual sources of information among older travelers and among those with a higher level of education, while women are more inclined than men to use leaflets and booklets as sources of information on accommodation providers. Moreover, the research showed that the higher the income, the higher the level of perceived credibility of online portals is. Also, travel agencies and personal sources are more frequently mentioned among the most credible sources by women, than by men, while men are slightly more confident than women in online banners and blogs. The findings can be very useful and relevant from a practical perspective, especially for communication and promotion purposes in the hospitality industry.

  2. Memory for reputational trait information: is social-emotional information processing less flexible in old age?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Raoul; Giang, Trang; Mund, Iris; Buchner, Axel

    2013-12-01

    How do younger and older adults remember reputational trait information about other people? In the present study, trustworthy-looking and untrustworthy-looking faces were paired with cooperation or cheating in a cooperation game. In a surprise source-memory test, participants were asked to rate the likability of the faces, and were required to remember whether the faces were associated with negative or positive outcomes. The social expectations of younger and older adults were clearly affected by a priori facial trustworthiness. Facial trustworthiness was associated with high cooperation-game investments, high likability ratings, and a tendency toward guessing that a face belonged to a cooperator instead of a cheater in both age groups. Consistent with previous results showing that emotional memory is spared from age-related decline, memory for the association between faces and emotional reputational information was well preserved in older adults. However, younger adults used a flexible encoding strategy to remember the social interaction partners. Source-memory was best for information that violated their (positive) expectations. Older adults, in contrast, showed a uniform memory bias for negative social information; their memory performance was not modulated by their expectations. This finding suggests that older adults are less likely to adjust their encoding strategies to their social expectations than younger adults. This may be in line with older adults' motivational goals to avoid risks in social interactions.

  3. 77 FR 50138 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request: Collection of Customer Service, Demographic, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-20

    ... Customer Service, Demographic, and Smoking/Tobacco Use Information From the National Cancer Institute's... displays a currently valid OMB control number. Proposed Collection: Title: Collection of Customer Service... three customer service and twelve demographic questions (age, sex, race, ethnicity, education, household...

  4. Causes of Death among Children Aged 5 to 14 Years Old from 2008 to 2013 in Kersa Health and Demographic Surveillance System (Kersa HDSS), Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedefo, Melkamu; Zelalem, Desalew; Eskinder, Biniyam; Assefa, Nega; Ashenafi, Wondimye; Baraki, Negga; Damena Tesfatsion, Melake; Oljira, Lemessa; Haile, Ashenafi

    2016-01-01

    The global burden of mortality among children is still very huge though its trend has started declining following the improvements in the living standard. It presents serious challenges to the well-being of children in many African countries. Today, Sub-Saharan Africa alone accounts for about 50% of global child mortality. The overall objective of this study was to determine the magnitude and distribution of causes of death among children aged 5 to 14 year olds in the population of Kersa HDSS using verbal autopsy method for the period 2008 to 2013. Kersa Health and Demographic Surveillance System(Kersa HDSS) was established in September 2007. The center consists of 10 rural and 2 urban kebeles which were selected randomly from 38 kebeles in the district. Thus this study was conducted in Kersa HDSS and data was taken from Kersa HDSS database. The study population included all children aged 5 to 14 years registered during the period of 2008 to 2013 in Kersa HDSS using age specific VA questionnaires. Data were extracted from SPSS database and analyzed using STATA. A total of 229 deaths were recorded over the period of six years with a crude death rate of 219.6 per 100,000 population of this age group over the study period. This death rate was 217.5 and 221.5 per 100,000 populations for females and males, respectively. 75% of deaths took place at home. The study identified severe malnutrition(33.9%), intestinal infectious diseases(13.8%) and acute lower respiratory infections(9.2%) to be the three most leading causes of death. In broad causes of death classification, injuries have been found to be the second most cause of death next to communicable diseases(56.3%) attributing to 13.1% of the total deaths. In specific causes of death classification severe malnutrition, intestinal infectious diseases and acute lower respiratory infections were the three leading causes of death where, in broad causes of death communicable diseases and injuries were among the leading

  5. O envelhecimento da população brasileira: um enfoque demográfico The aging process in the Brazilian population: a demographic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alberto Magno de Carvalho

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Contrariamente ao indicado pelo senso comum, o processo de envelhecimento populacional, tal como observado até hoje, é resultado do declínio da fecundidade, e não da mortalidade. O envelhecimento populacional iniciou-se no final do século XIX em alguns países da Europa Ocidental, espalhou-se pelo resto do Primeiro Mundo, no século passado, e se estendeu, nas últimas décadas, por vários países do Terceiro Mundo, inclusive o Brasil. No caso brasileiro, observou-se, a partir do final dos anos 60, rapidíssima e generalizada queda da fecundidade, e haverá, conseqüentemente, um célere processo de envelhecimento da população. Este processo será, necessariamente, mais rápido e com mudanças estruturais, demograficamente falando, mais profundas do que nos países do Primeiro Mundo por duas razões: o declínio da fecundidade, no País, deu-se em um ritmo maior e origina-se de uma população mais jovem do que aquela dos países desenvolvidos.Contrary to common sense, the population aging process is due to the decline in fertility rather than mortality. The aging process began around the end of the 19th century in a number of Western European countries, expanded to the rest of the so-called First World over the past century, and reached several Third World countries afterwards, including Brazil over the last decades. In the Brazilian case, a sharp and widespread fertility decline began by the end of the 1960s, and an accelerated population aging process can thus be expected. This process will necessarily be faster and with deeper structural changes, demographically speaking, than in First World countries, for two reasons: the fertility decline in Brazil was faster, and it took place in a population with a younger age structure.

  6. 76 FR 80966 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection: Age, Sex, and Race of Persons...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-27

    ... Federal Bureau of Investigation Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection: Age, Sex, and Race of Persons Arrested 18 Years of Age and Over; Age, Sex, and Race of Persons Arrested Under 18... the form/collection: Age, Sex, and Race of Persons Arrested 18 Years of Age and Over; Age, Sex,...

  7. Information users and usability in the digital age

    CERN Document Server

    Chowdhury, G G

    2013-01-01

    Gives an overview of the necessary issues relating to information users and the usability of information services in the digital world, including user-centred design, and the characteristics and behaviour of information users. This book helps readers understand why information users and the usability of information services are important.

  8. 75 FR 70949 - Proposed Information Collection for the Evaluation of the Aging Worker Initiative; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-19

    ... Employment and Training Administration Proposed Information Collection for the Evaluation of the Aging Worker... concerning the collection of information for Evaluation of the Aging Worker Initiative (AWI). The information.... Background The proposed information collection is for an evaluation of 10 grants, totaling $13 million,...

  9. Tourist Information Search and Destination Choice in a Digital Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristian Steen Jacobsen, Jens; Munar, Ana Maria

    2012-01-01

    This study provides empirical evidence of self-reported impacts of selected electronic and other information sources on international tourists' destination choices regarding a popular, mature and mainstream summer holiday location. It is shown that traditional information provisions such as direc......-making, utilitarian information values seem more relevant than socialisation opportunities....

  10. Health Information-Seeking in the Digital Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percheski, Christine; Hargittai, Eszter

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The authors examined the sources of health information among first-year university students and whether the predictors of information-seeking varied by information source. Participants: First-year students in a required course at a midwestern public university were eligible to participate, and 82% (n = 1,060) completed the study.…

  11. Assuring the USAF Core Missions in the Information Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    volatile , uncertain, complex, and ambiguous (VUCA) environ- ment. Hence, a realistic battlefield that accurately represents the future environ- ments...support personnel across the globe with a portfolio valued at $17 bil- lion. He has overall responsibility for the Air Force’s information technology... portfolio as the senior authority for information technology investment strategy, networks, and network-centric policies, communications, information

  12. Subjective Age Bias: A Motivational and Information Processing Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teuscher, Ursina

    2009-01-01

    There is broad empirical evidence, but still a lack of theoretical explanations, for the phenomenon that most older people feel considerably younger than their real age. In this article, a measurement model of subjective age was assessed, and two independent theoretical approaches are proposed: (1) a motivational approach assuming that the age…

  13. Demographic and labor market in the Chilean countryside Transformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos René Rodríguez Garcés

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on the information provided by the National Socioeconomic Survey of 1990 and 2013, the Chilean countryside reconfigurations are analyzed in terms of their demographic trends and labor market restructuring. A continuous process of depopulation and aging of the rural population is demographically notes. The agricultural activities of the rural labor market charge less important in terms of jobs and income, showing a strong process and favoring deagrarianisation positioning services area. Finally, a growing number of households that hold informal consensual unions and a greater presence of single-parent households, mainly consisting of female-headed households is observed.

  14. Do changes in socio-demographic characteristics impact up-to-date immunization status between 3 and 24 months of age? A prospective study among an inner-city birth cohort in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pati, Susmita; Huang, Jiayu; Wong, Angie; Baba, Zeinab; Ostapenko, Svetlana; Fiks, Alexander G; Cnaan, Avital

    2017-05-04

    Low-income child populations remain under-vaccinated. Our objective was to determine differences in the relative importance of maternal health literacy and socio-demographic characteristics that often change during early childhood on up-to-date (UTD) immunization status among a low-income population. We performed secondary data analysis of a longitudinal prospective cohort study of 744 Medicaid-eligible mother-infant dyads recruited at the time of the infant's birth from an inner-city hospital in the United States and surveyed every 6 months for 24 months. Our primary outcome was infant UTD status at 24 months abstracted from a citywide registry. We assessed maternal health literacy with the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (short version). We collected socio-demographic information via surveys at birth and every 6 months. We compared predictors of UTD status at 3, 7, and 24 months. The cohort consisted of primarily African-American (81.5%) mothers with adequate health literacy (73.9%). Immunizations were UTD among 56.7% of infants at 24 months of age. Maternal health literacy was not a significant predictor of UTD immunization status. Instead, adjusted results showed that significant predictors of not-UTD status at 24 months were lack of a consistent health care location or "medical home" (OR 0.17, 95%CI 0.18-0.37), inadequate prenatal care (OR 0.48, 95%CI 0.25-0.95), and prior not-UTD status (OR 0.31, 95%CI 0.20-0.47). Notably, all upper confidence limits are less than 1.0 for these variables. Health care location type (e.g., hospital-affiliate, community-based, none) was a significant predictor of vaccine status at age 3 months, 7 months, and 24 months. Investing in efforts to support early establishment of a medical home to obtain comprehensive coordinated preventive care, including providing recommended vaccines on schedule, is a prudent strategy to improve vaccination status at the population level.

  15. Envejecer en Cuba: mucho más que un indicador demográfico. Ageing in Cuba: much more that a demographic feature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elena Benítez Pérez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available El envejecimiento demográfico ha transformado el panorama social en la mayoría de las naciones y requerido de numerosas investigaciones, con enfoques diversos, que lo aborden desde la multidimensionalidad de la sociedad como un fenómeno nuevo y complejo que modificará la agenda de las políticas públicas dirigidas a la población adulta mayor. La familia tiene, en este entramado, un papel predominante en la provisión de cuidados a las personas ancianas. Por eso, el objetivo del presente trabajo estará dirigido a demostrar algunas acciones que la sociedad cubana ha desarrollado para fortalecer la capacidad de las familias cuando alguno de sus miembros es un adulto mayor. Su desarrollo parte de la hipótesis general de que la familia sola no podrá responder a las múltiples repercusiones que acompañan el proceso de envejecimiento poblacional y necesitarán de una mayor atención social. No hay dudas de que, a escala social, se viene produciendo en el país una redefinición de la vejez en la conciencia de las personas. Ello no quiere decir que todo esté resuelto, sino que hay una mayor sensibilidad y se trabaja para atender una situación que el país ya tiene y que se agudizará en los próximos años. Las nuevas experiencias implementadas -sin ser suficientes- han demostrado los beneficios -sin grandes costos- producidos en la calidad de vida de los ancianos y de sus familias. The demographic ageing has transformed the social context in the majority of the nations and requires a quite large number of researches, which focuses on diverse issues that assume it since the multidimensional of the society, as a new and complex phenomenon, that will modify the agenda of public politics targeted to adult old population. The family plays, in this network, a predominant role in the provision of support to the old people. That is why; the aim of the present work is to demonstrate the several actions that the Cuban society has developed, to

  16. Dietary patterns in Canadian men and women ages 25 and older: relationship to demographics, body mass index, and bone mineral density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Towheed Tanveer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research has shown that underlying dietary patterns are related to the risk of many different adverse health outcomes, but the relationship of these underlying patterns to skeletal fragility is not well understood. The objective of the study was to determine whether dietary patterns in men (ages 25-49, 50+ and women (pre-menopause, post-menopause are related to femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD independently of other lifestyle variables, and whether this relationship is mediated by body mass index. Methods We performed an analysis of 1928 men and 4611 women participants in the Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study, a randomly selected population-based longitudinal cohort. We determined dietary patterns based on the self-administered food frequency questionnaires in year 2 of the study (1997-99. Our primary outcome was BMD as measured by dual x-ray absorptiometry in year 5 of the study (2000-02. Results We identified two underlying dietary patterns using factor analysis and then derived factor scores. The first factor (nutrient dense was most strongly associated with intake of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains. The second factor (energy dense was most strongly associated with intake of soft drinks, potato chips and French fries, certain meats (hamburger, hot dog, lunch meat, bacon, and sausage, and certain desserts (doughnuts, chocolate, ice cream. The energy dense factor was associated with higher body mass index independent of other demographic and lifestyle factors, and body mass index was a strong independent predictor of BMD. Surprisingly, we did not find a similar positive association between diet and BMD. In fact, when adjusted for body mass index, each standard deviation increase in the energy dense score was associated with a BMD decrease of 0.009 (95% CI: 0.002, 0.016 g/cm2 for men 50+ years old and 0.004 (95% CI: 0.000, 0.008 g/cm2 for postmenopausal women. In contrast, for men 25-49 years old

  17. The Homies in Silicon Valley: Figuring Styles of Life and Work in the Information Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marez, Curtis

    2006-01-01

    The dot-com crash of 2000-01 provides unique opportunities for historicizing what Manuel Castells calls the information age. This age is characterized by the dominance of information capital, a regime of accumulation organized around networks of computers and other information technologies whose production is partly centered in Northern…

  18. Stock vs. Bond Yields, and Demographic Fluctuations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gozluklu, Arie; Morin, Annaïg

    that the slow-evolving time-series covariation due to changing population age structure accounts for the equilibrium relation between stock and bond markets. As a result, by exploiting the demographic information into distant future, the forecasting performance of evaluation models improves. Finally, using...... a cross-country panel, we document the cross-sectional variation of the demographic effect and explain the cross-country differences in comovement between stock and bond markets.......This paper analyzes the strong comovement between real stock and nominal bond yields at generational (low) frequencies. Life-cycle patterns in savings behavior in an overlapping generations model with cash-in-advance constraints explain this persistent comovement between financial yields. We argue...

  19. Stock vs. Bond Yields, and Demographic Fluctuations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gozluklu, Arie; Morin, Annaïg

    that the slow-evolving time-series covariation due to changing population age structure accounts for the equilibrium relation between stock and bond markets. As a result, by exploiting the demographic information into distant future, the forecasting performance of evaluation models improves. Finally, using...... a cross-country panel, we document the cross-sectional variation of the demographic effect and explain the cross-country differences in comovement between stock and bond markets.......This paper analyzes the strong comovement between real stock and nominal bond yields at generational (low) frequencies. Life-cycle patterns in savings behavior in an overlapping generations model with cash-in-advance constraints explain this persistent comovement between financial yields. We argue...

  20. Thriving in the Information Age: Why Marine Corps Commanders Must Maximize Their Existing Information Related Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-20

    resulted in information silos , wasted time and money, information security vulnerabilities, and operational inefficiencies. Technological solutions...duplicated, thereby creating additional information silos , wasted time and money, and/or information security vulnerabilities. Difficulty with version...Unfortunately, technology and theories only go so far. Information silos and barriers to sharing quality information and intelligence will continue to

  1. How are Closeness and Conflict in Student-Teacher Relationships Associated with Demographic Factors, School Functioning and Mental Health in Norwegian Schoolchildren Aged 6-13?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drugli, May Britt

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the association between teacher-reported student-teacher relationship quality (closeness and conflict) and demographic factors, school functioning and child mental health in a cross-sectional study. The study was conducted among a national sample of Norwegian school children (N?=?825) in grades 1 to 7. Bivariate analyses and…

  2. Foreign Language Teachers' Professional Development in Information Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiying; Wu, Gang

    Cultivation of students' learning autonomy has raised new challenges to teachers' professional development, dynamic, continuous, lifelong full-scale development, with emphasis on the creativity and constancy of the teachers' quality development. The teachers' professional development can take the following approaches: studying theories about foreign language teaching with the aid of modern information technology; organizing online teaching research activities supported by information technology and carrying peer observation and dialogue -teaching reflection in internet environment and fostering scholarly teachers.

  3. Impact of Changes of China's Demographic Structure on Information Consumption Policy%我国人口结构变化对信息消费政策的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王英

    2012-01-01

    信息消费者的人口结构是决定我国居民信息消费的重要因素。根据2011年4月28日国家统计局发布的全国第六次人口普查数据,我国人口结构发生了重大的变化。为了弄清新的人口结构对信息消费政策的影响,本文首先概述我国人口结构的变化情况,然后在阐述我国居民信息消费发展现状的基础上,分析制约信息消费发展的新问题和新人口结构下信息消费政策的需求,最后提出完善信息消费政策的建议。%Information consumer's demographic structure is the important factor deciding information consumption in China. According to the sixth national census published by State Statistics Bureau on April 28th 2011, significant changes in demographic structure have taken place. To make clear the impact of new demographic structure on information consumption, we first summarize the changes of demographic structure taken place in China, then analyze new problems in restricting the development of information consumption and the demands of information consumption policy under new demographic structure based on the status quo of information consumption in China, at last make recommendations to improve information consumption policy.

  4. Can psychosocial and socio-demographic questions help identify sexual risk among heterosexually-active women of reproductive age? Evidence from Britain's third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelman, Natalie; Cassell, Jackie A; de Visser, Richard; Prah, Philip; Mercer, Catherine H

    2017-01-04

    Contraceptive advice and supply (CAS) and sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing are increasingly provided in primary care. Most risk assessment tools are based on sexual risk behaviours and socio-demographics, for use online or in specialist services. Combining socio-demographic and psychosocial questions (e.g. religious belief and formative experience) may generate an acceptable tool for targeting women in primary care who would benefit from intervention. We aimed to identify psychosocial and socio-demographic factors associated with reporting key sexual risk behaviours among women in the British general population. We undertook complex survey analysis of data from 4911 hetero-sexually active women aged 16-44 years, who participated in Britain's third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3), a national probability sample survey undertaken 2010-2012. We used multivariable regression to examine associations between the available psychosocial and socio-demographic variables in Natsal-3 and reports of three key sexual behaviours: a) 2+ partners in the last year (2PP); b) non-use of condoms with 2+ partners in the last year (2PPNC); c) non-use of condoms at first sex with most recent sexual partner (FSNC). We adjusted for key socio-demographic factors: age, ethnicity and socio-economic status (measured by housing tenure). Weekly binge drinking (6+ units on one occasion), and first sex before age 16 were each positively associated with all three sexual behaviours after adjustment. Current relationship status, reporting drug use (ever), younger age and living in rented accommodation were also associated with 2+ partners and 2 + partners without condoms after adjustment. Currently being a smoker, older age and respondent ethnicity were associated with FSNC after adjustment for all other variables. Current smoking status, treatment for depression (last year), and living at home with both parents until the age of 14 were each associated with

  5. Computer and online health information literacy among Belgrade citizens aged 66-89 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazibara, Tatjana; Kurtagic, Ilma; Kisic-Tepavcevic, Darija; Nurkovic, Selmina; Kovacevic, Nikolina; Gazibara, Teodora; Pekmezovic, Tatjana

    2016-06-01

    Computer users over 65 years of age in Serbia are rare. The purpose of this study was to (i) describe main demographic characteristics of computer users older than 65; (ii) evaluate their online health information literacy and (iii) assess factors associated with computer use in this population. Persons above 65 years of age were recruited at the Community Health Center 'Vračar' in Belgrade from November 2012 to January 2013. Data were collected after medical checkups using a questionnaire. Of 480 persons who were invited to participate 354 (73.7%) agreed to participate, while 346 filled in the questionnaire (72.1%). A total of 70 (20.2%) older persons were computer users (23.4% males vs. 17.7% females). Of those, 23.7% explored health-related web sites. The majority of older persons who do not use computers reported that they do not have a reason to use a computer (76.5%), while every third senior (30.4%) did not own a computer. Predictors of computer use were being younger [odds ratio (OR) = 2.14, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.30-4.04; p = 0.019], having less members of household (OR = 2.97, 95% CI 1.45-6.08; p = 0.003), being more educated (OR = 3.53, 95% CI 1.88-6.63; p = 0.001), having higher income (OR = 2.31, 95% CI 1.17-4.58; p = 0.016) as well as fewer comorbidities (OR = 0.42, 95% CI 0.23-0.79; p = 0.007). Being male was independent predictor of online health information use at the level of marginal significance (OR = 4.43, 95% CI 1.93-21.00; p = 0.061). Frequency of computer and Internet use among older adults in Belgrade is similar to other populations. Patterns of Internet use as well as non-use demonstrate particular socio-cultural characteristics.

  6. Business intelligence key to success in the information age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmer Muñoz-Hernández

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to describe and classify in a more concrete way information systems, which are framed in what is properly called as "business intelligence". It begins analyzing each of the basic concepts and theoretical aspects and then detail in shaping transactional systems and the most important strategic systems including their benefits, their modes of use, and its disadvantages; It reflects on some cases actually exposed business globally, and the impact it has had the adoption of information systems in its corporate strategy as a key competitive advantages achieving considerable success. Finally, it concludes by describing the importance that has had the implementation of at least some of these information systems in strategic planning of organizations, especially in Colombia and Latin America.

  7. Multisensory integration of social information in adult aging

    OpenAIRE

    Hunter, Edyta Monika

    2011-01-01

    Efficient navigation of our social world depends on the generation, interpretation and combination of social signals within different sensory systems. However, the influence of adult aging on cross-modal integration of emotional stimuli remains poorly understood. Therefore, the aim of this PhD thesis is to understand the integration of visual and auditory cues in social situations and how this is associated with other factors important for successful social interaction such as recognising ...

  8. Re-organizing Universities for the Information Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Annand

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available University education is still generally conducted within pre-Industrial Age organizational structures. As a result of their inability to evolve the predominant cohort-based classroom structure to more cost-effectively meet the aspirations of burgeoning worldwide populations for higher education, universities may see substantial organizational changes imposed on them over the next decades by external forces. Emergent forms of university organizational structures are examined that may affect this needed transformation.

  9. Spectators or Patriots? Citizens in the Information Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhawan, Amrita

    2016-01-01

    In theory, a strong democracy rests on robust citizen participation. The practice in most democracies is quite different. This gap presents a challenge, which can be narrowed by augmenting civic education to bring it up to date with the current information environment and thus give citizens the opportunity to participate. Robert Dahl's work on…

  10. Educating Junior Military Officers for the Information Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Corte Madera , CA: Waite Group Press, 1994), 27. 20 Shalikashvili, 16. 21 Department of Defense Joint Staff, Joint Doctrine for Information...Strategic Studies Institute, 7 March 1997. Petersen, John L. The Road to 2015. Corte Madera , CA: Waite Group Press, 1994. President’s Commission on

  11. Rethinking Critical Literacy in the New Information Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gounari, Panayota

    2009-01-01

    This article looks at new information and communication technologies (ICTs) as sites of public pedagogy in that they produce particular forms of knowledge and literacies and reproduce representations that are always mediated through specific social relations. Public pedagogy as a process that constitutes a broader category beyond classroom…

  12. Information Security in the Age of Cloud Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, J. Eric

    2012-01-01

    Information security has been a particularly hot topic since the enhanced internal control requirements of Sarbanes-Oxley (SOX) were introduced in 2002. At about this same time, cloud computing started its explosive growth. Outsourcing of mission-critical functions has always been a gamble for managers, but the advantages of cloud computing are…

  13. Information Security in the Age of Cloud Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, J. Eric

    2012-01-01

    Information security has been a particularly hot topic since the enhanced internal control requirements of Sarbanes-Oxley (SOX) were introduced in 2002. At about this same time, cloud computing started its explosive growth. Outsourcing of mission-critical functions has always been a gamble for managers, but the advantages of cloud computing are…

  14. Networking the Land: Rural America in the Information Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, Christopher

    This report describes 10 projects funded by the federal Technology Opportunities Program, in which people in isolated regions are finding ways to connect to new information networks and are reaping social, economic, and educational benefits. In the sprawling Navajo Nation, where many families lack even basic telephone service, local tribal…

  15. Research in the Biotech Age: Can Informational Privacy Compete?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peekhaus, Wilhelm

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the privacy of personal medical information in the health research context. Arguing that biomedical research in Canada has been caught up in the government's broader neoliberal policy agenda that has positioned biotechnology as a strategic driver of economic growth, the author discusses the tension between informational…

  16. Human dental age estimation using third molar developmental stages: Accuracy of age predictions not using country specific information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thevissen, P W; Alqerban, A; Asaumi, J; Kahveci, F; Kaur, J; Kim, Y K; Pittayapat, P; Van Vlierberghe, M; Zhang, Y; Fieuws, S; Willems, G

    2010-09-10

    Unquestionable forensic age investigations are based on statistical models constructed on a sample containing subjects of identical origin as the examined individual. In cases where corresponding models are unavailable, the established report has to describe the possible effects of this unrelated information on the predicted age outcome. The aim of this study is to collect country specific databases of third molar development and to verify how the related dental age estimations are influenced if we were to use dental developmental information only from Belgium or from all collected countries together. Data containing third molar developmental stages scored following Gleiser and Hunt (modified by Köhler) were collected from 9 country specific populations (Belgium, China, Japan, Korea, Poland, Thailand, Turkey, Saudi-Arabia and South-India). Age predictions were obtained from a training dataset and validated on a test dataset. Bayes rule using the repeated third molar scores is applied to get age predictions and prediction intervals. Three age predictions were compared for males and females separately. For the first prediction, the training dataset contains only Belgian subjects. For the second prediction, the training dataset for each country consists only of subjects of the country itself. For the final prediction, subjects from all countries are pooled into one common training dataset. Besides the (absolute) difference between the chronological age and the predicted age, specific interest lies in the juvenile-adult distinction. In the age range from 16 to 22 years 6982 subjects (3189 male and 3793 female) were analyzed. Using information on third molar development from Belgium compared to information from the country specific databases hardly increased the mean absolute differences (MAD) and mean squared errors (MSE): the MAD and MSE increased on average with 0.5 and 2.5 months with maximal increases of, respectively 1.6 and 7.3 months. Using information from all

  17. ANALYSIS OF THE DEMOGRAPHIC POTENTIAL IN FUNCTION OF TOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijalce Gjorgievski

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Man is the prime mover of the overall social economic and political life of the entire globe and therefore he is studied from various aspects depending on the needs of what we want to obtain information on the demographic potential and its features.In this paper, the subject of study will be processing potential through its demographic characteristics (number condition, age structure, natural increase, economic activity, religious composition, etc. for the tourism economy. We know that the basic elements of tourism are the natural and cultural wealth that detect, evaluate and put into operation in tourism. However, it has its function, the basic factor are the people who need to visit those places, so it is very important to understand the demographic characteristics of people in every region of the globe in order to come to some understanding of the habits, needs and affinities of people depending on age, nationality and religious affiliation, etc. when choosing their travel destination.

  18. Finding official British information official publishing in the digital age

    CERN Document Server

    Inman, Jane; Purushothama, B

    2011-01-01

    Examining the different bodies that publish official material, this book describes the types of material published, how it is made available and how it is recorded. Finding Official British Information focuses on the digital availability of official information and considers how much is now freely available on the web and how to locate it as well as addressing issues of web only publishing. It covers public bodies in the UK and includes publications issued by central and local government as well as the devolved assemblies and the many other organisations that issue official publications. Quick 'how to find' section for each area Designed for the non-specialist Covering central and local government, the devolved assemblies and other public bodies in the UK.

  19. Communicating with Light: A New Dawn in the Information Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raible, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    You and I are living in a very special time; the age of Solar System exploration. Our Solar System is a complex masterpiece of which we knew so little from our ground-based observations. But within the span of a single lifetime, NASA has sent spacecraft to every planet and several moons, our first eyes to set upon undiscovered lands. Before we endeavored on this journey everything we knew of Pluto could have fit on a single file card, and now we downlink new data every day.

  20. Aging and memory for numerical information: the role of specificity and expertise in associative memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castel, Alan D

    2007-05-01

    In order to examine the nature of associative memory deficits in old age, the present study examined how younger and older adults link numerical and object information to other items. The hypothesis was that there would be large age differences for numerical information caused by the arbitrariness and specificity of this type of information, but that this could be reduced by expertise. Participants studied sentences that contained numeric quantity, object, and location information (e.g., 26 cherries in the bowl); they were later cued with the location and had to recall the object and quantity. In general, there were significant age differences for quantity recall but negligible age differences for recall of related objects but not unrelated objects. However, a group of older retired accountants and bookkeepers showed exceptional memory for quantity information. The findings suggest that the associative deficit in old age is based on the linking of specific arbitrary information.

  1. Psychological Well-Being (PWB of School Adolescents Aged 12-18 yr, its Correlation with General Levels of Physical Activity (PA and Socio-Demographic Factors In Gilgit, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmin KHAN

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adolescence is a critical developmental stage marked by complex transitions. The purpose of study was to assess school adolescents’ PWB, examine the relationship of PA and socio-demographic factors with PWB.Methods: A cross sectional study conducted in five randomly selected schools with 345 adolescents (aged 12-18 from grade 6th-10th. A self-administered Well-Being index was adapted to measure PWB and questionnaire for adoles-cents PA (PAQ-A. Socio-demographic variables determined: age, gender, household income and parental education. Bivariate and multivariate regression analyses performed to examine the association between PWB, PA and covariates.Results: Findings indicated the mean age 14.64 (SD=1.275, 55.4% were female. Without gender difference the ma-jority (43.4% of adolescents showed moderate, while (23.2% revealed low level of PWB. Participants with low level likely to have depression but scores were significantly not different between low, moderate and high PWB with PA. Socio-demographic trends of adolescents’ were observed significant (P <0.005 for PWB. In multivariable analysis the mean wellbeing in females adjusted for other covariates was significant (P =0.004 than males. PWB importantly (P <0.001 decreased by 3.36 units as its covariates increased and PA score in boys found 0.05 unit more than girls.Conclusion: The study results are invaluable in addressing low, moderate and high levels of PWB. Inadequate PA and PWB decreasing with some socio-demographic covariates is crucial health issue among female adolescents in Pakistan. Further studies need to find barrier, social indicators of PWB and implication of health among adolescents.

  2. How age and linguistic competence affect memory for heard information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce A Schneider

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The short-term memory performance of a group of younger adults, for whom English was a second language (young EL2 listeners, was compared to that of younger and older adults for whom English was their first language (EL1 listeners. To-be-remembered words were presented in noise and in quiet. When presented in noise, the listening situation was adjusted to insure that the likelihood of recognizing the individual words was comparable for all groups. Previous studies which used the same paradigm found memory performance of older EL1 adults on this paired-associate task to be poorer than that of their younger EL1 counterparts both in quiet and in a background of babble. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether the less well-established semantic and linguistic skills of EL2 listeners would also lead to memory deficits even after equating for word recognition as was done for the younger and older EL1 listeners. No significant differences in memory performance were found between young EL1 and EL2 listeners after equating for word recognition, indicating that the EL2 listeners’ poorer semantic and linguistic skills had little effect on their ability to memorize and recall paired associates. This result is consistent with the hypothesis that age-related declines in memory are primarily due to age-related declines in the perceptual and attentional processes required for extracting the word pairs from a background babble of voices. Such declines are likely to increase the load on higher-order (possibly limited cognitive processes supporting memory. The problems that these results pose for the comprehension of spoken language in these three groups are discussed.

  3. Colleges and universities: survival in the information age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, Warren D.

    2000-07-01

    Coping with information technology (IT) planning is one of the more important, expensive, time-consuming and potentially disastrous exercises an academic institution can undertake. Those institutions that are successful in establishing administrative and academic frameworks within which rapid technological change and adaptation can occur will survive and those who stubbornly adhere to archaic styles of management and decision-making will not. IT strategies, priorities and plans must be driven by and integrated with on-going academic planning. Cross-department/unit collaboration must be encouraged and facilitated by university resources and processes. Long-range planning and identification of reasonable and attainable goals requires a leadership and governance structure in which all major stakeholders participate in setting information technology strategies, priorities, plans, standards and performance measures. A successful technology funding strategy must ensure budgeting for adequate network facilities, including assets and the people and processes to support them. Accompanying these administrative procedures should be an open dialogue on the issues brought about by apparent conflicts between University wide standardization of basic policy, procedures and technologies and the pedagogical and research initiatives which address unique collegiate or departmental needs. Network capabilities should be integrated, timely, accurate, secure and easily accessible to all who need it.

  4. Demographic and health status differences among people aged 45 or older with and without functional difficulties related to increased confusion or memory loss, 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Lynda A; Deokar, Angela; Edwards, Valerie J; Bouldin, Erin D; Greenlund, Kurt J

    2015-03-05

    We examined the demographic and health characteristics of people aged 45 years or older in 21 states with self-reported increased confusion or memory loss (ICML) (n = 10,583) by whether or not they also reported functional difficulties related to ICML. We used data from the 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System optional module on impact of cognitive impairment. After adjusting for demographic differences, we found that respondents with ICML and functional difficulties were significantly more likely than those with ICML and no functional difficulties to report frequent poor physical health, frequent poor mental health, limited activity due to poor physical or mental health, and a need for more help. Further understanding of the implications for long-term services and supports is needed.

