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Sample records for demographic health survey

  1. Bolivia 1998: results from the Demographic and Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-09-01

    This document presents the results of the Bolivia Demographic and Health Survey (DHS), or Encuesta Nacional de Demografia y Salud 1998, conducted by the Instituto Nacional de Estadistica, La Paz, Bolivia, within the framework of the DHS Program of Macro International. Data were collected from 12,109 households and complete interviews were conducted with 11,187 women aged 15-49. A male survey was also conducted, which collected data from 3780 men aged 15-64. The information collected include the following: 1) general characteristics of the population, 2) fertility, 3) fertility preferences, 4) current contraceptive use, 5) contraception, 6) marital and contraceptive status, 7) postpartum variables, 8) infant mortality, 9) health: disease prevention and treatment, and 10) nutritional status: anthropometric measures.

  2. Nicaragua 1998: results from the Demographic and Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-06-01

    This article presents summary statistics gathered from the 1998 Nicaragua Demographic and Health Survey (Encuesta Nicaraguense de Demografia y Salud 1998, ENDESA-98). Data from the nationally representative ENDESA-98 were collected from 11,528 households. Interviews were conducted with 13,634 women aged 15-49 years and 2912 men aged 15-59 years between December 1, 1997, and May 31, 1998. The statistics presented were on fertility trends, fertility differentials, age-specific fertility, fertility preferences, current contraceptive use, contraception, marital and contraceptive status, differentials in median age at first birth, postpartum variables, and infant mortality. In addition, statistical data on the health and nutritional status of children were also presented.

  3. Determinants Of Vaccination Coverage In Malawi: Evidence From The Demographic And Health Surveys

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    Munthali, Alister C.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to identify groups of children in Malawi who are less or not reached by vaccination services by using data from the Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in Malawi in 1992, 1996, 2000 and 2004. These surveys have shown that the proportion of children aged 12–23 months who were fully vaccinated by 12 months of age has been decreasing: it was 67% in 1992, then 55%, 54% and 51% in 1996, 2000 and 2004, respectively. The review has also shown that birth order of the...

  4. Access to sanitation and violence against women: evidence from Demographic Health Survey (DHS) data in Kenya.

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    Winter, Samantha C; Barchi, Francis

    2016-01-01

    Violence against women (VAW) is a serious public health and human rights concern. Literature suggests sanitation conditions in developing countries may be potential neighborhood-level risk factors contributing to VAW, and that this association may be more important in highly socially disorganized neighborhoods. This study analyzed 2008 Kenya Demographic Health Survey's data and found women who primarily practice open defecation (OD), particularly in disorganized communities, had higher odds of experiencing recent non-partner violence. This study provides quantitative evidence of an association between sanitation and VAW that is attracting increasing attention in media and scholarly literature throughout Kenya and other developing countries.

  5. Measuring population health: costs of alternative survey approaches in the Nouna Health and Demographic Surveillance System in rural Burkina Faso

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    Henrike Lietz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are more than 40 Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS sites in 19 different countries. The running costs of HDSS sites are high. The financing of HDSS activities is of major importance, and adding external health surveys to the HDSS is challenging. To investigate the ways of improving data quality and collection efficiency in the Nouna HDSS in Burkina Faso, the stand-alone data collection activities of the HDSS and the Household Morbidity Survey (HMS were integrated, and the paper-based questionnaires were consolidated into a single tablet-based questionnaire, the Comprehensive Disease Assessment (CDA. Objective: The aims of this study are to estimate and compare the implementation costs of the two different survey approaches for measuring population health. Design: All financial costs of stand-alone (HDSS and HMS and integrated (CDA surveys were estimated from the perspective of the implementing agency. Fixed and variable costs of survey implementation and key cost drivers were identified. The costs per household visit were calculated for both survey approaches. Results: While fixed costs of survey implementation were similar for the two survey approaches, there were considerable variations in variable costs, resulting in an estimated annual cost saving of about US$45,000 under the integrated survey approach. This was primarily because the costs of data management for the tablet-based CDA survey were considerably lower than for the paper-based stand-alone surveys. The cost per household visit from the integrated survey approach was US$21 compared with US$25 from the stand-alone surveys for collecting the same amount of information from 10,000 HDSS households. Conclusions: The CDA tablet-based survey method appears to be feasible and efficient for collecting health and demographic data in the Nouna HDSS in rural Burkina Faso. The possibility of using the tablet-based data collection platform to improve the quality

  6. Comparing two survey methods of measuring health-related indicators: Lot Quality Assurance Sampling and Demographic Health Surveys.

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    Anoke, Sarah C; Mwai, Paul; Jeffery, Caroline; Valadez, Joseph J; Pagano, Marcello

    2015-12-01

    Two common methods used to measure indicators for health programme monitoring and evaluation are the demographic and health surveys (DHS) and lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS); each one has different strengths. We report on both methods when utilised in comparable situations. We compared 24 indicators in south-west Uganda, where data for prevalence estimations were collected independently for the two methods in 2011 (LQAS: n = 8876; DHS: n = 1200). Data were stratified (e.g. gender and age) resulting in 37 comparisons. We used a two-sample two-sided Z-test of proportions to compare both methods. The average difference between LQAS and DHS for 37 estimates was 0.062 (SD = 0.093; median = 0.039). The average difference among the 21 failures to reject equality of proportions was 0.010 (SD = 0.041; median = 0.009); among the 16 rejections, it was 0.130 (SD = 0.010, median = 0.118). Seven of the 16 rejections exhibited absolute differences of 0.10 and 0.20 (mean = 0.261, SD = 0.083). There is 75.7% agreement across the two surveys. Both methods yield regional results, but only LQAS provides information at less granular levels (e.g. the district level) where managerial action is taken. The cost advantage and localisation make LQAS feasible to conduct more frequently, and provides the possibility for real-time health outcomes monitoring. © 2015 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Interpersonal communication and contraception: Insights and evidences from Bangladesh demographic and health survey, 2011.

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    Raut, Manoj Kumar

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the role of exposure to mass media and interpersonal communication in predicting the current use of contraception in Bangladesh. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were carried out using the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS), 2011 data to explore the association between communication and the current use of contraception. After adjusting the related socioeconomic and demographic factors, the mass media did not seem to have any role in predicting contraceptive use behavior while the findings revealed that interpersonal communication [prevalence ratio (PR): 1.0984, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.0801-1.1170] is a strong positive predictor of the current contraceptive use. It is a well-known fact that mass media performs only the knowledge function while interpersonal communication performs an additional function of persuasion. This analysis corroborates the statement that the role of interpersonal communication is quite important in predicting contraceptive use.

  8. MATERNAL AND INFANT HEALTH SECTION OF THE DEMOGRAPHIC AND HEALTH SURVEY REPORT OF GHANA, 2008: A COMMENTARY

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    Samuel Adu-gyamfi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article is basically a commentary on some sections on infant and maternalhealthcare of the 2008 demographic and health survey of Ghana. The attention of bothpolicy makers and academics are drawn to the need to ensure the expansion of thematernal and infant healthcare in Ghana. In same commentary, attention of readershave been drawn to the proclivity of the free maternal health policy to positively shapematernal and infant care in Ghana.

  9. Trends and differentials of adolescent motherhood in Ethiopia: evidences from 2005 Demographic and Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurmu, Eshetu; Dejene, Tariku

    2012-12-01

    Adolescent childbearing has undesirable consequences. Dropping out of school, high rates of abortion, maternal mortality and morbidity are noted consequences of adolescent pregnancy and childbearing. The objective of this study, which is based on the 2005 Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey data, is to analyze the levels, trends and differentials of adolescent motherhood in Ethiopia. A multilevel logistic regression was fitted to analyze the determinants of adolescent childbearing. Adolescent motherhood in Ethiopia has shown a generally declining trend over time. The decline was more marked in the periods following the adoption of the national population policy in the country. Further, it was lower in urban areas and among women who have secondary and above level of education, but higher among women not working and those engaged in agricultural activities. Housewives and women working in the agricultural sector should be given attention to reduce the risks and consequences of adolescent motherhood.

  10. Indicators of nutritional status in Turkish preschool children: results of Turkish Demographic and Health Survey 1993.

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    Tunçbilek, E; Unalan, T; Coşkun, T

    1996-04-01

    The Turkish Demographic and Health Survey (TDHS), conducted in 1993, provided data on the magnitude of malnutrition in a sample of 3152 preschool children from five geographical regions, and on its causal and conditioning factors. Stunting was found to be the dominant form of malnutrition (21 per cent). Altogether 10 per cent of children were underweight and 3 per cent were wasted. There were urban-rural (16 v. 27 per cent, P rank of children, birth spacing, number of children in an individual family, family size, and mother's welfare and hygiene indices. The need for an intersectoral approach for the development of remedial programs to reduce the effect of these factors and for periodic assessment of nutritional status of preschool children is stressed.

  11. 25-year trends and socio-demographic differences in response rates: Finnish adult health behaviour survey.

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    Tolonen, Hanna; Helakorpi, Satu; Talala, Kirsi; Helasoja, Ville; Martelin, Tuija; Prättälä, Ritva

    2006-01-01

    When estimating population level changes in health indicators, the declining response rate, especially if also the characteristics of non-respondents are changing may bias the outcome. There is evidence that survey response rates are declining in many countries. It is also known that respondents and non-respondents differ in their socio-economic and demographic status as well as in their health and health behaviours. There is no information about the changes in the differences between respondents and non-respondents over time. Our purpose was to investigate the changes over time in the differences between respondents and non-respondents in respect to their sex, age, marital status and educational level. The data from the Finnish Adult Health Behaviour Survey (1978-2002) was used. The response rate declined over the past 25 years for both men and women in all age groups. The decline was faster among men than women, and also faster in younger age groups than older age groups. There is a marked difference in the response rate between married and non-married persons but it did not change over time. Also the response rate between different educational levels differed for both men and women, and this difference increased over the years. The declining response rate and at the same time occurring change in the non-respondent characteristics will decrease the representativeness of the results, limit the comparability of the results with other surveys, increase the bias of the trend estimates and limit the comparability of the results between population groups.

  12. Socio-demographic and reproductive health profile of women who experienced signs of obstetric fistula: Results from Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey (PDHS) 2006-2007.

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    Khan, Sadaf; Zaheer, Sidra

    2017-08-18

    to examine the socio-demographic profile of women experiencing signs of obstetric fistula and factors contributing to the development of this condition in Pakistan. secondary data analysis of Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey 2006-07, which for the first time measured signs of obstetric fistula, using a questionnaire at a population level. For the present study, questions directly related to obstetric fistula signs were used to construct a dependent variable. Data were analysed by descriptive and logistic regression analysis, to examine factors associated with development of fistula. among women of reproductive age (n = 9134, aged 15-49 years), some 277 (3.0%, 30 per 1000 women who ever gave birth) experienced obstetric fistula signs, whereas 103 (1.1% of all women) were still experiencing the condition at the time of survey. In a logistic regression model, women from the Punjab region (OR = 5.67, 95%CI = 2.10-15.31), women who delivered by caesarean section (OR = 1.91, 95% CI = 1.06-3.42) and reported having complications during pregnancy were more likely to develop obstetric fistula (OR = 1.96, 95%CI = 1.19-3.16). Obstetric fistula is one of the neglected public and reproductive health concerns in Pakistan. To eliminate this preventable tragedy, there is a need for better emergency obstetric care facilities and the availability of a fistula repair service throughout the country. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Association between Maternal and Child Dietary Diversity: An Analysis of the Ghana Demographic and Health Survey.

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    Dickson Abanimi Amugsi

    Full Text Available This study examined the association between maternal and child dietary diversity in a population-based national sample in Ghana.The data for this analysis are from the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey. We used data obtained from 1187 dyads comprised of mothers' ages 15-49 and their youngest child (ages 6-36 months. Maternal and child dietary diversity scores (DDS were created based on the mother's recall of her own and her child's consumption of 15 food groups, during the 24 hours prior to the in-home survey. The same food groups were used to compose both maternal and child DDS. Linear regression was used to assess the relationship between the predicted outcome--child DDS--and maternal DDS, taking into account child age and sex, maternal factors (age, education, occupation, literacy, empowerment, number of antenatal visits as an indicator of health care use, household Wealth Index, and urban/rural place of residence.There was a statistically significant positive association between child and maternal DDS, after adjusting for all other variables. A difference of one food group in mother's consumption was associated with a difference of 0.72 food groups in the child's food consumption (95% CI: 0.63, 0.82. Also, statistically significant positive associations were observed such that higher child DDS was associated with older child age, and with greater women's empowerment.The results show a significant positive association between child and maternal DD, after accounting for the influence of child, maternal and household level factors. Since the likely path of influence is that maternal DDS impacts child DDS, public health efforts to improve child health may be strengthened by promoting maternal DDS due to its potential for a widened effect on the entire family.

  14. Determinants of suboptimal breastfeeding practices in Nigeria: evidence from the 2008 demographic and health survey.

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    Ogbo, Felix A; Agho, Kingsley E; Page, Andrew

    2015-03-18

    In Nigeria, suboptimal breastfeeding practices are contributing to the burden of childhood diseases and mortality. This study identified the determinants of key suboptimal breastfeeding practices among children 0-23 months in Nigeria. Data on 10,225 children under-24 months were obtained from the 2008 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS). Socio-economic, health service and individual factors associated with key breastfeeding indicators (early initiation of breastfeeding, exclusive breastfeeding, predominant breastfeeding and bottle feeding) were investigated using multiple logistic regression analyses. Among infants 0-5 months of age, 14% [95% confidence Interval (CI): 13%, 15%] were exclusively breastfed and 48% [95% CI: 46, 50%] were predominantly breastfed. Among children aged 0-23 months, 38% [95% CI 36, 39%] were breastfed within the first hour of birth, and 15% [95% CI: 14, 17%] were bottle-fed. Early initiation of breastfeeding was associated with higher maternal education, frequent antenatal care (ANC) visits and birth interval but deliveries at a health facility with caesarean section was associated with delayed initiation of breastfeeding. Educated mothers, older mothers and mothers from wealthier households exclusively breastfeed their babies. The risk for bottle feeding was higher among educated mothers and fathers, and women from wealthier households including mothers who made frequent ANC visits. Socio-economic and health service factors were associated with suboptimal breastfeeding practices in Nigeria. To improve the current breastfeeding practices, breastfeeding initiatives should target all mothers - particularly low SES mothers - including, national and sub-national health policies that ensure improved access to maternal health services, and improvements to baby friendly hospital and community initiatives for mothers.

  15. Measuring infertility in populations: constructing a standard definition for use with demographic and reproductive health surveys.

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    Mascarenhas, Maya N; Cheung, Hoiwan; Mathers, Colin D; Stevens, Gretchen A

    2012-08-31

    Infertility is a significant disability, yet there are no reliable estimates of its global prevalence. Studies on infertility prevalence define the condition inconsistently, rendering the comparison of studies or quantitative summaries of the literature difficult. This study analyzed key components of infertility to develop a definition that can be consistently applied to globally available household survey data. We proposed a standard definition of infertility and used it to generate prevalence estimates using 53 Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS). The analysis was restricted to the subset of DHS that contained detailed fertility information collected through the reproductive health calendar. We performed sensitivity analyses for key components of the definition and used these to inform our recommendations for each element of the definition. Exposure type (couple status, contraceptive use, and intent), exposure time, and outcomes were key elements of the definition that we proposed. Our definition produced estimates that ranged from 0.6% to 3.4% for primary infertility and 8.7% to 32.6% for secondary infertility. Our sensitivity analyses showed that using an exposure measure of five years is less likely to misclassify fertile unions as infertile. Additionally, using a current, rather than continuous, measure of contraceptive use over five years resulted in a median relative error in secondary infertility of 20.7% (interquartile range of relative error [IQR]: 12.6%-26.9%), while not incorporating intent produced a corresponding error in secondary infertility of 58.2% (IQR: 44.3%-67.9%). In order to estimate the global burden of infertility, prevalence estimates using a consistent definition need to be generated. Our analysis provided a recommended definition that could be applied to widely available global household data. We also summarized potential biases that should be considered when making estimates of infertility prevalence using household survey data.

  16. Geovisualization to support the exploration of large health and demographic survey data

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    Koua Etien L

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Survey data are increasingly abundant from many international projects and national statistics. They are generally comprehensive and cover local, regional as well as national levels census in many domains including health, demography, human development, and economy. These surveys result in several hundred indicators. Geographical analysis of such large amount of data is often a difficult task and searching for patterns is particularly a difficult challenge. Geovisualization research is increasingly dealing with the exploration of patterns and relationships in such large datasets for understanding underlying geographical processes. One of the attempts has been to use Artificial Neural Networks as a technology especially useful in situations where the numbers are vast and the relationships are often unclear or even hidden. Results We investigate ways to integrate computational analysis based on a Self-Organizing Map neural network, with visual representations of derived structures and patterns in a framework for exploratory visualization to support visual data mining and knowledge discovery. The framework suggests ways to explore the general structure of the dataset in its multidimensional space in order to provide clues for further exploration of correlations and relationships. Conclusion In this paper, the proposed framework is used to explore a demographic and health survey data. Several graphical representations (information spaces are used to depict the general structure and clustering of the data and get insight about the relationships among the different variables. Detail exploration of correlations and relationships among the attributes is provided. Results of the analysis are also presented in maps and other graphics.

  17. Determinants of health insurance ownership among women in Kenya: evidence from the 2008–09 Kenya demographic and health survey

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    2014-01-01

    Background The Government of Kenya is making plans to implement a social health insurance program by transforming the National Hospital Insurance Fund (NHIF) into a universal health coverage program. The objective of this study was to examine the determinants associated with health insurance ownership among women in Kenya. Methods Data came from the 2008–09 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey, a nationally representative survey. The sample comprised 8,435 women aged 15–49 years. Descriptive statistics and multivariable logistic regression analysis were used to describe the characteristics of the sample and to identify factors associated with health insurance ownership. Results Being employed in the formal sector, being married, exposure to the mass media, having secondary education or higher, residing in households in the middle or rich wealth index categories and residing in a female-headed household were associated with having health insurance. However, region of residence was associated with a lower likelihood of having insurance coverage. Women residing in Central (OR = 0.4; p insured compared to their counterparts in Nairobi province. Conclusions As the Kenyan government transforms the NHIF into a universal health program, it is important to implement a program that will increase equity and access to health care services among the poor and vulnerable groups. PMID:24678655

  18. Proximate Determinants of Fertility in Zambia: Analysis of the 2007 Zambia Demographic and Health Survey

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    Mumbi Chola

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of proximate determinants in influencing fertility has been well documented worldwide. Bongaarts’ aggregate model of the proximate determinants (which focuses on marriage, contraception, abortion, and sterility has been widely used to analyse the influence of proximate determinants on fertility. In Zambia, however, there is limited understanding of their effects. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the effect of proximate determinants of fertility in Zambia using Bongaarts’ model. This was a cross-sectional analysis of women’s data from the 2007 Zambia Demographic and Health Survey (ZDHS. A total of 7,146 women aged 15 to 49 years participated in the ZDHS. Bongaarts’ model was employed in the data analysis. Results showed that, overall, mean age was 27.8 years and rural-urban distribution was 56% and 44%, respectively. Marriage (40% and postpartum infecundity (22% accounted for the largest inhibiting effect on natural fertility from its biological maximum of 19.10. Contraception use accounted for only 3%. Therefore, in order to manage fertility in Zambia, policies and programmes should consider the effects of marriage, postpartum infecundity, and contraception on fertility. Without such targeted interventions, managing and maintaining population growth will remain a challenge in Zambia.

  19. Risk factors for low birth weight in Nigeria: evidence from the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey

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    Dahlui, Maznah; Azahar, Nazar; Oche, Oche Mansur; Aziz, Norlaili Abdul

    2016-01-01

    Background Low birth weight (LBW) continues to be the primary cause of infant morbidity and mortality. Objective This study was undertaken to identify the predictors of LBW in Nigeria. Design The data for this study was extracted from the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey conducted by the National Population Commission. Several questionnaires were used in the survey, some covering questions on pregnancy characteristics. The inclusion criteria include mothers who gave birth to a child...

  20. Risk factors for low birth weight in Nigeria: evidence from the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Dahlui, Maznah; Azahar, Nazar; Oche, Oche Mansur; Abdul Aziz, Norlaili

    2016-01-01

    Background: Low birth weight (LBW) continues to be the primary cause of infant morbidity and mortality.Objective: This study was undertaken to identify the predictors of LBW in Nigeria.Design: The data for this study was extracted from the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey conducted by the National Population Commission. Several questionnaires were used in the survey, some covering questions on pregnancy characteristics. The inclusion criteria include mothers who gave birth to a chil...

  1. Risk factors for low birth weight in Nigeria: evidence from the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Maznah Dahlui; Nazar Azahar; Oche Mansur Oche; Norlaili Abdul Aziz

    2016-01-01

    Background: Low birth weight (LBW) continues to be the primary cause of infant morbidity and mortality. Objective: This study was undertaken to identify the predictors of LBW in Nigeria. Design: The data for this study was extracted from the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey conducted by the National Population Commission. Several questionnaires were used in the survey, some covering questions on pregnancy characteristics. The inclusion criteria include mothers who gave birth to a ch...

  2. Risk factors for under-5 mortality: evidence from Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey, 2004-2011.

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    Abir, Tanvir; Agho, Kingsley Emwinyore; Page, Andrew Nicolas; Milton, Abul Hasnat; Dibley, Michael John

    2015-08-21

    The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with mortality in children under 5 years of age using a nationally representative sample of singleton births for the period of 2004-2011. Pooled 2004, 2007 and 2011 cross-sectional data sets of the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Surveys were analysed. The surveys used a stratified two-stage cluster sample of 16,722 singleton live-born infants of the most recent birth of a mother within a 3-year period. Outcome measures were neonatal mortality (0-30 days), postneonatal mortality (1-11 months), infant mortality (0-11 months), child mortality (1-4 years) and under-5 mortality (0-4 years). Survival information for 16,722 singleton live-born infants and 522 deaths of children child deaths and 522 under-5 deaths. Multiple variable analysis showed that, over a 7-year period, mortality reduced significantly by 48% for postneonatal deaths, 33% for infant deaths and 29% for under-5 deaths, but there was no significant reduction in neonatal deaths (adjusted OR (AOR) = 0.79, 95% CI 0.59 to 1.06) or child deaths (AOR = 1.00, 95% CI 0.51 to 1.94). The odds of neonatal, postneonatal, infant, child and under-5 deaths decreased significantly among mothers who used contraceptive and mothers who had other children aged 3 years or older. The risk of neonatal, postneonatal, infant, child and under-5 deaths was significantly higher in mothers who reported a previous death of a sibling. Our study suggests that family planning is needed to further reduce the overall rate of under-5 deaths in Bangladesh. To reduce childhood mortality, public health interventions that focus on child spacing and contraceptive use by mothers may be most effective. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  3. Why do women deliver at home? Multilevel modeling of Ethiopian National Demographic and Health Survey data.

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    Henock Yebyo

    Full Text Available Despite of the existing intensive efforts to improve maternal health in Ethiopia, the proportion of birth delivered at home remains high and is still the top priority among the national health threats.The study aimed to examine effects of individual women and community-level factors of women's decision on place of delivery in Ethiopia.Data were obtained from the nationally representative 2011 Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS which used a two-stage cluster sampling design with rural-urban and regions as strata. The EDHS collected data from a big sample size but our study focused on a sample of 7,908 women whose most recent birth was within five years preceding 2011 and 576 communities in which the women were living in. The data were analyzed using a two-level mixed-effects logistic regression to determine fixed-effects of individual- and community-level factors and random-intercept of between-cluster characteristics.In the current study, 6980 out of 7908 deliveries (88.3% took place at home. Lower educational levels (OR=2.74, 95%CI:1.84,4.70; p<0.0001, making no or only a limited number of ANC visits (OR=3.72,95%CI:2.85, 4.83; p<0.0001, non-exposure to media (OR=1.51, 95%CI 1.13, 2.01; p=0.004, higher parity (OR=2.68, 95%CI:1.96,3.68; p<0.0001, and perceived distance problem to reach health facilities (OR=1.29, 95%CI:1.03,1.62; p=0.022 were positively associated with home delivery. About 75% of the total variance in the odds of giving birth at home was accounted for the between-community differences of characteristics (ICC=0.75, p<0.0001. With regard to community-level characteristics, rural communities (OR=4.67, 95%CI:3.06,7.11; p<0.0001, pastoralist communities (OR=4.53, 95%CI:2.81,7.28; p<0.0001, communities with higher poverty levels (OR=1.49 95%CI:1.08,2.22; p=0.048, with lower levels of ANC utilization (OR=2.01, 95%CI:1.42,2.85; p<0.0001 and problem of distance to a health facility (OR=1.29, 95%CI:1.03,1.62; p=0.004 had a

  4. Forest Cover Associated with Improved Child Health and Nutrition: Evidence from the Malawi Demographic and Health Survey and Satellite Data

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    Johnson, Kiersten B.; Jacob, Anila; Brown, Molly Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Healthy forests provide human communities with a host of important ecosystem services, including the provision of food, clean water, fuel, and natural medicines. Yet globally, about 13 million hectares of forests are lost every year, with the biggest losses in Africa and South America. As biodiversity loss and ecosystem degradation due to deforestation continue at unprecedented rates, with concomitant loss of ecosystem services, impacts on human health remain poorly understood. Here, we use data from the 2010 Malawi Demographic and Health Survey, linked with satellite remote sensing data on forest cover, to explore and better understand this relationship. Our analysis finds that forest cover is associated with improved health and nutrition outcomes among children in Malawi. Children living in areas with net forest cover loss between 2000 and 2010 were 19% less likely to have a diverse diet and 29% less likely to consume vitamin A-rich foods than children living in areas with no net change in forest cover. Conversely, children living in communities with higher percentages of forest cover were more likely to consume vitamin A-rich foods and less likely to experience diarrhea. Net gain in forest cover over the 10-year period was associated with a 34% decrease in the odds of children experiencing diarrhea (P5.002). Given that our analysis relied on observational data and that there were potential unknown factors for which we could not account, these preliminary findings demonstrate only associations, not causal relationships, between forest cover and child health and nutrition outcomes. However, the findings raise concerns about the potential short- and long-term impacts of ongoing deforestation and ecosystem degradation on community health in Malawi, and they suggest that preventing forest loss and maintaining the ecosystems services of forests are important factors in improving human health and nutrition outcomes.

  5. Determining the effective coverage of maternal and child health services in Kenya, using demographic and health survey data sets: tracking progress towards universal health coverage.

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    Nguhiu, Peter K; Barasa, Edwine W; Chuma, Jane

    2017-04-01

    Effective coverage (EC) is a measure of health systems' performance that combines need, use and quality indicators. This study aimed to assess the extent to which the Kenyan health system provides effective and equitable maternal and child health services, as a means of tracking the country's progress towards universal health coverage. The Demographic Health Surveys (2003, 2008-2009 and 2014) and Service Provision Assessment surveys (2004, 2010) were the main sources of data. Indicators of need, use and quality for eight maternal and child health interventions were aggregated across interventions and economic quintiles to compute EC. EC has increased from 26.7% in 2003 to 50.9% in 2014, but remains low for the majority of interventions. There is a reduction in economic inequalities in EC with the highest to lowest wealth quintile ratio decreasing from 2.41 in 2003 to 1.65 in 2014, but maternal health services remain highly inequitable. Effective coverage of key maternal and child health services remains low, indicating that individuals are not receiving the maximum possible health gain from existing health services. There is an urgent need to focus on the quality and reach of maternal and child health services in Kenya to achieve the goals of universal health coverage. © 2017 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Utilization of maternal health services among young women in Kenya: Insights from the Kenya Demographic and Health Survey, 2003

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    Ikamari Lawrence

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Use of maternal health services is an effective means for reducing the risk of maternal morbidity and mortality, especially in places where the general health status of women is poor. This study was guided by the following objectives: 1 To determine the relationship between timing of first antenatal care (ANC visit and type of delivery assistance 2 To establish the determinants of timing of first ANC visit and type delivery assistance. Methods Data used were drawn from the 2003 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey, with a focus on young women aged 15-24. The dependent variables were: Timing of first ANC visit coded as "None"; "Late" and "Early", and type of delivery assistance coded as "None"; "Traditional Birth Attendant (TBA" and "Skilled professional". Control variables included: education, household wealth, urban-rural residence, ethnicity, parity, age at birth of the last child and marital status. Multivariate ordered logistic regression model was used. Results The study results show that place of residence, household wealth, education, ethnicity, parity, marital status and age at birth of the last child had strong influences on timing of first ANC visit and the type of delivery assistance received. The major finding is an association between early timing of the first ANC visit and use of skilled professionals at delivery. Conclusion This study confirms that timing of first antenatal care is indeed an important entry point for delivery care as young women who initiated antenatal care early were more likely to use skilled professional assistance at delivery than their counterparts who initiated ANC late. The results indicate that a large percentage of young pregnant women do not seek ANC during their first trimester as is recommended by the WHO, which may affect the type of assistance they receive during delivery. It is important that programs aimed at improving maternal health include targeting young women, especially

  7. Questions About Cervical and Breast Cancer Screening Knowledge, Practice, and Outcomes: A Review of Demographic and Health Surveys.

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    Viens, Laura; Perin, Doug; Senkomago, Virginia; Neri, Antonio; Saraiya, Mona

    2017-05-01

    United Nation's Sustainable Development Goals and the World Health Organization's Global Monitoring Framework support a strong global commitment to reducing the high burden of cervical and breast cancers among low- and middle-income countries. Strategies include vaccination, screening, and early diagnosis. Population-based surveys, such as those conducted by the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) Program, can collect the information needed to guide cancer control efforts in a standardized comparable manner. We identified and evaluated the breadth of breast and cervical cancer screening information that was collected by the DHS from 1984 through 2015. Then, we determined if these surveys currently provide the specific and measurable data about both the quantity and quality of cancer screening needed to guide national efforts to reduce the overall effects of cervical and breast cancers. We searched the DHS website to identify surveys conducted between the start of the DHS Program in 1984 and November 2015 that included questions about breast and cervical cancer screening. The relevant questions were extracted from the questionnaire, translated into English, and grouped by themes. Of the 90 countries where DHS surveys have been implemented, cervical cancer screening questions were included in 22 countries (24.4%) and breast cancer screening questions in 18 countries (20.0%). The common themes identified were disease knowledge, screening knowledge, screening practice, and screening outcomes. Most countries with survey questionnaires available for review addressed at least one aspect of screening practice (88.9% of cervical and 87.5% of breast), although few countries queried knowledge and outcomes. Questions that assess varied aspects of breast and cervical cancer screening have been incorporated into relatively few DHS surveys. The themes identified could guide the design of a standard set of questions for use in future population-based surveys and enable evaluation

  8. The Demographic Assessment for Health Literacy (DAHL): a new tool for estimating associations between health literacy and outcomes in national surveys.

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    Hanchate, Amresh D; Ash, Arlene S; Gazmararian, Julie A; Wolf, Michael S; Paasche-Orlow, Michael K

    2008-10-01

    To impute limited health literacy from commonly measured socio-demographic data and to compare it to the Short-Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (S-TOFHLA) for estimating the influence of limited health literacy on health status in the elderly. The Prudential Medicare Study assesses the S-TOFHLA score, leading to a "reference standard" classification of 25% of people with inadequate literacy; the National Health Interview Survey has no such assessment. We estimated a regression of S-TOFHLA on sex, age, years of schooling, and race/ethnicity in The Prudential Medicare Study data to derive a Demographic Assessment for Health Literacy (DAHL) score, and imputed inadequate literacy to the 25% with the lowest DAHL scores. Using regression, we then examined associations between several health status measures (including hypertension, diabetes, physical and mental SF-12) and inadequate literacy (imputed or test-based). Estimates of association using imputed inadequate literacy closely approximate those obtained using S-TOFHLA-based inadequate literacy for most outcomes examined. As few population surveys measure health literacy, the DAHL, a readily calculated health literacy proxy score, may be useful for expanding the scope of health literacy research in national survey data.

  9. Design and methodology of a mixed methods follow-up study to the 2014 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey

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    Staveteig, Sarah; Aryeetey, Richmond; Anie-Ansah, Michael; Ahiadeke, Clement; Ortiz, Ladys

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: The intended meaning behind responses to standard questions posed in large-scale health surveys are not always well understood. Systematic follow-up studies, particularly those which pose a few repeated questions followed by open-ended discussions, are well positioned to gauge stability and consistency of data and to shed light on the intended meaning behind survey responses. Such follow-up studies require extensive coordination and face challenges in protecting respondent confidentiality during the process of recontacting and reinterviewing participants. Objectives: We describe practical field strategies for undertaking a mixed methods follow-up study during a large-scale health survey. Methods: The study was designed as a mixed methods follow-up study embedded within the 2014 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey (GDHS). The study was implemented in 13 clusters. Android tablets were used to import reference data from the parent survey and to administer the questionnaire, which asked a mixture of closed- and open-ended questions on reproductive intentions, decision-making, and family planning. Results: Despite a number of obstacles related to recontacting respondents and concern about respondent fatigue, over 92 percent of the selected sub-sample were successfully recontacted and reinterviewed; all consented to audio recording. A confidential linkage between GDHS data, follow-up tablet data, and audio transcripts was successfully created for the purpose of analysis. Conclusions: We summarize the challenges in follow-up study design, including ethical considerations, sample size, auditing, filtering, successful use of tablets, and share lessons learned for future such follow-up surveys. PMID:28145817

  10. Girl child marriage and its effect on fertility in Pakistan: findings from Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey, 2006-2007.

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    Nasrullah, Muazzam; Muazzam, Sana; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Raj, Anita

    2014-04-01

    Child marriage (before 18 years) is prevalent in Pakistan, which disproportionately affects young girls in rural, low income and low education households. Our study aims to determine the association between early marriage and high fertility and poor fertility health indicators among young women in Pakistan beyond those attributed to social vulnerabilities. Nationally representative data from Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey, 2006-2007, a cross-sectional observational survey, were limited to ever-married women aged 20-24 years (n = 1,560; 15% of 10,023) to identify differences in poor fertility outcomes [high fertility (three or more childbirths); rapid repeat childbirth (marriage. Associations between child marriage and fertility outcomes were assessed by calculating adjusted odds ratios (AORs) using logistic regression models after controlling for demographics, social equity indicators (education, wealth index, rural residence), contraception use, marriage duration and culture-specific factors (husband's desire for more children, son preference). Overall, 50% of ever-married women aged 20-24 years in Pakistan were married before the age of 18 years. Girl child marriage was significantly (p marriage was significantly associated with high fertility (AOR 6.62; 95% CI 3.53-12.43), rapid repeat childbirth (AOR 2.88; 95% CI 1.83-4.54), unwanted pregnancy (AOR 2.90; 95% CI 1.75-4.79), and pregnancy termination (AOR 1.75; 95% CI 1.10-2.78). Girl child marriage affects half of all ever-married women aged 20-24 years in Pakistan, and increases their risk for high fertility and poor fertility health indicators, highlighting the need of increasing the age of marriage among women in Pakistan. Efforts to eliminate girl child marriage by strict law enforcement, promoting civil, sexual and reproductive health rights for women can help eliminate girl child marriage in Pakistan.

  11. Women's autonomy in negotiating safer sex to prevent HIV: findings from the 2011 Nepal Demographic and Health Survey.

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    Atteraya, Madhu Sudhan; Kimm, Heejin; Song, In Han

    2014-02-01

    Women with greater autonomy have higher HIV-related knowledge and condom use. Inability to negotiate safer sex in high-risk situations might increase HIV infection. This study examined the relationship between women's autonomy and ability to negotiate safer sex practices among married women. The 2011 Nepal Demographic and Health Survey data were used. The data were collected by two-stage stratified cluster sampling and face-to-face interviews. Autonomy was measured in Decision-Making Participation and Assets Ownership, while ability to negotiate safer sex consists of Refusal of Sex and Ask for Condom Use. Among 12,674 women of 15-49 years, married women were analyzed (n = 8,896). Women with greater autonomy in decision-making participation were more likely to negotiate safer sex. After controlling for socio-demographic factors, odds ratios (OR) for refusal of sex was 2.70 (95% CI [2.14, 3.40]) in women with the highest decision-making participation. These women showed higher OR for 'ask for condom use' in high risk situations (2.10, 95% CI [1.81, 2.44]). Assets ownership also demonstrated a positive statistical relationship with asking for a condom use (OR 1.31, 95% CI [1.10, 1.56]). The results point to the importance of women's autonomy on sexual health. It emphasizes women's empowerment-based approach to curbing HIV/AIDS in developing countries.

  12. Jhaukhel-Duwakot Health Demographic Surveillance Site, Nepal: 2012 follow-up survey and use of skilled birth attendants

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    Bishnu P. Choulagai

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Estimates of disease burden in Nepal are based on cross-sectional studies that provide inadequate epidemiological information to support public health decisions. This study compares the health and demographic indicators at the end of 2012 in the Jhaukhel-Duwakot Health Demographic Surveillance Site (JD-HDSS with the baseline conducted at the end of 2010. We also report on the use of skilled birth attendants (SBAs and associated factors in the JD-HDSS at the follow-up point. Design: We used a structured questionnaire to survey 3,505 households in the JD-HDSS, Bhaktapur, Nepal. To investigate the use of SBAs, we interviewed 434 women who had delivered a baby within the prior 2 years. We compared demographic and health indicators at baseline and follow-up and assessed the association of SBA services with background variables. Results: Due to rising in-migration, the total population and number of households in the JD-HDSS increased (13,669 and 2,712 in 2010 vs. 16,918 and 3,505 in 2012. Self-reported morbidity decreased (11.1% vs. 7.1%, respectively, whereas accidents and injuries increased (2.9% vs. 6.5% of overall morbidity, respectively. At follow-up, the proportion of institutional delivery (93.1% exceeded the national average (36%. Women who accessed antenatal care and used transport (e.g. bus, taxi, motorcycle to reach a health facility were more likely to access institutional delivery. Conclusions: High in-migration increased the total population and number of households in the JD-HDSS, a peri-urban area where most health indicators exceed the national average. Major morbidity conditions (respiratory diseases, fever, gastrointestinal problems, and bone and joint problems remain unchanged. Further investigation of reasons for increased proportion of accidents and injuries are recommended for their timely prevention. More than 90% of our respondents received adequate antenatal care and used institutional delivery, but only 13

  13. Maternal morbidity and near miss associated with maternal age: the innovative approach of the 2006 Brazilian demographic health survey

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    Fernando César de Oliveira Jr

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study the prevalence of potentially life-threatening maternal conditions and near miss in Brazil according to maternal age. METHODS: A secondary analysis of the 2006 Brazilian demographic health survey database using a validated questionnaire to evaluate maternal morbidity with a focus on age extremes. The study included 5,025 women with at least 1 live birth in the 5-year reference period preceding their interviews. Three age range periods were used: 15-19 years (younger age, 20-34 years (control, and 35-49 years (advanced maternal age. According to a pragmatic definition, any woman reporting eclampsia, hysterectomy, blood transfusion, or admission to the intensive care unit during her pregnancy/childbirth was considered a near-miss case. The associations between age and severe maternal morbidity were further assessed. RESULTS: For the 6,833 reported pregnancies, 73.7% of the women were 20-34 years old, 17.9% were of advanced maternal age, and only 8.4% were of younger age. More than 22% of the women had at least one of the complications appraised, and blood transfusion, which was more prevalent among the controls, was the only variable with a significant difference among the age groups. The overall rate of maternal near miss was 21.1 per 1000 live births. There was a trend of higher maternal near miss with increasing age. The only significant risk factor identified for maternal near miss was a lower literacy level among older women. CONCLUSIONS: There is a trend towards worse results with increasing age. The investigation of the determinants of maternal near miss at the community level using an innovative approach through a demographic health survey is an example suggested for under-resourced settings.

  14. Vaccination and all-cause child mortality from 1985 to 2011: global evidence from the Demographic and Health Surveys.

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    McGovern, Mark E; Canning, David

    2015-11-01

    Based on models with calibrated parameters for infection, case fatality rates, and vaccine efficacy, basic childhood vaccinations have been estimated to be highly cost effective. We estimated the association of vaccination with mortality directly from survey data. Using 149 cross-sectional Demographic and Health Surveys, we determined the relationship between vaccination coverage and the probability of dying between birth and 5 years of age at the survey cluster level. Our data included approximately 1 million children in 68,490 clusters from 62 countries. We considered the childhood measles, bacillus Calmette-Guérin, diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus, polio, and maternal tetanus vaccinations. Using modified Poisson regression to estimate the relative risk of child mortality in each cluster, we also adjusted for selection bias that resulted from the vaccination status of dead children not being reported. Childhood vaccination, and in particular measles and tetanus vaccination, is associated with substantial reductions in childhood mortality. We estimated that children in clusters with complete vaccination coverage have a relative risk of mortality that is 0.73 (95% confidence interval: 0.68, 0.77) times that of children in a cluster with no vaccinations. Although widely used, basic vaccines still have coverage rates well below 100% in many countries, and our results emphasize the effectiveness of increasing coverage rates in order to reduce child mortality.

  15. Women's exposure to intimate partner violence and child malnutrition: findings from demographic and health surveys in Bangladesh.

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    Ziaei, Shirin; Naved, Ruchira Tabassum; Ekström, Eva-Charlotte

    2014-07-01

    Domestic violence, in particular intimate partner violence (IPV), has been recognized as a leading cause of mortality and morbidity among women of reproductive age. The effects of IPV against women on their children's health, especially their nutritional status has received less attention but needs to be evaluated to understand the comprehensive public health implications of IPV. The aim of current study was to investigate the association between women's exposure to IPV and their children's nutritional status, using data from the 2007 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS). Logistic regression models were used to estimate association between ever-married women's lifetime exposure to physical and sexual violence by their spouses and nutritional status of their children under 5 years. Of 2042 women in the BDHS survey with at least one child under 5 years of age, 49.4% reported lifetime experience of physical partner violence while 18.4% reported experience of sexual partner violence. The prevalence of stunting, wasting and underweight in their children under 5 years was 44.3%, 18.4% and 42.0%, respectively. Women were more likely to have a stunted child if they had lifetime experience of physical IPV [odds ratio n = 2027 (OR)adj, 1.48; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.23-1.79] or had been exposed to sexual IPV (n = 2027 OR(adj), 1.28; 95% CI, 1.02-1.61). The present findings contribute to growing body of evidence showing that IPV can also compromise children's growth, supporting the need to incorporate efforts to address IPV in child health and nutrition programmes and policies. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Risk factors for low birth weight in Nigeria: evidence from the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey

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    Maznah Dahlui

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low birth weight (LBW continues to be the primary cause of infant morbidity and mortality. Objective: This study was undertaken to identify the predictors of LBW in Nigeria. Design: The data for this study was extracted from the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey conducted by the National Population Commission. Several questionnaires were used in the survey, some covering questions on pregnancy characteristics. The inclusion criteria include mothers who gave birth to a child 5 years before the interview and aged 15–49 years who were either permanent residents or visitors present in the household on the night before the survey conducted. The birth weight of the infants was recorded from written records from the hospital cards or the mothers’ recall. Results: The prevalence of LBW in this study was 7.3%. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed an adjusted significant odds ratio for mothers from North West region (aOR 10.67; 95% CI [5.83–19.5], twin pregnancy (aOR 5.11; 95% CI [3.11–8.39], primiparous mother (aOR 2.08; 95% CI [1.15–3.77], maternal weight of less than 70 kg (aOR 1.92; 95% CI [1.32–2.78], and manual paternal employment (aOR 1.91; 95% CI [1.08–3.37]. Conclusions: The risk factors for LBW identified in this study are modifiable. In order to reduce this menace in Nigeria, holistic approaches such as health education, maternal nutrition, improvement in socio-economic indices, and increasing the quality and quantity of the antenatal care services are of paramount importance.

  17. Polio supplementary immunization activities and equity in access to vaccination: evidence from the demographic and health surveys.

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    Helleringer, Stéphane; Abdelwahab, Jalaa; Vandenent, Maya

    2014-11-01

    Every year, large numbers of children are vaccinated against polio during supplementary immunization activities (SIAs). Such SIAs have contributed to the >99% decline in the incidence of poliovirus cases since the beginning of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative. It is not clear, however, how much they have also contributed to reducing poverty-related inequalities in access to oral polio vaccine (OPV). We investigated whether the gap in coverage with 3 doses of OPV between children in the poorest and wealthiest households was reduced by SIA participation. To do so, we used data from 25 demographic and health surveys (DHS) conducted in 20 countries since 2002. We found that, in several countries as well as in pooled analyses, poverty-related inequalities in 3-dose OPV coverage were significantly lower among children who had participated in SIAs over the 2 years before a DHS than among other children. SIAs are an important approach to ensuring equitable access to immunization services and possibly other health services. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Spatial Distribution of Underweight, Overweight and Obesity among Women and Children: Results from the 2011 Uganda Demographic and Health Survey

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    Kedir N. Turi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available While undernutrition and infectious diseases are still persistent in developing countries, overweight, obesity, and associated comorbidities have become more prevalent. Uganda, a developing sub-Saharan African country, is currently experiencing the public health paradox of undernutrition and overnutrition. We utilized the 2011 Uganda Demographic and Health Survey (DHS to examine risk factors and hot spots for underweight, overweight, and obesity among adult females (N = 2,420 and their children (N = 1,099 using ordinary least squares and multinomial logit regression and the ArcGIS Getis-Ord Gi* statistic. Overweight and obese women were significantly more likely to have overweight children, and overweight was correlated with being in the highest wealth class (OR = 2.94, 95% CI = 1.99–4.35, and residing in an urban (OR = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.34–2.29 but not a conflict prone (OR = 0.48, 95% CI = 0.29–0.78 area. Underweight clustered significantly in the Northern and Northeastern regions, while overweight females and children clustered in the Southeast. We demonstrate that the DHS can be used to assess geographic clustering and burden of disease, thereby allowing for targeted programs and policies. Further, we pinpoint specific regions and population groups in Uganda for targeted preventive measures and treatment to reduce the burden of overweight and chronic diseases in Uganda.

  19. Association between Measures of Women's Empowerment and Use of Modern Contraceptives: An Analysis of Nigeria's Demographic and Health Surveys.

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    Asaolu, Ibitola O; Okafor, Chioma T; Ehiri, Jennifer C; Dreifuss, Heather M; Ehiri, John E

    2016-01-01

    Women's empowerment is hypothesized as a predictor of reproductive health outcomes. It is believed that empowered girls and women are more likely to delay marriage, plan their pregnancies, receive prenatal care, and have their childbirth attended by a skilled health provider. The objective of this study was to assess the association between women's empowerment and use of modern contraception among a representative sample of Nigerian women. This study used the 2003, 2008, and 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey data. The analytic sample was restricted to 35,633 women who expressed no desire to have children within 2 years following each survey, were undecided about timing for children, and who reported no desire for more children. Measures of women's empowerment included their ability to partake in decisions pertaining to their healthcare, large household purchases, and visit to their family or relatives. Multivariable regression models adjusting for respondent's age at first birth, religion, education, wealth status, number of children, and geopolitical region were used to measure the association between empowerment and use of modern contraceptives. The proportion of women who participated in decisions to visit their relatives increased from 42.5% in 2003 to 50.6% in 2013. The prevalence of women involved in decision-making related to large household purchases increased from 24.3% in 2003 to 41.1% in 2013, while the proportion of those who partook in decision related to their health care increased from 28.4% in 2003 to 41.9% in 2013. Use of modern contraception was positively associated with women's participation in decisions related to large household purchases [2008: adjusted OR (aOR) = 1.15; 95% CI = 1.01-1.31] and (2013; aOR = 1.60; 1.40-1.83), health care [2008: (aOR = 1.20; 1.04-1.39) and (2013; aOR = 1.39; 1.22-1.59)], and visiting family or relatives [2013; aOR = 1.58; 1.36-1.83]. The prevalence of modern contraceptive use

  20. Determinants of childhood stunting in the Democratic Republic of Congo: further analysis of Demographic and Health Survey 2013-14.

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    Kismul, Hallgeir; Acharya, Pawan; Mapatano, Mala Ali; Hatløy, Anne

    2017-08-01

    Prevalence of child stunting in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) is among the highest in the world. There is a need to systematically investigate how stunting operates at different levels of determination and identify major factors contributing to the development of stunting. The aim of this study was to look for key determinants of stunting in the DRC. This study used data from the DRC Demographic Health Survey 2013-14 which included anthropometric measurement for 9030 under 5 year children. Height-for-Age Z score was calculated and classified according to the WHO guideline. The association between stunting and bio-demographic characteristics was assessed using logistic regression. Prevalence of stunting was much higher in boys than girls. There was a significant rural urban gap in the prevalence of stunting with rural areas having a larger proportion of children living with stunting than urban. Male children, older than 6 months, preceding birth interval less than 24 months, being from lower wealth quintiles had the highest odds of stunting. Several provinces had in particular high odds of stunting. Early initiation of breastfeeding, mother's age more than 20 years at the time of delivery had lower odds of stunting. The taller the mother the less likely the child was to be stunted. Similarly, mother's BMI, access to safe water, access to hygienic toilet, mother's education were found negatively correlated with child stunting in the bivariate logistic regression, but they lost statistical significance in multivariate analysis together with numbers of children in the family and place of residence. Child stunting is widespread in the DRC and increasing prevalence is worrisome. This study has identified modifiable factors determining high prevalence of stunting in the DRC. Policy implementation should in particular target provinces with high prevalence of stunting and address modifiable determinants such as reducing socioeconomic disparity. Nutrition

  1. Female Genital Mutilation in Sierra Leone: Forms, Reliability of Reported Status, and Accuracy of Related Demographic and Health Survey Questions

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    Owolabi Bjälkander

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine forms of female genital mutilation (FGM, assess consistency between self-reported and observed FGM status, and assess the accuracy of Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS FGM questions in Sierra Leone. Methods. This cross-sectional study, conducted between October 2010 and April 2012, enrolled 558 females aged 12–47 from eleven antenatal clinics in northeast Sierra Leone. Data on demography, FGM status, and self-reported anatomical descriptions were collected. Genital inspection confirmed the occurrence and extent of cutting. Results. All participants reported FGM status; 4 refused genital inspection. Using the WHO classification of FGM, 31.7% had type Ib; 64.1% type IIb; and 4.2% type IIc. There was a high level of agreement between reported and observed FGM prevalence (81.2% and 81.4%, resp.. There was no correlation between DHS FGM responses and anatomic extent of cutting, as 2.7% reported pricking; 87.1% flesh removal; and 1.1% that genitalia was sewn closed. Conclusion. Types I and II are the main forms of FGM, with labia majora alterations in almost 5% of cases. Self-reports on FGM status could serve as a proxy measurement for FGM prevalence but not for FGM type. The DHS FGM questions are inaccurate for determining cutting extent.

  2. The impact of water and sanitation on childhood mortality in Nigeria: evidence from demographic and health surveys, 2003-2013.

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    Ezeh, Osita K; Agho, Kingsley E; Dibley, Michael J; Hall, John; Page, Andrew N

    2014-09-05

    In Nigeria, approximately 109 million and 66 million people lack access to sanitation facilities and water, respectively. This study aimed to determine whether children under 5 years old without access to improved water and sanitation facilities are at higher risk of death in Nigeria. Pooled 2003, 2008 and 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey data were used to examine the impact of water and sanitation on deaths of children aged 0-28 days, 1-11 months, and 12-59 months using Cox regression analysis. Survival information of 63,844 children was obtained, which included 6285 deaths of children under 5 years old; there were 2254 cases of neonatal mortality (0-28 days), 1859 cases of post-neonatal mortality (1-11 months) and 2,172 cases of child mortality (1-4 years old). Over a 10-year period, the odds of neonatal, post-neonatal and child deaths significantly reduced by 31%, 41% and 47% respectively. The risk of mortality from both unimproved water and sanitation was significantly higher by 38% (Adjusted hazard ratios (HR) = 1.38, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.14-1.66) for post-neonatal mortality and 24% (HR = 1.24, 95% CI: 1.04-1.48) for child mortality. The risk of neonatal mortality increased by 6% (HR = 1.06, 95% CI: 0.85-1.23) but showed no significant effect. The Nigerian government needs to invest more in water and sanitation to reduce preventable child deaths.

  3. Knowledge on AIDS among female adolescents in Bangladesh: evidence from the Bangladesh demographic and health survey data.

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    Khan, M Asaduzzaman

    2002-06-01

    To assess the knowledge on acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) among female adolescents in Bangladesh, this study used data extracted from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS) 1996-1997. Of 1,446 ever-married women included in the study, most were currently married (96%), Muslims (92%) and from rural areas (91%). Only one in six adolescents had ever heard of AIDS. Of them, 57% reported AIDS as a fatal disease almost always, while only 22% believed that AIDS could be avoided. Multivariate analysis revealed that knowledge on AIDS was strongly and positively associated with education of female adolescents and their husbands and varied significantly across different parts of the country. Knowledge on AIDS was higher among relatively older and urban residents who had access to television or radio and whose husbands were using condom. Strong efforts are needed to improve awareness and to clarify misconceptions about AIDS. Improved access to education, mass-media, and promotion of condom use could prevent AIDS among female adolescents in Bangladesh.

  4. Handwashing in 51 Countries: Analysis of Proxy Measures of Handwashing Behavior in Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys and Demographic and Health Surveys, 2010-2013.

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    Kumar, Swapna; Loughnan, Libbet; Luyendijk, Rolf; Hernandez, Orlando; Weinger, Merri; Arnold, Fred; Ram, Pavani K

    2017-08-01

    In 2009, a common set of questions addressing handwashing behavior was introduced into nationally representative Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS), providing large amounts of comparable data from numerous countries worldwide. The objective of this analysis is to describe global handwashing patterns using two proxy indicators for handwashing behavior from 51 DHS and MICS surveys conducted in 2010-2013: availability of soap anywhere in the dwelling and access to a handwashing place with soap and water. Data were also examined across geographic regions, wealth quintiles, and rural versus urban settings. We found large disparities for both indicators across regions, and even among countries within the same World Health Organization region. Within countries, households in lower wealth quintiles and in rural areas were less likely to have soap anywhere in the dwelling and at designated handwashing locations than households in higher wealth quintiles and urban areas. In addition, disparities existed among various geographic regions within countries. This analysis demonstrates the need to promote access to handwashing materials and placement at handwashing locations in the dwelling, particularly in poorer, rural areas where children are more vulnerable to handwashing-preventable syndromes such as pneumonia and diarrhea.

  5. Help-Seeking Behavior for Children with Acute Respiratory Infection in Ethiopia: Results from 2011 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey.

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    Tigist Astale

    Full Text Available Acute respiratory infection is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality among children under five years of age in Ethiopia. While facilities have been implemented to address this problem they are underused due to a lack in help-seeking behavior. This study investigates factors related to the help-seeking behavior of mothers for children with acute respiratory infection using data from the 2011 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey.Data on 11,030 children aged 0-59 months obtained through interviewing women aged 15-49 years throughout Ethiopia was available. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analyses were performed to determine which factors are related to help-seeking behavior for acute respiratory infection.In the two weeks prior to the survey, 773(7% of the children were reported to have symptoms of acute respiratory infection while treatment was sought for only 209 (27.2%. The odds ratio for acute respiratory infection was 1.6 (95% CI: 1.2-2.0 for rural residence with only 25.2% of these mothers seeking help compared to 46.4% for mothers with an urban residence. Smaller family size, younger mothers' age and having had prenatal care had a statistically significant odds ratio greater than 1 for both urban and rural residences. Highest wealth index had a statistically significant odds ratio greater than 1 for rural residence only, whereas primary education or higher had a statistically significant odds ratio greater than 1 for urban residence.Children from rural areas are more at risk for acute respiratory infection while their mothers are less likely to seek help. Nevertheless, there is also underuse of available services in urban areas. Interventions should target mothers with less education and wealth and older mothers. Expanding prenatal care among these groups would encourage a better use of available facilities and subsequently better care for their children.

  6. Help-Seeking Behavior for Children with Acute Respiratory Infection in Ethiopia: Results from 2011 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey.

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    Astale, Tigist; Chenault, Michelene

    2015-01-01

    Acute respiratory infection is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality among children under five years of age in Ethiopia. While facilities have been implemented to address this problem they are underused due to a lack in help-seeking behavior. This study investigates factors related to the help-seeking behavior of mothers for children with acute respiratory infection using data from the 2011 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey. Data on 11,030 children aged 0-59 months obtained through interviewing women aged 15-49 years throughout Ethiopia was available. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analyses were performed to determine which factors are related to help-seeking behavior for acute respiratory infection. In the two weeks prior to the survey, 773(7%) of the children were reported to have symptoms of acute respiratory infection while treatment was sought for only 209 (27.2%). The odds ratio for acute respiratory infection was 1.6 (95% CI: 1.2-2.0) for rural residence with only 25.2% of these mothers seeking help compared to 46.4% for mothers with an urban residence. Smaller family size, younger mothers' age and having had prenatal care had a statistically significant odds ratio greater than 1 for both urban and rural residences. Highest wealth index had a statistically significant odds ratio greater than 1 for rural residence only, whereas primary education or higher had a statistically significant odds ratio greater than 1 for urban residence. Children from rural areas are more at risk for acute respiratory infection while their mothers are less likely to seek help. Nevertheless, there is also underuse of available services in urban areas. Interventions should target mothers with less education and wealth and older mothers. Expanding prenatal care among these groups would encourage a better use of available facilities and subsequently better care for their children.

  7. Associations between intimate partner violence, childcare practices and infant health: findings from Demographic and Health Surveys in Bolivia, Colombia and Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urke, Helga Bjørnøy; Mittelmark, Maurice B

    2015-08-25

    Child health is significantly poorer in homes with intimate partner violence (IPV). However, a possible link to parental provision of childcare has been neglected. Utilizing data from Demographic and Health Surveys, this study examined the association between IPV and illness signs in children 0-59 months in Bolivia (n = 3586), Colombia (n = 9955) and Peru (n = 6260), taking into account socio-demographic factors, childcare and severe child physical punishment. Data were collected in the years 2008, 2010 and 2012 for Bolivia, Colombia and Peru respectively. The study found weak but persistent effects of IPV on illness signs in Bolivia (OR 1.37, 95% CI 1.14-1.63) and Peru (OR 1.49, 95% CI 1.26-1.77), after adjusting for the effects of childcare. These effects were not observed in Colombia. The results call for a mix of qualitative and quantitative research that can map direct, mediating and moderating patterns of relationships between IPV, childcare practices and child health. Can good childcare mitigate the negative effects of IPV? Can poor childcare exacerbate the negative effects of IPV? Such interactions were not observed in the present study, but should be the focus of much more intensive investigation, to help inform child health promotion. Answers could lead to better interventions to improve child health, and perhaps to tackle IPV.