  5. Ambient commons: attention in the age of embodied information

    CERN Document Server

    McCullough, Malcolm

    2013-01-01

    The world is filling with ever more kinds of media, in ever more contexts and formats. Glowing rectangles have become part of the scene; screens, large and small, appear everywhere. Physical locations are increasingly tagged and digitally augmented. Sensors, processors, and memory are not found only in chic smart phones but also built into everyday objects. Amid this flood, your attention practices matter more than ever. You might not be able to tune this world out. So it is worth remembering that underneath all these augmentations and data flows, fixed forms persist, and that to notice them can improve other sensibilities. In Ambient Commons, Malcolm McCullough explores the workings of attention though a rediscovery of surroundings. Not all that informs has been written and sent; not all attention involves deliberate thought. The intrinsic structure of space -- the layout of a studio, for example, or a plaza -- becomes part of any mental engagement with it. McCullough describes what he calls the Ambient: an...

  6. Socio-demographic and lifestyle factors associated with overweight in a representative sample of 11-15 year olds in France: results from the WHO-Collaborative Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuy, Marie; Godeau, Emmanuelle; Vignes, Céline; Ahluwalia, Namanjeet

    2011-06-07

    The prevalence of overweight in children and adolescents is high and overweight is associated with poor health outcomes over short- and long-term. Lifestyle factors can interact to influence overweight. Comprehensive studies linking overweight concomitantly with several demographic and potentially-modifiable lifestyle factors and health-risk behaviours are limited in adolescents--an age-group characterized by changes in lifestyle behaviours and high prevalence of overweight. Thus, the objective of the current study was to examine the association of overweight with several socio-demographic and lifestyle variables simultaneously in a representative sample of adolescents. A nationally representative sample of 11-15 year-olds (n = 7154) in France participated as part of the WHO-Collaborative Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study. Students reported data on their age, height, weight, socio-demographic variables, lifestyle factors including nutrition practices, physical activity at two levels of intensity (moderate and vigorous), sedentary behaviours, as well as smoking and alcohol consumption patterns using standardized HBSC protocols. Overweight (including obesity) was defined using the IOTF reference. The multivariate association of overweight with several socio-demographic and lifestyle factors was examined with logistic regression models. The adjusted odds ratios for the association with overweight were: 1.80 (95% CI: 1.37-2.36) for low family affluence; 0.73 (0.60-0.88) for eating breakfast daily; 0.69 (0.56-0.84) for moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA); and 0.71 (0.59-0.86) for vigorous physical activity (VPA). Significant interactions between age and gender as well as television (TV) viewing and gender were noted: for boys, overweight was not associated with age or TV viewing; in contrast, for girls overweight correlated negatively with age and positively with TV viewing. Fruit and vegetable intake, computer and video-games use, smoking

  7. Socio-demographic and lifestyle factors associated with overweight in a representative sample of 11-15 year olds in France: Results from the WHO-Collaborative Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godeau Emmanuelle

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of overweight in children and adolescents is high and overweight is associated with poor health outcomes over short- and long-term. Lifestyle factors can interact to influence overweight. Comprehensive studies linking overweight concomitantly with several demographic and potentially-modifiable lifestyle factors and health-risk behaviours are limited in adolescents - an age-group characterized by changes in lifestyle behaviours and high prevalence of overweight. Thus, the objective of the current study was to examine the association of overweight with several socio-demographic and lifestyle variables simultaneously in a representative sample of adolescents. Methods A nationally representative sample of 11-15 year-olds (n = 7154 in France participated as part of the WHO-Collaborative Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC study. Students reported data on their age, height, weight, socio-demographic variables, lifestyle factors including nutrition practices, physical activity at two levels of intensity (moderate and vigorous, sedentary behaviours, as well as smoking and alcohol consumption patterns using standardized HBSC protocols. Overweight (including obesity was defined using the IOTF reference. The multivariate association of overweight with several socio-demographic and lifestyle factors was examined with logistic regression models. Results The adjusted odds ratios for the association with overweight were: 1.80 (95% CI: 1.37-2.36 for low family affluence; 0.73 (0.60-0.88 for eating breakfast daily; 0.69 (0.56-0.84 for moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA; and 0.71 (0.59-0.86 for vigorous physical activity (VPA. Significant interactions between age and gender as well as television (TV viewing and gender were noted: for boys, overweight was not associated with age or TV viewing; in contrast, for girls overweight correlated negatively with age and positively with TV viewing. Fruit and vegetable

  8. Influences of age and anxiety on processing of emotional information in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinholdt-Dunne, Marie Louise; Mogg, Karin; Esbjørn, Barbara Hoff

    Anxiety disorders are among the most common psychiatric disturbances in childhood (Costello 2003). Theorists suggest that information-processing biases for emotional information play an important role in the development of anxiety disorders (Kendall & Ronan, 1990), and that development/age affects...... information-processing biases due to its significant relationship with executive functioning levels and cognitive maturation (Lonigan et al., 2004). The present study aimed to further investigate the relationships between information-processing biases and childhood development. Information-processing bias...

  9. Golden Bridge, Golden Gate, or Golden Wall: China Moves into the Information Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    information society ’ it wishes to achieve. China’s pending entry into the World Trade Organization should have a dramatic effect on its information infrastructure, forcing it open to global competition-with the by-product of increased exposure to free market philosophies and, it is hoped by the U.S., liberalizing political influences. How China deals with information infrastructure provides an indicator of how ready it really is to move into the Information Age--China can choose to put up a Golden Wall to keep the Information Age out; can use it as a Golden Gate,

  10. Tourism Market and Demographic Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Nedelea

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper identifies the major demographic trends and their implications for consumer market. It is important to know how will demographic change influence the tourism market in particularly and how can the tourist industry adapt to these. The advancing ageing of society will result in far reaching changes, particularly on the demand side. To profitably seize the opportunities, managers must understand how senior markets evolve and adapt products and service offerings along multiple dimensions to meet the needs of senior consumers.

  11. The Skills Framework for the Information Age: Engaging Stakeholders in Curriculum Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Konsky, Brian R.; Miller, Charlynn; Jones, Asheley

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on a research project, examining the role of the Skills Framework for the Information Age (SFIA) in Information and Communications Technology (ICT) curriculum design and management. A goal was to investigate how SFIA informs a top-down approach to curriculum design, beginning with a set of skills that define a particular career…

  12. Factors impacting on the nutritional status of population aged 45 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors impacting on the nutritional status of population aged 45 years and ... Information on selected demographic and socio-economic household ... and obesity are problems facing this population group aged 45 years and above in Nairobi.

  13. Are demographics, work and health associated with the ability and motivation to continue working until the age of 65 in construction workers?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Hengel, K.; Blatter, B.; Geuskens, G.; Koppes, L.; Bongers, P.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Because of the ageing and decreasing working population in the construction industry, it is important to encourage workers to prolong their working life. The objective of this study was to explore factors associated with the ability and motivation to continue working until the age of 65

  14. Digital information culture the individual and society in the digital age

    CERN Document Server

    Tredinnick, Luke

    2008-01-01

    Digital Information Culture is an introduction to the cultural, social and political impact of digital information and digital resources. The book is organised around themes, rather than theories and is arranged into three sections: culture, society and the individual. Each explores key elements of the social, cultural and political impact of digital information. The culture section outlines the origins of cyber culture in fifties pulp-fiction through to the modern day. It explores the issues of information overload, the threat of a digital dark age, and the criminal underbelly of digital culture. Section two, society, explores the economic and social impact of digital information, outlining key theories of the Information Age. Section three explores the impact of digital information and digital resources on the individual, exploring the changing nature of identity in a digital world. Written by a leading author in the field Focuses on digital information and its social, cultural and political impact is uniqu...

  15. Brain white matter structure and information processing speed in healthy older age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, Ksenia A; Maniega, Susana Muñoz; Ritchie, Stuart J; Cox, Simon R; Storkey, Amos J; Starr, John M; Wardlaw, Joanna M; Deary, Ian J; Bastin, Mark E

    2016-07-01

    Cognitive decline, especially the slowing of information processing speed, is associated with normal ageing. This decline may be due to brain cortico-cortical disconnection caused by age-related white matter deterioration. We present results from a large, narrow age range cohort of generally healthy, community-dwelling subjects in their seventies who also had their cognitive ability tested in youth (age 11 years). We investigate associations between older age brain white matter structure, several measures of information processing speed and childhood cognitive ability in 581 subjects. Analysis of diffusion tensor MRI data using Tract-based Spatial Statistics (TBSS) showed that all measures of information processing speed, as well as a general speed factor composed from these tests (g speed), were significantly associated with fractional anisotropy (FA) across the white matter skeleton rather than in specific tracts. Cognitive ability measured at age 11 years was not associated with older age white matter FA, except for the g speed-independent components of several individual processing speed tests. These results indicate that quicker and more efficient information processing requires global connectivity in older age, and that associations between white matter FA and information processing speed (both individual test scores and g speed), unlike some other aspects of later life brain structure, are generally not accounted for by cognitive ability measured in youth.

  16. The More You Know, the More You Can Grow: An Information Theoretic Approach to Growth in the Information Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Hilbert

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In our information age, information alone has become a driver of social growth. Information is the fuel of “big data” companies, and the decision-making compass of policy makers. Can we quantify how much information leads to how much social growth potential? Information theory is used to show that information (in bits is effectively a quantifiable ingredient of growth. The article presents a single equation that allows both to describe hands-off natural selection of evolving populations and to optimize population fitness in uncertain environments through intervention. The setup analyzes the communication channel between the growing population and its uncertain environment. The role of information in population growth can be thought of as the optimization of information flow over this (more or less noisy channel. Optimized growth implies that the population absorbs all communicated environmental structure during evolutionary updating (measured by their mutual information. This is achieved by endogenously adjusting the population structure to the exogenous environmental pattern (through bet-hedging/portfolio management. The setup can be applied to decompose the growth of any discrete population in stationary, stochastic environments (economic, cultural, or biological. Two empirical examples from the information economy reveal inherent trade-offs among the involved information quantities during growth optimization.

  17. When feeling different pays off: how older adults can counteract negative age-related information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, David; Sassenberg, Kai; Freund, Alexandra M

    2013-12-01

    Negative age stereotypes are pervasive and threaten older adults' self-esteem. Two experiments tested the hypothesis that differentiation from one's age group reduces the impact of negative age-related information on older adults' self-evaluation. In Experiment 1, older adults (N = 83, M = 71.9 years) were confronted with neutral or negative age-related information followed by a manipulation of self-differentiation. Experiment 2 (N = 44, M = 73.55 years) tested the moderating role of self-differentiation in the relationship of implicit attitudes toward older adults and implicit self-esteem. Results suggest that self-differentiation prevents the impact of negative age-related information on older adults' self-esteem. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. Overweight in school-aged children and its relationship with demographic and lifestyle factors: results from the WHO-Collaborative Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haug, Ellen; Rasmussen, Mette; Samdal, Oddrun

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine overweight prevalence and its association with demographic and lifestyle factors in 11-15 year olds in the HBSC 2005-2006 survey. METHODS: Self-reports of height, weight, eating patterns, physical activity and sedentary behaviours were obtained from nationally representativ...

  19. Age-related decline in verbal learning is moderated by demographic factors, working memory capacity, and presence of amnestic mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantinidou, Fofi; Zaganas, Ioannis; Papastefanakis, Emmanouil; Kasselimis, Dimitrios; Nidos, Andreas; Simos, Panagiotis G

    2014-09-01

    Age-related memory changes are highly varied and heterogeneous. The study examined the rate of decline in verbal episodic memory as a function of education level, auditory attention span and verbal working memory capacity, and diagnosis of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (a-MCI). Data were available on a community sample of 653 adults aged 17-86 years and 70 patients with a-MCI recruited from eight broad geographic areas in Greece and Cyprus. Measures of auditory attention span and working memory capacity (digits forward and backward) and verbal episodic memory (Auditory Verbal Learning Test [AVLT]) were used. Moderated mediation regressions on data from the community sample did not reveal significant effects of education level on the rate of age-related decline in AVLT indices. The presence of a-MCI was a significant moderator of the direct effect of Age on both immediate and delayed episodic memory indices. The rate of age-related decline in verbal episodic memory is normally mediated by working memory capacity. Moreover, in persons who display poor episodic memory capacity (a-MCI group), age-related memory decline is expected to advance more rapidly for those who also display relatively poor verbal working memory capacity.

  20. Examining the role of information exchange in residential aged care work practices-a survey of residential aged care facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaskin Sarah

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The provision of residential aged care is underpinned by information, and is reliant upon systems that adequately capture and effectively utilise and communicate this information. The aim of this study was to explicate and quantify the volume and method by which information is collected, exchanged within facilities and with external providers, and retrieved from facility information systems and hospitals. Methods A survey of staff (n = 119, including managers, health informatics officers (HIOs, quality improvement staff, registered nurses (RNs, enrolled nurses (ENs/endorsed enrolled nurses (EENs and assistants in nursing (AINs was carried out in four residential aged care facilities in New South Wales and Victoria, Australia. Sites varied in size and displayed a range of information technology (IT capabilities. The survey investigated how and by whom information is collected, retrieved and exchanged, and the frequency and amount of time devoted to these tasks. Descriptive analysis was performed using SPSS, and open responses to questions were coded into key themes. Results Staff completed a median of six forms each, taking a median of 30 min per shift. 68.8% of staff reported transferring information from paper to a computer system, which took a median of 30 min per shift. Handover and face-to-face communication was the most frequently used form of information exchange within facilities. There was a large amount of faxing and telephone communication between facility staff and General Practitioners and community pharmacists, with staff reporting sending a median of 2 faxes to pharmacy and 1.5 faxes to General Practitioners, and initiating 2 telephone calls to pharmacies and 1.5 calls to General Practitioners per shift. Only 38.5% of respondents reported that they always had information available at the point-of-care and only 35.4% of respondents reported that they always had access to hospital stay information of residents

  1. Expression of a mutant p53 results in an age-related demographic shift in spontaneous lung tumor formation in transgenic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenrui Duan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mutations in the P53 gene are among the most common genetic abnormalities in human lung cancer. Codon 273 in the sequence-specific DNA binding domain is one of the most frequently mutated sites. METHODOLOGY: To investigate the role of mutant p53 in lung tumorigenesis, a lung specific p53(273H transgenic mouse model was developed. Rates of lung cancer formation in the transgenic animals and their littermates were evaluated by necropsy studies performed in progressive age cohorts ranging from 4 to 24 months. In order to establish the influence of other common genetic abnormalities in lung tumor formation in the animals, K-Ras gene mutation and p16INK4a (p16 promoter methylation were evaluated in a total of 281 transgenic mice and 189 non-transgenic littermates. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: At the age extremes of 4-12 and 22-24 months no differences were observed, with very low prevalence of tumors in animals younger than 12 months, and a relatively high prevalence at age 22 months or older. However, the transgenic mice had a significant higher lung tumor rate than their non-transgenic counterparts during the age of 13-21 months, suggesting an age-related shift in lung tumor formation induced by the lung-specific expression of the human mutant p53. Histopathology suggested a more aggressive nature for the transgenic tumors. Older mice (>13 months had a significantly higher rate of p16 promoter methylation (17% v 82%. In addition, an age related effect was observed for K-Ras codons 12 or 13 mutations, but not for codon 61 mutations. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results would suggest that the mutant p53(273H contributes to an acceleration in the development of spontaneous lung tumors in these mice. Combination with other genetic and epigenetic alterations occurring after the age of 13 months is intimately linked to its oncogenic potential.

  2. Age and Creative Productivity: Nonlinear Estimation of an Information-Processing Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonton, Dean Keith

    1989-01-01

    Applied two-step cognitive model to relationship between age and creative productivity. Selected ideation and elaboration rates as information-processing parameters that define mathematical function which describes age curves and specifies their variance across disciplines. Applied non-linear estimation program to further validate model. Despite…

  3. A Review of Information for Managing Aging in Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WC Morgan; JV Livingston

    1995-09-01

    Age related degradation effects in safety related systems of nuclear power plants should be managed to prevent safety margins from eroding below the acceptable limits provided in plant design bases. The Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Pro- gram, conducted under the auspices of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, and other related aging management programs are developing technical information on managing aging. The aging management process central to these efforts consists of three key elements: 1) selecting structures, systems, and components (SSCs) in which aging should be controlled; 2) understanding the mechanisms and rates of degradation in these SSCs; and 3) managing degradation through effective inspection, surveillance, condition monitoring, trending, record keeping, mainten- ance, refurbishment, replacement, and adjustments in the operating environment and service conditions. This document concisely reviews and integrates information developed under the NPAR Program and other aging management studies and other available information related to understanding and managing age-related degradation effects and provides specific refer- ences to more comprehensive information on the same subjects.

  4. Does age really matter? Recall of information presented to newly referred patients with cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, J.; Butow, P.N.; Weert, J.C.M. van; Dulmen, S. van; Devine, R.J.; Heeren, T.J.; Bensing, J.M.; Tattersall, M.H.N.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To examine age- and age-related differences in recall of information provided during oncology consultations. Patients and Methods: Two hundred sixty patients with cancer diagnosed with heterogeneous cancers, seeing a medical or radiation oncologist for the first time, participated in the st

  5. Does age really matter? Recall of information presented to newly referred patients with cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, J.; Butow, P.N.; van Weert, J.C.M.; van Dulmen, S.; Devine, R.J.; Heeren, T.J.; Bensing, J.M.; Tattersall, M.H.N.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To examine age- and age-related differences in recall of information provided during oncology consultations. Patients and Methods Two hundred sixty patients with cancer diagnosed with heterogeneous cancers, seeing a medical or radiation oncologist for the first time, participated in the stud

  6. Informing in the Information Age: How to Communicate Measurement Concepts to Education Policy Makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sireci, Stephen G.; Forte, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Current educational policies rely on educational assessments. However, the technical aspects of assessments are often unknown to policy makers, which is dangerous because sound assessment policy requires knowledge of the strengths and limitations of educational tests. In this article, we discuss the importance of informing policy makers of…

  7. A Demographic Perspective on Family Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Suzanne M.

    2014-01-01

    Demographic analysis seeks to understand how individual microlevel decisions about child-bearing, marriage and partnering, geographic mobility, and behaviors that influence health and longevity aggregate to macrolevel population trends and differentials in fertility, mortality and migration. In this review, I first discuss theoretical perspectives—classic demographic transition theory, the perspective of the “second demographic transition,” the spread of developmental idealism—that inform demographers’ understanding of macrolevel population change. Then, I turn to a discussion of the role that demographically informed data collection has played in illuminating family change since the mid-20th century in the United States. Finally, I discuss ways in which demographic theory and data collection might inform future areas of family research, particularly in the area of intergenerational family relationships and new and emerging family forms. PMID:26078785

  8. Two centuries of demographic change in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry Edmonston

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available One key aspect of the demographic transition—the shift from high mortality and high fertility to low mortality and low fertility is a major change in the population’s age distribution from a pyramid-shaped young age structure to a pillar-shaped old age structure. This paper discusses two demographic processes affected by changes in age structure. First, there are effects on vital rates, with important differences in the observed crude rates and the implied intrinsic vital rates. Second, changes in age structure influence population momentum. More recently, demographers have noted that older age distributions associated with fertility levels below replacement have negative population momentum. Although the demographic transition has been well-described for many countries, demographers have seldom analyzed intrinsic vital rates and population momentum over time, which are dynamic processes affected by changes in the population age structure and which, in turn, influence future changes in population growth and size. This paper uses new data and methods to analyze intrinsic vital rates and population momentum across two centuries of demographic change in Canada

  9. Meta-analysis of the age-related positivity effect: age differences in preferences for positive over negative information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Andrew E; Chan, Larry; Mikels, Joseph A

    2014-03-01

    In contrast to long-held axioms of old age as a time of "doom and gloom," mounting evidence indicates an age-related positivity effect in attention and memory. However, several studies report inconsistent findings that raise critical questions about the effect's reliability, robustness, and potential moderators. To address these questions, we conducted a systematic meta-analysis of 100 empirical studies of the positivity effect (N = 7,129). Results indicate that the positivity effect is reliable and moderated by theoretically implicated methodological and sample characteristics. The positivity effect is larger in studies that do not constrain (vs. constrain) cognitive processing-reflecting older adults' natural information processing preferences-and in studies incorporating wider (vs. narrower) age comparisons. Analyses indicated that older adults show a significant information processing bias toward positive versus negative information, whereas younger adults show the opposite pattern. We discuss implications of these findings for theoretical perspectives on emotion-cognition interactions across the adult life span and suggest future research directions.

  10. Formal and substantial Internet information skills: The role of socio–demographic differences on the possession of different components of digital literacy

    OpenAIRE

    Gui, M

    2007-01-01

    The literature about digital inequality has pointed out the role of so–called “digital skills” in contributing to a full exploitation of the opportunities of the Web for individuals. Research has started to measure the differences in online skills on a socio–demographic base, finding relevant disparities. Since different components of digital skills have been described in theory, it is not clear which of them are influenced by specific social variables and which are not. This study goes a ste...

  11. The State Economic, Demographic & Fiscal Handbook 1993.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, David; Cohen, Lee

    This handbook is an easy-to-use reference book for policymakers, public officials, and policy analysts, as well as anyone else who may need up-to-date information about state economic, demographic, and fiscal data. The book includes data on demographics, poverty rates, per capita state personal income, state and local tax rates, and state and…

  12. Adult Life-Span Patterns in WAIS-R Block Design Performance: Cross-Sectional versus Longitudinal Age Gradients and Relations to Demographic Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronnlund, Michael; Nilsson, Lars-Goran

    2006-01-01

    Aging patterns in WAIS-R Block Design Test (BDT) were examined cross-sectionally and longitudinally. One sample (35-80 years, n=1000) was assessed in 1988-1990 and five years later (836 returned). An independent cohort-matched sample (n=974) was assessed at Time 2 to control for practice effects. Relations between BDT, gender, and education were…

  13. Impact of the information age on residency training: communication, access to public information, and clinical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilty, Donald M; Belitsky, Richard; Cohen, Mitchell B; Cabaniss, Deborah L; Dickstein, Leah J; Bernstein, Carol A; Kaplan, Allan S; Scheiber, Stephen C; Crisp-Han, Holly D; Wrzosek, Marika I; Silberman, Edward K

    2015-02-01

    Access to technology in practice helps physicians manage information, communicate, and research topics; however, those in training receive almost no formal preparation for integrating web-based technologies into practice. One reason for this is that many faculty-aside from junior faculty or those in recent generations-did not grow up using Internet communication, may use it minimally, if at all, in their own practices, and may know little about its forms and varieties. This report presents a case to illustrate how these disparities may play out in the supervisory situation and makes suggestions about helping supervisors integrate technology-awareness into their teaching.

  14. A unified framework of demographic time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riffe, Tim; Schöley, Jonas; Villavicencio, Francisco

    Demographic thought and practice is largely conditioned by the Lexis diagram, a two-dimensional graphical representation of the identity between age, period, and birth cohort. This relationship does not account for remaining years of life or other related time measures, whose use in demographic...... research is both underrepresented and incompletely situated. We describe a three-dimensional relationship between six different measures of demographic time: chronological age, time to death, lifespan, time of birth, time of death, and period. We describe four identities among subsets of these six measures...

  15. [Health expenditure in the context of social expenditure. A generational analysis of tendencies in Spain in the context of demographic aging. 2008 SESPAS Report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Casasnovas, Guillem; Mosterín Höpping, Ana

    2008-04-01

    The tendency for public welfare spending to be increasingly aimed at the elderly has been identified in several developed countries. While population aging is a common trend, it is not obvious why the shift in spending exceeds the trend in aging, or why per capita spending on the elderly is increasing. In the first part of the present article, we show that this trend is occurring in Spain, identify the losers from this development, discuss the policies that underlie it, and propose adjustments based on Musgrave's fixed proportions rule for fair intergenerational distribution. These policies aim to manage population aging, labor market participation of youth and women, as well as public policies that combine 'work-fare' strategies with the more traditional 'welfare' strategies. In the second part of this paper, we explore the contribution of public health expenditure to overall public social expenditure, and analyze the effect of increasing health on distributional fairness. This analysis is guided by our perception that social policy, including health policy, should be more horizontal, i.e. it should take into account the sum total of a mixed basket of resources aimed at any recipient group, to avoid the skewed allocation of resources that arises from compounding various independent distributions of resources. Coordination of the various channels of social expenditure should ensure precisely targeted recipients and cross-departmental sources. The normative fairness criterion to be used should be precisely specified. In Spain (1980-2000) the oldest segment of the population has gained the most, appropriating an increased share of resources. This increase goes beyond the amount that could be explained by population aging throughout the period. The 'losers' are individuals with different fragility conditions. On average the youngest working group has suffered the highest relative loss.

  16. Genetic effects on information processing speed are moderated by age--converging results from three samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ising, M; Mather, K A; Zimmermann, P; Brückl, T; Höhne, N; Heck, A; Schenk, L A; Rujescu, D; Armstrong, N J; Sachdev, P S; Reppermund, S

    2014-06-01

    Information processing is a cognitive trait forming the basis of complex abilities like executive function. The Trail Making Test (TMT) is a well-established test of information processing with moderate to high heritability. Age of the individual also plays an important role. A number of genetic association studies with the TMT have been performed, which, however, did not consider age as a moderating factor. We report the results of genome-wide association studies (GWASs) on age-independent and age-dependent TMT performance in two population-representative community samples (Munich Antidepressant Response Signature, MARS: N1 = 540; Ludwig Maximilians University, LMU: N2 = 350). Age-dependent genome-wide findings were then evaluated in a third sample of healthy elderly subjects (Sydney Memory and Ageing Study, Sydney MAS: N3 = 448). While a meta-analysis on the GWAS findings did not reveal age-independent TMT associations withstanding correction for multiple testing, we found a genome-wide significant age-moderated effect between variants in the DSG1 gene region and TMT-A performance predominantly reflecting visual processing speed (rs2199301, P(meta-analysis) = 1.3 × 10(-7)). The direction of the interaction suggests for the minor allele a beneficial effect in younger adults turning into a detrimental effect in older adults. The detrimental effect of the missense single nucleotide polymorphism rs1426310 within the same DSG1 gene region could be replicated in Sydney MAS participants aged 70-79, but not in those aged 80 years and older, presumably a result of survivor bias. Our findings demonstrate opposing effects of DSG1 variants on information processing speed depending on age, which might be related to the complex processes that DSG1 is involved with, including cell adhesion and apoptosis.

  17. The application of information theory for the estimation of old-age multimorbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blokh, David; Stambler, Ilia; Lubart, Emilia; Mizrahi, Eliyahu H

    2017-08-28

    Elderly patients are commonly characterized by the presence of several chronic aging-related diseases at once, or old-age "multimorbidity," with critical implications for diagnosis and therapy. However, at the present there is no agreed or formal method to diagnose or even define "multimorbidity." There is also no formal quantitative method to evaluate the effects of individual or combined diagnostic parameters and therapeutic interventions on multimorbidity. The present work outlines a methodology to provide such a measurement and definition, using information theoretical measure of normalized mutual information. A cohort of geriatric patients, suffering from several age-related diseases (multimorbidity), including ischemic heart disease, COPD, and dementia, were evaluated by a variety of diagnostic parameters, including static as well as dynamic biochemical, functional-behavioral, immunological, and hematological parameters. Multimorbidity was formally coded and measured as a composite of several chronic age-related diseases. The normalized mutual information allowed establishing the exact informative value of particular parameters and their combinations about the multimorbidity value. With the currently intensifying attempts to reduce aging-related multimorbidity by therapeutic interventions into its underlying aging processes, the proposed method may outline a valuable direction toward the formal indication and evidence-based evaluation of effectiveness of such interventions.

  18. Evolutionary shaping of demographic schedules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachter, Kenneth W.; Steinsaltz, David; Evans, Steven N.

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary processes of natural selection may be expected to leave their mark on age patterns of survival and reproduction. Demographic theory includes three main strands—mutation accumulation, stochastic vitality, and optimal life histories. This paper reviews the three strands and, concentrating on mutation accumulation, extends a mathematical result with broad implications concerning the effect of interactions between small age-specific effects of deleterious mutant alleles. Empirical data from genomic sequencing along with prospects for combining strands of theory hold hope for future progress. PMID:25024186

  19. Information seeking behavior of scientists in the electronic information age: Astronomers, chemists, mathematicians, and physicists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Cecelia M.

    1999-07-01

    The information seeking behavior of astronomers, chemists, mathematicians, and physicists at the University of Oklahoma was assessed using an electronically distributed questionnaire. All of the scientists surveyed relied greatly on the journal literature to support their research and creative activities. The mathematicians surveyed indicated an additional reliance on monographs, preprints, and attendance at conferences and personal communication to support their research activities. Similarly, all scientists responding scanned the latest issues of journals to keep abreast of current developments in their fields, with the mathematicians again reporting attendance at conferences and personal communication. Despite an expression by the scientists for more electronic services, the majority preferred access to journal articles in a print, rather than an electronic, form. The primary deficit in library services appeared to be in access to electronic bibliographic databases. The data suggest that a primary goal of science libraries is to obtain access to as many appropriate electronic bibliographic finding aids and databases possible. Although the results imply the ultimate demise of the printed bibliographic reference tool, they underscore the continued importance to scientists of the printed peer-reviewed journal article.

  20. Gender, age, socio-demographic and lifestyle factors associated with major dietary patterns in the Spanish Project SUN (Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Villegas, A; Delgado-Rodríguez, M; Martínez-González, M A; De Irala-Estévez, J

    2003-02-01

    To ascertain the major dietary patterns in the cohort 'SUN' and to assess the association of several sociodemographic (including age and gender) and lifestyle variables with the adherence to these dietary patterns. This study is a cross-sectional analysis of 3847 subjects (1587 men and 2260 women) belonging to a prospective cohort study based on self-reported questionnaires. A factor analysis based on 30 predefined food groups was conducted to ascertain the major dietary patterns in the cohort. Multiple regression models were fitted to assess the relationship between several sociodemographic and lifestyle variables and the adherence to these dietary patterns (measured using two scores with observed values ranging from -3.2 to +4.6 for the Western pattern and -3.1 to +5.5 for the Mediterranean pattern). Two major dietary patterns were found. The first pattern was labelled as a 'Western' dietary pattern and the other as a 'Spanish-Mediterranean' dietary pattern. Younger subjects were more likely to follow a 'Western' dietary pattern; the coefficient representing the change for every 10 y increase in age was b=-0.24 (P<0.001) for men and b=-0.12 (P<0.001) for women. More physically active subjects were less likely to follow a 'Western' dietary pattern and more likely to follow a 'Spanish-Mediterranean' dietary pattern. An association between a higher level of physical activity during leisure time and adherence to a 'Spanish-Mediterranean' diet was apparent. However, the profile of being a young, sedentary and single male was identified as the most likely to exhibit a departure from the traditional 'Spanish-Mediterranean' diet and follow a 'Western' dietary pattern.

  1. The effect of age and role information on expectations for big five personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Dustin; Roberts, Brent W

    2006-11-01

    In four studies, the authors investigated the extent to which expectations for personality traits in age-graded roles correspond to patterns of personality trait change across the life course. In Studies 1 (N = 43) and 2 (N = 126), the authors examined the age-graded roles of high school student, college student, parent, and grandparent and found that expectations for how people behave in these age-graded roles showed strong parallels to the documented pattern of personality trait development and that this pattern of expectations was largely shared by younger and older participants. In Studies 3 (N = 252) and 4 (N = 123), the authors separated age and role information (e.g., marital, parental, and employment status) and found that people use both sources of information independently in forming expectations of others. The implications for understanding the interplay of expectations and personality trait development are discussed.

  2. Impaired spatial information processing in aged monkeys with preserved recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, P R; Kansky, M T; Roberts, J A

    1997-05-27

    Spatial information processing was examined in a non-human primate model of cognitive aging, using procedures formally similar to tasks designed for rats. The test apparatus was a large open field containing eight reward locations. Monkeys rapidly learned to visit each location once per trial, and probe manipulations confirmed that young animals navigated according to the distribution of cues surrounding the maze. In contrast, aged monkeys solved the task using a response sequencing strategy, independent of extramaze spatial information. Object recognition memory was normal in the aged group. The results reveal substantial correspondence in the cognitive effects of aging across rat and primate models, and they establish appropriate procedures for testing the long-standing proposal that the role of the hippocampus in normal spatial learning is similarly conserved.

  3. Design of a management information system for the Shielding Experimental Reactor ageing management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He Jie, E-mail: hejiejoe@163.co [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Xu Xianhong [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2010-01-15

    The problem of nuclear reactor ageing is a topic of increasing importance in nuclear safety recent years. Ageing management is usually implemented for reactors maintenance. In the practice, a large number of data and records need to be processed. However, there are few professional software applications that aid reactor ageing management, especially for research reactors. This paper introduces the design of a new web-based management information system (MIS), named the Shielding Experimental Reactor Ageing Management Information System (SERAMIS). It is an auxiliary means that helps to collect data, keep records, and retrieve information for a research reactor ageing management. The Java2 Enterprise Edition (J2EE) and network database techniques, such as three-tiered model, Model-View-Controller architecture, transaction-oriented operations, and JavaScript techniques, are used in the development of this system. The functionalities of the application cover periodic safety review (PSR), regulatory references, data inspection, and SSCs classification according to ageing management methodology. Data and examples are presented to demonstrate the functionalities. For future work, techniques of data mining will be employed to support decision-making.