  8. Housing materials as predictors of under-five mortality in Nigeria: evidence from 2013 demographic and health survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebowale, Stephen Ayo; Morakinyo, Oyewale Mayowa; Ana, Godson Rowland

    2017-01-19

    Nigeria is among countries with high Under-Five Mortality (U5M) rates worldwide. Both maternal and childhood factors have been linked to U5M in the country. However, despite the growing global recognition of the association between housing and quality of life, the role of housing materials as predictors of U5M remain largely unexplored in Nigeria. This study, therefore, investigated the relationship between housing materials and U5M in Nigeria. The study utilised the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey data. A representative sample of 40,680 households was selected for the survey. The sample included 18,516 women of reproductive age who had given birth in the past 5 years prior the survey; with attention on the survival status of the index child (the most recent delivery). Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, Chi-square, Cox-proportional hazard and Brass 2-parameter models (α = 0.05). The hazard ratio of U5M was 1.46 (C.I = 1.02-1.47, p materials respectively than those in good housing materials. Under-five deaths show a downward trend (slope = -0.4871) relative to the housing materials assessment score. The refined U5M rate was 143.5, 127.0 and 90.8 per 1000 live birth among women who live in houses built with inadequate, moderate and adequate housing materials respectively. Other predictors of U5M were; the size of the child at birth, preceding birth interval, prenatal care provider, residence and education. Under-five death reduces with increasing maternal level of; education, wealth quintile, media exposure and housing material type and mostly experienced by Muslim women (6.0%), rural women (6.5%) and women residence in the North-West geopolitical zones (6.9%). Living in houses built with poor housing materials promoted U5M in Nigeria. Provision of sustainable housing by the government and the maintenance of existing housing stock to healthful conditions will play a significant role in reducing the burden of U5M in Nigeria.

  9. Factors associated with infant mortality in Nepal: a comparative analysis of Nepal demographic and health surveys (NDHS) 2006 and 2011.

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    Lamichhane, Reeta; Zhao, Yun; Paudel, Susan; Adewuyi, Emmanuel O

    2017-01-10

    Infant mortality is one of the priority public health issues in developing countries like Nepal. The infant mortality rate (IMR) was 48 and 46 per 1000 live births for the year 2006 and 2011, respectively, a slight reduction during the 5 years' period. A comprehensive analysis that has identified and compared key factors associated with infant mortality is limited in Nepal, and, therefore, this study aims to fill the gap. Datasets from Nepal Demographic and Health Surveys (NDHS) 2006 and 2011 were used to identify and compare the major factors associated with infant mortality. Both surveys used multistage stratified cluster sampling techniques. A total of 8707 and 10,826 households were interviewed in 2006 and 2011, with more than 99% response rate in both studies. The survival information of singleton live-born infants born 5 years preceding the two surveys were extracted from the 'childbirth' dataset. Multiple logistic regression analysis using a hierarchical modelling approach with the backward elimination method was conducted. Complex Samples Analysis was used to adjust for unequal selection probability due to the multistage stratified cluster-sampling procedure used in both NDHS. Based on NDHS 2006, ecological region, succeeding birth interval, breastfeeding status and type of delivery assistance were found to be significant predictors of infant mortality. Infants born in hilly region (AOR = 0.43, p = 0.013) and with professional assistance (AOR = 0.27, p = 0.039) had a lower risk of mortality. On the other hand, infants with succeeding birth interval less than 24 months (AOR = 6.66, p = 0.001) and those who were never breastfed (AOR = 1.62, p = 0.044) had a higher risk of mortality. Based on NDHS 2011, birth interval (preceding and succeeding) and baby's size at birth were identified to be significantly associated with infant mortality. Infants born with preceding birth interval (AOR = 1.94, p = 0.022) or succeeding

  10. Association of adult tobacco use with household food access insecurity: results from Nepal demographic and health survey, 2011.

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    Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T; Ramakrishnareddy, N

    2017-07-24

    Food insecurity is a very common problem in developing countries particularly among the poorer households. Very few studies have tested the association between adult smoking and food insecurity. We analysed the data from a nationally representative sample of 10,826 households in which women and men (in a sub sample of 4121 households) aged 15-49 years were interviewed in Nepal Demographic and Health Survey 2011. Data from households in which both men and women were interviewed were analysed for association of household food insecurity access score (HFIAS), with tobacco use among men and women, socio-demographic and spatial factors. Univariate comparisons followed by zero-inflated negative binomial regression analyses were done to determine the association between HFIAS and individual, household and spatial factors. Mean HFIAS score was 3.5 (SD, 4.6) whereas the median was 0 (IQR 0-6). Prevalence of tobacco use among men and women was 50.2% (95% CIs 47.9, 52.6), and 17.3% (95% CIs 15.7, 18.9). HFIAS scores were significantly higher among households where men used tobacco (4.96), and men either smoked or use SLT (3.82) as compared to those without tobacco users (2.79). HFIAS scores were not significantly different by tobacco use status of women. HFIAS score was highest in the poorest households and vice versa. After adjusting for covariates association between HFIAS score and male tobacco use remained significant but effect size decreased when covariates were included into regression models (adjusted OR 1.11). HFIAS score was also associated wealth index (adjusted OR 0.86-0.62) and ecological region (adjusted OR 1.33) and development regions (adjusted OR 1.10-1.21). Tobacco users in poor(er) households should be encouraged to 'quit' their habit. Less affluent sectors of the population also need to be educated about the non-health benefits of quitting, such as improved economic status and reduced food insecurity.

  11. Complementary feeding practices and child growth outcomes in Haiti: an analysis of data from Demographic and Health Surveys.

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    Heidkamp, Rebecca A; Ayoya, Mohamed Ag; Teta, Ismael Ngnie; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J; Marhone, Joseline Pierre

    2015-10-01

    The Haitian National Nutrition Policy identifies the promotion of optimal complementary feeding (CF) practices as a priority action to prevent childhood malnutrition. We analysed data from the nationally representative 2005-2006 Haiti Demographic Health Survey using the World Health Organization 2008 infant and young child feeding indicators to describe feeding practices among children aged 6-23 months and thus inform policy and programme planning. Multivariate regression analyses were used to identify the determinants of CF practices and to examine their association with child growth outcomes. Overall, 87.3% of 6-8-month-olds received soft, solid or semi-solid foods in the previous 24 h. Minimum dietary diversity (MDD), minimum meal frequency (MMF) and minimum acceptable diet (MAD) were achieved in 29.2%, 45.3% and 17.1% of children aged 6-23 months, respectively. Non-breastfed children were more likely to achieve MDD than breastfed children of the same age (37.3% vs. 25.8%; P < 0.001). The proportion of children achieving MMF varied significantly by age (P < 0.001). Children with overweight mothers were more likely to achieve MDD, MMF and MAD [odds ratio (OR) 2.08, P = 0.012; OR 1.81, P = 0.02; and OR 2.4, P = 0.01, respectively] than children of normal weight mothers. Odds of achieving MDD and MMF increased with household wealth. Among mothers with secondary or more education, achieving MDD or MAD was significantly associated with lower mean weight-for-age z-score and height-for-age z-score (P-value <0.05 for infants and young child feeding indicator × maternal education interaction). CF practices were mostly inadequate and contributed to growth faltering among Haitian children 6-23 months old.

  12. Women empowerment and the current use of long acting and permanent contraceptive: Evidence from 2010 Malawi Demographic and Health Survey.

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    Palamuleni, M E; Adebowale, A S

    2014-09-01

    Both contraceptive use and fertility rates are high fertility in Malawi. Status of women remains low and is believed to affect reproductive health decisions including use of Long Acting and Permanent Contraceptives Method (LAPCM). This study seeks to examine the relationship between women empowerment and LAPCM. A measure of women's empowerment is derived from the women's responses to questions on the number of household decisions in which the respondent participates, employment status, type of earnings, women's control over cash earnings and level of education. The study is based on a sub sample of 5,948 married women from the 2010 Malawi Demographic and Health Survey. Data was analysed using descriptive statistics, Chi-square and multinomial logistic regression models (α=5%). The prevalence of current use of LAPCM was 20.0% and increases with increasing empowerment level (pempowerment score of women who are currently using LAPCM were 38.53±6.2 years and 6.80±2.9 respectively. Urban women (22.2%) were more currently using LAPCM than rural women (19.4%) pWomen who belong to Seven Day Adventists/Baptist were 1.51(C.I=1.058-2.153; p=0.023) more likely and Muslims were 0.58(C.I=0.410-0.809; p=0.001) less likely to currently use LAPCM than Catholic women. Being in the richest wealth quintile (OR=1.91; C.I=1.362-2.665; pwomen who have access to FP programmes on media and increases consistently with increasing women empowerment level even when other potential confounding variables were used as control. In Malawi, LAPCM is still underutilized and more than half of the women are not adequately empowered. Women empowerment, wealth quintile and access to FP programmes are key factors influencing the use of LAPCM. Programmes that address these determinants are urgently needed in Malawi.

  13. Less Than One-Third of Caretakers Sought Formal Health Care Facilities for Common Childhood Illnesses in Ethiopia: Evidence from the 2011 Ethiopian Demographic Health Survey

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    Achamyelesh Gebretsadik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Most of the childhood illnesses can be proven with effective interventions. However, countless children die needlessly in developing countries due to the failure of their guardians to seek care timely. The aim of this study was to assess health care seeking behavior of caretakers of children under the age of five years for treatment of common childhood illnesses. Methods. Further analysis of the Ethiopian 2011 demographic and health survey was done. All children under the age of five reported to have been ill from the three common childhood illnesses and their caretakers were included in the analysis. A complex sample logistic regression model was employed to determine factors associated with the health care seeking behavior of caretakers. Result. A total of 2,842 caregivers who reported that their index child had at least one of the three common childhood illnesses in the two weeks preceding the survey were captured, of which 849 (29.87%; 95% CI: 28, 32% sought formal health care facilities. Conclusion and Recommendation. In Ethiopia health care seeking behavior of caretakers for common childhood illnesses is low. Increasing mass media exposure can possibly improve the health seeking behavior of caretakers.

  14. Reproductive and Obstetric Factors Are Key Predictors of Maternal Anemia during Pregnancy in Ethiopia: Evidence from Demographic and Health Survey (2011)

    OpenAIRE

    Taddese Alemu; Melaku Umeta

    2015-01-01

    Anemia is a major public health problem worldwide. In Ethiopia, a nationally representative and consistent evidence is lacking on the prevalence and determinants during pregnancy. We conducted an in-depth analysis of demographic and health survey for the year 2011 which is a representative data collected from all regions in Ethiopia. Considering maternal anemia as an outcome variable, predicting variables from sociodemographic, household, and reproductive/obstetric characteristics were identi...

  15. Breastfeeding practices and child growth outcomes in Haiti: an analysis of data from Demographic and Health Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidkamp, Rebecca; Ayoya, Mohamed Ag; Teta, Ismael Ngnie; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J; Marhone, Joseline Pierre

    2015-10-01

    Haiti's national nutrition policy prioritises breastfeeding, but limited data are available to inform strategy. We examined national trends in early initiation of breastfeeding (ErIBF) and exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) over a 10-year period using data from three Haitian Demographic and Health Surveys (1994-1995, 2000 and 2005-2006). We used multivariate regression methods to identify determinants of ErIBF and EBF in the 2005-2006 data set and to examine relationships to growth. There was no change in ErIBF across surveys [1994-1995: 36.6%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 29.9-43.9; 2000: 49.4%, 95% CI 44.1-54.8; 2005-2006: 43.8%, 95% CI 40.5-47.1]. EBF among 0-5-month-olds increased sharply (1994-18995: 1.1%, 95% CI 0.4-3.2; 2000: 22.4%, 95% CI 16.5-29.5; 2005-2006: 41.2%, 95% CI 35.4-47.2). The proportion of breastfeeding children 0-5 months who received soft, solid or semi-solid foods decreased (1994-1995: 68.5%, 95% CI 57.3-77.9; 2000: 46.3%, 95% CI 39.3-53.4; 2005-2006: 30.9%, 95% CI 25.9-36.5). Child age at time of survey [odds ratio (OR) 1.73; P = 0.027], lower maternal education (OR = 2.14, P = 0.004) and residence in the Artibonite Department (OR 0.31; P = 0.001) were associated with ErIBF among children 0-23 months. Age group and department were significant predictors of EBF among children 0-5 months. ErIBF was associated with higher weight-for-age z-scores [effect size (ES) 0.22; P = 0.033] and height-for-age z-scores (ES 0.20; P = 0.044). There was no statistically significant relationship between EBF and growth. The 10-year ErIBF and EBF trends in Haiti echo global and regional trends. ErIBF and EBF are related practices but with different determinants in the Haitian context. These differences have implications for intervention delivery.

  16. Sexual autonomy and contraceptive use among women in Nigeria: findings from the Demographic and Health Survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswan, Saritha P; Ravindran, T K Sundari; Kandala, Ngianga-Bakwin; Petzold, Max G; Fonn, Sharon

    2017-01-01

    The persistent low contraceptive use and high fertility in Nigeria despite improvements in educational achievements calls for an examination of the role of factors, which may moderate the use of modern contraception. This article explores the influence of sexual autonomy on the use of modern contraceptive methods among women and its relative importance compared with other, more traditional, indicators of women's autonomy such as education and occupation. Data from two Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS), 2008 and 2013, were used in this study. An index of sexual autonomy was constructed by combining related DHS variables, and its association with current use of modern contraception was examined at each time point as well as over time using multivariate regression analysis. The observed prevalence for use of modern contraception was 2.8 and 2.6 times higher among women who had high sexual autonomy in 2008 and 2013, respectively. The corresponding figures for women with secondary or higher education were 8.2 and 11.8 times higher, respectively, compared with women with no education. But after controlling for wealth index, religion, place of residence, autonomy and experience of intimate partner violence (IPV), the likelihood of use of modern contraception was lowered to about 2.5 (from 8.2) and 2.8 (from 11.8) times during 2008 and 2013, respectively, among women with secondary or higher education. The likelihood of use of modern contraception lowered only to 1.6 (from 2.8) and 1.8 (from 2.6) times among women with high sexual autonomy after controlling for other covariates, respectively, during the same period. Sexual autonomy seems to play an important role in women's use of modern contraceptive methods independent of education and a number of other factors related to women's status. Sexual autonomy needs to be simultaneously promoted alongside increasing educational opportunities to enhance women's ability to use modern contraception.

  17. Neonatal mortality in East Africa and West Africa: a geographic analysis of district-level demographic and health survey data

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    Sue C. Grady

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Under-five child mortality declined 47% since 2000 following the implementation of the United Nation’s (UN Millennium Development Goals. To further reduce under-five child mortality, the UN’s Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs will focus on interventions to address neonatal mortality, a major contributor of under-five mortality. The African region has the highest neonatal mortality rate (28.0 per 1000 live births, followed by that of the Eastern Mediterranean (26.6 and South-East Asia (24.3. This study used the Demographic and Health Survey Birth Recode data (http://dhsprogram.com/data/File-Types-and-Names.cfm to identify high-risk districts and countries for neonatal mortality in two sub-regions of Africa – East Africa and West Africa. Geographically weighted Poisson regression models were estimated to capture the spatially varying relationships between neonatal mortality and dimensions of potential need i care around the time of delivery, ii maternal education, and iii women’s empowerment. In East Africa, neonatal mortality was significantly associated with home births, mothers without an education and mothers whose husbands decided on contraceptive practices, controlling for rural residency. In West Africa, neonatal mortality was also significantly associated with home births, mothers with a primary education and mothers who did not want or plan their last child. Importantly, neonatal mortality associated with home deliveries were explained by maternal exposure to unprotected water sources in East Africa and older maternal age and female sex of infants in West Africa. Future SDG-interventions may target these dimensions of need in priority high-risk districts and countries, to further reduce the burden of neonatal mortality in Africa.

  18. Poor thermal care practices among home births in Nepal: further analysis of Nepal Demographic and Health Survey 2011.

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    Vishnu Khanal

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Hypothermia is a major factor associated with neonatal mortality in low and middle income countries. Thermal care protection of newborn through a series of measures taken at birth and during the initial days of life is recommended to reduce the hypothermia and associated neonatal mortality. This study aimed to identify the prevalence of and the factors associated with receiving 'optimum thermal care' among home born newborns of Nepal. METHODS: Data from the Nepal Demographic and Health Surveys (NDHS 2011 were used for this study. Women who reported a home birth for their most recent childbirth was included in the study. Factors associated with optimum thermal care were examined using Chi-square test followed by logistic regression. RESULTS: A total of 2464 newborns were included in the study. A total of 57.6 % were dried before the placenta was delivered; 60.3% were wrapped; 24.5% had not bathing during the first 24 hours, and 63.9% were breastfed within one hour of birth. Overall, only 248 (10.7%; 95% CI (8.8 %, 12.9% newborns received optimum thermal care. Newborns whose mothers had achieved higher education (OR 2.810; 95% CI (1.132, 6.976, attended four or more antenatal care visits (OR 2.563; 95% CI (1.309, 5.017, and those whose birth were attended by skilled attendants (OR 2.178; 95% CI (1.428, 3.323 were likely to receive optimum thermal care. CONCLUSION: The current study showed that only one in ten newborns in Nepal received optimum thermal care. Future newborn survival programs should focus on those mothers who are uneducated; who do not attend the recommended four or more attend antenatal care visits; and those who deliver without the assistance of skilled birth attendants to reduce the risk of neonatal hypothermia in Nepal.

  19. Factors associated with the introduction of prelacteal feeds in Nepal: findings from the Nepal Demographic and Health Survey 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanal, Vishnu; Adhikari, Mandira; Sauer, Kay; Zhao, Yun

    2013-08-08

    A prelacteal feed is any food except mother's milk provided to a newborn before initiating breastfeeding. Prelacteal feeding is a major barrier to exclusive breastfeeding. It is a prevalent practice in Nepal. Little is known about the factors associated with providing prelacteal feeds to the Nepalese newborn. This study explored the factors associated with providing prelacteal feeds to children under three years in Nepal using the Nepal Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) 2011. This study utilised the NDHS 2011 child dataset which is a nationally representative study. The rates of providing prelacteal feeds were reported as a proportion. Complex Sample Analysis method was used to account for the cluster design and sample weight of the study. Chi-square tests and multiple logistic regression were used to analyse the factors associated with providing prelacteal feeds. A sample of 3948 mothers were included in the study. A total of 841 [26.5% (95% CI: 23.1%-30.3%)] weighted proportion) of mothers reported of providing prelacteal feeds to their newborn infants. Plain water (n = 75), sugar/glucose (n = 35), gripe water (n = 3), sugar/salt solution (n = 3), fruit juice (n = 3), infant formula (n = 96), tea (n = 3) and other milk other than breast milk (n = 556) were some of the types of prelacteal feeds reported. The multiple regression analysis showed that the mothers who had no education, were not working, were from the middle wealth quintile, who had not attended four antenatal care visits, were first time mothers and who were from the Terai/Plain region were more likely to provide prelacteal feeds. Given that one in four infants were provided with prelacteal feeds, there is a need to implement breastfeeding promotion programs to increase the practice of exclusive breastfeeding and reduce prelacteal feeding practices. Breastfeeding counseling at antenatal clinics and peer support for exclusive breastfeeding should be included as part

  20. Sexual autonomy and contraceptive use among women in Nigeria: findings from the Demographic and Health Survey data

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    Viswan SP

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Saritha P Viswan,1 T K Sundari Ravindran,1,2 Ngianga-Bakwin Kandala,1,3,4 Max G Petzold,1,5 Sharon Fonn1 1School of Public Health, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; 2Achutha Menon Centre for Health Science Studies, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Trivandrum, Kerala, India; 3Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; 4Department of Mathematics, Physics and Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Environment, Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK; 5Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden Context: The persistent low contraceptive use and high fertility in Nigeria despite improvements in educational achievements calls for an examination of the role of factors, which may moderate the use of modern contraception. This article explores the influence of sexual autonomy on the use of modern contraceptive methods among women and its relative importance compared with other, more traditional, indicators of women’s autonomy such as education and occupation.Data and methods: Data from two Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS, 2008 and 2013, were used in this study. An index of sexual autonomy was constructed by combining related DHS variables, and its association with current use of modern contraception was examined at each time point as well as over time using multivariate regression analysis.Results: The observed prevalence for use of modern contraception was 2.8 and 2.6 times higher among women who had high sexual autonomy in 2008 and 2013, respectively. The corresponding figures for women with secondary or higher education were 8.2 and 11.8 times higher, respectively, compared with women with no education. But after controlling for wealth index, religion, place of residence, autonomy and experience of intimate partner violence (IPV

  1. Overweight and obesity among women: analysis of demographic and health survey data from 32 Sub-Saharan African Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neupane, Subas; Prakash, K C; Doku, David Teye

    2016-01-13

    Overweight and obesity are risk factors for many chronic diseases globally. However, the extent of the problem in low-income countries like Sub-Saharan Africa is unclear. We assessed the magnitude and disparity of both phenomena by place of residence, level of education and wealth quintile using cross-sectional data from 32 countries. Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data collected in 32 Sub-Saharan African countries between January 2005 and December 2013 were used. A total of 250651 women (aged 15-49 years) were analyzed. Trained personnel using a standardized procedure measured body weight and height. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated by dividing body weight by height squared. Prevalence of overweight (25.0-29.9 kg/m(2)) and obesity (≥ 30.0 kg/m(2)) were estimated for each country. Analysis of the relationships of overweight and obesity with place of residence, education and wealth index were carried out using logistic regression. The pooled prevalence of overweight for the region was 15.9% (95% CI, 15.7-16.0) with the lowest in Madagascar 5.6% (95% CI, 5.1-6.1) and the highest in Swaziland 27.7% (95% CI, 26.4-29.0). Similarly, the prevalence of obesity was also lowest in Madagascar 1.1% (95% CI, 0.9-1.4) and highest in Swaziland 23.0 (95% CI, 21.8-24.2). The women in urban residence and those who were classified as rich, with respect to the quintile of the wealth index, had higher likelihood of overweight and obesity. In the pooled results, high education was significantly associated with overweight and obesity. The prevalence of overweight and obesity varied highly between the countries and wealth index (rich vs. poor) was found to be the strongest predictor in most of the countries. Interventions that will address the socio-cultural barriers to maintaining healthy body size can contribute to curbing the overweight and obesity epidemic in Africa.

  2. Is Spousal Violence Being "Vertically Transmitted" through Victims? Findings from the Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey 2012-13.

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    Syeda Kanwal Aslam

    Full Text Available Violence against women is regarded as a major violation of human rights, and several socio-behavioral aspects among victims have been identified as important determinants of spousal violence experience. Pakistani nationally representative contextual evidence is scarce in this regard. We aimed to estimate prevalence of spousal violence, and explore its association with intergenerational transfer, and attitudinal acceptance of violence, among Pakistani ever-married women.Data of 3,687 ever-married women from Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey, 2012-13 was used to perform secondary analysis. Logistic regression analyses were conducted. Association between the different forms of spousal violence and the independent variables: intergenerational transfer of spousal violence (mother also beaten up by father; and attitudinal acceptance of spousal violence (beating is justifies if wife argues with husband were reported as Odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals (CI.Overall, more than a third (n=1344, 37.9%of ever-married women reported that they experienced spousal violence. Almost 68% (n=539 of the women who reported that their mothers were also beaten up by their fathers, were victims of spousal violence; and almost 47% (n=603 of the women who agreed that beating was justified if the wife argues with her husband, also suffered spousal violence. Intergenerational transfer (OR =5.71, 95%CI 4.40-7.41, p-value <0.01, and attitudinal acceptance (OR =1.66, 95%CI 1.27-2.15, p-value <0.01 were significantly associated with experience of physical violence even after adjusting for respondents' age at marriage, education level, wealth index, parity, employment status, and empowerment status.Spousal violence continues to haunt the lives of women in Pakistan, and is being transmitted as a learned behavior from mothers to daughters who tend to accept such violation of human rights. Girl children from such unfortunate homes may continue to transmit such

  3. Effects of planned, mistimed and unwanted pregnancies on the use of prenatal health services in sub-Saharan Africa: a multicountry analysis of Demographic and Health Survey data.

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    Amo-Adjei, Joshua; Anamaale Tuoyire, Derek

    2016-12-01

    We analysed the extent of planned, mistimed and unwanted pregnancies and how they predict optimal use of prenatal (timing and number of antenatal) care services in 30 African countries. We pooled data from Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 30 African countries between 2006 and 2015. We described the extent of mistimed and unwanted pregnancies and further used mixed effects logistic and Poisson regression estimation techniques to examine the impacts of planned, mistimed and unwanted pregnancies on the use of prenatal health services. In total, 73.65% of pregnancies in all countries were planned. Mistimed pregnancy ranged from 7.43% in Burkina Faso to 41.33% in Namibia. Unwanted pregnancies were most common in Swaziland (39.54%) and least common in Niger (0.74%). Timely (first trimester) initiation of ANC was 37% overall in all countries; the multicountry average number of ANC visits was optimal [4.1; 95% CI: 4.1-4.2] but with notable disparities between countries. Overall, mistimed and unwanted pregnancies were strongly associated with late ANC attendance and fewer visits women made in the pooled analysis. Unintended pregnancies are critical risks to achieving improved maternal health in respect of early and optimal ANC coverage for women in Africa. Programmes targeted at advancing coverage of ANC in Africa need to deploy contextually appropriate mechanisms to prevent unintended pregnancies. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Transitioning Towards Sustainable Development Goals: The Role of Household Environment in Influencing Child Health in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia using Recent Demographic Health Surveys.

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    Ankit eAnand

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The millennium development goals are now replaced by seventeen sustainable development goals. The emphasis of old goals was on improving water, sanitation, and child mortality conditions in developing countries. The study explored the major question about the association between different household environment conditions with child survival and health in Sub-Saharan African and South Asian countries in the current scenario. This paper estimated the risk of death, morbidity and under-nutrition among children living in households with the improved sources of water, sanitation and non-solid cooking fuel. Two sources of information explored in this study. First, data from World Health Statistics (WHS -2014 for all of the Sub-Saharan African and South Asian countries were used. Second, available standard Demographic and Health Survey performed in the countries of Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia after 2010, included in the study. It resulted in inclusion of 15 countries which were Bangladesh (2011, Congo Republic (2013-14, Cote d'Ivoire (2011-12, Ethiopia (2011, Gambia (2013, Mali (2012-13, Mozambique (2011, Namibia (2013, Nepal (2011, Niger (2012, Nigeria (2013, Pakistan (2012-13, Sierra Leone (2013, Uganda (2011 and Zambia (2013. The Scatter plot diagram was plotted, and the curve was fitted using the WHS-2014. Cox regression and logistic regression were used to estimate adjusted risks (odds ratio of child mortality and health outcomes using DHS surveys. The use of non-solid cooking fuel was very high in most of the Sub-Saharan African and South Asian Countries. There was a positive correlation between improving access to safe drinking water and sanitation. The exponential curve fitted well with child mortality and Household environmental indicators. The use of improved source of water and sanitation significantly related with the lower odds ratio of death, morbidity and under-nutrition among children aged 12-59 months. The risks were not

  5. Racial and Ethnic Differences in Advance Directive Possession: Role of Demographic Factors, Religious Affiliation, and Personal Health Values in a National Survey of Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ivy A; Neuhaus, John M; Chiong, Winston

    2016-02-01

    Black and Hispanic older Americans are less likely than white older Americans to possess advance directives. Understanding the reasons for this racial and ethnic difference is necessary to identify targets for future interventions to improve advance care planning in these populations. The aim of the study was to evaluate whether racial and ethnic differences in advance directive possession are explained by other demographic factors, religious characteristics, and personal health values. A general population survey was conducted in a nationally representative sample using a web-enabled survey panel of American adults aged 50 and older (n = 2154). In a sample of older Americans, white participants are significantly more likely to possess advance directives (44.0%) than black older Americans (24.0%, p personal health values. These findings support targeted efforts to mitigate racial disparities in access to advance care planning.

  6. Determinants of utilization of sufficient tetanus toxoid immunization during pregnancy: evidence from the Kenya Demographic and Health Survey, 2008-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haile, Zelalem T; Chertok, Ilana R Azulay; Teweldeberhan, Asli K

    2013-06-01

    Although the effectiveness of tetanus toxoid (TT) immunization during pregnancy in preventing maternal and neonatal tetanus is well established, in many developing countries, TT immunization programs are underutilized. The objective of this study was to examine factors associated with sufficient TT immunization among postpartum women in Kenya. Population based secondary data analysis was conducted using de-identified data from the 2008-2009 Kenyan Demographic and Health Survey (KDHS) for 1,370 female participants who had a live birth during or within 12 months of the cross-sectional survey. Chi-square test and independent sample t test were conducted to assess bivariate associations and a multivariable logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine associations before and after adjustment for demographic, socioeconomic, cultural, and access to care factors. The main factors contributing to having been sufficiently immunized against tetanus were lower birth order, higher household wealth index, women's employment, making joint health-related decisions with a partner, and higher number of antenatal care visits. Implications for health care providers and other professionals involved in development of strategies and interventions aimed at improving immunization rates are discussed.

  7. Chiropractors in Finland – a demographic survey

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    Malmqvist Stefan

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Finnish chiropractic profession is young and not fully accepted by Finnish healthcare authorities. The demographic profile and style of practice has not been described to date. However, as the profession seems to be under rapid development, it would be of interest to stakeholders, both chiropractic and political, to obtain a baseline description of this profession with a view to the development of future goals and strategies for the profession. The purpose of this study was to describe the chiropractic profession in Finland in relation to its demographic background, the demographics of their clinics, practice patterns, interactions with other health care practitioners and some of the professions' plans for the future. Methods A structured questionnaire survey was conducted in 2005, in which all 50 members of the Finnish Chiropractic Union were invited to participate. Results In all, 44 questionnaires were returned (response rate 88%. Eighty percent of the respondents were men, and 77% were aged 30 to 44 years old, most of whom graduated after 1990 with either a university-based bachelors' or masters' degree in chiropractic. Solo practice was their main practice pattern. The vast majority described their scope of practice to be based on a musculoskeletal approach, using the Diversified Technique, performing Soft Tissue Therapy and about two-thirds also used an Activator Instrument (mechanical adjusting instrument. The mean number of patient visits reported to have been seen weekly was 59 of which nine were new patients. Most practitioners found this number of patients satisfactory. At the initial consultation, 80% of respondents spent 30–45 minutes with their patients, 75% spent 20–30 minutes with "new old" patients and on subsequent visits 80% of respondents spent 15–30 minutes. Interactions with other health care professions were reasonably good and most of chiropractors intended to remain within the profession

  8. Transitioning toward Sustainable Development Goals: The Role of Household Environment in Influencing Child Health in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia Using Recent Demographic Health Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Ankit; Roy, Nobhojit

    2016-01-01

    The Millennium Development Goals are now replaced by 17 sustainable development goals. The emphasis of old goals was on improving water, sanitation, and child mortality conditions in developing countries. The study explored the major question about the association between different household environment conditions with child survival and health in Sub-Saharan African and South Asian countries in the current scenario. This paper estimated the risk of death, morbidity, and undernutrition among children living in households with the improved sources of water, sanitation, and non-solid cooking fuel. Two sources of information are explored in this study. First, data from World Health Statistics (WHS)-2014 for all of the Sub-Saharan African and South Asian countries were used. Second, available standard Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) performed in the countries of Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia after 2010 was included in the study. It resulted in the inclusion of 15 countries which were Bangladesh (2011), Congo Republic (2013-2014), Cote d'Ivoire (2011-2012), Ethiopia (2011), Gambia (2013), Mali (2012-2013), Mozambique (2011), Namibia (2013), Nepal (2011), Niger (2012), Nigeria (2013), Pakistan (2012-2013), Sierra Leone (2013), Uganda (2011), and Zambia (2013). The scatter plot diagram was plotted, and the curve was fitted using the WHS-2014. Cox regression and logistic regression were used to estimate adjusted risks (odds ratio) of child mortality and health outcomes using DHSs. The use of non-solid cooking fuel was very high in most of the Sub-Saharan African and South Asian countries. There was a positive correlation between improving access to safe drinking water and sanitation. The exponential curve fitted well with child mortality and household environmental indicators. The use of improved source of water and sanitation significantly related with the lower odds ratio of death, morbidity, and undernutrition among children aged 12-59 months. The risks were

  9. Pregnancy intention, demographic differences, and psychosocial health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxson, Pamela; Miranda, Marie Lynn

    2011-08-01

    We explore the psychosocial, demographic, and maternal characteristics across wanted, mistimed, and unwanted pregnancies. Data from 1321 women from a prospective cohort study of pregnant women in Durham, NC, are analyzed. Psychosocial correlates were obtained through prenatal surveys; electronic medical records were used to ascertain maternal health and pregnancy outcomes. Sixty-two percent of the women indicated an unintended pregnancy, with 44% (578) mistimed and 18% (245) unwanted. Only 38% of the pregnancies were characterized as wanted. Women with unwanted and with mistimed pregnancies were similar demographically, but they differed significantly on psychosocial profiles and maternal characteristics. Women with mistimed and with wanted pregnancies differed in demographics and psychosocial profiles. Wanted pregnancies had the healthiest, mistimed an intermediate, and unwanted the poorest psychosocial profile. Women with unwanted pregnancies had the highest depression, perceived stress, and negative paternal support scores (ppsychosocial profiles had higher odds of being in the unwanted category. Controlling for psychosocial and demographic variables, perceived stress and positive paternal support remained significant predictors of belonging to the unwanted and mistimed groups. Fully characterizing pregnancy intention and its relationship to psychosocial profiles may provide a basis for identifying women with highest risk during pregnancy and early motherhood. Women with unwanted and mistimed pregnancies may appear similar demographically but are different psychosocially. Women with unwanted pregnancies have multiple risk factors and would benefit from targeted interventions.

  10. The AAVSO 2011 Demographic and Background Survey

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    Price, C Aaron

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, the AAVSO conducted a survey of 615 people who are or were recently active in the 101-year old organization. The survey included questions about their demographic background and variable star interests. Data are descriptively analyzed and compared with prior surveys. Results show an organization of very highly educated, largely male amateur and professional astronomers distributed across 108 countries. Participants tend to be loyal, with the average time of involvement in the AAVSO reported as 14 years. Most major demographic factors have not changed much over time. However, the average age of new members is increasing. Also, a significant portion of the respondents report being strictly active in a non-observing capacity, reflecting the growing mission of the organization. Motivations of participants are more aligned with scientific contribution than with that reported by other citizen science projects. This may help explain why a third of all respondents are an author or co-author of a paper in an ...

  11. Male circumcision and its association with HIV infection and sexually transmitted diseases: evidence from 18 demographic and health surveys in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebremedhin, Samson

    2011-01-01

    The study aimed to assess the association between male circumcision and HIV infection and STDs. The issue is controversial as various studies reported conflicting findings. A cross-sectional comparative study based on the secondary data of 18 Demographic Health Surveys (DHS), carried out in Sub-Saharan Africa starting from 2003, was conducted. From all surveys, information on 70 554 males aged 15 - 59 years was extracted. The association between male circumcision and HIV infection and STD symptoms (genital discharge or genital ulcer/sore) was assessed using binary logistic regression. Adjustment was made for sexual history and basic socio-demographic variables. The weighted prevalence of HIV among men 15 - 59 years was 3.1%. In the bivariate analysis uncircumcised status was significantly associated with risk of HIV, with odds ratio (OR) of 4.12 (95% CI: 3.85 - 4.42). The association was even more significant (4.95 (95% CI: 4.57-5.36)) after adjustment for number of lifetime sexual partners and socio-demographic variables. The risk associated with uncircumcised status is significantly lower among younger men aged 15 - 29 years than those in 30 - 59-year age category. About 5.5% of the study subjects reported either genital discharge or genital sore/ulcer in the preceding 12 months of the surveys. Circumcision status was not significantly associated with either of the symptoms, with adjusted OR of 1.07 (95% CI: 0.99 - 1.15). The study concludes that there is a strong association between uncircumcised status and HIV infection. Hence, male circumcision can be considered as a possible way of reducing the spread of HIV infection in areas where the practice is rare. A comprehensive study to assess the association between circumcision and different types of STDs is recommended.

  12. Demographic and socioeconomic inequalities for self-rated health and happiness in elderly: the situation for Turkey regarding World Values Survey between 1990 and 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergin, Isil; Mandiracioglu, Aliye

    2015-01-01

    To define the socioeconomic and demographic determinants for self-rated health and happiness for Turkish elderly (≥60) using the World Values Survey (WVS) database. WVS data for Turkey covering 23 years (1990-2013) with five separate cross-sections (1990, 1996, 2001, 2007, 2013) were pooled for analysis (n=870). Dependent variables were self-rated health (SRH) and perception of happiness.Their relation with age, sex, number of children, marital status, income, education, employment status and class perception were evaluated. Chi-square and logistic regression analysis were used. Regression coefficients and their standard errors were derived to calculate odds ratios. Mean age was 66.96±5.78 (60-91), 58.16% were male and 76.32% were married. The majority (61.10%) was at lowest income level and 80.60% had education attainment at primary level or below. Very happy/quite happy were 81.77% while only 46.59% perceived their health as very good/good. The crisis year (2001) increased the risk of bad self-rated health 4.4 times, being a women 2.0 times, while being a widow had a 2.3-fold, low-income 3.0-fold effect. The odds for unhappy status was increased 4.3 times at low-income levels and 8.4 times for the divorced/separate living partners. Happiness state improved after crisis period. SRH and happiness of Turkish elderly bare demographic and socioeconomic inequalities. The inexistence of a partner, being a women, low-income level and major threats for it, like economic crisis, are important drivers for elderly health and happiness. To improve well-being of elderly, better social policies for income is essential and at economic crisis times, support policies should be prioritized for vulnerable groups, including elderly. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. [Demographic changes and health management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calero, Juan del Rey

    2006-01-01

    Since our Constitution declaration in 1978 and General Law for Health in 1986, to date, the Spanish society has undergorne marked social changes. Socio-economic and health indicators in Spain have also improved as to an increased life expectancy, important reduction in infant mortality, and favourable changes reported in the national Health Survey. Risk factors influence the main causes of death, thus it is said that "man does not die but it kills himself". Healthy health practices are specified, and there is empirical evidence of greater disability-adjusted life years, a better adherence to Mediterranean diet, no smoking, moderate consumption of alcohol, enough time of sleeping, weight control, avoiding obsity and overweight, and increased physical activity, all the above practices achieving a healthier life. At a global scale in the world we live, famine has no frontiers, and fighting against this plague can not await longer. Overall, health and poverty are correlated and it must be overcome for reasons of human dignity, universal rights (even in ius gentium), and ethical dimension as normative of new socio-economic structures. Present must be transformed to recover hope in ou global world, still hungry, and in need of justice, enlightenment and solidarity.

  14. Determinants of moderate-to-severe anaemia among women of reproductive age in Tanzania: analysis of data from the 2010 Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilunda, Calistus; Massawe, Siriel; Jackson, Caroline

    2013-12-01

    To identify determinants of moderate-to-severe anaemia among women of reproductive age in Tanzania. We included participants from the 2010 Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey, which collected data on socio-demographic and maternal health and determined haemoglobin levels from blood samples. We performed logistic regression to calculate adjusted odds ratios for associations between socio-demographic, contextual, reproductive and lifestyle factors, and moderate-to-severe anaemia and investigated interactions between certain risk factors. Of 9477 women, 20.1% were anaemic. Pregnancy was significantly associated with anaemia (adjusted OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.43-2.15), but the effect varied significantly by urban/rural residence, wealth and education. The effect of pregnancy was stronger in women without education and those who were in lower wealth groups, with significant interactions observed for each of these factors. Education was associated with a lower anaemia risk, particularly in the poorest group (OR 0.58, 95% CI 0.43-0.80), and in pregnant women. The risk of anaemia fell with rising iron supplementation coverage. Lack of toilet facilities increased anaemia risk (OR 1.26, 95% CI 1.00-1.60), whereas using hormonal contraception reduced it. There was no association with age, urban/rural residence, wealth or type of cooking fuel in adjusted analysis. Pregnant women in Tanzania are particularly at risk of moderate-to-severe anaemia, with the effect modified by urban/rural residence, education and wealth. Prevention interventions should target women with lower education or without proper sanitation facilities, and women who are pregnant, particularly if they are uneducated or in lower wealth groups. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Impact Of Maternal Socio-Economic Determinants On Early Childhood Stunting In Maldives An Analysis Of Maldives Demographic Health Survey 2009

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    Aminath Adeela

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Under nutrition is a direct consequence of poverty with its characteristics of low socio-economic status poor living conditions poor maternal education large family size inadequate access to quality food safe water and health services. Recently there have been significant improvements in the overall health of the Maldivian population with an increase in life expectancy and a decline in maternal and infant mortality rates. However infant under nutrition is still a concern. Field testing of WHO growth standards in 2006 in Maldives indicated that more than one third of children under five years were stunted and that children classified as tall hardly reach the WHO standard for mean height. Examining maternal characteristics that may contribute to under nutrition in Maldivian children will assist in designingimplementing population based public health interventions aimed at improving infant and childhood nutrition. This study is based on secondary analysis of data from the Maldives Demographic Health Survey MDHS 2009. The study results showed that height for age z-score was lowest from ages 6 to 29 months. Factors significantly associated with the rate of stunting included size of child at birth height of the mother duration of breastfeeding difficulties in obtaining money needed for medical help for mother absence of a health service provider when obtaining medical help for mother after adjusting for socio-economic factors.

  16. Factors associated with not using antenatal iron/folic acid supplements in Indonesia: the 2002/2003 and 2007 Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titaley, Christiana Rialine; Dibley, Michael John

    2015-01-01

    This analysis examined factors associated with non-use of antenatal iron/folic acid supplements in Indonesia. Data from the 2002/2003 and 2007 Indonesia Demographic and Health Surveys (IDHS) were used, providing survival information for 26,591 most recent deliveries over the five-year period prior to each survey. The main outcome variable was non-use of iron/folic acid supplements. Using logistic regression, we examined the role of external environment, predisposing, enabling, need factors, and previous utilization of other maternal care services in non-use of antenatal iron/folic acid supplements. Mothers from outer Java- Bali Region and rural areas (OR=1.73, 95% CI: 1.48-2.03) had increased odds for not using antenatal iron/folic acid supplements. The likelihood for not using the supplements increased with the reduction of household wealth index and parental education. The odds increased amongst mothers with low autonomy on her own health care (OR=1.24, 95% CI: 1.04-1.49), high birth-rank infants, mothers with low knowledge of obstetric complications and low exposure to mass media. Enabling factors associated with increased odds for non-use of iron/folic acid supplements included mothers reporting money to pay health services (OR=1.28, 95% CI: 1.13- 1.44) and distance to health services (OR=1.20, 95% CI: 1.02-1.40) were major problems. Our study demonstrated the importance of antenatal care as a distribution channel of the supplements. Increasing community awareness, coverage and access to health services along with strengthening counselling sessions during antenatal care and community participation in health programs are necessary to improve the uptake of iron/folic acid supplements, to increase infant survival in Indonesia.

  17. Understanding the relationship between access to care and facility-based delivery through analysis of the 2008 Ghana Demographic Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, Cheryl A; McLaren, Zoë M; Adanu, Richard M; Lantz, Paula M

    2013-09-01

    To determine the types of access to care most strongly associated with facility-based delivery among women in Ghana. Data relating to the "5 As of Access" framework were extracted from the 2008 Ghana Demographic Health Survey and analyzed using multivariate logistic regression. In all, 55.5% of a weighted sample of 1102 women delivered in a healthcare facility, whereas 45.5% delivered at home. Affordability was the strongest access factor associated with delivery location, with health insurance coverage tripling the odds of facility delivery. Availability, accessibility (except urban residence), acceptability, and social access variables were not significant factors in the final models. Social access variables, including needing permission to seek healthcare and not being involved in decisions regarding healthcare, were associated with a reduced likelihood of facility-based delivery when examined individually. Multivariate analysis suggested that these variables reflected maternal literacy, health insurance coverage, and household wealth, all of which attenuated the effects of social access. Affordability was an important determinant of facility delivery in Ghana-even among women with health insurance-but social access variables had a mediating role. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Factors associated with underutilization of antenatal care services in Indonesia: results of Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey 2002/2003 and 2007

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    Titaley Christiana R

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antenatal care aims to prevent maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity. In Indonesia, at least four antenatal visits are recommended during pregnancy. However, this service has been underutilized. This study aimed to examine factors associated with underutilization of antenatal care services in Indonesia. Methods We used data from Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey (IDHS 2002/2003 and 2007. Information of 26,591 singleton live-born infants of the mothers' most recent birth within five years preceding each survey was examined. Twenty-three potential risk factors were identified and categorized into four main groups, external environment, predisposing, enabling, and need factors. Logistic regression models were used to examine the association between all potential risk factors and underutilization of antenatal services. The Population Attributable Risk (PAR was calculated for selected significant factors associated with the outcome. Results Factors strongly associated with underutilization of antenatal care services were infants from rural areas and from outer Java-Bali region, infants from low household wealth index and with low maternal education level, and high birth rank infants with short birth interval of less than two years. Other associated factors identified included mothers reporting distance to health facilities as a major problem, mothers less exposed to mass media, and mothers reporting no obstetric complications during pregnancy. The PAR showed that 55% of the total risks for underutilization of antenatal care services were attributable to the combined low household wealth index and low maternal education level. Conclusions Strategies to increase the accessibility and availability of health care services are important particularly for communities in rural areas. Financial support that enables mothers from poor households to use health services will be beneficial. Health promotion programs targeting

  19. Factors influencing place of delivery for women in Kenya: an analysis of the Kenya demographic and health survey, 2008/2009

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    Kitui John

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal mortality in Kenya increased from 380/100000 live births to 530/100000 live births between 1990 and 2008. Skilled assistance during childbirth is central to reducing maternal mortality yet the proportion of deliveries taking place in health facilities where such assistance can reliably be provided has remained below 50% since the early 1990s. We use the 2008/2009 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey data to describe the factors that determine where women deliver in Kenya and to explore reasons given for home delivery. Methods Data on place of delivery, reasons for home delivery, and a range of potential explanatory factors were collected by interviewer-led questionnaire on 3977 women and augmented with distance from the nearest health facility estimated using health facility Global Positioning System (GPS co-ordinates. Predictors of whether the woman’s most recent delivery was in a health facility were explored in an exploratory risk factor analysis using multiple logistic regression. The main reasons given by the woman for home delivery were also examined. Results Living in urban areas, being wealthy, more educated, using antenatal care services optimally and lower parity strongly predicted where women delivered, and so did region, ethnicity, and type of facilities used. Wealth and rural/urban residence were independently related. The effect of distance from a health facility was not significant after controlling for other variables. Women most commonly cited distance and/or lack of transport as reasons for not delivering in a health facility but over 60% gave other reasons including 20.5% who considered health facility delivery unnecessary, 18% who cited abrupt delivery as the main reason and 11% who cited high cost. Conclusion Physical access to health facilities through distance and/or lack of transport, and economic considerations are important barriers for women to delivering in a health facility in Kenya

  20. Consumer clusters in Denmark based on coarse vegetable intake frequency, explained by hedonics, socio-demographic, health and food lifestyle factors. A cross-sectional national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Tove K; Jensen, Sidsel; Simmelsgaard, Sonni Hansen; Kjeldsen, Chris; Kidmose, Ulla

    2015-08-01

    Vegetable intake seems to play a protective role against major lifestyle diseases. Despite this, the Danish population usually eats far less than the recommended daily intake. The present study focused on the intake of 17 coarse vegetables and the potential barriers limiting their intake. The present study drew upon a large Danish survey (n = 1079) to study the intake of coarse vegetables among Danish consumers. Four population clusters were identified based on their intake of 17 different coarse vegetables, and profiled according to hedonics, socio-demographic, health, and food lifestyle factors. The four clusters were characterized by a very low intake frequency of coarse vegetables ('low frequency'), a low intake frequency of coarse vegetables; but high intake frequency of carrots ('carrot eaters'), a moderate coarse vegetable intake frequency and high intake frequency of beetroot ('beetroot eaters'), and a high intake frequency of all coarse vegetables ('high frequency'). There was a relationship between reported liking and reported intake frequency for all tested vegetables. Preference for foods with a sweet, salty or bitter taste, in general, was also identified to be decisive for the reported vegetable intake, as these differed across the clusters. Each cluster had distinct socio-demographic, health and food lifestyle profiles. 'Low frequency' was characterized by uninvolved consumers with lack of interest in food, 'carrot eaters' vegetable intake was driven by health aspects, 'beetroot eaters' were characterized as traditional food consumers, and 'high frequency' were individuals with a strong food engagement and high vegetable liking. 'Low frequency' identified more barriers than other consumer clusters and specifically regarded low availability of pre-cut/prepared coarse vegetables on the market as a barrier. Across all clusters a low culinary knowledge was identified as the main barrier. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Association between biomass fuel use and maternal report of child size at birth - an analysis of 2005-06 India Demographic Health Survey data

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    Sathiakumar Nalini

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Observational epidemiological studies and a systematic review have consistently shown an association between maternal exposure to biomass smoke and reduced birth weight. Our aim was to further test this hypothesis. Methods We analysed the data from 47,139 most recent singleton births during preceding five years of 2005-06 India Demographic Health Survey (DHS. Information about birth weight from child health card and/or mothers' recall was analysed. Since birth weight was not recorded for nearly 60% of the reported births, maternal self-report of child's size at birth was used as a proxy. Fuel type was classified as high pollution fuels (wood, straw, animal dung, and crop residues kerosene, coal and charcoal, and low pollution fuels (electricity, liquid petroleum gas (LPG, natural gas and biogas. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression models were developed using SURVEYLOGISTIC procedure in SAS system. We used three logistic regression models in which child factors, maternal factors and demographic factors were added step-by-step to the main exposure variable. Adjusted Odds Ratios (AORs and their 95% CI were calculated. A p-value less than 0.05 was considered as significant. Results Child's birth weight was available for only 19,270 (41% births; 3113 from health card and 16,157 from mothers' recall. For available data, mean birth weight was 2846.5 grams (SD = 684.6. Children born in households using high pollution fuels were 73 grams lighter than those born in households using low pollution fuels (mean birth weight 2883.8 grams versus 2810.7 grams, p Conclusions Use of biomass fuels is associated with child size at birth. Future studies should investigate this association using more direct methods for measurement of exposure to smoke emitted from biomass fuels and birth weight.

  2. Using multi-country household surveys to understand who provides reproductive and maternal health services in low- and middle-income countries: a critical appraisal of the Demographic and Health Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Footman, K; Benova, L; Goodman, C; Macleod, D; Lynch, C A; Penn-Kekana, L; Campbell, O M R

    2015-05-01

    The Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) are a vital data resource for cross-country comparative analyses. This study is part of a set of analyses assessing the types of providers being used for reproductive and maternal health care across 57 countries. Here, we examine some of the challenges encountered using DHS data for this purpose, present the provider classification we used, and provide recommendations to enable more detailed and accurate cross-country comparisons of healthcare provision. We used the most recent DHS surveys between 2000 and 2012; 57 countries had data on family planning and delivery care providers and 47 countries had data on antenatal care. Every possible response option across the 57 countries was listed and categorised. We then developed a classification to group provider response options according to two key dimensions: clinical nature and profit motive. We classified the different types of maternal and reproductive healthcare providers, and the individuals providing care. Documented challenges encountered during this process were limitations inherent in household survey data based on respondents' self-report; conflation of response options in the questionnaire or at the data processing stage; category errors of the place vs. professional for delivery; inability to determine whether care received at home is from the public or private sector; a large number of negligible response options; inconsistencies in coding and analysis of data sets; and the use of inconsistent headings. To improve clarity, we recommend addressing issues such as conflation of response options, data on public vs. private provider, inconsistent coding and obtaining metadata. More systematic and standardised collection of data would aid international comparisons of progress towards improved financial protection, and allow us to better characterise the incentives and commercial nature of different providers. © 2015 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health

  3. Reproductive and Obstetric Factors Are Key Predictors of Maternal Anemia during Pregnancy in Ethiopia: Evidence from Demographic and Health Survey (2011

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    Taddese Alemu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Anemia is a major public health problem worldwide. In Ethiopia, a nationally representative and consistent evidence is lacking on the prevalence and determinants during pregnancy. We conducted an in-depth analysis of demographic and health survey for the year 2011 which is a representative data collected from all regions in Ethiopia. Considering maternal anemia as an outcome variable, predicting variables from sociodemographic, household, and reproductive/obstetric characteristics were identified for analyses. Logistic regression model was applied to identify predictors at P<0.05. The prevalence of anemia among pregnant women was 23%. Maternal age, region, pregnancy trimester, number of under five children, previous history of abortion (termination of pregnancy, breastfeeding practices, and number of antenatal care visits were key independent predictors of anemia during pregnancy. In conclusion, the level of anemia during pregnancy is a moderate public health problem in Ethiopia. Yet, special preventive measures should be undertaken for pregnant women who are older in age and having too many under five children and previous history of abortion. Further evidence is expected to be generated concerning why pregnant mothers from the eastern part of the country and those with better access to radio disproportionately develop anemia more than their counterparts.

  4. Association between socioeconomic and biological factors and infant weight gain: Brazilian Demographic and Health Survey - PNDS-2006/07

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the associations between socioeconomic and biological factors and infant weight gain. METHODS: All infants (0-23 months of age) with available birth and postnatal weight data (n = 1763) were selected from the last nationally representative survey with complex probability sampling conducted in Brazil (2006/07). The outcome variable was conditional weight gain (CWG), which represents how much an individual has deviated from his/her expected weight gain, given the birth wei...

  5. Prevalence and Social Determinants of Smoking in 15 Countries from North Africa, Central and Western Asia, Latin America and Caribbean: Secondary Data Analyses of Demographic and Health Surveys.

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    Chandrashekhar T Sreeramareddy

    Full Text Available Article 20 of the World Health Organisation Framework Convention on Tobacco Control calls for a cross-country surveillance of tobacco use through population-based surveys. We aimed to provide country-level prevalence estimates for current smoking and current smokeless tobacco use and to assess social determinants of smoking.Data from Demographic and Health Surveys done between 2005 and 2012, among men and women from nine North African, Central and West Asian countries and six Latin American and Caribbean countries were analyzed. Weighted country-level prevalence rates were estimated for 'current smoking' and 'current use of smokeless tobacco (SLT products' among men and women. In each country, social determinants of smoking among men and women were assessed by binary logistic regression analyses by including men's and women's sampling weights to account for the complex survey design.Prevalence of smoking among men was higher than 40% in Armenia (63.1%, Moldova (51.1%, Ukraine (52%, Azerbaijan (49.8 %, Kyrgyz Republic (44.3 % and Albania (42.52% but the prevalence of smoking among women was less than 10% in most countries except Ukraine (14.81% and Jordan (17.96%. The prevalence of smokeless tobacco use among men and women was less than 5% in all countries except among men in the Kyrgyz Republic (10.6 %. Smoking was associated with older age, lower education and poverty among men and higher education and higher wealth among women. Smoking among both men and women was associated with unskilled work, living in urban areas and being single.Smoking among men was very high in Central and West Asian countries. Social pattern of smoking among women that was different from men in education and wealth should be considered while formulating tobacco control policies in some Central and West Asian countries.

  6. Solid fuel in kitchen and acute respiratory tract infection among under five children: evidence from Nepal demographic and health survey 2011.

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    Acharya, Pawan; Mishra, Shiva Raj; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele

    2015-06-01

    This study assessed the association between use of solid fuel in kitchen and ARI among under five children in Nepal. The latest data from the Nepal Demographic and Health Survey 2011 were used. A total of 4,802 under 5 de-jure children were included in this analysis. Cough accompanied by short/rapid breath and chest problem within 2 weeks before survey was considered as the symptoms of ARI. Logistic regression analysis was performed to calculate the odds of being suffered from ARI among the children from households using solid fuel in comparison to the children from households using cleaner fuel. About 84.6% of the families used solid fuel as a primary fuel. Approximately 4.5% children had symptoms of ARI within 2 weeks before the survey. About 3.4 and 4.9% of children from the families using cleaner fuel and solid fuel respectively had symptoms of ARI within 2 weeks preceding survey. After adjusting for age, sex, birth order, urban/rural residence, ecological zone, development region, economic status, number of family members, mother's smoking status and mother's education, odds of suffering from ARI was 1.79 times higher among the children from the households using solid fuel in comparison to the children from households using cleaner fuel (95% CI 1.02, 3.14). This study found the use of solid fuel in the kitchen has as a risk factor for ARI among under five children in Nepal. Longitudinal studies with direct measurement of indoor air pollution and clinical ARI cases can be future research priority.

  7. What explains gender inequalities in HIV/AIDS prevalence in sub-Saharan Africa? Evidence from the demographic and health surveys.

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    Sia, Drissa; Onadja, Yentéma; Hajizadeh, Mohammad; Heymann, S Jody; Brewer, Timothy F; Nandi, Arijit

    2016-11-03

    Women are disproportionally affected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The determinants of gender inequality in HIV/AIDS may vary across countries and require country-specific interventions to address them. This study aimed to identify the socio-demographic and behavioral characteristics underlying gender inequalities in HIV/AIDS in 21 SSA countries. We applied an extension of the Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition approach to data from Demographic and Health Surveys and AIDS Indicator Surveys to quantify the differences in HIV/AIDS prevalence between women and men attributable to socio-demographic factors, sexual behaviours, and awareness of HIV/AIDS. We decomposed gender inequalities into two components: the percentage attributable to different levels of the risk factors between women and men (the "composition effect") and the percentage attributable to risk factors having differential effects on HIV/AIDS prevalence in women and men (the "response effect"). Descriptive analyses showed that the difference between women and men in HIV/AIDS prevalence varied from a low of 0.68 % (P = 0.008) in Liberia to a high of 11.5 % (P HIV/AIDS among women in Uganda and Ghana, respectively, was explained by the different distributions of HIV/AIDS risk factors, particularly age at first sex between women and men. In the majority of countries, however, observed gender inequalities in HIV/AIDS were chiefly explained by differences in the responses to risk factors; the differential effects of age, marital status and occupation on prevalence of HIV/AIDS for women and men were among the significant contributors to this component. In Cameroon, Guinea, Malawi and Swaziland, a combination of the composition and response effects explained gender inequalities in HIV/AIDS prevalence. The factors that explain gender inequality in HIV/AIDS in SSA vary by country, suggesting that country-specific interventions are

  8. Determinants of fertility in Rwanda in the context of a fertility transition: a secondary analysis of the 2010 Demographic and Health Survey.

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    Ndahindwa, Vedaste; Kamanzi, Collins; Semakula, Muhammed; Abalikumwe, François; Hedt-Gauthier, Bethany; Thomson, Dana R

    2014-12-13

    Major improvements to Rwanda's health system, infrastructure, and social programs over the last decade have led to a rapid fertility transition unique from other African countries. The total fertility rate fell from 6.1 in 2005 to 4.6 in 2010, with a 3-fold increase in contraceptive usage. Despite this rapid national decline, many women still have large numbers of children. This study investigates predictors of fertility during this fertility transition to inform policies that improve individuals' reproductive health and guide national development. We used Poisson regression to separately model number of children born to ever married/cohabitated women (n = 8,309) and never married women (n = 1,220) age 15 to 49 based on 2010 Rwanda Demographic and Health Survey data. We used backward stepwise regression with a time offset to identify individual and household factors associated with woman's fertility level, accounting for sampling weights, clustering, and stratification. In ever married/cohabitating women, high fertility was significantly associated (p fertility in ever married/cohabitating women was associated with women's education (higher versus no education: IRR = 0.66), household wealth (highest versus lowest quintile: IRR = 0.93), and delayed sexual debut (25+ versus 8-18 years: IRR = 0.49). In never married women, low fertility was associated with education (higher versus no education: IRR = 0.22), household wealth (highest versus lowest quintile: IRR = 0.58), delayed sexual debut (25-49 versus 8-18 years: IRR = 0.43), and having an unmet need for contraception (IRR = 0.69). Although the study design does not allow causal conclusions, these results suggest several strategies to further reduce Rwanda's national fertility rate and support families to achieve their desired fertility. Strategies include policies and programs that promote delayed sexual debut via educational and economic opportunities for women, improved access to reproductive health information

  9. Association between socioeconomic and biological factors and infant weight gain: Brazilian Demographic and Health Survey - PNDS-2006/07

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    Jonas Augusto C. Silveira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine the associations between socioeconomic and biological factors and infant weight gain. METHODS: All infants (0-23 months of age with available birth and postnatal weight data (n = 1763 were selected from the last nationally representative survey with complex probability sampling conducted in Brazil (2006/07. The outcome variable was conditional weight gain (CWG, which represents how much an individual has deviated from his/her expected weight gain, given the birth weight. Associations were estimated using simple and hierarchical multiple linear regression, considering the survey sampling design, and presented in standard deviations of CWG with their respective 95% of confidence intervals. Hierarchical models were designed considering the UNICEF Conceptual Framework for Malnutrition (basic, underlying and immediate causes. RESULTS: The poorest Brazilian regions (-0.14 [-0.25; -0.04] and rural areas (-0.14 [-0.26;-0.02] were inversely associated with CWG in the basic causes model. However, this association disappeared after adjusting for maternal and household characteristics. In the final hierarchical model, lower economic status (-0.09 [-0.15; -0.03], human capital outcomes (maternal education < 4th grade (-0.14[-0.29; 0.01], higher maternal height (0.02[0.01; 0.03], and fever in the past 2 weeks (-0.13[-0.26; -0.01] were associated with postnatal weight gain. CONCLUSION: The results showed that poverty and lower human capital are still key factors associated with poor postnatal weight gain. The approach used in these analyses was sensitive to characterize inequalities among different socioeconomic contexts and to identify factors associated with CWG in different levels of determination.

  10. Urbanisation and geographic variation of overweight and obesity in India: a cross-sectional analysis of the Indian Demographic Health Survey 2005-2006.

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    Siddiqui, Saad T; Kandala, Ngianga-Bakwin; Stranges, Saverio

    2015-09-01

    We examined the nationwide geographic variation of overweight and obesity in India, as well as a range of potential correlates of excess body fat. We conducted cross-sectional analyses of the 2005-2006 Indian Demographic Health Survey (IDHS), based on 161,050 individuals (age range 18-54 years). Multivariate logistic regression models were used to determine odds ratios (OR) of overweight and obesity compared to normal weight with associated correlates. The overall prevalence was 12.4% for overweight, 3.2% for obesity, and 26.5% for underweight. After multivariate adjustment, obesity was nearly thrice more likely in urban areas than in rural (OR 2.73, 95% CI 2.53-2.94). Women were 2.71 times more likely to be obese than men (95% CI 2.50-2.95). Better socioeconomic status was significantly associated with overweight and obesity. Overweight (OR 1.38, 95% CI 1.31-1.47) and obesity (OR 1.46, 95% CI 1.32-1.61) were most likely to occur in India's Southern zone, when controlled for confounding factors. High-risk estimates for overweight/obesity in urban settings, along with socioeconomic prowess in India and the resulting nutritional transition make a compelling case for public health policy on healthy lifestyles to avert the growing burden of non-communicable diseases associated with overweight/obesity.

  11. Family History, Diabetes, and Other Demographic and Risk Factors Among Participants of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2002

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    Debra Duquette, MS, CGC

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Family history of diabetes has been recognized as an important risk factor of the disease. Family medical history represents valuable genomic information because it characterizes the combined interactions between environmental, behavioral, and genetic factors. This study examined the strength and effect of having a family history of diabetes on the prevalence of self-reported, previously diagnosed diabetes among adult participants of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2002. Methods The study population included data from 10,283 participants aged 20 years and older. Gender, age, race/ethnicity, poverty income ratio, education level, body mass index, and family history of diabetes were examined in relation to diabetes status. Diabetes prevalence estimates and odds ratios of diabetes were calculated based on family history and other factors. Results The prevalence of diabetes among individuals who have a first-degree relative with diabetes (14.3% was significantly higher than that of individuals without a family history (3.2%, corresponding to a crude odds ratio of five. Both prevalence and odds ratio estimates significantly increased with the number of relatives affected with diabetes. Family history was also associated with several demographic and risk factors. Conclusion Family history of diabetes was shown to be a significant predictor of diabetes prevalence in the adult U.S. population. We advocate the inclusion of family history assessment in public health prevention and screening programs as an inexpensive and valuable source of genomic information and measure of diabetes risk.

  12. Nutritional status, health conditions and socio-demographic factors in the elderly of Havana, Cuba: data from SABE survey.

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    Da Silva Coqueiro, R; Rodrigues Barbosa, A; Ferreti Borgatto, A

    2010-12-01

    To assess the association of nutritional status with sex, age, race/color, education, smoking, physical activity, hypertension, diabetes, and hospitalization in older adults residing in the city of Havana, Cuba. This was a cross-sectional, population-based household survey. A total of 1,905 persons (1,197 women and 708 men; ≥ 60 years) were examined between 1999 and 2000, selected by probabilistic sampling. Nutritional status was assessed by body mass index (BMI): BMI 27.0 kg/m2 = overweight. Multinomial logistic regression analysis (crude and adjusted) was used. The estimation of the prevalence of underweight was 33.0% and that of overweight was 29.6%. The adjusted regression model showed that the probability of underweight was higher in older age groups (OR = 1.63, 70-79 years; OR = 2.05, ≥ 80 years) and among smokers (OR = 1.83). There was negative association between underweight, and hypertension and diabetes. Hypertension (OR = 1.99) was positively associated with overweight. The lower likelihood of overweight was observed among men, smokers, and those aged 80 years and more. The elderly population of Havana presents a vulnerable nutritional status in view of the prevalence of underweight and overweight. Increasing age, smoking, gender, and hypertension are the factors positively associated with vulnerable nutritional status.

  13. Low Contraceptive Use among Young Females in Uganda: Does Birth History and Age at Birth have an Influence? Analysis of 2011 Demographic and Health Survey

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    Kabagenyi, Allen; Habaasa, Gilbert; Rutaremwa, Gideon

    2017-01-01

    Background Globally adolescent fertility has been associated with increased risk to maternal and child health morbidity and mortality. The low use of contraception has been associated with high fertility levels, which is remains a public health concern that efforts have been raised to avert this. We examine the influence history of a previous birth and age at first birth would have on young women’s use of contraception. Methods Using the 2011 Uganda Demographic and Health Survey data, we examine the predictors of contraceptive use on a sample of 3692 young females in Uganda. While controlling for education and age of respondents, logistic regression analyses were run to provide the net effect of the examined predictors on contraceptive use. The study variables included age of respondents, marital status, age at first birth, births in past five years, socioeconomic status, residence, region, education level, religion, occupation and whether the last child was wanted. Results The findings show that only 12% of the adolescents were using contraception at the time of the survey. The key predictors of contraceptive use among young women in Uganda were age at first birth, history of previous birth, current age, and place of residence, education and socioeconomic status. Respondents who had a birth in the 5 years prior to the survey had five times (OR = 5.0, 95% CI = 3.7-6.5) the odds of contraceptive use compared to those who had never had a birth. Further, adolescent females with at least a secondary education were more likely to use contraceptives (OR = 1.55, 95% CI = 1.2-2.0) than those with primary education. The odds of contraceptive use were least among adolescents from Northern region (OR = 0.39, 95% CI = 0.2-0.6) compared to those from central region of Uganda. Muslim adolescent females were more likely to use contraceptives compared to Catholics (OR = 1.59, 95% CI = 1.1-2.3). Conclusion There is great need to address issues that hinder young people from using

  14. Attitudes Toward Intimate Partner Violence and Associations With Condom Use Among Men in Haiti: An Analysis of the Nationally Representative Demographic Health Survey.

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    Conserve, Donaldson F; Whembolua, Guy-Lucien S; Surkan, Pamela J

    2016-03-01

    Although men have substantial decision-making power regarding condom use, the majority of HIV knowledge and prevention studies in the general Haitian population have been conducted among youth and women. We investigated attitudes toward intimate partner violence, knowledge of, and use of condoms among 9493 men in Haiti using data from the 2012 nationally representative Demographic and Health Survey. Only 36% of HIV-negative and 44% of HIV-positive men reported using a condom the last time they had had sex. Logistic regression revealed that believing it was justified for a man to hit or beat his wife if she refuses to have sex with him was associated with a lower odds of condom use. The odds of using a condom during last sex was higher among men who reported knowing condoms can prevent HIV and who had been tested for HIV. Given the low rate of condom use among men in Haiti, these findings suggest that interventions promoting HIV knowledge, HIV testing, and gender-violence prevention among men may also increase condom use.

  15. Dietary Diversity and Meal Frequency Practices among Infant and Young Children Aged 6–23 Months in Ethiopia: A Secondary Analysis of Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey 2011

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    Melkam Aemro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Appropriate complementary feeding practice is essential for growth and development of children. This study aimed to assess dietary diversity and meal frequency practice of infants and young children in Ethiopia. Methods. Data collected in the Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS from December 2010 to June 2011 were used for this study. Data collected were extracted, arranged, recoded, and analyzed by using SPSS version 17. A total of 2836 children aged 6–23 months were used for final analysis. Both bivariate and multivariate analysis were done to identify predictors of feeding practices. Result. Children with adequate dietary diversity score and meal frequency were 10.8% and 44.7%, respectively. Children born from the richest households showed better dietary diversity score (OR = 0.256. Number of children whose age less than five years was important predictor of dietary diversity (OR = 0.690. Mothers who had exposure to media were more likely to give adequate meal frequency to their children (OR = 0.707. Conclusion. Dietary diversity and meal frequency practices were inadequate in Ethiopia. Wealth quintile, exposure to media, and number of children were affecting feeding practices. Improving economic status, a habit of eating together, and exposure to media are important to improve infant feeding practices in Ethiopia.

  16. Time trends and inequalities of under-five mortality in Nepal: a secondary data analysis of four demographic and health surveys between 1996 and 2011.

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    Chandrashekhar T Sreeramareddy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Inequalities in progress towards achievement of Millennium Development Goal four (MDG-4 reflect unequal access to child health services. OBJECTIVE: To examine the time trends, socio-economic and regional inequalities of under-five mortality rate (U5MR in Nepal. METHODS: We analyzed the data from complete birth histories of four Nepal Demographic and Health Surveys (NDHS done in the years 1996, 2001, 2006 and 2011. For each livebirth, we computed survival period from birth until either fifth birthday or the survey date. Using direct methods i.e. by constructing life tables, we calculated yearly U5MRs from 1991 to 2010. Projections were made for the years 2011 to 2015. For each NDHS, U5MRs were calculated according to child's sex, mother's education, household wealth index, rural/urban residence, development regions and ecological zones. Inequalities were calculated as rate difference, rate ratio, population attributable risk and hazard ratio. RESULTS: Yearly U5MR (per 1000 live births had decreased from 157.3 (95% CIs 178.0-138.9 in 1991 to 43.2 (95% CIs 59.1-31.5 in 2010 i.e. 114.1 reduction in absolute risk. Projected U5MR for the year 2015 was 54.33. U5MRs had decreased in absolute terms in all sub groups but relative inequalities had reduced for gender and rural/urban residence only. Wide inequalities existed by wealth and education and increased between 1996 and 2011. For lowest wealth quintile (as compared to highest quintile hazard ratio (HR increased from 1.37 (95% CIs 1.27, 1.49 to 2.54 ( 95% CIs 2.25, 2.86 and for mothers having no education (as compared to higher education HR increased from 2.55 (95% CIs 1.95, 3.33 to 3.75 (95% CIs 3.17, 4.44. Changes in regional inequities were marginal and irregular. CONCLUSIONS: Nepal is most likely to achieve MDG-4 but eductional and wealth inequalities may widen further. National health policies should address to reduce inequalities in U5MR through 'inclusive policies'.

  17. The Role of Empowerment in the Association between a Woman's Educational Status and Infant Mortality in Ethiopia: Secondary Analysis of Demographic and Health Surveys.

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    Alemayehu, Yibeltal Kiflie; Theall, Katherine; Lemma, Wuleta; Hajito, Kifle Woldemichael; Tushune, Kora

    2015-10-01

    Socioeconomic status at national, sub-national, household, and individual levels explains a significant portion of variation in infant mortality. Women's education is among the major determinants of infant mortality. The mechanism through which a woman's own educational status, over her husband's as well as household characteristics, influences infant mortality has not been well studied in developing countries. The objective of this study was to explore the role of woman's empowerment and household wealth in the association between a woman's educational status and infant mortality. The association between a woman's educational status and infant death, and the role of woman's empowerment and household wealth in this relationship, were examined among married women in Ethiopia through a secondary, serial cross-sectional analysis utilizing data on birth history of married women from three rounds of the Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey. Univariate, bivariate, and multivariate analyses were conducted to examine the association between woman's education and infant death, and the possible mediation or moderation roles of woman empowerment and household wealth. Female education and empowerment were inversely associated with infant death. The results indicated mediation by empowerment in the education-infant death association, and effect modification by household wealth. Both empowerment and education had strongest inverse association with infant death among women from the richest households. The findings suggest an important role of female empowerment in the education-infant death relation, and the complexity of these factors according to household wealth. Woman empowerment programs may prove effective as a shorter term intervention in reducing infant mortality.

  18. Estimation and Short-Term Prediction of the Course of the HIV Epidemic Using Demographic and Health Survey Methodology-Like Data.

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    Stéphanie Blaizot

    Full Text Available Mathematical models have played important roles in the understanding of epidemics and in the study of the impacts of various behavioral or medical measures. However, modeling accurately the future spread of an epidemic requires context-specific parameters that are difficult to estimate because of lack of data. Our objective is to propose a methodology to estimate context-specific parameters using Demographic and Health Survey (DHS-like data that can be used in mathematical modeling of short-term HIV spreading.The model splits the population according to sex, age, HIV status, and antiretroviral treatment status. To estimate context-specific parameters, we used individuals' histories included in DHS-like data and a statistical analysis that used decomposition of the Poisson likelihood. To predict the course of the HIV epidemic, sex- and age-specific differential equations were used. This approach was applied to recent data from Kenya. The approach allowed the estimation of several key epidemiological parameters. Women had a higher infection rate than men and the highest infection rate in the youngest age groups (15-24 and 25-34 years whereas men had the highest infection rate in age group 25-34 years. The immunosuppression rates were similar between age groups. The treatment rate was the highest in age group 35-59 years in both sexes. The results showed that, within the 15-24 year age group, increasing male circumcision coverage and antiretroviral therapy coverage at CD4 ≤ 350/mm3 over the current 70% could have short-term impacts.The study succeeded in estimating the model parameters using DHS-like data rather than literature data. The analysis provides a framework for using the same data for estimation and prediction, which can improve the validity of context-specific predictions and help designing HIV prevention campaigns.

  19. Trends of modern contraceptive use among young married women based on the 2000, 2005, and 2011 Ethiopian Demographic and Health Surveys: a multivariate decomposition analysis.

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    Abebaw Gebeyehu Worku

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Accessing family planning can reduce a significant proportion of maternal, infant, and childhood deaths. In Ethiopia, use of modern contraceptive methods is low but it is increasing. This study aimed to analyze the trends and determinants of changes in modern contraceptive use over time among young married women in Ethiopia. METHODS: The study used data from the three Demographic Health Surveys conducted in Ethiopia, in 2000, 2005, and 2011. Young married women age 15-24 years with sample sizes of 2,157 in 2000, 1,904 in 2005, and 2,146 in 2011 were included. Logit-based decomposition analysis technique was used for analysis of factors contributing to the recent changes. STATA 12 was employed for data management and analyses. All calculations presented in this paper were weighted for the sampling probabilities and non-response. Complex sampling procedures were also considered during testing of statistical significance. RESULTS: Among young married women, modern contraceptive prevalence increased from 6% in 2000 to 16% in 2005 and to 36% in 2011. The decomposition analysis indicated that 34% of the overall change in modern contraceptive use was due to difference in women's characteristics. Changes in the composition of young women's characteristics according to age, educational status, religion, couple concordance on family size, and fertility preference were the major sources of this increase. Two-thirds of the increase in modern contraceptive use was due to difference in coefficients. Most importantly, the increase was due to change in contraceptive use behavior among the rural population (33% and among Orthodox Christians (16% and Protestants (4%. CONCLUSIONS: Modern contraceptive use among young married women has showed a remarkable increase over the last decade in Ethiopia. Programmatic interventions targeting poor, younger (adolescent, illiterate, and Muslim women would help to maintain the increasing trend in modern

  20. Prevalence and pattern of HIV-related malnutrition among women in sub-Saharan Africa: a meta-analysis of demographic health surveys

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    Uthman Olalekan A

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The world's highest HIV infection rates are found in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA, where adult prevalence in most countries exceeds 25%. Food shortages and malnutrition have combined with HIV/AIDS to bring some countries to the brink of crisis. The aim of this study was to describe prevalence of malnutrition among HIV-infected women and variations across socioeconomic status using data from 11 countries in SSA. Methods This study uses meta-analytic procedures to synthesize the results of most recent data sets available from Demographic and Health Surveys of 11 countries in SSA. Pooled prevalence estimates and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using random-and fixed-effects models. Subgroup and leave-one-country-out sensitivity analyses were also carried out. Results Pooling the prevalence estimates of HIV-related malnutrition yielded an overall prevalence of 10.3% (95% CI 7.4% to 14.1% with no statistically significant heterogeneity (I2 = 0.0%, p = .903. The prevalence estimates decreased with increasing wealth index and education attainment. The pooled prevalence of HIV-related malnutrition was higher among women residing in rural areas than among women residing in urban areas; and lower among women that were professionally employed than unemployed or women in agricultural or manual work. Conclusion Prevalence of HIV-related malnutrition among women varies by wealth status, education attainment, occupation, and type of residence (rural/urban. The observed socioeconomic disparities can help provide more information about population subgroups in particular need and high risk groups, which may in turn lead to the development and implementation of more effective intervention programs.

  1. Prevalence and determinants of the gender differentials risk factors of child deaths in Bangladesh: evidence from the Bangladesh demographic and health survey, 2011.

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    Md Mosharaf Hossain

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The number of child deaths is a potential indicator to assess the health condition of a country, and represents a major health challenge in Bangladesh. Although the country has performed exceptionally well in decreasing the mortality rate among children under five over the last few decades, mortality still remains relatively high. The main objective of this study is to identify the prevalence and determinants of the risk factors of child mortality in Bangladesh. METHODS: The data were based on a cross-sectional study collected from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS, 2011. The women participants numbered 16,025 from seven divisions of Bangladesh - Rajshahi, Dhaka, Chittagong, Barisal, Khulna, Rangpur and Sylhet. The 2 test and logistic regression model were applied to determine the prevalence and factors associated with child deaths in Bangladesh. RESULTS: In 2011, the prevalence of child deaths in Bangladesh for boys and girls was 13.0% and 11.6%, respectively. The results showed that birth interval and birth order were the most important factors associated with child death risks; mothers' education and socioeconomic status were also significant (males and females. The results also indicated that a higher birth order (7 & more of child (OR=21.421 & 95%CI=16.879-27.186 with a short birth interval ≤ 2 years was more risky for child mortality, and lower birth order with longer birth interval >2 were significantly associated with child deaths. Other risk factors that affected child deaths in Bangladesh included young mothers of less than 25 years (mothers' median age (26-36 years: OR=0.670, 95%CI=0.551-0.815, women without education compared to those with secondary and higher education (OR =0 .711 & .628, 95%CI=0.606-0.833 & 0.437-0.903, mothers who perceived their child body size to be larger than average and small size (OR= 1.525 & 1.068, 95%CI=1.221-1.905 & 0.913-1.249, and mothers who delivered their child by non

  2. Prevalence and determinants of the gender differentials risk factors of child deaths in Bangladesh: evidence from the Bangladesh demographic and health survey, 2011.

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    Hossain, Md Mosharaf; Mani, Kulanthayan K C; Islam, Md Rafiqul

    2015-03-01

    The number of child deaths is a potential indicator to assess the health condition of a country, and represents a major health challenge in Bangladesh. Although the country has performed exceptionally well in decreasing the mortality rate among children under five over the last few decades, mortality still remains relatively high. The main objective of this study is to identify the prevalence and determinants of the risk factors of child mortality in Bangladesh. The data were based on a cross-sectional study collected from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS), 2011. The women participants numbered 16,025 from seven divisions of Bangladesh - Rajshahi, Dhaka, Chittagong, Barisal, Khulna, Rangpur and Sylhet. The 2 test and logistic regression model were applied to determine the prevalence and factors associated with child deaths in Bangladesh. In 2011, the prevalence of child deaths in Bangladesh for boys and girls was 13.0% and 11.6%, respectively. The results showed that birth interval and birth order were the most important factors associated with child death risks; mothers' education and socioeconomic status were also significant (males and females). The results also indicated that a higher birth order (7 & more) of child (OR=21.421 & 95%CI=16.879-27.186) with a short birth interval ≤ 2 years was more risky for child mortality, and lower birth order with longer birth interval >2 were significantly associated with child deaths. Other risk factors that affected child deaths in Bangladesh included young mothers of less than 25 years (mothers' median age (26-36 years): OR=0.670, 95%CI=0.551-0.815), women without education compared to those with secondary and higher education (OR =0 .711 & .628, 95%CI=0.606-0.833 & 0.437-0.903), mothers who perceived their child body size to be larger than average and small size (OR= 1.525 & 1.068, 95%CI=1.221-1.905 & 0.913-1.249), and mothers who delivered their child by non-caesarean (OR= 1.687, 95%CI=1

  3. The Chi Linh Health and Demographic Surveillance System (CHILILAB HDSS).

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    Tran, Bich Huu; Nguyen, Ha Thanh; Ho, Hien Thi; Pham, Cuong Viet; Le, Vui Thi; Le, Anh Vu

    2013-06-01

    The Chi Linh Health and Demographic Surveillance System (CHILILAB HDSS) is the only health and demographic surveillance system (HDSS) in an urbanizing area of the Chi Linh district of Hai Duong, a northern province of Vietnam. It is one of the few field laboratories in the world that links operational research and health interventions with field training. The CHILILAB HDSS provides longitudinal data on demographic and health indicators for the community of Chi Linh. In 2012, when the CHILILAB HDSS included 57,561 people from 17 993 households in 3 towns and 4 communes, it used structured questionnaires to collect information on population changes (birth, death, migration, marriage, and pregnancy) in the community. As of December 2012, 5 rounds of a baseline survey and 17 periodic update surveys or re-enumeration surveys had been conducted. In addition, several specialized public-health research projects, focused particularly on adolescent health, have been implemented by the CHILILAB HDSS. The information that the CHILILAB HDSS has gathered provides a picture of the health status of the population and socio-economic situation in Chi Linh district. The contact person for data sharing is the director of the CHILILAB (E-mail: thb@hsph.edu.vn).

  4. A multilevel analysis of effect of neighbourhood and individual wealth status on sexual behaviour among women: evidence from Nigeria 2003 Demographic and Health Survey

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    Kongnyuy Eugene J

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nigeria is home to more people living with HIV than any other country in the world, except South Africa and India – where an estimated 2.9 million [1.7 million – 4.2 million] people were living with the virus in 2005. Women bear the greatest burden of frequent high-risk pregnancies, raising large families, and increasingly, the AIDS epidemic. Thus, there is a need for better understanding of the determinants of high risk sexual behaviour among women. In this study, we examined factors associated with extra-marital sex among women in Nigeria and investigated how much variation in reported extra-marital sex can be attributed to individual-, and community-level factors. Methods We analyzed data from 6362 sexually active women aged 15 – 49 years who participated in the Nigeria 2003 Demographic and Health Survey using multilevel logistic regression models. Results are presented as odds ratio with 95% confidence interval. Results Independent of other factors, compared to women aged 15–24 years, those 25 – 34 years (odds ratio [OR] 0.59; 95% CI: 0.44 – 0.79 and 35 years or older (OR 0.36; 95% CI: 0.24 – 0.54 were less likely to have reported multiple concurrent sex partners in the last 12 years. As expected, women currently or formerly married were less likely to have reported multiple concurrent sex partners than women never married. Women who drank alcohol in the last three months were more likely to have reported multiple concurrent sex partners. Compared to women from richest household, women from poorest and middle household were 83% and 51% more likely to multiple concurrent sex partners in the last 12 month respectively. After individual compositional and contextual factors, community wealth status was statistically significant with sexual behaviour. Conclusion The study has demonstrated that individual and community wealth status are independent predictors of women's sexual behaviour, and that there is

  5. Factors Associated with Ever Being HIV-Tested in Zimbabwe: An Extended Analysis of the Zimbabwe Demographic and Health Survey (2010-2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kudakwashe Collin Takarinda

    Full Text Available Zimbabwe has a high human immunodeficiency virus (HIV burden. It is therefore important to scale up HIV-testing and counseling (HTC as a gateway to HIV prevention, treatment and care.To determine factors associated with being HIV-tested among adult men and women in Zimbabwe.Secondary analysis was done using data from 7,313 women and 6,584 men who completed interviewer-administered questionnaires and provided blood specimens for HIV testing during the Zimbabwe Demographic and Health Survey (ZDHS 2010-11. Factors associated with ever being HIV-tested were determined using multivariate logistic regression.HIV-testing was higher among women compared to men (61% versus 39%. HIV-infected respondents were more likely to be tested compared to those who were HIV-negative for both men [adjusted odds ratio (AOR = 1.53; 95% confidence interval (CI (1.27-1.84] and women [AOR = 1.42; 95% CI (1.20-1.69]. However, only 55% and 74% of these HIV-infected men and women respectively had ever been tested. Among women, visiting antenatal care (ANC [AOR = 5.48, 95% CI (4.08-7.36] was the most significant predictor of being tested whilst a novel finding for men was higher odds of testing among those reporting a sexually transmitted infection (STI in the past 12 months [AOR = 1.86, 95%CI (1.26-2.74]. Among men, the odds of ever being tested increased with age ≥ 20 years, particularly those 45-49 years [AOR = 4.21; 95% CI (2.74-6.48] whilst for women testing was highest among those aged 25-29 years [AOR = 2.01; 95% CI (1.63-2.48]. Other significant factors for both sexes were increasing education level, higher wealth status and currently/formerly being in union.There remains a high proportion of undiagnosed HIV-infected persons and hence there is a need for innovative strategies aimed at increasing HIV-testing, particularly for men and in lower-income and lower-educated populations. Promotion of STI services can be an important gateway for testing more men whilst ANC

  6. The double burden household in sub-Saharan Africa: maternal overweight and obesity and childhood undernutrition from the year 2000: results from World Health Organization Data (WHO) and Demographic Health Surveys (DHS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcicki, Janet M

    2014-10-31

    Previous studies have characterized an increasing trend of double burden households, or households with individuals experiencing both undernutrition and obesity, in countries undergoing a nutrition transition. Although most prior studies indicate the prevalence of double burden households is highest in middle-income countries, there is some support for an increase in double burden households in sub-Saharan African countries as well. Using data from the Demographic Health Surveys (DHS) and the World Health Organization (WHO), the prevalence of double burden households in sub-Saharan African countries was calculated and the associations between prevalence of overweight/obese adults and underweight, stunted and wasted children were evaluated at the country and household (DHS only) levels. Restricted analyses and frequencies were calculated using urban-only datasets. Surveys from 28 African countries were available using WHO data and 26 from the DHS surveys. Only surveys that were conducted after 2000 were included in analyses. Using the WHO datasets, there were inverse associations between the prevalence of overweight and obesity in adults and underweight, stunting and wasting in children. Correspondingly, there were positive associations between adult underweight and child underweight, stunting and wasting. These associations were not significant in a smaller sample size using urban-only surveys. The prevalence of double burden households in DHS datasets was low: under 5 percent for obese mothers and underweight, stunted or wasted child pairs with a slightly higher percentage for overweight mothers and children with undernutrition. Restricting the analysis to urban only populations did not increase the frequencies of double burden households significantly. There was a low prevalence of double burden households in recent data from sub-Saharan Africa. Countries that have a high prevalence of child undernutrition correspondingly have a high prevalence of adult

  7. Survey the relationship between mental health statuses with safety behavior, occupational accident and demographic variables among workers: A case study in publication industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Khandan,

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & objective: Physical and mental health of workers is one of the important factors affecting their job performance. The number of fatal occupational accidents in our country is high. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between mental health and safety behaviors, occupational accidents and demographic variables in a publishing industry in one of the central provinces of Iran, 2014. Methods: In this cross-sectional study all operational employees (98 persons were included. Researchers developed a demographics questionnaire, Goldberg general health-28, safety behavior checklist and self-reported accidents were tools to gather the required data. Statistical analysis such as independent T-test, ANOVA and Pearson correlation were used for data evaluation by SPSS V20. Results: All workers were men and Mean of age was 41.79 also its standard deviation was 6.77. Studied personnel have been experienced occupational accident in a range of 0-5 cases. As well as, 80.75% of total observed behaviors (800 were safe. The mean score of GHQ test equals to 50.38±10.39 that was over the cut point (23. There was no significant relationship between mental health with safety behaviors (p>0.05. Also, significant level of its correlation with occupational accident was calculated as 0.08. Conclusion: Workers mental health status was unacceptable. Although, work condition based on the occupational accident and safety behavior has not showed caution situation, but the ABC model (Activators-Behaviors-Consequences can help to promote personnel behaviors and control accidents.

  8. Using multi-country household surveys to understand who provides reproductive and maternal health services in low- and middle-income countries: a critical appraisal of the Demographic and Health Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Footman, K; Benova, L; Goodman, C; Macleod, D; Lynch, C A; Penn-Kekana, L; Campbell, O M R

    2015-01-01

    Objective The Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) are a vital data resource for cross-country comparative analyses. This study is part of a set of analyses assessing the types of providers being used for reproductive and maternal health care across 57 countries. Here, we examine some of the challenges encountered using DHS data for this purpose, present the provider classification we used, and provide recommendations to enable more detailed and accurate cross-country comparisons of healthcare provision. Methods We used the most recent DHS surveys between 2000 and 2012; 57 countries had data on family planning and delivery care providers and 47 countries had data on antenatal care. Every possible response option across the 57 countries was listed and categorised. We then developed a classification to group provider response options according to two key dimensions: clinical nature and profit motive. Results We classified the different types of maternal and reproductive healthcare providers, and the individuals providing care. Documented challenges encountered during this process were limitations inherent in household survey data based on respondents’ self-report; conflation of response options in the questionnaire or at the data processing stage; category errors of the place vs. professional for delivery; inability to determine whether care received at home is from the public or private sector; a large number of negligible response options; inconsistencies in coding and analysis of data sets; and the use of inconsistent headings. Conclusions To improve clarity, we recommend addressing issues such as conflation of response options, data on public vs. private provider, inconsistent coding and obtaining metadata. More systematic and standardised collection of data would aid international comparisons of progress towards improved financial protection, and allow us to better characterise the incentives and commercial nature of different providers. Objectif Les enqu

  9. Socio-economic factors and use of maternal health services are associated with delayed initiation and non-exclusive breastfeeding in Indonesia: secondary analysis of Indonesia Demographic and Health Surveys 2002/2003 and 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titaley, Christiana R; Loh, Philips C; Prasetyo, Sabarinah; Ariawan, Iwan; Shankar, Anuraj H

    2014-01-01

    This analysis aims to examine factors associated with delayed initiation and non-exclusive breastfeeding in Indonesia. Data were derived from the 2002/2003 and 2007 Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey. Information from 12,191 singleton live-born infants aged 0-23 months was used to examine factors associated with delayed initiation of breastfeeding. Furthermore, information from 3,187 singleton live-born infants aged 0-5 months was used to identify factors associated with non-exclusive breastfeeding. Associations between potential predictors and study outcomes were examined using logistic regression. Our study found that infants from high household wealth-index had significantly increased odds of both delayed initiation and non-exclusive breastfeeding. Other factors associated with an increased odds of delayed initiation of breastfeeding included infants from Sumatera region (OR=1.64, 95% CI: 1.38-1.95), Caesarean-section deliveries (OR=1.84, 95% CI: 1.39-2.44) and deliveries in government-owned (OR=1.38, 95% CI: 1.08-1.76) and non-health facility (OR=1.20, 95% CI: 1.00-1.43). Other factors associated with an increased odds for non-exclusive breastfeeding included parents who were in the workforce (OR=1.37, 95% CI: 1.06-1.78) and mothers with obstetric complication at childbirth (OR=1.35, 95% CI: 1.05-1.74). However, the odds reduced for infants from Eastern Indonesia (OR=0.64, 95% CI: 0.49-0.85). Poor breastfeeding practices are associated with environmental, socio-economic, pregnancy-birthing characteristics and maternal health services factors. Efforts to promote breastfeeding practices should be conducted comprehensively to target population at risk for poor breastfeeding practices.

  10. Diversity and Demographics of Zooarchaeologists: Results from a Digital Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne E. Pilaar Birch

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nearly 25 years ago, a “Zooarchaeology Practitioner Survey” was distributed via conventional mail to individuals in the USA and Canada and received 122 responses over a period of several months in 1991. Now, a revised “Demographics in Zooarchaeology Survey” provides an update to  those data and assesses the current state of the field. The 2014 survey remained open for 3 months and received 288 responses from practitioners worldwide. Global participation was made possible by hosting the survey online. Key findings of the 1991 survey included disparities in employment rank for women despite similar levels of degree level attainment as men, a point which the 2014 survey sought to investigate. This trend appears to persist for those without the PhD and at the highest levels of income for those holding a PhD. In addition, the recent survey asked participants about their racial or ethnic identity in order to evaluate the demographic diversity of the discipline beyond sex, age, and nationality. Data regarding topical and geographic research area were also collected and reflect a subtle bias towards working with mammals and a focus on research questions grounded in prehistory in Europe and North America, followed by Australia and Southwest Asia. Results are compared with those of the earlier survey and membership information from the International Council for Archaeozoology.

  11. National Health Care Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    This survey encompasses a family of health care provider surveys, including information about the facilities that supply health care, the services rendered, and the characteristics of the patients served.

  12. ASHA Survey of Health Curriculum Needs: Survey Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Livingston S.; Thier, Herbert D.

    The results of a survey conducted by the Ad hoc Committee to Study the Needs and Problems of the Classroom Teacher in Curriculum Development are reported. Questionnaires were sent to members of the American School Health Association (ASHA). The survey was composed of four sections: (1) background information on demographic data, institutional…

  13. National Health Interview Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) is the principal source of information on the health of the civilian noninstitutionalized population of the United States...

  14. Health insurance determines antenatal, delivery and postnatal care utilisation : evidence from the Ghana Demographic and Health Surveillance data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Browne, Joyce L; Kayode, Gbenga A; Arhinful, Daniel; Fidder, Samuel A J; Grobbee, Diederick E; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate the effect of maternal health insurance status on the utilisation of antenatal, skilled delivery and postnatal care. DESIGN: A population-based cross-sectional study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: We utilised the 2008 Demographic and Health Survey data of Ghana, wh

  15. Organ Donation in the 50+ Age Demographic: Survey Results on Decision Rationale and Information Preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartaglia, Alexander; Dodd-McCue, Diane; Myer, Kevin A; Mullins, Andrew

    2016-09-01

    The rate of organ donation by older potential donors is significantly declining even though recent studies show positive clinical outcomes with organs transplanted from older donors. This study examined the 50+ age demographic to identify the rationale for donation decisions, preferred media methods of donation information delivery, and responsiveness to an age-tailored donation message. Results from 579 surveys, 87% from the 50+ age demographic, found respondents prone to self-select themselves as medically ineligible based on current medication and health status, even though they might be medically suitable donors. Their incentive to pursue additional information on donation is limited except when motivated by personal accounts within their families and communities. In addition, even when computer literate, they continue to favor the printed or spoken word for donation information delivery. The results suggest an opportunity for those working with older adults to develop more personalized, localized donation education programs targeting this age demographic.

  16. Socioeconomic and demographic diversity in the health status of elderly people in a transitional society, Kerala, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mini, G K

    2009-07-01

    Kerala State in India is the most advanced in terms of demographic and epidemiological transition and has the highest proportion of elderly population. The study examines the socio-demographic correlates of health status of elderly persons in Kerala in terms of three components: perceived health status, physical mobility and morbidity level. Overall health status was measured by combining the above three components of health status. Data from the 60th National Sample Survey Organization (NSSO) on Condition and Health Care of the Aged in Kerala in 2004 was used for the study. Significant socio-demographic differentials in health status were noted. While women report less morbidity, perceived well-being and physical mobility was better for men. This anomaly can be explained by variations in the components of socio-demographic factors. The findings call for urgent health care strategies for elderly persons in different socio-demographic groups in transitional Indian states like Kerala.

  17. The changing importance of key factors associated with anaemia in 6- to 59-month-old children in a sub-Saharan African setting where malaria is on the decline: analysis of the Rwanda Demographic and Health Survey 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkulikiyinka, Richard; Binagwaho, Agnes; Palmer, Katie

    2015-12-01

    To estimate the relative contribution of malaria and other potential determinants to current anaemia prevalence in Rwanda. The database for this study was the Rwanda Demographic and Health Survey 2010. Haemoglobin and malaria test results, and additional exposures ascertained through mothers' interviews, were analysed for all eligible children age 6-59 months (n = 4068), in addition to diet data available for the youngest under 5-year-old per household. We examined anaemia-exposure associations through forward logistic regression, first for the overall population (n = 3685), and second, for the subpopulation with diet data (n = 1934). In the overall study population, malaria was strongly associated with anaemia (OR = 6.83, 95% CI: 2.90-16.05), but population impact was modest (population-attributable fraction = 2.5%). Factors associated with lower odds of anaemia were recent de-worming medication (six months; OR = 0.60, 95% CI: 0.49-0.74), female sex (OR = 0.76, 95% CI: 0.66-0.87), increasing age, residence in North Province and educated mother. Being underweight and recent fever (two weeks) were associated with higher odds. In the subpopulation with diet data, odds were lower with consumption of vitamin A-rich foods (OR = 0.66, 95% CI: 0.50-0.88); and higher in households with many young children. Malaria remains a strong determinant of anaemia for the individual child: transmission control efforts must be maintained. At population level, to further reduce anaemia prevalence, promoting regular vitamin A intake from natural sources and reducing intestinal helminths burden appear the most promising strategies to explore; exploring potential hitherto unidentified sex-linked factors is warranted. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Health insurance determines antenatal, delivery and postnatal care utilisation: evidence from the Ghana Demographic and Health Surveillance data

    OpenAIRE

    Browne, Joyce L.; Kayode, Gbenga A; Arhinful, Daniel; Fidder, Samuel A J; Grobbee, Diederick E; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate the effect of maternal health insurance status on the utilisation of antenatal, skilled delivery and postnatal care. DESIGN: A population-based cross-sectional study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: We utilised the 2008 Demographic and Health Survey data of Ghana, which included 2987 women who provided information on maternal health insurance status. PRIMARY OUTCOMES: Utilisation of antenatal, skilled delivery and postnatal care. STATISTICAL ANALYSES: Multivar...

  19. Changes in sexual behaviour and practice and HIV prevalence indicators among young people aged 15-24 years in Zambia: an in-depth analysis of the 2001-2002 and 2007 Zambia Demographic and Health Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kembo, Joshua

    2013-01-01

    HIV and AIDS still pose a major public health problem to most countries in sub-Saharan Africa, Zambia included. The objective of the paper is to determine changes in selected sexual behaviour and practice and HIV prevalence indicators between 2001-2002 and 2007. We used the Demographic and Health Survey Indicators Database for the computation of the selected indicators. We further used STATA 10.0 to compute significance tests to test for statistical difference in the indicators. The results indicate some changes in sexual behaviour, as indicated by an increase in abstinence, use of condoms and the decrease in multiple partnerships. The overall percentage of abstinence among never-married young men and women aged 15-24 years in Zambia increased significantly by 15.2% (p=.000) and 5.9% (p=.001) respectively, between 2001-2002 and 2007. A statistically significant increase of 6.6% (p=.029) was observed in the percentage of young women who reported having used a condom during the last time they had had premarital sex. A statistically significant decrease of 11.0% (p=.000) and 1.4% (p=.000) was observed among young men and women, respectively, who reported having multiple partners in the preceding 12 months. The factorial decomposition using multivariate analysis reveals that the indicators which contributed to the statistically significant 2.6% decline in HIV prevalence among young women aged 15-24 years in Zambia include proportion reporting condom use during premarital sex (+6.6%), abstinence (+5.9%), sex before age 15 (-4.5%), premarital sex (-2.6%), sex before age 18 (-2.4%) and proportion reporting multiple partnerships (-1.4%). Remarkable strides have been achieved towards promoting responsible sexual behaviour and practice among young people in Zambia. Further research focusing on factors that predispose young women in Zambia to higher risk of infection from HIV is required. The results from this paper should be useful in the design of programmes to control the

  20. ATSDR Marines Health Survey

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-08-30

    This podcast gives an overview of the health survey ATSDR is conducting of more than 300,000 people who lived or worked at Camp Lejeune or Camp Pendleton in the 1970s and 1980s.  Created: 8/30/2011 by Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR).   Date Released: 8/30/2011.

  1. National Natality Survey/National Maternal and Infant Health Survey (NMIHS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The survey provides data on socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of mothers, prenatal care, pregnancy history, occupational background, health status of mother and infant, and types and sources of medical care received.

  2. Living in the tide of change: explaining Japanese subjective health from the socio-demographic change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitokoto, Hidefumi; Tanaka-Matsumi, Junko

    2014-01-01

    Today, countries around the world are caught in the tide of change toward Gesellshaft, or individualistic socio-demographic condition. Recent investigations in Japan have suggested negative impacts of change on emotional and motivational aspects of the Japanese self (Norasakkunkit et al., 2012; Ogihara and Uchida, 2014). Building on previous findings, in Study 1, we measured socio-demographic change toward individualistic societal condition during 1990–2010—two decades marked by great economic recession—at the levels of prefecture and city using archival data. In Study 2, we tested whether Japanese adults' general health, satisfaction with life, self-esteem, and perceived social support were negatively predicted by the change using social survey. Results of hierarchical linear modeling showed small but unique negative effects of the change on several health measures, suggesting that this change had an impact on health, above and beyond individual personality traits, and demographics. Additionally, interdependent happiness, the type of cultural happiness grounded in interdependence of the self (Hitokoto and Uchida, 2014), showed an independent positive relationship with all aspects of health examined. Implications for health studies in changing socio-demographic condition are discussed in the context of Japanese society after economic crisis. PMID:25400604

  3. Living in the tide of change: Explaining Japanese subjective health from the socio-demographic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidefumi eHitokoto

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Today, countries around the world are caught in the tide of change towards Gesellshaft, or individualistic socio-demographic condition. Recent investigations in Japan have suggested negative impacts of change on emotional and motivational aspects of the Japanese self (Norasakkunkit, Uchida, and Toivonen, 2012; Ogihara and Uchida, 2014. Building on previous findings, in Study 1, we measured socio-demographic change towards individualistic societal condition during 1990 to 2010—two decades marked by great economic recession—at the levels of prefecture and city using archival data. In Study 2, we tested whether Japanese adults’ general health, satisfaction with life, self-esteem, and perceived social support were negatively predicted by the change using social survey. Results of hierarchical linear modeling showed small but unique negative effects of the change on several health measures, suggesting that this change had an impact on health, above and beyond individual personality traits and demographics. Additionally, interdependent happiness, the type of cultural happiness grounded in interdependence of the self (Hitokoto and Uchida, 2014, showed an independent positive relationship with all aspects of health examined. Implications for health studies in changing socio-demographic condition are discussed in the context of Japanese society after economic crisis.

  4. Social, Demographic and Labour Market Related Determinants of Health in the Adult European Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Rozsa Santha

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper identifies the social, demographic and labour market related determinants of the state of health and assesses the magnitude of their impact within the European adult population. The research is based on a statistical analysis on the data of the European Social Survey (ESS, round 7, 2014/2015. Subjective socioeconomic situation and partnership status are being identified as the most influential social determinants of health. Results also illuminate how work-life-balance determines health. People suffering from work-life-imbalance are more likely to become ill than those with more free time and flexible working hours.

  5. [Different Regions, Differently Insured Populations? Socio-demographic and Health-related Differences Between Insurance Funds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Falk; Koller, Daniela

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Analyses of health insurance claims data are getting more important in public health and health services research. Since there are several different health insurance funds in Germany, the specific characteristics of regional and socio-demographic population covered by a single fund has to be considered. The aim of this study is to evaluate the differences in socio-demographic and health-related variables between health insurance funds. Methods: This study is based on the GEDA-Study 2009 and 2010, 2 representative cross-sectional telephone surveys (n=42 534). We included socio-economic factors as well as information on area of residence and health-related variables to health status, health behavior and cardiovascular diseases. Results: There are fewer privately insured persons in the eastern regions of Germany. Insurants of the public health insurances have a lower socio-economic status and many have a migration background. Similar results can be found for smoking, obesity and cardiovascular factors. These differences between funds were found in many regional analyses. Conclusions: Especially differences in socio-economic factors are constant between insurance funds and regions. Therefore, the results show that analyses of one single health insurance fund cannot be generalized to the whole population. To ensure precise estimates on health services, morbidity or quality monitoring, we need data sets that integrate more funds. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. The heterogeneous health latent classes of elderly people and their socio-demographic characteristics in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li-Fan; Tian, Wei-Hua; Yao, Hui-Ping

    2014-01-01

    The health care needs of elderly people were influenced by their heterogeneity. This study aimed to identify the health latent classes of elderly people by using latent class analysis to deal with heterogeneity and examine their socio-demographic characteristics. Data came from the 2005 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) in Taiwan. In total, 2449 elderly individuals with available health indicators were examined in latent class analysis (LCA), and 2217 elderly community-dwellings with complete socio-demographic data were analyzed by multinomial logistic regression. Four health latent classes were identified which included 1066 (43.5%) people in the High Comorbidity (HC), 152 (6.2%) in the Functional Impairment (FI), 252 (10.3%) in the Frail (FR), and 979 (40.0%) in the Relatively Healthy (RH) group. Multinomial logistic regressions revealed socio-demographic characteristics among health classes. The variables associated with an increased likelihood of being in the FR group were age, female, and living with families. They were also correlated to ethnicity and educations. Apart from age and gender, the Functional Impairment group was less likely to be ethnicity of Hakka, more likely to live with others than were the RH group. The HC group tended to be younger, with higher educations, and more likely to live in urban area than the Functional Impairment group. The correlations between health classes and socio-demographic factors were discussed. The health status of elderly people includes a variety of health indicators. A person-centered approach is critical to identify the health heterogeneity of elderly people and manage their care needs by targeting differential aging.

  7. The digital divide: Examining socio-demographic factors associated with health literacy, access and use of internet to seek health information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estacio, Emee Vida; Whittle, Rebecca; Protheroe, Joanne

    2017-02-01

    This article aims to examine the socio-demographic characteristics associated with access and use of Internet for health-related purposes and its relationship with health literacy. Data were drawn from a health literacy survey ( N = 1046) and analysed using logistic regression. Results show a strong association between health literacy, internet access and use. Socio-demographic characteristics particularly age, education, income, perceived health and social isolation also predict internet access. Thus, in addition to widening access, the movement towards digitisation of health information and services should also consider digital skills development to enable people to utilise digital technology more effectively, especially among traditionally hard-to-reach communities.

  8. Demographic-Based Content Analysis of Web-Based Health-Related Social Media

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Background An increasing number of patients from diverse demographic groups share and search for health-related information on Web-based social media. However, little is known about the content of the posted information with respect to the users’ demographics. Objective The aims of this study were to analyze the content of Web-based health-related social media based on users’ demographics to identify which health topics are discussed in which social media by which demographic groups and to he...

  9. Mental health problems in a regional population of Australian adolescents: association with socio-demographic characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dray, Julia; Bowman, Jenny; Freund, Megan; Campbell, Elizabeth; Hodder, Rebecca K; Lecathelinais, Christophe; Wiggers, John

    2016-01-01

    Population level data regarding the general mental health status, and the socio-demographic factors associated with the mental health status of adolescents in Australia aged 12-16 years is limited. This study assessed prevalence of mental health problems in a regional population of Australian students in Grades 7-10, and investigated associations between mental health problems and socio-demographic factors. A web-based survey was conducted in 21 secondary schools located in disadvantaged local government areas in one regional local health district of NSW Australia. Mental health problems were measured using the youth self-report Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) total SDQ score and three subscale scores (internalising problems, externalising problems and prosocial behaviour). Associations between each SDQ outcome and student socio-demographic characteristics (age, gender, Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander Status, remoteness of residential location and socio-economic disadvantage) were investigated. Data are reported for 6793 students aged 12-16 years. Nineteen percent of participants scored in the 'very high' range for the total SDQ, 18.0 % for internalising problems, 11.3 % for externalising problems and 8.9 % for prosocial behaviour problems. Gender and Aboriginal status were associated with all four SDQ outcomes, while age was associated with two, excluding externalising problems and prosocial behaviour. Aboriginal adolescents scored higher for mental health problems than non-Aboriginal adolescents for all four SDQ outcomes. Females scored higher than males for total SDQ and internalising problems, with mean difference greatest at age 15. Males scored higher for externalising problems and lower for prosocial behaviour than females. The finding that mental health problems significantly varied by age, gender and Aboriginality may suggest a need for tailored interventions for groups of adolescents with highest levels of mental health

  10. Intellectual Maturity of Children; Demographic and Socioeconomic Factors. United States. Vital and Health Statistics Series 11, Number 116.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Dale B.; Roberts, Jean

    Data on the intellectual maturity of children 6-11 years of age in the noninstitutionalized population of the U. S. is analyzed in relation to their demographic and socioeconomic background. This is the second report on the Goodenough-Harris Drawing Test, administered in the Health Examination Survey of 1963-65, and deals with the results in…

  11. DETERMINING HABITUAL DEMOGRAPHIC COORDINATES AND HEALTH FOR PRIMARY SCHOOL CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toma G.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available An important aspect is social learning involves acquisition of knowledge, skills, abilities, habits over from friends, colleagues, social group they belong to.Purpose and research hypothesisSmall school activities is more effective if concrete terms of reference that would bring back to memory certain knowledge that to suggest solutions to solve and give him the opportunity to correct by comparing statements reality, this is why the main method of conducting educational process is observation.Working methodResearch group consisted of children of school age (7-12 years. Demographic information about the subjects covered: health, family composition and housing.Research resultsThe vast majority of children had good health, with no differences between the control group and the experimental group (p = 0.428. Regarding housing conditions, over half (57.1% in the control group and 51.4% in control group live in two rooms, no child lives in a studio and two children in the experimental group live at home with yard. In both groups, two children did not provide information regarding their housing situation. Of children included in the study, a very high percentage (82.9% in the control group and 68.6% in the experimental group is single copies: only six children in the control group and 10 in the control group have brothers or sisters. Under these conditions, more than half of the children have their own room (65.7% in the control group and 57.1% in the experimental group, the rest sharing a room with a brother or sister, or parents (in the case of two children experimental group.ConclusionsWe conclude that in terms of demographic variables (health status, family composition, housing, there are no differences between children in the two groups. Optimal integration in a social environment is based not only on the correct development of intellectual faculties, namely, the possibility of natural evolution on the moral values, scientific and so on, but

  12. Using a generalised identity reference model with archetypes to support interoperability of demographics information in electronic health record systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu Chen; Berry, Damon; Stephens, Gaye

    2015-01-01

    Computerised identity management is in general encountered as a low-level mechanism that enables users in a particular system or region to securely access resources. In the Electronic Health Record (EHR), the identifying information of both the healthcare professionals who access the EHR and the patients whose EHR is accessed, are subject to change. Demographics services have been developed to manage federated patient and healthcare professional identities and to support challenging healthcare-specific use cases in the presence of diverse and sometimes conflicting demographic identities. Demographics services are not the only use for identities in healthcare. Nevertheless, contemporary EHR specifications limit the types of entities that can be the actor or subject of a record to health professionals and patients, thus limiting the use of two level models in other healthcare information systems. Demographics are ubiquitous in healthcare, so for a general identity model to be usable, it should be capable of managing demographic information. In this paper, we introduce a generalised identity reference model (GIRM) based on key characteristics of five surveyed demographic models. We evaluate the GIRM by using it to express the EN13606 demographics model in an extensible way at the metadata level and show how two-level modelling can support the exchange of instances of demographic identities. This use of the GIRM to express demographics information shows its application for standards-compliant two-level modelling alongside heterogeneous demographics models. We advocate this approach to facilitate the interoperability of identities between two-level model-based EHR systems and show the validity and the extensibility of using GIRM for the expression of other health-related identities.

  13. Demographic patterns and trends in Central Ghana: baseline indicators from the Kintampo Health and Demographic Surveillance System

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    Seth Owusu-Agyei

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The dearth of health and demographic data in sub-Saharan Africa from vital registration systems and its impact on effective planning for health and socio-economic development is widely documented. Health and Demographic Surveillance Systems have the capacity to address the dearth of quality data for policy making in resource-poor settings. Objective: This article demonstrates the utility of the Kintampo Health and Demographic Surveillance System (KHDSS by showing the patterns and trends of population change from 2005 to 2009 in the Kintampo North Municipality and Kintampo South districts of Ghana through data obtained from the KHDSS biannual update rounds. Design: Basic demographic rates for fertility, mortality, and migration were computed by year. School enrolment was computed as a percentage in school by age and sex for 6–18 year-olds. Socio-economic status was derived by use of Principal Components Analysis on household assets. Results: Over the period, an earlier fertility decline was reversed in 2009; mortality declined slightly for all age-groups, and a significant share of working-age population was lost through out-migration. Large minorities of children of school-going age are not in school. Socio-economic factors are shown to be important determinants of fertility and mortality. Conclusion : Strengthening the capacity of HDSSs could offer added value to evidence-driven policymaking at local level.

  14. Socio-demographic differentials of adult health indicators in Matlab, Bangladesh: self-rated health, health state, quality of life and disability level

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    Abdur Razzaque

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mortality has been declining in Bangladesh since the mid- twentieth century, while fertility has been declining since the late 1970s, and the country is now passing through the third stage of demographic transition. This type of demographic transition has produced a huge youthful population with a growing number of older people. For assessing health among older people, this study examines self-rated health, health state, quality of life and disability level in persons aged 50 and over. Data and methods: This is a collaborative study between the World Health Organization Study on global AGEing and adult health and the International Network for the Demographic Evaluation of Populations and Their Health in developing countries which collected data from eight countries. Two sources of data from the Matlab study area were used: health indicator data collected as a part of the study, together with the ongoing Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS data. For the survey, a total of 4,000 randomly selected people aged 50 and over (HDSS database were interviewed. The four health indicators derived from these data are self-rated health (five categories, health state (eight domains, quality of life (eight items and disability level (12 items. Self-rated health was coded as dummy while scores were calculated for the rest of the three health indicators using WHO-tested instruments. Results: After controlling for all the variables in the regression model, all four indicators of health (self-rated health, health state, quality of life and disability level documented that health was better for males than females, and health deteriorates with increasing age. Those people who were in current partnerships had generally better health than those who were single, and better health was associated with higher levels of education and asset score. Conclusions: To improve the health of the population it is important to know health conditions in

  15. Socio-demographic differentials of adult health indicators in Matlab, Bangladesh: self-rated health, health state, quality of life and disability level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razzaque, Abdur; Nahar, Lutfun; Akter Khanam, Masuma; Kim Streatfield, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Background Mortality has been declining in Bangladesh since the mid- twentieth century, while fertility has been declining since the late 1970s, and the country is now passing through the third stage of demographic transition. This type of demographic transition has produced a huge youthful population with a growing number of older people. For assessing health among older people, this study examines self-rated health, health state, quality of life and disability level in persons aged 50 and over. Data and methods This is a collaborative study between the World Health Organization Study on global AGEing and adult health and the International Network for the Demographic Evaluation of Populations and Their Health in developing countries which collected data from eight countries. Two sources of data from the Matlab study area were used: health indicator data collected as a part of the study, together with the ongoing Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) data. For the survey, a total of 4,000 randomly selected people aged 50 and over (HDSS database) were interviewed. The four health indicators derived from these data are self-rated health (five categories), health state (eight domains), quality of life (eight items) and disability level (12 items). Self-rated health was coded as dummy while scores were calculated for the rest of the three health indicators using WHO-tested instruments. Results After controlling for all the variables in the regression model, all four indicators of health (self-rated health, health state, quality of life and disability level) documented that health was better for males than females, and health deteriorates with increasing age. Those people who were in current partnerships had generally better health than those who were single, and better health was associated with higher levels of education and asset score. Conclusions To improve the health of the population it is important to know health conditions in advance rather than

  16. European adults’ physical activity socio-demographic correlates: a cross-sectional study from the European Social Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, João; Peralta, Miguel; Catunda, Ricardo; Nunes, Luís Saboga

    2016-01-01

    Background. From a public health perspective, the study of socio-demographic factors related to physical activity is important in order to identify subgroups for intervention programs. Objective. This study aimed to identify the prevalence of, and the socio-demographic correlates related to, the achievement of recommended physical activity levels. Methods. Using data from the European Social Survey round 6, physical activity and socio-demographic characteristics were collected, in 2012, from 39,278 European adults (18,272 men, 21,006 women), aged 18–65 years, from 28 countries. The question of meeting physical activity guidelines was assessed using World Health Organization criteria. Results. A total of 64.50% (63.36% men, 66.49% women) attained physical activity recommended levels. The likelihood of attaining physical activity recommendations was higher in the 55–64 years age group (men: OR = 1.22, p socio-demographic factors are important to consider when planning the increase of physical activity. PMID:27280072

  17. Haemophilia Experiences, Results and Opportunities (HERO) Study: survey methodology and population demographics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, A L; Gregory, M; Nugent, D; Garrido, C; Pilgaard, T; Cooper, D L; Iorio, A

    2014-01-01

    Psychosocial factors have a significant impact on the quality of life of persons with haemophilia (PWH). The Haemophilia Experiences, Results and Opportunities (HERO) initiative was developed to provide a greater understanding of the psychological components which influence the lives of PWH. This article describes the HERO methodology and the characteristics of respondents. Two online surveys (one for adult PWH ≥18 years and one for parents of children surveys included demographic and treatment characteristics, relationships, sexual intimacy, quality of life, barriers to treatment and sources of information. A total of 675 PWH [age, median (range) 36 (18-86 years)] and 561 parents [39 (23-68 years)] completed the survey. PWH/parents reported haemophilia A (74%/76%), B (13%/16%) or with inhibitors (13%/8%). Spontaneous joint bleeding was reported in 76%/52% of PWH/children with haemophilia A, 67%/47% with haemophilia B and 93%/76% with inhibitors. Median number of bleeds (interquartile range) was 7 (2-20) for PWH and 4 (2-10) for children in the past year. Most PWH and children were treated with factor concentrate. PWH reported arthritis (49%) and HIV/HCV infections (18%/43%) related to haemophilia. Most PWH and parent respondents had received formal education (85%/89%) and were employed full- or part-time (60%/72%). HERO is one of the largest multinational studies focused on psychosocial issues in haemophilia, including historical and treatment information that will allow for multivariate analyses of determinants of health in haemophilia.