  4. 老年性痴呆家庭护理者的人口学信息及身心负担调查%Survey of demographic information, physical and psychological burden in family caregivers of senile dementia patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄永群; 龙良; 苏晓君; 唐艳; 覃金丽; 李家鑫

    2012-01-01

    [目的]了解老年性痴呆家庭护理者的自然、社会人口学信息及其在实施家庭护理过程中所承担的身体、精神负担.[方法]招募已被诊断为老年性痴呆病人的家庭护理者,通过电话采访录音及现场访问的方式完成统一问卷.[结果]老年性痴呆病人的家庭护理者以已婚中年妇女为主,教育程度及收入水平均较低,其中42%的受访者认为自己健康状况水平在下降,58%曾经有过负面情感的自我体验.[结论]老年性痴呆家庭护理者本身所承受的身体、精神负担应引起足够重视,可能最终影响到对病人的护理效果.%Objective:To know about the natural and social demographic information of senile dementia patients' family caregivers and the physical and mental burden undertaken in the process of implementation of home care. Methods: Family caregivers of senile dementia patients who have been diagnosed were recruited and made them complete the questionnaire by telephone collect and record and on -site visit. Results: Family caregivers of senile dementia patients were mainly married middle - aged women, their education and income level was lower, healthy level of 42% of respondents were decreasing. 58% of them had self - experience of negative feelings. Conclusion: The physical and mental burden bore by family caregivers of senile dementia patients should be paid sufficient attention to.and may ultimately affect the care effect for patients.

  5. Data Visualization and Infographics In Visual Communication Design Education at The Age of Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banu Inanc Uyan Dur

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Scientific and technologic developments in the last century facilitate people’s lives while also causing them to face more information. Information design has become much more important as a result of the chaos created by the unprocessed heap of data and information traffic. Therefore, people need designed information like infographics and data visualisation today. Design of information, which is among the most significant requirements of our age, has become a subject which needs to be dealt with more systematically in the education of visual communication design. Visual design of information and data is important not only for increasing perceptibility but also revealing the patterns within complex information, and being educative, persuasive and guiding depending on the content and objective. In this sense, incorporating data visualization and infographics works into the education of visual communication design would have significant contributions to train designers with sufficient qualification to meet the requirements of today’s world. This study examines the current/potential expansion of data visualization and infographics in the education of visual communication design  at the age of information. With respect to students, it deals with its effects to the design method, process and perception and its contributions to the multidisciplinary design approach.

  6. Impaired information sampling in mild dementia of Alzheimer's type but not in healthy aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamarian, Laura; Benke, Thomas; Brand, Matthias; Djamshidian, Atbin; Delazer, Margarete

    2015-05-01

    It is unknown whether aging affects predecisional processing, that is, gathering information and evaluating options before making a decision. Here, we investigated information sampling in mild Dementia of Alzheimer's type (DAT) and healthy aging by using the Information Sampling Task (IST). In a first investigation, we compared patients with mild DAT (n = 20) with healthy controls (n = 20) on the IST and several neuropsychological background tests. In a second investigation, healthy older adults (n = 30) were compared with younger adults (n = 30) on the IST and executive-function tasks. Results of the first investigation demonstrated that, in the IST, patients gathered significantly less information, made riskier and less accurate decisions, and showed less reward sensitivity relative to controls. We found a significant correlation between performance on the IST and performance on tests of verbal fluency, working memory, and recognition in patients but not in controls. Results of the second investigation indicated a largely similar performance pattern between healthy older adults and younger adults. There were no significant correlations for both groups between the IST and executive-function tasks. There are no relevant changes with healthy aging in predecisional processing. In contrast, mild DAT significantly affects predecisional information sampling. Thus, the problems shown in patients with mild DAT in decision making might be related to the patients' difficulties in predecisional processing. Decision-making performance in mild DAT might be improved by helping the patients at a predecisional stage to gather sufficient information and evaluate options more accurately. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Changes in sensory reweighting of proprioceptive information during standing balance with age and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasma, J H; Engelhart, D; Maier, A B; Schouten, A C; van der Kooij, H; Meskers, C G M

    2015-12-01

    With sensory reweighting, reliable sensory information is selected over unreliable information during balance by dynamically combining this information. We used system identification techniques to show the weight and the adaptive process of weight change of proprioceptive information during standing balance with age and specific diseases. Ten healthy young subjects (aged between 20 and 30 yr) and 44 elderly subjects (aged above 65 yr) encompassing 10 healthy elderly, 10 with cataract, 10 with polyneuropathy, and 14 with impaired balance, participated in the study. During stance, proprioceptive information of the ankles was disturbed by rotation of the support surface with specific frequency content where disturbance amplitude increased over trials. Body sway and reactive ankle torque were measured to determine sensitivity functions of these responses to the disturbance amplitude. Model fits resulted in a proprioceptive weight (changing over trials), time delay, force feedback, reflexive stiffness, and damping. The proprioceptive weight was higher in healthy elderly compared with young subjects and higher in elderly subjects with cataract and with impaired balance compared with healthy elderly subjects. Proprioceptive weight decreased with increasing disturbance amplitude; decrease was similar in all groups. In all groups, the time delay was higher and the reflexive stiffness was lower compared with young or healthy elderly subjects. In conclusion, proprioceptive information is weighted more with age and in patients with cataract and impaired balance. With age and specific diseases the time delay was higher and reflexive stiffness was lower. These results illustrate the opportunity to detect the underlying cause of impaired balance in the elderly with system identification.

  8. An own-age bias in recognizing faces with horizontal information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Schaich

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Horizontal information, as a result of a selective filtering process, are essential in younger adults’ (YA ability to recognize human faces. Obermeyer, Kolling, Schaich, and Knopf (2012 recently reported impaired recognition of faces with horizontal information in older adults (OA suggesting age-variant processing. Two yet unconsidered factors (stimulus age and exposure duration that may have influenced previous results, were investigated in this study. Forty-seven YA (18-35yrs and 49 OA (62-83yrs were tested in a 2x2x2x2 mixed design with the between-subjects factors age group (YA vs OA and stimulus age (young faces vs older faces and the within-subjects factors filter (filtered (HF faces vs unfiltered faces (UF and exposure duration (0.8s vs 8s. Subjects were presented morph videos between pairs of faces: A starting face gradually merged into either the previously encoded target face or a control face. As expected, results showed an increase in recognition sensitivity (d’ with longer exposure duration in YA with both younger and older HF faces. OA however were unable to recognize filtered young faces not even with increased exposure duration. Furthermore, only elderly participants showed more accurate recognition with faces of their own age relative to other-age faces (own-age bias, OAB. For YA no OAB was observed. Filtered face recognition was significantly correlated with unfiltered recognition in YA but not in OA. It is concluded, that processing of horizontal information changes at a higher age. Presenting filtered or unfiltered faces both targets convergent face-specific processing only in YA but not in OA.

  9. PREVALENCE OF ANEMIA IN PEDIATRIC AGE GROUP PATIENTS AND ITS CO - RELATION WITH SOCIO - DEMOGRAPHIC FACTORS IN PATIENTS PRESENTING AT DEPARTMENT OF PEDIATRICS AT ROHILKHAND MEDICAL COLLEGE AND HOSPITAL, BAREILLLY, U. P.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: About 2 billion people are suffering from iron deficiency anemia. India continues to be one of the countries to have highest prevalence of anemia NFHS 3 estimates reveals the prevalence of anemia to be 73% in children aged 5 - 11 years. Present study was und ertaken to determine the prevalence of anemia in pediatric age group from 6 months to 14 years. Aims and objective: To study prevalence of anemia in pediatric age group patients and its co - relation with socio - demographic factors in patients presenting at p ediatrics department R.M.C.H. Bareilly. MATERIAL METHOD S : Cross sectional study was carried out from July 2013 to December 2014. A total of 215 students (115 boys and 100 girls were studied. Parents of subjects aged less than 8 years and patients aged more than 8 years attendants were interviewed using a pretes ted questionnaire. Blood samples were taken by fingers prick method. Hb estimation was done by cyan - met hemoglobin method using calorimeter. SPSS Version 10.0, proportions were calculated and chi square test was used as a test for significance. RESULTS: Ou t of total 215 subjects, 82 (38% were found anemic. Girls were affected more as comp aired to boys. Prevalence of anemia was maximum in children belonging to lower social classes (100.0% followed by upper - lower (45%, lower middle (26% and upper middle ( 22% and this prevalence of anemia in relation to social class was found to be statistically significant (p<0.001 higher in children of illiterate mothers and working mothers (p<0.001. CONCLUSION: In India major factor responsible for nutritional anemia children is delayed weaning and insufficient semisolid and solid food intake.

  10. Growing up at the intersection of the genomic era and the information age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driessnack, Martha

    2009-06-01

    Children actively seek to make sense of their worlds based on the information they receive and their experience. For children growing up at the intersection of genomic era and information age, the array of information and experience continues to expand. This article highlights the importance of exploring these early contexts for learning, including the children's exposure to books and mass media, and the impact of early learning on later health literacy and behaviors. This article presents a case study discussing the inheritance of cystic fibrosis using the Harry Potter book series.

  11. Effects of a National Information Campaign on Compliance With Age Restrictions for Alcohol Sales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gosselt, Jordi Franciscus; van Hoof, Joris Jasper; Baas, N.; de Jong, Menno D.T.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of a national information campaign, introduced by the Dutch Food Retail Organization, named “Under 20? Show Your ID!,” on compliance with age restrictions on alcohol sales. The compliance level after the campaign was compared with a baseline compliance, that we

  12. Synthesizing Information from Language Samples and Standardized Tests in School-Age Bilingual Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, Kerry Danahy; Pham, Giang

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Although language samples and standardized tests are regularly used in assessment, few studies provide clinical guidance on how to synthesize information from these testing tools. This study extends previous work on the relations between tests and language samples to a new population--school-age bilingual speakers with primary language…

  13. The city in the information and communication technology age: a comparative study on path dependecy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkhoff, Wouter; Nijkamp, Peter

    2001-01-01

    The role of the city in the modem electronic age is rapidly changing. Cities are no longer closed islands of local opportunities, but are open nodalpoints in a global network environment. The Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has lifted the traditional physical - geographicalconstraints

  14. Rule-Based and Information-Integration Category Learning in Normal Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddox, W. Todd; Pacheco, Jennifer; Reeves, Maia; Zhu, Bo; Schnyer, David M.

    2010-01-01

    The basal ganglia and prefrontal cortex play critical roles in category learning. Both regions evidence age-related structural and functional declines. The current study examined rule-based and information-integration category learning in a group of older and younger adults. Rule-based learning is thought to involve explicit, frontally mediated…

  15. Linking cognitive and visual perceptual decline in healthy aging: The information degradation hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge, Zachary A; Madden, David J

    2016-10-01

    Several hypotheses attempt to explain the relation between cognitive and perceptual decline in aging (e.g., common-cause, sensory deprivation, cognitive load on perception, information degradation). Unfortunately, the majority of past studies examining this association have used correlational analyses, not allowing for these hypotheses to be tested sufficiently. This correlational issue is especially relevant for the information degradation hypothesis, which states that degraded perceptual signal inputs, resulting from either age-related neurobiological processes (e.g., retinal degeneration) or experimental manipulations (e.g., reduced visual contrast), lead to errors in perceptual processing, which in turn may affect non-perceptual, higher-order cognitive processes. Even though the majority of studies examining the relation between age-related cognitive and perceptual decline have been correlational, we reviewed several studies demonstrating that visual manipulations affect both younger and older adults' cognitive performance, supporting the information degradation hypothesis and contradicting implications of other hypotheses (e.g., common-cause, sensory deprivation, cognitive load on perception). The reviewed evidence indicates the necessity to further examine the information degradation hypothesis in order to identify mechanisms underlying age-related cognitive decline.

  16. Effects of a National Information Campaign on Compliance With Age Restrictions for Alcohol Sales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gosselt, Jordi Franciscus; van Hoof, Joris Jasper; Baas, N.; de Jong, Menno D.T.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of a national information campaign, introduced by the Dutch Food Retail Organization, named “Under 20? Show Your ID!,” on compliance with age restrictions on alcohol sales. The compliance level after the campaign was compared with a baseline compliance, that we cal

  17. Who Enters Campus Recreation Facilities: A Demographic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Rohe Milton

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine student entry into a campus recreation center based on seven demographics (gender, ethnicity, age, class standing, intercollegiate athlete vs. non-athlete, students with self-reported disability vs. non-disability, and campus residence in order to determine who would be most likely to enter the recreation center. Subjects were from a mid-western, four year state-assisted institution with combined enrollment of 23,932 undergraduate and graduate students. Of the 23,932 enrolled, 14,032 students were examined in this study. Information on student entry to the recreation center was collected through the university’s student information system. Data was analyzed and interpreted using chi-square analysis. Results of the study show statistically significant differences in the demographics except the student disability demographic. More males than females, more African Americans than other ethnicities, more traditionally aged (18-25 students than non-traditional students, more underclassmen than seniors, more athletes and non-athletes, more residents than commuters were likely to enter the campus recreation center. The findings in this study could be used by collegiate recreational sport directors and administrators, in the United States and internationally, for future ideas about programming in similar recreation settings.

  18. The development of universal health insurance coverage in Thailand: Challenges of population aging and informal economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Minchung; Huang, Xianguo; Yupho, Somrasri

    2015-11-01

    This paper quantitatively investigates the sustainability of the universal health insurance coverage (UHI) system in Thailand while taking into account the country's rapidly aging population and large informal labor sector. We examine the effects of population aging and informal employment across three tax options for financing the UHI. A modern dynamic general equilibrium framework is utilized to conduct policy experiments and welfare analysis. In the case of labor income tax being used to finance the cost of UHI, an additional 11-15% of labor tax will be required with the 2050 population age structure, compared with the 2005 benchmark economy. We also find that an expansion of income tax base to the informal sector can substantially alleviate the tax burden. Based on welfare comparisons across the alternative tax options, the labor income tax is the most preferred because the inequality between formal/informal sectors is large. If the informal sector cannot avoid labor income tax, capital tax will be preferred over labor and consumption taxes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. [Demographic profile of Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero, I

    1984-04-01

    Sources of demographic data for Venezuela include 11 population censuses conducted between 1873-1981, birth and death registration statistics, and the household sample survey. The average annual rate of population growth increase from 2.8% between 1920-40 to 3-4% thereafter. The population at the 1961 census was 7.52 million. According to preliminary data from the 1981 census, the population of 14.57 million is growing at an annual rate of 2.8%. 41.2% of the population is under 15 years old, implying a huge demand for educational and health services, housing and employment. The dependency rate in 1980 was 81.3% for the country as a whole, 100.4% in rural areas, and 76.0% in urban areas. The young age structure means that the population will continue to grow even if natality rates decline. The crude natality rate was estimated at 47.3/1000 for 1950-55, 36.0 for 1970-75, and 32.9 for 1980-85. Some rural areas still have natality rates of over 47/1000. The total fertility rate declined from 6.5 in 1950-55 to 4.1 in 1980-85. The decline in the natality rate reflects improving quality of life, availability of family planning services, urbanization, and access of women to productive activities and educational centers. The mortality rate was 12.3/1000 in 1950-55, 9.1 in 1960-65, in 1970-75, and has been estimated at 5.5 for 1980-85. Some rural areas have mortality rates of 8.1. The infant mortality rate was 50.2/1000 in 1971 and 34.3 in 1980. Life expectancy at birth is about 69 years. During the 1920s, Venezuela unerwent expansion in infrastructure and technological utilization, generating rapid urbanization. 39.2% of the population was urban in 1941, compared to 78.8% in 1980. The significance of urbanization in Venezuela is due to the rapidity as well as the diffusion of the process. The household sample survey for the 2nd half of 1980 indicated a total of 8.16 million employed and an activity rate of 32.1% overall, 46.4% for males and 17.7% for females. The

  20. Demographic heterogeneity, cohort selection, and population growth

    OpenAIRE

    Bruce E. Kendall; Fox, Gordon A.; Fujiwara, Masami; Nogeire, Theresa M.

    2011-01-01

    Demographic heterogeneity—variation among individuals in survival and reproduction—is ubiquitous in natural populations. Structured population models address heterogeneity due to age, size, or major developmental stages. However, other important sources of demographic heterogeneity, such as genetic variation, spatial heterogeneity in the environment, maternal effects, and differential exposure to stressors, are often not easily measured and hence are modeled as stochasticity. Recent research ...

  1. Componential analysis as a way to investigate age-related changes in information processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, E; Gardner, M K

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to alert researchers to the methods and utility of componential analysis as a means to examine age-related changes within information processing models of cognition. This analysis allows the researcher to determine which hypothesized information processing components are significant and the amount of variance shared with the dependent variable(s). Individual differences are investigated by modeling data at the individual subject level. Unstandardized regression weights are correlated with performance on a number of standardized ability tests to determine which components contribute to which abilities. The procedure combines complementary aspects of information processing analysis and psychometric analysis. Componential analysis is illustrated in this study with data from 60 individuals, aged 20 to 79, who solved verbal forced-choice analogies of the form A:B::C: (D1 or D2). Solution time and error rate data were modeled using a regression model developed by Sternberg (1977).

  2. DEMOGRAPHIC SECURITY: THEORY, METHODOLOGY, EVALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail V. Karmanov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the theoretical aspects of demographic security. Reviewed and analyzed the point of view of various scholars to the definition of demographic security. The main directions of statistical analysis of demographic security.

  3. SELECTED DETERMINANTS OF DEMOGRAPHIC SAFETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisława Ostasiewicz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents, in a simplifi ed manner, selected theories of population to explain the current trends of population development in Poland and throughout the world. The aim of the article is to present the demographic threats that have emerged in the last eighty years. Prognosticated age structures have also been predicted. Signifi cant diff erences between the structure of the population now and the future have been indicated, particularly regarding the ageing of the population. Against the background of global transformations analyzes of changes in Poland have been conducted. The comparison shows that changes in Poland are highly analogous to transformations around the world, such as declining birth rates and increasing life expectancy. These changes cause ageing of the population, which could result in the collapse of the functioning of the labor market and the pension system as it currently exists.

  4. Health information literacy and competencies of information age students: results from the interactive online Research Readiness Self-Assessment (RRSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanitskaya, Lana; O'Boyle, Irene; Casey, Anne Marie

    2006-04-21

    In an era of easy access to information, university students who will soon enter health professions need to develop their information competencies. The Research Readiness Self-Assessment (RRSA) is based on the Information Literacy Competency Standards for Higher Education, and it measures proficiency in obtaining health information, evaluating the quality of health information, and understanding plagiarism. This study aimed to measure the proficiency of college-age health information consumers in finding and evaluating electronic health information; to assess their ability to discriminate between peer-reviewed scholarly resources and opinion pieces or sales pitches; and to examine the extent to which they are aware of their level of health information competency. An interactive 56-item online assessment, the Research Readiness Self-Assessment (RRSA), was used to measure the health information competencies of university students. We invited 400 students to take part in the study, and 308 participated, giving a response rate of 77%. The RRSA included multiple-choice questions and problem-based exercises. Declarative and procedural knowledge were assessed in three domains: finding health information, evaluating health information, and understanding plagiarism. Actual performance was contrasted with self-reported skill level. Upon answering all questions, students received a results page that summarized their numerical results and displayed individually tailored feedback composed by an experienced librarian. Even though most students (89%) understood that a one-keyword search is likely to return too many documents, few students were able to narrow a search by using multiple search categories simultaneously or by employing Boolean operators. In addition, nearly half of the respondents had trouble discriminating between primary and secondary sources of information as well as between references to journal articles and other published documents. When presented with

  5. Chronological objects in demographic research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans J. Willekens

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Calendar time, age and duration are chronological objects. They represent an instant or a time period. Age and duration are usually expressed in units with varying lengths. The number of days in a month or a year depends on the position on the calendar. The units are also not homogeneous and the structure influences measurement. One solution, common in demography, is to use units that are large enough for the results not to be seriously affected by differences in length and structure. Another approach is to take the idiosyncrasy of calendars into account and to work directly with calendar dates. The technology that enables logical and arithmetic operations on dates is available. OBJECTIVE To illustrate logical and arithmetic operations on dates and conversions between time measurements. METHODS Software packages include utilities to process dates. I use existing and a few new utilities in R to illustrate operations on dates and conversions between calendar dates and elapsed time since a reference moment or a reference event. Three demographic applications are presented. The first is the impact of preferences for dates and days on demographic indicators. The second is event history analysis with time-varying covariates. The third is microsimulation of life histories in continuous time. CONCLUSIONS The technology exists to perform operations directly on dates, enabling more precise calculations of duration and elapsed time in demographic analysis. It eliminates the need for (a approximations and (b transformations of dates, such as Century Month Code, that are convenient for computing durations but are a barrier to interpretation. Operations on dates, such as the computation of age, should consider time units of varying length.

  6. [Demographic projections for Latin American countries prepared by CELADE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somoza, J L

    1978-04-01

    The CELADE (Centro Latinoamericano de Demografia) prepares population projections for 20 Latin American countries, a difficult task considering the lack of reliable census data on births, deaths, and other demographic information. Nevertheless, the demographic situation can be estimated by distinguishing two states in the process: estimating past and present population history and formulating hypotheses regarding the future trends of demographic variables. In a typical situation for most Latin American countries, the first stage is the most difficult; results are mostly approximations of the reality. Thus, projections based on these data are unreliable. The present demographic situation in Latin America was analyzed by estimating fertility, mortality and international migration. Fertility rate was calculated based on the following data: number of children born to the female population, number of live births during the year prior to the census classified according to mother's age and number of children registered according to age up to 10 or 15 years of age. Fertility was thus calculated within 5 years prior to the census. Mortality was roughly estimated by calculating the annual death distribution by age. This promoted questions relating to orphans and the relative number of children who survived out of total number of children born to a woman. Little data was available on migration due to lack of registries on annual migration. It was estimated based on the number of people who left the country for 5 years, and promoted questions such as which country is one native of and year of entry into the country. The most important task relating to population projection of Latin America is the improvement of knowledge on fertility, mortality and migration.

  7. Response to climate risks among smallholder farmers in Malawi: A multivariate probit assessment of the role of information, household demographics, and farm characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chalmers Mulwa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Why do many smallholder farmers fail to adopt what appear to be relatively simple agronomic or management practices which can help them cope with climate-induced stressors? Using household and plot level data collected in 2011, we implement a multivariate probit model to assess the determinants of farmer adaptation behavior to climatic risks and the relative contribution of information, credit and education on the probability of adopting specific practices in response to adverse changes in weather patterns. We find that plot characteristics, credit constraints and availability of climate-related information explain the adoption of several of these practices. In relative terms, we also find that even when financial limitations are binding, making climate-related information available can still motivate farmers to adapt. Policy implications are that the deepening of extension access with information on the appropriate adaptation strategies is crucial to help farmers make adaptation choices. The need to foster credit markets for easy accessibility and affordability by farmers or otherwise strengthening access to assets is also important.

  8. Age differences in working memory updating: the role of interference, focus switching and substituting information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lendínez, Cristina; Pelegrina, Santiago; Lechuga, M Teresa

    2015-05-01

    Working memory updating (WMU) tasks require different elements in working memory (WM) to be maintained simultaneously, accessing one of these elements, and substituting its content. This study examined possible developmental changes from childhood to adulthood both in focus switching and substituting information in WM. In addition, possible age-related changes in interference due to representational overlap between the different elements simultaneously held in these tasks were examined. Children (8- and 11-year-olds), adolescents (14-year-olds) and younger adults (mean age=22 years) were administered a numerical updating memory task, in which updating and focus switching were manipulated. As expected, response times decreased and recall performance increased with age. More importantly, the time needed for focus switching was longer in children than in adolescents and younger adults. On the other hand, substitution of information and interference due to representational overlap were not affected by age. These results suggest that age-related changes in focus switching might mediate developmental changes in WMU performance.

  9. Demographic changes and nationalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishnevskii, A G

    1995-01-01

    This article examines the different characteristics of the many peoples inhabiting what used to be the Soviet Union and communist Eastern Europe, including Yugoslavia. The differences among these nationalities, or ethnic groups, are illustrated using the example of demographic modernization, showing how different peoples have or have not passed through the demographic transition process. The author looks at ethnic differences in mortality, fertility, natural increase, and migration, as well as economic and social inequalities among ethnic groups. The prospects for inter-ethnic conflict are assessed.

  10. The quality of demographic data on older Africans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Randall

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Developing appropriate and equitable policies for older people in Africa requires accurate and reliable data. It is unclear whether existing data can accurately assess older African population structures, let alone provide the detailed information needed to inform policy decision-making. Objective: To evaluate the quality of nationally representative data on older Africans through examining the accuracy of age data collected from different sources. Methods: To measure the accuracy of age reporting overall we calculate Whipple's Index, and a modified Whipple's Index for older adults, using the single year age-sex distributions from (a the household roster of 17 Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS, (b the censuses of 12 of these countries, and (c the Living Standards Measurement Study (LSMS for Ethiopia and Niger. We compare reported sex ratios by age. Results: The quality of age data is very poor for most countries outside Southern Africa, especially for older adults. In some Sahelian countries DHS surveys appear to omit a considerable proportion of older women. Data on population structure of older people by age and sex produced by the DHS and the census are inconsistent and contradictory. Conclusions: Different field methodological approaches generate contradictory data on older Africans. With the exception of Southern Africa, it is impossible to assess accurately the basic demographic structure of the older population. The data available are so problematic that any conclusions about age-related health and welfare and their evolution over time and space are potentially compromised. This has ramifications for policymakers and practitioners who demand, fund, and depend on large-scale demographic data sources. Contribution: The paper highlights a number of problems with data on older Africans, beyond the well-known issues of age heaping. In doing so it contributes to general understanding of the limitations of existing demographic data

  11. The Influence of Online Health Information on the Attitude and Behavior of People Aged 50.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujnowska-Fedak, M M; Kurpas, D

    2015-01-01

    E-patients 'empowered' by Web information are much more likely to participate in health care decision processes and take responsibility for their own health. The purpose of the study was to determine the influence of Internet use and online health information on the attitude, behavior, and emotions of Polish citizens aged 50+, with special regard to their attitude towards health professionals and the health care system. A total of 323 citizens, aged 50 years and above, who used the Internet for health purposes, were selected from the Polish population by random sampling. The sample collection was carried out by Polish opinion poll agencies in 2005, 2007, and 2012. The Internet was used by 27.8 % of Polish citizens aged 50+ for health purposes in the years 2005-2012. 69.7 % of respondents were looking for health information that might help them to deal with a consultation, 53.9 % turned to the Internet to prepare for a medical appointment, and 63.5 % to assess the outcome of a medical consultation and obtain a 'second opinion'. The most likely effects of health related use of the Internet were: willingness to change diet or other life-style habits (48.0 % of respondents) and making suggestions or queries on diagnosis or treatment by the doctor (46.1 %). Feelings of reassurance or relief after obtaining information on health or illness were reported by a similar number of respondents as feelings of anxiety and fear (31.0 % and 31.3 % respectively). Online health information can affect the attitudes, emotions, and health behaviors of Polish citizens aged 50+ in different ways.

  12. How diversity gets lost: Age and gender in design practices of information and communication technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudshoorn, Nelly; Neven, Louis; Stienstra, Marcelle

    2016-01-01

    This article adopts an intersectional approach to investigate how age, gender, and diversity are represented, silenced, or prioritized in design. Based on a comparative study of design practices of information and communication technologies (ICTs) for young girls and older people, this article describes differences and similarities in the ways in which designers tried to cope with diversity. Ultimately diversity was neglected, and the developers relied on hegemonic views of gender and age, constructed older people and young girls as an "other," and consequently their input was neglected. These views were thus materialized in design and reinforce such views in powerful yet unobtrusive ways.

  13. Aging, visual information, and adaptation to task asymmetry in bimanual force coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaogang; Newell, Karl M

    2011-12-01

    This study investigated the coordination and control strategies that the elderly adopt during a redundant finger force coordination task and how the amount of visual information regulates the coordination patterns. Three age groups (20-24, 65-69, and 75-79 yr) performed a bimanual asymmetric force task. Task asymmetry was manipulated via imposing different coefficients on the finger forces such that the weighted sum of the two index finger forces equaled the total force. The amount of visual information was manipulated by changing the visual information gain of the total force output. Two hypotheses were tested: the reduced adaptability hypothesis predicts that the elderly show less degree of force asymmetry between hands compared with young adults in the asymmetric coefficient conditions, whereas the compensatory hypothesis predicts that the elderly exhibit more asymmetric force coordination patterns with asymmetric coefficients. Under the compensatory hypothesis, two contrasting directions of force sharing strategies (i.e., more efficient coordination strategy and minimum variance strategy) are expected. A deteriorated task performance (high performance error and force variability) was found in the two elderly groups, but enhanced visual information improved the task performance in all age groups. With low visual information gain, the elderly showed reduced adaptability (i.e., less asymmetric forces between hands) to the unequal weighting coefficients, which supported the reduced adaptability hypothesis; however, the elderly revealed the same degree of adaptation as the young group under high visual gain. The findings are consistent with the notion that the age-related reorganization of force coordination and control patterns is mediated by visual information and, more generally, the interactive influence of multiple categories of constraints.

  14. Latino Electoral Participation: Variations on Demographics and Ethnicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Leighley

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Using the 2012 Latino Immigrant National Election Study, the 2012 American National Election Study, and the 2012 Current Population Survey, we document the demographic factors that influenced Latino (native-born and immigrant voter turnout and participation in the 2012 presidential election. We estimate multivariable models of turnout and participation, including standard demographic characteristics (education, income, age, gender, marital status as explanatory variables. Our findings indicate that the relationships between these characteristics and participation are much less consistent across these datasets than the conventional wisdom would suggest. Understanding these results likely requires survey data—with large sample sizes—including information on the resources (including education and income available to immigrants in their home countries to better understand the lingering influences of immigrants’ experiences in their countries of origin on voter turnout.

  15. Age-specific Parkinson disease risk in GBA mutation carriers: information for genetic counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Huma Q; Balwani, Manisha; Bier, Louise; Alcalay, Roy N

    2013-02-01

    We sought to estimate age-specific risk of Parkinson disease in relatives of patients with Gaucher disease, who are obligate carriers of GBA mutations and who were not ascertained by family history of Parkinson disease. A validated family history of Parkinson disease questionnaire was administered to 119 patients with Gaucher disease who were evaluated at the Mount Sinai School of Medicine from 2009 to 2012; the ages of their parents, siblings, and children, history of Parkinson disease, age at onset of Parkinson disease, and ethnic background were obtained. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were used to estimate age-specific Parkinson disease penetrance among parents of patients with Gaucher disease, who are obligatory GBA mutation carriers. Two participants with Gaucher disease were affected by Parkinson disease (5.4% of those who were 60 years or older). Of the 224 informative parents of patients with Gaucher disease, 11 had Parkinson disease (4.9%). Among the parents (obligatory carriers), cumulative risk of Parkinson disease by ages 65 and 85 was estimated to be 2.2% ±2.1% and 10.9% ±7.2%, respectively. We provide useful age-specific estimates of Parkinson disease penetrance in patients with Gaucher disease and GBA heterozygous carriers for genetic counseling. Although GBA mutations may increase the risk for PD, the vast majority of patients with Gaucher disease and heterozygotes may not develop the disease. Further studies are needed to identify what modifies the risk of Parkinson disease in GBA mutation carriers.

  16. Patterns of association in older adult gamers: Demographics, gameplay patterns, and perceived benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Gayowsky, Taylor

    2016-01-01

    The over-sixty population is the fastest growing age group worldwide. This rapid growth in the older-adult population requires the need for additional resources to mitigate the effects of aging. Leisure activities have been shown to provide informal learning opportunities that help with various aspects of social and cognitive wellbeing in older adults. A survey asking about gameplay patterns, demographics, and perceived benefits of playing digital games was administered to 590 older adults ov...

  17. Does informal care reduce public care expenditure on elderly care? Estimates based on Finland's Age Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehusmaa, Sari; Autti-Rämö, Ilona; Helenius, Hans; Rissanen, Pekka

    2013-08-15

    To formulate sustainable long-term care policies, it is critical first to understand the relationship between informal care and formal care expenditure. The aim of this paper is to examine to what extent informal care reduces public expenditure on elderly care. Data from a geriatric rehabilitation program conducted in Finland (Age Study, n = 732) were used to estimate the annual public care expenditure on elderly care. We first constructed hierarchical multilevel regression models to determine the factors associated with elderly care expenditure. Second, we calculated the adjusted mean costs of care in four care patterns: 1) informal care only for elderly living alone; 2) informal care only from a co-resident family member; 3) a combination of formal and informal care; and 4) formal care only. We included functional independence and health-related quality of life (15D score) measures into our models. This method standardizes the care needs of a heterogeneous subject group and enabled us to compare expenditure among various care categories even when differences were observed in the subjects' physical health. Elder care that consisted of formal care only had the highest expenditure at 25,300 Euros annually. The combination of formal and informal care had an annual expenditure of 22,300 Euros. If a person received mainly informal care from a co-resident family member, then the annual expenditure was only 4,900 Euros and just 6,000 Euros for a person living alone and receiving informal care. Our analysis of a frail elderly Finnish population shows that the availability of informal care considerably reduces public care expenditure. Therefore, informal care should be taken into account when formulating policies for long-term care. The process whereby families choose to provide care for their elderly relatives has a significant impact on long-term care expenditure.

  18. Demographic correlates of children and adolescents with Autistic disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayyoub Malek

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Comparison of the demographic characteristics of patients provides useful information to their identification. This study aimed to determine the demographic characteristics of children and adolescents with autistic disorder (AD. Methods: In this cross-sectional case-control study, 115 children and adolescents with AD were selected from Autism Society Rehabilitation Center in Tabriz, Iran, and 112 normal children and adolescents from the public schools, in 2014. The participants in both groups were matched regarding age and gender. Diagnosis of AD was performed using diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders-4th edition (DSM-IV criteria and clinical diagnostic interviews by two child and adolescent psychiatrists. The demographic information of children and adolescents and their parents were collected from the medical records of children and interviews with their mothers. Results: Most of the children with autism had second or higher birth order and had families with more than three members. Mothers of children with autism had significantly lower levels of education and were mostly housewives. Fathers of autistic children mostly had high school diploma and fewer had university education, and most of them were employed. However, there was no statistically significant difference between the AD group and the control group regarding the average height and weight of children and the residence (urban or rural and age of parents at childbirth.Conclusion: The demographic characteristics of the two groups of children and adolescents with AD and normal controls were different from each other regarding family size, birth order, parent occupation, and parent education variables.

  19. Information search and decision making: effects of age and complexity on strategy use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queen, Tara L; Hess, Thomas M; Ennis, Gilda E; Dowd, Keith; Grühn, Daniel

    2012-12-01

    The impact of task complexity on information search strategy and decision quality was examined in a sample of 135 young, middle-aged, and older adults. We were particularly interested in the competing roles of fluid cognitive ability and domain knowledge and experience, with the former being a negative influence and the latter being a positive influence on older adults' performance. Participants utilized 2 decision matrices, which varied in complexity, regarding a consumer purchase. Using process tracing software and an algorithm developed to assess decision strategy, we recorded search behavior, strategy selection, and final decision. Contrary to expectations, older adults were not more likely than the younger age groups to engage in information-minimizing search behaviors in response to increases in task complexity. Similarly, adults of all ages used comparable decision strategies and adapted their strategies to the demands of the task. We also examined decision outcomes in relation to participants' preferences. Overall, it seems that older adults utilize simpler sets of information primarily reflecting the most valued attributes in making their choice. The results of this study suggest that older adults are adaptive in their approach to decision making and that this ability may benefit from accrued knowledge and experience.

  20. Validation of self-reported information on dental caries in a birth cohort at 18 years of age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Emidio Ribeiro Silva

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Estimate the prevalence of dental caries based on clinical examinations and self-reports and compare differences in the prevalence and effect measures between the two methods among 18-year-olds belonging to a 1993 birth cohort in the city of Pelotas, Brazil. METHOD: Data on self-reported caries, socio-demographic aspects and oral health behaviour were collected using a questionnaire administered to adolescents aged 18 years (n = 4041. Clinical caries was evaluated (n = 1014 by a dentist who had undergone training and calibration exercises. Prevalence rates of clinical and self-reported caries, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, absolute and relative bias, and inflation factors were calculated. Prevalence ratios of dental caries were estimated for each risk factor. RESULTS: The prevalence of clinical and self-reported caries (DMFT>1 was 66.5% (95%CI: 63.6%-69.3% and 60.3% (95%CI: 58.8%-61.8%, respectively. Self-reports underestimated the prevalence of dental caries by 9.3% in comparison to clinical evaluations. The analysis of the validity of self-reports regarding the DMFT index indicated high sensitivity (81.8%; 95%CI: 78.7%-84.7% and specificity (78.1%; 95%CI: 73.3%-82.4% in relation to the gold standard (clinical evaluation. Both the clinical and self-reported evaluations were associated with gender, schooling and self-rated oral health. Clinical dental caries was associated with visits to the dentist in the previous year. Self-reported dental caries was associated with daily tooth brushing frequency. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the present findings, self-reported information on dental caries using the DMFT index requires further studies prior to its use in the analysis of risk factors, but is valid for population-based health surveys with the aim of planning and monitoring oral health actions directed at adolescents.

  1. Palmar-plantar fibromatosis in children and preadolescents: a clinicopathologic study of 56 cases with newly recognized demographics and extended follow-up information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetsch, John F; Laskin, William B; Miettinen, Markku

    2005-08-01

    Palmar-plantar fibromatosis, the most common type of fibromatosis, is well recognized in the adult population, but many clinicians and pathologists are unfamiliar with the fact that children may also be affected by this process. This report describes the clinicopathologic findings in 56 cases of palmar-plantar fibromatosis in children and preadolescents. Our study group included 19 males and 37 females, ranging from 2 to 12 years of age at the time of their first surgical procedure (median age, 9 years). The patients typically presented with solitary, lobular or multilobular masses in the 0.5- to 2.5-cm size range. The preoperative duration of the lesions ranged from 1 month to 6 years, with 1 patient purportedly having clinical evidence of disease since birth. All but two of the initial lesions occurred on the plantar aspect of the feet, typically in the region of the arch. Only 2 patients presented with palmar disease. The tumors were usually painless, except when pressure was applied. Seven patients had a history of trauma, sometimes involving a foreign body. One patient presented with concurrent disease involving both feet, and 12 additional patients subsequently developed palmar-plantar fibromatosis in another extremity, knuckle pads on the hands, or had other clinical findings linked to this disease. A family history was available for 25 patients, and 11 individuals had relatives with palmar-plantar fibromatosis, and 4 others had relatives with a history that was either suspicious for palmar-plantar disease or positive for other disorders associated with this disease. Histologically, the tumors involved aponeurosis and commonly formed discontinuous, moderately cellular, nodular masses composed of spindled cells with intervening collagen. Mitotic counts for 79 separately submitted tumor specimens ranged from 0 to 31 mitotic figures per 25 wide-field high power fields (mean mitotic count, 3.4 mitotic figures per 25 wide-field high power fields). Eight tumor had

  2. Attention to semantic and spatial information in aging and Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Bastin de Jong

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In two experiments we explored the patterns of attention to semantic and spatial information in younger adults, older adults, and patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD. In the first experiment, a semantic priming task measured age- and AD-related changes in attentional sensitivity to semantic information. In the second experiment, the semantic priming task was modified to additionally serve as a spatial inhibition of return (IOR task. The combined semantic and spatial task measured (a age- and AD-related changes in sensitivity to spatial cues as well as to semantic primes, and (b interactions between the networks that subserve attention to semantic and spatial information. The results of both experiments revealed group differences in the utilization of semantic primes as a function of prime validity, suggesting that both older adults and AD patients were less likely than younger adults to generate controlled attention-dependent expectancies for semantically related information. Spatial IOR effects in Experiment 2 were evident in the performance of all three groups, but were of reduced magnitude in AD patients. Younger adults’ performance reflected interactions between semantic priming and spatial cuing effects. These findings are consistent with conclusions that (a selectivity via semantic primes and via spatial cues reflect separate attentional mechanisms, and (b semantic and spatial aspects of attention are mediated by different but closely interconnected neural networks.

  3. Bringing Early Infant Male Circumcision Information Home to the Family: Demographic Characteristics and Perspectives of Clients in a Pilot Project in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amuri, Mbaraka; Msemo, Georgina; Plotkin, Marya; Christensen, Alice; Boyee, Dorica; Mahler, Hally; Phafoli, Semakaleng; Njozi, Mustafa; Hellar, Augustino; Mlanga, Erick; Yansaneh, Aisha; Njeuhmeli, Emmanuel; Lija, Jackson

    2016-07-01

    Iringa region of Tanzania has had great success reaching targets for voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC). Looking to sustain high coverage of male circumcision, the government introduced a pilot project to offer early infant male circumcision (EIMC) in Iringa in 2013. From April 2013 to December 2014, a total of 2,084 male infants were circumcised in 8 health facilities in the region, representing 16.4% of all male infants born in those facilities. Most circumcisions took place 7 days or more after birth. The procedure proved safe, with only 3 mild and 3 moderate adverse events (0.4% overall adverse event rate). Overall, 93% of infants were brought back for a second-day visit and 71% for a seventh-day visit. These percentages varied significantly by urban and rural residence (97.4% urban versus 84.6% rural for day 2 visit; 82.2% urban versus 49.9% rural for day 7 visit). Mothers were more likely than fathers to have received information about EIMC. However, fathers tended to be key decision makers regarding circumcision of their sons. This suggests the importance of addressing fathers with behavioral change communication about EIMC. Successes in scaling up VMMC services in Iringa did not translate into immediate acceptability of EIMC. EIMC programs will require targeted investments in demand creation to expand and thrive in traditionally non-circumcising settings such as Iringa.

  4. Informing evidence-based policies for ageing and health in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byles, Julie; Aquah, Charles; Amofah, George; Biritwum, Richard; Panisset, Ulysses; Goodwin, James; Beard, John

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Problem Ghana’s population is ageing. In 2011, the Government of Ghana requested technical support from the World Health Organization (WHO) to help revise national policies on ageing and health. Approach We applied WHO’s knowledge translation framework on ageing and health to assist evidence based policy-making in Ghana. First, we defined priority problems and health system responses by performing a country assessment of epidemiologic data, policy review, site visits and interviews of key informants. Second, we gathered evidence on effective health systems interventions in low- middle- and high-income countries. Third, key stakeholders were engaged in a policy dialogue. Fourth, policy briefs were developed and presented to the Ghana Health Services. Local setting Ghana has a well-structured health system that can adapt to meet the health care needs of older people. Relevant changes Six problems were selected as priorities, however after the policy dialogue, only five were agreed as priorities by the stakeholders. The key stakeholders drafted evidence-based policy recommendations that were used to develop policy briefs. The briefs were presented to the Ghana Health Service in 2014. Lessons learnt The framework can be used to build local capacity on evidence-informed policy-making. However, knowledge translation tools need further development to be used in low-income countries and in the field of ageing. The terms and language of the tools need to be adapted to local contexts. Evidence for health system interventions on ageing populations is very limited, particularly for low- and middle-income settings. PMID:25558107

  5. Changes in sexual behaviour and practice and HIV prevalence indicators among young people aged 15-24 years in Zambia: an in-depth analysis of the 2001-2002 and 2007 Zambia Demographic and Health Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kembo, Joshua

    2013-01-01

    HIV and AIDS still pose a major public health problem to most countries in sub-Saharan Africa, Zambia included. The objective of the paper is to determine changes in selected sexual behaviour and practice and HIV prevalence indicators between 2001-2002 and 2007. We used the Demographic and Health Survey Indicators Database for the computation of the selected indicators. We further used STATA 10.0 to compute significance tests to test for statistical difference in the indicators. The results indicate some changes in sexual behaviour, as indicated by an increase in abstinence, use of condoms and the decrease in multiple partnerships. The overall percentage of abstinence among never-married young men and women aged 15-24 years in Zambia increased significantly by 15.2% (p=.000) and 5.9% (p=.001) respectively, between 2001-2002 and 2007. A statistically significant increase of 6.6% (p=.029) was observed in the percentage of young women who reported having used a condom during the last time they had had premarital sex. A statistically significant decrease of 11.0% (p=.000) and 1.4% (p=.000) was observed among young men and women, respectively, who reported having multiple partners in the preceding 12 months. The factorial decomposition using multivariate analysis reveals that the indicators which contributed to the statistically significant 2.6% decline in HIV prevalence among young women aged 15-24 years in Zambia include proportion reporting condom use during premarital sex (+6.6%), abstinence (+5.9%), sex before age 15 (-4.5%), premarital sex (-2.6%), sex before age 18 (-2.4%) and proportion reporting multiple partnerships (-1.4%). Remarkable strides have been achieved towards promoting responsible sexual behaviour and practice among young people in Zambia. Further research focusing on factors that predispose young women in Zambia to higher risk of infection from HIV is required. The results from this paper should be useful in the design of programmes to control the

  6. The Gender and Intergenerational Consequences of the Demographic Dividend

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    The demographic transition changes the age composition of a population, potentially affecting resource allocation at the household level and exerting general equilibrium effects at the aggregate level. If age profiles of income, consumption, and savings were stable and estimable for the entire population, they might imply how the demographic transition would affect national savings rates, but there is little agreement on the impact of age composition. These age profiles differ by gender and a...

  7. Evaluating the information content of multiple groundwater age tracers in projecting nitrate vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alikhani, J.; Massoudieh, A.; Deinhart, A.; Visser, A.; Esser, B.; Moran, J. E.

    2015-12-01

    Nitrate is one of the major sources of contamination of groundwater in the United States and around the world. In this study the applicability of multiple groundwater age tracers including 3H, 3He, 4He, 14C, 13C, and 85Kr in projecting future trends of nitrate concentration in several long-screened, public drinking water wells in Turlock, California, where nitrate concentrations are increasing toward the regulatory limit, is studied. Several lumped parameter models (LPM)s were considered to represent the groundwater age distribution at each well, including binary mixtures between Inverse Gaussian(young) and Dirac(old), generalized inverse Gaussian, and Levy distributions . LPM model parameters and unknown physical parameters (crustal production rate of 4He, dissolved inorganic carbon contribution from rock dissolution) were estimated using a Bayesian inference, resulting in the posterior probability distribution of the parameters and therefore the uncertainty associated with each. The performance of each LPM in reproducing the data while accounting for the level of model complexity is evaluated using deviance information criteria (DIC) and Bayes Factors (BF). Historical nitrate concentration data are also evaluated as an additional tracer to refine the age distribution. We found that historical nitrate levels can reduce the uncertainty about the age distribution. LPMs with a distinct feature to represent the old fraction of groundwater (for example Inverse Gaussian-Dirac) are better at reproducing the tracer data but with the price of a larger number of parameters, which results in a larger uncertainty about the age distribution itself. Although the uncertainty regarding the shape of the age distribution remains relatively high, whether nitrate is included as a tracer or not, different models predict similar future trends in nitrate concentration.

  8. Age Differences in Neural Response to Stereotype Threat and Resiliency for Self-Referenced Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel eColton

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the contribution of cortical midline regions to stereotype threat and resiliency, we compared age groups in an event-related functional MRI study. During scanning, seventeen younger and sixteen older adults judged whether words stereotypical of aging and control words described them. Judging stereotype words versus control words revealed higher activations in posterior midline regions associated with self-referencing, including the precuneus, for older adults compared to younger adults. While heightening salience of stereotypes can evoke a threat response, detrimentally affecting performance, invoking stereotypes can also lead to a phenomenon called resilience, where older adults use those stereotypes to create downward social comparisons to other older adults and elevate their own self-perception. In an exploration of brain regions underlying stereotype threat responses as well as resilience responses, we found significant activation in older adults for threat over resilient responses in posterior midline regions including the precuneus, associated with self-reflective thought, and parahippocampal gyrus, implicated in autobiographical memory. These findings have implications for understanding how aging stereotypes may affect the engagement of regions associated with contextual and social processing of self-relevant information, indicating ways in which stereotype threat can affect the engagement of neural resources with age.

  9. Effect of set size, age, and mode of stimulus presentation on information-processing speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, J. C.

    1972-01-01

    First, second, and third grade pupils served as subjects in an experiment designed to show the effect of age, mode of stimulus presentation, and information value on recognition time. Stimuli were presented in picture and printed word form and in groups of 2, 4, and 8. The results of the study indicate that first graders are slower than second and third graders who are nearly equal. There is a gross shift in reaction time as a function of mode of stimulus presentation with increase in age. The first graders take much longer to identify words than pictures, while the reverse is true of the older groups. With regard to set size, a slope appears in the pictures condition in the older groups, while for first graders, a large slope occurs in the words condition and only a much smaller one for pictures.

  10. English in the digital age information and communications technology (ICT) and the teaching of English

    CERN Document Server

    Goodwyn, Andrew

    1999-01-01

    New communications technology has been a boon to teaching and learning subjects of English, from reading and writing to literature such as Shakespeare. This book explores the ways that information and communications technology, or ICT, can be employed in teaching English and enriching the abilities of students. What are the advantages of ICT, and what are some of the concerns? Contributors from Europe, Australia, and North America address the use of media in teaching, from video, film, and audiotape to computer games and online resources. English in the Digital Age surveys the ways ICT is pres

  11. Investigating science communication in the information age implications for public engagement and popular media

    CERN Document Server

    Whitelegg, Elizabeth; Scanlon, Eileen; Smidt, Sam; Thomas, Jeff

    2008-01-01

    How are recent policy changes affecting how scientists engage with the public? How are new technologies influencing how scientists disseminate their work and knowledge? How are new media platforms changing the way the public interact with scientific information? Investigating Science Communication in the Information Age is a collection of newly-commissioned chapters by leading science communication scholars. It addresses current theoretical, practical and policy developments in science communication, including recent calls for greater openness and transparency; and engagement and dialogue on the part of professional scientists with members of the public. It provides a timely and wide-ranging review of contemporary issues in science communication, focusing on two broad themes. The first theme critically reviews the recent dialogic turn and ascendant branding of 'public engagement with science' It addresses contemporary theoretical and conceptual issues facing science communication researchers, and draws on a r...

  12. Do informal musical activities shape auditory skill development in preschool-age children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putkinen, Vesa; Saarikivi, Katri; Tervaniemi, Mari

    2013-08-29

    The influence of formal musical training on auditory cognition has been well established. For the majority of children, however, musical experience does not primarily consist of adult-guided training on a musical instrument. Instead, young children mostly engage in everyday musical activities such as singing and musical play. Here, we review recent electrophysiological and behavioral studies carried out in our laboratory and elsewhere which have begun to map how developing auditory skills are shaped by such informal musical activities both at home and in playschool-type settings. Although more research is still needed, the evidence emerging from these studies suggests that, in addition to formal musical training, informal musical activities can also influence the maturation of auditory discrimination and attention in preschool-aged children.

  13. Do informal musical activities shape auditory skill development in preschool-age children?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesa Juhani Putkinen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The influence of formal musical training on auditory cognition has been well established. For the majority of children, however, musical experience does not primarily consist of adult-guided training on a musical instrument. Instead, young children mostly engage in everyday musical activities such as singing and musical play. Here, we review recent electrophysiological and behavioral studies carried out in our laboratory and elsewhere, which have begun to map how the developing auditory skills are shaped by such informal musical activities both at home and in playschool-type settings. Although more research is still needed, the evidence emerging from these studies suggests that, in addition to formal musical training, also informal musical activities can influence the maturation of auditory discrimination and attention in preschool-age.

  14. Life Potential as a Basic Demographic Indicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goerlich, Francisco J.; Soler, Angel

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes an indicator that integrates life expectancy with the demographic structure of the population for a given society. By doing this, we have a simple indicator of mortality and aging combined, which could be very useful for developed societies. As is widely known, life expectancy at birth is independent of the demographic…

  15. Demographic research in the Arab Middle East: opportunities, barriers, and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, R H

    1981-06-01

    The demographic characteristics of the Arab region that present opportunities for population research are described, and existing obstacles to research are discussed. Additionally, the prospects for improving the situation are explored. The combination of high fertility, moderately low mortality, and in some instances massive new immigration have produced extremely rapid rates of population growth. During the early 1970s the population of the United Arab Emirates increased by an annual rate of at least 15%, Qatar's population by 8.5% annually, and Kuwait's population by 6% annually. Even the labor exporting countries had high rates of population growth. Thus the slowest growth between 1970 and 1975 occurred in Yemen, where the annual rate of population growth was 1.8%. Because of the large growth gap between birth and death rates in the Arab countries, the age composition is very young. Such young age composition reduces measures of fertility and mortality that do not control for age. It also means that rapid population growth will not cease in the near future. These are the major demographic characteristics of the region and some of the major opportunities for demographic research they present. Obstacles to research in the region include the absence of a tradition of census taking or survey research for demographic purposes and the absence of a registration system for vital statistics in many of the countries. According to informed sources, the governments involved are not always supportive of research per se. Political instability often works against conducting demographic research. Another obstacle to demographic research in the Arab Middle East is language. There is a shortage of qualified instructors to teach demography in universities working in Arabic. A promising development for population research is the increase of demographic data collection by the various governments. Also, non-Arab researchers and funding organizations have expressed growing interest

  16. Building demographic literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crews, K

    1993-01-01

    Students should get in the habit of seeking out the most current projections, estimates, or rates available. Since demographic measures change over time, publications based on the UN's world population projections from 1980 or 1990 may need to be supplemented using the UN's most current, 1992, projections. A 1989 Census Bureau report on the African American Population will not contain data from the 1990 Census or the 1992 Current Population Survey, conducted by the Census Bureau. Some groups collect data with advocacy in mind, as shown by the range of estimates of participants at the 1993 National March on Washington for Lesbian, Gay and Bi Equal Rights and Liberation. The organizers estimated that 1 million people participated; the US Park Police estimated 300,000; and the Washington Blade, a gay newspaper, reported 750,000. A seemingly innocuous choice of phrasing can change the meaning of demographic data. One commonly misreported concept is population doubling time which is not a prediction, but rather a concept designed to accent how fast a population is growing at the present time. At current rates, the population of India would double in size in 34 years, but it is more likely that growth rates will begin to slow down somewhat during that time. Older students may be encouraged to examine the assumptions behind population projections. The UN's long-range projection that world population will grow to 10 billion by 2050 is based on certain assumption about fertility and mortality during the period. With regard to the fastest growing US minority, Hispanics added the largest number of people to the US population during the 1980s, but Asians had the largest percent increase. The time to initiate demographic literacy is in the early grades of school.

  17. Cancer information seeking in the digital age: effects of Angelina Jolie's prophylactic mastectomy announcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noar, Seth M; Althouse, Benjamin M; Ayers, John W; Francis, Diane B; Ribisl, Kurt M

    2015-01-01

    . This study used digital surveillance to examine the impact of Angelina Jolie's prophylactic mastectomy announcement on cancer information seeking. . We analyzed 4 categories of breast cancer-related Internet search queries from 2010 to 2013 in the United States. . Compared with the preceding 6 weeks, general information queries were 112% (95% confidence interval [CI], 79-146) higher the day of the announcement and remained 35% (95% CI, 22-49) higher over the week after the editorial. Risk assessment queries were 165% (95% CI, 110-222) higher the day of the announcement and 52% (95% CI, 31-75) higher across the week. Genetics and treatment queries showed little volume before the announcement but increased 2154% (95% CI, 1550-7076) and 9900% (95% CI, 3196-1,064,000) the day of, respectively, and remained higher across the week (812% [95% CI, 402-3913] and 2625% [95% CI, 551-317,000]). All query categories returned to normal volumes by the beginning of the second week. . Jolie's unique announcement spurred significant information seeking about breast cancer genetic testing and treatment procedures, although the surge in queries returned to preannouncement levels after 1 week. Future research should apply digital methods to advance our understanding of cancer information seeking in the digital age. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Anemia, malnutrition and their correlations with socio-demographic characteristics and feeding practices among infants aged 0–18 months in rural areas of Shaanxi province in northwestern China: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Wenfang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The first 18 months of life are the most important for long-term childhood well-being. Anemia and malnutrition occurring in this key period have serious implications for individuals and societies, especially in rural areas in developing country. We conducted a cross-sectional study as the baseline survey to provide data for developing a policy-based approach to controlling infant anemia and malnutrition in rural areas of Shaanxi province in northwestern China. Methods We randomly sampled 336 infants aged 0–18 months in 28 rural villages from 2 counties of Shaanxi province. Anthropometric measurements and household interviews were carried out by well-trained researchers. The hemoglobin concentration was measured for 336 infants and serum concentrations of iron, zinc, and retinol (vitamin A were measured for a stratified subsample of 55 infants. Anemia was defined using World Health Organization (WHO standards combined with the Chinese standard for infants Results We found that 35.12% of infants in rural Shaanxi suffered from anemia, and the malnutrition prevalence rates were 32.14% for underweight, 39.58% for stunting, and 11.31% for wasting. Anemia was significantly associated with malnutrition (underweight, OR: 2.42, 95%CI: 1.50-3.88; stunting, OR: 1.65, 95%CI: 1.05-2.61; wasting, OR: 2.89, 95%CI: 1.45-5.76. Low birth weight, more siblings, less maternal education, low family income, crowded living conditions, and inappropriate complementary food introduction significantly increased the risk for infant anemia. Serum concentrations of iron, zinc, and retinol (vitamin A were significantly lower in anemic infants compared with non-anemic infants. Conclusions Specific socio-demographic characteristics and feeding patterns were highly associated with infant anemia in rural areas of Shaanxi province. Health education focusing on feeding practices and nutrition education could be a practical strategy for preventing anemia and

  19. EJSCREEN Version 1, Demographic Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This map service displays demographic data used in EJSCREEN. All demographic data were derived from American Community Survey 2006-2010 estimates. EJSCREEN is an...

  20. 'Light and Wires in a Box': The Computer-Oriented Information Age in Support of Effective Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindenau, Suzanne E.

    1984-01-01

    Describes the computer-oriented information age, skills workers will need to keep pace, and how information technologies (microcomputers, communications satellites, and cable systems) can be utilized to support effective higher education. Obstacles to information technology use in education and how schools fail learners if technology is not…

  1. Confabulation in healthy aging is related to poor encoding and retrieval of over-learned information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attali, Eve; Dalla Barba, Gianfranco

    2013-01-01

    Normal aging is characterized by deficits that cross multiple cognitive domains including episodic memory and attention. Compared to young adults (YA), older adults (OA) not only show reduction in true memories, but also an increase in false memories. In this study we aim to elucidate how the production of confabulation is influenced by encoding and retrieval processes. We hypothesized that in OA, compared to YA, over-learned information interferes with the recall of specific, unique past episodes and this interference should be more prominent when a concurrent task perturbs the encoding of the episodes to be recalled. We tested this hypothesis using an experimental paradigm in which a group of OA and a group of YA had to recall three different types of story: a previously unknown story, a well-known fairy tale (Snow White), and a modified well-known fairy tale (Little Red Riding Hood is not eaten by the wolf), in three different experimental conditions: (1) free encoding and free retrieval; (2) Divided attention (DA) at encoding and free retrieval; and (3) free encoding and DA at retrieval. Results showed that OA produced significantly more confabulations than YA, particularly, in the recall of the modified fairy tale. Moreover, DA at encoding markedly increased the number of confabulations, whereas DA at retrieval had no effect on confabulation. Our findings reveal the implications of two phenomena in the production of confabulation in normal aging: the effect of poor encoding and the interference of strongly represented, over-learned information in episodic memory recall.

  2. Entropy Based Modelling for Estimating Demographic Trends.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoqi Li

    Full Text Available In this paper, an entropy-based method is proposed to forecast the demographical changes of countries. We formulate the estimation of future demographical profiles as a constrained optimization problem, anchored on the empirically validated assumption that the entropy of age distribution is increasing in time. The procedure of the proposed method involves three stages, namely: 1 Prediction of the age distribution of a country's population based on an "age-structured population model"; 2 Estimation the age distribution of each individual household size with an entropy-based formulation based on an "individual household size model"; and 3 Estimation the number of each household size based on a "total household size model". The last stage is achieved by projecting the age distribution of the country's population (obtained in stage 1 onto the age distributions of individual household sizes (obtained in stage 2. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated by feeding real world data, and it is general and versatile enough to be extended to other time dependent demographic variables.

  3. Evolving medical service in the information age: a legal analysis of applying telemedicine programs in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hsing-Hao

    2008-12-01

    In the face of the information age, Internet and telecommunication technologies have been widely applied in various settings. These innovational technologies have been used in the areas of e-commerce, long distance learning programs, entertainment, e-government, and so on. In recent years, the evolution of Internet technology is also pervading the health care industry. This dramatic trend may significantly alter traditional medical practice as well as the means of delivery of health care. The idea of telemedicine is to use modern information technology as a means or platform to deliver health care service in remote areas and to manage medical information in digitalized forms. The progress of developing telemedicine, however, is rather slow. The main reason for this slow progress is not technological but rather legal. Health care providers are reluctant to promote this innovation in medical service mainly due to uncertain legal consequences and ethical concerns. Although there are many legal challenges surrounding telemedicine, this note will examine major legal issues including licensure, malpractice liability, and privacy protection. Furthermore, I will discuss the potential of applying telemedicine programs in Taiwan's National Health Insurance Program (hereinafter referred to as NHI).

  4. Demographic Dynamics and the Empirics of Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Sarel

    1995-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of demographic dynamics on the measured rates of economic growth. First, it develops a model of production with labor productivity that varies with age. Second, it uses macroeconomic and demographic data to estimate the relative productivity of different age groups. Third, it constructs a panel database of effective labor supply in order to reflect the changing age-structure of the population. Fourth, it decomposes the historical measured growth rates into effe...

  5. Demographic trends in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present note, we present the main features of recent trends in vital family-demographic behavior in Sweden. For this purpose, published indices of marriage, divorce, and childbearing risks by calendar year are updated by adding another two or three years of observation to our series. We demonstrate that the latest trend reversal in Swedish birth rates, which occurred at the end of the 1990s, continued to manifest itself in increasing propensities for childbearing during the early years of the 21st century. The rise pertains to all birth orders. Marriage propensities showed an increase as well, however, to a large extent expressed in a short-term development that was prevalent at the turn of the millennium. The previous long-term trend of rising divorce risks leveled off during the first two years of the new century.

  6. Demographic and affective covariates of pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garron, D C; Leavitt, F

    1979-11-01

    Relationships of four demographic variables and five affective variables to eight attributes of low back pain were investigated in 251 patients by stepwise, multivariate analysis. The demographic variables are age, sex, race, and education. The affective variables are state anxiety, trait anxiety anxiety, hostility, and depression. Seven of the pain variables are from the factorially derived Low Back Pain Questionnaire. The eighth pain variable is a self-estimate of intensity. Relationships among demographic and pain variables are small and unsystematic. Hostility has a small, systematically inverse relation to pain variables, supporting theories relating low back pain to inhibition of anger. Anxiety has a small positive relationship, and depression has no relationship to pain variables. In general, the small relationships indicate that the Low Back Pain Questionnaire provides descriptions of pain that are not confounded by social characteristics or current emotional states of patients.

  7. Prospecting for dinosaurs on the mining frontier: The value of information in America's Gilded Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieppel, Lukas

    2015-04-01

    How much is a dinosaur worth? This essay offers an account of the way vertebrate fossils were priced in late 19th-century America to explore the process by which monetary values are established in science. Examining a long and drawn-out negotiation over the sale of an unusually rich dinosaur quarry in Wyoming, I argue that, on their own, abstract market principles did not suffice to mediate between supply and demand. Rather, people haggling over the price of dinosaur bones looked to social norms from the mineral industry for cues on how to value these rare and unusual objects, adopting a set of negotiation tactics that exploited asymmetries in the distribution of scarce information to secure the better end of the deal. On the mining frontier in America's Gilded Age, dinosaurs were thus valued in much the same way as any other scarce natural resource one could dig out of the ground, including gold, silver, and coal.

  8. Europe at the crossroads: demographic challenges and international migration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nimwegen, N.; van der Erf, R.F.

    2010-01-01

    Two demographic challenges confront Europe today: population ageing and population decline. These challenges are two sides of the same demographic coin. While low fertility and increasing longevity cause populations to rapidly grow older, low fertility also leads to population decline. This paper de

  9. Bolivia 1998: results from the Demographic and Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-09-01

    This document presents the results of the Bolivia Demographic and Health Survey (DHS), or Encuesta Nacional de Demografia y Salud 1998, conducted by the Instituto Nacional de Estadistica, La Paz, Bolivia, within the framework of the DHS Program of Macro International. Data were collected from 12,109 households and complete interviews were conducted with 11,187 women aged 15-49. A male survey was also conducted, which collected data from 3780 men aged 15-64. The information collected include the following: 1) general characteristics of the population, 2) fertility, 3) fertility preferences, 4) current contraceptive use, 5) contraception, 6) marital and contraceptive status, 7) postpartum variables, 8) infant mortality, 9) health: disease prevention and treatment, and 10) nutritional status: anthropometric measures.

  10. CONSEQUENCES OF THE DEMOGRAPHIC CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIVIU RADU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Major dysfunctionalities can arise from the demographic decline, both on a social level and from the perspective of the economic-financial evolution of the world’s states. The obvious aging of the industrialized states’ population overlapping the import of cheap workforce in the developing countries can start mutations whose consequences are somewhat predictable but discouraging. An accelerated urbanization of the states is foreseen, as well as the decrease of birthrates, negative external migration, increase of mortality and its stagnation in a larger value than that of the birthrate, and not least the population’s aging will hinder a part of the developing countries to sustain a high rhythm of long-term economical increase. The socialeconomic consequences will be reflected in the labor market, the householders’ amount of income as well as in the education’s level. All of these aspects call for a rethinking of the public politics, especially of the social insurance’s system and of the education, a reorientation of the economy based on the increase of specializing in production and productivity, as well as a financial stability unburdened by the politics’ interference in the business environment.