  18. Do Health and Demographic Surveillance Systems benefit local populations? Maternal care utilisation in Butajira HDSS, Ethiopia

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    Mesganaw Fantahun Afework

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The benefits of Health and Demographic Surveillance sites for local populations have been the topic of discussion as countries such as Ethiopia take efforts to achieve their Millennium Development Goal targets, on which they lag behind. Ethiopia's maternal mortality ratio is very high, and in the 2011 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey (2011 EDHS it was estimated to be 676/100,000 live births. Recent Global Burden of Disease (GBD and estimates based on the United Nations model reported better, but still unacceptably high, figures of 497/100,000 and 420/100,000 live births for 2013. In the 2011 EDHS, antenatal care (ANC utilization was estimated at 34%, and delivery in health facilities was only 10%. Objectives: To compare maternal health service utilization among populations in a Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS to non-HDSS populations in Butajira district, south central Ethiopia. Design: A community-based comparative cross-sectional study was conducted in January and February 2012 among women who had delivered in the 2 years before the survey. Results: A total of 2,296 women were included in the study. One thousand eight hundred and sixty two (81.1% had attended ANC at least once, and 37% of the women had attended ANC at least four times. A quarter of the women delivered their last child in a health facility. Of the women living outside the HDSS areas, 715 (75.3% attended ANC at least once compared to 85.1% of women living in the HDSS areas [adjusted odds ratio (AOR 0.59; 95% CI 0.46, 0.74]. Of the women living outside the HDSS areas, only 170 (17.9% delivered in health facilities and were assisted by skilled attendants during delivery, whereas 30.0% of those living in HDSS areas delivered in health facilities (AOR 0.66; 95% CI 0.48, 0.91. Conclusion: This paper provides possible evidence that living in an HDSS site has a positive influence on maternal health. In addition, there may be a positive influence on

  19. Innovative tools and OpenHDS for health and demographic surveillance on Rusinga Island, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homan, T.; Pasquale, di A.; Kiche, I.; Onoka, K.; Hiscox, A.F.; Mweresa, C.K.; Mukabana, W.R.; Takken, W.; Maire, N.

    2015-01-01

    Background Health in low and middle income countries is on one hand characterized by a high burden associated with preventable communicable diseases and on the other hand considered to be under-documented due to improper basic health and demographic record-keeping. health and demographic surveillanc

  20. Dose Response Association between Physical Activity and Biological, Demographic, and Perceptions of Health Variables

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    Paul D. Loprinzi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Few population-based studies have examined the association between physical activity (PA and cardiovascular disease risk factors, demographic variables, and perceptions of health status, and we do not have a clear understanding of the dose-response relationship among these variables. Methods: Data from the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey was used to examine the dose-response relationship between objectively measured PA and metabolic syndrome (and its individual cardiovascular disease risk factors, demographic variables, and perceptions of health. After exclusions, 5,538 participants 18 years or older were included in the present study, with 2,538 participants providing fasting glucose and 2,527 providing fasting triglyceride data. PA was categorized into deciles. Results: Overall, the health benefits showed a general pattern of increase with each increasing levels of PA. Of the ten PA classifications examined, participants in the highest moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA category (at least 71 min/day had the lowest odds of developing metabolic syndrome. Conclusion: At a minimum, sedentary adults should strive to meet current PA guidelines (i.e., 150 min/week of MVPA, with additional positive benefits associated with engaging in three times this level of PA.

  1. Alternative health care consultations in Ontario, Canada: A geographic and socio-demographic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Allison M; Kitchen, Peter; Eby, Jeanette

    2011-06-22

    An important but understudied component of Canada's health system is alternative care. The objective of this paper is to examine the geographic and socio-demographic characteristics of alternative care consultation in Ontario, Canada's largest province. Data is drawn from the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS Cycle 3.1, 2005) for people aged 18 or over (n = 32,598) who had a consultation with an alternative health care provider. Four groups of consultations are examined: (1) all consultations (2) massage therapy (3) acupuncture, and (4) homeopath/naturopath. Descriptive statistics, mapping and logistic regression modeling are employed to analyze the data and to compare modalities of alternative health care use. In 2005, more than 1.2 million adults aged 18 or over consulted an alternative health care provider, representing about 13% of the total population of Ontario. The analysis revealed a varied geographic pattern of consultations across the province. Consultations were fairly even across the urban to rural continuum and rural residents were just as likely to consult a provider as their urban counterparts. From a health perspective, people with a chronic condition, lower health status and self-perceived unmet health care needs were more likely to see an alternative health provider. Women with chronic conditions such as fibromyalgia, high blood pressure, chronic fatigue syndrome and chemical sensitivities were more likely to see an alternative provider if they felt their health care needs were not being met. The analysis revealed that geography is not a factor in determining alternative health care consultations in Ontario. By contrast, there is a strong association between these consultations and socio-demographic characteristics particularly age, sex, education, health and self-perceived unmet health care needs. The results underscore the importance of women's health needs as related to alternative care use. The paper concludes that there is a need for

  2. Alternative health care consultations in Ontario, Canada: A geographic and socio-demographic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eby Jeanette

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An important but understudied component of Canada's health system is alternative care. The objective of this paper is to examine the geographic and socio-demographic characteristics of alternative care consultation in Ontario, Canada's largest province. Methods Data is drawn from the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS Cycle 3.1, 2005 for people aged 18 or over (n = 32,598 who had a consultation with an alternative health care provider. Four groups of consultations are examined: (1 all consultations (2 massage therapy (3 acupuncture, and (4 homeopath/naturopath. Descriptive statistics, mapping and logistic regression modeling are employed to analyze the data and to compare modalities of alternative health care use. Results In 2005, more than 1.2 million adults aged 18 or over consulted an alternative health care provider, representing about 13% of the total population of Ontario. The analysis revealed a varied geographic pattern of consultations across the province. Consultations were fairly even across the urban to rural continuum and rural residents were just as likely to consult a provider as their urban counterparts. From a health perspective, people with a chronic condition, lower health status and self-perceived unmet health care needs were more likely to see an alternative health provider. Women with chronic conditions such as fibromyalgia, high blood pressure, chronic fatigue syndrome and chemical sensitivities were more likely to see an alternative provider if they felt their health care needs were not being met. Conclusions The analysis revealed that geography is not a factor in determining alternative health care consultations in Ontario. By contrast, there is a strong association between these consultations and socio-demographic characteristics particularly age, sex, education, health and self-perceived unmet health care needs. The results underscore the importance of women's health needs as related to

  3. College Students' Health Information Activities on Facebook: Investigating the Impacts of Health Topic Sensitivity, Information Sources, and Demographics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syn, Sue Yeon; Kim, Sung Un

    2016-07-01

    College students tend to lack access to health information. Because social networking sites (SNSs) are popularly adopted by college students, SNSs are considered to be good media channels for college students to obtain health-related information. This study examines the factors that influence college students' health information-seeking and -sharing activities on Facebook. An online survey was distributed to college students between the ages of 18 and 29 to determine intentions pertaining to health information activities according to the factors identified for the study. The factors included both contextual factors (such as health topic sensitivity and health information sources) as well as user factors (such as demographics). Our findings showed that college students are willing to read and post health-related information on Facebook when the health topic is not sensitive. In addition, there are clear differences in preferences between professional sources and personal sources as health information sources. It was found that most user factors, except gender, have no influence on health information activities. The impacts of SNS contexts, awareness of information sources, types of interlocutors, and privacy concerns are further discussed.

  4. Social demographic aspects and self-referred health conditions of men attending a health care unit

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    Raissa de Oliveira Martins Cabacinha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at characterizing social demographic aspects and health conditions of men attending a Primary Family Health Care unit in Montes Claros, MG, Brazil, correlating these variables with health self-perception and identifying men’s difficulty in using the health service. 115 adult men were interviewed who had attended the service in April and May, 2013. Most of them had completed high school, were married and adopted healthy practices, although they consumed alcoholic beverages. The main complaint regarding the health service was the long waiting time for attendance. The main factors that contributed for negative self-perception of health were: being married, suffering from chronic diseases and having low education; whereas those that contributed to the positive self-perception of health were: being young, being employed and not making regular use of medication (p<0.05. Those findings can subsidize policies to prevent diseases in promoting men’s health.

  5. Attitudes Toward LGBT Patients Among Students in the Health Professions: Influence of Demographics and Discipline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Christina K; West, Lindsey; Stepleman, Lara; Villarosa, Margo; Ange, Brittany; Decker, Matthew; Waller, Jennifer L

    2014-09-01

    Health providers' personal and professional experiences may predict attitudes toward lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals and can therefore serve as key targets for health professions training aimed at decreasing barriers to high-quality patient care. This study explored the relationship between professional, demographic, and training characteristics and health professions student attitudes toward LGBT patients. Students from a health sciences university and applied mental health programs in Georgia (N=475) completed a survey that included a modified version of the Attitudes Toward LGBT Patients Scale (ATLPS). Profession, sexual orientation, current financial status, religion, religiosity, spirituality, and self-reported familiarity with various religious perspectives on sex were associated with ATLPS scores. However, religiosity and self-reported familiarity with various religious perspectives on sex were the only significant predictors of ATLPS scores when these variables were included in one general linear model. Health professions students with higher levels of religiosity and lower levels of self-reported familiarity with various religious perspectives on sex reported less positive attitudes toward LGBT individuals. Results suggest that personal factors may be important to address in interprofessional curriculum related to LGBT patient care. Self-report biases and other factors may limit the accuracy and generalizability of the findings.

  6. Demographic, epidemiological, and health transitions: are they relevant to population health patterns in Africa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuate Defo, Barthélémy

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies of trends in population changes and epidemiological profiles in the developing world have overwhelmingly relied upon the concepts of demographic, epidemiological, and health transitions, even though their usefulness in describing and understanding population and health trends in developing countries has been repeatedly called into question. The issue is particularly relevant for the study of population health patterns in Africa and sub-Saharan Africa, as the history and experience there differs substantially from that of Western Europe and North America, for which these concepts were originally developed. Objective The aim of this study is two-fold: to review and clarify any distinction between the concepts of demographic transition, epidemiological transition and health transition and to identify summary indicators of population health to test how well these concepts apply in Africa. Results Notwithstanding the characteristically diverse African context, Africa is a continent of uncertainties and emergencies where discontinuities and interruptions of health, disease, and mortality trends reflect the enduring fragility and instability of countries and the vulnerabilities of individuals and populations in the continent. Africa as a whole remains the furthest behind the world's regions in terms of health improvements and longevity, as do its sub-Saharan African regions and societies specifically. This study documents: 1) theoretically and empirically the similarities and differences between the demographic transition, epidemiological transition, and health transition; 2) simple summary indicators that can be used to evaluate their descriptive and predictive features; 3) marked disparities in the onset and pace of variations and divergent trends in health, disease, and mortality patterns as well as fertility and life expectancy trajectories among African countries and regions over the past 60 years; 4) the rapid decline in infant mortality and gains

  7. Demographic, epidemiological, and health transitions: are they relevant to population health patterns in Africa?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barthélémy Kuate Defo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies of trends in population changes and epidemiological profiles in the developing world have overwhelmingly relied upon the concepts of demographic, epidemiological, and health transitions, even though their usefulness in describing and understanding population and health trends in developing countries has been repeatedly called into question. The issue is particularly relevant for the study of population health patterns in Africa and sub-Saharan Africa, as the history and experience there differs substantially from that of Western Europe and North America, for which these concepts were originally developed. Objective: The aim of this study is two-fold: to review and clarify any distinction between the concepts of demographic transition, epidemiological transition and health transition and to identify summary indicators of population health to test how well these concepts apply in Africa. Results: Notwithstanding the characteristically diverse African context, Africa is a continent of uncertainties and emergencies where discontinuities and interruptions of health, disease, and mortality trends reflect the enduring fragility and instability of countries and the vulnerabilities of individuals and populations in the continent. Africa as a whole remains the furthest behind the world's regions in terms of health improvements and longevity, as do its sub-Saharan African regions and societies specifically. This study documents: 1 theoretically and empirically the similarities and differences between the demographic transition, epidemiological transition, and health transition; 2 simple summary indicators that can be used to evaluate their descriptive and predictive features; 3 marked disparities in the onset and pace of variations and divergent trends in health, disease, and mortality patterns as well as fertility and life expectancy trajectories among African countries and regions over the past 60 years; 4 the rapid decline in infant

  8. Demographic and health surveillance of mobile pastoralists in Chad: integration of biometric fingerprint identification into a geographical information system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Weibel

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available There is a pressing need for baseline demographic and health-related data to plan, implement and evaluate health interventions in developing countries, and to monitor progress towards international development goals. However, mobile pastoralists, i.e. people who depend on a livestock production system and follow their herds as they move, remain marginalized from rural development plans and interventions. The fact that mobile people are hard to reach and stay in contact with is a plausible reason why they are underrepresented in national censuses and/or alternative sequential sample survey systems. We present a proof-of-concept of monitoring highly mobile, pastoral people by recording demographic and health-related data from 933 women and 2020 children and establishing a biometric identification system (BIS based on the registration and identification of digital fingerprints. Although only 22 women, representing 2.4% of the total registered women, were encountered twice in the four survey rounds, the approach implemented is shown to be feasible. The BIS described here is linked to a geographical information system to facilitate the creation of the first health and demographic surveillance system in a mobile, pastoralist setting. Our ultimate goal is to implement and monitor interventions with the “one health” concept, thus integrating and improving human, animal and ecosystem health.

  9. Openness to change: experiential and demographic components of change in in Local Health Department leaders

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    Emmanuel D Jadhav

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: During the 2008-10 economic recession, Kentucky local health department (LHD leaders utilized innovative strategies to maintain their programs. A characteristic of innovative strategy is leader openness to change. Leader demographical research in for-profit organizations has yielded valuable insight into leader openness to change. For LHD leaders the nature of the association between leader demographic and organizational characteristics on leader openness to change is unknown. The objectives of this study are to identify variation in openness to change by leaders’ demographic and organizational characteristics and to characterize the underlying relationships. Material and Methods: The study utilized Spearman rank correlations test to determine relationships between leader openness to change (ACQ and leader and LHD characteristics. To identify differences in the distribution of ACQ scores, Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney and Kruskal Wallis non-parametric tests were used, and to adjust for potential confounding linear regression analysis was performed.Data: LHD leaders in the Commonwealth of Kentucky were the unit of analysis. Expenditure and revenue data were available from the state health department. National census data was utilized for county level population estimates. A cross-sectional survey was performed of KY LHD leaders’ observable attributes relating to age, gender, race, educational background, leadership experience and openness to change. Results: Leaders had relatively high openness to change scores. Spearman correlations between leader ACQ and departmental 2012-13 revenue and expenditures were statistically significant, as were the differences observed in ACQ by gender and the educational level of the leader. Differences in ACQ score by education level and agency revenue were significant even after adjusting for potential confounders. The analyses imply there are underlying relationships between leader and LHD characteristics

  10. BEHAVIOR RISK FACTORS IN INDONESIA: NATIONAL HOUSEHOLD HEALTH SURVEY 2001

    OpenAIRE

    Ch. M. Kristanti; Dwi Hapsari; Julianty Pradono; Soeharsono Soemantri

    2012-01-01

    A series of National Household Health Surveys (NHHS) reported the occurrence of epidemiological transition caused by demographic transition and prolonged economical diversity, Communicable diseases are still prevalent, followed by the emergence of Non Communicable Diseases (NCDs), which are due to an increasing level of behavior risk factors in the population. In the NHHS 2001, a morbidity survey collected information about behavioral risk indicators, whereas the WHO'S STEPwise approach was o...

  11. INFLUENCE OF SOCIOECONOMIC AND DEMOGRAPHIC ENVIRONMENT ON PRIVATE HEALTH CARE PROVIDERS

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    Lana Kordić

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Health care systems face pressure to increase the quality of health care at the same time with pressure to reduce public spending. The attempt to overcome the gap between needs and opportunities can be resolved through the introduction of public-private partnerships. Goals of this study are to investigate variation of the number, form and efficiency of private providers of general/family medicine services in primary health care and the contribution of socioeconomic and demographic environment on those variations, among counties. Socioeconomic and demographic factors are identified as independent variables that influence the health care need and utilization and consequently the decision of private entities to engage in the provision of health care services. This study extended previous studies because it has introduced socioeconomic and demographic variables. This may shed same new lights on the relationship between private providers of health service and efficiency of providing health service in primary health care.

  12. Smoking Behavior and Demographic Risk Factors in Argentina: A Population-Based Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Eugenio; Kaplan, Celia Patricia; Guil, Valeria; Gregorich, Steven E.; Mejia, Raul; J.Pérez-Stable, Eliseo

    2007-01-01

    Background Demographic and socioeconomic factors associated with smoking behavior were evaluated in a nationwide household survey in Argentina to describe the status of the tobacco epidemic. Methods Face-to-face interviews with adults, age 20 and older, assessed smoking status, frequency, and age of initiation. Multivariate logistic regression was used to compare social and demographic characteristics. Results Of the 43,863 participants, 38% of men and 24% of women were current smokers, and 20% of current smokers smoked occasionally. For older men and women, smoking was less prevalent and their probability of quitting higher. Men with more than high school education were less likely to be current smokers. Rates for women did not differ by education. Conclusions The lower smoking rates among men with more education suggest that Argentina has begun to transition to the next stage of the tobacco epidemic. Tobacco control policy must direct efforts to change smoking behavior. PMID:18037987

  13. Establishing a health demographic surveillance site in Bhaktapur district, Nepal: initial experiences and findings

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    Aryal Umesh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A health demographic surveillance system (HDSS provides longitudinal data regarding health and demography in countries with coverage error and poor quality data on vital registration systems due to lack of public awareness, inadequate legal basis and limited use of data in health planning. The health system in Nepal, a low-income country, does not focus primarily on health registration, and does not conduct regular health data collection. This study aimed to initiate and establish the first HDSS in Nepal. Results We conducted a baseline survey in Jhaukhel and Duwakot, two villages in Bhaktapur district. The study surveyed 2,712 households comprising a total population of 13,669. The sex ratio in the study area was 101 males per 100 females and the average household size was 5. The crude birth and death rates were 9.7 and 3.9/1,000 population/year, respectively. About 11% of births occurred at home, and we found no mortality in infants and children less than 5 years of age. Various health problems were found commonly and some of them include respiratory problems (41.9%; headache, vertigo and dizziness (16.7%; bone and joint pain (14.4%; gastrointestinal problems (13.9%; heart disease, including hypertension (8.8%; accidents and injuries (2.9%; and diabetes mellitus (2.6%. The prevalence of non-communicable disease (NCD was 4.3% (95% CI: 3.83; 4.86 among individuals older than 30 years. Age-adjusted odds ratios showed that risk factors, such as sex, ethnic group, occupation and education, associated with NCD. Conclusion Our baseline survey demonstrated that it is possible to collect accurate and reliable data in a village setting in Nepal, and this study successfully established an HDSS site. We determined that both maternal and child health are better in the surveillance site compared to the entire country. Risk factors associated with NCDs dominated morbidity and mortality patterns.

  14. Overweight in Southeastern Pennsylvania children: 2002 household health survey data.

    OpenAIRE

    Rappaport, Elizabeth B.; Robbins, Jessica M.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors sought to estimate the prevalence of overweight and risk for overweight and to examine relationships between body mass index (BMI) and socioeconomic and demographic characteristics among children in Philadelphia and four neighboring counties. METHODS: Data from the 2002 Philadelphia Health Management Corporation Household Health Survey was examined. RESULTS: Of 2,621 children aged 2 to 17 years, 36% were overweight or at risk for overweight and 23% were overweight. Prev...

  15. Comparing demographic, health status and psychosocial strategies of audience segmentation to promote physical activity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boslaugh, Sarah E; Kreuter, Matthew W; Nicholson, Robert A; Naleid, Kimberly

    2005-01-01

    .... This study compares the results of audience segmentation for physical activity that is based on either demographic, health status or psychosocial variables alone, or a combination of all three types of variables...

  16. Demographics and health care seeking behavior of Singaporean women with chronic constipation: implications for therapeutic management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwee KA

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Kok Ann Gwee1,2, Sajita Setia31Gleneagles Hospital, 2Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore (NUS, 3Janssen, Johnson and Johnson Pte Ltd, SingaporeIntroduction: Chronic constipation is significantly more prevalent in women than men in Singapore. We carried out a survey to study patient demographics, symptom prevalence, healthcare-seeking behavior, and patient satisfaction with available treatment options in women with chronic constipation.Methods: Responses were collected predominantly via a web-based survey from a panel representative of Singapore's women population. Eligibility was established using a nine-question screener.Results: A total of 1006 invited females took part in an online screener survey, of which 911 respondents did not meet the eligibility requirements for the chronic constipation survey. Of the total panelists consenting to participate (via both online and face-to-face interviews, 100 women met eligibility requirements and took the 22-question survey. Eligible respondents were skewed to younger patients but well mixed in terms of marital status. The majority of them were not keen on doing exercise and were working women, especially white collar females. The majority complained of straining and hard stools as the most common constipation symptoms (88% and 80% respectively and rated constipation symptoms as severe or moderate. On average, respondents experienced constipation symptoms for 6 to 7 months in the last year. In more than two-thirds of respondents, constipation symptoms were frequent (at least 1 in 3 times. Most of the patients had attempted to treat constipation themselves and 80% had tried laxatives before visiting the doctor. Satisfaction with fiber supplements and laxatives was average and many of the users were not satisfied with their effect. Ineffectiveness and prolonged time taken for the treatment to take effect were the most common reasons for dissatisfaction. Nearly all respondents

  17. [Insomnia and total sleep time in France: prevalence and associated socio-demographic factors in a general population survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, F; Richard, J-B; Léger, D

    2013-12-01

    Sleep is considered as a major protective factor for good health and quality of life. The epidemiology of chronic insomnia and other sleep disorders has recently been developed in France. The aim of this study was to evaluate total sleep time and the prevalence of chronic insomnia in the general population aged 15 to 85 years. It was also to investigate factors associated with sleep disorders. Within the framework of the Health Barometer 2010, a French general population survey, 27,653 15 to 85-year-old individuals were questioned about their health behaviors and attitudes, in particular about their sleeping time and habits. The average sleeping time of the 15 to 85-year-old was 7 hours 13 minutes. It was higher for women than for men (7 hours 18 minutes vs 7 hours 07 minutes; Psocio-demographic characteristics. Since the beginning of 1990s, a single-question inquiry on "sleeping problems present during the last 8 days" has been asked in the Health Barometer. The rate of subjects concerned increased from 1995, with a prevalence stabilized at a high level since 2000. Based on these data, we think that the surveillance of sleep disorders is an important public health issue and that prevention and health educational initiatives should be launched in the general population to promote a better quality of sleep. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Population Dynamics and Air Pollution: The Impact of Demographics on Health Impact Assessment of Air Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esben Meulengracht Flachs

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To explore how three different assumptions on demographics affect the health impact of Danish emitted air pollution in Denmark from 2005 to 2030, with health impact modeled from 2005 to 2050. Methods. Modeled air pollution from Danish sources was used as exposure in a newly developed health impact assessment model, which models four major diseases and mortality causes in addition to all-cause mortality. The modeling was at the municipal level, which divides the approximately 5.5 M residents in Denmark into 99 municipalities. Three sets of demographic assumptions were used: (1 a static year 2005 population, (2 morbidity and mortality fixed at the year 2005 level, or (3 an expected development. Results. The health impact of air pollution was estimated at 672,000, 290,000, and 280,000 lost life years depending on demographic assumptions and the corresponding social costs at 430.4 M€, 317.5 M€, and 261.6 M€ through the modeled years 2005–2050. Conclusion. The modeled health impact of air pollution differed widely with the demographic assumptions, and thus demographics and assumptions on demographics played a key role in making health impact assessments on air pollution.

  19. Oral health: locus of control, health behavior, self-rated oral health and socio-demographic factors in Istanbul adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peker, Kadriye; Bermek, Gulcin

    2011-01-01

    To determine oral health control beliefs of Istanbul adults using the Multidimensional Oral Health Locus of Control Scale (MOHLCS) after confirming its factorial validity and to examine the relationships between these beliefs, self-rated oral health, oral health behaviors and socio-demographic factors. The MOHLCS was administered to a sample of 1200 subjects aged ≥18 years in Istanbul chosen using a quota-sampling method (response 88%). The relationship between the MOHLCS and oral health behaviors, self-rated oral health and socio-demographic factors was assessed after confirming the factorial validity of the MOHLCS. The MOHLCS demonstrated satisfactory internal reliability. Factor analysis results showed a new four-factor solution, namely Internal, Dentist, Chance, and Socialization agents. Multivariate analysis showed that female gender, younger age, higher socioeconomic status, more frequent daily toothbrushing, and regular dental check-ups were associated with higher Internal beliefs, while older age, lower educational level, lower socioeconomic status, low toothbrushing frequency, and symptom-orientated dental attendance were associated with higher Chance beliefs. Being unmarried and low toothbrushing frequency were associated with lower Dentist beliefs. Males and older subjects had lower Socialization agents beliefs. Internal, Dentist and Chance beliefs were significantly associated with self-rated oral health. Compared with the original factor structure, the new factor structure had better goodness of fit for this sample. Self-rated oral health, socio-demographic factors, and oral health behaviors were significantly associated with oral health control beliefs. These beliefs may be useful for planning oral health promotion programs and for formulating advice given by oral health professionals about their patients' oral health behaviors.

  20. Oral health related to demographic features in Bosnian children aged six.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratbegović, Amra Arslanagić; Marković, Nina; Zukanović, Amila; Kobaslija, Sedin; Dragas, Mediha Selimović; Jurić, Hrvoje

    2010-09-01

    The main aim of this paper is to present epidemiological indicators of oral health among six-year olds in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BH) and to analyze values of dmft index and dental treatment needs in order to identify differences in parts of the country. Another aim is to identify the needs from the public oral health care system in Bosnia and Herzegovina related to early permanent dentition by analyzing the condition of first permanent molars (FPM) as an indicator of oral health of permanent dentition. Survey was carried out in 2004 in 8 cantons of the Federation of BH (FBH) and in the Republic of Srpska (RS). Final sample included 560 participants aged six (mean 6.2, SD +/- 0.87). One dental team clinically examined all participants according to WHO methodology and criteria. The parameters used were: dmft index, DMFT index of first permanent molars (FPM), presence of sealants and treatment needs. A questionnaire about oral health habits had been administered. Dmft was 6.71 in that the d-component constituted the major part of the index. DMFT index of FPM was 0.61 (SD +/- 1.08). Percentage of caries free participants aged 6 was 6.8%. Average number of FPM with fissure sealants in BH was 0.25 (SD +/- 0.78). Significant demographic differences in dmft index, DMFT FPM and treatment needs were identified. Most participants (48.5%) had their first dental visit between the ages of five and seven. National oral health goal for Bosnia and Herzegovina should be to develop and implement disease prevention programs based on education of both parents and dental practitioners. It is necessary to improve access to dental care and shift focus from curative to preventive procedures. It is also necessary to set real goals for improvement of oral health which can be achieved within a desired time frame, as well as to precisely define measures to be taken.

  1. Demographic Factors as Correlates of Health – Seeking Behaviour ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-10-02

    Oct 2, 2014 ... Department of Physical and Health Education,. Emmanuel .... The nature of worship in Islam involves exercises such as bending, ... problems like high cholestrol, high blood sugar and high blood pressure that could make.

  2. Identifying socio-demographic and socioeconomic determinants of health inequalities in a diverse London community: the South East London Community Health (SELCoH study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatch Stephani L

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Responses to public health need require information on the distribution of mental and physical ill health by demographic and socioeconomic factors at the local community level. Methods The South East London Community Health (SELCoH study is a community psychiatric and physical morbidity survey. Trained interviewers conducted face-to-face computer assisted interviews with 1698 adults aged 16 years and over, from 1076 randomly selected private households in two south London boroughs. We compared the prevalence of common mental disorders, hazardous alcohol use, long standing illness and general physical health by demographic and socioeconomic indicators. Unadjusted and models adjusted for demographic and socioeconomic indicators are presented for all logistic regression models. Results Of those in the sample, 24.2% reported common mental disorder and 44.9% reported having a long standing illness, with 15.7% reporting hazardous alcohol consumption and 19.2% rating their health as fair or poor. The pattern of indicators identifying health inequalities for common mental disorder, poor general health and having a long term illness is similar; individuals who are socioeconomically disadvantaged have poorer health and physical health worsens as age increases for all groups. The prevalence of poor health outcomes by ethnic group suggests that there are important differences between groups, particularly for common mental disorder and poor general health. Higher socioeconomic status was protective for common mental disorder, fair or poor health and long standing illness, but those with higher socioeconomic status reported higher levels of hazardous alcohol use. The proportion of participants who met the criteria for common mental disorder with co-occurring functional limitations was similar or greater to those with poor physical health. Conclusions Health service providers and policy makers should prioritise high risk, socially defined

  3. Changing workforce demographics necessitates succession planning in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Sandra K; Collins, Kevin S

    2007-01-01

    Health care organizations continue to be plagued by labor shortage issues. Further complicating the already existing workforce challenges is an aging population poised to retire en masse within the next few years. With fewer cohorts in the age group of 25 to 44 years (Vital Speeches Day. 2004:71:23-27), a more mobile workforce (Grow Your Own Leaders: How to Identify, Develop, and Retain Leadership Talent, 2002), and an overall reduction in the number of individuals seeking employment in the health care field (J Healthc Manag. 2003:48:6-11), the industry could be faced with an unmanageable number of vacant positions throughout the organization. Bracing for the potential impact of these issues is crucial to the ongoing business continuity of health care organization. Many health care organizations have embraced succession planning to combat the potential labor famine. However, the health care industry as a whole seems to lag behind other industries in terms of succession planning efforts (Healthc Financ Manage. 2005;59:64-67). This article seeks to provide health care managers with a framework for improving the systematic preparation of the next generation of managers by analyzing the succession planning process. The proposition of these models is to initiate and simplify the gap reduction between theoretical concepts and future organizational application.

  4. The role of religious advisors in mental health care in the World Mental Health surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kovess-Masfety, Vivianne; Evans-Lacko, Sara; Andrade, Laura Helena; Benjet, Corina; Ten Have, Margreet; Wardenaar, Klaas; Karam, Elie G; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Abdumalik, Jibril; Haro Abad, Josep Maria; Florescu, Silvia; Wu, Benjamin; De Jonge, Peter; Altwaijri, Yasmina; Hinkov, Hristo; Kawakami, Norito; Caldas-de-Almeida, Jose Miguel; Bromet, Evelyn; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Posada-Villa, José; Al-Hamzawi, Ali; Huang, Yueqin; Hu, Chiyi; Viana, Maria Carmen; Fayyad, John; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Demyttenaere, Koen; Lepine, Jean-Pierre; Murphy, Samuel; Xavier, Miguel; Takeshima, Tadashi; Gureje, Oye

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the role of religious advisors in mental health care (MHC) according to disorder severity, socio-demographics, religious involvement and country income groups. METHODS: Face to face household surveys in ten high income (HI), six upper-middle income (UMI) and five low/lower-mid

  5. The role of religious advisors in mental health care in the World Mental Health surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kovess-Masfety, Vivianne; Evans-Lacko, Sara; Andrade, Laura Helena; Benjet, Corina; Ten Have, Margreet; Wardenaar, Klaas; Karam, Elie G; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Abdumalik, Jibril; Haro Abad, Josep Maria; Florescu, Silvia; Wu, Benjamin; De Jonge, Peter; Altwaijri, Yasmina; Hinkov, Hristo; Kawakami, Norito; Caldas-de-Almeida, Jose Miguel; Bromet, Evelyn; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Posada-Villa, José; Al-Hamzawi, Ali; Huang, Yueqin; Hu, Chiyi; Viana, Maria Carmen; Fayyad, John; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Demyttenaere, Koen; Lepine, Jean-Pierre; Murphy, Samuel; Xavier, Miguel; Takeshima, Tadashi; Gureje, Oye

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the role of religious advisors in mental health care (MHC) according to disorder severity, socio-demographics, religious involvement and country income groups. METHODS: Face to face household surveys in ten high income (HI), six upper-middle income (UMI) and five

  6. Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) is a biennial, cross-sectional survey of a nationally-representative sample of American adults that is used to...

  7. Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) 2009 Cohort User Guide: Data Elements A--Demographics. Technical Paper 74A

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2012

    2012-01-01

    This is a support document to the "Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) 2009 Cohort User Guide" report. Developed for users of LSAY, the user guide consolidates information about the LSAY 2009 cohort into one document. This support document provides demographics information for the guide. [For the main report, "Longitudinal Surveys of…

  8. Variation in School Health Policies and Programs by Demographic Characteristics of US Schools, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaji, Alexandra B.; Brener, Nancy D.; McManus, Tim

    2010-01-01

    Background: To identify whether school health policies and programs vary by demographic characteristics of schools, using data from the School Health Policies and Programs Study (SHPPS) 2006. This study updates a similar study conducted with SHPPS 2000 data and assesses several additional policies and programs measured for the first time in SHPPS…

  9. Nurses' misperceptions of weight status associated with their body weight, demographics and health status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Daqiau; Norman, Ian J; While, Alison E

    2014-03-01

    To assess the agreement between self-perceived weight status and BMI status, calculated from self-reported height and weight, in nurses and to evaluate the relationship between weight status misperceptions and personal body weight, demographics and health status. Cross-sectional questionnaire survey. A large university in London, UK. Four hundred and fifty-six student nurses and 588 qualified nurses attending university were surveyed; 355 student nurses and 409 qualified nurses completed questionnaires representing a response rate of 78 % and 70 %, respectively. The respondents were mainly female (90·0 %), 66·5 % were white and their mean age was 31 years. Sixty-eight per cent of qualified nurses and 77 % of student nurses correctly perceived their weight status. In logistic regression, (mixed) black ethnicity (OR = 2·53, 95 % CI 1·01, 6·32), overweight by BMI (OR = 3·10, 95 % CI 1·31, 7·33) and ≥3 family histories of obesity co-morbidities (OR = 2·51, 95 % CI 1·04, 6·08) were significantly associated with misperceptions in the sample of student nurses, whereas overweight by BMI (OR = 5·32, 95 % CI 2·66, 10·67) was the only significant variable in the sample of qualified nurses. A substantial proportion of nurses misclassified their weight status. Nurses' misperception of weight status was related to their own BMI status, ethnic background and obesity-related family histories. Being aware of this may help nurses not only promote their own healthy weight, but also fulfil their public health role to practise weight management successfully with both patients and the public. While limitations of the sample mean that the study findings cannot be generalized, they do provide grounds for future larger-scale research.

  10. Workers’ Health Risk Behaviors by State, Demographic Characteristics, and Health Insurance Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Huang, MD

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionEmployers often lack data about their workers’ health risk behaviors. We analyzed state-level prevalence data among workers for 4 common health risk behaviors: obesity, physical inactivity, smoking, and missed influenza vaccination (among workers older than 50 years.MethodsWe analyzed 2007 and 2008 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data, restricting the sample to employed respondents aged 18 to 64 years. We stratified health risk behavior prevalence by annual household income, educational attainment, health insurance status, and race/ethnicity.ResultsFor all 4 health risk behaviors, we found significant differences across states and significant disparities related to social determinants of health — income, education, and race/ethnicity. Among uninsured workers, prevalence of smoking was high and influenza vaccinations were lacking.ConclusionIn this national survey study, we found that workers’ health risk behaviors vary substantially by state and by workers’ socioeconomic status, insurance status, and race/ethnicity. Employers and workplace health promotion practitioners can use the prevalence tables presented in this article to inform their workplace health promotion programs.

  11. Explaining marital patterns and trends in namibia: a regression analysis of 1992, 2000 and 2006 demographic and survey data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lillian Pazvakawambwa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Marriage is a significant event in life-course of individuals, and creates a system that characterizes societal and economic structures. Marital patterns and dynamics over the years have changed a lot, with decreasing proportions of marriage, increased levels of divorce and co-habitation in developing countries. Although, such changes have been reported in African societies including Namibia, they have largely remained unexplained. OBJECTIVES AND METHODS: IN THIS PAPER, WE EXAMINED TRENDS AND PATTERNS OF MARITAL STATUS OF WOMEN OF MARRIAGEABLE AGE: 15 to 49 years, in Namibia using the 1992, 2000 and 2006 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS data. Trends were established for selected demographic variables. Two binary logistic regression models for ever-married versus never married, and cohabitation versus married were fitted to establish factors associated with such nuptial systems. Further a multinomial logistic regression models, adjusted for bio-demographic and socio-economic variables, were fitted separately for each year, to establish determinants of type of union (never married, married and cohabitation. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Findings indicate a general change away from marriage, with a shift in singulate mean age at marriage. Cohabitation was prevalent among those less than 30 years of age, the odds were higher in urban areas and increased since 1992. Be as it may marriage remained a persistent nuptiality pattern, and common among the less educated and employed, but lower odds in urban areas. Results from multinomial model suggest that marital status was associated with age at marriage, total children born, region, place of residence, education level and religion. We conclude that marital patterns have undergone significant transformation over the past two decades in Namibia, with a coexistence of traditional marriage framework with co-habitation, and sizeable proportion remaining unmarried to the late 30s. A shift in the

  12. Assessing the population coverage of a health demographic surveillance system using satellite imagery and crowd-sourcing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pasquale, Aurelio; McCann, Robert S; Maire, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    Remotely sensed data can serve as an independent source of information about the location of residential structures in areas under demographic and health surveillance. We report on results obtained combining satellite imagery, imported from Bing, with location data routinely collected using the built-in GPS sensors of tablet computers, to assess completeness of population coverage in a Health and Demographic Surveillance System in Malawi. The Majete Malaria Project Health and Demographic Surveillance System, in Malawi, started in 2014 to support a project with the aim of studying the reduction of malaria using an integrated control approach by rolling out insecticide treated nets and improved case management supplemented with house improvement and larval source management. In order to support the monitoring of the trial a Health and Demographic Surveillance System was established in the area that surrounds the Majete Wildlife Reserve (1600 km2), using the OpenHDS data system. We compared house locations obtained using GPS recordings on mobile devices during the demographic surveillance census round with those acquired from satellite imagery. Volunteers were recruited through the crowdcrafting.org platform to identify building structures on the images, which enabled the compilation of a database with coordinates of potential residences. For every building identified on these satellite images by the volunteers (11,046 buildings identified of which 3424 (ca. 30%) were part of the censused area), we calculated the distance to the nearest house enumerated on the ground by fieldworkers during the census round of the HDSS. A random sample of buildings (85 structures) identified on satellite images without a nearby location enrolled in the census were visited by a fieldworker to determine how many were missed during the baseline census survey, if any were missed. The findings from this ground-truthing effort suggest that a high population coverage was achieved in the

  13. COMMUNITY DENTAL HEALTH SURVEY TRAINING TO DENTAL HEALTH PERSONNEL

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Fikawati; Ita Yulita

    2015-01-01

    Dentist and dental nurse as dental health personnel in community health center are spearheads in community dental health service. The effectiveness and efficacy of community dental health service needs updated adequate dental health knowledge and skill. One effort to assure the fulfillment of those needs is by providing community dental health survey training. This training aims at improving the skill and capability of dental health personnel to conduct dental health survey. The training cons...

  14. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1999-2000 forward. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) is a program of studies designed to assess the health and nutritional status of...

  15. Facebook addiction among Turkish college students: the role of psychological health, demographic, and usage characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koc, Mustafa; Gulyagci, Seval

    2013-04-01

    This study explored Facebook addiction among Turkish college students and its behavioral, demographic, and psychological health predictors. The Facebook Addiction Scale (FAS) was developed and its construct validity was assessed through factor analyses. A total of 447 students reported their personal information and Facebook usage and completed the FAS and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28). The results revealed that weekly time commitment, social motives, severe depression, and anxiety and insomnia positively predicted Facebook addiction. Neither demographic variables nor the interactions of gender by usage characteristics were found to be significant predictors.

  16. Environmental factors and childhood Fever in areas of the Ouagadougou Health and Demographic Surveillance System, Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouba Djourdebbé, Franklin; Dos Santos, Stéphanie; Legrand, Thomas K; Soura, Abdramane Bassiahi

    2015-07-01

    Using data on 825 under-5 children from the Ouagadougou Health and Demographic Surveillance System collected in 2010, this article examines the effects of aspects of the immediate environment on childhood fever. Logit regression models were estimated to assess the effects of the quality of the local environment on the probability that a child is reported to have had a fever in the two weeks preceding the survey, after controlling for various demographic and socioeconomic variables. While the estimated impact of some environmental factors persisted in the full models, the effects of variables such as access to water and type of household waste management decreased in the presence of demographic, socioeconomic and neighbourhood factors. The management of waste water was found to significantly affect the occurrence of childhood fever. Overall, the results of the study call for more efforts to promote access to tap water to households at prices that are affordable for the local population, where the threats to child health appears to be greatest.

  17. Socio-demographic and clinical features of Irish iatrogenic hepatitis C patients: a cross-sectional survey.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McKenna, Olivia

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A discrete sub-group of iatrogenically-acquired hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected individuals exists in the Irish population on whom limited current research data is available. The aim of this study was to establish a current profile of the socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of the Irish iatrogenic hepatitis C population and to determine factors predicting symptoms experienced. METHODS: An anonymous, national, cross-sectional survey was conducted to explore this populations\\' self-reported health and social attributes. Data were collected on 290 respondents. RESULTS: Mean time since infection was 26 years. Eighty-four percent (n = 237) of respondents were female (mean age = 55.9 +\\/- 9.6 years). Hepatic and extra-hepatic symptoms were common (62% and 99% respectively). Fatigue and pain were frequent complaints while 89% reported diagnosed co-morbid disease. On logistic regression, female gender, age and co-morbid disease emerged as independent predictors of self-reported symptoms. CONCLUSION: This study describes the current status of the iatrogenically infected patient cohort in Ireland, adding to existing knowledge regarding the clinical course and consequences of HCV infection. Changing healthcare needs were shown by comparison with earlier surveys in this same population, in terms of disease progression, development of co-morbid disease and ageing.

  18. Demographic Survey Of The Spiritual Intelligence In Medical Faculty Of Qom University of Medical Sciences

    OpenAIRE

    Marziye Raisi; Hoda Ahmari Tehran; Saeede Heidari; Nahid Mehran

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Spiritual intelligence is a kind of ultimate intelligence that shows the conceptual and valuable issues and to solve the problems associated with it. the foundation of individual beliefs can have important role in various fields especially in the promotion and provision of psychic health . Thus, the aim of this study was to survey the rate of spiritual intelligence among the students of Medical Faculty of Qom University of Medical Sciences and the relation between t...

  19. Prevalence and demographic and clinical associations of health literacy in patients on maintenance hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jamie A; Mor, Maria K; Shields, Anne Marie; Sevick, Mary Ann; Palevsky, Paul M; Fine, Michael J; Arnold, Robert M; Weisbord, Steven D

    2011-06-01

    Although limited health literacy is estimated to affect over 90 million Americans and is recognized as an important public health concern, there have been few studies examining this issue in patients with chronic kidney disease. We sought to characterize the prevalence of and associations of demographic and clinical characteristics with limited health literacy in patients receiving maintenance hemodialysis. As part of a prospective clinical trial of symptom management strategies in 288 patients treated with chronic hemodialysis, we assessed health literacy using the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine (REALM). We defined limited health literacy as a REALM score ≤60 and evaluated independent associations of demographic and baseline clinical characteristics with limited health literacy using multivariable logistic regression. Of the 260 patients who completed the REALM, 41 demonstrated limited health literacy. African-American race, lower educational level, and veteran status were independently associated with limited health literacy. There was no association of limited health literacy with age, gender, serologic values, dialysis adequacy, overall symptom burden, quality of life, or depression. Limited health literacy is common among patients receiving chronic hemodialysis. African-American race and socioeconomic factors are strong independent predictors of limited health literacy. These findings can help inform the design and implementation of interventions to improve health literacy in the hemodialysis population.

  20. Creating a Screening Measure of Health Literacy for the Health Information National Trends Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champlin, Sara; Mackert, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Create a screening measure of health literacy for use with the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS). Participants completed a paper-based survey. Items from the survey were used to construct a health literacy screening measure. A population-based survey conducted in geographic areas of high and low minority frequency and in Central Appalachia. Two thousand nine hundred four English-speaking participants were included in this study: 66% white, 93% completed high school, mean age = 52.53 years (SD = 16.24). A health literacy screening measure was created using four items included in the HINTS survey. Scores could range from 0 (no questions affirmative/correct) to 4 (all questions answered affirmatively/correctly). Multiple regression analysis was used to determine whether demographic variables known to predict health literacy were indeed associated with the constructed health literacy screening measure. The weighted average health literacy score was 2.63 (SD = 1.00). Those who were nonwhite (p = .0005), were older (p literacy screening measure scores. This study highlights the need to assess health literacy in national surveys, but also serves as evidence that screening measures can be created within existing datasets to give researchers the ability to consider the impact of health literacy. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. Environmental health and household demographics impacting biosand filter maintenance and diarrhea in Guatemala: an application of structural equation modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divelbiss, Daniel William; Boccelli, Dominic Louis; Succop, Paul Allan; Oerther, Daniel Barton

    2013-02-05

    In rural health development practice, engineers and scientists must recognize the complex interactions that influence individuals' contact with disease-causing pathogens and understand how household habits may impact the adoption and long-term sustainability of new technology. The goal of this study was to measure the effect of various environmental health factors and household demographics on the operation and maintenance of the Biosand filter (Centre for Affordable Water and Sanitation Technology, Calgary, Alberta, Canada) and diarrhea health burden in the region. In July and August 2010, randomized household surveys (n = 286) were completed in rural Guatemala detailing water access, sanitation availability, hygiene practice, socio-economic status, education level, filter operation and maintenance, and diarrhea health burden of the home. A hypothesized structural equation model was developed based on a review of published research and tested using the surveyed data. Model-derived parameter estimates indicated that: (a) proper personal hygiene practices significantly promote proper filter operation and maintenance; and (b) higher household education level, proper filter operation and maintenance, and improved water supply significantly reduce diarrhea health burden. Additionally, a high level of unexplained variance in diarrhea indicated the filter, though protective of health, is not the only factor influencing diarrhea.

  2. Demographic and Socioeconomic Characteristics Among Primary Health Care Users Diagnosed with Osteoarthritis in Albania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoxha, F.; Tafaj, A.; Roshi, E.; Burazeri, G.

    2015-01-01

    Demographic and Socioeconomic Characteristics Among Primary Health Care Users Diagnosed with Osteoarthritis in Albania. Hoxha F, Tafaj A, Roshi E, Burazeri G. Mater Sociomed. 2015 Jun;27(3):163-6. doi: 10.5455/msm.2015.27.163-166. Epub 2015 Jun 8. PMID: 26236161 [PubMed] Free PMC Article

  3. The Public Health Workforce Interests and Needs Survey: The First National Survey of State Health Agency Employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, Katie; Leider, Jonathon P; Harper, Elizabeth; Castrucci, Brian C; Bharthapudi, Kiran; Liss-Levinson, Rivka; Jarris, Paul E; Hunter, Edward L

    2015-01-01

    Public health practitioners, policy makers, and researchers alike have called for more data on individual worker's perceptions about workplace environment, job satisfaction, and training needs for a quarter of a century. The Public Health Workforce Interests and Needs Survey (PH WINS) was created to answer that call. Characterize key components of the public health workforce, including demographics, workplace environment, perceptions about national trends, and perceived training needs. A nationally representative survey of central office employees at state health agencies (SHAs) was conducted in 2014. Approximately 25,000 e-mail invitations to a Web-based survey were sent out to public health staff in 37 states, based on a stratified sampling approach. Balanced repeated replication weights were used to account for the complex sampling design. A total of 10,246 permanently employed SHA central office employees participated in PH WINS (46% response rate). Perceptions about training needs; workplace environment and job satisfaction; national initiatives and trends; and demographics. Although the majority of staff said they were somewhat or very satisfied with their job (79%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 78-80), as well as their organization (65%; 95% CI, 64-66), more than 42% (95% CI, 41-43) were considering leaving their organization in the next year or retiring before 2020; 4% of those were considering leaving for another job elsewhere in governmental public health. The majority of public health staff at SHA central offices are female (72%; 95% CI, 71-73), non-Hispanic white (70%; 95% CI, 69-71), and older than 40 years (73%; 95% CI, 72-74). The greatest training needs include influencing policy development, preparing a budget, and training related to the social determinants of health. PH WINS represents the first nationally representative survey of SHA employees. It holds significant potential to help answer previously unaddressed questions in public health

  4. The Public Health Workforce Interests and Needs Survey: The First National Survey of State Health Agency Employees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, Katie; Leider, Jonathon P.; Harper, Elizabeth; Castrucci, Brian C.; Bharthapudi, Kiran; Liss-Levinson, Rivka; Jarris, Paul E.; Hunter, Edward L.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Public health practitioners, policy makers, and researchers alike have called for more data on individual worker's perceptions about workplace environment, job satisfaction, and training needs for a quarter of a century. The Public Health Workforce Interests and Needs Survey (PH WINS) was created to answer that call. Objective: Characterize key components of the public health workforce, including demographics, workplace environment, perceptions about national trends, and perceived training needs. Design: A nationally representative survey of central office employees at state health agencies (SHAs) was conducted in 2014. Approximately 25 000 e-mail invitations to a Web-based survey were sent out to public health staff in 37 states, based on a stratified sampling approach. Balanced repeated replication weights were used to account for the complex sampling design. Setting and Participants: A total of 10 246 permanently employed SHA central office employees participated in PH WINS (46% response rate). Main Outcome Measures: Perceptions about training needs; workplace environment and job satisfaction; national initiatives and trends; and demographics. Results: Although the majority of staff said they were somewhat or very satisfied with their job (79%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 78-80), as well as their organization (65%; 95% CI, 64-66), more than 42% (95% CI, 41-43) were considering leaving their organization in the next year or retiring before 2020; 4% of those were considering leaving for another job elsewhere in governmental public health. The majority of public health staff at SHA central offices are female (72%; 95% CI, 71-73), non-Hispanic white (70%; 95% CI, 69-71), and older than 40 years (73%; 95% CI, 72-74). The greatest training needs include influencing policy development, preparing a budget, and training related to the social determinants of health. Conclusions: PH WINS represents the first nationally representative survey of SHA employees. It

  5. Consumers' health perceptions of three types of milk: a survey in Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bus, A.E.M.; Worsley, A.

    2003-01-01

    A survey was conducted among 345 randomly selected shoppers in Melbourne, Australia, to identify their perceptions of the healthiness of whole milk, reduced fat milk and soy milk and to investigate demographic influences on health perceptions and types of milk consumption. The survey revealed major

  6. Consumers' health perceptions of three types of milk: a survey in Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bus, A.E.M.; Worsley, A.

    2003-01-01

    A survey was conducted among 345 randomly selected shoppers in Melbourne, Australia, to identify their perceptions of the healthiness of whole milk, reduced fat milk and soy milk and to investigate demographic influences on health perceptions and types of milk consumption. The survey revealed major

  7. A Survey Study to Find out the Relationship between Leadership Styles and Demographic Characteristics of Elementary and Secondary School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatlah, Ijaz Ahmed; Quraishi, Uzma; Hussain, Ishtiaq

    2010-01-01

    This article reports a study aiming to investigate the leadership styles of elementary and secondary school teachers' in Public Sector schools in Lahore, Pakistan. The study also explored if there was any correlation between demographic characteristics of teachers and their leadership styles. A survey was conducted using Task-oriented and…

  8. What limits the utilization of health services among china labor force? analysis of inequalities in demographic, socio-economic and health status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Liming; Zeng, Jingchun; Zeng, Zhi

    2017-02-02

    Inequalities in demographic, socio-economic and health status for China labor force place them at greater health risks, and marginalized them in the utilization of healthcare services. This paper identifies the inequalities which limit the utilization of health services among China labor force, and provides a reference point for health policy. Data were collected from 23,505 participants aged 15 to 65, from the 2014 China Labor Force Dynamic Survey (a nationwide cross-sectional survey covering 29 provinces with a multi-stage cluster, and stratified, probability sampling strategy) conducted by Sun Yat-sen University. Logistic regression models were used to study the effects of demographic (age, gender, marital status, type of hukou and migration status), socio-economic (education, social class and insurance) and health status (self-perceived general health and several chronic illnesses) variables on the utilization of health services (two-week visiting and hospitalization during the past 12 months). Goodness of fit was assessed using Hosmer-Lemeshow test. Discrimination ability was assessed based on the area under the receiver operating curve (AUC). Migrants with more than 1 (OR 2.80, 95% CI 1.01 ~ 7.82) or none chronic illnesses (OR 1.26, 95% CI 1.01 ~ 7.82) are more likely to be two week visiting to the clinic than non-migrants; migrants with none chronic illnesses (OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.45 ~ 0.82) are less likely to be in hospitalization during the past 12 months than non-migrants. Female, elder, hukou of non-agriculture, higher education level, higher social class, purchasing more insurance and poorer self-perceived health were predictors for more utilization of health service. More insurance benefited more two-week visiting (OR 1.12, 95% CI 1.06 ~ 1.17) and hospitalization during the past 12 months (OR 1.12, 95% CI 1.07 ~ 1.18) for individuals with none chronic illness but not ≥1 chronic illnesses. All models achieved good calibration

  9. Health Outcomes Survey - Limited Data Set

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Medicare Health Outcomes Survey (HOS) limited data sets (LDS) are comprised of the entire national sample for a given 2-year cohort (including both respondents...

  10. Identifiable Data Files - Health Outcomes Survey (HOS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Medicare Health Outcomes Survey (HOS) identifiable data files are comprised of the entire national sample for a given 2-year cohort (including both respondents...

  11. Demographic-Based Content Analysis of Web-Based Health-Related Social Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahbazi, Moloud; Wiley, Matthew T; Hristidis, Vagelis

    2016-01-01

    Background An increasing number of patients from diverse demographic groups share and search for health-related information on Web-based social media. However, little is known about the content of the posted information with respect to the users’ demographics. Objective The aims of this study were to analyze the content of Web-based health-related social media based on users’ demographics to identify which health topics are discussed in which social media by which demographic groups and to help guide educational and research activities. Methods We analyze 3 different types of health-related social media: (1) general Web-based social networks Twitter and Google+; (2) drug review websites; and (3) health Web forums, with a total of about 6 million users and 20 million posts. We analyzed the content of these posts based on the demographic group of their authors, in terms of sentiment and emotion, top distinctive terms, and top medical concepts. Results The results of this study are: (1) Pregnancy is the dominant topic for female users in drug review websites and health Web forums, whereas for male users, it is cardiac problems, HIV, and back pain, but this is not the case for Twitter; (2) younger users (0-17 years) mainly talk about attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and depression-related drugs, users aged 35-44 years discuss about multiple sclerosis (MS) drugs, and middle-aged users (45-64 years) talk about alcohol and smoking; (3) users from the Northeast United States talk about physical disorders, whereas users from the West United States talk about mental disorders and addictive behaviors; (4) Users with higher writing level express less anger in their posts. Conclusion We studied the popular topics and the sentiment based on users' demographics in Web-based health-related social media. Our results provide valuable information, which can help create targeted and effective educational campaigns and guide experts to reach the right users on Web

  12. Environment and Its Influence on Health and Demographics in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo Santisteban, Ramiro D; Kim, Young L; Farooq, Umar; Kim, Tae-Seong; Youm, Sekyoung; Park, Seung-Hun

    2016-02-04

    As the prevalence of overweight and obesity has been increasing in South Korea, it is critical to better understand possible associations between environmental surroundings and general health status. We characterize key health test readings and basic demographic information from 10,816 South Koreans, obtained from two Ubiquitous Healthcare (U-Healthcare) centers that have distinct surrounding neighborhood characteristics. One is located in a rural area in Busan, the other is located in an urban area in Daegu surrounded by a highly crowded residential and commercial business area. We analyze comprehensive health data sets, including blood pressure, body mass index, pulse rate, and body fat percentage from December 2013 to December 2014 to study differences in overall health test measurements between users of rural and urban U-Healthcare centers. We conduct multiple regression analyses to evaluate differences in general health status between the two centers, adjusting for confounding factors. We report statistical evidence of differences in blood pressure at the two locations. As local residents are major users, the result indicates that the environmental surroundings of the centers can influence the demographics of the users, the type of health tests in demand, and the users' health status. We further envision that U-Healthcare centers will provide public users with an opportunity for enhancing their current health, which could potentially be used to prevent them from developing chronic diseases, while providing surveillance healthcare data.

  13. Evaluation of socio-demographic variables affecting the periodontal health of pregnant women in Chandigarh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhaliwal, Jagjit Singh; Lehl, Gurvanit; Sodhi, Sachinjeet K.; Sachdeva, Sonia

    2013-01-01

    Background: The literature is replete with reports that pregnant women have an increased level of periodontal disease as compared with non-pregnant women of the same age. There are many studies correlating the effect of periodontal disease on the adverse pregnancy outcomes. The development of periodontal diseases during pregnancy can be influenced by factors such as preexisting oral conditions, general health, and socio-cultural background. There is very little data studying the effect of socio-demographic factors on the periodontal health of pregnant women. This study evaluated the periodontal status of a sample of pregnant women of Chandigarh and adjoining areas. The study also investigated the relationship between these variables and a series of demographic and clinical variables. Materials and Methods: The participants were 190 pregnant women attending Gynecology and Obstetrics outpatient department of Government Medical College and Hospital, Chandigarh. The participants were examined for their periodontal health and various socio-demographic variables were recorded on performas designed for the purpose of study. Statistical analysis was done. Results: The results revealed that the mean bleeding index scores and probing depth increased with statistical significance when the socio-economic status was lower (P0.1). The plaque index was not significantly associated with the socio-economic status, profession, place of residence, and trimester of pregnancy (P>0.1). Conclusion: In the population of pregnant women investigated under this study, the clinical and socio-demographic characteristics showed non-significant correlation except socio-economic status which showed statistically significant correlation with bleeding on probing and pocket depth. Further studies may be required in Indian population to determine the association of periodontal diseases in pregnant women with socio-demographic variables. PMID:23633773

  14. Cosmic X-ray Surveys of Distant Active Galaxies: The Demographics, Physics, and Ecology of Growing Supermassive Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Brandt, W N

    2015-01-01

    We review results from cosmic X-ray surveys of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) over the past ~ 15 yr that have dramatically improved our understanding of growing supermassive black holes (SMBHs) in the distant universe. First, we discuss the utility of such surveys for AGN investigations and the capabilities of the missions making these surveys, emphasizing Chandra, XMM-Newton, and NuSTAR. Second, we briefly describe the main cosmic X-ray surveys, the essential roles of complementary multiwavelength data, and how AGNs are selected from these surveys. We then review key results from these surveys on the AGN population and its evolution ("demographics"), the physical processes operating in AGNs ("physics"), and the interactions between AGNs and their environments ("ecology"). We conclude by describing some significant unresolved questions and prospects for advancing the field.