  11. Turkey's Epidemiological and Demographic Transitions: 1931-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakar, Coşkun; Oymak, Sibel; Maral, Işıl

    2017-08-04

    The causes of death have changed with regard to the epidemiological and demographic events in society. There is no evidence of prior research into the epidemiological transition in Turkey. This transition in Turkey should be observed starting with the Ottoman Empire period (19th to early 20th century). However, information about the Ottoman Empire is quite limited. To discuss the epidemiological and demographic transitions in Turkey, using demographic, educational and urbanization data in our present study. A descriptive archive study. Mortality statistics dating from 1931 and published by the Turkish Statistical Institute were analysed, and the causes of death were coded and classified according to ICD-10. Other data were obtained from the published reports and studies regarding the issue. In the 1930s, Turkey's life expectancy was low (aged 40 years), fertility and mortality rates were high (respectively 45% and 31%), and the main causes of death were infectious diseases. Nowadays, life expectancy is close to 80 years, the total fertility rate has dropped to 2.1 per woman, and the main causes of death are chronic diseases and cancer. The population rate in the urban areas has increased steadily from 24.2% in 1927 to 77.3% in 2012. level of education has also increased during this period. In 1935, less than 10% of women were literate, and in 2013 90% were literate. Qualitative and quantitative increase have been observed in the presentation and access of healthcare services compared to the early years of the Republic. Turkey has been undergoing a modernization period in the last 200 years, and it is believed that the epidemiological and demographic transitions result from this period. This process has led to urbanization and an increase in the level of education, as well as a decrease in premature deaths, lower fertility rates, and an increase in the elderly population and chronic diseases. It is therefore our conclusion that Turkey needs policies regarding the

  12. Quantifying age-related differences in information processing behaviors when viewing prescription drug labels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghav Prashant Sundar

    Full Text Available Adverse drug events (ADEs are a significant problem in health care. While effective warnings have the potential to reduce the prevalence of ADEs, little is known about how patients access and use prescription labeling. We investigated the effectiveness of prescription warning labels (PWLs, small, colorful stickers applied at the pharmacy in conveying warning information to two groups of patients (young adults and those 50+. We evaluated the early stages of information processing by tracking eye movements while participants interacted with prescription vials that had PWLs affixed to them. We later tested participants' recognition memory for the PWLs. During viewing, participants often failed to attend to the PWLs; this effect was more pronounced for older than younger participants. Older participants also performed worse on the subsequent memory test. However, when memory performance was conditionalized on whether or not the participant had fixated the PWL, these age-related differences in memory were no longer significant, suggesting that the difference in memory performance between groups was attributable to differences in attention rather than differences in memory encoding or recall. This is important because older adults are recognized to be at greater risk for ADEs. These data provide a compelling case that understanding consumers' attentive behavior is crucial to developing an effective labeling standard for prescription drugs.

  13. Quantifying Age-Related Differences in Information Processing Behaviors When Viewing Prescription Drug Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundar, Raghav Prashant; Becker, Mark W.; Bello, Nora M.; Bix, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Adverse drug events (ADEs) are a significant problem in health care. While effective warnings have the potential to reduce the prevalence of ADEs, little is known about how patients access and use prescription labeling. We investigated the effectiveness of prescription warning labels (PWLs, small, colorful stickers applied at the pharmacy) in conveying warning information to two groups of patients (young adults and those 50+). We evaluated the early stages of information processing by tracking eye movements while participants interacted with prescription vials that had PWLs affixed to them. We later tested participants’ recognition memory for the PWLs. During viewing, participants often failed to attend to the PWLs; this effect was more pronounced for older than younger participants. Older participants also performed worse on the subsequent memory test. However, when memory performance was conditionalized on whether or not the participant had fixated the PWL, these age-related differences in memory were no longer significant, suggesting that the difference in memory performance between groups was attributable to differences in attention rather than differences in memory encoding or recall. This is important because older adults are recognized to be at greater risk for ADEs. These data provide a compelling case that understanding consumers’ attentive behavior is crucial to developing an effective labeling standard for prescription drugs. PMID:22719955

  14. The demographics of human and malaria movement and migration patterns in East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The quantification of parasite movements can provide valuable information for control strategy planning across all transmission intensities. Mobile parasite carrying individuals can instigate transmission in receptive areas, spread drug resistant strains and reduce the effectiveness of control strategies. The identification of mobile demographic groups, their routes of travel and how these movements connect differing transmission zones, potentially enables limited resources for interventions to be efficiently targeted over space, time and populations. Methods National population censuses and household surveys provide individual-level migration, travel, and other data relevant for understanding malaria movement patterns. Together with existing spatially referenced malaria data and mathematical models, network analysis techniques were used to quantify the demographics of human and malaria movement patterns in Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania. Movement networks were developed based on connectivity and magnitudes of flow within each country and compared to assess relative differences between regions and demographic groups. Additional malaria-relevant characteristics, such as short-term travel and bed net use, were also examined. Results Patterns of human and malaria movements varied between demographic groups, within country regions and between countries. Migration rates were highest in 20–30 year olds in all three countries, but when accounting for malaria prevalence, movements in the 10–20 year age group became more important. Different age and sex groups also exhibited substantial variations in terms of the most likely sources, sinks and routes of migration and malaria movement, as well as risk factors for infection, such as short-term travel and bed net use. Conclusion Census and survey data, together with spatially referenced malaria data, GIS and network analysis tools, can be valuable for identifying, mapping and quantifying regional connectivities

  15. Changes in sensory reweighting of proprioceptive information during standing balance with age and disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasma, J.H.; Engelhart, D.; Maier, A.B.; Schouten, A.C.; Kooij, van der H.; Meskers, C.G.M.

    2015-01-01

    With sensory reweighting, reliable sensory information is selected over unreliable information during balance by dynamically combining this information. We used system identification techniques to show the weight and the adaptive process of weight change of proprioceptive information during standing

  16. Changes in sensory reweighting of proprioceptive information during standing balance with age and disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasma, Jantsje; Pasma, J.H.; Engelhart, Denise; Maier, A.B.; Schouten, Alfred Christiaan; van der Kooij, Herman; Meskers, C.G.M.

    2015-01-01

    With sensory reweighting, reliable sensory information is selected over unreliable information during balance by dynamically combining this information. We used system identification techniques to show the weight and the adaptive process of weight change of proprioceptive information during standing

  17. The households of Serbia at the dawn of third millennium: Socio-demographical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobić Mirjana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Side by side with tumultuous social processes in the end of XXth century great demographical changes have been taking place in Serbia, such as: the decline of nuptiality and fertility, postponement of family formation into older ages of life course of individuals, the rise of: extramarital births as well as adolescent pregnancies and live births, the spread of one-parent households, particularly of lone mothers, and divorces. Besides that, the main feature of the demographic development of Serbia has been increased mobility of population, namely migrations of highly educated professionals to the West ("brain drain" and forced migration of refugees and internally displaced persons to Serbia, as a consequence of armed conflicts in its surroundings and at Kosovo and Metohija. All the above-mentioned demographical changes caused the precomposition of households, as profound associations of population, where its biological and socio-economical reproductions take place. The information of last census of population of Serbia in 2002 indicate that according to the features of family and households, Serbia has approached the countries of Central and Eastern Europe, that are forerunning in the process of post-socialistic transformation and European integrations. Common characteristics of all those countries are: decrease of universality and popularity of marriage delay of childbearing, continuation of earlier demographic tendencies: of low natality, depopulation and aging of population. All those processes have contributed to the transformation of prevailing forms of households, i.e. decline of nuclear family units and the rise of single person households households of aged persons, as well as single-parent ones. As to the Serbia the demographic differences between its separate parts: Vojvodina and central Serbia, have been fading for the first time in its history, owing to previous socio-demographic developments starting from the beginning of XXth

  18. Toward a Critique of the Information Age: Herbert Marcuse's Contribution to Information Science's Conceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibangu, Sylvain K.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Just as we have created them, the new social media technologies have shaped every aspect of our societies. Meanwhile, information science has hardly addressed the ways in which these information technologies have shaped humans, and vice-versa. The major reason is the tendency and pressure to adjust (the needs of) humans to the ever…

  19. The Academic Library in the Life of Undergraduate: An Investigation of Undergraduates' Academic Information Behaviors in the Digital Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozaklis, Lillian

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation research investigated undergraduates' academic information behaviors in the modern digital age to identify their perspective on the role of the academic library in their academic life. The research examined usage of a broad range of information sources and means to access, selection criteria, and obstacles encountered during…

  20. Informal Social Networks of People with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities: Relationship with Age, Communicative Abilities and Current Living Arrangements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamstra, A.; van der Putten, A. A. J.; Post, W. J.; Vlaskamp, C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: People with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) have limited informal social contacts. Research to determine the factors which can positively influence establishing sound informal social contacts is required. Materials and Methods: Regression analysis for 200 people with PIMD was used to analyse how age,…

  1. The Academic Library in the Life of Undergraduate: An Investigation of Undergraduates' Academic Information Behaviors in the Digital Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozaklis, Lillian

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation research investigated undergraduates' academic information behaviors in the modern digital age to identify their perspective on the role of the academic library in their academic life. The research examined usage of a broad range of information sources and means to access, selection criteria, and obstacles encountered during…

  2. Connecting Informal and Formal Learning Experiences in the Age of Participatory Media: Commentary on Bull et al. (2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhow, Christine

    2008-01-01

    The recent editorial in this journal by Bull et al. ("Connecting Informal and Formal Learning Experiences in the Age of Participatory Media" Vol 8, Iss 2) discussed the challenges of bridging formal learning practices and informal learning opportunities within the context of today's Web-enhanced world. In this commentary, Christine…

  3. Informal Social Networks of People with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities: Relationship with Age, Communicative Abilities and Current Living Arrangements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamstra, A.; van der Putten, A. A. J.; Post, W. J.; Vlaskamp, C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: People with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) have limited informal social contacts. Research to determine the factors which can positively influence establishing sound informal social contacts is required. Materials and Methods: Regression analysis for 200 people with PIMD was used to analyse how age,…

  4. The Impact of Electronic Health Records on Risk Management of Information Systems in Australian Residential Aged Care Homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Tao; Yu, Ping; Hailey, David; Ma, Jun; Yang, Jie

    2016-09-01

    To obtain indications of the influence of electronic health records (EHR) in managing risks and meeting information system accreditation standard in Australian residential aged care (RAC) homes. The hypothesis to be tested is that the RAC homes using EHR have better performance in meeting information system standards in aged care accreditation than their counterparts only using paper records for information management. Content analysis of aged care accreditation reports from the Aged Care Standards and Accreditation Agency produced between April 2011 and December 2013. Items identified included types of information systems, compliance with accreditation standards, and indicators of failure to meet an expected outcome for information systems. The Chi-square test was used to identify difference between the RAC homes that used EHR systems and those that used paper records in not meeting aged care accreditation standards. 1,031 (37.4%) of 2,754 RAC homes had adopted EHR systems. Although the proportion of homes that met all accreditation standards was significantly higher for those with EHR than for homes with paper records, only 13 RAC homes did not meet one or more expected outcomes. 12 used paper records and nine of these failed the expected outcome for information systems. The overall contribution of EHR to meeting aged care accreditation standard in Australia was very small. Risk indicators for not meeting information system standard were no access to accurate and appropriate information, failure in monitoring mechanisms, not reporting clinical incidents, insufficient recording of residents' clinical changes, not providing accurate care plans, and communication processes failure. The study has provided indications that use of EHR provides small, yet significant advantages for RAC homes in Australia in managing risks for information management and in meeting accreditation requirements. The implication of the study for introducing technology innovation in RAC in

  5. [Demographic approach to populations without writing: the Dogon example].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown-demonet, E

    1989-01-01

    Anthropologists, geneticists, and epidemiologists need clear and detailed descriptions of the demographic situation of the populations they study in order to stratify their samples and calculate their degrees of significance as well as to evaluate the impact of particular traits on their field of investigation. Census and other available demographic data are usually not sufficiently precise, especially in illiterate populations. Establishing the genealogies of all families, conducting a census of all residents to verify and complete the genealogies, and designing 1 or more specific surveys of fertility, marriage, infant mortality, migration, or other topics are recommended to satisfy the needs of a multidisciplinary research team. Data collection is the most delicate phase of a demographer's work. The quality of contacts with the study population will determine response rates and the efforts of the population to give exact and precise information. Establishment of genealogies requires a good knowledge of the kinship system and the exact meaning of kinship terms. Surveys will be necessary to establish fertility and mortality rates, which will be greatly underestimated by the genealogies and census. Specific surveys may be retrospective, prospective, or a combination, depending on available time and budget. In addition to the classic omissions that are often increased in illiterate populations by lapses of memory, the problems may arise of misunderstanding of demographic concepts and tabus against reporting of certain events or practices or against directly mentioning certain names such as those of deceased husbands. Variables lending themselves to misunderstanding and false interpretations may include such socioeconomic features as principal occupation, educational level, marital status, and even age. The greatest source of error in a demographic analysis not based on a reliable civil registration system is undoubtedly omission, some of which is voluntary and not

  6. Associations of gender and age groups on the knowledge and use of drug information resources by American pharmacists

    OpenAIRE

    Carvajal MJ; Clauson KA; Gershman J; Polen HH

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To explore knowledge and use of drug information resources by pharmacists and identify patterns influenced by gender and age-group classification. Methods: A survey questionnaire was mailed nationwide to 1,000 practitioners working in community (n = 500) and hospital (n = 500) settings who answer drug information questions as part of their expected job responsibilities. Responses pertaining to drug information resource use and knowledge of different types of drug-related queries, ...

  7. Caregiver Statistics: Demographics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 65+ population were reported to be below the poverty level. 7 [Updated February 2015] Among the population ... informal caregivers in the U.S., depending on the definitions used for both caregiver and care recipient as ...

  8. Associations of gender and age groups on the knowledge and use of drug information resources by American pharmacists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carvajal MJ

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To explore knowledge and use of drug information resources by pharmacists and identify patterns influenced by gender and age-group classification. Methods: A survey questionnaire was mailed nationwide to 1,000 practitioners working in community (n = 500 and hospital (n = 500 settings who answer drug information questions as part of their expected job responsibilities. Responses pertaining to drug information resource use and knowledge of different types of drug-related queries, resource media preferences, and perceived adequacy of resources maintained in the pharmacy were analyzed by gender and age group. The t statistic was used to test for significant differences of means and percentages between genders and between age groups. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize other findings.Results: Gender and age group classification influenced patterns of knowledge and use of drug information resources by pharmacists. They also affected pharmacists’ perceptions of the most common types of questions prompting them to consult a drug information reference, as well as the resources consulted. Micromedex, exclusively available in electronic format, was the most commonly consulted resource overall by pharmacists. Lexi-Comp Online was the leading choice by women, preferred over Micromedex, but was not one of the top two resources selected by men. Conclusion: This study successfully identified the influence of gender and age-group classification in assessing drug information resource knowledge and use of general and specific types of drug-related queries.

  9. low birthweight babies: socio-demographic and obstetric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2002-10-01

    Oct 1, 2002 ... mothers (aged below 20 years) and older mothers of low birthweight ( ... have unfavourable socio-demographic and obstetric factors like ... having less formal education, being unemployed and having obstetric risks for poor.

  10. socio-demographic factors in under five children with acute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-09-01

    Sep 1, 2013 ... Their socio-demographic factors such as age, sex, breastfeeding status, parents ... acute diarrhoea among under five children in Enugu, Nigeria. ... Malnutrition predisposes .... Determinants of the utilization of children's Health.

  11. Socio-Demographic Correlates of Overweight and Obesity among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    demographic factors with increased BMI among Nigeria women aged 20-49 years using secondary data collected for the .... Half (50.2%) of the women were of the Islamic .... South East .... demonstrates evidence of good living, makes them.

  12. Demographic variables in coal miners’ safety attitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Wen-wen; Wu, Xiang; Ci, Hui-Peng; Qin, Shu-Qi; Liu, Jia-Long

    2017-03-01

    To change unsafe behavior through adjusting people’s safety attitudes has become an important measure to prevent accidents. Demographic variables, as influential factors of safety attitude, are fundamental and essential for the research. This research does a questionnaire survey among coal mine industry workers, and makes variance analysis and correlation analysis of the results in light of age, length of working years, educational level and experiences of accidents. The results show that the coal miners’ age, length of working years and accident experiences correlate lowly with safety attitudes, and those older coal miners with longer working years have better safety attitude, as coal miners without experiences of accident do.However, educational level has nothing to do with the safety attitude. Therefore, during the process of safety management, coal miners with different demographic characteristics should be put more attention to.

  13. The Emotional Blink: Adult Age Differences in Visual Attention to Emotional Information

    OpenAIRE

    Langley, Linda K.; Rokke, Paul D.; Stark, Atiana C.; Saville, Alyson L.; Allen, Jaryn L.; Bagne, Angela G.

    2008-01-01

    To assess age differences in attention-emotion interactions, younger adults (ages 18–33 yrs) and older adults (ages 60–80 yrs) identified target words in a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) task. The second of two target words was neutral or emotional in content (positive in Experiment 1, negative in Experiment 2). In general, the ability to identify targets from a word stream declined with age. Age differences specific to the attentional blink were greatly reduced when baseline detecti...

  14. Regions of Demographic Dynamism in Haryana

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjeev Goel

    2014-01-01

    There are different types of population structures in different parts of the world, the nature of demographic challenges also differ accordingly. The developed countries like USA, Canada, Japan, Australia and many European countries face a problem of slow or even negative population growth. The main concern of the government in these countries remains on population ageing, decline in working force and increasing dependency ratio. The developing countries like India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and L...

  15. Age distributions of Greenlandic dwarf shrubs support concept of negligible actuarial senescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlgren, Johan; Rizzi, Silvia; Schweingruber, Fritz

    2016-01-01

    Many plants and sessile animals may not show actuarial senescence, the increase in mortality with age predicted to be ubiquitous by classic evolutionary theories of aging. Age-structured demographic information is, however, limited for most organisms. We assessed the age distributions of nine dwarf...... to be an important variable for making population projections and determining extinction risks....

  16. Demographic Data, U.S. Census 1990 Rhode Island Data; Sample Count, Calculated Percentages; s44dbm92; U.S. Census 1990 pop, housing, economic, education, ethnic origin, and employment information by town, tract, and block group level as derived from U.S. Census STF3a, Published in 1991, 1:100000 (1in=8333ft) scale, State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Demographic Data dataset, published at 1:100000 (1in=8333ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 1991. It is described as 'U.S....

  17. Demographic Data, U.S. Census 1990 Rhode Island Data; Sample Count & Source Data ;s44dbs92; U.S. Census 1990 pop, housing, economic, education, ethnic origin, and employment information by town, tract, and block group level as derived from U.S. Census STF3a, Published in 1992, 1:100000 (1in=8333ft) scale, State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Demographic Data dataset, published at 1:100000 (1in=8333ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 1992. It is described as 'U.S....

  18. Pregnancy: a demographic study

    OpenAIRE

    Laufer, Linda

    1987-01-01

    A retrospective study of 126 pregnant females, presenting to a chiropractor’s office was made. The average age of the patient was 29.8 years. Their backgrounds were career oriented and for the majority, it was their first pregnancy. The most frequent complaint was lower back pain. The study outlines the necessity for further data on the role of the chiropractic management of the pregnant patient.

  19. Diversity and Inclusion in Information Technology from an Age Perspective: Motivating and Managing Information Technology Professionals across Multiple Generations in the Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenan-Smalls, Yottie Marie

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to investigate diversity and inclusion from an age perspective among information technology (IT) professionals that were categorized as 4 different generations in the workforce today: Traditionalists, Baby Boomers, Generation X, and Generation Y. At the same time, this study sought to examine motivational…

  20. Diversity and Inclusion in Information Technology from an Age Perspective: Motivating and Managing Information Technology Professionals across Multiple Generations in the Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenan-Smalls, Yottie Marie

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to investigate diversity and inclusion from an age perspective among information technology (IT) professionals that were categorized as 4 different generations in the workforce today: Traditionalists, Baby Boomers, Generation X, and Generation Y. At the same time, this study sought to examine motivational…

  1. Using auditory pre-information to solve the cocktail-party problem: electrophysiological evidence for age-specific differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan eGetzmann

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Speech understanding in complex and dynamic listening environments requires (a auditory scene analysis, namely auditory object formation and segregation, and (b allocation of the attentional focus to the talker of interest. There is evidence that pre-information is actively used to facilitate these two aspects of the so-called cocktail-party problem. Here, a simulated multi-talker scenario was combined with electroencephalography to study scene analysis and allocation of attention in young and middle-aged adults. Sequences of short words (combinations of brief company names and stock-price values from four talkers at different locations were simultaneously presented, and the detection of target names and the discrimination between critical target values were assessed. Immediately prior to speech sequences, auditory pre-information was provided via cues that either prepared auditory scene analysis or attentional focusing, or non-specific pre-information was given. While performance was generally better in younger than older participants, both age groups benefited from auditory pre-information. The analysis of the cue-related event-related potentials revealed age-specific differences in the use of pre-cues: Younger adults showed a pronounced N2 component, suggesting early inhibition of concurrent speech stimuli; older adults exhibited a stronger late P3 component, suggesting increased resource allocation to process the pre-information. In sum, the results argue for an age-specific utilization of auditory pre-information to improve listening in complex dynamic auditory environments.

  2. 77 FR 31028 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Collection of Customer Service, Demographic, and Smoking...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-24

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Collection of Customer Service, Demographic, and Smoking/Tobacco Use Information...: Collection of Customer Service, Demographic, and Smoking/Tobacco Use Information from the National Cancer... clients at the end of usual service--a survey that includes three customer service and twelve demographic...

  3. The Separate Spheres of Online Health: Gender, Parenting, and Online Health Information Searching in the Information Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Michael J.; Cotten, Shelia R.; Drentea, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this article is to explore how parental status, gender, and their interaction influence a variety of aspects of searching for online health information. Drawing on nationally representative survey data, the results show that in a number of ways parenting and gender have separate but significant influences on the following: online…

  4. Teaching Information Policy in the Digital Age: Issues, Strategies, and Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Paul T.; Gorham, Ursula; Taylor, Natalie Greene; Bertot, John C.

    2015-01-01

    As technology continues to advance at a rapid rate, it is increasingly important to consider how information policies are formulated and the impact that they have on both the public's access to information and the roles of information professionals. As such, current and future information professionals must be adequately prepared through education…

  5. Proposing a Theoretical Framework for Digital Age Youth Information Behavior Building upon Radical Change Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Kyungwon

    2011-01-01

    Contemporary young people are engaged in a variety of information behaviors, such as information seeking, using, sharing, and creating. The ways youth interact with information have transformed in the shifting digital information environment; however, relatively little empirical research exists and no theoretical framework adequately explains…

  6. Information-Seeking Behavior in the Digital Age: A Multidisciplinary Study of Academic Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Xuemei

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on how electronic information resources influence the information-seeking process in the social sciences and humanities. It examines the information-seeking behavior of scholars in these fields, and extends the David Ellis model of information-seeking behavior for social scientists, which includes six characteristics:…

  7. Information-Seeking Behavior in the Digital Age: A Multidisciplinary Study of Academic Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Xuemei

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on how electronic information resources influence the information-seeking process in the social sciences and humanities. It examines the information-seeking behavior of scholars in these fields, and extends the David Ellis model of information-seeking behavior for social scientists, which includes six characteristics:…

  8. Work–home interference: Examining socio-demographic predictors in the South African context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marissa de Klerk

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The focus of this study was to investigate the relationship between socio-demographic characteristics and the work–home interaction in different occupational groups in South Africa.Research purpose: The main research aim of the study was to investigate the socio-demographic predictors of negative and positive work–home interaction of South African employees.Motivation for the study: Little information is known about the prevalence of work–home interaction within groups. This study is aimed at enabling the researcher and organisations to identify those groups that are at risk of negative interference and which are prone to positive interaction, to allow for the development of appropriate strategies and intervention programmes.Research design, approach and method: A cross-sectional survey design was used in the study. A sample (N = 2040 was taken from four South African industries (i.e. the police service, the earthmoving equipment industry, mining and nursing. A socio-demographic questionnaire and the Survey Work–Home Interaction-Nijmegen (SWING were used.Main findings: The results indicated that robust predictors included occupation, gender and language for negative work–home interference; occupation, age and language for positive work–home interference; occupation and language for negative home–work interference; and occupation, age, education and language for positive home–work interference.Practical/managerial implications: The implications of the study are that negative and positive work–home interaction is uniquely associated with socio-demographic characteristics. Work–life balance initiatives should, therefore, be carefully tailored to address the needs of each socio-demographic group.Contribution/value-add: The findings of the study suggest answers to the management of the work–home interaction among various socio-demographic groups in organisations.

  9. Professionals and Power Vacuums on Demographic Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seabrooke, Leonard; Tsingou, Eleni

    Aging populations across advanced industrialized countries are expected to have a great impact on a range of socio-economic policies, ranging from welfare and pensions provision to industrial, labor market and financial policies. While populations are aging there has also been a drop in birth rates....... Demographic change is acknowledged as a policy concern within many advanced industrialize countries, but discussions about low fertility are not explicitly expressed in terms of policy objectives. Governments, sensitive to the authoritarian implications of prescriptive natalist policies, focus instead...

  10. Managing demographic risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strack, Rainer; Baier, Jens; Fahlander, Anders

    2008-02-01

    In developed nations, the workforce is aging rapidly. That trend has serious implications. Companies could face severe labor shortages in a few years as workers retire, taking critical knowledge with them. Businesses may also see productivity decline among older employees, especially in physically demanding jobs. The authors, partners at Boston Consulting Group, offer managers a systematic way to assess these dual threats--capacity risk and productivity risk--at their companies. It involves studying the age distribution of their employees to see if large percentages fall within high age brackets and then projecting--by location, unit, and job category--how the distribution will change over the next 15 years. Managers must also factor in both the impact of strategic moves on personnel needs and the future supply of workers in the market. When RWE Power analyzed its trends, the company learned that in 2018 almost 80% of its workers would be over 50. What's more, in certain critical areas its labor surplus was about to become a sizable shortfall. For instance, a shortage of specialized engineers would develop in the company just as their ranks in the job market thinned and competition to hire them intensified. Reversing its downsizing course, RWE Power took steps to increase its supply of workers in those key positions. The authors show how companies that face talent gaps, as RWE Power did, can close them through training, transfers, recruitment, retention, productivity improvements, and outsourcing. They also describe measures that companies can take to keep older workers productive, including workplace accommodations, revised compensation structures, performance incentives, and targeted health care management. The key is to identify and address potential problems early. Firms that do so will gain an edge on rivals that are still relentlessly focused on reducing head count.

  11. DEMOGRAPHIC PREDICTORS WITHIN LOCAL PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bente Florina Maria

    2014-12-01

    Design/methodology/approach- Using a quantitative methodological approach, a survey based on SERVQUAL instrument was applied in order to evaluate local public communication. Data from a sample of 380 citizens within Western Romanian were analyzed. Specific demographic predictors that can influence citizens' satisfaction regarding the quality of communication are analyzed. Findings-By analyzing data it was possible to determine citizen satisfaction and to assess its relationship with different demographic characteristics. The results illustrate that gender does not significantly affect satisfaction, instead age, marital status, residence location (urban versus rural, income, education and occupational status of the respondents significantly affect satisfaction regarding local public communication. In addition, the findings confirm a relationship between the citizens' satisfaction and the age, income, education and occupational status of the respondents. Research limitations/implications- Owing to the budget and time limits, only a one-shot survey was conducted, therefore the comparison between “before” and “after” analysis could not be performed. In addition, further research should investigate the local public communication within national contexts. Practical implications -The adapted SERVQUAL scale may be used by institution managers to objectively assess communication performance and local authority service quality. Originality/value- There continues to be a lack of research regarding the communication process within local public administration and the effect of demographic predictors of communication satisfaction. This paper examines both the perceptions and the expectations of citizens regarding public communication. The results offer insights into residence location, age, income, education and occupational status effects on evaluations of communication satisfaction. Finally, the study contributes to studies of perceived service quality by bearing out

  12. Linking physiological approaches to marine vertebrate conservation: using sex steroid hormone determinations in demographic assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrada-Martagón, Vanessa; Zenteno-Savín, Tania; Mangel, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Sex, age and sexual maturation are key biological parameters for aspects of life history and are fundamental information for assessing demographic changes and the reproductive viability and performance of natural populations under exploitation pressures or in response to environmental influences. Much of the information available on the reproductive condition, length at sexual maturity and sex determinations of endangered species has been derived from direct examination of the gonads in dead animals, either intentionally or incidentally caught, or from stranded individuals. However, morphological data, when used alone, do not provide accurate demographic information in sexually monomorphic marine vertebrate species (e.g. sharks, sea turtles, seabirds and cetaceans). Hormone determination is an accurate and non-destructive method that provides indirect information about sex, reproductive condition and sexual maturity of free-ranging individuals. Correlations between sex steroid concentrations and biochemical parameters, gonadal development and state, reproductive behaviour and secondary external features have been already demonstrated in many species. Different non-lethal approaches (e.g. surgical and mark-recapture procedures), with intrinsic advantages and disadvantages when applied on free-ranging organisms, have been proposed to asses sex, growth and reproductive condition. Hormone determination from blood samples will generate valuable additional demographic information needed for stock assessment and biological conservation.

  13. The emotional blink: adult age differences in visual attention to emotional information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langley, Linda K; Rokke, Paul D; Stark, Atiana C; Saville, Alyson L; Allen, Jaryn L; Bagne, Angela G

    2008-12-01

    To assess age differences in attention-emotion interactions, the authors asked young adults (ages 18-33 years) and older adults (ages 60-80 years) to identify target words in a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) task. The second of two target words was neutral or emotional in content (positive in Experiment 1, negative in Experiment 2). In general, the ability to identify targets from a word stream declined with age. Age differences specific to the attentional blink were greatly reduced when baseline detection accuracy was equated between groups. With regard to emotion effects, older adults showed enhanced identification of both positive and negative words relative to neutral words, whereas young adults showed enhanced identification of positive words and reduced identification of negative words. Together these findings suggest that the nature of attention-emotion interactions changes with age, but there was little support for a motivational shift consistent with emotional regulation goals at an early stage of cognitive processing.

  14. Demographic-Based Content Analysis of Web-Based Health-Related Social Media

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Background An increasing number of patients from diverse demographic groups share and search for health-related information on Web-based social media. However, little is known about the content of the posted information with respect to the users’ demographics. Objective The aims of this study were to analyze the content of Web-based health-related social media based on users’ demographics to identify which health topics are discussed in which social media by which demographic groups and to he...

  15. Conflict-Specific Aging Effects Mainly Manifest in Early Information Processing Stages-An ERP Study with Different Conflict Types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsch, Margarethe; Frühholz, Sascha; Herrmann, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    Aging is usually accompanied by alterations of cognitive control functions such as conflict processing. Recent research suggests that aging effects on cognitive control seem to vary with degree and source of conflict, and conflict specific aging effects on performance measures as well as neural activation patterns have been shown. However, there is sparse information whether and how aging affects different stages of conflict processing as indicated by event related potentials (ERPs) such as the P2, N2 and P3 components. In the present study, 19 young and 23 elderly adults performed a combined Flanker conflict and stimulus-response-conflict (SRC) task. Analysis of the reaction times (RTs) revealed an increased SRC related conflict effect in elderly. ERP analysis furthermore demonstrated an age-related increase of the P2 amplitude in response to the SRC task. In addition, elderly adults exhibited an increased P3 amplitude modulation induced by incongruent SRC and Flanker conflict trials.

  16. Information Literacy on the Go! Adding Mobile to an Age Old Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt Hanbidge, Alice; Sanderson, Nicole; Tin, Tony

    2016-01-01

    Integrating information literacy skills is fundamental to learning in all contexts. The nexus of mobile devices and information literacy lessons to learn these skills is an innovative pedagogy in higher education explored in this Mobile Information Literacy Tool (MIL) project. Currently, the project's second stage of data collection and analysis…

  17. Gaining access to information at a municipality website: a question of age?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loos, E.

    2011-01-01

    The number of senior citizens is increasing quickly. The use of new media is also on the rise in our information society. Websites are an important tool for (local) governments to provide information to their citizens. If we want information supply through ICT to remain available to senior citizens

  18. The AAVSO 2011 Demographic and Background Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Price, C Aaron

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, the AAVSO conducted a survey of 615 people who are or were recently active in the 101-year old organization. The survey included questions about their demographic background and variable star interests. Data are descriptively analyzed and compared with prior surveys. Results show an organization of very highly educated, largely male amateur and professional astronomers distributed across 108 countries. Participants tend to be loyal, with the average time of involvement in the AAVSO reported as 14 years. Most major demographic factors have not changed much over time. However, the average age of new members is increasing. Also, a significant portion of the respondents report being strictly active in a non-observing capacity, reflecting the growing mission of the organization. Motivations of participants are more aligned with scientific contribution than with that reported by other citizen science projects. This may help explain why a third of all respondents are an author or co-author of a paper in an ...

  19. EJSCREEN Demographic Indicators 2016 Public

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EJSCREEN uses demographic factors as very general indicators of a community's potential susceptibility to the types of environmental factors included in this...

  20. EJSCREEN Demographic Indicators 2015 Internal

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EJSCREEN uses demographic factors as very general indicators of a community's potential susceptibility to the types of environmental factors included in this...

  1. EJSCREEN Demographic Indicators 2015 Public

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EJSCREEN uses demographic factors as very general indicators of a community's potential susceptibility to the types of environmental factors included in this...

  2. Multiple plumage traits convey information about age and within-age-class qualities of a canopy-dwelling songbird, the Cerulean Warbler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boves, Than J.; Buehler, David A.; Wood, Petra Bohall; Rodewald, Amanda D.; Larkin, Jeffrey L.; Keyser, Patrick D.; Wigley, T. Ben

    2014-01-01

    Colorful plumage traits in birds may convey multiple, redundant, or unreliable messages about an individual. Plumage may reliably convey information about disparate qualities such as age, condition, and parental ability because discrete tracts of feathers may cause individuals to incur different intrinsic or extrinsic costs. Few studies have examined the information content of plumage in a species that inhabits forest canopies, a habitat with unique light environments and selective pressures. We investigated the information content of four plumage patches (blue-green crown and rump, tail white, and black breast band) in a canopy-dwelling species, the Cerulean Warbler (Setophaga cerulea), in relation to age, condition, provisioning, and reproduction. We found that older males displayed wider breast bands, greater tail white, and crown and rump feathers with greater blue-green (435–534 nm) chroma and hue than males in their first potential breeding season. In turn, older birds were in better condition (short and long term) and were reproductively superior to younger birds. We propose that these age-related plumage differences (i.e. delayed plumage maturation) were not a consequence of a life history strategy but instead resulted from constraints during early feather molts. Within age classes, we found evidence to support the multiple messages hypothesis. Birds with greater tail white molted tails in faster, those with more exaggerated rump plumage (lower hue, greater blue-green chroma) provisioned more, and those with lower rump blue-green chroma were in better condition. Despite evidence of reliable signaling in this species, we found no strong relationships between plumage and reproductive performance, potentially because factors other than individual differences more strongly influenced fecundity.