  15. Comparing Medical and Recreational Cannabis Users on Socio-Demographic, Substance and Medication Use, and Health and Disability Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulet-Stock, Sybil; Rueda, Sergio; Vafaei, Afshin; Ialomiteanu, Anca; Manthey, Jakob; Rehm, Jürgen; Fischer, Benedikt

    2017-01-01

    While recreational cannabis use is common, medical cannabis programs have proliferated across North America, including a federal program in Canada. Few comparisons of medical and recreational cannabis users (RCUs) exist; this study compared these groups on key characteristics. Data came from a community-recruited sample of formally approved medical cannabis users (MCUs; n = 53), and a sub-sample of recreational cannabis users (RCUs; n = 169) from a representative adult survey in Ontario (Canada). Samples were telephone-surveyed on identical measures, including select socio-demographic, substance and medication use, and health and disability measures. Based on initial bivariate comparisons, multivariate logistical regression with a progressive adjustment approach was performed to assess independent predictors of group status. In bivariate analyses, older age, lower household income, lower alcohol use, higher cocaine, prescription opioid, depression and anxiety medication use, and lower health and disability status were significantly associated with medical cannabis use. In the multivariate analysis, final model, household income, alcohol use, and disability levels were associated with medical cannabis use. Conclusions/Scientific Significance: Compared to RCUs, medical users appear to be mainly characterized by factors negatively influencing their overall health status. Future studies should investigate the actual impact and net benefits of medical cannabis use on these health problems. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. The Tianjin Mental Health Survey (TJMHS) : study rationale, design and methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yin, Huifang; Phillips, Michael R; Wardenaar, Klaas J; Xu, Guangming; Ormel, Johan; Tian, Hongjun; Schoevers, Robert A

    2016-01-01

    Mental health in China is of growing concern to both policy-makers and researchers. The Tianjin Mental Health Survey (TJMHS) was conducted between July 2011 and March 2012 to assess the prevalence and risk factors of mental disorders in the context of recent economic growth and other socio-demograph

  17. Non-Response in Student Surveys: The Role of Demographics, Engagement and Personality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Stephen R.; Whitcomb, Michael E.

    2005-01-01

    What causes a student to participate in a survey? This paper looks at participation across multiple surveys to understand survey non-response; by using multiple surveys we minimize the impact of survey salience. Students at a selective liberal arts college were administered four different surveys throughout the 2002-2003 academic year, and we use…

  18. Cohort profile: the Boston Area Community Health (BACH) survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccolo, Rebecca S; Araujo, Andre B; Pearce, Neil; McKinlay, John B

    2014-02-01

    The Boston Area Community Health (BACH) Survey is a community-based, random sample, epidemiologic cohort of n = 5502 Boston (MA) residents. The baseline BACH Survey (2002-05) was designed to explore the mechanisms conferring increased health risks on minority populations with a particular focus on urologic signs/symptoms and type 2 diabetes. To this end, the cohort was designed to include adequate numbers of US racial/ethnic minorities (Black, Hispanic, White), both men and women, across a broad age of distribution. Follow-up surveys were conducted ∼5 (BACH II, 2008) and 7 (BACH III, 2010) years later, which allows for both within- and between-person comparisons over time. The BACH Survey's measures were designed to cover the following seven broad categories: socio-demographics, health care access/utilization, lifestyles, psychosocial factors, health status, physical measures and biochemical parameters. The breadth of measures has allowed BACH researchers to identify disparities and quantify contributions to social disparities in a number of health conditions including urologic conditions (e.g. nocturia, lower urinary tract symptoms, prostatitis), type 2 diabetes, obesity, bone mineral content and density, and physical function. BACH I data are available through the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) Central Repositories (www.niddkrepository.org). Further inquiries can be made through the New England Research Institutes Inc. website (www.neriscience.com/epidemiology).

  19. Patterns of menthol cigarette use among current smokers, overall and within demographic strata, based on data from four U.S. government surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtin, Geoffrey M; Sulsky, Sandra I; Van Landingham, Cynthia; Marano, Kristin M; Graves, Monica J; Ogden, Michael W; Swauger, James E

    2014-10-01

    The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, National Health Interview Survey and Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey provide estimates of the proportions of U.S. smokers who currently use menthol cigarettes, overall and within demographic strata. Among adult past-month, regular and daily smokers, menthol cigarette use ranges from 26% to 30%, with statistically higher proportions of female versus male smokers (8-11 percentage points higher) currently using menthol cigarettes. Compared to adult smokers overall, statistically higher proportions of non-Hispanic Black smokers (72-79%) and statistically lower proportions of non-Hispanic White smokers (19-22%) currently use menthol cigarettes, with no differences among smokers of other race/ethnicity groups (18-20% to 28-30%, depending on the survey). Higher proportions of younger adult past-month, regular and daily smokers (aged 18-25years) currently use menthol cigarettes compared to older adult smokers (aged 26-29years and/or ⩾30years); however, differences are small in magnitude, with the vast majority of adult smokers (70-75%) who currently use menthol cigarettes being aged ⩾30years. Comparisons between youth and adult smokers are provided, although data for youth smokers are less available and provide less consistent patterns of menthol cigarette use.

  20. Measurement and Socio-Demographic Variation of Social Capital in a Large Population-Based Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieminen, Tarja; Martelin, Tuija; Koskinen, Seppo; Simpura, Jussi; Alanen, Erkki; Harkanen, Tommi; Aromaa, Arpo

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: The main objective of this study was to describe the variation of individual social capital according to socio-demographic factors, and to develop a suitable way to measure social capital for this purpose. The similarity of socio-demographic variation between the genders was also assessed. Data and methods: The study applied…

  1. [Principles and methods of mental health resource assessment in military personnel under conditions of demographic crisis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorona, A A; Syrkin, L D

    2011-03-01

    The article is devoted to developing the principles and methods of resource assessment of mental health military contingent in terms of demographic decline and reform of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation. From the standpoint of the concept of the mutual influence of the value-semantic components and the level of psychological adaptation resources demonstrates the possibility of evaluating resource capabilities of the psyche of military contingent.

  2. Education, Elderly Health, and Differential Population Aging in South Korea: A Demographic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bongoh Kye

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Population aging proceeds with other socioeconomic developments, including educational expansion. Improvements in educational attainment lead to changes in demographic behaviors such as assortative mating, fertility, and the intergenerational transmission of education, which change the health of the elderly and the education of their offspring generation. Objective: We examine such a jointly-changing process in South Korea. Methods: We apply a recursive demographic model (Mare and Maralani 2006 by using the Korean Longitudinal Study of Ageing (KLoSA. Results: First, improvements in education lead to improvements in health among the elderly. Intermediate demographic factors make positive contributions to this improvement. Second, improvements in education lead to a decline in the ratios of offspring to the elderly because better-educated people have fewer children. However, this decrease is not substantial. Third, improvements in education increase the ratio of college-educated offspring to the unhealthy elderly because of improvements in both offspring's education and elderly health. Conclusions: The results suggest that improvements in education change configurations of the elderly and their offspring's generations, mitigating the negative consequences of population aging, such as increasing burdens of elderly support.

  3. SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC AND LIFESTYLE CORRELATES OF SELF-PERCEIVED HEALTH STATUS IN A POPULATION-BASED SAMPLE OF ALBANIAN ADULT MEN AND WOMEN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraja, Fatjona; Kraja, Bledar; Cakerri, Luljeta; Burazeri, Genc

    2016-06-01

    Self-perceived health is considered a suitable health indicator, based on a single item asking individuals to rate their health. It has been recommended as a reliable factor to assess the population health. Several socio-demographic and lifestyle determinants of self-perceived health status have been documented in different population. The aim of our study was to assess the socio-demographic and lifestyle correlates of self-perceived health status in a population-based sample of Albanian adult men and women. Data from 12,554 individuals aged ≥35 years collected by the Albania Living Standard Measurement Survey (LSMS) 2012, which is a national population-based cross-sectional study, were analyzed. The study participants rated their health in five categories: very good, good, average, poor and very poor, which in the analyses were dichotomized into "not poor" and "poor health". Other variables included demographic characteristics, economic level, employment status, smoking and alcohol intake. Binary logistic regression was used to assess the association of self-perceived health with demographic and lifestyle factors. Upon multivariate adjustment for all covariates in a backward stepwise elimination procedure, strong and significant "predictors" of poor self-perceived health status were older age (OR=3.0, 95%CI=2.4-3.7), unemployment (OR=5.6, 95%CI=4.0-7.8), male gender (OR=1.2, 95%CI=1.0-1.5), low education (OR=2.0, OR=1.3-3.0), current smoking (OR=1.7, 95%CI=1.2-2.4) and alcohol abstinence (OR=1.4, 95%CI=1.1-1.7). Our findings indicate that the low socioeconomic groups in Albania have a significantly lower self-perceived health status. Furthermore, smoking was a significant "determinant" of poor self-perceived health in this study population, which is compatible with previous reports from other countries.

  4. Disability acquisition and mental health: effect modification by demographic and socioeconomic characteristics using data from an Australian longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitken, Zoe; Simpson, Julie Anne; Bentley, Rebecca; Kavanagh, Anne Marie

    2017-09-18

    There is evidence of a causal relationship between disability acquisition and poor mental health, but the substantial heterogeneity in the magnitude of the effect is poorly understood and may be aetiologically informative. This study aimed to identify demographic and socioeconomic factors that modify the effect of disability acquisition on mental health. The Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia Survey is a nationally representative longitudinal survey of Australian households that has been conducted annually since 2001. Four waves of data were included in this analysis, from 2011 to 2014. Individuals who acquired a disability (n=387) were compared with those who remained disability-free in all four waves (n=7936). Mental health was measured using the mental health subscale of the Short Form 36 (SF-36) general health questionnaire, which measures symptoms of depression, anxiety and psychological well-being. Linear regression models were fitted to estimate the effect of disability acquisition on mental health, testing for effect modification by key demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. To maximise causal inference, we used a propensity score approach with inverse probability of treatment weighting to control for confounding and multiple imputation using chained equations to assess the impact of missing data. On average, disability acquisition was associated with a 5-point decline in mental health score (estimated mean difference: -5.1, 95% CI -7.2 to -3.0). There was strong evidence that income and relationship status modified the effect, with more detrimental effects in the lowest (-12.5, 95% CI -18.5 to -6.5) compared with highest income quintile (-1.1, 95% CI -4.9 to 2.7) and for people not in a relationship (-8.8, 95% CI -12.9 to -4.8) compared with those who were (-3.7, 95% CI -6.1 to -1.4). Our results suggest that the detrimental effect of disability acquisition on mental health is substantially greater for socioeconomic

  5. Survey of northern informal and formal mental health practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda O’Neill

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. This survey is part of a multi-year research study on informal and formal mental health support in northern Canada involving the use of qualitative and quantitative data collection and analysis methods in an effort to better understand mental health in a northern context. Objective. The main objective of the 3-year study was to document the situation of formal and informal helpers in providing mental health support in isolated northern communities in northern British Columbia, northern Alberta, Yukon, Northwest Territories and Nunavut. The intent of developing a survey was to include more participants in the research and access those working in small communities who would be concerned regarding confidentiality and anonymity due to their high profile within smaller populations. Design. Based on the in-depth interviews from the qualitative phase of the project, the research team developed a survey that reflected the main themes found in the initial qualitative analysis. The on-line survey consisted of 26 questions, looking at basic demographic information and presenting lists of possible challenges, supports and client mental health issues for participants to prioritise. Results. Thirty-two participants identified various challenges, supports and client issues relevant to their mental health support work. A vast majority of the respondents felt prepared for northern practice and had some level of formal education. Supports for longevity included team collaboration, knowledgeable supervisors, managers, leaders and more opportunities for formal education, specific training and continuity of care to support clients. Conclusion. For northern-based research in small communities, the development of a survey allowed more participants to join the larger study in a way that protected their identity and confidentiality. The results from the survey emphasise the need for team collaboration, interdisciplinary practice and working with community

  6. The 2013 Canadian Forces Mental Health Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Rachel E.; Boulos, David; Garber, Bryan G.; Jetly, Rakesh; Sareen, Jitender

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The 2013 Canadian Forces Mental Health Survey (CFMHS) collected detailed information on mental health problems, their impacts, occupational and nonoccupational determinants of mental health, and the use of mental health services from a random sample of 8200 serving personnel. The objective of this article is to provide a firm scientific foundation for understanding and interpreting the CFMHS findings. Methods: This narrative review first provides a snapshot of the Canadian Armed Forces (CAF), focusing on 2 key determinants of mental health: the deployment of more than 40,000 personnel in support of the mission in Afghanistan and the extensive renewal of the CAF mental health system. The findings of recent population-based CAF mental health research are reviewed, with a focus on findings from the very similar mental health survey done in 2002. Finally, key aspects of the methods of the 2013 CFMHS are presented. Results: The findings of 20 peer-reviewed publications using the 2002 mental health survey data are reviewed, along with those of 25 publications from other major CAF mental health research projects executed over the past decade. Conclusions: More than a decade of population-based mental health research in the CAF has provided a detailed picture of its mental health and use of mental health services. This knowledge base and the homology of the 2013 survey with the 2002 CAF survey and general population surveys in 2002 and 2012 will provide an unusual opportunity to use the CFMHS to situate mental health in the CAF in a historical and societal perspective. PMID:27270738

  7. The geographic and demographic scope of shared sanitation: an analysis of national survey data from low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heijnen, Marieke; Rosa, Ghislaine; Fuller, James; Eisenberg, Joseph N S; Clasen, Thomas

    2014-11-01

    A large and growing proportion of the world's population rely on shared sanitation facilities that have historically been excluded from international targets due to concerns about acceptability, hygiene and access. In connection with a proposed change in such policy, we undertook this study to describe the prevalence and scope of households that report relying on shared sanitation and to characterise them in terms of selected socio-economic and demographic covariates. We extracted data from the most recent national household surveys of 84 low- and middle-income countries from Demographic and Health Surveys and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys. We describe the prevalence of shared sanitation and explore associations between specified covariates and reliance on shared sanitation using log-binomial regression. While household reliance on any type of shared sanitation is relatively rare in Europe (2.5%) and the Eastern Mediterranean (7.7%), it is not uncommon in the Americas (14.2%), Western Pacific (16.4%) and South-East Asia (31.3%), and it is most prevalent in Africa (44.6%) where many shared facilities do not meet the definition of 'improved' even if they were not shared (17.7%). Overall, shared sanitation is more common in urban (28.6%) than in rural settings (25.9%), even after adjusting for wealth. While results vary geographically, people who rely on shared sanitation tend to be poorer, reside in urban areas and live in households with more young children and headed by people with no formal education. Data from 21 countries suggest that most sharing is with neighbours and other acquaintances (82.0%) rather than the public. The determinants of shared sanitation identified from these data suggest potential confounders that may explain the apparent increased health risk from sharing and should be considered in any policy recommendation. Both geographic and demographic heterogeneity indicate the need for further research to support a change in policies. © 2014

  8. Health Related Quality of Life and Its Socio-Demographic Determinants among Iranian Elderly People: a Population Based Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajian-Tilaki, Karimollah; Heidari, Behzad; Hajian-Tilaki, Arefeh

    2017-03-01

    Introduction: In the stage of demographic transition, the rate of elderly is increasing and their health condition is a matter of concern. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the health related quality of life (QoL) and the associated socio-demographic determinants among Iranian elderly people. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study with a representative samples of 750 elderly people whom community dwelling in urban area of Babol, in the north of Iran. In a household survey, the demographic data were collected and the health related QoL was assessed with a validated standard short form questionnaire (SF-36). The multiple linear regression analysis was performed to determine the demographic characteristics in predicting QoL using SPSS ver 13. Results: The overall mean (SD) scores of QoL was 62.4(17.2) for men and 51.2 (17.9) for women. The mean scores of QoL in all dimensions in men had significantly higher than women. The adjusted regression coefficient of gender, age, educational level, being couple were significant on overall scores of QoL. Aging is inversely associated while male gender and education at high school or higher and being couple are positively associated in prediction of overall scores of QoL. Conclusion: The findings indicate that the health related QoL is rather poor in old people particular in women, elderly with low education level and being single. Therefore, healthcare policy makers should consider an urgent health interventional program among elderly people at present stage of demographic transition with emphasis on high risk demographic profiles.

  9. Health Related Quality of Life and Its Socio-Demographic Determinants among Iranian Elderly People: a Population Based Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karimollah Hajian-Tilaki

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In the stage of demographic transition, the rate of elderly is increasing and their health condition is a matter of concern. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the health related quality of life (QoL and the associated socio-demographic determinants among Iranian elderly people. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study with a representative samples of 750 elderly people whom community dwelling in urban area of Babol, in the north of Iran. In a household survey, the demographic data were collected and the health related QoL was assessed with a validated standard short form questionnaire (SF-36. The multiple linear regression analysis was performed to determine the demographic characteristics in predicting QoL using SPSS ver 13. Results: The overall mean (SD scores of QoL was 62.4(17.2 for men and 51.2 (17.9 for women. The mean scores of QoL in all dimensions in men had significantly higher than women. The adjusted regression coefficient of gender, age, educational level, being couple were significant on overall scores of QoL. Aging is inversely associated while male gender and education at high school or higher and being couple are positively associated in prediction of overall scores of QoL. Conclusion: The findings indicate that the health related QoL is rather poor in old people particular in women, elderly with low education level and being single. Therefore, healthcare policy makers should consider an urgent health interventional program among elderly people at present stage of demographic transition with emphasis on high risk demographic profiles.

  10. CPITN changes during pregnancy and maternal demographic factors ‘impact on periodontal health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidi Maybodi, Fahimeh; Haerian-Ardakani, Ahmad; Vaziri, Farzaneh; Khabbazian, Arezoo; Mohammadi-Asl, Salem

    2015-01-01

    Background: There have been speculations about the effects of hormonal changes and socio-demographic factors on periodontal health during pregnancy. Objective: According to the lack of sufficient epidemiologic information about the periodontal status of pregnant women in Yazd, this study was accomplished to determine the changes of Community Periodontal Index for Treatment Needs (CPITN) during pregnancy and evaluating the possible relationship between this index and demographic characteristics of the mothers. Materials and Methods: This was a longitudinal descriptive study. The samples included 115 pregnant women who were referred to health centers of Yazd, Iran. The mothers’ data were obtained from a questionnaire consisted of 3 parts: consent paper, demographic data and CPITN records. Examination was performed with dental unit light, flat dental mirror and WHO’s scaled probe. Results: In the beginning of the study, 60.1% of checked sextants had healthy gingival status. 25.9% had code1 and 14% had code 2. Code 3 and 4 were not seen in any sextants. There was a significant relationship between lower CPITN and higher maternal education, occupation and more frequencies of tooth-brushing but there was not a relationship between CPITN and mother’s age and number of pregnancies. CPITN had a significant relationship with increasing of the gestational age. Conclusion: There might be a relationship between increasing the month of pregnancy and more periodontal treatment needs. CPITN Increasing during pregnancy shows the importance of periodontal cares during this period. PMID:26000000

  11. Demographic and health attributes of the Nahua, initial contact population of the Peruvian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dante R. Culqui

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We present the case of the Nahua population of Santa Rosa de Serjali, Peruvian Amazon's population, considered of initial contact. This population consists of human groups that for a long time decided to live in isolation, but lately have begun living a more sedentary lifestyle and in contact with Western populations. There are two fully identified initial contact groups in Peru: the Nahua and the Nanti. The health statistics of the Nahua are scarce. This study offers an interpretation of demographic and epidemiological indicators of the Nahua people, trying to identify if a certain degree of health vulnerability exists. We performed a cross sectional study, and after analyzing their health indicators, as well as the supplemental qualitative analysis of the population, brought us to conclude that in 2006, the Nahua, remained in a state of health vulnerability.

  12. A training manual for event history data management using Health and Demographic Surveillance System data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocquier, Philippe; Ginsburg, Carren; Herbst, Kobus; Sankoh, Osman; Collinson, Mark A

    2017-06-26

    The objective of this research note is to introduce a training manual for event history data management. The manual provides a first comprehensive guide to longitudinal Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) data management that allows for a step-by-step description of the process of structuring and preparing a dataset for the calculation of demographic rates and event history analysis. The research note provides some background information on the INDEPTH Network, and the iShare data repository and describes the need for a manual to guide users as to how to correctly handle HDSS datasets. The approach outlined in the manual is flexible and can be applied to other longitudinal data sources. It facilitates the development of standardised longitudinal data management and harmonization of datasets to produce a comparative set of results.

  13. Survey of independent inventors: An overview. [Includes information on demographics, gender, ethnicity, education, income, employment, areas of invention, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whalley, P.

    1992-01-01

    Independent inventors are important but little-researched members of the US technical community. The survey reported on here is the first in modern times to attempt to provide a profile of the US independent inventor that goes beyond a single geographical or organizational locale. The report that follows provides an overview of the demographics, practices and concerns of the modern US inventor as represented by the members of leading US inventor organizations. It is by no means comprehensive but seeks to be indicative of the issues raised in the survey each which will be dealt with more comprehensively in future publications.

  14. Health-Related Quality of Life of Latin-American Immigrants and Spanish-Born Attended in Spanish Primary Health Care: Socio-Demographic and Psychosocial Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinero-Fort, Miguel Ángel; Gómez-Campelo, Paloma; Bragado-Alvárez, Carmen; Abánades-Herranz, Juan Carlos; Jiménez-García, Rodrigo; de Burgos-Lunar, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Background This study compares the health-related quality of life of Spanish-born and Latin American-born individuals settled in Spain. Socio-demographic and psychosocial factors associated with health-related quality of life are analyzed. Methods A cross-sectional Primary Health Care multi center-based study of Latin American-born (n = 691) and Spanish-born (n = 903) outpatients from 15 Primary Health Care Centers (Madrid, Spain). The Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) was used to assess health-related quality of life. Socio-demographic, psychosocial, and specific migration data were also collected. Results Compared to Spanish-born participants, Latin American-born participants reported higher health-related quality of life in the physical functioning and vitality dimensions. Across the entire sample, Latin American-born participants, younger participants, men and those with high social support reported significantly higher levels of physical health. Men with higher social support and a higher income reported significantly higher mental health. When stratified by gender, data show that for men physical health was only positively associated with younger age. For women, in addition to age, social support and marital status were significantly related. Both men and women with higher social support and income had significantly better mental health. Finally, for immigrants, the physical and mental health components of health-related quality of life were not found to be significantly associated with any of the pre-migration factors or conditions of migration. Only the variable “exposure to political violence” was significantly associated with the mental health component (p = 0.014). Conclusions The key factors to understanding HRQoL among Latin American-born immigrants settled in Spain are age, sex and social support. Therefore, strategies to maintain optimal health outcomes in these immigrant communities should include public policies on

  15. Patient use of email for health care communication purposes across 14 European countries: an analysis of users according to demographic and health-related factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newhouse, Nikki; Lupiáñez-Villanueva, Francisco; Codagnone, Cristiano; Atherton, Helen

    2015-03-06

    The use of the Internet for health purposes is growing steadily, yet the use of asynchronous communication tools for health care purposes remains undeveloped. The introduction of email as a method of communication in health care has the potential to impact on both patients and health care professionals. This study aims to describe the characteristics of people who have sent or received an email to or from their doctor, nurse, or health care organization, by country and in relation to demographics, health care resource use, and health status factors. We conducted a secondary analysis of data (N=14,000) collected from the online Citizens and Information Communication Technology for Health survey, a project undertaken in 2011 by the Institute for Prospective Technology Studies of the European Commission's Joint Research Centre. The survey was developed to understand and characterize European citizens' use of information communication technologies for health. Descriptive and statistical analyses of association were used to interpret the data. Denmark reported the highest level of emails sent/received (507/1000, 50.70%). The lowest level reported was by participants in France (187/1000, 18.70%). Men used email communication for health care more than women, as did respondents in the 16-24 age group and those educated to tertiary level or still within the education system. As self-reported health state worsens, the proportion of people reporting having sent or received an email within the context of health care increases. Email use, poor health, multimorbidity, and number of visits to a physician are positively correlated. The use of email communication within the context of European health care is extremely varied. The relationship between high email use, poor health, doctor visits, and multimorbidity is especially pertinent: provision of asynchronous communication for such groups is favored by policymakers. Low reported email use by country may not necessarily reflect

  16. Sexuality-related attitudes significantly modulate demographic variation in sexual health literacy in Tasmanian university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Steve; Clifford, Christine; Quinn, Michael G; Ross, Kaz; Sefton, Neil; Owen, Louise; Blizzard, Leigh; Turner, Richard

    2017-01-09

    Background: It has previously been shown that there is a significant demographic variation in sexual health literacy (SHL) in university-level students in Tasmania, Australia. Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of statistical adjustment for sexuality-related attitudes on this demographic variation in SHL. Methods: Iterated principal-factor analysis was used to evaluate latent variable grouping of responses to 21 attitudinal questions regarding sexuality and sexual behaviour. Linear regression was used to evaluate the distribution and determinants of attitudinal patterns and thence the relationship of these patterns to SHL. Results: Three patterns - conservative, anti-persons-living-with-HIV and sexually responsible - were identified as explaining variation in sexual attitudes; the former two being associated with significantly lower SHL and the latter associated with significantly higher SHL. Adjustment for these patterns significantly attenuated much of the differences in SHL by birthplace/ethnicity and religion, including among South and South-East Asian and Protestant, Islamic and Hindu students. However, some differences in SHL persisted, suggesting they are partly or fully independent of the attitudinal questions. Conclusions: As hypothesised, differences in attitude significantly explained much of the demographic differences in SHL found previously. These results suggest that sexual education and orientation efforts need to bear cultural framing in mind to enhance uptake by students.

  17. Clustering of childhood mortality in the Kintampo Health and Demographic Surveillance System in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obed Ernest A. Nettey

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Childhood mortality in Ghana has generally declined in the last four decades. However, estimates tend to conceal substantial variability among regions and districts. The lack of population-based data in Ghana, as in other less developed countries, has hindered the development of effective programmes targeted specifically at clusters where mortality levels are significantly higher. Objective: This paper seeks to test for the existence of statistically significant clusters of childhood mortality within the Kintampo Health and Demographic Surveillance System (KHDSS between 2005 and 2007. Design: In this study, mortality rates were generated using mortality data extracted from the health and demographic surveillance database of the KHDSS and exported into STATA. The spatial and spatio-temporal scan statistic by Kulldorff was used to identify significant clusters of childhood mortality within the KHDSS. Results: A significant cluster of villages with high under-five mortality in the south-eastern part of the KHDSS in 2006 was identified. This is a remote location where poverty levels are relatively higher, health facilities are more sparse and these are compounded by poor transport services in case of emergencies. Conclusion: This study highlights the potential of the surveillance platform to demonstrate the spatial dimensions of childhood mortality clustering. It is apparent, though, that further studies need to be carried out in order to explore the underlying risk factors for potential mortality clusters that could emerge later.

  18. Demographic and spatial predictors of anemia in women of reproductive age in Timor-Leste: implications for health program prioritization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew A Lover

    Full Text Available Anemia is a significant risk factor for poor health outcomes for both the mother and neonate; however, the determinants of anemia in many epidemiological settings are poorly understood. Using a subset of a nationally representative cluster survey (2010 Demographic and Health Survey in combination with other non-contemporaneous survey data, the epidemiology of anemia among women of reproductive age in Timor-Leste has been explored. Logistic regression was used to identify risk factors, population-level impacts were estimated as population attributable fractions and spatial analytics were used to identify regions of highest risk. The DHS survey found that ∼ 21% of adult women in Timor-Leste are anemic (49,053; 95% CI: 37,095 to 61,035, with hemoglobin <12.0 g/dL. In this population, the main risk factors (adjusted odds ratio; 95% CI are: currently abstaining from sex for any reason (2.25; 1.50 to 3.38; illiteracy (2.04; 1.49 to 2.80; giving birth within the previous year (1.80; 1.29 to 2.51; consumption of fruits/vegetables low in vitamin A (1.57; 1.13 to 2.20; and the district-level confirmed malaria incidence (1.31; 1.15 to 1.49. A review of prior soil-transmitted helminth surveys in Timor-Leste indicates low-to-moderate prevalence with generally low egg counts, suggesting a limited impact on anemia in this setting, although comprehensive survey data are lacking. Examination of the population-level effects highlights the impacts of both recent births and malaria on anemia, with more limited impacts from diet; the evidence does not suggest a large contribution from geohelminths within Timor-Leste. These patterns are divergent from some other settings in the Asia-Pacific region and highlight the need for further focused research. Targeting high-burden districts and by increasing access to pre/postnatal care, raising literacy levels, increasing access to family planning, and improving malaria control should be prioritized to maximize inherently

  19. Establishing and implementing Demographic Surveillance System as a tool for monitoring health interventions in Korogwe District, northastern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamugisha, Mathias L; Mmbando, Bruno P; Francis, Filbert; Ishengoma, Deus S; Challe, Daniel P; Lemnge, Martha M

    2011-10-01

    In the Korogwe demographic surveillance system (DSS) site in north-eastern Tanzania, information on vital events such as births, deaths and migration has been collected since its establishment in 2005. The aim was to obthin demographic and epidemiological indices to be used in the evaluation of health related interventions which have been undertaken in the area. Period covered is up to December 2010. Baseline survey was conducted in 14 villages of Korogwe district in October 2005 and DSS was launched in January 2006 years. Demographic, social economic status, immunisation coverage and birth history data was collected during the follow-up and each household was visited every 4 months. Estimates of mortality levels were derived from deaths that were collected during household visits. Birth history data were used to estimate the lifetime and period fertility of women aged 15-49 years. Estimates of crude migration and age specific migration rates were derived from the number of people moving in or out of the DSS site and the person-years lived. The population at baseline survey was 25,264 individuals in 5,853 households. The percentage of deaths was higher among adult aged 15-60 years compared to other age groups. The probability of dying among males (376/1000) aged 15-60 years was higher than females (339/1000) in the same age group. The lifetime and period fertility estimates were 5.6 and 5.1 children per woman respectively. Women aged 30-34 years are expected to have 3-4 children at the end of their childbearing age. Migration were higher at the youngest ages, lower rates at the 10-14 years age groups, a peak at the 20-24 ages, and a gradual decline up to the oldest ages. Majority of households in rural areas 51.8% were 1 in low socioeconomic status compared to 40.3% in urban areas which were in high socio-economic status. About 74% and 55.5% of the children received BCG and measles vaccination, respectively. In conclusion, Korogwe DSS has provided useful data which

  20. [Current situation of health surveys in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requena, María Luisa; Suárez, Mónica; Pérez, Óscar

    2013-01-01

    To describe the evolution of health interview surveys in Spain (as of 01/01/2012), whether national or regional, its main characteristics and methodology, and in the case of general health surveys (GHIS), its contents. An adapted version of Eurostat quality control template European Health Interview Survey Technical and Methodological Report was filled in by those responsible for GHIS in each region (autonomous communities) and at the national level. The first part (11 questions) gathers general information about health surveys, both GHIS and surveys targeted to specific populations or health problems (SHIS). The second part (109 questions) asks about methodological characteristics of most recent GHIS. 1) regional or supra-regional scope; 2) for the second part, GHIS currently active series. Quality control was performed using double data entry and validated by informants.100 HIS were identified. 16 were GHIS and 84 SHIS. 32 (38%) of the latter were national and 52 (62%) regional. Nutrition 21 (25%), drug use 10 (12%), opinion polls 7 (9%) and dental health 7 (9%) were the most frequent topics in SHIS. Highest GHIS density was reached after year 2000, with several surveys on field at a time (mode=3). 11 GHIS (2 national, 9 regional) met inclusion criteria for the second part. All complied with general quality benchmarks. Few differences were observed in content.GHIS show more similarities than differences in objectives, methods and content. Rationalization and harmonization are needed. Physical activity, alcohol consumption, quality of life and mental health instruments are not yet consensual. Valid and comparable data are required on health status and its determinants to inform health policy.

  1. Survey of health planning proposals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krakauer, R S

    1994-02-01

    It is important that physicians participate in the debate and planning process that will ultimately guide how we reform the way health care is financed and delivered in the United States. Herein is offered a perspective on the problem, one which is not necessarily appreciated by health planners. While we deliver the best quality of care in the world to most of our population, our system has been severely criticized because we fail to provide for access to a substantial minority of our population. Additionally, the cost of the product is considerably greater than that in comparable countries. Attempts to control costs without diminishing quality have introduced expensive complexities into our system without any real success in cutting costs. Several proposals have been advanced to address the issues of cost and access. One of these is a single payer system, common in Europe and Canada, whereby a single agent or group of agents finances all health care through universal rules and means. A system operating in Hawaii is a simple employer mandate to provide health insurance. A uniquely American plan is the Jackson Hole Plan or Managed Competition (now called "Managed Cooperation"). This system is currently popular among national health planners, and involves a defined minimum managed health plan offered by various groups of providers to employees and individuals through health plan purchasing cooperatives. This plan is interesting, but has not been implemented in any jurisdiction, and it is not certain it would accomplish its goals in practice since it is difficult to predict behavior of all parties to such a system.

  2. Tackling malnutrition: a systematic review of 15-year research evidence from INDEPTH health and demographic surveillance systems

    OpenAIRE

    Arthur, Samuelina S.; Bongiwe Nyide; Abdramane Bassiahi Soura; Kathleen Kahn; Mark Weston; Osman Sankoh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Nutrition is the intake of food in relation to the body's dietary needs. Malnutrition results from the intake of inadequate or excess food. This can lead to reduced immunity, increased susceptibility to disease, impaired physical and mental development, and reduced productivity. Objective: To perform a systematic review to assess research conducted by the International Network for the Demographic Evaluation of Populations and their Health (INDEPTH) of health and demographic survei...

  3. Demographics of Lower Limb Amputations in the Pakistan Military: A Single Center, Three-Year Prospective Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayaz, Saeed B; Mansoor, Sahibzada N; Qureshi, Ali R; Fahim, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    Introduction  The Pakistan military has been actively engaged in the war against terror for more than a decade. Many officers and soldiers have lost their limbs in this war. But the data on traumatic lower limb amputations in Pakistan is sparse. The aim of this study is to prospectively document the epidemiological profile of lower limb military amputees presenting at the largest rehabilitation centre of Pakistan over a three-year period. Materials & methods  A prospective three-year survey was conducted at the Armed Forces Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine (AFIRM), Pakistan. One hundred twenty-three consecutive patients with lower limb amputations were enrolled in the survey. The demographic data, etiology, associated injuries, complications profile, and type of prosthesis provided were documented. The data analysis was done using the statistical analysis tool SPSS V 20 (IBM®,NY, USA).  Results  All patients were male. Most had traumatic amputation (119), were between 20–40 years (106), with unilateral amputation (115). Mine blast injury was the leading cause in 73 (59.3%) and most (58.5%) were fitted with modular prosthesis. Transtibial amputation was the commonest level (65), followed by transfemoral (30). The time of surgical amputation was not documented in 87% of the patients. Half of the patients (54%) had associated injuries. Seventy-nine patients had at least one complication with phantom pain being the commonest in 25% cases. Conclusions  This is the largest prospective demographic survey of lower limb amputees in Pakistan military to date. Scores of soldiers and civilians in Pakistan have suffered lower limb amputation. The availability of demographic data can improve the trauma and rehabilitation services for better understanding and management of such cases. There is a need to conduct large scale community-based epidemiological surveys to direct future policies and develop amputee rehabilitation services in the public sector. PMID:27186448

  4. Statistical Analysis of Demographic and Temporal Differences in LANL's 2014 Voluntary Protection Program Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Adam Christopher [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Booth, Steven Richard [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-08-20

    Voluntary Protection Program (VPP) surveys were conducted in 2013 and 2014 to assess the degree to which workers at Los Alamos National Laboratory feel that their safety is valued by their management and peers. The goal of this analysis is to determine whether the difference between the VPP survey scores in 2013 and 2014 is significant, and to present the data in a way such that it can help identify either positive changes or potential opportunities for improvement. Data for several questions intended to identify the demographic groups of the respondent are included in both the 2013 and 2014 VPP survey results. These can be used to identify any significant differences among groups of employees as well as to identify any temporal trends in these cohorts.

  5. [Physical activity and sedentary lifestyle: family and socio-demographic determinants and their impact on adolescents' health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavielle-Sotomayor, Pilar; Pineda-Aquino, Victoria; Jáuregui-Jiménez, Omar; Castillo-Trejo, Martha

    2014-01-01

    Estimating whether adolescents' sedentary behaviour and their lack of physical activity is determined by family characteristics or socio-cultural aspects and their impact on health and adiposity level. 932 adolescents were surveyed. Information regarding physical activity, sedentary behaviour, anthropometric index and family characteristics (structure, dynamics and functioning) was estimated by adolescents answering a questionnaire. The sample's average age was 16.07±1.09 years old, 56.3 % were female, 66.3 % had a low level of physical activity and 51.9 % were sedentary. A lack of physical activity occurred more frequently in females (56.8 % cf 41.5 %: p=0.000); family characteristics did not influence such risk behaviour. A relationship between physical activity and sedentary lifestyle with BMI could not be demonstrated, whilst waist circumference was associated with risky behaviour patterns. Teenagers in good health were more active (36.1 % cf 27 %) and less sedentary (49.3 % cf 59.4 %) than those for whom an unhealthy state was reported. Sedentary behaviour and a lack of physical activity were more determined by socio-demographic factors than family aspects, such behaviour pattern having a direct influence on the adolescents' health.

  6. The neolithic demographic transition and oral health: The Southeast Asian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Anna; Oxenham, Marc F

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this article is to present new oral health data from Neolithic An Son, southern Vietnam, in the context of (1) a reassessment of published data on other Neolithic, Bronze, and Iron Age Southeast Asian dental series, and (2) predictions of the Neolithic Demographic Transition (NDT). To this end, frequencies for three oral conditions (caries, antemortem tooth loss, and alveolar lesions) were investigated for seven Southeast Asian adult dental series from Thailand and Vietnam with respect to time period, age-at-death and sex. A clear pattern of elevated rates for oral disease in the Neolithic followed by a marked improvement in oral health during the Bronze and Iron Ages was observed. Moreover, rates of caries and antemortem tooth loss for females were almost without exception higher than that for males in all samples. The consensus view among Southeast Asian bioarchaeologists that oral health did not decline with the adoption/intensification of agriculture in Southeast Asia, can no longer be supported. In light of evidence for (1) the low cariogenicity of rice; (2) the physiological predisposition of females (particularly when pregnant) to poorer oral health; and (3) health predictions of the NDT model with respect to elevated levels of fertility, the most plausible chief explanation for the observed patterns in oral health in Southeast Asia is increased levels of fertility during the Neolithic, followed by a decline in fertility during the subsequent Bronze and Iron Ages.

  7. Teens, Health and Technology: A National Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Wartella

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the age of digital technology, as teens seem to be constantly connected online, via social media, and through mobile applications, it is no surprise that they increasingly turn to digital media to answer their health questions. This study is the first of its kind to survey a large, nationally-representative sample of teens to investigate how they use the newest digital technologies, including mobile apps, social networking sites, electronic gaming and wearable devices, to explore health topics. The survey covered the types of health topics teens most frequently search for, which technologies they are most likely to use and how they use them, and whether they report having changed their behaviors due to digital health information. In addition, this survey explores how the digital divide continues to impact adolescents. Results of this study indicate that teens are concerned about many health issues, ranging from fitness, sexual activity, drugs, hygiene as well as mental health and stress. As teens virtually always have a digital device at their fingertips, it is clear that public health interventions and informational campaigns must be tailored to reflect the ways that teens currently navigate digital health information and the health challenges that concern them most.

  8. Teens, Health and Technology: A National Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Wartella

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the age of digital technology, as teens seem to be constantly connected online, via social media, and through mobile applications, it is no surprise that they increasingly turn to digital media to answer their health questions. This study is the first of its kind to survey a large, nationally-representative sample of teens to investigate how they use the newest digital technologies, including mobile apps, social networking sites, electronic gaming and wearable devices, to explore health topics. The survey covered the types of health topics teens most frequently search for, which technologies they are most likely to use and how they use them, and whether they report having changed their behaviors due to digital health information. In addition, this survey explores how the digital divide continues to impact adolescents. Results of this study indicate that teens are concerned about many health issues, ranging from fitness, sexual activity, drugs, hygiene as well as mental health and stress. As teens virtually always have a digital device at their fingertips, it is clear that public health interventions and informational campaigns must be tailored to reflect the ways that teens currently navigate digital health information and the health challenges that concern them most.

  9. Understanding the Social Context of the ASGM Sector in Ghana: A Qualitative Description of the Demographic, Health, and Nutritional Characteristics of a Small-Scale Gold Mining Community in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Rachel N; Renne, Elisha P; Basu, Niladri

    2015-10-12

    This descriptive paper describes factors related to demographics and health in an artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) community in Ghana's Upper East Region. Participants (n = 114) were surveyed in 2010 and 2011, adapting questions from the established national Demographic Health Survey (DHS) on factors such as population characteristics, infrastructure, amenities, education, employment, maternal and child health, and diet. In the study community, some indicators of household wealth (e.g., radios, mobile phones, refrigerators) are more common than elsewhere in Ghana, yet basic infrastructure (e.g., cement flooring, sanitation systems) and access to safe water supplies are lacking. Risk factors for poor respiratory health, such as cooking with biomass fuel smoke and smoking tobacco, are common. Certain metrics of maternal and child health are comparable to other areas of Ghana (e.g., frequency of antenatal care), whereas others (e.g., antenatal care from a skilled provider) show deficiencies. Residents surveyed do not appear to lack key micronutrients, but report lower fruit and vegetable consumption than other rural areas. The results enable a better understanding of community demographics, health, and nutrition, and underscore the need for better demographic and health surveillance and data collection across ASGM communities to inform effective policies and programs for improving miner and community health.

  10. Understanding the Social Context of the ASGM Sector in Ghana: A Qualitative Description of the Demographic, Health, and Nutritional Characteristics of a Small-Scale Gold Mining Community in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel N. Long

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This descriptive paper describes factors related to demographics and health in an artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM community in Ghana’s Upper East Region. Participants (n = 114 were surveyed in 2010 and 2011, adapting questions from the established national Demographic Health Survey (DHS on factors such as population characteristics, infrastructure, amenities, education, employment, maternal and child health, and diet. In the study community, some indicators of household wealth (e.g., radios, mobile phones, refrigerators are more common than elsewhere in Ghana, yet basic infrastructure (e.g., cement flooring, sanitation systems and access to safe water supplies are lacking. Risk factors for poor respiratory health, such as cooking with biomass fuel smoke and smoking tobacco, are common. Certain metrics of maternal and child health are comparable to other areas of Ghana (e.g., frequency of antenatal care, whereas others (e.g., antenatal care from a skilled provider show deficiencies. Residents surveyed do not appear to lack key micronutrients, but report lower fruit and vegetable consumption than other rural areas. The results enable a better understanding of community demographics, health, and nutrition, and underscore the need for better demographic and health surveillance and data collection across ASGM communities to inform effective policies and programs for improving miner and community health.

  11. Relationships between menstrual and menopausal attitudes and associated demographic and health characteristics: the Hilo Women's Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Lynn A; Sievert, Lynnette L; Brown, Daniel E; Rahberg, Nichole; Reza, Angela

    2010-07-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the relation of menstrual attitudes to menopausal attitudes and the demographic and health characteristics associated with each. This cross-sectional study consisted of a randomly selected sample of 1,824 respondents aged 16 to 100 years in multi-ethnic Hilo, Hawai'i. Women completed questionnaires for demographic and health information, such as age, ethnicity, education, residency in Hawai'i, menopausal status, exercise, and attitudes toward menstruation and menopause. Women more often chose positive terms, such as "natural," to describe menstruation (60.8%) and menopause (59.4%). In bivariate analyses, post-menopausal women were significantly more likely to have positive menstrual and menopausal attitudes than pre-menopausal women. Factor analyses were used to cluster attitudes followed by linear regression to identify demographic characteristics associated with factor scores. Asian-American ethnicity, higher education, reporting more exercise, and growing up outside of Hawai'i were associated with positive menstrual attitudes. Higher education, older age, post-menopausal status, growing up outside of Hawai'i and having hot flashes were associated with positive menopausal attitudes. Bivariate correlation analyses suggested significant associations between factor scores for menstrual and menopausal attitudes. Both negative and positive menstrual attitudes were positively correlated with the anticipation of menopause, although negative attitudes toward menstruation were negatively correlated with menopause as a positive, natural life event. Demographic variables, specifically education and where one grows up, influenced women's attitudes toward menstruation and menopause and should be considered for inclusion in subsequent multi-ethnic studies. Further research is also warranted in assessing the relationship between menstrual and menopausal attitudes.

  12. Intimate Partner Violence Victimization in LGBT Young Adults: Demographic Differences and Associations with Health Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Tyson R; Newcomb, Michael E; Whitton, Sarah W; Mustanski, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is an important public health problem with high prevalence and serious costs. Although literature has largely focused on IPV among heterosexuals, studies have recently begun examining IPV in LGBT samples, with mounting evidence suggesting IPV may be more common among LGBT individuals than heterosexuals. Less research has examined the specific health consequences of IPV in this population, particularly across time and among young people, and it remains unclear whether experiences of IPV differ between subgroups within the LGBT population (e.g. race, gender identity, and sexual orientation). An ethnically diverse sample of 172 LGBT young adults completed self-report measures of IPV, sexual behavior, mental health, and substance abuse at two time points (4- and 5-year follow-up) of an ongoing longitudinal study of LGBT youth. IPV was experienced non-uniformly across demographic groups. Specifically, female, male-to-female transgender, and Black/African-American young adults were at higher risk compared to those who identified as male, female-to-male transgender, and other races. Being a victim of IPV was associated with concurrent sexual risk taking and prospective mental health outcomes but was not associated with substance abuse. Demographic differences in IPV found in heterosexuals were replicated in this LGBT sample, though additional research is needed to clarify why traditional risk factors found in heterosexual young people may not translate to LGBT individuals. Studies examining the impact of IPV on negative outcomes and revictimization over time may guide our understanding of the immediate and delayed consequences of IPV for LGBT young people.

  13. A path analysis on correlates of consumer trust in online health information: evidence from the health information national trends survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yinjiao

    2010-01-01

    Many people look for health information online, and the Internet is the third most trusted health information source. What implications does this trust have on consumer health? Not much research has been done in this area. This study explored various health-related correlates of consumer trust in online health information, including Internet use for health, self-efficacy belief in managing one's own health, negative emotions, and subjective health status. The 2007 Health Information National Trends Survey data were analyzed. Results showed that controlling for demographics, trust in online health information was directly related to both Internet use for health and the self-efficacy belief, and was indirectly associated with negative emotions; the latter two factors in turn were associated with self-rated health.

  14. Socio-demographic profile of child and adolescent users of oral health services in Victoria, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Rodrigo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the socio-demographic characteristics of the eligible population of users of public oral health care services in the Australian state of Victoria, aged 17 years or younger. The study was conducted as a secondary analysis of data collected from July 2008 to June 2009 for 45,728 young clients of public oral health care. The sample mean age was 8.9 (SD: 3.5 years. The majority (82.7% was between 6 and 17 years of age, and 50.3% were males. The majority (76.6% was Australian-born and spoke English at home (89.1%. The overall mean DMFT was 1.0 (SD: 2.1 teeth, with a mean dmft of 3.16 (SD: 5.79 teeth. Data indicate that, among six year olds in the Significant Caries Index (SiC category, the mean dmft was 6.82 teeth. Findings corroborate social inequalities in oral health outcome and provide suggestions for oral health services to develop strategies and priorities to reduce inequalities in health and well-being, and better coordinate and target services to local needs.

  15. Personality, mental health and demographic correlates of hoarding behaviours in a midlife sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spittlehouse, Janet K; Vierck, Esther; Pearson, John F; Joyce, Peter R

    2016-01-01

    We describe the Temperament and Character Inventory personality traits, demographic features, physical and mental health variables associated with hoarding behaviour in a random community sample of midlife participants in New Zealand. A sample of 404 midlife participants was recruited to a study of ageing. To assess hoarding behaviours participants completed the Savings Inventory-Revised (SI-R), personality was assessed by the Temperament and Character Inventory and self-reported health was measured by the Short Form-36v2 (SF-36v2). Other measures were used to assess socio-demographic variables and current mental disorders. Participants were split into four groups by SI-R total score (scores: 0-4, 5-30, 31-41 and >41). Those who scored >41 on the SI-R were classified as having pathological hoarding. Trend tests were calculated across the four hoarding groups for socio-demographic, personality, mental and physical health variables. SI-R scores ranged from 0 to 58. The prevalence of pathological hoarding was 2.5% and a further 4% reported sub-clinical symptoms of hoarding. Higher hoarding behaviour scores were related to higher Temperament and Character Inventory scores for Harm Avoidance and lower scores for Self-directedness. Persistence and Cooperativeness scores were lower too but to a lesser extent. Trend analysis revealed that those with higher hoarding behaviour scores were more likely to be single, female, unemployed, receive income support, have a lower socio-economic status, lower household income and have poorer self-reported mental health scores. Current depression rates were considerably higher in the pathological hoarding group. Increasing SI-R hoarding behaviour scores were associated with higher scores of negative affect (Harm Avoidance) and lower scores of autonomy (Self-directedness). Those with pathological hoarding or sub-clinical symptoms of hoarding also reported widespread mental and socio-economic problems. In this study it is clear to see the

  16. Personality, mental health and demographic correlates of hoarding behaviours in a midlife sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet K. Spittlehouse

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We describe the Temperament and Character Inventory personality traits, demographic features, physical and mental health variables associated with hoarding behaviour in a random community sample of midlife participants in New Zealand. A sample of 404 midlife participants was recruited to a study of ageing. To assess hoarding behaviours participants completed the Savings Inventory-Revised (SI-R, personality was assessed by the Temperament and Character Inventory and self-reported health was measured by the Short Form-36v2 (SF-36v2. Other measures were used to assess socio-demographic variables and current mental disorders. Participants were split into four groups by SI-R total score (scores: 0–4, 5–30, 31–41 and >41. Those who scored >41 on the SI-R were classified as having pathological hoarding. Trend tests were calculated across the four hoarding groups for socio-demographic, personality, mental and physical health variables. SI-R scores ranged from 0 to 58. The prevalence of pathological hoarding was 2.5% and a further 4% reported sub-clinical symptoms of hoarding. Higher hoarding behaviour scores were related to higher Temperament and Character Inventory scores for Harm Avoidance and lower scores for Self-directedness. Persistence and Cooperativeness scores were lower too but to a lesser extent. Trend analysis revealed that those with higher hoarding behaviour scores were more likely to be single, female, unemployed, receive income support, have a lower socio-economic status, lower household income and have poorer self-reported mental health scores. Current depression rates were considerably higher in the pathological hoarding group. Increasing SI-R hoarding behaviour scores were associated with higher scores of negative affect (Harm Avoidance and lower scores of autonomy (Self-directedness. Those with pathological hoarding or sub-clinical symptoms of hoarding also reported widespread mental and socio-economic problems. In this study

  17. Socioeconomic and demographic drivers of red and processed meat consumption: implications for health and environmental sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clonan, Angie; Roberts, Katharine E; Holdsworth, Michelle

    2016-08-01

    Red and processed meat (RPM) intake varies widely globally. In some high-income countries (HIC) the last decade has witnessed an overall decline or stabilisation in the consumption of RPM, in contrast to emerging economies where its consumption continues to increase with rising income and rapid urbanisation. The production and consumption of RPM have become major concerns regarding the environmental impacts of livestock in particular, but also because of associations between high RPM consumption and diet-related non-communicable disease. Therefore, it is important to identify socioeconomic and demographic drivers of the consumption of RPM. This paper explores how consumption of RPM differs with age, gender, socioeconomic status and in different global contexts. There are some key socioeconomic and demographic patterns in RPM consumption. Men tend to consume RPM more often and in higher quantities, and there is evidence of a social gradient in HIC, with lower socioeconomic groups consuming RPM more often and in larger quantities. Patterns for consumption with age are less clear cut. It is apparent that consumers in HIC are still consuming high levels of RPM, although the downward shifts in some socioeconomic and demographic groups is encouraging and suggests that strategies could be developed to engage those consumers identified as high RPM consumers. In low- and middle-income countries, RPM consumption is rising, especially in China and Brazil, and in urban areas. Ways of encouraging populations to maintain their traditional healthy eating patterns need to be found in low- and middle-income countries, which will have health, environmental and economic co-benefits.

  18. Synthesizing Exoplanet Demographics from Radial Velocity and Microlensing Surveys, II: The Frequency of Planets Orbiting M Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Clanton, Christian

    2014-01-01

    In contrast to radial velocity surveys, results from microlensing surveys indicate that giant planets with masses greater than the critical mass for core accretion ($\\sim 0.1~M_{\\rm Jup}$) are relatively common around low-mass stars. Using the methodology developed in the first paper, we predict the sensitivity of M-dwarf radial velocity (RV) surveys to analogs of the population of planets inferred by microlensing. We find that RV surveys should detect a handful of super-Jovian ($>M_{\\rm Jup}$) planets at the longest periods being probed. These planets are indeed found by RV surveys, implying that the demographic constraints inferred from these two methods are consistent. We combine the results from both methods to estimate planet frequencies spanning wide regions of parameter space. We find that the frequency of Jupiters and super-Jupiters ($1\\lesssim m_p\\sin{i}/M_{\\rm Jup}\\lesssim 13$) with periods $1\\leq P/{\\rm days}\\leq 10^4$ is $f_{\\rm J}=0.029^{+0.013}_{-0.015}$, a median factor of 4.3 ($1.5-14$ at 95% ...

  19. Demographics for US Census Tracts - 2012 (American Community Survey 2008-2012 Derived Summary Tables)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This map service displays data derived from the 2008-2012 American Community Survey (ACS). Values derived from the ACS and used for this map service include: Total...

  20. Demographics for US Census Tracts - 2010 (American Community Survey 2006-2010 Derived Summary Tables)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This map service displays data derived from the 2006-2010 American Community Survey (ACS). Values derived from the ACS and used for this map service include: Total...

  1. Socio-demographic, health, and tinnitus related variables affecting tinnitus severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoekstra, Carlijn E L; Wesdorp, Francina M; van Zanten, Gijsbert A

    2014-01-01

    Tinnitus is a highly prevalent symptom with potential severe morbidity. Fortunately, only a small proportion of the population experience problems due to their tinnitus in such a degree that it adversely affects their quality of life (clinically significant tinnitus). It is not known why these individuals develop more burden from tinnitus. It seems likely that the severity of tinnitus can be influenced by different factors, such as socio-demographic or tinnitus characteristics or additional health complaints. It remains unclear from the current literature as to what are the main independent variables that have a bearing on tinnitus severity. This study addresses this problem by investigating variables previously described in the literature as well as additional variables. The aim of this study is to identify socio-demographic, health, and tinnitus variables that independently relate to tinnitus severity the most. This is a retrospective cohort study performed at the Tinnitus Care Group of the University Medical Center, Utrecht, in 309 consecutively seen chronic tinnitus patients. At this care group, patients are examined according to a structured diagnostic protocol, including history-taking by an otorhinolaryngologist and audiologist, physical examination, and audiometry. Based on results from previous research and theoretical considerations, a subset of data acquired through this diagnostic protocol were selected and used in this study. Univariate and multivariate correlations with tinnitus severity were investigated for 28 socio-demographic, health, and tinnitus variables. Tinnitus severity was measured with the Tinnitus Questionnaire (TQ) and the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI). Eighteen variables related univariately with the TQ and 16 variables related univariately with the THI. Among these, 14 variables related univariately with both the TQ and the THI. Multivariate analyses showed three variables with an independent significant effect on both the TQ and

  2. Socio-demographic and health-related factors associated with cognitive impairment in the elderly in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiu Herng-Chia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cognitive impairment is an age-related condition as the rate of cognitive decline rapidly increases with aging. It is especially important to better understand factors involving in cognitive decline for the countries where the older population is growing rapidly. The aim of this study was to examine the association between socio-demographic and health-related factors and cognitive impairment in the elderly in Taiwan. Methods We analysed data from 2119 persons aged 65 years and over who participated in the 2005 National Health Interview Survey. Cognitive impairment was defined as having the score of the Mini Mental State Examination lower than 24. The χ2 test and multiple logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association between cognitive impairment and variables of socio-demography, chronic diseases, geriatric conditions, lifestyle, and dietary factors. Results The prevalence of cognitive impairment was 22.2%. Results of multivariate analysis indicated that low education, being single, low social support, lower lipid level, history of stroke, physical inactivity, non-coffee drinking and poor physical function were associated with a higher risk of cognitive impairment. Conclusion Most of the characteristics in relation to cognitive impairment identified in our analysis are potentially modifiable. These results suggest that improving lifestyle behaviours such as regular exercise and increased social participation could help prevent or decrease the risk of cognitive impairment. Further investigations using longitudinal data are needed to clarify our findings.

  3. Is bad living better than good death? Impact of demographic and cultural factors on health state preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xuejing; Liu, Gordon Guoen; Luo, Nan; Li, Hongchao; Guan, Haijing; Xie, Feng

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the impact of demographic and cultural factors on health preferences among Chinese general population. The Chinese EQ-5D-5L valuation study was conducted between December 2012 and January 2013. A total of 1296 participants were recruited from the general public at Beijing, Chengdu, Guiyang, Nanjing, and Shenyang. Each participant was interviewed to measure preferences for ten EQ-5D-5L health states using composite time trade-off and seven pairs of states using discrete choice experiment (data were not included in this study). At the end of the interview, each participant was also asked to provide their demographic information and answers to two questions about their attitudes towards whether bad living is better than good death (LBD) and whether they believe in an afterlife. Generalized linear model and random effects logistic models were used to examine the impact of demographic and cultural factors on health preferences. Participants who had serious illness experience received college or higher education, or agree with LBD were more likely to value health states positively and have a narrower score range. Participants at Beijing were more likely to be non-traders, value health states positively, less likely to reach the lowest possible score, and have narrower score range compared with all other four cities after controlling for all other demographic and culture factors. Health state preference is significantly affected by factors beyond demographics. These factors should be considered in achieving a representative sample in valuation studies in China.

  4. Happiness, Mental Health, and Socio-Demographic Associations Among a National Cohort of Thai Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiengprugsawan, Vasoontara; Somboonsook, Boonchai; Seubsman, Sam-Ang; Sleigh, Adrian C

    2012-12-01

    Research on happiness has been of interest in many parts of the world. Here we provide evidence from developing countries; this is the first analysis of happiness among a cohort of Thai distance learning adults residing throughout the country (n = 60,569 in 2009). To measure happiness, we tested use of the short format Thai Mental Health Indicators (TMHI), correlating each domain with two direct measures of happiness and life satisfaction. Several TMHI domains correlated strongly with happiness. We found the mental state and the social support domains moderately or strongly correlated with happiness by either measure (correlation coefficients 0.24-0.56). The other two TMHI domains (mental capacity and mental quality) were not correlated with happiness. Analysis of socio-demographic attributes and happiness revealed little effect of age and sex but marital status (divorced or widowed), low household income, and no paid work all had strong adverse effects. Our findings provide Thai benchmarks for measuring happiness and associated socio-demographic attributes. We also provide evidence that the TMHI can measure happiness in the Thai population. Furthermore, the results among Thai cohort members can be monitored over time and could be useful for comparison with other Southeast Asian countries.

  5. Anthropological and demographic dimensions of the Kurdish question: Findings from census and survey data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinan Zeyneloğlu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Within this study, demographic and anthropological differences between the Kurdish group and the rest of the Turkish population are presented while existing approaches on the Kurdish question based on economic and political factors are critically evaluated. Using results of the 1945 Census an inventory of all language groups in Turkey is given together with their respective ‘literacy rates’ and ‘prevalence of knowledge of Turkish’, which reveal temporal differences in terms of entrance into the demographic transition and give hints as to why some ethnic groups have adopted the Turkish identity while some other groups have remained outside the ‘Turkish core’. Recent data from the TDHS, on the other hand, is used to analyze ‘fertility’ and ‘prevalence of consanguineous marriages’ among the Kurdish population. While Kurds who use Turkish as either main or second language converge to the rest of the population in terms of both fertility decline and the matrilateral swing among consanguineous marriages, among Kurds who do not speak Turkish at all the mentioned rates increase in the opposite direction. The Turkish and Kurdish family structures are evaluated within the framework of Emmanuel Todd’s family types with special consideration on the effects of consanguineous marriages and the patrilateral inclination among these on the status of women.

  6. Uterine prolapse and its impact on quality of life in the Jhaukhel–Duwakot Health Demographic Surveillance Site, Bhaktapur, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binjwala Shrestha

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Uterine prolapse (UP is a reproductive health problem and public health issue in low-income countries including Nepal. Objective: We aimed to identify the contributing factors and stages of UP and its impact on quality of life in the Jhaukhel–Duwakot Health Demographic Surveillance Site of Bhaktapur, Nepal. Design: Our three-phase study used descriptive cross-sectional analysis to assess quality of life and stages of UP and case–control analysis to identify contributing factors. First, a household survey explored the prevalence of self-reported UP (Phase 1. Second, we used a standardized tool in a 5-day screening camp to determine quality of life among UP-affected women (Phase 2. Finally, a 1-month community survey traced self-reported cases from Phase 1 (Phase 3. To validate UP diagnoses, we reviewed participants’ clinical records, and we used screening camp records to trace women without UP. Results: Among 48 affected women in Phase 1, 32 had Stage II UP and 16 had either Stage I or Stage III UP. Compared with Stage I women (4.62%, almost all women with Stage III UP reported reduced quality of life. Decreased quality of life correlated significantly with Stages I–III. Self-reported UP prevalence (8.7% included all treated and non-treated cases. In Phase 3, 277 of 402 respondents reported being affected by UP and 125 were unaffected. The odds of having UP were threefold higher among illiterate women compared with literate women (OR=3.02, 95% CI 1.76–5.17, 50% lower among women from nuclear families compared with extended families (OR=0.56, 95% CI 0.35–0.90 and lower among women with 1–2 parity compared to >5 parity (OR=0.33, 95% CI 0.14–0.75. Conclusions: The stages of UP correlated with quality of life resulting from varied perceptions regarding physical health, emotional stress, and social limitation. Parity, education, age, and family type associated with UP. Our results suggest the importance of developing

  7. Uterine prolapse and its impact on quality of life in the Jhaukhel–Duwakot Health Demographic Surveillance Site, Bhaktapur, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Binjwala; Onta, Sharad; Choulagai, Bishnu; Paudel, Rajan; Petzold, Max; Krettek, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    Background Uterine prolapse (UP) is a reproductive health problem and public health issue in low-income countries including Nepal. Objective We aimed to identify the contributing factors and stages of UP and its impact on quality of life in the Jhaukhel–Duwakot Health Demographic Surveillance Site of Bhaktapur, Nepal. Design Our three-phase study used descriptive cross-sectional analysis to assess quality of life and stages of UP and case–control analysis to identify contributing factors. First, a household survey explored the prevalence of self-reported UP (Phase 1). Second, we used a standardized tool in a 5-day screening camp to determine quality of life among UP-affected women (Phase 2). Finally, a 1-month community survey traced self-reported cases from Phase 1 (Phase 3). To validate UP diagnoses, we reviewed participants’ clinical records, and we used screening camp records to trace women without UP. Results Among 48 affected women in Phase 1, 32 had Stage II UP and 16 had either Stage I or Stage III UP. Compared with Stage I women (4.62%), almost all women with Stage III UP reported reduced quality of life. Decreased quality of life correlated significantly with Stages I–III. Self-reported UP prevalence (8.7%) included all treated and non-treated cases. In Phase 3, 277 of 402 respondents reported being affected by UP and 125 were unaffected. The odds of having UP were threefold higher among illiterate women compared with literate women (OR=3.02, 95% CI 1.76–5.17), 50% lower among women from nuclear families compared with extended families (OR=0.56, 95% CI 0.35–0.90) and lower among women with 1–2 parity compared to >5 parity (OR=0.33, 95% CI 0.14–0.75). Conclusions The stages of UP correlated with quality of life resulting from varied perceptions regarding physical health, emotional stress, and social limitation. Parity, education, age, and family type associated with UP. Our results suggest the importance of developing policies and programs

  8. Uterine prolapse and its impact on quality of life in the Jhaukhel-Duwakot Health Demographic Surveillance Site, Bhaktapur, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Binjwala; Onta, Sharad; Choulagai, Bishnu; Paudel, Rajan; Petzold, Max; Krettek, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    Uterine prolapse (UP) is a reproductive health problem and public health issue in low-income countries including Nepal. We aimed to identify the contributing factors and stages of UP and its impact on quality of life in the Jhaukhel-Duwakot Health Demographic Surveillance Site of Bhaktapur, Nepal. Our three-phase study used descriptive cross-sectional analysis to assess quality of life and stages of UP and case-control analysis to identify contributing factors. First, a household survey explored the prevalence of self-reported UP (Phase 1). Second, we used a standardized tool in a 5-day screening camp to determine quality of life among UP-affected women (Phase 2). Finally, a 1-month community survey traced self-reported cases from Phase 1 (Phase 3). To validate UP diagnoses, we reviewed participants' clinical records, and we used screening camp records to trace women without UP. Among 48 affected women in Phase 1, 32 had Stage II UP and 16 had either Stage I or Stage III UP. Compared with Stage I women (4.62%), almost all women with Stage III UP reported reduced quality of life. Decreased quality of life correlated significantly with Stages I-III. Self-reported UP prevalence (8.7%) included all treated and non-treated cases. In Phase 3, 277 of 402 respondents reported being affected by UP and 125 were unaffected. The odds of having UP were threefold higher among illiterate women compared with literate women (OR=3.02, 95% CI 1.76-5.17), 50% lower among women from nuclear families compared with extended families (OR=0.56, 95% CI 0.35-0.90) and lower among women with 1-2 parity compared to >5 parity (OR=0.33, 95% CI 0.14-0.75). The stages of UP correlated with quality of life resulting from varied perceptions regarding physical health, emotional stress, and social limitation. Parity, education, age, and family type associated with UP. Our results suggest the importance of developing policies and programs that are focused on early health care for UP. Through family

  9. Innovations in health and demographic surveillance systems to establish the causal impacts of HIV policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Kobus; Law, Matthew; Geldsetzer, Pascal; Tanser, Frank; Harling, Guy; Bärnighausen, Till

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of Review Health and Demographic Surveillance Systems (HDSS), in conjunction with HIV treatment cohorts, have made important contributions to our understanding of the impact of HIV treatment and treatment-related interventions in sub-Saharan Africa. The purpose of this review is to describe and discuss innovations in data collection and data linkage that will create new opportunities to establish the impacts of HIV treatment, as well as policies affecting the treatment cascade, on population health, economic and social outcomes. Recent Findings Novel approaches to routine collection of (i) biomarkers, (ii) behavioural data, (iii) spatial data, (iv) social network information, (v) migration events and (vi) mobile phone records can significantly strengthen the potential of HDSS to generate exposure and outcome data for causal analysis of HIV treatment impact and policies affecting the HIV treatment cascade. Additionally, by linking HDSS data to health service administration, education, and welfare service records, researchers can substantial broaden opportunities to establish how HIV treatment affects health and economic outcomes, when delivered through public-sector health systems and at scale. Summary As the HIV treatment scale-up in sub-Saharan Africa enters its second decade, it is becoming increasingly important to understand the long-term causal impacts of large-scale HIV treatment and related policies on broader population health outcomes, such as non-communicable diseases, as well as on economic and social outcomes, such as family welfare and children’s educational attainment. By collecting novel data and linking existing data to public-sector records, HDSS can create near-unique opportunities to contribute to this research agenda. PMID:26371462

  10. Spatial data on energy, environmental, socioeconomic, health and demographic themes at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory: 1978 inventory. [SEEDIS system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burkhart, B.R.; Merrill, D.W. (eds.)

    1979-04-01

    Spatial data files covering energy, environmental, socio-economic, health, and demographic themes are described. Descriptions provide data dates, abstracts, geographic coverage, documentation, original data source, availability limitations, and contact person. A current version of this document is maintained as part of the Socio-Economic-Environmental-Demographic Information System (SEEDIS) within the Computer Science and Applied Mathematics Department, and is available for on-line retrieval using the Virginia Sventek, (415) 486-5216 or (FTS) 451-5216 for further information.

  11. Back Pain in Poland and Germany: A Survey of Prevalence and Association with Demographic Characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lea Henn

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Back pain is the most common form of pain and leads to high costs in all medical care systems. Objective. The present study examines the prevalence of back pain and its associations with some basic demographics. Methods. Two samples from Poland and Germany (about n=500 each were examined via Internet regarding back pain, gender, age, and body mass index (BMI. Results. Back pain is more common in women than in men (risk ratio about 1.7, and a high BMI constitutes an additional risk factor. Age was not related to back pain prevalence. Conclusion. Congruent results in two countries based on the same measure of back pain lead to the assumption that much of the variety found in estimates of back pain are due to inconsistent assessment. For future research, a definition of common criteria on how to assess back pain would be an asset.

  12. Korea Community Health Survey Data Profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yang Wha; Ko, Yun Sil; Kim, Yoo Jin; Sung, Kyoung Mi; Kim, Hyo Jin; Choi, Hyung Yun; Sung, Changhyun; Jeong, Eunkyeong

    2015-06-01

    In 2008, Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention initiated the first nationwide survey, Korea Community Health Survey (KCHS), to provide data that could be used to plan, implement, monitor, and evaluate community health promotion and disease prevention programs. This community-based cross-sectional survey has been conducted by 253 community health centers, 35 community universities, and 1500 interviewers. The KCHS standardized questionnaire was developed jointly by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention staff, a working group of health indicators standardization subcommittee, and 16 metropolitan cities and provinces with 253 regional sites. The questionnaire covers a variety of topics related to health behaviors and prevention, which is used to assess the prevalence of personal health practices and behaviors related to the leading causes of disease, including smoking, alcohol use, drinking and driving, high blood pressure control, physical activity, weight control, quality of life (European Quality of Life-5 Dimensions, European Quality of Life-Visual Analogue Scale, Korean Instrumental Activities of Daily Living ), medical service, accident, injury, etc. The KCHS was administered by trained interviewers, and the quality control of the KCHS was improved by the introduction of a computer-assisted personal interview in 2010. The KCHS data allow a direct comparison of the differences of health issues among provinces. Furthermore, the provinces can use these data for their own cost-effective health interventions to improve health promotion and disease prevention. For users and researchers throughout the world, microdata (in the form of SAS files) and analytic guidelines can be downloaded from the KCHS website (http://KCHS.cdc.go.kr/) in Korean.

  13. Design, implementation, and demographic differences of HEAL: a self-report health care leadership instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murphy KR

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Kelly R Murphy, John E McManigle, Benjamin M Wildman-Tobriner, Amy Little Jones, Travis J Dekker, Barrett A Little, Joseph P Doty, Dean C Taylor Duke Healthcare Leadership Program, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC, USA Abstract: The medical community has recognized the importance of leadership skills among its members. While numerous leadership assessment tools exist at present, few are specifically tailored to the unique health care environment. The study team designed a 24-item survey (Healthcare Evaluation & Assessment of Leadership [HEAL] to measure leadership competency based on the core competencies and core principles of the Duke Healthcare Leadership Model. A novel digital platform was created for use on handheld devices to facilitate its distribution and completion. This pilot phase involved 126 health care professionals self-assessing their leadership abilities. The study aimed to determine both the content validity of the survey and the feasibility of its implementation and use. The digital platform for survey implementation was easy to complete, and there were no technical problems with survey use or data collection. With regard to reliability, initial survey results revealed that each core leadership tenet met or exceeded the reliability cutoff of 0.7. In self-assessment of leadership, women scored themselves higher than men in questions related to patient centeredness (P=0.016. When stratified by age, younger providers rated themselves lower with regard to emotional intelligence and integrity. There were no differences in self-assessment when stratified by medical specialty. While only a pilot study, initial data suggest that HEAL is a reliable and easy-to-administer survey for health care leadership assessment. Differences in responses by sex and age with respect to patient centeredness, integrity, and emotional intelligence raise questions about how providers view themselves amid complex medical teams. As the

  14. Understanding ethnic and other socio-demographic differences in patient experience of primary care: evidence from the English General Practice Patient Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, M; Barbiere, J M; Henderson, A; Staetsky, L; Paddison, C; Campbell, J; Roland, M

    2011-01-01

    Background Ethnic minorities and some other patient groups consistently report lower scores on patient surveys, but the reasons for this are unclear. This study examined whether low scores of ethnic minority and other socio-demographic groups reflect their concentration in poorly performing primary care practices, and whether any remaining differences are consistent across practices. Methods Using data from the 2009 English General Practice Patient Survey (2 163 456 respondents from 8267 general practices) this study examined associations between patient socio-demographic characteristics and 11 measures of patient-reported experience. Findings South Asian and Chinese patients, younger patients, and those in poor health reported a less positive primary care experience than White patients, older patients and those in better health. For doctor communication, about half of the overall difference associated with South Asian patients (ranging from −6 to −9 percentage points) could be explained by their concentration in practices with low scores, but the other half arose because they reported less positive experiences than White patients in the same practices. Practices varied considerably in the direction and extent of ethnic differences. In some practices ethnic minority patients reported better experience than White patients. Differences associated with gender, Black ethnicity and deprivation were small and inconsistent. Conclusion Substantial ethnic differences in patient experience exist in a national healthcare system providing universal coverage. Improving the experience of patients in low-scoring practices would not only improve the quality of care provided to their White patients but it would also substantially reduce ethnic group differences in patient experience. There were large variations in the experiences reported by ethnic minority patients in different practices: practices with high patient experience scores from ethnic minority patients could be

  15. Free-Roaming Dogs in Nepal: Demographics, Health and Public Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massei, G; Fooks, A R; Horton, D L; Callaby, R; Sharma, K; Dhakal, I P; Dahal, U

    2017-02-01

    In Nepal, most dogs are free to roam and may transmit diseases to humans and animals. These dogs often suffer from malnutrition and lack basic health care. Minimal information is available about their demographics and about public attitudes concerning dogs and diseases. We carried out a study in Chitwan District (central Nepal), to collect baseline data on free-roaming owned dog demographics, assess knowledge, attitudes and practices of dog owners concerning dogs and rabies, evaluate rabies vaccination coverage and anthelmintic treatment of dogs, measure dogs' response to rabies vaccination and assess dog health through body condition scores and parasites. We conducted household interviews with owners of free-roaming female dogs (n = 60) and administered dogs with rabies vaccination and anthelmintics. Dog owners regularly fed free-roaming dogs but provided minimal health care; 42% of respondents did not claim ownership of the dog for which they provided care. We collected skin, faecal and blood samples for parasite identification and for measuring rabies virus-specific antibodies. Ninety-two per cent of dog owners were aware of the routes of rabies virus transmission, but only 35% described the correct post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) following a dog bite. Twenty-seven per cent of the dogs had measurable rabies virus-specific antibody titres and 14% had received anthelmintics in the previous year. Following rabies vaccination, 97% of dogs maintained an adequate antibody titre for ≥6 months. Most dogs appeared healthy, although haemoprotozoans, endoparasites and ectoparasites were identified in 12%, 73% and 40% of the dogs, respectively. Poor skin condition and parasite load were associated. Seventy-four per cent of the females had litters in 1 year (mean litter size = 4.5). Births occurred between September and February; we estimated 60% mortality in puppies. We concluded that vaccination coverage, PEP awareness and anthelmintic treatment should be

  16. Five Percent Post Survey Check Of National Family Health Survey (NFHS In ORISSA

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    Kumar Benera Sudhir

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Research questions: How well a post survey sample check of NFHS correlates with the findings of NFHS? Objective: Post survey check of National Family Health Survey carried out in 1992-93. Study design: Multistage sampling method with 5 percent sample of original NFHS sample. Setting: Study covered 5 percent sample of original NFHS sample. Subjects: Five percent household sample (1093 members of original NFHS sample was studied and compared with NFHS data. Method: Information from five percent house-holds of NFHS in which either there likely to be no change was likely to be only in one direction such as age group, sex-ratio, literacy, family planning knowledge and adoption etc. were collected in a predesigned questionnaire and compared with NFHS data. Results: The demographic characteristics were similar to those of NFHS. TFR and number of children ever borne were also found to be same. The awareness of FP methods and its uses were within acceptable margin of error. Thus on comparison of data of post survey check and NFHS sample error was within acceptable margin.

  17. Integrating Breeding Bird Survey and demographic data to estimate Wood Duck population size in the Atlantic Flyway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Guthrie S.; Sauer, John; Boomer, G. Scott; Devers, Patrick K.; Garrettson, Pamela R.

    2017-01-01

    The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) uses data from the North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) to assist in monitoring and management of some migratory birds. However, BBS analyses provide indices of population change rather than estimates of population size, precluding their use in developing abundance-based objectives and limiting applicability to harvest management. Wood Ducks (Aix sponsa) are important harvested birds in the Atlantic Flyway (AF) that are difficult to detect during aerial surveys because they prefer forested habitat. We integrated Wood Duck count data from a ground-plot survey in the northeastern U.S. with AF-wide BBS, banding, parts collection, and harvest data to derive estimates of population size for the AF. Overlapping results between the smaller-scale intensive ground-plot survey and the BBS in the northeastern U.S. provided a means for scaling BBS indices to the breeding population size estimates. We applied these scaling factors to BBS results for portions of the AF lacking intensive surveys. Banding data provided estimates of annual survival and harvest rates; the latter, when combined with parts-collection data, provided estimates of recruitment. We used the harvest data to estimate fall population size. Our estimates of breeding population size and variability from the integrated population model (N̄ = 0.99 million, SD = 0.04) were similar to estimates of breeding population size based solely on data from the AF ground-plot surveys and the BBS (N̄ = 1.01 million, SD = 0.04) from 1998 to 2015. Integrating BBS data with other data provided reliable population size estimates for Wood Ducks at a scale useful for harvest and habitat management in the AF, and allowed us to derive estimates of important demographic parameters (e.g., seasonal survival rates, sex ratio) that were not directly informed by data.

  18. A demographic survey of unwanted horses in Ireland 2005-2010

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    Leadon DP

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Irish Horse Industry expanded during the Celtic Tiger boom years, then contracted in the current economic recession. High value horses were traditionally controlled through sale at public auction, private sales and sales to dealers; these are now also being reduced by decreases in production (> 40%, and increases in retirement, re-homing, euthanasia and disposal through Category 2 plants and abattoirs. The absence or banning of horse abattoirs has been shown to have very significant welfare social and economic consequences in the USA. This study described the currently available data on the demographics of unwanted horses in Ireland from 2005 to 2010. Results The majority of horses euthanised by practicing veterinarians are destroyed on medical grounds but the number euthanised at the request of welfare groups and the state, as well as welfare related calls and the number of horses involved in these calls and subsequent visits is increasing reflecting the increasing involvement of the veterinary profession in equine welfare. Welfare groups have limited resources and do not have a tradition of recording data, but they too have reported increasing calls, visits and numbers of horses per visit. Welfare groups provide significant service to equine welfare and the community. Local Authorities report similar trends. Over 300 horses were found dead or required immediate or subsequent euthanasia following welfare group and local authority visits in 2010, which is of national concern. The majority of local authority interfaces with unwanted horses are with urban (60% rather than rural (40% horses. Mortality figures are poor indicators of non-fatal neglect. More horses were admitted into the care of local authorities than welfare groups, reflecting significant state and taxpayer investment in the control of low value horses. Category 2 plants and abattoirs represent a significant state investment in licensing and control in the

  19. Socio-demographic determinants of Health care-seeking behaviour, self-reported illness and Self-evaluated Health status in Jamaica

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    Paul Andrew Bourne

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The objectives of this study were to examine self-rated health status and health care-seeking behaviour of Jamaicans; and to ascertain the socio-economic determinants of health care-seeking behaviour as well as good health status. Methodology: A cross-sectional descriptive study of 1,006 respondents who answered the question on health-seeking behaviour was used, and this was extracted from a larger nationally representative probability sampling survey of 6,783 Jamaicans. Descriptive statistics were used to provide background information on the demographic characteristics of the sample, chi-square was used to examine correlation between two non-metric variables and logistic regressions were employed to establish the predictors of health care-seeking behaviour and good self-rated health status. Findings: Of the sample, 40.5% was men and 59.5% women, with a mean age of 41.8 years (SD=27.6 years. Forty-four percent of the sample reported at least good health, 97% claimed that they have had some form of dysfunction; 6% reported being injured due to accidents, and only 11% indicated that their illness was not diagnosed by a health practitioner. Of those who indicated being diagnosed with a recurring ailment, 5.6% had arthritis, 20.5% hypertension, 12.4% diabetes mellitus, 9.5% asthma and 14.9% cold. Only 65.4% of the sample sought health care. In the multivariate analyses, health-care seeking behaviour of Jamaicans can be explained by age of respondents (OR=1.031, 95%CI=1.014, 1.049; area of residence (other towns OR=0.5, 95%CI=0.278, 0.902; log consumption (OR=3.605 95%CI=1.814, 7.167; marital status (married OR=0.468 95%CI=0.260, 0.843; divorced, separated or widowed, OR=0.383, 95% CI 0.163, 0.903 and social class (Upper class OR=0.319, 95%CI=0.106, 0.958. The health status of those who seek health care can be predicted duration of the individuals to carry out their normal activities (OR=0.594, 95%CI=0.413, 0.855; age of respondents (OR

  20. A telephone survey of factors affecting willingness to participate in health research surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, D C; Kelsall, H L; Slegers, C; Forbes, A B; Loff, B; Zion, D; Fritschi, L

    2015-10-05

    In recent years, reduced participation has been encountered across all epidemiological study designs, both in terms of non-response as well as refusal. A low response rate may reduce the statistical power but, more importantly, results may not be generalizable to the wider community. In a telephone survey of 1413 randomly selected members of the Australian general population and of 690 participants sourced from previous studies, we examined factors affecting people's stated willingness to participate in health research. The majority of participants (61 %) expressed willingness to participate in health research in general but the percentage increased when provided with more specific information about the research. People were more willing if they have personal experience of the disease under study, and if the study was funded by government or charity rather than pharmaceutical companies. Participants from previous studies, older people and women were the groups most willing to participate. Younger men preferred online surveys, older people a written questionnaire, and few participants in any age and sex groups preferred a telephone questionnaire. Despite a trend toward reduced participation rates, most participants expressed their willingness to participate in health research. However, when seeking participants, researchers should be concrete and specific about the nature of the research they want to carry out. The preferred method of recommended contact varies with the demographic characteristics.

  1. Demographic data and hemodialysis population dynamics in Qatar: A five year survey

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    Fituri Omar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemodialysis was initiated in Qatar in 1981, since then the hemodialysis population has been expanding rapidly. This report describes the demographics and outcome of our hemo-dialysis patients during a five years study period. Data of all the patients on regular hemodialysis from January 1 st , 2002 to December 31 st , 2006 were included in this study was collected from the medical records and entered into an especially designed questionnaire. The prevalence of end stage kidney disease in Qatar is 624 patients per million populations with an incidence of 202 patients per million populations per year. Currently, 278 patients are on hemodialysis, 65% of them are Qatari, males represent 51%, whereas 44.6% are between 65-74 years of age. Diabetic nephropathy is the commonest cause of end stage kidney disease (48%, followed by primary glomerulonephritis and hypertensive glomerulopathy. Arteriovenous fistula was the vascular access in 57% of patients. The incidence of Hepatitis B, C and Human immunodeficiency virus had been stable throughhout the study period though our hemodialysis population had increased by 1.5 fold. The first and five years survival rates of our patients were 84 and 53% respectively. Qatar has one of the highest rates of dialysis patients with a good long-term survival report. Peritoneal dialysis remained to be the key solution for the rapidly expanding patients′ pool. Maintenance of national registry of dialysis patients and improving our organ transplant program is an essential goal.

  2. Demographic and Social Correlates of Tobacco, Alcohol and Cannabis Use Among 15-16-Year-Old Students in Albania: Results of the ESPAD Survey

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    Toçi Ervin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available AIMS – Our aim was to assess the demographic and social factors associated with lifetime use of tobacco, alcohol and cannabis among school students aged 15–16 in Albania in order to make information and knowledge available for health promotion specialists working on substance use prevention. DESIGN – This cross-sectional study was conducted in March–May 2011 in the framework of the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs (ESPAD. In total, 3189 students born in 1995 participated in the survey. The standardised ESPAD questionnaire was used to collect data about substance use. RESULTS – Our multivariable adjustment analysis showed that being a male and having easy access to cigarettes were the only universal factors significantly increasing the likelihood of ever using tobacco, alcohol or cannabis. Own smoking was strongly and significantly associated with alcohol and cannabis use. The associations of own substance use with peer substance consumption were weak to moderate. CONCLUSIONS – Own smoking seems to be the most important single independent risk factor which strongly and significantly predicted alcohol and cannabis use among Albanian school students. Policy makers need to strengthen the rule of law whereas health promotion professionals should firmly address smoking in adolescence through target interventions.

  3. A survey of dental hygienists in the United Kingdom in 2011. Part 1--demographics and working patterns as dental hygienists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, K A; Harris, M; Ross, M K; Arevalo, C

    2012-11-01

    The aims of this survey were to establish the demographic profile of dental hygienists (DHs) and dental hygienist/therapists (DH/Ts) in the United Kingdom in 2011 and their patterns of practice as DHs. A 10% sample of all those registered with the General Dental Council as DHs or DH/Ts in April 2011 were sent a pre-piloted questionnaire, explanatory letter and stamped addressed envelope. The questionnaire contained a total of 100 questions, 24 of which related to demographics and working patterns. All 100 questions were solely on tasks/work performed by DH, none related to other types of work performed by DH/Ts. Three mailings were distributed between May and July 2011. The resulting data were entered into an Excel spreadsheet. Where appropriate, differences between the responses from DHs and DH/Ts were statistically tested with the chi-squared test. Five hundred and sixty-one DHs and DH/Ts were sent the questionnaire, by the third mailing 371 (66.1%) had responded and returned completed questionnaires. The respondents were 288 DHs, 79 DH/Ts and 4 who did not specify which category they were. The mean year of qualification of the DHs was 1990 and for the DH/Ts 2005. One hundred and twenty-four (33%) reported that they worked full-time, 235 (63%) part-time and the remainder that they were not working as DHs or DH/Ts or had retired. The average number of clinical hours worked per week was reported as 24.6 hours for DHs and 25 hours for DH/Ts, but there were regional variations. For DHs the mean percentage of patients treated under NHS contract was 15.5% and for DH/Ts it was 40.2%. Again there were regional variations and in Scotland these figures were 45.5% for DHs and 70% for DH/Ts. Two hundred and forty-eight (69%) of all respondents were either fully or partly self-employed and 221 (62.7%) worked in two or more locations. The results of this study provide a snapshot of the demographics and practice patterns of DHs and DH/Ts in the UK in the summer of 2011. They

  4. Socio-demographic, economic and health profile of adults with sickle-cell disease

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    Júlia Lamese Amaral

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to describe socio-demographic and economic characteristics, lifestyle, clinical manifestations, use of medications and monitoring of adults with sickle-cell disease. Methods: a descriptive study with quantitative approach, made with 20 adults, registered in a Hematology and Hemotherapy Center, using, for data collection, interviews in the participant’s home and medical records. In order to have the database, the EpiDatae analysis software through statistical program was used. Results: most of the population consisted of women, married, with complete high school, which used exclusively the Unified Health System. The average age was 30.6 years, and 90.0% (95% CI 68.3-98.8 were black. All of them reported painful crises and fatigue. They used folic acid daily 35.0% (95% CI 15.4-59.2. Conclusion: the implications of sickle-cell disease could be mitigated through primary, secondary and tertiary health care, according to the needs of those adults.

  5. Demographic and Ecological Survey of Dog Population in Aba, Abia State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Gbeminiyi Richard Otolorin; Umoh, Jarlath U.; Asabe Adamu Dzikwi

    2014-01-01

    Dog ecology is essential in understanding the distribution, structure, and population density of dogs and pattern of dog ownership in any given area. A cross-sectional study was designed to study dog ecology in Aba, Abia state, Nigeria, from April to June 2013. The study revealed that the 500 households surveyed possessed 5,823 individuals and 747 dogs, giving a dog to human ratio of 1 : 7.8; hence dog population in Aba was estimated to be 68,121. About 495/747 (66.3%) of the dogs were exotic...

  6. Socio-demographic factors and psychological distress in Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australian adults aged 18-64 years: analysis of national survey data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Indigenous Australians are known to be at greater risk of morbidity and mortality from mental health related conditions, but most available data relate to the use of mental health services, and little is known about other aspects of social and emotional wellbeing. Using the first available nationally representative data, we examined the prevalence and patterning of psychological distress among Indigenous Australian adults and compared these with corresponding data from the non-Indigenous population. Methods The analysis used weighted data on psychological distress, as measured by a modified Kessler Psychological Distress score (K5), and a range of socio-demographic measures for 5,417 Indigenous and 15,432 non-Indigenous adults aged 18-64 years from two nationally representative surveys. Very high psychological distress (VHPD) was defined as a K5 score ≥ 15 (possible range = 5-25). Results Indigenous adults were about three times more likely than non-Indigenous adults to be classified with VHPD: 14.5% (95% confidence interval (CI) 12.9-16.0%) versus 5.5% (95% CI 5.0-5.9%). After adjusting for age, most socio-demographic variables were significantly associated with VHPD in both populations, although the relative odds were generally larger among non-Indigenous people. Indigenous people in remote areas had a lower prevalence of VHPD than their non-remote counterparts, and only marital status, main language, and food insecurity were significantly associated with VHPD in remote areas. Conclusions Higher absolute levels of VHPD combined with smaller socio-demographic gradients in the Indigenous population suggest the importance of risk factors such as interpersonal racism, marginalization and dispossession, chronic stress and exposure to violence that are experienced by Indigenous Australians with common and/or cross-cutting effects across the socioeconomic spectrum. The lower prevalence of VHPD and lack of association with many socio-demographic variables in

  7. Socio-demographic factors and psychological distress in Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australian adults aged 18-64 years: analysis of national survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Joan; Paradies, Yin C

    2012-02-01

    Indigenous Australians are known to be at greater risk of morbidity and mortality from mental health related conditions, but most available data relate to the use of mental health services, and little is known about other aspects of social and emotional wellbeing. Using the first available nationally representative data, we examined the prevalence and patterning of psychological distress among Indigenous Australian adults and compared these with corresponding data from the non-Indigenous population. The analysis used weighted data on psychological distress, as measured by a modified Kessler Psychological Distress score (K5), and a range of socio-demographic measures for 5,417 Indigenous and 15,432 non-Indigenous adults aged 18-64 years from two nationally representative surveys. Very high psychological distress (VHPD) was defined as a K5 score ≥ 15 (possible range = 5-25). Indigenous adults were about three times more likely than non-Indigenous adults to be classified with VHPD: 14.5% (95% confidence interval (CI) 12.9-16.0%) versus 5.5% (95% CI 5.0-5.9%). After adjusting for age, most socio-demographic variables were significantly associated with VHPD in both populations, although the relative odds were generally larger among non-Indigenous people. Indigenous people in remote areas had a lower prevalence of VHPD than their non-remote counterparts, and only marital status, main language, and food insecurity were significantly associated with VHPD in remote areas. Higher absolute levels of VHPD combined with smaller socio-demographic gradients in the Indigenous population suggest the importance of risk factors such as interpersonal racism, marginalization and dispossession, chronic stress and exposure to violence that are experienced by Indigenous Australians with common and/or cross-cutting effects across the socioeconomic spectrum. The lower prevalence of VHPD and lack of association with many socio-demographic variables in remote areas suggests either that the

  8. A retrospective study of demographic parameters and major health referrals among Afghan refugees in Iran

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    Otoukesh Salman

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction For nearly three decades, the two neighboring countries of Iran and Pakistan hosted millions of Afghans. Today, Afghans still represent the largest group of refugees in the world. This feature has greatly influenced provision of health care for this population. Due to a paucity of research on the health status of Afghan refugees in Iran, this study aim to make a vista on the pattern of different common diseases among Afghan refugees in Iran and use it as an index for performance evaluation of future health services to them. Methods This is a retrospective cross sectional study, in which we collected the demographic and medical data between 2005 and 2010 from referrals to the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR offices in Iran. We also considered a comparative review of the burden of disease estimates by the World Health Organization (WHO for Afghanistan and Iran. Results Total numbers of referrals were 23,152 with 52.6% Female and 47.66% male. 29% were 0–14 years of age, 54% were 15–59, and 17% were 60+. The most common health referral for females and males (0–14 was perinatal diseases (15.16%, 15.2%, respectively. In the females (15–59 it was ophthalmic diseases (13.65%, and for males it was nephropathies (21.4%, and in both sexes (60+ age range it was ophthalmic diseases (21.3%, 19.9%, respectively. The largest ethnic group of afghan refugees in this study was Hazara (55% followed by Tajik (14%, Fars (12%, Sadat (9%, and 10% others. Ophthalmic diseases were the major cause of referrals by Hazara, Tajik, Fars, and Sadat groups with 26%, 20%, 26%, and 27% respectively. Referrals by pashtun group were mostly for neoplasms (17%, among Uzbek group it was nephropathies (26%, and in Baluch group Hematopoietic disorders (25%. Conclusion These data indicate higher referral rate for women 15–59 years of old and people in 60+ with ophthalmic diseases, neoplasms, and nephropathies. Even given certain

  9. Initiating a participatory action research process in the Agincourt health and socio-demographic surveillance site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wariri, Oghenebrume; D'Ambruoso, Lucia; Twine, Rhian; Ngobeni, Sizzy; van der Merwe, Maria; Spies, Barry; Kahn, Kathleen; Tollman, Stephen; Wagner, Ryan G; Byass, Peter

    2017-06-01

    Despite progressive health policy, disease burdens in South Africa remain patterned by deeply entrenched social inequalities. Accounting for the relationships between context, health and risk can provide important information for equitable service delivery. The aims of the research were to initiate a participatory research process with communities in a low income setting and produce evidence of practical relevance. We initiated a participatory action research (PAR) process in the Agincourt health and socio-demographic surveillance site (HDSS) in rural north-east South Africa. Three village-based discussion groups were convened and consulted about conditions to examine, one of which was under-5 mortality. A series of discussions followed in which routine HDSS data were presented and participants' subjective perspectives were elicited and systematized into collective forms of knowledge using ranking, diagramming and participatory photography. The process concluded with a priority setting exercise. Visual and narrative data were thematically analyzed to complement the participants' analysis. A range of social and structural root causes of under-5 mortality were identified: poverty, unemployment, inadequate housing, unsafe environments and shortages of clean water. Despite these constraints, single mothers were often viewed as negligent. A series of mid-level contributory factors in clinics were also identified: overcrowding, poor staffing, delays in treatment and shortages of medications. In a similar sense, pronounced blame and negativity were directed toward clinic nurses in spite of the systems constraints identified. Actions to address these issues were prioritized as: expanding clinics, improving accountability and responsiveness of health workers, improving employment, providing clean water, and expanding community engagement for health promotion. We initiated a PAR process to gain local knowledge and prioritize actions. The process was acceptable to those

  10. Fish consumption among pregnant women in London, Ontario: associations with socio-demographic and health and lifestyle factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sontrop, Jessica M; Campbell, M Karen; Evers, Susan E; Speechley, Kathy N; Avison, William R

    2007-01-01

    Intake of fish and omega-3 fatty acids is inversely related to adverse health outcomes; however, these relationships may be confounded by socio-economic status and health behaviours. This study's purpose was to describe the socio-demographic, health and lifestyle correlates of fish consumption among pregnant women. Pregnant women (n=2394) completed a telephone interview between 10-22 weeks' gestation (London, Ontario, 2002-5) containing questions on socio-demographic, health and lifestyle variables; dietary intake was measured using a 106-item validated food-frequency questionnaire. Unadjusted and adjusted risk ratios were obtained using a modified Poisson regression model. Infrequent fish consumption, socio-economic status and variables indicative of a less healthy lifestyle; these variables may act as confounders in studies evaluating fish consumption and health outcomes.

  11. Spatial, socio-economic and demographic variation of childlessness in India: A special reference to reproductive health and marital breakdown

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    Praween Agrawal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objective India observe double burden of fertility – childlessness along with high fertility, which brings it close to a developed country. Childlessness has serious demographic, social and health implications. We explored spatial variation of childlessness women in India along with several socio-economic and demographic correlates. Further we examined maternal and reproductive health problems among childless women and linkages between marital breakdown (divorce and childlessness, in comparison to fertile women. Methods Cross-sectional data from 27,505 currently married women, aged 21-49 years, who were interviewed in 1998-99 National Family Health Survey (NFHS-2. These women had been filtered out from all India samples (90,303 based on criteria such as, age more than 20 years, currently not using any family planning methods, marital duration more than 3 years and staying with their husband. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the prevalence odds ratios for childlessness, adjusting for various covariates. Results Overall, 7% of currently married women in India were childless. Southern (10.9 and Western (10.7 region shows highest percentage of childless women while central region exhibits lowest (4.7% percentage of childlessness. Andhra Pradesh state shows highest percent of childless women (13.3% followed by Goa (11.8%. Women with high school complete and above education (OR:1.16;p=0.053, women belonging to other religion (OR:1.51;p=0.004, women belonging to other (general caste (OR:1.20;p=0.007, women belonging to higher standard of living households (OR:1.30;p<0.0001, currently not working women (OR:1.42;p<0.0001, spousal age gap of 15 years and above (OR:1.55;p<0.0001 were more likely to be childless whereas women in rural area (OR:0.53;p<0.0001 and Muslims women (OR:0.53;p<0.0001 were almost half likely to be childless than their counterparts. Maternal health problems, self reported reproductive health

  12. Demographics of Australian horses: results from an internet-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, G B; Dagley, K

    2016-03-01

    To obtain information on the types of Australian horses, how they are kept and their activities. An invitation to participate in an opt-in, internet-based survey was sent to 7000 people who had registered an email address to receive information from the Australian Horse Industry Council Inc. There were 3377 (48%) useable responses from owners of 26,548 horses. Most horses were kept on small properties (usually 2-8 ha) in paddocks in rural areas of Queensland, New South Wales and Victoria. Most horses were female or geldings and the most common of 54 different activities was breeding. Owners reported 19,291 horses were used in different activities and 6037 (23%) horses were not kept for any stated purpose or activity. Owners used an average of 1.95 horses in 2.9 different types of activities. The most common of the 43 breeds were Thoroughbred, Australian Stock Horse and Australian Quarter Horse. Only 1% of the total numbers of Thoroughbreds and Standardbreds in this survey were used in horse racing, indicating there is a demand for these breeds in non-racing activities. Microchip was the most favoured method of horse identification and 36% favoured compulsory registration of horses. Most respondents reported owning some other animal species. There is a wide variation in horse breeds used in different activities by Australian horse owners. There are regional differences in various management systems. There needs to be considerable improvement in the collection and recording of information to improve the validity and reliability of horse industry data. © 2016 Australian Veterinary Association.

  13. Impact of socio-demographic variables, oral hygiene practices and oral habits on periodontal health status of Indian elderly: a community-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, N; Sundaram, K R

    2003-01-01

    Periodontal disease is the most common cause of tooth loss. It is has insidious onset, chronic course, and commonly result due to cumulative effect of dietary habits, oral hygiene methods and oral habits practiced over the years. This study was planned to evaluate the periodontal health status of elderly population (above 60 years) in the community, using CPITN index, gingival recession, mobility of teeth and halitosis, using modified WHO Oral Health Survey Proforma. In addition, impact of several socio-demographic variables, oral hygiene practices, oral habits, chronic systemic diseases, dietary preferences and body mass index (BMI) on periodontal health status was also studied. It was found that prevalence of periodontal diseases in the elderly was high. Step-wise multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that periodontal diseases were directly correlated with age, oral hygiene practices and presence of cardiac diseases.

  14. The Demographics of Exoplanetary Companions to M Dwarfs: Synthesizing Results from Microlensing, Radial Velocity, and Direct Imaging Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clanton, Christian Dwain

    Over the past 20 years, we have learned that exoplanets are ubiquitous throughout our Galaxy and show a diverse set of demographics, yet there is much work to be done to understand this diversity. Determining the distributions of the fundamental properties of exoplanets will provide vital clues regarding their formation and evolution. This is a difficult task, as exoplanet surveys are not uniformly sensitive to the full range of planet parameter space. Various observational biases and selection effects intrinsic to each of the different discovery techniques constrain the types of planets to which they are sensitive. Herein, I record a collection of the first studies to develop and apply the methodology of synthesizing results from multiple detection techniques to construct a statistically-complete census of planetary companions to M dwarfs that samples a wide region of their parameter space. I present a robust comparison of exoplanet discoveries from microlensing and radial velocity (RV) surveys of M dwarfs which infer giant planet frequencies that differ by more than an order of magnitude and are, prima facie, in direct conflict. I demonstrate that current, state-of-the-art RV surveys are capable of detecting only the high-mass tail of the population of planets beyond the ice line inferred by microlensing studies, engendering a large, apparent difference in giant planet frequency. This comparison further establishes that results from these types of surveys are, in fact, consistent over the region of parameter space wherein their sensitivities overlap. A synthesis of results from microlensing and RV surveys yields planet occurrence rates for M dwarfs that span several orders of magnitude in mass and orbital period. On average, each M dwarf hosts about two planets, and while Jupiter and super-Jupiter companions are relatively rare ( 3%), gas giants, in general, are quite common ( 15%). These occurrence rates are significantly lower than those inferred around FGK

  15. National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) - National Cardiovascular Disease Surveillance Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2001 to 2014. The National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) has monitored the health of the nation since 1957. NHIS data on a broad range of health topics are...

  16. National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) - National Cardiovascular Disease Surveillance Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2001 forward. The National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) has monitored the health of the nation since 1957. NHIS data on a broad range of health topics are...

  17. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  18. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  19. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  20. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  1. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  2. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  3. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  4. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  5. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  6. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH-2008)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  7. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH-2012)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  8. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH-2014)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  9. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH-2009)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  10. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH-2013)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  11. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH-2004)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) measures the prevalence and correlates of drug...

  12. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH-2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  13. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH-2003)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) measures the prevalence and correlates of drug...

  14. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH-2011)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  15. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH-2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  16. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH-2007)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  17. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  18. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH-2005)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  19. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH-2002)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) measures the prevalence and correlates of drug...

  20. National Mental Health Services Survey (N-MHSS-2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Mental Health Services Survey (N-MHSS) is an annual survey designed to collect statistical information on the numbers and characteristics of all known...

  1. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH-2015)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  2. Who theorizes age? The "socio-demographic variables" device and age-period-cohort analysis in the rhetoric of survey research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rughiniș, Cosima; Humă, Bogdana

    2015-12-01

    In this paper we argue that quantitative survey-based social research essentializes age, through specific rhetorical tools. We outline the device of 'socio-demographic variables' and we discuss its argumentative functions, looking at scientific survey-based analyses of adult scientific literacy, in the Public Understanding of Science research field. 'Socio-demographics' are virtually omnipresent in survey literature: they are, as a rule, used and discussed as bundles of independent variables, requiring little, if any, theoretical and measurement attention. 'Socio-demographics' are rhetorically effective through their common-sense richness of meaning and inferential power. We identify their main argumentation functions as 'structure building', 'pacification', and 'purification'. Socio-demographics are used to uphold causal vocabularies, supporting the transmutation of the descriptive statistical jargon of 'effects' and 'explained variance' into 'explanatory factors'. Age can also be studied statistically as a main variable of interest, through the age-period-cohort (APC) disambiguation technique. While this approach has generated interesting findings, it did not mitigate the reductionism that appears when treating age as a socio-demographic variable. By working with age as a 'socio-demographic variable', quantitative researchers convert it (inadvertently) into a quasi-biological feature, symmetrical, as regards analytical treatment, with pathogens in epidemiological research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Use of county level data in health, energy, demographic, environmental, and economic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, S.C.; Novak, K.M.; Calef, C.E. (eds.)

    1979-04-01

    This document is an edited record of the conversation, dialogues, and topical discussions of the participants of a computer conference sponsored by the Biomedical and Environmental Assessment Division of Brookhaven National Laboratory during the period March 4-28, 1977. The main objective of the conference was to bring together a number of individual specialists from a wide and diverse range of both academic and professional disciplines to address the usage of county level data in health, energy, demographic, environmental, and economic analysis. A secondary aim of the conference was to test the feasibility and viability of using a computer conference as a means of accomplishing our primary objective. A preface, a list of participants, and the transcript of the main conference and subsession proceedings are included. Also included are information provided by participants on the identification of intercensal county equivalent areas and additional reports and documents relevant to the conference topic. The overall aims and objectives of the conference were successfully accomplished; some of the problems encountered using the computer as a conference vehicle were noted; recommendations were made to continue both formal and informal lines of communication on the subject of county level data.

  4. The clinical and demographic features of dizziness related to general health among the Saudi population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Saif, Amer; Al Senany, Samira

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the validity, demographic features of the newly developed Amer Dizziness Diagnostic Scale (ADDS), provide differential diagnosis of the vestibular disorders, assist in the clinical research and practice activities of health workers as well as to understand the probability of the utilization of the ADDS as a first-line evaluation tool in general clinical practice. [Subjects and Methods] Two hundred subjects of various ages including both male and female patients with a history of vertigo and/or dizziness were included in the study and evaluated once using the ADDS. [Results] There were more female (59.5%) than male (49.5) patients in this study. Additionally, we found that most patients (64.4%) had a central mediated problem. In addition, the Amer Dizziness Diagnostic Scale has been found to have both a sensitivity and specificity of 96% that can adequately determine the possible diagnosis of vestibular disorders. [Conclusion] This study has demonstrated the validity of the ADDS scale, the predominance of female involvement related to supplementary medication, vitamin D deficiency, general lifestyle factors, and fluid retention, high sensitivity and specificity, provide differential diagnosis of vestibular disorders that could be used as a first-line evaluation tool in general clinics. PMID:26644673

  5. Socio-Demographic Variables, General Psychological Well-Being and the Mental Health Continuum in an African Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khumalo, I. P.; Temane, Q. M.; Wissing, M. P.

    2012-01-01

    Age, gender, marital status, education attainment, employment status, and environmental setting explain different amounts of variance in psychological well-being and mental health. Inconsistent findings are reported for the socio-demographic variables in psychological well-being depending amongst others on the definition and measurement of…

  6. Prevalence of disability and associated factors in Dabat Health and Demographic Surveillance System site, northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chala, Mulugeta Bayisa; Mekonnen, Solomon; Andargie, Gashaw; Kebede, Yigzaw; Yitayal, Mezgebu; Alemu, Kassahun; Awoke, Tadesse; Wubeshet, Mamo; Azmeraw, Temesgen; Birku, Melkamu; Tariku, Amare; Gebeyehu, Abebaw; Shimeka, Alemayehu; Gizaw, Zemichael

    2017-10-02

    Despite the high burden of disability in Ethiopia, little is known about it, particularly in the study area. Hence, this study aimed to investigate the prevalence and factors associated with disability at Dabat Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) site, northwest Ethiopia. A population-based study was conducted from October to December 2014 at Dabat HDSS site. A total of 67,395 people were included in the study. The multivariable binary logistic regression analysis was employed to identify factors associated with disability. The Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) with a 95% Confidence Interval (CI) was estimated to show the strength of association. A p-value of disability giving a prevalence rate of 1.82%, of which, about 39% was related to a vision disability. The high odds of disability were observed among the elderly (≥50 years) [AOR: 4.49; 95% CI: 1.95, 10.33], severely food in-secured [AOR: 2.11; 95% CI: 1.59, 2.80], and separated marital status [AOR: 7.52; 95% CI: 1.18, 47.84]. While having a paid job [AOR: 0.46; 95% CI: 0.28, 0.77], being in the richest quintile [AOR: 0.55; 95% CI: 0.41, 0.75], and high engagement in work-related physical activities [AOR: 0.36; 95% CI: 0.27, 0.49] were inversely associated with the disability. Disability is a major public health problem, and the burden is noticeable in the study area. Vision disability is the highest of all disabilities. Thus, efforts must be made on educating the public about disability and injury prevention. Measures that reduce disability should target the elderly, the poorer and the unemployed segment of the population.

  7. Weight, socio-demographics, and health behaviour related correlates of academic performance in first year university students

    OpenAIRE

    Deliens, Tom; Clarys, Peter; De De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Deforche, Benedicte

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to examine differences in socio-demographics and health behaviour between Belgian first year university students who attended all final course exams and those who did not. Secondly, this study aimed to identify weight and health behaviour related correlates of academic performance in those students who attended all course exams. Methods: Anthropometrics of 101 first year university students were measured at both the beginning of the first (T1) and second (T2) s...

  8. Migration, settlement change and health in post-apartheid South Africa: triangulating health and demographic surveillance with national census data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collinson, Mark A; Tollman, Stephen M; Kahn, Kathleen

    2007-08-01

    World population growth will be increasingly concentrated in the urban areas of the developing world; however, some scholars caution against the oversimplification of African urbanization noting that there may be "counter-urbanization" and a prevailing pattern of circular rural-urban migration. The aim of the paper is to examine the ongoing urban transition in South Africa in the post-apartheid period, and to consider the health and social policy implications of prevailing migration patterns. Two data sets were analysed, namely the South African national census of 2001 and the Agincourt health and demographic surveillance system. A settlement-type transition matrix was constructed on the national data to show how patterns of settlement have changed in a five-year period. Using the sub-district data, permanent and temporary migration was characterized, providing migration rates by age and sex, and showing the distribution of origins and destinations. The comparison of national and sub-district data highlight the following features: urban population growth, particularly in metropolitan areas, resulting from permanent and temporary migration; prevailing patterns of temporary, circular migration, and a changing gender balance in this form of migration; stepwise urbanization; and return migration from urban to rural areas. Policy concerns include: rural poverty exacerbated by labour migration; explosive conditions for the transmission of HIV; labour migrants returning to die in rural areas; and the challenges for health information created by chronically ill migrants returning to rural areas to convalesce. Lastly, suggestions are made on how to address the dearth of relevant population information for policy-making in the fields of migration, settlement change and health.

  9. The influence of demographic characteristics, living conditions, and trauma exposure on the overall health of a conflict-affected population in Southern Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberts Bayard

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There remains limited evidence on how armed conflict affects overall physical and mental well-being rather than specific physical or mental health conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of demographic characteristics, living conditions, and violent and traumatic events on general physical and mental health in Southern Sudan which is emerging from 20 years of armed conflict. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 1228 adults was conducted in November 2007 in the town of Juba, the capital of Southern Sudan. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to investigate the associations and relative influence of variables in three models of demographic characteristics, living conditions, and trauma exposure, on general physical and mental health status. These models were run separately and also as a combined model. Data quality and the internal consistency of the health status instrument (SF-8 were assessed. Results The variables in the multivariate analysis (combined model with negative coefficients of association with general physical health and mental health (i.e. worse health, respectively, were being female (coef. -2.47; -2.63, higher age (coef.-0.16; -0.17, absence of soap in the household (physical health coef. -2.24, and experiencing within the past 12 months a lack of food and/or water (coef. -1.46; -2.27 and lack of medical care (coef.-3.51; -3.17. A number of trauma variables and cumulative exposure to trauma showed an association with physical and mental health (see main text for data. There was limited variance in results when each of the three models were run separately and when they were combined, suggesting the pervasive influence of these variables. The SF-8 showed good data quality and internal consistency. Conclusions This study provides evidence on the pervasive influence of demographic characteristics, living conditions, and violent and traumatic events on the general physical and

  10. AN OPHTHALMIC HEALTH SURVEY IN NORTHERN IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kh. Moradpour

    1974-06-01

    Full Text Available The province of Rudsar is located in the Caspian littoral zone of Iran. In 1970 an ophthalmic health survey was carried out in 25 units, which were selected by random sampling in these areas. A total of 2,165 persons were examined and the results of this evaluation have been prepared in 6 parts, consisting of ophthalmic conditions and health customs, infectious eye diseases, visual status and diseases, blindness and its causes, eye complications of malnutrition, and other eye disease. The prevalence of trachoma is 24% and of conjunctivitis 11.2%, but infectious eye diseases are mild in these areas and their complications are very rare, and trachoma is deviated mainly to inclusion conjunctivitis. Visual defect are important problem in the Rudsar area; 17.8% of the persons examined of 10 years of age and over, had visual defects. The most important causes of visual defects are refraction abnor­malities, especially myopic astigmatism and contact. Visual defects are more prevalent in females than in males. Of the total number of persons examined, 2.63% had infectious eye diseases, 2.77% had blindness in at least one eye and 56.7% of the blindness was caused by cataracts. The eye complications of avitaminosis A and ariboflavinosis were observed, especially in rural areas. The establish­ment of an ophthalmic clinic, the use of a mobile dispensary unit for diagnosis, procedures for introducing patients to the ophthalmic clinic, and special procedures for the health of school children would be beneficial and are recommended for the control of ophthalmic disease. It is also necessary to have a special survey on toxoplasmosis, an investigation for clarification of the causes of differences in visual defects in males and females, and a survey on the causes of blepharitis.

  11. Estado nutricional dos adolescentes e sua relação com variáveis sociodemográficas: Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde do Escolar (PeNSE, 2009 Nutritional status of adolescents and its relation with socio-demographics variables: National Adolescent School-based Health Survey (PeNSE, 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cora Araújo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se descrever o estado nutricional dos adolescentes da 9ª série de escolas públicas e privadas das capitais brasileiras e sua associação com variáveis sociodemográficas. Por meio de questionário autopreenchido, foram registradas informações sobre sexo, raça/cor, idade, escola pública/privada, macrorregião do país, escolaridade materna e posse de bens familiares. Peso e altura foram aferidos segundo procedimentos padronizados. A altura para idade e o Índice de Massa Corporal para idade foram avaliados segundo critérios da Organização Mundial da Saúde. Obtiveram-se medidas antropométricas de 58.971 adolescentes, sendo que 2,9% apresentaram déficit estatural e 2,9% magreza. O excesso de peso foi de 23,0% e a obesidade de 7,3%, sendo mais altos no Sul e no Sudeste do país. Déficits de altura e peso, excesso de peso e obesidade foram mais prevalentes nos meninos. Os déficits foram superiores nas escolas públicas, e o excesso de peso e a obesidade nas privadas. Adolescentes cujas mães eram de menor escolaridade ou de famílias mais pobres apresentaram maior déficit de altura; o inverso ocorreu com o excesso de peso e a obesidade. Prevalências de déficits, excesso de peso e obesidade ressaltam a necessidade de intervenções nutricionais direcionadas para esta fase da vida.The aim of this study was to describe the nutritional status of adolescents in the 9th year of public and private schools of the Brazilian capitals and its association with socio-demographic variables. By means of a self-completed questionnaire, information related to sex, race, age, public/private school, macro-region of the country, maternal education and family possessions were recorded. Measures of weight and height were measured according to standardized procedures. Height for age and body mass index for age was evaluated according to the World Health Organization reference. Anthropometric measurements of 58,971 adolescents were obtained, of

  12. A health and safety survey of Irish funeral industry workers.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelly, N

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Those handling deceased individuals, including the funeral industry, face a variety of health and safety hazards including occupationally acquired infectious disease. AIMS: To identify the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of Irish funeral industry workers towards occupational hazards and infectious disease in 2009. METHODS: The sample analysed consisted of all listed member premises of the Irish Association of Funeral Directors as at 1 July 2009. A postal survey was sent to each premises in July 2009, with two rounds of follow-up reviews sent to non-responders. Four main areas were covered--occupational hazards, embalming, industry expertise and demographics. The quantitative and qualitative results were analysed to assess knowledge, attitudes and beliefs. Data collection was completed on 31 December 2009. RESULTS: Two hundred and thirty listed member premises were contacted. Twenty-two were unsuitable for the survey. One hundred and thirty-eight valid replies were received from 130 premises, representing a premises response rate of 63% (130\\/208). Seventy-three premises (56%) identified themselves as embalmers. Embalmers had variable vaccine uptake and variable knowledge, attitude and beliefs towards embalming those with blood-borne viruses. Fifteen per cent of respondents reported a work-related injury, back injury being the most common. Splash and sharps injuries were reported as a work-related injury, and infections believed to be work related were also reported. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates widespread occupational health concerns among this professional group. It confirms the need for occupational health advice and services. There is also a strong desire for regulation of this profession in Ireland.