  3. DEMOGRAPHIC VULNERABILITIES IN TECUCI PLAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian Adrian ŞORCARU

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The study focuses on analyzing and mapping 8 indicators considered to best reflect the demographic vulnerability in Tecuci Plain in the year 2010 and proposes a model of aggregation which finally allows us to distinguish three major types of demographic vulnerability (low, medium and high. Mapping the final values also shows significant disparities in the territorial administrative units that broadly overlap the plain, the most vulnerable being Tecuci city and the peripheral communes, towards Vrancea and Vaslui Counties.

  4. User Preferences for Web-Based Module Design Layout and Design Impact on Information Recall Considering Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomales-García, Cristina; Rivera-Nivar, Mericia

    2015-01-01

    Research in design of Web-based modules should incorporate aging as an important factor given the diversity of the current workforce. This work aims to understand how Web-Based Learning modules can be designed to accommodate young (25-35 years) as well as older (55-65 years) users by: (1) identifying how information sources (instructor video,…

  5. Internal Consistency and Associated Characteristics of Informant Discrepancies in Clinic Referred Youths Age 11 to 17 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Los Reyes, Andres; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Pabon, Shairy C.; Youngstrom, Jennifer K.; Feeny, Norah C.; Findling, Robert L.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we examined the internal consistency of informant discrepancies in reports of youth behavior and emotional problems and their unique relations with youth, caregiver, and family characteristics. In a heterogeneous multisite clinic sample of 420 youths (ages 11-17 years), high internal consistency estimates were observed across…

  6. Special Issue: Intellectual Property in the Information Age: Knowledge as Commodity and its Legal Implications for Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jeffrey C., Ed.; Baez, Benjamin, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    This monograph examines in great detail two kinds of intellectual property: copyrights and patents. Though the authors recognize the significance of trademarks and trade secrets, they focus primarily on copyrights and patents in this monograph because they represent the most significant issues in higher education in the information age.…

  7. The characteristics of a potential goal threat predict attention and information-seeking in middle-aged and older adults.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouwehand, C.; Ridder, D.T.D. de; Bensing, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    The present experiment examined to what extent features of a potential goal threat and personal characteristics affect attention and information-seeking in 124 adults aged 50–70. We manipulated two characteristics of a potential decline in future health: the amount of control people have over

  8. The Impact of Teachers' Age, Gender and Experience on the Use of Information and Communication Technology in EFL Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdi, Hassan Saleh; Al-Dera, Abdullah Sa'ad

    2013-01-01

    The integration of information and communication technology (ICT) into language teaching and learning depends on many factors. Some of these factors are associated with teachers. Teachers play a crucial role in the integration of ICT. This study investigates the impact of teacher's age, experience, and gender on the integration of ICT into…

  9. User Preferences for Web-Based Module Design Layout and Design Impact on Information Recall Considering Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomales-García, Cristina; Rivera-Nivar, Mericia

    2015-01-01

    Research in design of Web-based modules should incorporate aging as an important factor given the diversity of the current workforce. This work aims to understand how Web-Based Learning modules can be designed to accommodate young (25-35 years) as well as older (55-65 years) users by: (1) identifying how information sources (instructor video,…

  10. Information Needs of Cancer Patients are Influenced by Time Since Diagnosis, Stage of Cancer, Patients’ Age, and Preferred Role in Treatment‐related Decisions. A review of: Kalyani, Ankem. “Factors Influencing Information Needs Among Cancer Patients: A Meta‐Analysis.” Library & Information Science Research; 28.1 (2006 7-23.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Loy

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective – The author aims to study the aggregate influence of demographic and situational variables on the information needs of cancer patients, in order to inform the provision of information to those patients. Design – Meta-analysis. Setting – Research articles published in the MEDLINE and CINAHL databases. Subjects – English language studies published between 1993 and 2003. An initial search set of 196 studies from MEDLINE and 283 studies from CINAHL were identified. Following rigorous assessment, 12 studies met the inclusion criteria. Methods – A comprehensive search of the databases was conducted, initially combining “neoplasm” with “cancer patients” using the Boolean “or”. These results were then combined with five separate searches using the following terms; information need(s, information seeking, information seeking behaviour, information source(s and information resource(s. This identified in total 479 English language articles. Based on a review of titles and abstracts, 110 articles were found covering information resources or the information needs of cancer patients. These articles were then subjected to the further inclusion criteria and limited to studies which included: analysis of information needs and/or information sources of cancer patients; adults as subjects of the research; and application of quantitative research methods and relevant statistics. This eliminated a further 35 papers. Twelve of the remaining 75 studies were selected for meta‐analysis based on their use of the same variables measured consistently in comparable units. The final 12 studies included various forms of cancer, and no distinction was made among them. All 12 studies appeared in peer‐reviewed journals. Main results – The meta‐analysis found there was consistently no difference between the information needs of men and women. Five subsets were identified within the meta‐analysis, and findings for each can be stated as

  11. Germ banks affect the inference of past demographic events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Živković, Daniel; Tellier, Aurélien

    2012-11-01

    Continuous progress in empirical population genetics based on the whole-genome polymorphism data requires the theoretical analysis of refined models in order to interpret the evolutionary history of populations with adequate accuracy. Recent studies focus prevalently on the aspects of demography and adaptation, whereas age structure (for example, in plants via the maintenance of seed banks) has attracted less attention. Germ banking, that is, seed or egg dormancy, is a prevalent and important life-history trait in plants and invertebrates, which buffers against environmental variability and modulates species extinction in fragmented habitats. Within this study, we investigate the combined effect of germ banking and time-varying population size on the neutral coalescent and particularly derive the allele frequency spectrum under some simplifying assumptions. We then perform an ABC analysis using two simple demographic scenarios-a population expansion and an instantaneous decline. We demonstrate the appreciable influence of seed banks on the estimation of demographic parameters depending on the germination rate with biases scaled by the square of the germination rate. In the more complex case of a population bottleneck, which comprises an instantaneous decline and an expansion phase, ignoring information on the germination rate denies reliable estimates of the bottleneck parameters via the allelic spectrum. In particular, when seeds remain in the bank over several generations, recent expansions may remain invisible in the frequency spectrum, whereas ancient declines leave signatures much longer than in the absence of seed bank.

  12. Demographics of orofacial clefts in Canada from 2002 to 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavri, Sabrina; Forrest, Christopher R

    2013-03-01

    Objective : Orofacial clefts such as cleft lip, cleft palate, and cleft lip and palate are the most frequent congenital anomalies of the head and neck. The purpose of this study was to determine the current demographics for orofacial clefts in Canada. Methods : A request for data from all Canadian provinces (excluding Quebec due to incompatibilities with provincial coding systems) for the fiscal years 2002-2003 to 2007-2008 was submitted to the Canadian Institute for Health Information. Variables evaluated included gender, cleft type, gestational age, birth weight, income quintile, and institution health region. Results : Over the period studied, the prevalence of orofacial clefts ranged from 11.0 to 15.3 per 10,000 live births (1 in 654 to 1 in 909 live births). The distribution of cleft types for live births with orofacial clefts was 17% for cleft lip, 41% for cleft palate, and 42% for cleft lip and palate, of which cleft lip and cleft lip and palate were male dominant (62% and 66% male, respectively) and cleft palate was female dominant (56% female). Saskatchewan and Manitoba had significantly higher cleft birthrates (P orofacial clefting compared with those with no cleft. Conclusions : Canada has one of the highest orofacial cleft birthrates in the world (prevalence of 12.7 per 10,000 live births, approximately 1 in 790 live births). This study presents an updated demographic of orofacial clefts in Canadian newborns and may be useful in predicting the burden of anticipated health care.

  13. Diversity and Demographics of Zooarchaeologists: Results from a Digital Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne E. Pilaar Birch

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nearly 25 years ago, a “Zooarchaeology Practitioner Survey” was distributed via conventional mail to individuals in the USA and Canada and received 122 responses over a period of several months in 1991. Now, a revised “Demographics in Zooarchaeology Survey” provides an update to  those data and assesses the current state of the field. The 2014 survey remained open for 3 months and received 288 responses from practitioners worldwide. Global participation was made possible by hosting the survey online. Key findings of the 1991 survey included disparities in employment rank for women despite similar levels of degree level attainment as men, a point which the 2014 survey sought to investigate. This trend appears to persist for those without the PhD and at the highest levels of income for those holding a PhD. In addition, the recent survey asked participants about their racial or ethnic identity in order to evaluate the demographic diversity of the discipline beyond sex, age, and nationality. Data regarding topical and geographic research area were also collected and reflect a subtle bias towards working with mammals and a focus on research questions grounded in prehistory in Europe and North America, followed by Australia and Southwest Asia. Results are compared with those of the earlier survey and membership information from the International Council for Archaeozoology.

  14. On the Information Service Model of College Library in the Information Age%信息时代高校图书馆信息服务模式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    晁卫华

    2011-01-01

    The change of user's information needs and development of modern information technology in the information age require the library to continuously improve the quality and level of its services to meet user's information needs.The author analyzes from the following 6 aspects in order to improve the quality and level of library services: personalization information service models,disciplinary service models,reference service models,subject information gateway service models and information intelligent agent.%随着网络信息时代的到来,用户信息需求的改变以及现代信息技术的发展,图书馆要不断提高服务质量和水平以满足用户信息需求为主要目标。研究主要包括个性化信息服务模式、学科化服务模式、参考咨询服务模式、学科信息门户服务模式、信息智能代理服务模式和特色数据库建设6种信息服务模式,以期提高高校图书馆信息服务的质量与水平。

  15. Investigating Aging-Related Changes in the Coordination of Agonist and Antagonist Muscles Using Fuzzy Entropy and Mutual Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenbo Sun

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aging alters muscular coordination patterns. This study aimed to investigate aging-related changes in the coordination of agonist and antagonist muscles from two aspects, the activities of individual muscles and the inter-muscular coupling. Eighteen young subjects and 10 elderly subjects were recruited to modulate the agonist muscle activity to track a target during voluntary isometric elbow flexion and extension. Normalized muscle activation and fuzzy entropy (FuzzyEn were applied to depict the activities of biceps and triceps. Mutual information (MI was utilized to measure the inter-muscular coupling between biceps and triceps. The agonist activation decreased and the antagonist activation increased significantly during elbow flexion and extension with aging. FuzzyEn values of agonist electromyogram (EMG were similar between the two age groups. FuzzyEn values of antagonist EMG increased significantly with aging during elbow extension. MI decreased significantly with aging during elbow extension. These results indicated increased antagonist co-activation and decreased inter-muscular coupling with aging during elbow extension, which might result from the reduced reciprocal inhibition and the recruitment of additional cortical-spinal pathways connected to biceps. Based on FuzzyEn and MI, this study provided a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms underlying the aging-related changes in the coordination of agonist and antagonist muscles.

  16. Transforming library service through information commons case studies for the digital age

    CERN Document Server

    Bailey, D Russell

    2008-01-01

    The Information Commons (IC) strives to unite all the facts and figures of the world into a resource available to everyone. Many academic libraries are considering implementing an information commons model that reflects the contemporary way patrons use resources. Others plan on revitalizing their libraries through configurations that easily integrate research, teaching, and learning with a digital focus. This invaluable guide provides the "how-to" information necessary for institutions considering the development of an information commons. Offering plain-speaking advice on what works, expert

  17. New Approaches to Demographic Data Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treiman, Donald J.; Lu, Yao; Qi, Yaqiang

    2013-01-01

    As population scientists have expanded the range of topics they study, increasingly considering the interrelationship between population phenomena and social, economic, and health conditions, they have expanded the kinds of data collected and have brought to bear new data collection techniques and procedures, often borrowed from other fields. These new approaches to demographic data collection are the concern of this essay. We consider three main topics: new developments in sampling procedures; new developments in fieldwork procedures; and new developments in the kind of information collected in demographic and social surveys. We conclude with some comments on data sharing in the social research community and a list of major Chinese surveys publicly available to researchers. Where possible we illustrate our points with Chinese examples. PMID:23844330

  18. Customers Demographics Influence on Usage of Retail Banking Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha GUPTA

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The study presents the usage of retail banking influenced by customers’ demographics of selected Public Sector Banks (PSBs of India. The study was based on primary data collected through structured questionnaire. The simple random sampling technique used for data collection for sample size 692. The study finds that public sector banks need to understand the usage pattern of an individual customer using delivery channel to add greater value to customers. Respondent age groups influence ATMs usage. Internet banking is majorly influenced by the customers’ demographics. Respondents’ age group and qualification influence mobile banking. Branch lobby kiosk is not influenced by any demographics. The identification of most influential demographic variable will help to build strong and effective cross-selling and up-selling of financial products and services. Our study was limited to the customers of PSBs of India. This study may be helpful to PSBs for enhancing effective usage of delivery channels.

  19. China’s grave demographic challenges in coming decades

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任强; 郑晓瑛

    2009-01-01

    This paper systematically analyzes the uncertainties of major demographic indicators from China’s 2000 census,such as fertility,gender ratio at birth,and age structure,and through a probability demographic forecast gives an assessment of the situation facing the country.Research outcomes suggest that great differences exist in the estimate of China’s fertility,gender ratio at birth and low-age child population.These differences directly affect China’s current and future demographic uncertainties,and have implications for policy and future research.The demographic uncertainties caused by current conditions are of great value to decision-makers and the public alike.

  20. A Study of Supervisor and Employee Perceptions of Work Attitudes in Information Age Manufacturing Industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azam, Md. Shafiqul; Brauchle, Paul E.

    2003-01-01

    The self-perceived work ethic of industrial employees in information jobs (N=304) and non-information jobs (N=277), and employees' work ethic as assessed by their supervisors, were examined using the Occupational Work Ethic Inventory (OWEI). A Principle Components Analysis yielded four factors (Teamwork, Dependability, Ambition and Self-Control)…

  1. Geographical information and landscape history in tourism communication in the age of Web 2.0

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Niels Christian; Liburd, Janne J.

    2008-01-01

    Maps and other location-based information have traditionally played an important role in the choice of holiday destination and the selection of sites to visit. Recently new technologies have changed the pattern of tourist information search and use, notably the Internet, mobile communications-for...

  2. AGING, CAFFEINE, AND INFORMATION-PROCESSING - AN EVENT-RELATED POTENTIAL ANALYSIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LORIST, MM; SNEL, J; MULDER, G; KOK, A

    1995-01-01

    Structural and energetic processes in information processing were studied in young and elderly subjects. A visually focussed selective search task was used, in which subjects had to select relevant information, followed by controlled memory search processes to locate a target item. Caffeine was used

  3. Old Solutions in A New Age: Cataloging and the Future of Access to Government Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutto, Dena Holiman

    1996-01-01

    Discusses cataloging in light of continuing needs and developments in access to government information. Recommends ways the library community, government information providers, and automation specialists can cooperatively reexamine bibliographic standards; expand tape loading to non-U.S. depository collections; link bibliographic databases with…

  4. Socio-demographic characteristics affecting sport tourism choices: A structural model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Slak Valek

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Effective tourism management in the field of sports tourism requires an understanding of differences in socioeconomic characteristics both within and between different market segments. Objective: In the broad tourism market demographic characteristics have been extensively analyzed for differences in destination choices, however little is known about demographic factors affecting sport tourists' decisions. Methods: A sample of Slovenian sports tourists was analyzed using data from a comprehensive survey of local and outbound tourist activity conducted by the Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia in 2008. After data weighting the information for 353,783 sports related trips were available for analysis. The research model adopted suggests that four socio-demographic characteristics (gender, age, level of education and income significantly affect a tourist's choice of sports related travel either locally within Slovenia or to a foreign country. Furthermore the destination (local or foreign has an influence on the choice of the type of accommodation selected and the tourist's total expenditure for the trip. For testing the first part of our model (the socio-demographic characteristics effects a linear regression was used, and for the final part of the model (the selection of accommodation type and travel expenditure t-test were applied. Results: The result shows the standardized β regression coefficients are all statistically significant at the .001 level for the tested socio-demographic characteristics and also the overall regression model was statistically significant at .001 level. Conclusions: With these results the study confirmed that all the selected socio-demographic characteristics have a significant influence on the sport-active tourist when choosing between a domestic and foreign tourism destination which in turn affect the type of accommodation chosen and the level of expenditure while travelling.

  5. Development of reprogenetics and its demographic aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devedžić Mirjana M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of reprogenetics during the last two decades of the XX century has brought a new age of reproduction. The paper surveys different types of reprogenetics in a wider sense, i.e. different assisted reproductive technologies (ART that include manipulation of female reproductive cell out of a woman's womb. Development of reprogenetics is documented by available quantitative indicators of the number and success of ART procedures in developed countries at the beginning of the XXI century. Since 1978, when the first baby was born from in vitro fertilization, the number of children born that way has reached 1% of all children, and in some countries even over 3%. Moreover, existing documentation is incomplete and does not include all forms of assisted reproduction - in reality, the importance of assisted reproduction is even higher and becomes demographically significant. Hence the paper indicates existing and potential effects of the ART development on the demographic development i.e. on specific demographic aspects of this phenomenon. It also points out the effects on the level of fertility, on the changes of direct fertility determinants, and on the levels of mortality and infant mortality, as well as a new understanding of birth control, the possibility of affecting biological structures, and the changes of the fundaments of marriage and family. Development perspectives of reprogenetics are also being raised in the context of bioethical discussions and indicate ethical dilemmas related to assisted reproduction. Solutions to the dilemmas define the scope of applying new reproductive technologies in the future.

  6. TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION IN HUMAN ACTIVITY OF THE INFORMATION AGE: HUMAN AND ICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr Yu. Burov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article a brief overview of projects initiated by the U.S. National Science Foundation that related to new knowledge on integration and mutual development of social systems is proposed. The projects have a potential for transformation of science and researches, improvement of life quality and economy prosperity, as well as they should ensure outrunning development of information and communication technologies for all spheres of human activity: anthropocentric computerization, integration of information and informatics, robust intelligence, cyber-human systems, as well as two cross-technical areas - human and/or robots interaction, security and information protection.

  7. Information literacy in the digital age: an evidence-based approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa S Welsh, Melissa S Wright

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The book presents the relationship between information literacy and other literacy and competency, which is the current trend, pragmatic and inclusive in this area, the multialfabetismo (multiliteracy or transliteracy

  8. Accountability in an information age : opportunities and risks for records management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, A.J.

    2007-01-01

    Electronic records of government organizations are becoming increasingly important for accountability. Managing electronic records, however, proves to be difficult since information and communication technologies confront organizations with various opportunities and risks. In this paper the findings

  9. New Copyright Challenges and Opportunities for Academic Librarians in Hong Kong in the Digital Information Age

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shirley; Leung; Colin; Storey

    2002-01-01

    1 Introduction High-speed networking can now deliver Information tomillions of users in seconds.Users In turn can download thedata in electronic format or just print them out with a fewstrokes of the keyboard.The data can be easily saved,reorganized and modified electronocally.While informationtechnology provides fast and easy ways to distributeinformation,it also presents challenges.Easy access tocopyrighted materials is resulting in the unauthorizedreproduction of all kinds of information,forcing info...

  10. Does your profile say it all? Using demographics to predict expressive head movement during gameplay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asteriadis, Stylianos; Karpouzis, Kostas; Shaker, Noor

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we explore the relation between expressive head movement and user pro¯le information in game play settings. Facial ges- ture analysis cues are statistically correlated with players' demographic characteristics in two di®erent settings, during game-play and at events of special...... interest (when the player loses during game play). Experi- ments were conducted on the Siren database, which consists of 58 par- ticipants, playing a modi¯ed version of the Super Mario. Here, as player demographics are considered the gender and age, while the statistical importance of certain facial cues...... (other than typical/universal facial ex- pressions) was analyzed. The proposed analysis aims at exploring the option of utilizing demographic characteristics as part of users' pro¯l- ing scheme and interpreting visual behavior in a manner that takes into account those features....

  11. THE ROLE OF CONSUMER VALUES AND SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHICS IN GREEN PRODUCT SATISFACTION: THE CASE OF HYBRID CARS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Won-Moo; Woo, Jeong; Kim, Yeonshin

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the relationship between consumer value and customer satisfaction, seeking a better understanding of the motivations underlying "green product" purchases. Based on the influence of demographic factors, it further explores the moderation effects of buyers' socio-demographics on the link between value and satisfaction. Data were collected through a mail survey of American hybrid car buyers. Consumer value, satisfaction, and socio-demographic information were measured, and the proposed relationships among them were tested using hierarchical multiple regression analysis. This study's findings reveal that values (i.e., functional and social) significantly impact hybrid satisfaction and that the effects vary by sex and age. This research provides insight into the motivations of green product purchases by incorporating important consumer characteristics.

  12. WHAT SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS DO INFLUENCE THE LEVEL OF TOURIST’S SATISFACTION IN MONTENEGRO? EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurđica PEROVIĆ

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Montenegro as tourist destination is committed to providing a high quality experience for the tourists while carefully managing the use of a rare natural resource. In order to achieve the strategic objectives in sustainable tourism development in the future, the main focus should be given to the analysis of the main determinants of tourist satisfaction. Using a database that provides information on tourist travel behaviour and satisfaction during her/his stay in Montenegro, we have conducted empirical analysis to understand if the socio-demographic characteristics are associated with the level of tourist’s satisfaction. The effect of socio-demographic characteristics is measured through five dimensions: gender, age, country of residence, occupation and wage. Using multinomial logit model we analyze above mentioned socio-demographic characteristics and their influence on the level of tourist’s satisfaction in Montenegro.

  13. Psychosocial and demographic predictors of pediatric psychotropic medication use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, S H; Shepherd, M D

    1996-08-15

    The effects of age, gender, and family background on children's use of prescription psychoactive medications were studied. Patient and prescribing information was obtained for children enrolled as dependents in any of five prescription drug benefit plans during the period from December 29, 1992, through December 28, 1993. A binary response model was specified under the assumption of logistic distribution of probabilities of psychotropic drug use. The independent variables were family size, parenting type (single- or two-parent family), parental use of psychotropic medications, and child's age, gender, and the interaction between age and gender. Logistic regression analysis was conducted not only for overall psychotropic drug use but also for antidepressants, antianxiety drugs, and CNS stimulants. The sample included 3144 children; 3.9% received psychotropic drugs. Family size and parenting type had no effect on overall use of psychotropic drugs by children, but children were more likely to receive psychotropic drugs if the parents took them. The study showed an interaction between age and gender. At younger ages, boys were more likely than girls to receive psychotropic drugs; the opposite was true at older ages. For particular subcategories of drugs the study showed that (1) boys were more likely than girls, and young children were more likely than older children, to receive CNS stimulants, (2) children from single-parent families were less likely to use antidepressants than children from two-parent households, and (3) the influence of mothers' psychotropic drug use extended to all three drug classes, but the influence of fathers' psychotropic drug use existed for antidepressants only. The effects of demographic and familial factors on children's use of psychotropic drugs varied according to the drug class.

  14. On the Control of a Queueing System with Aging State Information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Onderwater (Martijn); S. Bhulai (Sandjai); R.D. van der Mei (Rob)

    2015-01-01

    htmlabstractWe investigate control of a queueing system in which a component of the state space is subject to aging. The controller can choose to forward incoming queries to the system (where it needs time for processing), or respond with a previously generated response (incurring a penalty for not

  15. Intelligent system to study demographic evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, M. de Fatima; Ramos, Carlos; Henriques, Pedro R.

    1999-02-01

    With three centuries of existence, the study of population's behavior implies the manipulation of large amounts of incomplete and imprecise data with high dimensionality. By virtue of its multidisciplinary character, the work in demography involves at least historicists, statisticians and computer scientists/programmers. Moreover, successful demographic analysis requires qualified experts, who have succeeded in analysing data through many views and relate different sources of information, including their personal knowledge of the epoch or regions under study. In this paper, we present an intelligent system to study demographic evolution (ISSDE). This system has a module based on on-line analytical processing (OLAP), which permits conducting multiple analysis, combining many data dimensions. It has a deductive database system, which allows the execution of elaborated queries through the database. It has another module for date treatment (generalization and/or reduction); and, at last, a data mining module to discover nontrivial relations hidden within data. We discover the data treatment procedure with two phases: data generalization and data reduction. In data generalization, utilizing knowledge about concept hierarchies and relevance of data, aggregation of attribute values is performed. In the data reduction phase, rough set theory is applied to compute the minimal attribute set. We highlight the advantages of combining attribute value generalization with rough set theory, to find a subset of attributes that lets the mining process discover more useful patterns, by providing results from the application of the C5.0 algorithm in a demographic relational database.

  16. Population Aging in the European Information Societies: Towards a Comprehensive Research Agenda in eHealth Innovations for Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vancea, Mihaela; Solé-Casals, Jordi

    2016-08-01

    Population ageing is one of the major social and economic challenges of our contemporary societies. With the advent of the information society, new research and technological developments have been promoted in the field of assistive technologies and information and communication technologies of benefit to elderly people. This article examines the potentialities of new informatics developments in generating solutions to better address elderly people's daily-life, especially those with chronic illness and/or low autonomy. The authours attempt to propose a research agenda, by exposing various strengts and weaknesses of eHealth innovations for elderly, mainly grounded in secondary sources analysis.

  17. Population Aging in the European Information Societies: Towards a Comprehensive Research Agenda in eHealth Innovations for Elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vancea, Mihaela; Solé-Casals, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    Population ageing is one of the major social and economic challenges of our contemporary societies. With the advent of the information society, new research and technological developments have been promoted in the field of assistive technologies and information and communication technologies of benefit to elderly people. This article examines the potentialities of new informatics developments in generating solutions to better address elderly people’s daily-life, especially those with chronic illness and/or low autonomy. The authours attempt to propose a research agenda, by exposing various strengts and weaknesses of eHealth innovations for elderly, mainly grounded in secondary sources analysis. PMID:27493837

  18. The effects of aging on ERP correlates of source memory retrieval for self-referential information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulas, Michael R; Newsome, Rachel N; Duarte, Audrey

    2011-03-04

    Numerous behavioral studies have suggested that normal aging negatively affects source memory accuracy for various kinds of associations. Neuroimaging evidence suggests that less efficient retrieval processing (temporally delayed and attenuated) may contribute to these impairments. Previous aging studies have not compared source memory accuracy and corresponding neural activity for different kinds of source details; namely, those that have been encoded via a more or less effective strategy. Thus, it is not yet known whether encoding source details in a self-referential manner, a strategy suggested to promote successful memory in the young and old, may enhance source memory accuracy and reduce the commonly observed age-related changes in neural activity associated with source memory retrieval. Here, we investigated these issues by using event-related potentials (ERPs) to measure the effects of aging on the neural correlates of successful source memory retrieval ("old-new effects") for objects encoded either self-referentially or self-externally. Behavioral results showed that both young and older adults demonstrated better source memory accuracy for objects encoded self-referentially. ERP results showed that old-new effects onsetted earlier for self-referentially encoded items in both groups and that age-related differences in the onset latency of these effects were reduced for self-referentially, compared to self-externally, encoded items. These results suggest that the implementation of an effective encoding strategy, like self-referential processing, may lead to more efficient retrieval, which in turn may improve source memory accuracy in both young and older adults.

  19. Demographic Data - CHILDREN_POVERTY_USCB_IN: Children, Ages 5 to 17, from Families in Poverty in Indiana in 2004, by School District (United States Census Bureau, 1:500,000, Polygon Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Data regarding children (ages 5 to 17) from families in poverty in Indiana in 2004, tabulated by school district, were obtained from a Web page of the U.S. Census...

  20. Indexing it all the subject in the age of documentation, information, and data

    CERN Document Server

    Day, Ronald E

    2014-01-01

    In this book, Ronald Day offers a critical history of the modern tradition of documentation. Focusing on the documentary index (understood as a mode of social positioning), and drawing on the work of the French documentalist Suzanne Briet, Day explores the understanding and uses of indexicality. He examines the transition as indexes went from being explicit professional structures that mediated users and documents to being implicit infrastructural devices used in everyday information and communication acts. Doing so, he also traces three epistemic eras in the representation of individuals and groups, first in the forms of documents, then information, then data. Day investigates five cases from the modern tradition of documentation. He considers the socio-technical instrumentalism of Paul Otlet, "the father of European documentation" (contrasting it to the hermeneutic perspective of Martin Heidegger); the shift from documentation to information science and the accompanying transformation of persons and texts i...

  1. Physicians' perception of demand-induced supply in the information age: a latent class model analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Ya-Chen Tina; Tai-Seale, Ming

    2012-03-01

    This paper introduces a concept called 'demand-induced supply' that reflects the excess supply of services due to an increase in demand initiated by patients. We examine its association with the proportion of information-savvy patients in physicians' practice. Using data from a national representative physician survey, we apply latent class models to analyze this association. Our analyses categorize physicians into three 'types' according to the frequency with which they provided additional medical services at their patients' requests: frequent, occasional, and rare. The proportion of information-savvy patients is significantly and positively correlated with demand-induced supply for the frequent or occasional type, but not among physicians in the rare type. Efforts to contain healthcare costs through utilization control need to recognize the pattern of responses from physicians who treat an increasing number of information-savvy patients. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Health in the information and knowledge economy age--a European perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zobel, Rosalie

    2004-01-01

    The health sector today faces great challenges. Health is an information-intensive sector where Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) could significantly contribute to efficiency and productivity gains. European Union is looking at the different facets of eHealth and mainly at the following three: a) Research and development, in particular to support the development of several regional health information networks, telemedicine services, and personal health systems for patients and citizens. b) Regulatory framework and standardisation, which ensure competition, interoperability and, at the same time, the confidentiality of personal data. c) Promotion of eHealth best practices through various eEurope 2002 and 2005 initiatives. After the pharmaceutical and radiology industry, eHealth is now the third industrial pillar for health. This emerging sector forms the backbone for the reengineering of health systems. It actually improves the access to and quality of care and places citizens at the very centre of its concern.

  3. The Buddha and the computer: Meditation in an age of information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, P

    1986-09-01

    Information overload is one of the factors behind current alarming statistics on stress. Meditation helps the body-mind resist the deleterious effects of the information onslaught. Though meditation is well known as a relaxation technique, its noetic value is often overlooked. Its benefits extend well beyond superficial soothing: it trains attention; it increases pattern recognition; and it reconnects us to the whole of our intelligence, enhancing coordination between its complementary poles. Meditation is a potent high-touch resource in a high-tech world.

  4. Economic Growth, Demographic Change and Rural-Urban Migration in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Fu-ning; LI Qing; XIANG Jing; ZHU Jing

    2013-01-01

    Is China able to maintain fast growth after three decades? This paper tries to answer this question by:1) arguing that factors contributed to sustained long-run growth at supply side; 2) focusing on contributions of demographic dividend especially that of rural-urban migration; and 3) analyzing rural demographic change with information collected through village-wide household survey. Policy alternatives to realize remaining potential demographic dividend are proposed based on the analysis of changing rural demographic structure.

  5. Age and gender differences in emotional and informational social support insufficiency for older adults in Atlantic Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInnis-Perry, Gloria; Weeks, Lori E; Stryhn, Henrik

    2013-12-01

    It is well documented that nursing is concerned about the social support needs of older adults and the effects of those needs on health and well-being. Using survey data from the Atlantic Seniors Housing Research Alliance, the authors explore the emotional and informational social support needs of community-dwelling Canadians aged 65 and older living in the Atlantic provinces. The results indicate that these needs are not being met fully and that they increase with age. Also, men and women report different insufficiencies for specific needs; more men than women report having no support across all items. Nurses should be sensitive to specific age and gender support needs of older adults. They should also increase their social assessments and promote healthy social networks, especially for those 80 years and older. Further nursing research is recommended.

  6. Demographic-Based Content Analysis of Web-Based Health-Related Social Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahbazi, Moloud; Wiley, Matthew T; Hristidis, Vagelis

    2016-01-01

    Background An increasing number of patients from diverse demographic groups share and search for health-related information on Web-based social media. However, little is known about the content of the posted information with respect to the users’ demographics. Objective The aims of this study were to analyze the content of Web-based health-related social media based on users’ demographics to identify which health topics are discussed in which social media by which demographic groups and to help guide educational and research activities. Methods We analyze 3 different types of health-related social media: (1) general Web-based social networks Twitter and Google+; (2) drug review websites; and (3) health Web forums, with a total of about 6 million users and 20 million posts. We analyzed the content of these posts based on the demographic group of their authors, in terms of sentiment and emotion, top distinctive terms, and top medical concepts. Results The results of this study are: (1) Pregnancy is the dominant topic for female users in drug review websites and health Web forums, whereas for male users, it is cardiac problems, HIV, and back pain, but this is not the case for Twitter; (2) younger users (0-17 years) mainly talk about attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and depression-related drugs, users aged 35-44 years discuss about multiple sclerosis (MS) drugs, and middle-aged users (45-64 years) talk about alcohol and smoking; (3) users from the Northeast United States talk about physical disorders, whereas users from the West United States talk about mental disorders and addictive behaviors; (4) Users with higher writing level express less anger in their posts. Conclusion We studied the popular topics and the sentiment based on users' demographics in Web-based health-related social media. Our results provide valuable information, which can help create targeted and effective educational campaigns and guide experts to reach the right users on Web

  7. Demographic and clinical profiles in patients with acute urticaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Borges, M; Capriles-Hulett, A; Caballero-Fonseca, F

    2015-01-01

    Urticaria is a common cause for consultation in general and specialised medical practices. There is scarce information on the characteristics of patients suffering acute urticaria in Latin America. To investigate demographic and clinical features of patients with acute urticaria attending two allergy clinics in Caracas, Venezuela. A prospective study of all new patients who consulted during a three-year period because of acute urticaria. Information on age, gender, symptom duration, previous medical history, body distribution of wheals and angio-oedema, laboratory investigations, skin prick tests, and pharmacological treatment, was collected. Patients were classified according to their age as children/adolescents and adults. Two hundred and forty eight patients (177 adults and 71 children) were studied. Acute urticaria was more frequent in middle-aged atopic female patients. Lesions more often involved upper and lower limbs and head, and 31% of patients exhibited generalised urticaria. Laboratory investigations, performed only in selected cases, did not contribute to the final diagnosis. Most frequent subtypes of acute urticaria were spontaneous, dermographic, papular, and drug-induced urticaria. Most patients were treated with non-sedating antihistamines, with increased use of cetirizine and levocetirizine in children, while 5.6% of children and 20.3% of adults required the addition of short courses of systemic corticosteroids. Acute urticaria is a frequent cause of consultation for allergists, affecting more often middle-aged female atopic patients. The use of extensive complementary tests does not seem to be cost-effective for this clinical condition. Spontaneous, dermographic, papular and drug-induced urticaria are the most common subtypes. Copyright © 2014 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  8. Dimension and Socio-demographic Correlates of Domestic Violence: A study from Northeast India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borah, Prasanta Kr; Kundu, Azad S; Mahanta, Jagadish

    2017-05-01

    Present study was aimed to find out dimension and socio-demographic correlates of domestic violence in Assam, Sikkim and Meghalaya, Northeast India. Two districts from each state were selected at random and women aged 18-35 years from rural and urban localities were interviewed to obtain relevant information. The study included a total of 2249 participants (Rural = 1577 and Urban = 672) from Assam (650), Sikkim (1148) and Meghalaya (451). Domestic violence was recorded in 26.4% of study participants and highest in Meghalaya. Of all types, psychological violence was predominant. A number of socio-demographic factors have been identified as independent predictors for domestic violence in pooled and state specific analysis. Findings of our study may help in formulating strategies to prevent domestic violence.

  9. Surveillance in the Information Age: Text Quantification, Anomaly Detection, and Empirical Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hsin-Min

    2010-01-01

    Deep penetration of personal computers, data communication networks, and the Internet has created a massive platform for data collection, dissemination, storage, and retrieval. Large amounts of textual data are now available at a very low cost. Valuable information, such as consumer preferences, new product developments, trends, and opportunities,…

  10. Dwell in Possibility: PLAR and e-Portfolios in the Age of Information and Communication Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Judith O.

    2011-01-01

    Emily Dickinson wrote, "I dwell in Possibility--A fairer House than Prose--More Numerous of Windows--Superior--for Doors" (p. 657). Dickinson's simple yet profound reference to the expansive nature of poetry over prose may be taken as a metaphor for the possibilities of information and communication technologies (ICTs) over written modes…

  11. Patients' preferences for video cassette recorded information: effect of age, sex and ethnic group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, R; Deary, A; Kaminski, E; Stockton, D; De Zueew, N

    1999-06-01

    The emotional turmoil patients endure following a diagnosis of cancer can impair their ability to retain complex treatment-related information. Manoeuvres which increase the intensity of information have been shown to increase the amount retained. Providing details of treatment in a video format is one method of intensifying information provision, but the attitudes of patients to this format have not previously been evaluated. In this pilot study, the attitudes of 300 patients to video directed information were evaluated via questionnaires, of which 210 (70%) were returned. Eighty-nine per cent had easy access to a video cassette player. A highly significant number felt that the video would be very helpful or helpful (78%) compared to not helpful, worrying or equivocal 21% (P < 0.0001). This trend was particularly strong in patients < 60 years (83% versus 17%) (P < 0.0001) and those from ethnic groups (95% versus 5%) (P < 0.0001). As a result of this trial, a 20-min film (HEP) has been commissioned. It describes details of the two main treatments for cancer after surgery, namely chemotherapy and radiotherapy, shows patients actually having treatment, and explains the common side-effects and ways to alleviate them. Patients satisfaction with the film and its effect on anxiety and depression are currently being evaluated in an international prospective randomized trial. If it proves advantageous for patients--in view of the ethnic group bias in this study--it will be translated into the ethnic languages of the UK.

  12. Big Data in the Information Age: Exploring the Intellectual Foundation of Communication Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkovich, Debra J.; Noah, Philip D.

    2014-01-01

    Big Data are structured, semi-structured, unstructured, and raw data that are revolutionizing how we think about and use information in the 21st century. Big Data represents a paradigm shift from our prior use of traditional data assets over the past 30+ years, such as numeric and textual data, to generating and accessing petabytes and beyond of…

  13. Brain morphology of childhood aggressive behavior: A multi-informant study in school-age children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Thijssen (Sandra); A.P. Ringoot (Ank); A. Wildeboer (Andrea); M.J. Bakermans-Kranenburg (Marian); H. El Marroun (Hanan); A. Hofman (Albert); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning); M.H. van IJzendoorn (Marinus); T.J.H. White (Tonya)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractObjective: Few studies have focused on the neuroanatomy of aggressive behavior in children younger than 10 years. Here, we explored the neuroanatomical correlates of aggression in a population-based sample of 6- to 9-year-old children using a multiple-informant approach. Methods: Magneti

  14. The Epistemology and Ethics of Media Markets in the Age of Information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spence, Edward Howlett

    2009-01-01

    The paper will seek to demonstrate that information as communication has a dual inherent normative structure that commits its disseminators, especially the media, offline and online, to epistemological and ethical principles that are universally mandatory. With regard to the dissemination of informa

  15. Personalizing the Information Search Process: A Case Study of Journal Writing with Elementary-Age Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Violet H.

    2002-01-01

    Reports on a case study that focused on journal writing as a means of deepening elementary school students' cognitive and affective awareness of the information search process. Describes the research team that conducted the research and the impact of journal writing on the school library media specialist's reflective practices. (Author/LRW)

  16. Research Libraries Enter the Information Age: The 1979 Richard Rogers Bowker Memorial Lecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Gennaro, Richard

    1979-01-01

    Discusses strategies for research libraries to meet current demands and limitations through networks and resource sharing. Explored in terms of their importance to research library development are OCLC, the Research Libraries Group and their networks, the concept of a central resources pool, and the impact of the information industry. (SW)

  17. Demographic Modelling in Weed Biocontrol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demographic matrix modeling of plant populations can be a powerful tool to identify key life stage transitions that contribute the most to population growth of an invasive plant and hence should be targeted for disruption. Therefore, this approach has the potential to guide the pre-release selection...

  18. Logistics Dynamics and Demographic Change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klumpp, Matthias; Abidi, Hella; Bioly, Sascha; Buchkremer, Rüdiger; Sandhaus, Gregor; Freitag, Michael; Kotzab, Herbert; Pannek, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Change and dynamics in logistics are interestingly driven at the same time by external as well as internal forces. This contribution outlines a big data literature review methodology to overview recognizable external changes and analyzes the interaction of one major trend—demographic change—further

  19. Democratic constraints on demographic policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigsby, J S

    1984-01-01

    The discussion compares the population policies adopted in Sweden during the 1930s to raise fertiity and the policies considered in the US during the 1970s in response to the high fertility experienced in the 1950s. Both sets of policies recommended increased availability of birth control, more liberal abortion laws, and greater employment opportunities for women. It becomes evident that the constraints imposed by a democratic system of government translate into policy recommendations that place individual freedom of choice and equal opportunity for all citizens as higher goals than any specific demographic target. Consequently, the population commissions of Sweden and the US made similar suggestions on how to resolve their opposite demographic problems. The demographic situations in the 2 nations were antipodal, and the countries also had very different social climates. This additional disparity was insufficient to counterbalance the apparently overwhelming influence of the democratic political systems in making virtually identical policy recommendations. Yet, the contrasting social climates of Sweden in 1935 and the US in 1970-72 may explain the different reactions each commission received. In terms of the responses by both citizens and government officials to the commissions' reports, the Swedish commission was more successful. Practically all of their recommendations were enthusiastically received and quickly adopted by the Swedish Riksdag. Yet, when the criterion for success becomes whether or not a demographic target was met, it increased in the 1940s and then dropped again while the same social policies were in effect. Even before the US commission began its study, fertility in the US had fallen and continues to remain low. These findings suggest that commissions in democratic countries will most likely never recommend dramatic measures in population policy. Thus, it is questionable whether such commissions in democratic nations will totally fulfill the

  20. Information system «History, geographical and social-economic parallel XIX–XXI age on archive information of the removal A. I. Mende» on base internet-technology as complex innovacionnyh educational resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shekotilov V. G.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Information system «History, geographical and social-economic parallel XIX–XXI age on archive information of the removal A. I. Mende» on base internet-technology as complex innovacionnyh educational resource.

  1. Health information seeking and scanning among US adults aged 50-75 years: Testing a key postulate of the information overload model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Jakob D; Liu, Miao; Carcioppolo, Nick; John, Kevin K; Krakow, Melinda; Sun, Ye

    2017-06-01

    Past research has found that older US adults (aged 50-75 years) exhibit high levels of cancer information overload and cancer worry; however, no study to date has examined whether these perceptions are related to information seeking/scanning. To explore this relationship, older adults ( N = 209, Mage = 55.56, SD = 4.24) were recruited to complete a survey measuring seeking, scanning, cancer information overload, and cancer worry. Most participants were high-scan/seekers (40.2%) followed by low-scan/seekers (21.1%), high-scan/no seekers (19.6%), and low-scan/no seekers (19.1%). Low-scan/no seekers had significantly higher cancer information overload compared to all other groups, consistent with the postulate that overload and seeking/scanning are negatively related. Low-scan/no seekers and high-scan/seekers both exhibited higher cancer worry severity, consistent with past research suggesting that cancer worry explains high levels of activity/inactivity.

  2. Cataloging the world Paul Otlet and the birth of the information age

    CERN Document Server

    Wright, Alex

    2014-01-01

    The dream of capturing and organizing knowledge is as old as history. From the archives of ancient Sumeria and the Library of Alexandria to the Library of Congress and Wikipedia, humanity has wrestled with the problem of harnessing its intellectual output. The timeless quest for wisdom has been as much about information storage and retrieval as creative genius. In Cataloging the World, Alex Wright introduces us to a figure who stands out in the long line of thinkers and idealists who devoted themselves to the task. Beginning in the late nineteenth century, Paul Otlet, a librarian by training, worked at expanding the potential of the catalog card, the world's first information chip. From there followed universal libraries and museums, connecting his native Belgium to the world by means of a vast intellectual enterprise that attempted to organize and code everything ever published. Forty years before the first personal computer and fifty years before the first browser, Otlet envisioned a network of "electric t...

  3. Informal and Formal Social Support and Caregiver Burden: The AGES Caregiver Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichiro Shiba

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: We examined the associations of informal (eg, family members and friends and formal (eg, physician and visiting nurses social support with caregiver’s burden in long-term care and the relationship between the number of available sources of social support and caregiver burden. Methods: We conducted a mail-in survey in 2003 and used data of 2998 main caregivers of frail older adults in Aichi, Japan. We used a validated scale to assess caregiver burden. Results: Multiple linear regression demonstrated that, after controlling for caregivers’ sociodemographic and other characteristics, informal social support was significantly associated with lower caregiver burden (β = −1.59, P < 0.0001, while formal support was not (β = −0.30, P = 0.39. Evaluating the associations by specific sources of social support, informal social supports from the caregiver’s family living together (β = −0.71, P < 0.0001 and from relatives (β = −0.61, P = 0.001 were associated with lower caregiver burden, whereas formal social support was associated with lower caregiver burden only if it was from family physicians (β = −0.56, P = 0.001. Compared to caregivers without informal support, those who had one support (β = −1.62, P < 0.0001 and two or more supports (β = −1.55, P < 0.0001 had significantly lower burden. This association was not observed for formal support. Conclusions: Social support from intimate social relationships may positively affect caregivers’ psychological wellbeing independent of the receipt of formal social support, resulting in less burden.

  4. Informal and Formal Social Support and Caregiver Burden: The AGES Caregiver Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Koichiro Shiba

    2016-01-01

    Background: We examined the associations of informal (eg, family members and friends) and formal (eg, physician and visiting nurses) social support with caregiver’s burden in long-term care and the relationship between the number of available sources of social support and caregiver burden. Methods: We conducted a mail-in survey in 2003 and used data of 2998 main caregivers of frail older adults in Aichi, Japan. We used a validated scale to assess caregiver burden. Results: Mult...

  5. Empire Maintenance in the Information Age: Influence of Mediaverse on Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    breaking news, business news, political news, sports news, or weather news.17 As information becomes more available, consumers become increasingly...astute and aware of the global environment. 24/7 news channels bring entertainment, sports , politics, or military actions, relentlessly to...decision to step down.”37 In sharp contrast, the United States’ strike on Libya in 1986, OPERATION EL DORADO CANYON , is a case where media coverage

  6. Power to the Edge: Command...Control...in the Information Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    battlespace changed. Note that flexibility is primarily an attribute of the cognitive domain. Just as musical geniuses such as Mozart and Beethoven were...involved in these activities. Effects Based Operations completes the NCW value chain, explaining the link from network-centric organi- zations and...trust and use, populate with high quality information, and use for developing shared awareness, collaborating effectively , and synchronizing their

  7. Political demography: Powerful trends under-attended by demographic science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teitelbaum, Michael S

    2015-01-01

    The interconnections between politics and the dramatic demographic changes under way around the world have been neglected by the two research disciplines that could contribute most to their understanding: demography and political science. Instead, this area of 'political demography' has largely been ceded to political activists, pundits, and journalists, leading often to exaggerated or garbled interpretation. The terrain includes some of the most politically sensitive and contested issues: alleged demographically determined shifts in the international balance of power; low fertility, population decline, and demographic ageing; international migration; change in national identity; and compositional shifts in politically sensitive social categories and human rights. Meanwhile many governments and non-governmental actors have actively pursued varieties of 'strategic demography', deploying fertility, mortality, or migration as instruments of domestic or international policy. Political scientists and demographers could and should use their knowledge and analytic techniques to improve understanding and to moderate excessive claims and fears on these topics.

  8. The Relationship Between Student Demographics and Student Engagement with Online Library Instruction Modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary C. Thill

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To investigate whether there are any demographic trends affecting student engagement with online library instruction which might have implications for practice, the authors designed a case study to examine the relationship between student demographic characteristics and engagement with online library instruction modules in English 102 courses at a single university. Methods – The authors recruited 181 students from English 102 (ENG 102, a research-based composition course, to participate in the study. ENG 102 instructors asked all participants to complete an online library instruction module embedded in the university’s course management system, either before in-person library instruction or in lieu of face-to-face library instruction. No external incentive was provided for online module completion. The research team measured levels of student engagement by recording the amount of time students spent on each page of the online module. In collaboration with the Office of Institutional Research, the authors then pulled demographic data on each participant using the university’s student information system. Pearson chi-square tests were performed to determine whether there were any notable associations between levels of student engagement and student age, grade point average, gender, and race/ethnicity. Results – Observable trends tied age and higher grade point average to higher levels of engagement with online instruction. There was additionally a slight trend linking female participants to higher levels of engagement than their male peers. In the category of race/ethnicity, the two largest subgroups, Hispanic and Caucasian students, exhibited similar levels of engagement. Conclusions – The authors conclude that there may be demographic implications for practice in designing online library instruction programs, especially when considering student age and academic performance indicators. They also conclude that, owing to

  9. Prevalence of Methylphenidate Prescription among School-Aged Children in a Swiss Population: Increase in the Number of Prescriptions in the Swiss Canton of Vaud, from 2002 to 2005, and Changes in Patient Demographics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumy, Cedric; Huissoud, Therese; Dubois-Arber, Francoise

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Methylphenidate is prescribed for children and adolescents to treat ADHD. As in many Western countries, the increase in methylphenidate consumption is a public concern in Switzerland. The article discusses the authors' assessment of prescription prevalence in 2002 and 2005 for school-aged children in the canton of Vaud. Method: Pharmacy…

  10. Attitudes Toward Seeking Professional Psychological Help: Factor Structure and Socio-Demographic Predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picco, Louisa; Abdin, Edimanysah; Chong, Siow Ann; Pang, Shirlene; Shafie, Saleha; Chua, Boon Yiang; Vaingankar, Janhavi A; Ong, Lue Ping; Tay, Jenny; Subramaniam, Mythily

    2016-01-01

    Attitudes toward seeking professional psychological help (ATSPPH) are complex. Help seeking preferences are influenced by various attitudinal and socio-demographic factors and can often result in unmet needs, treatment gaps, and delays in help-seeking. The aims of the current study were to explore the factor structure of the ATSPPH short form (-SF) scale and determine whether any significant socio-demographic differences exist in terms of help-seeking attitudes. Data were extracted from a population-based survey conducted among Singapore residents aged 18-65 years. Respondents provided socio-demographic information and were administered the ATSPPH-SF. Weighted mean and standard error of the mean were calculated for continuous variables, and frequencies and percentages for categorical variables. Confirmatory factor analysis and exploratory factor analysis were performed to establish the validity of the factor structure of the ATSPPH-SF scale. Multivariable linear regressions were conducted to examine predictors of each of the ATSPPH-SF factors. The factor analysis revealed that the ATSPPH-SF formed three distinct dimensions: "Openness to seeking professional help," "Value in seeking professional help," and "Preference to cope on one's own." Multiple linear regression analyses showed that age, ethnicity, marital status, education, and income were significantly associated with the ATSPPH-SF factors. Population subgroups that were less open to or saw less value in seeking psychological help should be targeted via culturally appropriate education campaigns and tailored and supportive interventions.

  11. Attitudes towards seeking professional psychological help: Factor structure and socio-demographic predictors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louisa ePicco

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Attitudes toward seeking professional psychological help (ATSPPH are complex. Help seeking preferences are influenced by various attitudinal and socio-demographic factors and can often result in unmet needs, treatment gaps and delays in help seeking. The aims of the current study were to explore the factor structure of the ATSPPH short form (-SF scale and determine whether any significant socio-demographic differences exist in terms of help-seeking attitudes. Data were extracted from a population-based survey conducted among Singapore residents aged 18-65 years. Respondents provided socio-demographic information and were administered the ATSPPH-SF. Weighted mean and standard error of the mean were calculated for continuous variables, and frequencies and percentages for categorical variables. Confirmatory factor analysis and exploratory factor analysis were performed to establish the validity of the factor structure of the ATSPPH-SF scale. Multivariable linear regressions were conducted to examine predictors of each of the ATSPPH-SF factors. The factor analysis revealed that the ATSPPH-SF formed three distinct dimensions: ‘Openness to seeking professional help’, ‘Value in seeking professional help’ and ‘Preference to cope on one’s own’. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that age, gender, ethnicity, marital status, education, and employment status were significantly associated with the ATSPPH-SF factors. Population subgroups that were less open to or saw less value in seeking psychological help should be targeted via culturally appropriate education campaigns and tailored and supportive interventions.

  12. CPITN changes during pregnancy and maternal demographic factors ‘impact on periodontal health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidi Maybodi, Fahimeh; Haerian-Ardakani, Ahmad; Vaziri, Farzaneh; Khabbazian, Arezoo; Mohammadi-Asl, Salem

    2015-01-01

    Background: There have been speculations about the effects of hormonal changes and socio-demographic factors on periodontal health during pregnancy. Objective: According to the lack of sufficient epidemiologic information about the periodontal status of pregnant women in Yazd, this study was accomplished to determine the changes of Community Periodontal Index for Treatment Needs (CPITN) during pregnancy and evaluating the possible relationship between this index and demographic characteristics of the mothers. Materials and Methods: This was a longitudinal descriptive study. The samples included 115 pregnant women who were referred to health centers of Yazd, Iran. The mothers’ data were obtained from a questionnaire consisted of 3 parts: consent paper, demographic data and CPITN records. Examination was performed with dental unit light, flat dental mirror and WHO’s scaled probe. Results: In the beginning of the study, 60.1% of checked sextants had healthy gingival status. 25.9% had code1 and 14% had code 2. Code 3 and 4 were not seen in any sextants. There was a significant relationship between lower CPITN and higher maternal education, occupation and more frequencies of tooth-brushing but there was not a relationship between CPITN and mother’s age and number of pregnancies. CPITN had a significant relationship with increasing of the gestational age. Conclusion: There might be a relationship between increasing the month of pregnancy and more periodontal treatment needs. CPITN Increasing during pregnancy shows the importance of periodontal cares during this period. PMID:26000000

  13. gidakiimanaaniwiagamig, an informal science camp for mixed age American Indian students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, E.; Kowalczak, C.; Dalbotten, D. M.; Pellerin, H.; Greensky, L.

    2016-12-01

    Gidakiimanaaniwiagamig('Our Earth Lodge' in Ojibwe; gidaa, for short) camp program at Fond du Lac Reservation was started in 1989 by Pellerin and Greensky to help reservation students stay in school and graduate from middle school. As more students successfully completed middle school, the purpose of the program evolved to help students graduate from high school and go to college. Starting in 2003, various NSF awards funded the camps and STEM focus became explicit. The current gidaa camps are funded by NASA (Kowalczak) and NSF (Ito & Dalbotten) funds and focus on learning about the effect of climate change on the reservation and treaty lands. From its inception, the gidaa camps served a mixed age group of students (K through 12) who were mentored by elders, local school teachers and college students (camp alumni). A few university scientists provided support and acted as resources. The inclusion of students of all ages and their families is a deliberate one, based on the American Indian learning practice that "everyone teaches and everyone learns". This approach supports the development of the whole person and not just increased climate or general STEM literacy. Evidence for the success of this approach can be seen in 100% high school graduation rate of students who have been with the camp for more than a few years even if they did not attend every camp. Currently, weekend gidaa camps meet 6 times during the academic year with an additional week-long summer camp. Reservation Natural Resource managers share their concerns about the effect of climate change and what they already see and how they try to mitigate or adjust to these effects. Students thus immediately grasp the relevance of climate change to their lives while simultaneously being introduced to the work being done to help protect their land. Students are divided into small color groups (each group is of mixed ages) and group members help each other learn new concepts and vocabulary assisted by 1 or 2

  14. GEOSCIENCE DATA IN THE INFORMATION AGE: ACQUISITION,DISSEMINATION AND THEIR APPLICATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE; Bo-chu

    2001-01-01

    Recent dramatic advances in technologies such as computer,data management,and communication have revolutionized the way geologists collect,disseminate,and utilize geoscience data.After summarized the characteristics and fusion of geo-data,several major field data capture systems adopted in North America have been introduced.Geoscience information dissemination and distribution via the web technology and GIS package have also been discussed.In addition,multisources geo-data integration and their applications to mineral exploration,geological hazard risk assessment,and national land resources protection and utilization have been addressed by concrete examples.

  15. The Challenges of Changing Demographics in a Midwestern School District: Administrative Interventions and Teachers' Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreinbring, Heather Hyatt

    2010-01-01

    America's school-age population is experiencing a demographic shift. In 1972, students of color represented 22% of the school-age population; in 2005, minority students accounted for 33% of public school enrollment (Statistics, 2007 Villegas, 2002). This study sought to explore how these changing demographics affected University Town Community…

  16. Age-moderated effects of consequence and intent information on punishment: an intuitive prosecutorial interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ramadhar; Ramasamy, Ming Antoinette; Self, William T; Simons, Joseph J P; Lin, Patrick K F

    2013-01-01

    In responding to wrongdoings, people simultaneously pursue the goals of social control and fairness to the wrongdoer. Social control necessitates stronger weighting of consequences than causes; fairness entails the opposite. The authors hypothesized that the developmental shift from overweighting consequence to overweighting intent when determining levels of punishment illustrates a shift from a default defender of the normative order to a motivated crusader of fairness to the wrongdoer. Thus, punishment should increase slightly for intentional wrongdoings but decrease substantially for accidental wrongdoings as people age. In an experiment on disciplinary action in Singapore, 9-, 13-, and 17-year-olds learned about the consequences of and intentions behind wrongdoings by peers and predicted consistency of the same act in the future, assigned blame to the wrongdoers, and recommended punishment for them. Results supported hypotheses derived from a fair-but-biased-yet-correctible model of intuitive prosecutors.

  17. Nursing in the information age: status quo and future of ICT use in German hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübner, Ursula; Sellemann, Björn

    2004-01-01

    Hospital information systems (HIS) should give support to nurses in their clinical and managerial duties. Though there are statistical data on the current use of HIS systems we know only little about the numbers of nursing modules implemented. We therefore conducted a nationwide survey in Germany (n = 2182) on the current state and future plans of HIS modules including nursing applications (response rate of 27.6 %). The findings show that management applications (84 % accounting) are still more frequent than clinical applications, in particular clinical patient record systems (19 %). What applied for HIS modules in general held also true for nursing on a lower level. Whereas 51 % of the hospitals had rostering systems in place only 6 % used care planning software. Priorities and plans for the future reveal no change in the rank order of systems. We argue that in order for clinical documentation and planning systems to catch up they must be immediately rewarding for the clinicians in their daily need for information

  18. Using the internet to understand angler behavior in the information age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Dustin R.; Pracheil, Brenda M.; DeBoer, Jason A.; Wilde, Gene R.; Pope, Kevin L.

    2012-01-01

    Declining participation in recreational angling is of great concern to fishery managers because fishing license sales are an important revenue source for protection of aquatic resources. This decline is frequently attributed, in part, to increased societal reliance on electronics. Internet use by anglers is increasing and fishery managers may use the Internet as a unique means to increase angler participation. We examined Internet search behavior using Google Insights for Search, a free online tool that summarizes Google searches from 2004 to 2011 to determine (1) trends in Internet search volume for general fishing related terms and (2) the relative usefulness of terms related to angler recruitment programs across the United States. Though search volume declined for general fishing terms (e.g., fishing, fishing guide), search volume increased for social media and recruitment terms (e.g., fishing forum, family fishing) over the 7-year period. We encourage coordinators of recruitment programs to capitalize on anglers’ Internet usage by considering Internet search patterns when creating web-based information. Careful selection of terms used in web-based information to match those currently searched by potential anglers may help to direct traffic to state agency websites that support recruitment efforts.

  19. Caring in the Information Age: Personal Online Networks to Improve Caregiver Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piraino, Emily; Byrne, Kerry; Heckman, George A; Stolee, Paul

    2017-06-01

    It is becoming increasingly important to find ways for caregivers and service providers to collaborate. This study explored the potential for improving care and social support through shared online network use by family caregivers and service providers in home care. This qualitative study was guided by Rogers' Theory of Diffusion of Innovations [NY: Free Press; 1995], and involved focus group and individual interviews of service providers (n = 31) and family caregivers (n = 4). Interview transcriptions were analyzed using descriptive, topic, and analytic coding, followed by thematic analysis. The network was identified as presenting an opportunity to fill communication gaps presented by other modes of communication and further enhance engagement with families. Barriers included time limitations and policy-related restrictions, privacy, security, and information ownership. Online networks may help address longstanding home-care issues around communication and information-sharing. The success of online networks in home care requires support from care partners. Future research should pilot the use of online networks in home care using barrier and facilitator considerations from this study.

  20. Some Demographic Changes in the Population of Montenegro with the Projection of Future Demographic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Rajović

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Dramatic demographic changes through which in recent decade’s passes Montenegrin society, the consequences arising from the new realities require a serious socio-political engagement. Process of population aging, that began the seventies of the 20th century, represents a significant problem. The process of demographic change was accompanied by an internal migration to major urban centers, primarily Podgorica and Montenegrin coast, leading to emptying the interior of Montenegro. Unfortunately, this development of the population structure of Montenegro opens a series of questions and challenges that would the creators of the future you should put high on the scale of its priorities. In this text we will point out on change of total number of citizens of Montenegro according to the base and chain indexes of 1921-2011 and population in Montenegro 2016–2091 (cohort model projections.

  1. The Role of Medial Temporal Lobe Regions in Incidental and Intentional Retrieval of Item and Relational Information in Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei-Chun; Giovanello, Kelly S

    2016-06-01

    Considerable neuropsychological and neuroimaging work indicates that the medial temporal lobes are critical for both item and relational memory retrieval. However, there remain outstanding issues in the literature, namely the extent to which medial temporal lobe regions are differentially recruited during incidental and intentional retrieval of item and relational information, and the extent to which aging may affect these neural substrates. The current fMRI study sought to address these questions; participants incidentally encoded word pairs embedded in sentences and incidental item and relational retrieval were assessed through speeded reading of intact, rearranged, and new word-pair sentences, while intentional item and relational retrieval were assessed through old/new associative recognition of a separate set of intact, rearranged, and new word pairs. Results indicated that, in both younger and older adults, anterior hippocampus and perirhinal cortex indexed incidental and intentional item retrieval in the same manner. In contrast, posterior hippocampus supported incidental and intentional relational retrieval in both age groups and an adjacent cluster in posterior hippocampus was recruited during both forms of relational retrieval for older, but not younger, adults. Our findings suggest that while medial temporal lobe regions do not differentiate between incidental and intentional forms of retrieval, there are distinct roles for anterior and posterior medial temporal lobe regions during retrieval of item and relational information, respectively, and further indicate that posterior regions may, under certain conditions, be over-recruited in healthy aging. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. [The factor analysis results of the relationship of socio-demographic, clinical and functional indicators with the likelihood of identifying age-related disorders in the population in North-Western Russia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupriianova, V A; Zakharchuk, A G; Zherebtsov, S V; Spivak, I M; Spivak, D L

    2013-01-01

    By using the method of factor analysis (principal component method) the determinants of disease in elderly and senile patients were searched with an estimate of their influence degree in the population of the North-West Russia. The data from medical records of 712 patients of both sexes aged 59 to 98 years were analyzed. The factor 1 proved to be associated with: marital status, living conditions, family relationships, bad habits, appearance, cough, diet, hearing and vision, laxatives, joint health, ability to move and sleep disturbances. Factor 2 combined diseases of older: cerebral stroke, myocardial infarction, cardiac arrhythmia, diabetes, kidney disease, obesity, thyroid disease, Parkinson's disease, lung disease, anemia, arthritis, osteoporosis, the number of surgeries and joint diseases. The factor 3 was found to self-association ability before and after admission to the assessment of the patients' mental state for MMSE test after admission. It is concluded that the development of age-related (especially the musculoskeletal system pathology) is associated with social characteristics and living conditions of patients, and treatment of the most age-related diseases requires consideration of comorbidity.

  3. Incorporating diverse data and realistic complexity into demographic estimation procedures for sea otters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinker, M. Timothy; Doak, Daniel F.; Estes, James A.; Hatfield, Brian B.; Staedler, Michelle M.; Bodkin, James L

    2006-01-01

    Reliable information on historical and current population dynamics is central to understanding patterns of growth and decline in animal populations. We developed a maximum likelihood-based analysis to estimate spatial and temporal trends in age/sex-specific survival rates for the threatened southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris nereis), using annual population censuses and the age structure of salvaged carcass collections. We evaluated a wide range of possible spatial and temporal effects and used model averaging to incorporate model uncertainty into the resulting estimates of key vital rates and their variances. We compared these results to current demographic parameters estimated in a telemetry-based study conducted between 2001 and 2004. These results show that survival has decreased substantially from the early 1990s to the present and is generally lowest in the north-central portion of the population's range. The greatest temporal decrease in survival was for adult females, and variation in the survival of this age/sex class is primarily responsible for regulating population growth and driving population trends. Our results can be used to focus future research on southern sea otters by highlighting the life history stages and mortality factors most relevant to conservation. More broadly, we have illustrated how the powerful and relatively straightforward tools of information-theoretic-based model fitting can be used to sort through and parameterize quite complex demographic modeling frameworks. ?? 2006 by the Ecological Society of America.

  4. Urban form and planning in the information age: Lessons from literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maeng Da-Mi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the relationship between information and communication technologies (ICT and urban form, and on urban planning response to spatial and economic consequences of ICT. It starts with literature-based review of how urban environments in the United States change with technological advances and explanations of the relationship between ICT and urban form. The paper also includes a discussion of the manner in which ICT impact is handled by urban planning. The literature review points to insufficient attention to the dynamics between ICT and urban planning and increasing gap between physical and economic development implications of ICT. It is the role of urban planners to balance the consideration of the physical and economic aspects against the prospects and opportunities offered by ICT. .

  5. Informing, involving or engaging? Science communication, in the ages of atom-, bio- and nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurath, Monika; Gisler, Priska

    2009-09-01

    Science communication has shifted considerably in Europe over the last decades. Three technology controversies on atoms, genes, and nanoscale sciences and nanotechnologies (NST) turned the style of communication from one-way information, participation and dialogues to the idea of an early and more democratic engagement of the public. Analyzing science communication developing over the three controversies, this article shows that what happened in one technology field fed forward to and contributed to shaping the subsequent field and that communication was initiated at a progressively earlier stage of technology development. The article concludes with an empirical analysis of six public engagement projects in NST, saying that the shift towards more democratic engagement of the public hasn't been as profound and complete as has been thought. This is particularly due to the continuing adoption of a simplistic contrast structure that opposes science and the public as two self-contained, antagonistic social entities.