  13. [Survey on individual occupational health protection behaviors of welding workers using theory of reasoned action].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Ming-luan; Zhou, Xu-dong; Yuan, Wei-ming; Chen, Qing; Zhang, Mei-bian; Zou, Hua; Zhao, Hai-ying

    2012-03-01

    To apply theory of reasoned action at survey on welding workers occupational health protection behaviors and explore related influencing factors. nine companies were randomly selected from areas with many welding works in Zhejiang Province. All welding workers were surveyed using a questionnaire based on theory of reasoned action. 10.06%, 26.80% and 37.50% of the respondents never or seldom used eyeshade, mask and earplug, respectively. After controlling the socio-demographic factors, welding workers' behavioral belief was correlated with the behaviors of eyeshade-mask and earplug use (χ(2) = 31.88, 18.77 and 37.77, P Theory of reasoned action is suitable for welding worker occupational health related behaviors. It is useful to improve occupational health education, to effectively select health education objective and to tailor health education contents.

  14. Survey-related experiential and attitudinal correlates of future health survey participation: results of a statewide survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beebe, Timothy J; Jenkins, Sarah M; Anderson, Kari J; Davern, Michael E

    2008-12-01

    To determine the survey-related experiential and attitudinal correlates of future health-related survey participation. From July 21, 2005, through October 25, 2005, we conducted a mixed-mode mail and telephone survey of 1636 noninstitutionalized Minnesota residents aged 18 years or older. The overall response rate was 49%. We examined the unadjusted effect of each independent variable on the likelihood of future participation in health-related surveys using univariate logistic regression and discerned the relative contribution of the different variables with multivariate logistic regression analysis. Respondents were asked to complete an average of 4.5 different surveys in the year before the current survey; approximately a quarter of the respondents perceived these surveys to be burdensome. The likelihood of future participation in health-related surveys was negatively related to good health status, a busy schedule, and perceptions that the surveys were too long. Respondents were more than twice as likely to indicate that they would participate in a future health-related survey if they knew the organization doing the survey. For health-related surveys, investigators should remain mindful of people's busy schedules and keep their surveys as short as possible. Further research is needed to clarify whether the decision to participate in a survey hinges more on knowing the organization paying to have a survey performed (the sponsor) or the survey vendor collecting the data.

  15. National Mental Health Services Survey (N-MHSS), 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Mental Health Services Survey (N-MHSS) is designed to collect information from all specialty mental health facilities in the United States, both public...

  16. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2009-2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) is a program of studies designed to assess the health and nutritional status of adults and children in...

  17. Community Health Worker Professional Advocacy: Voices of Action from the 2014 National Community Health Worker Advocacy Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabo, Samantha; Wennerstrom, Ashley; Phillips, David; Haywoord, Catherine; Redondo, Floribella; Bell, Melanie L; Ingram, Maia

    2015-01-01

    This mixed-methods study explores community health worker (CHW) engagement in professional advocacy. Data from the National Community Health Worker Advocacy Survey (n = 1661) assessed the relationship between CHW professional advocacy and CHW demographics, and work characteristics. Qualitative data articulated the quality of professional advocacy efforts. Approximately, 30% of CHW respondents advocated for professional advancement or collaborated with other CHWs to advance the workforce. Advocacy was more prevalent among CHWs affiliated with a professional network. CHW advocacy targeted recognition of the field, appropriate training and compensation, and sustainable funding. CHW professional advocacy is imperative to advancement of the field.

  18. Socio-demographic correlates of sexual behaviours: a cross sectional survey of adolescents in Imo State secondary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwoke, E A; Okafor, J O; Chukwuocha, U M; Nworuh, B O

    2011-03-01

    The study was designed to determine the socio-demographic correlates of sexual behaviours of the adolescents in Imo State secondary schools. Three objectives and three hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. A cross sectional survey design was used and sample size was 3360 (2.2%) adolescents. A structured, validated and reliable questionnaire (r = 0.79) and focus group discussion were used as the instruments for data collection. Data analysis was done using mean and ANOVA statistics. The result generally, showed that the average sexual behaviours of the adolescents were below the decision mean of 2.50 and as such the adolescents were said to be sexually inactive. In Imo State secondary schools, various family sizes did not significantly influence the sexual behaviours of the adolescents (F-cal. 2.39, F-tab. 3.00 & P > 0.05), family structure significantly influenced their sexual behaviours (F-cal. 17.78, F-tab. 3.00 & P abortion and dropping out of school. Thus comprehensive sex education was recommended.

  19. Credibility and Usefulness of Health Information on Facebook: A Survey Study with U.S. College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Un; Syn, Sue Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: This study examines ways in which college students perceive the credibility and usefulness of health information on Facebook, depending on topic sensitivity, information source and demographic factors. Method: With self-selection sampling, data were collected from two universities through an online survey; 351 responses were used for…

  20. Demographic and Occupational Predictors of Early Response to a Mailed Invitation to Enroll in a Longitudinal Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-18

    Etter JF, Perneger TV: Analysis of non-response bias in a mailed health survey. J Clin Epidemiol 1997, 50(10):1123-1128. 11. Edwards P, Roberts I...to participate. Am J Epidemiol 2003, 157(1):66-73. 22. Groves RM, Cialdini RB, Couper MP: Understanding the decision to participate in a survey

  1. [Relationships between perception of Exercise Guidelines 2006, perception of other health promotion policies, and demographic variables].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Kazuhiro; Takaizumi, Kanae; Shibata, Ai; Oka, Koichiro; Nakamura, Yoshio

    2009-10-01

    According to the interim report of Healthy Japan 21, promoting Exercise Guideline 2006 is one important issue in the fields of physical activity and exercise. However, a previous study indicated that Japanese people rarely were aware of Exercise Guideline 2006 (Higo & Nakamura, 2008). The purpose of the present study was to identify characteristics of those who were aware of the guideline. The subjects were 1,613 Japanese adults (40.2 +/- 12.2 years) recruited by a Japanese social research company. The study designwas cross-sectional, using an internet questionnaire. Regarding the research items, the dependent variable was awareness of Exercise Guideline 2006, and the independent variables included awareness of other health promotion policies such as Healthy Japan 21, the Japanese Nutrition Balance Guide, and the Japanese national policy for preventing metabolic syndrome, as well as demographic variables (e.g., gender, age, BMI, hours per day spent watching TV watching and hours per day with internet usage). Logistic regression analysis was used for this research. Of all subjects, 12.3% answered that they were aware of Exercise Guideline 2006. Those over 50 years old (OR = 2.17; 95% CI = 1.11-4.22), having over 10 million household income (OR = 1.94; 99% CI = 1.05-3.61), an exercise habit (OR = 1.75; 95% CI = 1.07-2.86), an awareness of Healthy Japan 21 (OR = 23.60; 95% CI = 15.26-36.52), the Japanese Nutrition Balance Guide (OR = 5.52; 95% GCI = 3.01-10.13), and the Japanese national policy for preventing metabolic syndrome (OR = 3.41; 95% CI = 2.12-5.48) were significantly more likely to be aware of the guideline. Major findings of this study were: 1) older people are more aware of Exercise Guideline 2006 than their younger counterparts, although level of awareness was generally low; 2) for promotion of Exercise Guideline 2006, targeting those with a low educational background might not be a critical issue; and 3) awareness levels for Exercise Guideline 2006 and

  2. Understanding inequities in child vaccination rates among the urban poor: evidence from Nairobi and Ouagadougou health and demographic surveillance systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soura, Abdramane Bassiahi; Mberu, Blessing; Elungata, Patricia; Lankoande, Bruno; Millogo, Roch; Beguy, Donatien; Compaore, Yacouba

    2015-02-01

    Studies on informal settlements in sub-Saharan Africa have questioned the health benefits of urban residence, but this should not suggest that informal settlements (within cities and across cities and/or countries) are homogeneous. They vary in terms of poverty, pollution, overcrowding, criminality, and social exclusion. Moreover, while some informal settlements completely lack public services, others have access to health facilities, sewers, running water, and electricity. There are few comparative studies that have looked at informal settlements across countries accounting for these contextual nuances. In this paper, we comparatively examine the differences in child vaccination rates between Nairobi and Ouagadougou's informal settlements. We further investigate whether the identified differences are related to the differences in demographic and socioeconomic composition between the two settings. We use data from the Ouagadougou and Nairobi Urban Health and Demographic Surveillance Systems (HDSSs), which are the only two urban-based HDSSs in Africa. The results show that children in the slums of Nairobi are less vaccinated than children in the informal settlements in Ouagadougou. The difference in child vaccination rates between Nairobi and Ouagadougou informal settlements are not related to the differences in their demographic and socioeconomic composition but to the inequalities in access to immunization services.

  3. [Relevant methodological issues from the SBBrasil 2010 Project for national health surveys].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncalli, Angelo Giuseppe; Silva, Nilza Nunes da; Nascimento, Antonio Carlos; Freitas, Cláudia Helena Soares de Morais; Casotti, Elisete; Peres, Karen Glazer; Moura, Lenildo de; Peres, Marco A; Freire, Maria do Carmo Matias; Cortes, Maria Ilma de Souza; Vettore, Mario Vianna; Paludetto Júnior, Moacir; Figueiredo, Nilcema; Goes, Paulo Sávio Angeiras de; Pinto, Rafaela da Silveira; Marques, Regina Auxiliadora de Amorim; Moysés, Samuel Jorge; Reis, Sandra Cristina Guimarães Bahia; Narvai, Paulo Capel

    2012-01-01

    The SBBrasil 2010 Project (SBB10) was designed as a nationwide oral health epidemiological survey within a health surveillance strategy. This article discusses methodological aspects of the SBB10 Project that can potentially help expand and develop knowledge in the health field. This was a nationwide survey with stratified multi-stage cluster sampling. The sample domains were 27 State capitals and 150 rural municipalities (counties) from the country's five major geographic regions. The sampling units were census tracts and households for the State capitals and municipalities, census tracts, and households for the rural areas. Thirty census tracts were selected in the State capitals and 30 municipalities in the countryside. The precision considered the demographic domains grouped by density of the overall population and the internal variability of oral health indices. The study evaluated dental caries, periodontal disease, malocclusion, fluorosis, tooth loss, and dental trauma in five age groups (5, 12, 15-19, 35-44, and 65-74 years).

  4. Dietary Patterns in Pregnancy in New Zealand—Influence of Maternal Socio-Demographic, Health and Lifestyle Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare R. Wall

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Exploration of dietary pattern associations within a multi-ethnic society context has been limited. We aimed to describe dietary patterns of 5664 pregnant women from the Growing Up in New Zealand study, and investigate associations between these patterns and maternal socio-demographic, place of birth, health and lifestyle factors. Participants completed a food frequency questionnaire prior to the birth of their child. Principal components analysis was used to extract dietary patterns and multivariable analyses used to determine associations. Four dietary components were extracted. Higher scores on, ‘Junk’ and ‘Traditional/White bread’, were associated with decreasing age, lower educational levels, being of Pacific or Māori ethnicity and smoking. Higher scores on, ‘Health conscious’ and ‘Fusion/Protein’, were associated with increasing age, better self-rated health, lower pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI and not smoking. Higher scores on ‘Junk’ and ‘Health conscious’ were associated with being born in New Zealand (NZ, whereas higher scores on ‘Fusion/Protein’ was associated with being born outside NZ and being of non-European ethnicity, particularly Asian. High scores on the ‘Health conscious’ dietary pattern showed the highest odds of adherence to the pregnancy dietary guidelines. In this cohort of pregnant women different dietary patterns were associated with migration, ethnicity, socio-demographic characteristics, health behaviors and adherence to dietary guidelines.

  5. Dietary Patterns in Pregnancy in New Zealand-Influence of Maternal Socio-Demographic, Health and Lifestyle Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Clare R; Gammon, Cheryl S; Bandara, Dinusha K; Grant, Cameron C; Atatoa Carr, Polly E; Morton, Susan M B

    2016-05-19

    Exploration of dietary pattern associations within a multi-ethnic society context has been limited. We aimed to describe dietary patterns of 5664 pregnant women from the Growing Up in New Zealand study, and investigate associations between these patterns and maternal socio-demographic, place of birth, health and lifestyle factors. Participants completed a food frequency questionnaire prior to the birth of their child. Principal components analysis was used to extract dietary patterns and multivariable analyses used to determine associations. Four dietary components were extracted. Higher scores on, 'Junk' and 'Traditional/White bread', were associated with decreasing age, lower educational levels, being of Pacific or Māori ethnicity and smoking. Higher scores on, 'Health conscious' and 'Fusion/Protein', were associated with increasing age, better self-rated health, lower pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and not smoking. Higher scores on 'Junk' and 'Health conscious' were associated with being born in New Zealand (NZ), whereas higher scores on 'Fusion/Protein' was associated with being born outside NZ and being of non-European ethnicity, particularly Asian. High scores on the 'Health conscious' dietary pattern showed the highest odds of adherence to the pregnancy dietary guidelines. In this cohort of pregnant women different dietary patterns were associated with migration, ethnicity, socio-demographic characteristics, health behaviors and adherence to dietary guidelines.

  6. Dietary Patterns in Pregnancy in New Zealand—Influence of Maternal Socio-Demographic, Health and Lifestyle Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Clare R.; Gammon, Cheryl S.; Bandara, Dinusha K.; Grant, Cameron C.; Atatoa Carr, Polly E.; Morton, Susan M. B.

    2016-01-01

    Exploration of dietary pattern associations within a multi-ethnic society context has been limited. We aimed to describe dietary patterns of 5664 pregnant women from the Growing Up in New Zealand study, and investigate associations between these patterns and maternal socio-demographic, place of birth, health and lifestyle factors. Participants completed a food frequency questionnaire prior to the birth of their child. Principal components analysis was used to extract dietary patterns and multivariable analyses used to determine associations. Four dietary components were extracted. Higher scores on, ‘Junk’ and ‘Traditional/White bread’, were associated with decreasing age, lower educational levels, being of Pacific or Māori ethnicity and smoking. Higher scores on, ‘Health conscious’ and ‘Fusion/Protein’, were associated with increasing age, better self-rated health, lower pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and not smoking. Higher scores on ‘Junk’ and ‘Health conscious’ were associated with being born in New Zealand (NZ), whereas higher scores on ‘Fusion/Protein’ was associated with being born outside NZ and being of non-European ethnicity, particularly Asian. High scores on the ‘Health conscious’ dietary pattern showed the highest odds of adherence to the pregnancy dietary guidelines. In this cohort of pregnant women different dietary patterns were associated with migration, ethnicity, socio-demographic characteristics, health behaviors and adherence to dietary guidelines. PMID:27213438

  7. Distribution of Health-Related Physical Fitness in Texas Youth: A Demographic and Geographic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welk, Gregory J.; Meredith, Marilu D.; Ihmels, Michelle; Seeger, Chris

    2010-01-01

    This study examined demographic and geographic variability in aggregated school-level data on the percentage of students achieving the FITNESSGRAM[R] Healthy Fitness Zones[TM] (HFZ). Three-way analyses of variance were used to examine differences in fitness achievement rates among schools that had distinct diversity and socioeconomic status…

  8. First experiences in the implementation of biometric technology to link data from Health and Demographic Surveillance Systems with health facility data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adwoa Serwaa-Bonsu

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: In developing countries, Health and Demographic Surveillance Systems (HDSSs provide a framework for tracking demographic and health dynamics over time in a defined geographical area. Many HDSSs co-exist with facility-based data sources in the form of Health Management Information Systems (HMIS. Integrating both data sources through reliable record linkage could provide both numerator and denominator populations to estimate disease prevalence and incidence rates in the population and enable determination of accurate health service coverage. Objective: To measure the acceptability and performance of fingerprint biometrics to identify individuals in demographic surveillance populations and those attending health care facilities serving the surveillance populations. Methodology: Two HDSS sites used fingerprint biometrics for patient and/or surveillance population participant identification. The proportion of individuals for whom a fingerprint could be successfully enrolled were characterised in terms of age and sex. Results: Adult (18–65 years fingerprint enrolment rates varied between 94.1% (95% CI 93.6–94.5 for facility-based fingerprint data collection at the Africa Centre site to 96.7% (95% CI 95.9–97.6 for population-based fingerprint data collection at the Agincourt site. Fingerprint enrolment rates in children under 1 year old (Africa Centre site were only 55.1% (95% CI 52.7–57.4. By age 5, child fingerprint enrolment rates were comparable to those of adults. Conclusion: This work demonstrates the feasibility of fingerprint-based individual identification for population-based research in developing countries. Record linkage between demographic surveillance population databases and health care facility data based on biometric identification systems would allow for a more comprehensive evaluation of population health, including the ability to study health service utilisation from a population perspective, rather than the

  9. Mycological survey of selected health foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mislivec, P B; Bruce, V R; Andrews, W H

    1979-03-01

    A survey was conducted to compare the total viable fungal content and the number of different mold species encountered in 10 types of health foods labeled organically grown and in the same foods without such a label. The foods were wheat flour, corn meal, brown rice, figs, split peas, pinto beans, soybeans, walnuts, pecans, and peanuts. Results showed no consistent difference in either the total viable fungal content or the number of different mold species encountered between the labeled and unlabeled foods. Two genera of yeasts (Rhodotorula and Saccharomyces) and 22 gener of molds, including more than 65 species, were encountered. The mold flora was dominated by Aspergillus glaucus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus candidus, Penicillium cyclopium, and Penicillium viridicatum. Isolates of the genera Alternaria, Cladosporium, Fusarium, and Helminthosporium also occurred in certain foods. At least 10 toxicogenic species of Aspergillus and Penicillium were encountered. A total of 87 cultures of these species, all isolated from health foods, were screened for laboratory production of their respective toxins. Toxin production potential of these 87 cultures did not differ from that of cultures of the same species isolated from conventional foods.

  10. A review of national health surveys in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandona, Rakhi; Pandey, Anamika; Dandona, Lalit

    2016-04-01

    Several rounds of national health surveys have generated a vast amount of data in India since 1992. We describe and compare the key health information gathered, assess the availability of health data in the public domain, and review publications resulting from the National Family Health Survey (NFHS), the District Level Household Survey (DLHS) and the Annual Health Survey (AHS). We highlight issues that need attention to improve the usefulness of the surveys in monitoring changing trends in India's disease burden: (i) inadequate coverage of noncommunicable diseases, injuries and some major communicable diseases; (ii) modest comparability between surveys on the key themes of child and maternal mortality and immunization to understand trends over time; (iii) short time intervals between the most recent survey rounds; and (iv) delays in making individual-level data available for analysis in the public domain. We identified 337 publications using NFHS data, in contrast only 48 and three publications were using data from the DLHS and AHS respectively. As national surveys are resource-intensive, it would be prudent to maximize their benefits. We suggest that India plan for a single major national health survey at five-year intervals in consultation with key stakeholders. This could cover additional major causes of the disease burden and their risk factors, as well as causes of death and adult mortality rate estimation. If done in a standardized manner, such a survey would provide useable and timely data to inform health interventions and facilitate assessment of their impact on population health.

  11. Projection models for health-effects assessment in populations exposed to radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants. Volume I. Introduction to the SPAHR demographic model for health risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, J.J.; Lundy, R.T.; Grahn, D.; Ginevan, M.E.

    1982-09-01

    The Simulation Package for the Analysis of Health Risk (SPAHR) is a computer software package based upon a demographic model for health risk projections. The model extends several health risk projection models by making realistic assumptions about the population at risk, and thus represents a distinct improvement over previous models. Complete documentation for use of SPAHR is contained in this five-volume publication. The demographic model in SPAHR estimates population response to environmental toxic exposures. Latency of response, changing dose level over time, competing risks from other causes of death, and population structure can be incorporated into SPAHR to project health risks. Risks are measured by morbid years, number of deaths, and loss of life expectancy. Comparisons of estimates of excess deaths demonstrate that previous health risk projection models may have underestimated excess deaths by a factor of from 2 to 10, depending on the pollutant and the exposure scenario. The software supporting the use of the demographic model is designed to be user oriented. Complex risk projections are made by responding to a series of prompts generated by the package. The flexibility and ease of use of SPAHR make it an important contribution to existing models and software packages. The first volume presents the theory behind the SPAHR health risk projection model and several applications of the model to actual pollution episodes. The elements required for an effective health risk projection model are specified, and the models that have been used to date in health risk projections are outlined. These are compared with the demographic model, whose formulation is described in detail. Examples of the application of air pollution and radiation dose-response functions are included in order to demonstrate the estimation of future mortality and morbidity levels and the range of variation in excess deaths that occurs when populations structure is changed.

  12. Improving public health training and research capacity in Africa: a replicable model for linking training to health and socio-demographic surveillance data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill R. Williams

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Research training for public health professionals is key to the future of public health and policy in Africa. A growing number of schools of public health are connected to health and socio-demographic surveillance system field sites in developing countries, in Africa and Asia in particular. Linking training programs with these sites provides important opportunities to improve training, build local research capacity, foreground local health priorities, and increase the relevance of research to local health policy. Objective: To increase research training capacity in public health programs by providing targeted training to students and increasing the accessibility of existing data. Design: This report is a case study of an approach to linking public health research and training at the University of the Witwatersrand. We discuss the development of a sample training database from the Agincourt Health and Socio-demographic Surveillance System in South Africa and outline a concordant transnational intensive short course on longitudinal data analysis offered by the University of the Witwatersrand and the University of Colorado-Boulder. This case study highlights ways common barriers to linking research and training can be overcome. Results and Conclusions: This collaborative effort demonstrates that linking training to ongoing data collection can improve student research, accelerate student training, and connect students to an international network of scholars. Importantly, the approach can be adapted to other partnerships between schools of public health and longitudinal research sites.

  13. Veterans Health Administration Survey of Healthcare Experiences of Patients (SHEP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A list of VHA hospitals with inpatient experience of care survey data. The VA SHEP uses the same questions as the Hospital Consumer Assessment of Health Providers...

  14. Trends in the neonatal mortality rate in the last decade with respect to demographic factors and health care resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govande, Vinayak; Ballard, Amy R; Koneru, Madhavi; Beeram, Madhava

    2015-07-01

    To understand factors contributing to the neonatal mortality rate (NMR), we studied trends in the NMR during 2000 to 2009 with respect to demographic factors and health care resources. Birth- and death-linked mortality data for 14,168 neonatal deaths that occurred between 2000 and 2009 were obtained from the Texas Department of Health and Human Services. Demographic factors and health care resource data were analyzed using analysis of variance, chi-square tests, and linear regression analysis. The average NMR increased from 3.37 in 2000 to 3.77 in 2009. The NMR in blacks ranged from 6.57 to 8.97 during the study period. Among the babies who died, the mean birthweight decreased from 1505 to 1275 g (P < 0.001) and the mean gestational age decreased from 28.4 to 27.8 weeks (P < 0.001). Cesarean section deliveries increased from 32.7% to 44.9% (P < 0.001). The percentage of mothers receiving prenatal care increased from 81.4% to 86.6% (P < 0.001). Mothers with a college education increased from 8.8% to 20.5% (P < 0.001). The median household income increased from $41,047 to $49,189 (P < 0.001). The number of neonatal intensive care unit beds increased from 33.4 to 56 per 10,000 births, and the number of neonatologists increased from 0.27 to 0.40 per 10,000 women of 15 to 44 years of age. In conclusion, the NMR didn't improve despite improvements in demographic factors and health care resources. Racial disparities persist, with a high NMR in the black population. We speculate a possible genetic predisposition related to ethnicity, and a potentially higher rate of extreme prematurity might have contributed to a high NMR in the study population.

  15. Assessing positive mental health in people with chronic physical health problems: correlations with socio-demographic variables and physical health status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lluch-Canut, Teresa; Puig-Llobet, Montserrat; Sánchez-Ortega, Aurelia; Roldán-Merino, Juan; Ferré-Grau, Carmen

    2013-10-05

    A holistic perspective on health implies giving careful consideration to the relationship between physical and mental health. In this regard the present study sought to determine the level of Positive Mental Health (PMH) among people with chronic physical health problems, and to examine the relationship between the observed levels of PMH and both physical health status and socio-demographic variables. The study was based on the Multifactor Model of Positive Mental Health (Lluch, 1999), which comprises six factors: Personal Satisfaction (F1), Prosocial Attitude (F2), Self-control (F3), Autonomy (F4), Problem-solving and Self-actualization (F5), and Interpersonal Relationship Skills (F6). The sample comprised 259 adults with chronic physical health problems who were recruited through a primary care center in the province of Barcelona (Spain). Positive mental health was assessed by means of the Positive Mental Health Questionnaire (Lluch, 1999). Levels of PMH differed, either on the global scale or on specific factors, in relation to the following variables: age: global PMH scores decreased with age (r=-0.129; p=0.038); b) gender: men scored higher on F1 (t=2.203; p=0.028) and F4 (t=3.182; p=0.002), while women scored higher on F2 (t -3.086; p=0.002) and F6 (t=-2.744; p=0.007); c) number of health conditions: the fewer the number of health problems the higher the PMH score on F5 (r=-0.146; p=0.019); d) daily medication: polymedication patients had lower PMH scores, both globally and on various factors; e) use of analgesics: occasional use of painkillers was associated with higher PMH scores on F1 (t=-2.811; p=0.006). There were no significant differences in global PMH scores according to the type of chronic health condition. The only significant difference in the analysis by factors was that patients with hypertension obtained lower PMH scores on the factor Autonomy (t=2.165; p=0.032). Most people with chronic physical health problems have medium or high levels of PMH

  16. Autoavaliação do estado de saúde e a associação com fatores sociodemográficos, hábitos de vida e morbidade na população: um inquérito nacional Autoevaluación del estado de salud y la asociación con factores sociodemográficos, hábitos de vida y morbilidad en la población: una encuesta nacional Self-rated health and the association with social and demographic factors, health behavior, and morbidity: a national health survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Loureiro Werneck

    2013-04-01

    ónica y obesidad fueron los principales factores asociados a una mala autoevaluación. La identificación de las características de la población que están asociadas a un peor estado de salud percibido puede contribuir para trazar un perfil de los individuos más propensos a procurar los servicios de salud.Self-rated health is an important indicator used to measure health perception. This study aimed to investigate the association between self-rated health and social and demographic factors, health behavior, and morbidity. This was a cross-sectional study based on data from a national health survey. The sample consisted of 12,324 individuals from Brazil's five major geographic regions. Regression analyses were conducted to verify the association between the outcome and the following independent variables: gender, age, income, education, race, marital status, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, chronic illnesses, and body mass index. Increasing age, low education and income, smoking, sedentary habits, chronic illness, and obesity were the factors most strongly associated with worse self-rated health. The identification of population attributes associated with worse self-rated health can help trace a profile of individuals more prone to seeking health services.

  17. BEHAVIOR RISK FACTORS IN INDONESIA: NATIONAL HOUSEHOLD HEALTH SURVEY 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ch. M. Kristanti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A series of National Household Health Surveys (NHHS reported the occurrence of epidemiological transition caused by demographic transition and prolonged economical diversity, Communicable diseases are still prevalent, followed by the emergence of Non Communicable Diseases (NCDs, which are due to an increasing level of behavior risk factors in the population. In the NHHS 2001, a morbidity survey collected information about behavioral risk indicators, whereas the WHO'S STEPwise approach was one of the study instruments. The 'WHO Step 1 questionnaire' was adapted with some modifications. Samples of NHHS, morbidity survey was sub-sample of module sample of National Social Economic Survey (NSES 2001. A sample of 15,148 people aged 10 years+ were analyzed to identify their behavior regarding smoking, alcohol consumption and physical activity. These findings are a representation of the national figures, which were presented by characteristics of the population such as: sex, age, residence, region and economic status. Economic status was divided into 5 strata, which were calculated from a quintile of household expenditure. The results showed that 29.7% of the population aged 10 years+ are daily smokers. This is more prevalent in males than females (58.9% vs. 3.7%. This behavior increases by age group, except for the oldest; there are slightly more smokers in rural areas than urban areas (31% vs. 28%, and no difference among regions (30-31%. Those with better economic status are less likely to smoke than poorer ones. Alcohol consumption is reportedly very low (2.7%, more prevalent in males than females (4.9% vs. 0.8%, and higher in rural areas than urban areas (3.1% vs. 2.1%. Eastern Indonesia, was higher than Sumatra, Java and Bali (6.3%, 4.7%, and 1.2% respectively. There were no differences in alcohol consumption according to economic status'.' Physical inactivity is very high (68%, more prevalent in females than males (73% vs. 63%, and higher in

  18. Relation between demographic and epidemiological characteristics and permanency under a dental health care program for HIV infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squassi, A; Khaszki, C; Blanco, B; Schnaiderman, M; Scholnik, L; Bonazzi, M; Bordoni, N

    1998-01-01

    The association between factors involved in health care and the health status of the people has been proven. The use of health care services, particularly in the case of patients who suffer from chronic pathologies, has been the object of many studies aimed at establishing factors which contribute to guarantee permanence in treatment and implementation of health care controls. The purpose of the present study was to identify the response of HIV infected or AIDS patients to the oral health care program and establish the association between permanence in treatment and the presence of risk factors, epidemiological or demographic conditions of the users. Ninety patients selected at random from the 300 who attended the Clinic for High Risk Patient Care, School of Dentistry, University of Buenos Aires (CLAPAR, Spanish acronym) during 1994-1995 were included in this study. The patients were assigned to one of seven groups, according to their permanence in treatment and commitment to the program during the phase of maintenance in health. Each of these categories was characterized in terms of age, sex, educational level, place of residence (CIRFS, 1990), type of job, type of health coverage and place where healthcare was received, risk behavior and date of positive serological diagnosis. The frequency of each variable was established. Contingency tables were employed to establish the statistical significance of the association between the different variables and the patient categories. The data revealed that 24.2% of the patients performed occasional or emergency consultation, 57.1% achieved discharge with or without the assistance of the social worker or are still in treatment and 18.7% abandoned the program. Significant association were found between the response to odontological treatment and the following variables: place of residence, date of positive serological diagnosis, and risk behavior. We may conclude that certain demographic, epidemiological or life

  19. [Impact of demographic chance on pharmaceutical expenses in private health insurance--a scenario-based analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böcking, W; Tidelski, O; Skuras, B; Bäumler, A; Kitzmann, F

    2012-08-01

    Health Insurance costs in Germany have grown constantly over the last years. This increase of costs is not only observable in the total consideration but also in all single items. An outstanding growth rate exists in the field of pharmaceutical expenses. Detailed analyses of distribution and development of these costs, separated by age and indication groups, are currently only sporadically available and mostly focusing on the Statutory Health Insurance system in Germany. This research article is based on an initial data analysis and focuses on the question how pharmaceutical expenses in a German private health insurance company will develop until the year 2050, if the observed trend of the past years continues in the same way. This analysis focuses on different age groups. The objective is the demonstration of several scenarios, which illustrate the level of influence of different parameters (demographic changes, developments of prices for pharmaceuticals). Based on the cognition of certain effects measures for handling the growing challenge of financing the health system can be deduced. As a result, both demographic changes and price effects have an significant impact on the future development of per capita pharmaceutical expenses. Whereas older age groups will still cause the highest costs, the middle-aged people will show the highest growth rates. This strong cost increase is not sustainable for the German health insurance system. In addition to previous measures of a regulatory health policy (especially improved cost-benefit-assessments) the article shows new approaches for an intensified prevention and health promotion. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Conceptualizing childhood health problems using survey data: a comparison of key indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miller Anton R

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many definitions are being used to conceptualize child health problems. With survey data, commonly used indicators for identifying children with health problems have included chronic condition checklists, measures of activity limitations, elevated service use, and health utility thresholds. This study compares these different indicators in terms of the prevalence rates elicited, and in terms of how the subgroups identified differ. Methods Secondary data analyses used data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth, which surveyed a nationally representative sample of Canadian children (n = 13,790. Descriptive analyses compared healthy children to those with health problems, as classified by any of the key indicators. Additional analyses examined differences between subgroups of children captured by a single indicator and those described as having health problems by multiple indicators. Results This study demonstrates that children captured by any of the indicators had poorer health than healthy children, despite the fact that over half the sample (52.2% was characterized as having a health problem by at least one indicator. Rates of child ill health differed by indicator; 5.6% had an activity limitation, 9.2% exhibited a severe health difficulty, 31.7% reported a chronic condition, and 36.6% had elevated service use. Further, the four key indicators captured different types of children. Indicator groupings differed on child and socio-demographic factors. Compared to children identified by more than one indicator, those identified only by the severe health difficulty indicator displayed more cognitive problems (p Conclusion We provide information useful to researchers when selecting indicators from survey data to identify children with health problems. Researchers and policy makers need to be aware of the impact of such definitions on prevalence rates as well as on the composition of children classified as

  1. EJSCREEN Version 1, Demographic Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This map service displays demographic data used in EJSCREEN. All demographic data were derived from American Community Survey 2006-2010 estimates. EJSCREEN is an...

  2. Socioeconomic status and health communication inequalities in Japan: a nationwide cross-sectional survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiki Ishikawa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Considerable evidence suggests that communication inequality is one potential mechanism linking social determinants, particularly socioeconomic status, and health inequalities. This study aimed to examine how dimensions of health communication outcomes (health information seeking, self-efficacy, exposure, and trust are patterned by socioeconomic status in Japan. METHODS: Data of a nationally representative cross-sectional survey of 2,455 people aged 15-75 years in Japan were used for secondary analysis. Measures included socio-demographic characteristics, subjective health, recent health information seeking, self-efficacy in seeking health information, and exposure to and trust in health information from different media. RESULTS: A total of 1,311 participants completed the questionnaire, giving a response rate of 53.6%. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that education and household income, but not employment, were significantly associated with health information seeking and self-efficacy. Socioeconomic status was not associated with exposure to and trust in health information from mass media, but was significantly associated with health information from healthcare providers and the Internet. CONCLUSION: Health communication outcomes were patterned by socioeconomic status in Japan thus demonstrating the prevalence of health communication inequalities. Providing customized exposure to and enhancing the quality of health information by considering social determinants may contribute to addressing social disparities in health in Japan.

  3. Health inequalities: survey data compared to doctor defined data.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westert, G.P.; Schellevis, F.G.

    2003-01-01

    Aim: To compare prevalence of conditions and health inequalities in one study population using two methods of data collection: health interview survey and GP registration of consultations. Methods: Data is from the Second Dutch Survey of General Practice, using a multistage sampling design with appr

  4. Sport participation among individuals with acquired physical disabilities: group differences on demographic, disability, and Health Action Process Approach constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrier, Marie-Josée; Shirazipour, Celina H; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E

    2015-04-01

    Despite numerous physical, social, and mental health benefits of engaging in moderate and vigorous intensity physical activities (e.g., sport), few individuals with acquired physical disabilities currently participate in adapted sport. Theory-based sport promotion interventions are one possible way to increase the amount of individuals who engage in sport. The primary objective of this study was to examine the profiles of three different sport participation groups with respect to demographic, injury, and Health Action Process Approach (HAPA) constructs. ANOVAs and Chi-square tests were used to determine group differences on demographic and disability-related constructs. A MANCOVA was conducted to determine differences between three sport participation groups (non-intenders, intenders, and actors) with age, years post-injury, mode of mobility, and sex included as covariates. A cohort of 201 individuals was recruited; 56 (27.9%) were non-intenders, 21 (10.4%) were intenders, and 124 (61.7%) were actors. The MANCOVA revealed significant differences between groups on the HAPA constructs, F(22,370) = 9.02, p health behavior constructs differently based on their sport intentions. These results provide an important framework that adapted sport organizations can use to tailor their sport promotion programs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Assessing health consumerism on the Web: a demographic profile of information-seeking behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorence, Daniel P; Park, Heeyoung; Fox, Susannah

    2006-08-01

    The growing diversity of the online health information community is increasingly cited as a limiting factor related to the potential of the Internet as an effective health communication channel and information resource. Public-access Internet portals and decreasing costs of personal computers have created a consensus that unequal access to information, or a "Digital Divide," presents a like problem specific to health care consumers. Access to information, however, is an essential part of the consumer-centric framework outlined in the recently proposed U.S. National Health Information Infrastructure (NHII) and Health Architecture initiatives. To date little research has been done to differentiate the types of health information sought on the Web by different subgroups, linking user characteristics and health-seeking behaviors. Data from a study of consumer Web search activity in a post-intervention era serves as a natural experiment, and can identify whether a "digitally underserved group" persists in the United States. Such an environment would serve to exclude traditionally underserved groups from the benefits of the planned national heath information infrastructure. This exploratory technology assessment study seeks to differentiate and delineate specific behaviors, or lack of desired behaviors, across targeted health care subgroups. Doing so allows the design of more effective strategies to promote the use of the Web as a health education and health promotion tool, under the envisioned shared decision-making, consumer-centric health information model.

  6. Brief 75 Health Physics Enrollments and Degrees Survey, 2014 Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2015-03-05

    The 2014 survey includes degrees granted between September 1, 2013 and August 31, 2014. Enrollment information refers to the fall term 2014. Twenty-two academic programs were included in the survey universe, with all 22 programs providing data. Since 2009, data for two health physics programs located in engineering departments are also included in the nuclear engineering survey. The enrollments and degrees data includes students majoring in health physics or in an option program equivalent to a major.

  7. Brief 73 Health Physics Enrollments and Degrees Survey, 2013 Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2014-02-15

    The survey includes degrees granted between September 1, 2012 and August 31, 2013. Enrollment information refers to the fall term 2013. Twenty-two academic programs were included in the survey universe, with all 22 programs providing data. Since 2009, data for two health physics programs located in engineering departments are also included in the nuclear engineering survey. The enrollments and degrees data includes students majoring in health physics or in an option program equivalent to a major.taoi_na

  8. Efficiency of workplace surveys conducted by Finnish occupational health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savinainen, Minna; Oksa, Panu

    2011-07-01

    In Finland, workplace surveys are used to identify and assess health risks and problems caused by work and make suggestions for continuous improvement of the work environment. With the aid of the workplace survey, occupational health services can be tailored to a company. The aims of this study were to determine how occupational health professionals gather data via the workplace survey and the effect survey results have on companies. A total of 259 occupational health nurses and 108 occupational health physicians responded to the questionnaire: 84.2% were women and 15.8% were men. The mean age of the respondents was 48.8 years (range, 26 to 65 years). Usually occupational health nurses and foremen and sometimes occupational health physicians and occupational safety and health representatives initiate the workplace survey. More than 90% of the surveys were followed by action proposals, and about 50% of these were implemented. The proposals implemented most often concerned personal protective equipment and less often leadership. Survey respondents should have both the opportunity and the authority to affect resources, the work environment, work arrangements, and tools. Teamwork among occupational health and safety professionals, management, and employees is vital for cost-effectively solving today's complex problems at workplaces around the globe.

  9. Family socio-demographic factors and maternal obstetric factors influencing appropriate health-care seeking behaviours for newborn jaundice in Sagamu, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunlesi, Tinuade A; Ogunlesi, Funmilayo B

    2012-04-01

    Poor care-seeking behaviour of families may be responsible for the high prevalence of complications of newborn jaundice in the developing world. To examine the influence of family socio-demographic characteristics and maternal obstetric factors on health care-seeking behaviours for newborn jaundice and the inter-relationship between this behavior and severity of newborn jaundice. Mothers whose babies were referred to a Nigerian tertiary hospital with jaundice were studied in a cross-sectional survey for appropriate health-care seeking behaviours as well as the need for exchange transfusion and the occurrence of kernicterus in their babies. Out of 182 mother-baby pairs, 127 (69.8%) mothers recognized jaundice in their infants, 34.1% delayed care for ≥48 h, 40.6% sought medical care in orthodox health facilities while 20.9% did not seek care outside the home. In all, 61.5% mothers administered various medications to jaundiced babies. Appropriate health care-seeking behaviours were recorded among 28.6% mothers. Low maternal education had a significant relationship with delayed health care-seeking and the use of home remedies for newborn jaundice. A significantly higher proportion of babies who had home remedies had delayed care. Delayed care for ≥48 h was also significantly associated with high Total Serum Bilirubin on admission, higher requirement for exchange transfusion and higher occurrence of kernicterus. Intensive health education of families may help improve their health care-seeking behaviours for neonatal jaundice.

  10. Lessons learned from setting up the Nahuche Health and Demographic Surveillance System in the resource-constrained context of northern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olatunji Alabi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present time reflects a period of intense effort to get the most out of public health interventions, with an emphasis on health systems reform and implementation research. Population health approaches to determine which combinations are better at achieving the goals of improved health and well-being are needed to provide a ready response to the need for timely and real-world piloting of promising interventions. Objective: This paper describes the steps needed to establish a population health surveillance site in order to share the lessons learned from our experience launching the Nahuche Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS in a relatively isolated, rural district in Zamfara, northern Nigeria, where strict Muslim observance of gender separation and seclusion of women must be respected by any survey operation. Discussion: Key to the successful launch of the Nahuche HDSS was the leadership's determination, stakeholder participation, support from state and local government areas authorities, technical support from the INDEPTH Network, and international academic partners. Solid funding from our partner health systems development programme during the launch period was also essential, and provided a base from which to secure long-term sustainable funding. Perhaps the most difficult challenges were the adaptations needed in order to conduct the requisite routine population surveillance in the communities, where strict Muslim observance of gender separation and seclusion of women, especially young women, required recruitment of female interviewers, which was in turn difficult due to low female literacy levels. Local community leaders were key in overcoming the population's apprehension of the fieldwork and modern medicine, in general. Continuous engagement and sensitisation of all stakeholders was a critical step in ensuring sustainability. While the experiences of setting up a new HDSS site may vary globally, the experiences

  11. 75 FR 32191 - National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) DNA Samples: Guidelines for Proposals...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-07

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Health and Nutrition Examination...: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) is a program of periodic surveys... Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease...

  12. Distribution of health literacy strengths and weaknesses across socio-demographic groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beauchamp, Alison; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Dodson, Sarity

    2015-01-01

    Background: Recent advances in the measurement of health literacy allow description of a broad range of personal and social dimensions of the concept. Identifying differences in patterns of health literacy between population sub-groups will increase understanding of how health literacy contributes...... providers' (ES -1.00 [95 % CI -1.24, -0.75]), and 'Navigating the healthcare system' (ES -0.72 [95 % CI -0.97, -0.48]). Similar patterns and ES were seen for participants born overseas compared with those born in Australia. Smaller ES were seen for sex, age group, private health insurance status, number...

  13. Socio-demographic inequalities in the prevalence, diagnosis and management of hypertension in India: analysis of nationally-representative survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Kath A; Agrawal, Sutapa; Davey Smith, George; Ebrahim, Shah

    2014-01-01

    Hypertension is a major contributing factor to the current epidemic of cardiovascular disease in India. Small studies suggest high, and increasing, prevalence especially in urban areas, with poor detection and management, but national data has been lacking. The aim of the current study was to use nationally-representative survey data to examine socio-demographic inequalities in the prevalence, diagnosis and management of hypertension in Indian adults. Using data on self-reported diagnosis and treatment, and blood pressure measurement, collected from 12,198 respondents aged 18+ in the 2007 WHO Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health in India, factors associated with prevalence, diagnosis and treatment of hypertension were investigated. 22% men and 26% women had hypertension; prevalence increased steeply with body mass index (<18.5 kg/m(2): 18% men, 21% women; 25-29.9 kg/m(2): 35% men, 35% women), was higher in the least poor vs. poorest (men: odds ratio (95%CI) 1.82 (1.20 to 2.76); women: 1.40 (1.08 to 1.81)), urban vs. rural men (1.64 (1.19 to 2.25)), and men recently vs. never using alcohol (1.96 (1.40 to 2.76)). Over half the hypertension in women, and 70% in men, was undetected with particularly poor detection rates in young urban men, and in poorer households. Two-thirds of men and women with detected hypertension were treated. Two-thirds of women treated had their hypertension controlled, irrespective of urban/rural setting or wealth. Adequate blood pressure control was sub-optimal in urban men. Hypertension is very common in India, even among underweight adults and those of lower socioeconomic position. Improved detection is needed to reduce the burden of disease attributable to hypertension. Levels of treatment and control are relatively good, particularly in women, although urban men require more careful attention.

  14. Health, alcohol and psychosocial factors in Eastern Europe study: dietary patterns and their association with socio-demographic factors in the Lithuanian urban population of Kaunas city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luksiene, Dalia Ieva; Baceviciene, Migle; Tamosiunas, Abdonas; Daugeliene, Evelina; Kranciukaite, Daina

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the main dietary patterns in the Lithuanian urban population and to determine their association with socio-demographic factors. Data from the survey performed in the framework of the HAPIEE (Health, Alcohol, Psychosocial factors In Eastern Europe) study were presented. A random sample of 7,087 individuals aged 45-72 years was screened in 2006-2008. Factor analysis of the main dietary patterns revealed a five-factor solution, which accounted for 47.8% of the variance: "fresh vegetables and fruit"; "sweets"; "porridge and cereals"; "potatoes, meat, boiled vegetables and eggs"; "chicken and fish". "Fresh vegetables and fruits" factor and "sweets" factor were inversely associated with age both in men and women: older people consumed less frequent than average of the particular food groups. Dietary patterns of people with good self-rated health and university education were healthier than among people with lower education and poorer health. Nutrition education efforts should focus on improving food diversity, with particular targeting of lower educated, single and older people.

  15. Work participation in adults with Marfan syndrome: Demographic characteristics, MFS related health symptoms, chronic pain, and fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velvin, Gry; Bathen, Trine; Rand-Hendriksen, Svend; Geirdal, Amy Østertun

    2015-12-01

    Marfan syndrome (MFS) is a severe autosomal dominant connective tissue disorder that might influence peoples work ability. This cross sectional study aims to investigate work participation in adults with verified MFS diagnosis and to explore how the health related consequences of MFS and other factors might influence work participation. The prevalence of health problems in young adults compared to older adults with MFS was examined in association to work participation. A postal questionnaire including questions about work participation, demographic characteristics, MFS related health problems, chronic pain, and fatigue was sent to 117 adults with verified MFS (Ghent 1), and 62% answered. Fifty-nine percent were employed or students, significantly lower work participation than the General Norwegian Population (GNP), but higher than the Norwegian population of people with disability. Most young adults worked full-time despite extensive health problems, but the average age for leaving work was low. Few had received any work adaptations prior to retiring from work. In multiple logistic regression analysis, only age, lower educational level and severe fatigue were significantly associated with low work participation; not MFS related health problems or chronic pain. Fatigue appears to be the most challenging health problem to deal with in work, but the covariance is complex. Focus on vocational guidance early in life, more appropriate work adaptations, and psychosocial support might improve the possibility for sustaining in work for adults with MFS. More research about work challenges in adults with MFS is needed.

  16. Examining Linkages between Psychological Health Problems, Socio-Demographic Characteristics and Workplace Stressors in Pakistan's Academia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Anwar; Yusoff, Rosman Bin Md; Isa, Khairunesa Binti

    2016-01-01

    Scholarly work and research are globally known as stressful and challenging. Teachers may develop different psychological health problems once they are exposed to workplace stressors. Considering it as a serious issue of education sector, this study has examined the linkages between prevalent workplace stressors and psychological health problems…

  17. Asking about Sex in General Health Surveys: Comparing the Methods and Findings of the 2010 Health Survey for England with Those of the Third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Prah

    Full Text Available Including questions about sexual health in the annual Health Survey for England (HSE provides opportunities for regular measurement of key public health indicators, augmenting Britain's decennial National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal. However, contextual and methodological differences may limit comparability of the findings. We examine the extent of these differences between HSE 2010 and Natsal-3 and investigate their impact on parameter estimates.Complex survey analyses of data from men and women in the 2010 HSE (n = 2,782 men and 3,588 women and Natsal-3 undertaken 2010-2012 (n = 4,882 men and 6,869 women aged 16-69y and resident in England, both using probability sampling, compared their characteristics, the amount of non-response to, and estimates from, sexual health questions. Both surveys used self-completion for the sexual behaviour questions but this was via computer-assisted self-interview (CASI in Natsal-3 and a pen-and-paper questionnaire in HSE 2010.The surveys achieved similar response rates, both around 60%, and demographic profiles largely consistent with the census, although HSE participants tended to be less educated, and reported worse general health, than Natsal-3 participants. Item non-response to the sexual health questions was typically higher in HSE 2010 (range: 9-18% relative to Natsal-3 (all <5%. Prevalence estimates for sexual risk behaviours and STI-related indicators were generally slightly lower in HSE 2010 than Natsal-3.While a relatively high response to sexual health questions in HSE 2010 demonstrates the feasibility of asking such questions in a general health survey, differences with Natsal-3 do exist. These are likely due to the HSE's context as a general health survey and methodological limitations such as its current use of pen-and-paper questionnaires. Methodological developments to the HSE should be considered so that its data can be interpreted in combination with those from dedicated

  18. THE SELECTED ASPECTS OF SOCIOLOGICAL AND DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTIC OF PNEUMOCONIOSIS PATIENTS. INTRODUCTORY RESULTS OF A SOCIOLOGICAL SURVEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Erenkfeit

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of the study is a sociological description of people suffering from a pneumoconiosis. A sociological pilot survey performed on a group of patients with confirmed pneumoconiosis was conducted. Material and methods: The study was carried out by means of questionnaire in 133 patients. Following features were taken into consideration: age, sex, educational background, profession, type of activity, personal assessment of legislative acts, changes of professional ability after having been diagnosed as having pneumoconiosis, attitude towards offered aid to patients and preferred methods of support. Results: The population of people suffering from pneumoconiosis consists of mainly middle-aged and elderly men (98%. Most of them are pensioners (93%. Diagnosis of pneumoconiosis usually involves the patients going into retirement or a disability pension. The patients complain that they cannot count on government’s support. Rehabilitation and financial help are the major expected forms of support. Conclusions: People suffering from pneumoconiosis should be provided with rehabilitation and legal advices according to the advanced age and health condition. The results of research showed a lack of help in mentioned above issues, which should be a clue recommendation for institutions in charge of helping people suffering from occupational disease.

  19. Socio-demographic disparity in oral health among the poor: a cross sectional study of early adolescents in Kilwa district, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background There is a lack of studies considering social disparity in oral health emanating from adolescents in low-income countries. This study aimed to assess socio-demographic disparities in clinical- and self reported oral health status and a number of oral health behaviors. The extent to which oral health related behaviors might account for socio-demographic disparities in oral health status was also examined. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in Kilwa district in 2008. One thousand seven hundred and forty five schoolchildren completed an interview and a full mouth clinical examination. Caries experience was recorded using WHO criteria, whilst type of treatment need was categorized using the ART approach. Results The majority of students were caries free (79.8%) and presented with a low need for dental treatment (89.3%). Compared to their counterparts in opposite groups, rural residents and those from less poor households presented more frequently with caries experience (DMT>0), high need for dental treatment and poor oral hygiene behavior, but were less likely to report poor oral health status. Stepwise logistic regressions revealed that social and behavioral variables varied systematically with caries experience, high need for dental treatment and poor self reported oral health. Socio-demographic disparities in oral health outcomes persisted after adjusting for oral health behaviors. Conclusions Socio-demographic disparities in oral health outcomes and oral health behaviors do exist. Socio-demographic disparities in oral health outcomes were marginally accounted for by oral health behaviors. Developing policies and programs targeting both social and individual determinants of oral health should be an urgent public health strategy in Tanzania. PMID:20406452

  20. Socio-demographic disparity in oral health among the poor: a cross sectional study of early adolescents in Kilwa district, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrom Anne N

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a lack of studies considering social disparity in oral health emanating from adolescents in low-income countries. This study aimed to assess socio-demographic disparities in clinical- and self reported oral health status and a number of oral health behaviors. The extent to which oral health related behaviors might account for socio-demographic disparities in oral health status was also examined. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in Kilwa district in 2008. One thousand seven hundred and forty five schoolchildren completed an interview and a full mouth clinical examination. Caries experience was recorded using WHO criteria, whilst type of treatment need was categorized using the ART approach. Results The majority of students were caries free (79.8% and presented with a low need for dental treatment (89.3%. Compared to their counterparts in opposite groups, rural residents and those from less poor households presented more frequently with caries experience (DMT>0, high need for dental treatment and poor oral hygiene behavior, but were less likely to report poor oral health status. Stepwise logistic regressions revealed that social and behavioral variables varied systematically with caries experience, high need for dental treatment and poor self reported oral health. Socio-demographic disparities in oral health outcomes persisted after adjusting for oral health behaviors. Conclusions Socio-demographic disparities in oral health outcomes and oral health behaviors do exist. Socio-demographic disparities in oral health outcomes were marginally accounted for by oral health behaviors. Developing policies and programs targeting both social and individual determinants of oral health should be an urgent public health strategy in Tanzania.

  1. Correlations of indoor second-hand smoking, household smoking rules, regional deprivation and children mental health: Scottish Health Survey, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiue, Ivy

    2015-07-01

    It has been known that second-hand smoking and deprivation could cluster together affecting child health. However, little is known on the role of household smoking rules. Therefore, it was aimed to study the relationships among indoor second-hand smoking, household smoking rules, deprivation level and children mental health in a country-wide and population-based setting. Data was retrieved from and analysed in Scottish Health Survey, 2013. Information on demographics, indoor second-hand smoking status, household smoking rules, deprivation level and child mental health by Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire was obtained by household interview through parents. Statistical analysis included chi-square test and survey-weighted logistic regression modelling. Of 1019 children aged 4-12, 17.9% (n = 182) lived in the 15% most deprivation areas. Deprived areas tended to be where indoor smoking occurred (p health programs promoting strict household smoking rules should be encouraged in order to optimise children mental health.

  2. What factors influence the health status of patients with rheumatoid arthritis measured by the SF-12v2 Health Survey and the Health Assessment Questionnaire?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linde, Louise; Sørensen, Jan; Østergaard, Mikkel

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index (HAQ) is a widely used outcome measure in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), whereas the SF-12v2 Health Survey (SF-12) was introduced recently. We investigated how the HAQ and SF-12 were associated with socio-demographic, lifestyle, and dise......OBJECTIVE: The Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index (HAQ) is a widely used outcome measure in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), whereas the SF-12v2 Health Survey (SF-12) was introduced recently. We investigated how the HAQ and SF-12 were associated with socio-demographic, lifestyle......, and disease- and treatment-related factors in patients with RA. METHODS: In RA patients from 11 Danish centers, clinical and patient-reported data, including the HAQ and SF-12, were collected. Three multiple linear regression models were estimated, with the HAQ, SF-12 physical component score (PCS), and SF-12...... mental component score (MCS) as outcome and sociodemographic, lifestyle, and RA-related treatment and comorbidity characteristics as explanatory variables. RESULTS: In total, 3156 (85%) of 3704 invited patients participated--75% women, 76% rheumatoid factor-positive, median age 61 years (range 15-93 yrs...

  3. Measuring self-rated social health of Iranians: a population based survey in three cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kambiz Abachizadeh

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:Background and objectives: Social health as third dimension of health, along with physical and mental health, has drawn more attention in recent years among policy makers and health system managers. No other study, to our knowledge, has documented measuring individual-level social health in Iran. In response to this need, our study tends to assess Iranians self-rated social health through conducting a survey in 3 cities of Iran. Methods: We conducted a survey using cross sectional method in three cities of Iran included people more than 18 years old. We use a random sample size of 800 people. The scale provides a total score of social health and three sub-scores. Total score was calculated by summing all 33 items, so the range was between 33 to 165, considering that higher score indicating better social health. Psychometric parameters of scale were acceptable. To interpret scores, respondents were categorized into five ordered groups as quintiles for amount of social health. To compare social health scores in different demographic groups multiple linear regression was employed to interpret association between demographic variables and social health score. Results: From a pool of 800 persons, 794 (99% agreed to participate and filled out the questionnaire completely.  The mean of self-rated social health score was 105.0 (95% confidence interval, 103.8 to 106.2. 50% of participants had medium level of social health. social health score was higher for those who live in Urmia as a small city in comparison with big cities- Tehran and Isfahan (P V< 0.001 and was lower for unemployed people (PV= 0.029. There was no association between social health score and other factors such as sex, age and educational level (PV>0.05 Conclusion:This study may be considered as the first step in evidence-based policy-making in the field of social health in Iran. Certainly, it is necessary to conduct more studies to measure social health and its

  4. Health and demographic surveillance systems: a step towards full civil registration and vital statistics system in sub-Sahara Africa?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Yazoume

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the developed world, information on vital events is routinely collected nationally to inform population and health policies. However, in many low-and middle-income countries, especially those in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA, there is a lack of effective and comprehensive national civil registration and vital statistics system. In the past decades, the number of Health and Demographic Surveillance Systems (HDSSs has increased throughout SSA. An HDSS monitors births, deaths, causes of death, migration, and other health and socio-economic indicators within a defined population over time. Currently, the International Network for the Continuous Demographic Evaluation of Populations and Their Health (INDEPTH brings together 38 member research centers which run 44 HDSS sites from 20 countries in Africa, Asia and Oceana. Thirty two of these HDSS sites are in SSA. Discussion This paper argues that, in the absence of an adequate national CRVS, HDSSs should be more effectively utilised to generate relevant public health data, and also to create local capacity for longitudinal data collection and management systems in SSA. If HDSSs get strategically located to cover different geographical regions in a country, data from these sites could be used to provide a more complete national picture of the health of the population. They provide useful data that can be extrapolated for national estimates if their regional coverage is well planned. HDSSs are however resource-intensive. Efforts are being put towards getting them linked to local or national policy contexts and to reduce their dependence on external funding. Increasing their number in SSA to cover a critical proportion of the population, especially urban populations, must be carefully planned. Strategic planning is needed at national levels to geographically locate HDSS sites and to support these through national funding mechanisms. Summary The paper does not suggest that HDSSs should be

  5. Prevalence of mental health disorders and its associated demographic factors in resettled Afghan refugees of Dalakee Refugee Camp in Bushehr Province 2005

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    Fatemeh Azizi

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Iran has received Afghan refugees for many years. Few studies have been done to assess psychiatric morbidity among Afghan refugees in Iran, especially those who are resettled in camps. This study has been designed to determine the prevalence of mental health problems and the associated demographic factors, in Afghan refugees resettled in Dalakee refugee camp of Bushehr Province, in 2005. Methods: In this cross-sectional survey, a Persian version of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28 was administered to 321 resettled Afghan refugees with the minimum age of 15 years old who were randomly selected among 2200 residents of Dalakee refugee camp in Bushehr Province. Results: Among mental health subscales, the prevalence of social dysfunction, psychosomatic problem, anxiety and depression in the studied population were 80.1%, 48.9%, 39.3% and 22.1%, respectively. The total prevalence of mental health disorders in this camp was 88.5%. Male gender, living with more than eight persons per house, and being age ten or under at migration time were associated with higher level of social dysfunction. Higher rate of psychosomatic problem was associated with unemployment, being born in Iran, being age ten or under at migration time, and having no entertaining programs. Having 1-3 children, living with more than eight persons per house, and positive history of chronic disease were associated with higher level of anxiety. Having no entertaining programs, and family members' death during migration were associated with higher level of depression. Conclusion: Mental health problems related to immigration and living in camps, are common among Afghan refugees.