  6. Empowering Children with Adaptive Technology Skills: Careful Engagement in the Digital Information Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miftachul HUDA

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The technological advancement occurring in the world today has a potency to create positive and negative side effects especially on children. The positive side may entail increased empathy and acceptance of diversity through modelling the prosocial behaviours, while the negative can be manifest in aggressive behaviour, risky sexual behaviour, and substance abuse. These challenges pose a need to draw a particular attention to children’s rights of protection and care in relation to the use of technology. This paper sought to critically explore the way in which children adapt technology skills and the way they respond towards media influences. The findings revealed that the adaptive technology skills are needed in providing a considerable guidance for child protection and careful engagement towards digital information as part of their rights to natural growth and development.

  7. The impact of demographic change on intergenerational transfers via bequests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Zagheni

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Transfers in the form of bequests have important implications for the intergenerational transmission of inequality. Demographic change has relevant consequences for the timing and size of bequests. For example, longer life implies that people receive bequests when they are older. Conversely, increasing generational length reduces the average age at which people are given bequests. Objective: We analyze the consequences of demographic change in the United States on timing over the life course when individuals receive an inheritance and on the size of bequests. Methods: We evaluate trends in life expectancy at the mean age at childbearing as a proxy for timing at receipt of bequests. We complement formal demographic analysis with empirical estimates from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID inheritance data for 1987-2010. Results: We find that the long-term trend of increasing age at receipt of bequests might have stalled, mainly because of changes in the timing of fertility. In the long term the upward trend in age at which people receive bequests may resume, as the expected linear gains in life expectancy will more than counteract recent increases in the mean age at childbearing. Conclusions: We showed that demographic change affects the size of bequests and the timing over the life course when people receive them. As the need for economic resources varies over the life cycle, changes in the timing at receipt of bequests may have a differential impact on wealth inequality and affect patterns of multigenerational transfers of resources.

  8. Cops, Computers and the Right to Privacy in the Information Age: unauthorised access and inapropriate disclosure of information complaints in New South Wales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Enders

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available The term the 'information age' is particularly applicable to Australia. In a recent email, the Australian Institute of Criminology's Chief Librarian, John Myrtle, passed on statistics which showed that internet use and access in Australia has increased about 50% during the last year (Pers. Comm. 14 July 1999. Of greater interest is the fact that almost 20% of Australian households, 1.3 million, have internet access and over one third of the adult population has accessed the internet at some time during the year ending February 1999. To further back these figures, the Sydney Morning Herald of 12 February, 2000, carried statistics from the Australian Bureau of Statistics which showed that 22.6% of Australian families had home internet access (Anon., 2000a, p. 105. These figures firmly place Australians among the world's most computer literate societies. Of course computers weren't always that popular. The authors of this paper entered law enforcement at a time when computers were owned by Universities and major corporations - not individuals - and a decent calculator cost about a week's wages. However, things changed quickly and by the 1980s computers were an established part of policing. Today, all major police services are committed to, and reliant on, some form of computerised information system. The two systems which the authors have had contact with are the Crime Reporting and Information System for Police (CRISP (Queensland Police Service and the Computerised Operational Policing System (COPS (New South Wales Police Service. While many aspects of these two systems are different, they, and all the other police information systems in existence, share one major similarity: they store and provide access to personal and confidential information on every individual with whom police come into contact during their duties. Modern police investigation techniques rely on officers being able to access this information routinely to carry out their duties

  9. Aging and orthopedics: how a lifespan development model can inform practice and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautreau, Sylvia; Gould, Odette N; Forsythe, Michael E

    2016-08-01

    Orthopedic surgical care, like all health care today, is in flux owing to an aging population and to chronic medical conditions leading to an increased number of people with illnesses that need to be managed over the lifespan. The result is an ongoing shift from curing acute illnesses to the management and care of chronic illness and conditions. Theoretical models that provide a useful and feasible vision for the future of health care and health care research are needed. This review discusses how the lifespan development model used in some disciplines within the behavioural sciences can be seen as an extension of the biopsychosocial model. We posit that the lifespan development model provides useful perspectives for both orthopedic care and research. We present key concepts and recommendations, and we discuss how the lifespan development model can contribute to new and evolving perspectives on orthopedic outcomes and to new directions for research. We also offer practical guidelines on how to implement the model in orthopedic practice.

  10. Improve Quality of Life - additional criteria for health and social care information technology acceptance in an ageing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    Reversing the rising cost of health and social systems is needed in ageing developed and developing countries. A new model of ageing is advocated by the World Health Organization. This new model asks for more personal health accountability and a more integrated approach on care and preventive cure. Information systems and technologies can play an important role in supporting the changes needed in order to have better and more sustainable health and social care systems. Using value and results for patients as criteria by which systems are accepted by users and by organizations can contribute to a value based competition in health and social care systems. The unified theory of acceptance and use of technology is presented, and the pertinence of adding an extension to the theory in order capture Quality of Life improvements expectations is explored.

  11. Techniques of the environmental observer: India's earth remote sensing program in the age of global information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denicola, Lane A.

    This research examines the emergence in India of earth remote sensing (ERS), a principal medium for environmental analysis, communication, and policy-making. ERS---the science and "craft" of analyzing images of terrestrial phenomena collected by aircraft or satellite---constitutes an information technology whose predominance in environmental discourse has grown continuously since first proposed for such applications by American researchers in 1962. Raising many thorny issues in information access and control, the use and popularization of ERS has intensified dramatically since the mid-1980s. In Westernized discourse (both popular and expert), space research and industry are often depicted at a double-remove from the so-called "developing world," where exotic technologies and esoteric goals are overshadowed by patent human needs and a lack of basic infrastructure. Yet advocates hail the utility of ERS in socially relevant applications, and India has amassed upwards of five decades of experience in space, with systems and products rivaled today only by those of the United States and China. A multi-sited ethnography of a nascent visual medium, the dissertation triangulates on its topic by tracing three analytical threads: (1) a diachronic analysis of Indian ERS satellites as an allegory of statehood and participation in the global present, (2) a synchronic analysis of ERS imagery as a discursive artifact and global information commodity, and (3) an analysis of interpretive practice as observed through a single class of Indian and foreign students at the Indian Institute of Remote Sensing (IIRS), considered here as an "interpretive community" of environmental experts. The dissertation is the result of four years of research with ERS students, faculty, researchers, users and administrators in the U.S., the U.K., Turkey and India. In particular, I conducted nine months of ethnographic fieldwork in India in 2002 and 2005, the latter half of which was spent in participant

  12. Socio-Demographic Factors Related to Oral Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdoul Hossain Madani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The aim of this study was to identify factors related to cancer of oral cavity considering individual socio-demographic characteristics of a hospital based study in Pune. Approach: A case-control study was conducted. The cases were 350 with squamous-cell carcinoma of oral cavity diagnosed between 2005 and 2006 in Morbai, Narandia, Budharani Cancer Institute, Pune, India. Similar number of controls matched for age and sex selected from the background population. Cases and controls were interviewed for general characteristics; age, gender, education and possible socio-demographic factors. Results: Chi-square test in uni-variate analysis and estimate for risk showed that education, occupation and monthly household income were significantly different between cases and controls (pConclusion/Recommendations: Socio-demographic factors such as education, occupation and income do play an important role in development oral cancer.

  13. Modulation of the inter-hemispheric processing of semantic information during normal aging. A divided visual field experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyau, E; Cousin, E; Jaillard, A; Baciu, M

    2016-12-01

    We evaluated the effect of normal aging on the inter-hemispheric processing of semantic information by using the divided visual field (DVF) method, with words and pictures. Two main theoretical models have been considered, (a) the HAROLD model which posits that aging is associated with supplementary recruitment of the right hemisphere (RH) and decreased hemispheric specialization, and (b) the RH decline theory, which assumes that the RH becomes less efficient with aging, associated with increased LH specialization. Two groups of subjects were examined, a Young Group (YG) and an Old Group (OG), while participants performed a semantic categorization task (living vs. non-living) in words and pictures. The DVF was realized in two steps: (a) unilateral DVF presentation with stimuli presented separately in each visual field, left or right, allowing for their initial processing by only one hemisphere, right or left, respectively; (b) bilateral DVF presentation (BVF) with stimuli presented simultaneously in both visual fields, followed by their processing by both hemispheres. These two types of presentation permitted the evaluation of two main characteristics of the inter-hemispheric processing of information, the hemispheric specialization (HS) and the inter-hemispheric cooperation (IHC). Moreover, the BVF allowed determining the driver-hemisphere for processing information presented in BVF. Results obtained in OG indicated that: (a) semantic categorization was performed as accurately as YG, even if more slowly, (b) a non-semantic RH decline was observed, and (c) the LH controls the semantic processing during the BVF, suggesting an increased role of the LH in aging. However, despite the stronger involvement of the LH in OG, the RH is not completely devoid of semantic abilities. As discussed in the paper, neither the HAROLD nor the RH decline does fully explain this pattern of results. We rather suggest that the effect of aging on the hemispheric specialization and inter

  14. The value of genetic information for diabetes risk prediction - differences according to sex, age, family history and obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Mühlenbruch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies have identified numerous single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with type 2 diabetes through the past years. In previous studies, the usefulness of these genetic markers for prediction of diabetes was found to be limited. However, differences may exist between substrata of the population according to the presence of major diabetes risk factors. This study aimed to investigate the added predictive value of genetic information (42 single nucleotide polymorphisms in subgroups of sex, age, family history of diabetes, and obesity. METHODS: A case-cohort study (random subcohort N = 1,968; incident cases: N = 578 within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Potsdam study was used. Prediction models without and with genetic information were evaluated in terms of the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve and the integrated discrimination improvement. Stratified analyses included subgroups of sex, age (<50 or ≥50 years, family history (positive if either father or mother or a sibling has/had diabetes, and obesity (BMI< or ≥30 kg/m(2. RESULTS: A genetic risk score did not improve prediction above classic and metabolic markers, but - compared to a non-invasive prediction model - genetic information slightly improved the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (difference [95%-CI]: 0.007 [0.002-0.011]. Stratified analyses showed stronger improvement in the older age group (0.010 [0.002-0.018], the group with a positive family history (0.012 [0.000-0.023] and among obese participants (0.015 [-0.005-0.034] compared to the younger participants (0.005 [-0.004-0.014], participants with a negative family history (0.003 [-0.001-0.008] and non-obese (0.007 [0.000-0.014], respectively. No difference was found between men and women. CONCLUSION: There was no incremental value of genetic information compared to standard non-invasive and metabolic

  15. The European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages: Still Relevant in the Information Age?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah McMonagle

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The impact of new information and communication technologies on European societies could not have been foreseen at the time the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages (ECRML was adopted two decades ago. Although the text of the ECRML contains no reference to such technologies, they clearly have a role in the context of linguistic communication, given their current social ubiquity. The measures outlined in the ECRML concerning, inter alia, media and cultural facilities, are precisely those being affected by the new media landscape. We can therefore be certain that the internet has some sort of impact on regional and minority languages in Europe, yet detailed assessments of this impact at the policy level are lacking. This article seeks to uncover the extent to which the Committee of Experts of the ECRML assesses the impact of the internet on those languages that have been selected by state parties for protection and promotion under the provisions of the ECRML. Findings show that references to the internet have increased in the reports of the Committee of Experts since monitoring began. However, the role of new technologies in inhibiting or facilitating regional and minority languages is seldom evaluated.

  16. Dwell in Possibility: PLAR and e-Portfolios in the Age of Information and Communication Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith O. Brown

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Emily Dickinson wrote, “I dwell in Possibility—A fairer House than Prose—More Numerous of Windows—Superior—for Doors” (Johnson, 1961, p. 657. Dickinson’s simple yet profound reference to the expansive nature of poetry over prose may be taken as a metaphor for the possibilities of information and communication technologies (ICTs over written modes of expression. Whether we identify with this analogy or not, what we can say today with some certainty is that the advent of ICTs has impacted prior learning assessment and recognition (PLAR by expanding the potential for knowledge acquisition, expression, and delivery.The purpose of this article is to examine the potential of experiential learning e-portfolios to promote connections between several different types of learning – academic, workplace, and web-based. The author contends that this type of PLAR enables undergraduate adult learners to not only articulate and equate experiential learning to academic knowledge but also, and most importantly, to demonstrate knowledge visually and audibly through the utilization of ICTs. Two pilot case studies of e-portfolio development are described to support the author’s position.

  17. Challenges of the information age: the impact of false discovery on pathway identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rog Colin J

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pathways with members that have known relevance to a disease are used to support hypotheses generated from analyses of gene expression and proteomic studies. Using cancer as an example, the pitfalls of searching pathways databases as support for genes and proteins that could represent false discoveries are explored. Findings The frequency with which networks could be generated from 100 instances each of randomly selected five and ten genes sets as input to MetaCore, a commercial pathways database, was measured. A PubMed search enumerated cancer-related literature published for any gene in the networks. Using three, two, and one maximum intervening step between input genes to populate the network, networks were generated with frequencies of 97%, 77%, and 7% using ten gene sets and 73%, 27%, and 1% using five gene sets. PubMed reported an average of 4225 cancer-related articles per network gene. Discussion This can be attributed to the richly populated pathways databases and the interest in the molecular basis of cancer. As information sources become enriched, they are more likely to generate plausible mechanisms for false discoveries.

  18. Demographic factors associated with loss to follow up in the management of chronic otitis media: case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, R; Fox, R; Srinivasan, R; Majithia, A; Singh, A

    2016-02-01

    The likelihood of a patient attending regular follow up can affect decision making when planning and performing tympanomastoid surgery. This study investigated whether demographic factors were associated with loss to follow up. A database of patients who had been investigated and treated for chronic otitis media was searched. Patients lost to follow up and a matching sample of patients who were formally discharged were identified. The demographic factors of age, sex and postcode were compared between the two groups. The information collected was also used to provide measures of deprivation. Fifty patients in each group were identified. Patients lost to follow up were significantly younger than patients formally discharged (p < 0.02), and were more likely to live in an area of education and training deprivation (p < 0.05). Younger patient age, and living in an area of education and training deprivation, are associated with a higher incidence of loss to follow up.

  19. The shifting demographic landscape of pandemic influenza.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweta Bansal

    Full Text Available As Pandemic (H1N1 2009 influenza spreads around the globe, it strikes school-age children more often than adults. Although there is some evidence of pre-existing immunity among older adults, this alone may not explain the significant gap in age-specific infection rates.Based on a retrospective analysis of pandemic strains of influenza from the last century, we show that school-age children typically experience the highest attack rates in primarily naive populations, with the burden shifting to adults during the subsequent season. Using a parsimonious network-based mathematical model which incorporates the changing distribution of contacts in the susceptible population, we demonstrate that new pandemic strains of influenza are expected to shift the epidemiological landscape in exactly this way.Our analysis provides a simple demographic explanation for the age bias observed for H1N1/09 attack rates, and suggests that this bias may shift in coming months. These results have significant implications for the allocation of public health resources for H1N1/09 and future influenza pandemics.

  20. Too much information: visual research ethics in the age of wearable cameras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Tze Ming; Cornish, Flora; Tarr, Jen

    2015-06-01

    When everything you see is data, what ethical principles apply? This paper argues that first-person digital recording technologies challenge traditional institutional approaches to research ethics, but that this makes ethics governance more important, not less so. We review evolving ethical concerns across four fields: Visual ethics; ubiquitous computing; mobile health; and grey literature from applied or market research. Collectively, these bodies of literature identify new challenges to traditional notions of informed consent, anonymity, confidentiality, privacy, beneficence and maleficence. Challenges come from the ever-increasing power, breadth and multi-functional integration of recording technologies, and the ubiquity and normalization of their use by participants. Some authors argue that these evolving relationships mean that institutional ethics governance procedures are irrelevant or no longer apply. By contrast, we argue that the fundamental principles of research ethics frameworks have become even more important for the protection of research participants, and that institutional frameworks need to adapt to keep pace with the ever-increasing power of recording technologies and the consequent risks to privacy. We conclude with four recommendations for efforts to ensure that contemporary visual recording research is held appropriately accountable to ethical standards: (i) minimizing the detail, scope, integration and retention of captured data, and limiting its accessibility; (ii) formulating an approach to ethics that takes in both the 'common rule' approaches privileging anonymity and confidentiality together with principles of contextual judgement and consent as an ongoing process; (iii) developing stronger ethical regulation of research outside academia; (iv) engaging the public and research participants in the development of ethical guidelines.

  1. [Age differences of event-related potentials in the perception of successive and spacial components of auditory information].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portnova, G V; Martynova, O V; Ivanitskiĭ, G A

    2014-01-01

    The perception of spatial and successive contexts of auditory information develops during human ontogeny. We compared event-related potentials (ERPs) recorded in 5- to 6-year-old children (N = 15) and adults (N = 15) in response to a digital series with omitted digits to explore age differences in the perception of successive auditory information. In addition, ERPs in response to the sound of falling drops delivered binaurally were obtained to examine the spatial context of auditory information. The ERPs obtained from the omitted digits significantly differed in the amplitude and latency of the N200 and P300 components between adults and children, which supports the hypothesis that the perception of a successive auditory structure is less automated in children compared with adults. Although no significant differences were found in adults, the sound of falling drops presented to the left ears of children elicited ERPs with earlier latencies and higher amplitudes of P300 and N400 components in the right temporal area. Stimulation of the right ear caused increasing amplitude of the N100 component in children. Thus, the observed differences in auditory ERPs of children and adults reflect developmental changes in the perception of spatial and successive auditory information.

  2. Confabulation in healthy aging is related to interference of overlearned, semantically similar information on episodic memory recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla Barba, Gianfranco; Attali, Eve; La Corte, Valentina

    2010-07-01

    Normal aging is characterized by reduced performance on tasks of long-term memory. Older adults (OA) not only show reduced performance on tasks of recall and recognition memory, but also, compared to young adults (YA), are more vulnerable to memory distortions. In this study we describe the performance of a group of OA and a group of YA on the recall of three different types of story: a previously unknown story, a well-known fairy tale (Sleeping Beauty), and a modified well-known fairy tale (Little Red Riding Hood is not eaten by the wolf). The aim of our study was to test the hypothesis that in OA strongly represented, overlearned information interferes with episodic recall-that is, the retrieval of specific, unique past episodes. OA produced significantly more confabulations than YA and in particular in the recall of the modified fairy tale. Our findings indicate that the interference of strongly represented, overlearned information in episodic memory recall is implicated in the production of confabulations in OA. This effect is particularly prominent when the to-be remembered episodic information shows strong semantic similarities with preexisting, overlearned information.

  3. Personality, Demographics, and Acculturation in North American Refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smither, Robert; Rodriquez-Giegling, Marta

    This study predicts willingness of refugees to acculturate to North American society based on selected demographic and psychological variables. The hypothesis is that most previous research on refugee adaptation has overemphasized sociological variables such as age, time in the country, and level of education and underemphasized psychological…

  4. Hyperstate matrix models : extending demographic state spaces to higher dimensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roth, G.; Caswell, H.

    2016-01-01

    1. Demographic models describe population dynamics in terms of the movement of individuals among states (e.g. size, age, developmental stage, parity, frailty, physiological condition). Matrix population models originally classified individuals by a single characteristic. This was enlarged to two cha

  5. Wildlife value orientations and demographics in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaske, J.J.; Jacobs, M.H.; Sijtsma, M.T.J.

    2011-01-01

    This article identified the Dutch publics’ value orientations toward wildlife and examined differences in value orientations among four demographic characteristics: age, sex, current residence, and education. The two wildlife value orientations—domination and mutualism—were based on prior theorizing

  6. Socio-demographic, psychosocial and home-environmental attributes associated with adults' domestic screen time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owen Neville

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sedentary behaviors (involving prolonged sitting time are associated with deleterious health consequences, independent of (lack of physical activity. To inform interventions, correlates of prevalent sedentary behaviors need to be identified. We examined associations of socio-demographic, home-environmental and psychosocial factors with adults' TV viewing time and leisure-time Internet use; and whether psychosocial and environmental correlates differed according to gender, age and educational attainment. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in Ghent, Belgium, between March and May 2010. Respondents to a mail-out survey (n = 419; 20-65 years; mean age 48.5 [12.1] years; 47.3% men completed a questionnaire on sedentary behaviors and their potential socio-demographic, psychosocial and home environmental correlates. Statistical analyses were performed using multiple linear regression models. Results The independent variables explained 31% of the variance in TV viewing time and 38% of the variance in leisure-time Internet use. Higher education, greater perceived pros of and confidence about reducing TV time were negatively associated with TV viewing time; older age, higher body mass index, larger TV set size and greater perceived cons of reducing TV time showed positive associations. Perceived pros of and confidence about reducing Internet use were negatively associated with leisure-time Internet use; higher education, number of computers in the home, positive family social norms about Internet use and perceived cons of reducing Internet use showed positive associations. None of the socio-demographic factors moderated these associations. Conclusions Educational level, age, self-efficacy and pros/cons were the most important correlates identified in this study. If further cross-sectional and longitudinal research can confirm these findings, tailored interventions focusing on both psychosocial and environmental factors in

  7. Demographic Characteristics of World Class Jamaican Sprinters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachael Irving

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The dominance of Jamaican sprinters in international meets remains largely unexplained. Proposed explanations include demographics and favorable physiological characteristics. The aim of this study was to analyze the demographic characteristics of world class Jamaican sprinters. Questionnaires administered to 120 members of the Jamaican national team and 125 controls elicited information on place of birth, language, ethnicity, and distance and method of travel to school. Athletes were divided into three groups based on athletic disciplines: sprint (s: 100–400 m; n=80, jump and throw (j/t: jump and throw; n=25 and, middle distance (md: 800–3000 m; n=15. Frequency differences between groups were assessed using chi-square tests. Regional or county distribution of sprint differed from that of middle distance (P<0.001 but not from that of jump and throw athletes (P=0.24 and that of controls (P=0.59. Sprint athletes predominately originated from the Surrey county (s = 46%, j/t = 37%, md = 17, C = 53%, whilst middle distance athletes exhibited excess from the Middlesex county (md = 60%. The language distribution of all groups showed uniformity with a predominance of English. A higher proportion of middle distance and jump and throw athletes walked to school (md = 80%, j/t = 52%, s = 10%, and C = 12% and travelled greater distances to school. In conclusion, Jamaica’s success in sprinting may be related to environmental and social factors.

  8. 3D face analysis for demographic biometrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokola, Ryan A [ORNL; Mikkilineni, Aravind K [ORNL; Boehnen, Chris Bensing [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Despite being increasingly easy to acquire, 3D data is rarely used for face-based biometrics applications beyond identification. Recent work in image-based demographic biometrics has enjoyed much success, but these approaches suffer from the well-known limitations of 2D representations, particularly variations in illumination, texture, and pose, as well as a fundamental inability to describe 3D shape. This paper shows that simple 3D shape features in a face-based coordinate system are capable of representing many biometric attributes without problem-specific models or specialized domain knowledge. The same feature vector achieves impressive results for problems as diverse as age estimation, gender classification, and race classification.

  9. Trust and its Relationship to Demographic Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asghar Mirfardi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Social trust is the main theme in the social life. Trust is “the expectation that arises within a community of regular, honest and cooperative behavior, based on commonly shared norms”. Development, social trust and security are intertwined categories and have interaction to each other. Social trust, as a main factor in social capital, provide social context for developmental programs. This study, examine the affect of Demographic factors on the social trust to others. As social trust is a key factor in social relationship, this study is needed to evaluate such factor according to demographic factors. Approach: This study has been done on existing data about Iranian values and attitudes. Some factors such as gender, age, education level, job situation, marital situation have been studied in this study. Some of these variables such as education, correspondence to development level, especially in social development. This study is done via documental method (archive and Documental data about mentioned themes and second analysis of The Iranian National Values and attitudes Survey (2000. Results: Findings of this study indicated that there is significant relationship between all of independent variables (Gender, age, education level, job situation, marital situation and social trust to families and relatives, there is significant relationship between variables such as gender, education level, job situation, marital situation (independent variables and social trust to friends. Analyzing the data showed that, the residents of less and more developed cities have different situation in trust. Conclusion/Recommendations: This study introduces three types of trust upon the development level of societies. Trust in Iran is an example of trust structure in developing societies.

  10. Demographic characteristics of exploited tropical lutjanids: a comparative analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Heupel, Michelle R.; Williams, Ashley A.; David J. Welch; Campbell R. Davies; Penny, Ann; Jacob P Kritzer; Marriott, Ross J.; Bruce D. Mapstone

    2010-01-01

    Demographic parameters from seven exploited coral reef lutjanid species were compared as a case study of the implications of intrafamily variation in life histories for multispecies harvest management. Modal lengths varied by 4 cm among four species (Lutjanus fulviflamma, L. vitta, L. carponotatus, L. adetii), which were at least 6 cm smaller than the modal lengths of the largest species (L. gibbus, Symphorus nematophorus, Aprion virescens). Modal ages, indicating ages of full selection to...

  11. Demographic patterns and trends in Central Ghana: baseline indicators from the Kintampo Health and Demographic Surveillance System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth Owusu-Agyei

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The dearth of health and demographic data in sub-Saharan Africa from vital registration systems and its impact on effective planning for health and socio-economic development is widely documented. Health and Demographic Surveillance Systems have the capacity to address the dearth of quality data for policy making in resource-poor settings. Objective: This article demonstrates the utility of the Kintampo Health and Demographic Surveillance System (KHDSS by showing the patterns and trends of population change from 2005 to 2009 in the Kintampo North Municipality and Kintampo South districts of Ghana through data obtained from the KHDSS biannual update rounds. Design: Basic demographic rates for fertility, mortality, and migration were computed by year. School enrolment was computed as a percentage in school by age and sex for 6–18 year-olds. Socio-economic status was derived by use of Principal Components Analysis on household assets. Results: Over the period, an earlier fertility decline was reversed in 2009; mortality declined slightly for all age-groups, and a significant share of working-age population was lost through out-migration. Large minorities of children of school-going age are not in school. Socio-economic factors are shown to be important determinants of fertility and mortality. Conclusion : Strengthening the capacity of HDSSs could offer added value to evidence-driven policymaking at local level.

  12. The influence of age, muscle strength and speed of information processing on recovery responses to external perturbations in gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senden, R; Savelberg, H H C M; Adam, J; Grimm, B; Heyligers, I C; Meijer, K

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic imbalance caused by external perturbations to gait can successfully be counteracted by adequate recovery responses. The current study investigated how the recovery response is moderated by age, walking speed, muscle strength and speed of information processing. The gait pattern of 50 young and 45 elderly subjects was repeatedly perturbed at 20% and 80% of the first half of the swing phase using the Timed Rapid impact Perturbation (TRiP) set-up. Recovery responses were identified using 2D cameras. Muscular factors (dynamometer) and speed of information processing parameters (computer-based reaction time task) were determined. The stronger, faster reacting and faster walking young subjects recovered more often by an elevating strategy than elderly subjects. Twenty three per cent of the differences in recovery responses were explained by a combination of walking speed (B=-13.85), reaction time (B=-0.82), maximum extension strength (B=0.01) and rate of extension moment development (B=0.19). The recovery response that subjects employed when gait was perturbed by the TRiP set-up was modified by several factors; the individual contribution of walking speed, muscle strength and speed of information processing was small. Insight into remaining modifying factors is needed to assist and optimise fall prevention programmes.

  13. Information

    CERN Document Server

    Ritchie, L David

    1991-01-01

    This volume thoroughly covers the sub-field of information, and is one of the first in a series which synthesizes the research literature on major concepts in the field of communication. Each concise volume includes a research definition (concept explication) and presents a state-of-the-art analysis of theory and empirical findings related to the concept. After defining the word `information', the author contrasts non-linear and reflexive ideas about human communication with linear perspectives. Information is equated with uncertainty. The result presents a pattern for the process of conceptua

  14. Coping behaviour of female teachers: Demographic determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Chaturvedi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The study investigates the role of certain demographic variables in determining stress-coping behavior of female teachers. Materials and Methods: The sample consists of 150 female teachers selected by stratified sampling method from various schools of Bhopal. Stress-coping behavior was measured with the help of a subscale of ′The Occupational Stress Indicator′ (Wendy Lord, 1993 consisting of 28 items encompassing six dimensions of coping strategies i.e. Logics, Involvement, Social Support, Task Strategies, Time Management and Home and Work Relations. The scores of the subjects were compared in terms of marital status, age, and level of teaching with the help of ′t′ test and ′F′ test was used for comparing experience. Results: Marital status, age, and experience were found to be significant determinants of stress-coping, whereas the sores did not differ significantly on the basis of level of teaching. Conclusion: Married teachers in the age range of 40-60 years, with higher experience can cope better with the job stress than their counterparts.

  15. Local Public Libraries Serve Important Functions as Meeting Places, but Demographic Variables Appear Significant, Suggesting a Need for Extensive Further Research. A Review of: Aabø, S., Audunson, R., & Vårheim, A. (2010. How do public libraries function as meeting places? Library & Information Science Research, 32(1, 16-26. doi: 10.1016/j.lisr.2009.07.008.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Laval Hunsucker

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – The investigators hoped to gain an understanding of the extent to which local public libraries are used by their visitors as meeting places, and in what ways. Furthermore, they sought to determine whether certain demographic variables correlate with variations in these ways of using the library. Finally, they were looking for evidence of a relationship between the degree of the subjects’ general community involvement on the one hand, and their participation in various types of meetings in the library on the other.Design – Questionnaire-based telephone survey.Setting – Oslo, Norway.Subjects – 750 adult residents (eighteen years or older from 3 of Oslo’s 15 boroughs.Methods – The researchers selected these boroughs (not identified in this article and referred to, unusually, as “townships” because they judged them to represent three demographically varying types of urban community. In March of 2006, a professional survey organization drew numbers at random from a database of telephone numbers in each borough, continuing until it had reached the desired number of 250 actual survey respondents, including cell phone users, for each borough. It weighted the sample according to gender and age, and administered the telephone interviews on the basis of a questionnaire which the researchers had designed to yield quantitative data for ten independent, and seven dependent, variables. Interviewers asked the respondents to answer questions on the basis of their entire recollected personal history of public library use, rather than during a specific defined period.Six of the independent variables were demographic: borough of residence, occupational category, age category, educational level, cultural/linguistic background (dichotomous: either non-Norwegian or Norwegian, and household income category. The other four were: level of participation in local activities, degree of involvement in community improvement activities, degree to

  16. Money attitude of Ukrainian young people: socio-demographic aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIANNA SIMKIV

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of research on social and demographic factors of Ukr health literacy, health culture, young adults, concepts of health and healthy lifestyle, motivations, forms of communication, learning methods ainian youth money attitudes. The aim of the research is to identify dependency between money attitudes of the young people and such social and demographic characteristics as sex, age, education, place of residence, place of employment, employment position and level of income. The research required application of survey and questionnaire methods as well as statistical methods of results processing.

  17. Association between contraceptive use and socio-demographic factors of young fecund women in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Ahmed Zohirul; Rahman, Mosiur; Mostofa, Md Golam

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to explore the association between socio-demographic factors and contraceptive use among fecund women under 25years old. This study utilized a cross-sectional data (n=3744) extracted from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey 2011. Differences in the use of contraceptives by socio-demographic characteristics were assessed by χ(2) analyses. Binary logistic regression was used to identify the determinants of contraceptive use among young women. This study observed that 71% fecund women aged below 25years used contraceptives. Getting family planning (FP) methods from FP workers increases the likelihood of using contraceptives among young women because outreach activities by FP workers and accessibility of FP related information pave the way of using contraceptives. Husband-wife joint participation in decision making on health care increases the likelihood of using contraceptives. Participation of women in decision making on health care could be achieved by promoting higher education and gainful employment for women. Reproductive and sex education should be introduced in schools to prepare the young for healthy and responsible living. Moreover, policy makers should focus on developing negotiation skills in young women by creating educational and employment opportunities since husband-wife joint participation in decision making increases contraceptive use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Young adults' experiences of seeking online information about diabetes and mental health in the age of social media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergie, Gillian; Hilton, Shona; Hunt, Kate

    2016-12-01

    The Internet is a primary source of health information for many. Since the widespread adoption of social media, user-generated health-related content has proliferated, particularly around long-term health issues such as diabetes and common mental health disorders (CMHDs). To explore perceptions and experiences of engaging with health information online in a sample of young adults familiar with social media environments and variously engaged in consuming user-generated content. Forty semi-structured interviews were conducted with young adults, aged 18-30, with experience of diabetes or CMHDs. Data were analysed following a thematic networks approach to explore key themes around online information-seeking and content consumption practices. Although participants primarily discussed well-rehearsed approaches to health information-seeking online, particularly reliance on search engines, their accounts also reflected active engagement with health-related content on social media sites. Navigating between professionally produced websites and user-generated content, many of the young adults seemed to appreciate different forms of health knowledge emanating from varied sources. Participants described negotiating health content based on social media practices and features and assessing content heuristically. Some also discussed habitual consumption of content related to their condition as integrated into their everyday social media use. Technologies such as Facebook, Twitter and YouTube offer opportunities to consume and assess content which users deem relevant and useful. As users and organizations continue to colonize social media platforms, opportunities are increasing for health communication and intervention. However, how such innovations are adopted is dependent on their alignment with users' expectations and consumption practices. ©2015 The Authors. Health Expectations. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Doctoral Accounting Candidates: A Profile of Demographics and Perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backmon, Ida Robinson

    1998-01-01

    Presents information on minority doctoral students in accounting, drawing on surveys completed by 47 such students. Outlines demographic characteristics, and identifies respondents' rankings of costs and benefits of pursuing a doctorate in accounting. Most respondents were professionally certified and were interested in academic careers. (SLD)

  20. Demographic Trends in the European Union: Political and Strategic Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-01

    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), in Laxenburg, Austria, concluded that the current...Delays in Childbearing make a Big Difference for the Birth Rate,” International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis , Office of Information, 27 March...its Demographic Evolution, Delays in Childbearing make a Big Difference for the Birth Rate.” International Institute for Applied Systems