  6. The Evolving Demographic and Health Transition in Four Low- and Middle-Income Countries: Evidence from Four Sites in the INDEPTH Network of Longitudinal Health and Demographic Surveillance Systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayaga Bawah

    Full Text Available This paper contributes evidence documenting the continued decline in all-cause mortality and changes in the cause of death distribution over time in four developing country populations in Africa and Asia. We present levels and trends in age-specific mortality (all-cause and cause-specific from four demographic surveillance sites: Agincourt (South Africa, Navrongo (Ghana in Africa; Filabavi (Vietnam, Matlab (Bangladesh in Asia. We model mortality using discrete time event history analysis. This study illustrates how data from INDEPTH Network centers can provide a comparative, longitudinal examination of mortality patterns and the epidemiological transition. Health care systems need to be reconfigured to deal simultaneously with continuing challenges of communicable disease and increasing incidence of non-communicable diseases that require long-term care. In populations with endemic HIV, long-term care of HIV patients on ART will add to the chronic care needs of the community.

  7. Behavioural and psychological symptoms in the older population without dementia - relationship with socio-demographics, health and cognition

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    Brayne Carol

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Behavioural and psychological symptoms are associated with dementia, but are also present in a significant number of the older population without dementia. Here we explore the distribution of behavioural and psychological symptoms in the population without dementia, and their relationship with domains and severity of health and cognitive impairment. Methods The Medical Research Council Cognitive Function and Ageing Study is a two-phase longitudinal study of ageing representative of the population aged 65 and over of England and Wales. A subsample of 1781 participants without a study diagnosis of dementia was included in this study. Information on symptoms including depression, apathy, anxiety, feelings of persecution, hallucination, agitated behaviour, elation, irritability, sleep problems, wandering, confabulation and misidentification, cognitive function, health related factors and socio-demographic information was extracted from interviews with participants and knowledgeable informants. Participants were classified according to the Mini-Mental State Examination and by criteria for subtypes of mild cognitive impairment (MCI. The prevalence of behavioural and psychological symptoms and associations with cognitive function, health and socio-demographics was examined. Co-occurrence of symptoms was tested using factor analysis. Results Most symptoms were reported more frequently in those with more severe cognitive impairment. Subjective memory complaints were the strongest independent predictor of reported symptoms, and most were reported more often in those classified as having MCI than in those with cognitive impairments that did not meet the MCI criteria. The pattern of co-occurrence of symptoms is similar to that seen in dementia. Conclusions Our results highlight that behavioural and psychological symptoms are prevalent in the cognitively impaired older population, and partly explain the variation observed in previous

  8. Socio-demographic, behavioral, and health correlates of nutrition transition dietary indicators in San Juan, Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colón-Ramos, Uriyoán; Pérez-Cardona, Cynthia M; Monge-Rojas, Rafael

    2013-11-01

    To identify socio-demographic, behavioral, and health-related correlates of food preferences in Puerto Rico that will help determine Caribbean-region populations vulnerable to nutrition transition. Data from a cross-sectional study of a representative sample of 858 adults residing in the San Juan Metropolitan Area of Puerto Rico were analyzed. Multivariable ordinal logistic regressions were used to model the frequency of consumption of 1) fruits and vegetables, 2) tubers/starchy root vegetables, 3) fried foods, and 4) Western-style fast foods as a function of socio-demographic, behavioral, and health-related characteristics. Higher frequency of consumption of fruits and vegetables was associated with being physically active and older and having a medium to high level of education, whereas intake of tubers was associated with being older, having a low income, not using government insurance, and having elevated levels of triglycerides. Frequency of consumption of fast food was associated with younger age, higher income, 12-15 years of formal education, and a higher body mass index (BMI), whereas frequency of consumption of fried food was associated with being younger and male, not being a smoker, and having elevated levels of fasting blood glucose. The results indicate a nutrition transition in Puerto Rico with health consequences for the Caribbean region. The characteristics of this nutrition transition seem to be determined by income, education, and age, but may also be dictated by access to various food groups. These results set the stage for needed investigation of environmental and individual-level factors that could shape patterns in food consumption.

  9. Public health questions on physical disabilities and musculoskeletal conditions : studies using health surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Picavet, H.S.J.

    2001-01-01

    For population-based information on physical disability and musculoskeletal conditions health surveys are the most important source of information. In this thesis studies are presented on the methods of the health survey and on public health questions concerning physical disabilities and

  10. Demographics, phenotypic health characteristics and genetic analysis of centenarians in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Yi; Feng, Qiushi; Gu, Danan

    2017-01-01

    -year-age-specific trajectories of physical and cognitive functions, self-reported health, and life satisfactions from ages 65-69 to 100+, concluding that good psychological resilience and optimism are keys to the exceptional longevity enjoyed by centenarians. We discuss recent findings of novel loci and pathways...

  11. Progress towards millennium development goal 1 in northern rural Nicaragua: Findings from a health and demographic surveillance site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez Wilton

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Millennium Development Goal 1 encourages local initiatives for the eradication of extreme poverty. However, monitoring is indispensable to insure that actions performed at higher policy levels attain success. Poverty in rural areas in low- and middle-income countries remains chronic. Nevertheless, a rural area (Cuatro Santos in northern Nicaragua has made substantial progress toward poverty eradication by 2015. We examined the level of poverty there and described interventions aimed at reducing it. Methods Household data collected from a Health and Demographic Surveillance System was used to analyze poverty and the transition out of it, as well as background information on family members. In the follow-up, information about specific interventions (i.e., installation of piped drinking water, latrines, access to microcredit, home gardening, and technical education linked them to the demographic data. A propensity score was used to measure the association between the interventions and the resulting transition from poverty. Results Between 2004 and 2009, poverty was reduced as a number of interventions increased. Although microcredit was inequitably distributed across the population, combined with home gardening and technical training, it resulted in significant poverty reduction in this rural area. Conclusions Sustainable interventions reduced poverty in the rural areas studied by about one- third.

  12. Progress towards Millennium Development Goal 1 in northern rural Nicaragua: findings from a health and demographic surveillance site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Wilton; Blandón, Elmer Zelaya; Persson, Lars-Åke; Peña, Rodolfo; Källestål, Carina

    2012-08-15

    Millennium Development Goal 1 encourages local initiatives for the eradication of extreme poverty. However, monitoring is indispensable to insure that actions performed at higher policy levels attain success. Poverty in rural areas in low- and middle-income countries remains chronic. Nevertheless, a rural area (Cuatro Santos) in northern Nicaragua has made substantial progress toward poverty eradication by 2015. We examined the level of poverty there and described interventions aimed at reducing it. Household data collected from a Health and Demographic Surveillance System was used to analyze poverty and the transition out of it, as well as background information on family members. In the follow-up, information about specific interventions (i.e., installation of piped drinking water, latrines, access to microcredit, home gardening, and technical education) linked them to the demographic data. A propensity score was used to measure the association between the interventions and the resulting transition from poverty. Between 2004 and 2009, poverty was reduced as a number of interventions increased. Although microcredit was inequitably distributed across the population, combined with home gardening and technical training, it resulted in significant poverty reduction in this rural area. Sustainable interventions reduced poverty in the rural areas studied by about one-third.

  13. Survey explores nurses' of e-health tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallis, Alison

    2012-03-01

    E-health is concerned with promoting the health and wellbeing of individuals, families and communities, and improving professional practice through the use of information management and information and communication technology. In autumn 2010 the RCN, supported by an information technology consultancy, carried out a survey of members' views on e-health to assess their involvement in, and readiness for, e-health developments and their knowledge of its benefits. A total of 1,313 nurses, midwives, healthcare support workers and pre-registration students from across the UK responded. This article describes ways in which nurse managers can influence the successful implementation of the survey recommendations.

  14. Laboratory Demographics Lookup Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This website provides demographic information about laboratories, including CLIA number, facility name and address, where the laboratory testing is performed, the...

  15. Trends in sexual orientation missing data over a decade of the California Health Interview Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jans, Matt; Viana, Joseph; Grant, David; Cochran, Susan D; Lee, Annie C; Ponce, Ninez A

    2015-05-01

    We explored changes in sexual orientation question item completion in a large statewide health survey. We used 2003 to 2011 California Health Interview Survey data to investigate sexual orientation item nonresponse and sexual minority self-identification trends in a cross-sectional sample representing the noninstitutionalized California household population aged 18 to 70 years (n = 182 812 adults). Asians, Hispanics, limited-English-proficient respondents, and those interviewed in non-English languages showed the greatest declines in sexual orientation item nonresponse. Asian women, regardless of English-proficiency status, had the highest odds of item nonresponse. Spanish interviews produced more nonresponse than English interviews and Asian-language interviews produced less nonresponse when we controlled for demographic factors and survey cycle. Sexual minority self-identification increased in concert with the item nonresponse decline. Sexual orientation nonresponse declines and the increase in sexual minority identification suggest greater acceptability of sexual orientation assessment in surveys. Item nonresponse rate convergence among races/ethnicities, language proficiency groups, and interview languages shows that sexual orientation can be measured in surveys of diverse populations.

  16. PSA testing without clinical indication for prostate cancer in relation to socio-demographic and clinical characteristics in the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, Randi V; Larsen, Signe B; Christensen, Jane

    2013-01-01

    associations between socio-demographic or clinical characteristics and PSA testing without clinical indication. Material and methods. In the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health Cohort, we identified 1051 men with PC diagnosed in 1993-2008. Diagnostic and clinical characteristics were obtained from medical records......, and socio-demographic information was retrieved from administrative registers. We used general logistic regression analysis to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations between socio-demographic or clinical characteristics and PSA testing without clinical indication. Cox...

  17. Health behaviours associated with indoor tanning based on the 2012/13 Manitoba Youth Health Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Harland

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Although indoor tanning causes cancer, it remains relatively common among adolescents. Little is known about indoor tanning prevalence and habits in Canada, and even less about associated behaviours. This study explores the prevalence of adolescent indoor tanning in Manitoba and its association with other demographic characteristics and health behaviours. Methods: We conducted secondary analyses of the 2012/13 Manitoba Youth Health Survey data collected from Grade 7 to 12 students (n = 64 174 and examined associations between indoor tanning (whether participants had ever used artificial tanning equipment and 25 variables. Variables with statistically significant associations to indoor tanning were tested for collinearity and grouped based on strong associations. For each group of highly associated variables, the variable with the greatest effect upon indoor tanning was placed into the final logistic regression model. Separate analyses were conducted for males and females to better understand sex-based differences, and analyses were adjusted for age. Results: Overall, 4% of male and 9% of female students reported indoor tanning, and prevalence increased with age. Relationships between indoor tanning and other variables were similar for male and female students. Binary logistic regression models indicated that several variables significantly predicted indoor tanning, including having part-time work, being physically active, engaging in various risk behaviours such as driving after drinking for males and unplanned sex after alcohol/drugs for females, experiencing someone say something bad about one's body shape/size/appearance, identifying as trans or with another gender, consuming creatine/other supplements and, for females only, never/rarely using sun protection. Conclusion: Indoor tanning among adolescents was associated with age, part-time work, physical activity and many consumption behaviours and lifestyle risk factors. Though

  18. Clustering of health-related behaviors, health outcomes and demographics in Dutch adolescents: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Busch, Vincent; van Stel, Henk F; Schrijvers, Augustinus JP; de Leeuw, Johannes RJ

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent studies show several health-related behaviors to cluster in adolescents. This has important implications for public health. Interrelated behaviors have been shown to be most effectively targeted by multimodal interventions addressing wider-ranging improvements in lifestyle instead of via separate interventions targeting individual behaviors. However, few previous studies have taken into account a broad, multi-disciplinary range of health-related behaviors and connected these...

  19. Influence of socio-demographic, labour and professional factors on nursing perception concerning practice environment in Primary Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parro Moreno, Ana; Serrano Gallardo, Pilar; Ferrer Arnedo, Carmen; Serrano Molina, Lucía; de la Puerta Calatayud, M Luisa; Barberá Martín, Aurora; Morales Asencio, José Miguel; de Pedro Gómez, Joan

    2013-11-01

    To analyze the perception of nursing professionals of the Madrid Primary Health Care environment in which they practice, as well as its relationship with socio-demographic, work-related and professional factors. Cross-sectional, analytical, observational study. Questionnaire sent to a total of 475 nurses in Primary Health Care in Madrid (former Health Care Areas 6 and 9), in 2010. Perception of the practice environment using the Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index (PES-NWI) questionnaire, as well as; age; sex; years of professional experience; professional category; Health Care Area; employment status and education level. There was a response rate of 69.7% (331). The raw score for the PES-NWI was: 81.04 [95%CI: 79.18-82.91]. The factor with the highest score was "Support from Managers" (2.9 [95%CI: 2.8-3]) and the lowest "Workforce adequacy" (2.3 [95%CI: 2.2-2.4]). In the regression model (dependent variable: raw score in PES-NWI), adjusted by age, sex, employment status, professional category (coefficient B=6.586), and years worked at the centre (coefficient B=2.139, for a time of 0-2 years; coefficient B=7.482, for 3-10 years; coefficient B=7.867, for over 20 years) remained at p≤0.05. The support provided by nurse managers is the most highly valued factor in this practice environment, while workforce adequacy is perceived as the lowest. Nurses in posts of responsibility and those possessing a higher degree of training perceive their practice environment more favourably. Knowledge of the factors in the practice environment is a key element for health care organizations to optimize provision of care and to improve health care results. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  20. New Mexico Adolescent Health Risks Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antle, David

    To inform students of health risks (posed by behavior, environment, and genetics) and provide schools with collective risk appraisal information as a basis for planning/evaluating health and wellness initiatives, New Mexico administered the Teen Wellness Check in 1985 to 1,573 ninth-grade students from 7 New Mexico public schools. Subjects were…

  1. Demographic profile and health conditions of the elderly in a community in an urban area of Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telarolli Junior Rodolpho

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Some specific characteristics of the aging of the Brazilian population in different areas, states and communities all over the country, have shown significant variations. Historical series of demographic and health indicators for the population in their sixties and over in Brazil, state of S. Paulo and in the municipal district of Araraquara are listed as follows: level of education and urban population growth rate, income distribution, mortality rates and main causes of death. In 1991 the aged constituled were 7,8% of the Brazilian population and 9,7% in Araraquara community. The elderly population (of 70 years of aged and above as a proportion of the whole, has increased and already stands for 40%. The same trend holds good for both the proportion of aged within the urban population and their level of education wich increased to 90% in 1991. The main causes of death are chronic degenerative diseases which have replaced the infectious illness: firts, the diseases of the circulatory sistem (which account for more than 40% of all deaths and the neoplasms (which let to 15% of the deaths. On the basis of these health and demographic data relating to people of 60 years of age and over, this study suggests some procedures for the improvement of the quality of the assistance given to the target population: a the assistance give to the aged should be improved by providing gerontological training for general physicians and nurses, both of public and private clinics; b the already exixting educational activities for the aged, for health workers and for teachers of secundary education should be further developed; c the number of day-hospitals should be increased for the purpose of avoiding unnecessary confinement so as maintain the low rate of institutionalization in homes for the elderly (0,7% in Araraquara. It is reported that at least 35% of the aged population in this area is entitled to private health assistance, wich brings out the importance of

  2. Tackling malnutrition: a systematic review of 15-year research evidence from INDEPTH health and demographic surveillance systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Samuelina S; Nyide, Bongiwe; Soura, Abdramane Bassiahi; Kahn, Kathleen; Weston, Mark; Sankoh, Osman

    2015-01-01

    Nutrition is the intake of food in relation to the body's dietary needs. Malnutrition results from the intake of inadequate or excess food. This can lead to reduced immunity, increased susceptibility to disease, impaired physical and mental development, and reduced productivity. To perform a systematic review to assess research conducted by the International Network for the Demographic Evaluation of Populations and their Health (INDEPTH) of health and demographic surveillance systems (HDSSs) over a 15-year period on malnutrition, its determinants, the effects of under and over nutrition, and intervention research on malnutrition in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Relevant publication titles were uploaded onto the Zotero research tool from different databases (60% from PubMed). Using the keywords 'nutrition', 'malnutrition', 'over and under nutrition', we selected publications that were based only on data generated through the longitudinal HDSS platform. All titles and abstracts were screened to determine inclusion eligibility and full articles were independently assessed according to inclusion/exclusion criteria. For inclusion in this study, papers had to cover research on at least one of the following topics: the problem of malnutrition, its determinants, its effects, and intervention research on malnutrition. One hundred and forty eight papers were identified and reviewed, and 67 were selected for this study. The INDEPTH research identified rising levels of overweight and obesity, sometimes in the same settings as under-nutrition. Urbanisation appears to be protective against under-nutrition, but it heightens the risk of obesity. Appropriately timed breastfeeding interventions were protective against malnutrition. Although INDEPTH has expanded the global knowledge base on nutrition, many questions remain unresolved. There is a need for more investment in nutrition research in LMICs in order to generate evidence to inform policies in these settings.

  3. Demographic and urban form correlates of healthful and unhealthful food availability in Montréal, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Mark; Kestens, Yan; Paquet, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    This study sought to extend previous analyses of food insecurity in Montreal by examining the relationship between neighbourhood sociodemographic and urban form variables and sources of food both unhealthful (fast-food outlets, FFO) and healthful (stores selling fruits and vegetables, FVS). Densities of FFO and FVS were computed for 862 Census tract areas (CTA) (defined as census tract with a 1-km buffer around its limits) for the Montréal Census Metropolitan Area (CMA). Predictor variables included CTA socio-demographic characteristics reflecting income, household structure, language, and education, and urban form measures, specifically, densities of local roads, main roads, expressways and highways. Food source densities were regressed on CTA characteristics using stepwise regression. Socio-demographic and urban form measures explained 60% and 73% of the variance in densities of FFO and FVS, respectively. FFO were more prevalent in CTA with higher proportions of full-time students and households speaking neither French nor English; lower proportions of married individuals, children and older adults; and more high-traffic roads. FVS were more prevalent in CTA with higher proportions of single residents, university-educated residents and households speaking neither French nor English; lower proportion of French-speakers; and more local roads. Median household income was not related to the density of FFO or FVS. The availability of healthful and unhealthful food varies across the Montréal CMA. Areas with lower education and more French-speaking households have a lesser availability of FVS. The association of FFO with high-traffic roadways and areas with high school attendance suggests a point for intervention via commercial zoning changes.

  4. Tackling malnutrition: a systematic review of 15-year research evidence from INDEPTH health and demographic surveillance systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuelina S. Arthur

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nutrition is the intake of food in relation to the body's dietary needs. Malnutrition results from the intake of inadequate or excess food. This can lead to reduced immunity, increased susceptibility to disease, impaired physical and mental development, and reduced productivity. Objective: To perform a systematic review to assess research conducted by the International Network for the Demographic Evaluation of Populations and their Health (INDEPTH of health and demographic surveillance systems (HDSSs over a 15-year period on malnutrition, its determinants, the effects of under and over nutrition, and intervention research on malnutrition in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs. Methods: Relevant publication titles were uploaded onto the Zotero research tool from different databases (60% from PubMed. Using the keywords ‘nutrition’, ‘malnutrition’, ‘over and under nutrition’, we selected publications that were based only on data generated through the longitudinal HDSS platform. All titles and abstracts were screened to determine inclusion eligibility and full articles were independently assessed according to inclusion/exclusion criteria. For inclusion in this study, papers had to cover research on at least one of the following topics: the problem of malnutrition, its determinants, its effects, and intervention research on malnutrition. One hundred and forty eight papers were identified and reviewed, and 67 were selected for this study. Results: The INDEPTH research identified rising levels of overweight and obesity, sometimes in the same settings as under-nutrition. Urbanisation appears to be protective against under-nutrition, but it heightens the risk of obesity. Appropriately timed breastfeeding interventions were protective against malnutrition. Conclusions: Although INDEPTH has expanded the global knowledge base on nutrition, many questions remain unresolved. There is a need for more investment in nutrition research

  5. Energy drink consumption and the relation to socio-demographic factors and health behaviour among young adults in Denmark. A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friis, Karina; Lyng, Jeppe I; Lasgaard, Mathias; Larsen, Finn B

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study is to estimate the prevalence of energy drink consumption and examine the associations of socio-demographic factors and health behaviour with energy drink consumption among young adults in Denmark. The study is based on a public health survey from 2010 (n = 3923). Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to analyse the association between weekly consumption of energy drink and the potential explanatory factors of interest. In total, 15.8 % of the young adults drink energy drinks on a weekly basis. Men have higher odds of weekly energy drink consumption than women. The study also shows that young age, being employed and having a low educational level are associated with weekly energy drink consumption. According to health behaviour, daily smoking, high amounts of alcohol consumption, alcoholic binge drinking and being overweight are associated with weekly energy drink consumption. Compared with other European countries the prevalence of energy drink consumption is relatively low in Denmark. In Denmark energy drink consumption is typically a male phenomenon and there is a clear social gradient in the prevalence of energy drink consumption where the intake is far more common among people with low levels of education than among people with higher levels of education. This study also shows that there is some kind of 'add on' effect of energy drinks, meaning that people who also use other stimulants-such as alcohol and cigarettes-are more inclined to consume energy drinks. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  6. Participation in Social Activities and the Association with Socio-Demographic and Health-Related Factors among Community-Dwelling Older Adults in Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willie-Tyndale, Douladel; Holder-Nevins, Desmalee; Mitchell-Fearon, Kathryn; James, Kenneth; Laws, Hazel; Waldron, Norman K; Eldemire-Shearer, Denise

    2016-12-01

    Social participation is critical for maintaining independence and facilitating active ageing. The aim of this paper is to describe participation in social activities among older adults in Jamaica and to identify independently associated socio-demographic and health characteristics. We analysed data from a nationally representative, community-based survey of 2943 persons 60 years and older. Sixty-three percent of older adults attended religious services and 60 % were visited by friends at least once per month in the 12 months preceding the survey. Age was not independently associated with social participation. Persons with post-secondary level education were twice as likely as those with primary education or less, to be visited by friends and to attend meetings of formal organisations. Men, persons not in union, and those with less functional independence had reduced odds of attending meetings of formal organisations. These variables were however not independently associated with having visits with friends. Persons with a positive depression screen were between 42 % and 44 % less likely to be visited by friends. Persons who received an income through livestock/farming were more likely to visit or be visited by friends. The variables independently associated with social participation vary depending on the type of social activity considered. Where possible, health and social interventions should focus on prevention, delay and reversal of risk factors associated with reduced social participation. Social participation programmes should be prioritized and be informed by input from older adults. Future research should include other forms of social interactions and clarify older adults' perceptions of their quality.

  7. Analysis of Binary Multivariate Longitudinal Data via 2-Dimensional Orbits: An Application to the Agincourt Health and Socio-Demographic Surveillance System in South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Vivien Visaya

    Full Text Available We analyse demographic longitudinal survey data of South African (SA and Mozambican (MOZ rural households from the Agincourt Health and Socio-Demographic Surveillance System in South Africa. In particular, we determine whether absolute poverty status (APS is associated with selected household variables pertaining to socio-economic determination, namely household head age, household size, cumulative death, adults to minor ratio, and influx. For comparative purposes, households are classified according to household head nationality (SA or MOZ and APS (rich or poor. The longitudinal data of each of the four subpopulations (SA rich, SA poor, MOZ rich, and MOZ poor is a five-dimensional space defined by binary variables (questions, subjects, and time. We use the orbit method to represent binary multivariate longitudinal data (BMLD of each household as a two-dimensional orbit and to visualise dynamics and behaviour of the population. At each time step, a point (x, y from the orbit of a household corresponds to the observation of the household, where x is a binary sequence of responses and y is an ordering of variables. The ordering of variables is dynamically rearranged such that clusters and holes associated to least and frequently changing variables in the state space respectively, are exposed. Analysis of orbits reveals information of change at both individual- and population-level, change patterns in the data, capacity of states in the state space, and density of state transitions in the orbits. Analysis of household orbits of the four subpopulations show association between (i households headed by older adults and rich households, (ii large household size and poor households, and (iii households with more minors than adults and poor households. Our results are compared to other methods of BMLD analysis.

  8. Analysis of Binary Multivariate Longitudinal Data via 2-Dimensional Orbits: An Application to the Agincourt Health and Socio-Demographic Surveillance System in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visaya, Maria Vivien; Sherwell, David; Sartorius, Benn; Cromieres, Fabien

    2014-01-01

    We analyse demographic longitudinal survey data of South African (SA) and Mozambican (MOZ) rural households from the Agincourt Health and Socio-Demographic Surveillance System in South Africa. In particular, we determine whether absolute poverty status (APS) is associated with selected household variables pertaining to socio-economic determination, namely household head age, household size, cumulative death, adults to minor ratio, and influx. For comparative purposes, households are classified according to household head nationality (SA or MOZ) and APS (rich or poor). The longitudinal data of each of the four subpopulations (SA rich, SA poor, MOZ rich, and MOZ poor) is a five-dimensional space defined by binary variables (questions), subjects, and time. We use the orbit method to represent binary multivariate longitudinal data (BMLD) of each household as a two-dimensional orbit and to visualise dynamics and behaviour of the population. At each time step, a point (x, y) from the orbit of a household corresponds to the observation of the household, where x is a binary sequence of responses and y is an ordering of variables. The ordering of variables is dynamically rearranged such that clusters and holes associated to least and frequently changing variables in the state space respectively, are exposed. Analysis of orbits reveals information of change at both individual- and population-level, change patterns in the data, capacity of states in the state space, and density of state transitions in the orbits. Analysis of household orbits of the four subpopulations show association between (i) households headed by older adults and rich households, (ii) large household size and poor households, and (iii) households with more minors than adults and poor households. Our results are compared to other methods of BMLD analysis.

  9. How do demographic transitions and public health policies affect patients with Parkinson’s disease in Brazil?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovolenta, Tânia M; Felicio, Andre C

    2017-01-01

    Brazil is currently experiencing a significant demographic transition characterized by a decrease in fertility rates and an exponential increase in the number of elderly citizens, which presents a special challenge for the health care professionals. More than other portions of the population, the elderly are most commonly affected by chronic diseases such as Parkinson’s disease. Policymakers contend that Brazil is reasonably well-prepared regarding elderly health care, with policies that aim to ensure the quality of life and the well-being of this portion of the population. However, what happens in practice falls short of what the Brazilian Constitution sets forth. Specifically, there is a clear contradiction between what the law recognizes as being a citizen’s rights and the implementation of guidelines. Because health financing in Brazil remains relatively low, the civil society tries to fill in the gaps as much as possible in the treatment of elderly patients suffering from chronic diseases such as Parkinson’s disease. In this review, we outline the current legislation in Brazil regarding the elderly and in particular, patients with Parkinson’s disease, in the context of a rapidly aging population. PMID:28182156

  10. Prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of time spent cooking by adults in the 2005 UK Time Use Survey. Cross-sectional analysis☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Jean; White, Martin

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to document the prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of time spent cooking by adults in the 2005 UK Time-Use Survey. Respondents reported their main activities, in 10 minute slots, throughout one 24 hour period. Activities were coded into 30 pre-defined codes, including ‘cooking, washing up’. Four measures of time spent cooking were calculated: any time spent cooking, 30 continuous minutes spent cooking, total time spent cooking, and longest continuous time spent cooking. Socio-demographic correlates were: age, employment, social class, education, and number of adults and children in the household. Analyses were stratified by gender. Data from 4214 participants were included. 85% of women and 60% of men spent any time cooking; 60% of women and 33% of men spent 30 continuous minutes cooking. Amongst women, older age, not being in employment, lower social class, greater education, and living with other adults or children were positively associated with time cooking. Few differences in time spent cooking were seen in men. Socio-economic differences in time spent cooking may have been overstated as a determinant of socio-economic differences in diet, overweight and obesity. Gender was a stronger determinant of time spent cooking than other socio-demographic variables. PMID:26004671

  11. Challenges and barriers to health care and overall health in older residents of Alaska: evidence from a national survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia D. Foutz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: From 1970 to 2010, the Alaskan population increased from 302,583 to 698,473. During that time, the growth rate of Alaskan seniors (65+ was 4 times higher than their national counterparts. Ageing in Alaska requires confronting unique environmental, sociodemographic and infrastructural challenges, including an extreme climate, geographical isolation and less developed health care infrastructure compared to the continental US. Objective: The objective of this analysis is to compare the health needs of Alaskan seniors to those in the continental US. Design: We abstracted 315,161 records of individuals age 65+ from the 2013 and 2014 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, of which 1,852 were residents of Alaska. To compare residents of Alaska to residents of the 48 contiguous states we used generalized linear models which allowed us to adjust for demographic differences and survey weighting procedures. We examined 3 primary outcomes – general health status, health care coverage status and length of time since last routine check-up. Results: Alaskan seniors were 59% less likely to have had a routine check-up in the past year and 12% less likely to report excellent health status than comparable seniors in the contiguous US. Conclusions: Given the growth rate of Alaskan seniors and inherent health care challenges this vulnerable population faces, future research should examine the specific pathways through which these disparities occur and inform policies to ensure that all US seniors, regardless of geographical location, have access to high-quality health services.

  12. The Survey of the Health of Wisconsin (SHOW, a novel infrastructure for population health research: rationale and methods

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    Friedman Elliot M

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence-based public health requires the existence of reliable information systems for priority setting and evaluation of interventions. Existing data systems in the United States are either too crude (e.g., vital statistics, rely on administrative data (e.g., Medicare or, because of their national scope (e.g., NHANES, lack the discriminatory power to assess specific needs and to evaluate community health activities at the state and local level. This manuscript describes the rationale and methods of the Survey of the Health of Wisconsin (SHOW, a novel infrastructure for population health research. Methods/Design The program consists of a series of independent annual surveys gathering health-related data on representative samples of state residents and communities. Two-stage cluster sampling is used to select households and recruit approximately 800-1,000 adult participants (21-74 years old each year. Recruitment and initial interviews are done at the household; additional interviews and physical exams are conducted at permanent or mobile examination centers. Individual survey data include physical, mental, and oral health history, health literacy, demographics, behavioral, lifestyle, occupational, and household characteristics as well as health care access and utilization. The physical exam includes blood pressure, anthropometry, bioimpedance, spirometry, urine collection and blood draws. Serum, plasma, and buffy coats (for DNA extraction are stored in a biorepository for future studies. Every household is geocoded for linkage with existing contextual data including community level measures of the social and physical environment; local neighborhood characteristics are also recorded using an audit tool. Participants are re-contacted bi-annually by phone for health history updates. Discussion SHOW generates data to assess health disparities across state communities as well as trends on prevalence of health outcomes and

  13. Demographics and complaints of university students who sought help at a campus mental health service between 1987 and 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lilian Coelho de Oliveira

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Client characterization is an important step in evaluating the services offered by campus counseling and mental health centers and in their further planning and development. The objectives here were to describe reported complaints and demographics among students who sought counseling/mental healthcare at a Brazilian campus mental health service over a 17-year period and to compare these characteristics with those of the general university student body. DESIGN AND SETTING: Retrospective study at the Psychological and Psychiatric Service for Students (SAPPE, Universidade Estadual de Campinas (Unicamp. METHODS: The participants were all of the 2,194 students who sought counseling/mental health care at SAPPE from 1987 to 2004. Information was obtained from clients’ clinical charts. Unicamp’s database was consulted for general information on its students. RESULTS: The findings indicated overrepresentation, among the clients, of undergraduates, female students, students from Brazilian states other than São Paulo, students living in the campus residence hall and those whose main source of income was a scholarship grant. We also found overrepresentation of Humanities and Arts students among the clients. The most frequently reported complaints were difficulties in interpersonal relationships, family conflicts and poor academic performance. CONCLUSION: Course level (undergraduate or postgraduate, study field, living in a university residential facility and reliance on a scholarship grant were found to influence the behavior of seeking mental health counseling among Brazilian university students in this study. Course level was found to influence the pattern of complaints reported at first contact with the mental health service.

  14. Weather and mortality: a 10 year retrospective analysis of the Nouna Health and Demographic Surveillance System, Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Sauerborn

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: A growing body of evidence points to the emission of greenhouse gases from human activity as a key factor in climate change. This in turn affects human health and wellbeing through consequential changes in weather extremes. At present, little is known about the effects of weather on the health of sub-Saharan African populations, as well as the related anticipated effects of climate change partly due to scarcity of good quality data. We aimed to study the association between weather patterns and daily mortality in the Nouna Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS area during 1999–2009. Methods: Meteorological data were obtained from a nearby weather station in the Nouna HDSS area and linked to mortality data on a daily basis. Time series Poisson regression models were established to estimate the association between the lags of weather and daily population-level mortality, adjusting for time trends. The analyses were stratified by age and sex to study differential population susceptibility. Results: We found profound associations between higher temperature and daily mortality in the Nouna HDSS, Burkina Faso. The short-term direct heat effect was particularly strong on the under-five child mortality rate. We also found independent coherent effects and strong associations between rainfall events and daily mortality, particularly in elderly populations. Conclusion: Mortality patterns in the Nouna HDSS appear to be closely related to weather conditions. Further investigation on cause-specific mortality, as well as on vulnerability and susceptibility is required. Studies on local adaptation and mitigation measures to avoid health impacts from weather and climate change is also needed to reduce negative effects from weather and climate change on population health in rural areas of the sub-Saharan Africa.

  15. A national survey of admissions criteria and processes in selected allied health professions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, A H; Chase, L M; Lefkowitz, R; Morton-Rias, D; Chambers, C; Joe, J; Holmes, G; Bloomberg, S

    1995-01-01

    A national survey of admissions criteria and procedures was conducted for allied health programs in diagnostic medical imaging, health information management, nurse-midwifery, occupational therapy, physical therapy, and physician assistant education. From a sample of 462, 63.2% responded. The survey canvassed general program information, prerequisites, admissions procedures, and demographic trends. Respondents were primarily from public institutions with faculty actively involved in admissions. The most common prerequisites were anatomy/physiology, physics, biology, chemistry, and psychology; and the most frequently required admissions criteria were GPA, references, interviews, science GPA, and writing sample. Standardized tests were rarely utilized. The following were the major prerequisite characteristics and skills considered: academic skills, communication skills, problem-solving abilities, maturity/confidence, motivation, and work/study habits. Changing demographics were reported, including an increase in second-career, older, and ethnically diverse applicants. Also discussed were nontraditional and minority applicant admissions issues. Future research suggestions include use of noncognitive variables, and academic and clinical outcome studies. The utility of this information for validation/revision of admissions criteria are presented.

  16. Demographics, Health, and Risk Behaviors of Young Adults Who Drink Energy Drinks and Coffee Beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Caitlin K; Prichard, J Roxanne

    2016-06-01

    Objective: The present study investigates risk behaviors, sleep habits, and mental health factors associated with caffeinated beverage use in young adults. Materials and Methods: Students from a midsize private university (n = 159) completed a 15-minute anonymous questionnaire, including questions on risk behaviors, sleep habits, alcohol, and caffeine consumption. We compared behaviors between the top ∼15% ("high end") of energy drink users (≥3/month) and coffee users (≥16/month) to those with less frequent or no caffeine consumption. Results: Caffeine consumption was frequent among young adults. In the last month, 36% of students had an energy drink, 69% had coffee or espresso, and 86% reported having any caffeine; however, the majority of students were unaware of the caffeine content in these beverages. High-end energy drink consumers reported more risk-taking behaviors (increased drug and alcohol use and less frequent seat belt use), sleep disturbances (later bedtimes, harder time falling asleep, and more all-nighters), and higher frequency of mental illness diagnoses than those who consumed fewer energy drinks. In contrast, the frequency of most risk behaviors, sleep disturbances, and mental illness diagnoses was not significantly different between the high-end and general population of coffee drinkers. Conclusion: Students with delayed sleep patterns, mental illness, and higher frequency of substance use and risk behaviors were more likely to be regular energy drink users but not regular coffee drinkers. It is unclear whether the psychoactive content in energy drinks results in different behavioral effects than just caffeine in coffee, and/or different personality/health populations are drawn to the two types of beverages.

  17. Demographics, Health, and Risk Behaviors of Young Adults Who Drink Energy Drinks and Coffee Beverages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Caitlin K.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The present study investigates risk behaviors, sleep habits, and mental health factors associated with caffeinated beverage use in young adults. Materials and Methods: Students from a midsize private university (n = 159) completed a 15-minute anonymous questionnaire, including questions on risk behaviors, sleep habits, alcohol, and caffeine consumption. We compared behaviors between the top ∼15% (“high end”) of energy drink users (≥3/month) and coffee users (≥16/month) to those with less frequent or no caffeine consumption. Results: Caffeine consumption was frequent among young adults. In the last month, 36% of students had an energy drink, 69% had coffee or espresso, and 86% reported having any caffeine; however, the majority of students were unaware of the caffeine content in these beverages. High-end energy drink consumers reported more risk-taking behaviors (increased drug and alcohol use and less frequent seat belt use), sleep disturbances (later bedtimes, harder time falling asleep, and more all-nighters), and higher frequency of mental illness diagnoses than those who consumed fewer energy drinks. In contrast, the frequency of most risk behaviors, sleep disturbances, and mental illness diagnoses was not significantly different between the high-end and general population of coffee drinkers. Conclusion: Students with delayed sleep patterns, mental illness, and higher frequency of substance use and risk behaviors were more likely to be regular energy drink users but not regular coffee drinkers. It is unclear whether the psychoactive content in energy drinks results in different behavioral effects than just caffeine in coffee, and/or different personality/health populations are drawn to the two types of beverages. PMID:27274417

  18. Smartphone Ownership Among US Adult Cigarette Smokers: 2014 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffner, Jaimee L; Mull, Kristin E

    2017-08-31

    Despite increasing interest in smartphone apps as a platform for delivery of tobacco cessation interventions, no previous studies have evaluated the prevalence and characteristics of smokers who can access smartphone-delivered interventions. To guide treatment development in this new platform and to evaluate disparities in access to smartphone-delivered interventions, we examined associations of smartphone ownership with demographics, tobacco use and thoughts about quitting, other health behaviors, physical and mental health, health care access, and Internet and technology utilization using a nationally representative sample of US adult smokers. Data were from the National Cancer Institute's 2014 Health Information National Trends Survey 4 (HINTS 4), Cycle 4. This mailed survey targeted noninstitutionalized individuals aged 18 years or older using two-stage stratified random sampling. For this analysis, we restricted the sample to current smokers with complete data on smartphone ownership (n=479). Nearly two-thirds (weighted percent=63.8%, 248/479) of smokers reported owning a smartphone. Those who were younger (Pvegetable consumption (P=.03) and were more likely to report past-year efforts to increase exercise (P=.001) and to lose weight (P=.02). No differences in health care access and utilization were found. Smartphone owners reported better physical and mental health in several domains and higher access to and utilization of technology and the Internet, including for health reasons. Smartphone ownership among smokers mirrors many trends in the general population, including the overall rate of ownership and the association with younger age and higher socioeconomic status. Apps for smoking cessation could potentially capitalize on smartphone owners' efforts at multiple health behavior changes and interest in communicating with health care providers via technology. These data also highlight the importance of accessible treatment options for smokers without

  19. Taking the Pulse of Undergraduate Health Psychology: A Nationwide Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brack, Amy Badura; Kesitilwe, Kutlo; Ware, Mark E.

    2010-01-01

    We conducted a random national survey of 100 doctoral, 100 comprehensive, and 100 baccalaureate institutions to determine the current state of the undergraduate health psychology course. We found clear evidence of a maturing course with much greater commonality in name (health psychology), theoretical foundation (the biopsychosocial model), and…

  20. The Teaching of Undergraduate Health Psychology: A National Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panjwani, Aliza A.; Gurung, Regan A. R.; Revenson, Tracey A.

    2017-01-01

    We conducted an online national survey to examine how undergraduate health psychology is taught, offer information about course design and content, and provide a needs analysis. Health psychology instructors (N = 126) answered questions about course format, teaching tools, importance of covering specific topics, and needed resources. A principal…

  1. Socio-demographic inequalities in the prevalence, diagnosis and management of hypertension in India: analysis of nationally-representative survey data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kath A Moser

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hypertension is a major contributing factor to the current epidemic of cardiovascular disease in India. Small studies suggest high, and increasing, prevalence especially in urban areas, with poor detection and management, but national data has been lacking. The aim of the current study was to use nationally-representative survey data to examine socio-demographic inequalities in the prevalence, diagnosis and management of hypertension in Indian adults. METHODS: Using data on self-reported diagnosis and treatment, and blood pressure measurement, collected from 12,198 respondents aged 18+ in the 2007 WHO Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health in India, factors associated with prevalence, diagnosis and treatment of hypertension were investigated. RESULTS: 22% men and 26% women had hypertension; prevalence increased steeply with body mass index (<18.5 kg/m(2: 18% men, 21% women; 25-29.9 kg/m(2: 35% men, 35% women, was higher in the least poor vs. poorest (men: odds ratio (95%CI 1.82 (1.20 to 2.76; women: 1.40 (1.08 to 1.81, urban vs. rural men (1.64 (1.19 to 2.25, and men recently vs. never using alcohol (1.96 (1.40 to 2.76. Over half the hypertension in women, and 70% in men, was undetected with particularly poor detection rates in young urban men, and in poorer households. Two-thirds of men and women with detected hypertension were treated. Two-thirds of women treated had their hypertension controlled, irrespective of urban/rural setting or wealth. Adequate blood pressure control was sub-optimal in urban men. CONCLUSION: Hypertension is very common in India, even among underweight adults and those of lower socioeconomic position. Improved detection is needed to reduce the burden of disease attributable to hypertension. Levels of treatment and control are relatively good, particularly in women, although urban men require more careful attention.

  2. Socio-demographic inequalities across a range of health status indicators and health behaviours among pregnant women in prenatal primary care: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Ruth; Manniën, Judith; te Velde, Saskia J; Klomp, Trudy; Hutton, Eileen K; Brug, Johannes

    2015-10-13

    Suboptimal maternal health conditions (such as obesity, underweight, depression and stress) and health behaviours (such as smoking, alcohol consumption and unhealthy nutrition) during pregnancy have been associated with negative pregnancy outcomes. Our first aim was to give an overview of the self-reported health status and health behaviours of pregnant women under midwife-led primary care in the Netherlands. Our second aim was to identify potential differences in these health status indicators and behaviours according to educational level (as a proxy for socio-economic status) and ethnicity (as a proxy for immigration status). Our cross-sectional study (data obtained from the DELIVER multicentre prospective cohort study conducted from September 2009 to March 2011) was based on questionnaires about maternal health and prenatal care, which were completed by 6711 pregnant women. The relationships of education and ethnicity with 13 health status indicators and 10 health behaviours during pregnancy were examined using multilevel multiple logistic regression analyses, adjusted for age, parity, number of weeks pregnant and either education or ethnicity. Lower educated women were especially more likely to smoke (Odds Ratio (OR) 11.3; 95% confidence interval (CI) 7.6- 16.8); have passive smoking exposure (OR 6.9; 95% CI 4.4-11.0); have low health control beliefs (OR 10.4; 95% CI 8.5-12.8); not attend antenatal classes (OR 4.5; 95% CI 3.5-5.8) and not take folic acid supplementation (OR 3.4; 95% CI 2.7-4.4). They were also somewhat more likely to skip breakfast daily, be obese, underweight and depressed or anxious. Non-western women were especially more likely not to take folic acid supplementation (OR 4.5; 95% CI 3.5-5.7); have low health control beliefs (OR 4.1; 95% CI 3.1-5.2) and not to attend antenatal classes (OR 3.3; 95% CI 2.0-5.4). They were also somewhat more likely to have nausea, back pains and passive smoking exposure. Substantial socio-demographic inequalities

  3. Demographic survey of black howler monkey (Alouatta pigra) in the Lachuá Eco-region in Alta Verapaz, Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales-Meda, Marleny; Estrada, Alejandro; López, Jorge E

    2008-03-01

    Guatemala harbors three species of primates (Alouatta palliata, Alouatta pigra and Ateles geoffroyi), but the distribution and state of conservation of populations of these species are poorly documented. In the case of A. pigra, populations have been studied recently and documented in several sites in Mexico and Belize, and only in one site in Guatemala (Tikal National Park). In this study, we report first-time population data for A. pigra existing in the Lachuá Eco-region in northwestern Guatemala. Surveys were conducted between September 2002 and April 2003 in the northern portion (32 km2) of the Lachuá National Park (LLNP; 145 km2) and in a fragmented landscape north of the protected area. In this latter area we surveyed a large forest fragment (17.14 km2), "Nueve Cerros", and 26 small forest fragments that ranged in size from 0.01 to 3.9 km2. Surveys resulted in a total count of 414 howler monkeys of which 403 belonged to 80 mixed-sex groups, four were solitary males, two were solitary females and five were found in two male groups. Standardized sampling effort among sites indicated 16.7 monkeys/100 survey hours at LLNP, 35.8 individuals/100 survey hours at "Nueve Cerros" and 71.0+/-62.2 individuals/100 survey hours in the forest fragments. Mean group size varied from 4.07 individuals at LLNP to 5.19 individuals in the forest fragments. Conservation problems for the black howler population surveyed are discussed, along with possible conservation scenarios.

  4. Health survey in gypsum mines in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandi Subroto

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mining is a hazardous occupation in which workers are exposed to adverse conditions. In India, gypsum mining is mainly carried out in the state of Rajasthan, which contributes about 99% of the total production. Objective: The present study was carried out in 12 different gypsum mines in Rajasthan state to determine the health status of the miners. Materials and Methods: One hundred and fifty workers engaged in mining activities were included in the study and their health status was compared with that of 83 office staff of the same mines. The health status of the employees was evaluated using a standardized medical questionnaire and pulmonary function testing. Statistical Analysis: The unpaired ′t′ test was used to determine whether there was any significant difference between the miners and the controls and the chi-square test to compare the prevalences of various respiratory impairments in workers with that in controls; we also examined the differences between smokers and nonsmokers. Results: Our findings show that the literacy rate is low (42% among the miners. Pulmonary restrictive impairment was significantly higher amongst smokers as compared to nonsmokers in both miners and controls. Hypertension (22.6%, diabetes (8.8%, and musculoskeletal morbidity (8% were the common diseases in miners. Conclusion: This study shows that there is high morbidity amongst miners, thus indicating the need for regular health checkups, health education, use of personal protective devices, and engineering measures for control of the workplace environment.

  5. Health survey on cancers about the Tricastin nuclear site; Etude sanitaire sur les cancers autour du site nucleaire du Tricastin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This survey aims at describing the health status of the population around the Tricastin site, and more particularly at determining whether there is a difference between death or cancer occurrence frequencies observed around this site with respect to reference frequencies. It does not aim at assessing the health impact of the site industrial installations. Cancer mortality data, cancer diagnosis data, demographic data, child cancer data, data related to hospital stays in relationship with cancer, long duration hospital stay data, and mortality data are used. Several indicators are defined and used: standardised mortality ratio, standardised hospitalisation ratio. Data are also analysed in terms of location, and socio-demographic categories. It appears that there is no specific health situation for the considered area, except for pancreas cancer for women

  6. A survey of occupational therapy practitioners in mental health

    OpenAIRE

    1998-01-01

    As part of the College of Occupational Therapists’ Mental Health Project, a survey of occupational therapists practising in mental health in the UK was conducted. A questionnaire was sent to 200 members of the Association of Occupational Therapists in Mental Health and achieved a 68.5% response rate. The majority of the 137 respondents were female, with Senior I staff between 20 and 30 years of age who were unlikely to have worked in another area forming the largest group. Although most...

  7. National survey of occupational therapy managers in mental health

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    This study, part of the College of Occupational Therapists' Mental Health Project, surveyed occupational therapy managers in mental health to gather data about them, the services they managed and their opinions on current and future issues of importance. A questionnaire was sent to the 184 managers who it was believed worked in mental health and it achieved a 65.2% response rate. The majority of the 120 respondents were female, with Head II therapists between the ages of 31 and 40 forming...

  8. The prevalence of depression and associated factors in Ethiopia: findings from the National Health Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailemariam Solomon

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Integrating mental health into primarily health care and studying risk for mental health particularly depression needs assessment of different factors including those that impede diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders. But so far the numbers of literature for local context to analyze risk factors for depression and its treatment are scare. The objective of this study was to assess risk factors and health service attendance for depression among adults, in Ethiopia. Methods For this analysis, data from the Ethiopian National health survey was used. The Ethiopian national health survey studied 4,925 adults aged 18 years and older to obtain among other things, data on depression episodes, socio-demographic, chronic diseases, life style factors and treatment receiving for depression episodes in the past twelve months using questionnaire from world health organization (WHO. Prevalence of Depression in respondents based on ICD-10 criteria was estimated and logistic regression analysis was used to identify risk factors for depression and treatment receiving. Results The prevalence of depressive episode was 9.1% (95% CI: 8.39-9.90. In a Univariate analysis, residence, age, marital status, educational status, number of diagnosed chronic non communicable diseases (heart diseases, diabetic mellitus and arthritis and alcohol drinking status were associated with depression. After full adjustment for possible confounding, odds ratios for depression were significantly higher only for older age, divorced and widowed, number of diagnosed chronic non communicable diseases and alcohol drinking status. The proportion of attending health service among those with depression episodes was 22.9%. After full control for all socio-demographic variables the only predictor variable was educational status, being in grade 5–8 had a higher odds (OR=2.6, 95% CI: 1.23-5.43 and 9–12 grade (OR=1.8 95% CI: 1.45-6.12 of attending service for depressive

  9. Geospatial analysis of naturally occurring boundaries in road-transport emissions and children's respiratory health across a demographically diverse cityscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jephcote, Calvin; Chen, Haibo

    2013-04-01

    The motor-vehicle is accountable for emitting a substantial concoction of air quality objective pollutants and carcinogenic hydrocarbons within close proximity to urbanised residential districts. The spatial extent of health impacts associated with road-transport pollutants have traditionally been explored through the examination of artificially created buffers, defined by subjective distances from specified major road links. Within this paper an alternative approach is presented using boundary statistics, which describe naturally occurring shifts of magnitude in socio-environmental and health outcomes across the wider urban area. In contrast, previous distance-threshold investigations have used arbitrarily sized buffers placed upon predetermined locations in response to environmental attributes, without considering the combined influence of additional social burdens. The demographically diverse City of Leicester, situated within the heart of the United Kingdom's major road-transport network, was selected to showcase such methods. Descriptive multilevel modelling strategies accommodating for generalised spatial structures across Leicester, globally associated issues of deprivation, road-transport emissions and ethnic minorities with increased respiratory risks. Getis-Ord Gi* spatial pattern recognition statistics identified the existence of localised variations, with inner city neighbourhoods tending to house children of ethnic minority groups whom experience disproportionately large environmental and respiratory health burdens. Crisp polygon wombling boundary detection across Leicester appeared to broadly complement the Gi* statistics, identifying naturally occurring boundaries in road-transport emissions to result in elevated children's respiratory admissions within a distance of 283 m (P < 0.05). The designated threshold was identified to reduce in relation to certain ethnic groups, thus suggesting environmental injustices likely prevail within the model

  10. Geographic variation and socio-demographic determinants of the co-occurrence of risky health behaviours in 27 European Union member states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippidis, F T; Agaku, I T; Vardavas, C I

    2016-06-01

    Risky health behaviours such as tobacco and alcohol abuse, physical inactivity and poor diet may play an important role in disease development. The aim of the present study was to assess the geographical distribution and socio-demographic determinants of risky health-related behaviours in 27 member states (MSs) of the European Union (EU). Data from the 2009 Eurobarometer survey (wave 72.3; n = 26 788) were analysed. Tobacco use, alcohol consumption, physical activity and fruit consumption were assessed through a self-reported questionnaire provided to participants from 27 EU MSs. Within the analyses, participants with three or more lifestyle risk factors were classified as individuals with co-occurrence of risk factors. Among respondents aged 15 or older, 28.2% had none of the aforementioned behavioural risk factors, whereas 9.9% had three or more lifestyle risk factors. Males [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 2.50; 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 2.17-2.88] and respondents of middle (aOR = 1.60; 95% CI: 1.36-1.89) or lower income (aOR = 2.63; 95% CI: 2.12-3.26) were more likely to report co-occurrence of behavioural risk factors, as well as respondents in Northern (aOR = 1.43; 95% CI: 1.14-1.78), Western (aOR = 1.28; 95% CI: 1.06-1.56) and Eastern Europe (aOR = 1.28; 95% CI: 1.06-1.55), when compared with Southern European respondents. The above analyses indicate significant geographical and social variation in the distribution of the co-occurrence of behavioural risk factors for disease development. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Equity of inpatient health care in rural Tanzania: a population- and facility-based survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferry Grace A

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To explore the equity of utilization of inpatient health care at rural Tanzanian health centers through the use of a short wealth questionnaire. Methods Patients admitted to four rural health centers in the Kigoma Region of Tanzania from May 2008 to May 2009 were surveyed about their illness, asset ownership and demographics. Principal component analysis was used to compare the wealth of the inpatients to the wealth of the region's general population, using data from a previous population-based survey. Results Among inpatients, 15.3% were characterized as the most poor, 19.6% were characterized as very poor, 16.5% were characterized as poor, 18.9% were characterized as less poor, and 29.7% were characterized as the least poor. The wealth distribution of all inpatients (p Conclusion The findings indicated that while current Tanzanian health financing policies may have improved access to health care for children under five, additional policies are needed to further close the equity gap, especially for obstetric inpatients.

  12. Assessment of Tooth Wear Among Glass Factory Workers: WHO 2013 Oral Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Pulkit; Bhat, Nagesh; Asawa, Kailash; Tak, Mridula; Bapat, Salil; Gupta, Vivek Vardhan

    2015-08-01

    Glass factory workers are often exposed to the hazardous environment that leads to deleterious oral health and subsequently, general health. We planned to determine the effects of the particulates present in the milieu on the tooth wear among workers. To assess tooth wear among glass factory workers in Jaipur, Rajasthan, India. A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted among 936 glass workers in Jaipur, Rajasthan, India from January-June 2014. A survey proforma was designed for tooth wear evaluation with the help of WHO Oral Health Assessment form 2013 (for adults). Information regarding oral health practices, adverse habits and dietary habits, demographic details was gathered and clinical parameters were recorded. The Chi-square test, t-test, One-way Analysis of Variance and a Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis. The most prevalent form of erosion was enamel erosion (589, 62.93%) with few subjects of deeper dentinal erosion and the difference was statistically significant (p=0.001). Dental erosion was found to be higher among males compared to females. Years of experience and educational status were identified as best predictors for dental erosion. It was concluded that there was considerable evidence of dental erosion found among the factory workers. Due to ignorance on social, cultural and health aspects, professional approach with regular dental care services for detection of early symptoms and planning of preventive strategies is warranted.

  13. Public health financial management needs: report of a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costich, Julia F; Honoré, Peggy A; Scutchfield, F Douglas

    2009-01-01

    The work reported here builds on the identification of public health financial management practice competencies by a national expert panel. The next logical step was to provide a validity check for the competencies and identify priority areas for educational programming. We developed a survey for local public health finance officers based on the public health finance competencies and field tested it with a convenience sample of officials. We asked respondents to indicate the importance of each competency area and the need for training to improve performance; we also requested information regarding respondent education, jurisdiction size, and additional comments. Our local agency survey sample drew on the respondent list from the National Association of County and City Health Officials 2005 local health department survey, stratified by agency size and limited to jurisdiction populations of 25,000 to 1,000,000. Identifying appropriate respondents was a major challenge. The survey was fielded electronically, yielding 112 responses from 30 states. The areas identified as most important and needing most additional training were knowledge of budget activities, financial data interpretation and communication, and ability to assess and correct the organization's financial status. The majority of respondents had some postbaccalaureate education. Many provided additional comments and recommendations. Health department finance officers demonstrated a high level of general agreement regarding the importance of finance competencies in public health and the need for training. The findings point to a critical need for additional training opportunities that are accessible, cost-effective, and targeted to individual needs.

  14. Advance letters as a way of reducing non-response in a National Health Telephone Survey: Differences between listed and unlisted numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena von der Lippe

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports a methodological study based on the German Health Update Survey 2009. The study generated telephone numbers randomly and determined the listing status of the selected numbers. The set of listed numbers was randomly split: one half received advance letters, the other half did not. Differences in response rates and demographic characteristics are analyzed in detail.

  15. "CITY 2020+": assessing climate change impacts for the city of Aachen related to demographic change and health - a progress report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, C.; Balzer, C.; Buttstädt, M.; Eßer, K.; Ginski, S.; Hahmann, J.; Ketzler, G.; Klemme, M.; Kröpelin, A.; Merbitz, H.; Michael, S.; Sachsen, T.; Siuda, A.; Weishoff-Houben, M.; Brunk, M. F.; Dott, W.; Hofmeister, H.; Pfaffenbach, C.; Roll, C.; Selle, K.

    2011-09-01

    The research initiative CITY 2020+ assesses the risks and opportunities for residents in urban built environments under projected demographic and climate change for the year 2020 and beyond, using the city of Aachen as a case study. CITY 2020+ develops strategies, options and tools for planning and developing sustainable future city structures. The investigation focuses on how urban environment, political structure and residential behaviour can best be adapted, with attention to the interactions among structural, political, and sociological configurations and their impacts on human health. The interdisciplinary research is organized in three clusters. Within the first cluster, strategies of older people exposed to heat stress, and their networks as well as environmental health risks according to atmospheric conditions are examined. The second cluster addresses governance questions, urban planning and building technologies as well as spatial patterns of the urban heat island. The third cluster includes studies on air quality related to particulate matter and a historical perspective of city development concerning environmental issues and climate variability. However, it turns out that research topics that require an interdisciplinary approach are best addressed not by pre-structuring the work into related sub-projects but through combining them according to shared methodological approaches. Examples illustrating this rather practical approach within ongoing research are presented in this paper.

  16. Health-related and socio-demographic factors associated with frailty in the elderly: a systematic literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda de Carvalho Mello

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Frailty is a syndrome that leads to practical harm in the lives of elders, since it is related to increased risk of dependency, falls, hospitalization, institutionalization, and death. The objective of this systematic review was to identify the socio-demographic, psycho-behavioral, health-related, nutritional, and lifestyle factors associated with frailty in the elderly. A total of 4,183 studies published from 2001 to 2013 were detected in the databases, and 182 complete articles were selected. After a comprehensive reading and application of selection criteria, 35 eligible articles remained for analysis. The main factors associated with frailty were: age, female gender, black race/color, schooling, income, cardiovascular diseases, number of comorbidities/diseases, functional incapacity, poor self-rated health, depressive symptoms, cognitive function, body mass index, smoking, and alcohol use. Knowledge of the complexity of determinants of frailty can assist the formulation of measures for prevention and early intervention, thereby contributing to better quality of life for the elderly.

  17. Socio Demographic Factors Determining the Adequacy of Antenatal Care among Pregnant Women Visiting Ekiti State Primary Health Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikeoluwapo O. Ajayi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A cross sectional study was conducted in Primary Health Centers among pregnant women to elucidate adequacy of antenatal care across different socio demographic variables. Four hundred respondents were proportionately selected from 18 primary health centers using simple random sampling. Exit interviews were conducted using the adapted antenatal care exit interview form of the Safe Motherhood Needs Assessment package. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and Chi square test. Adequacy of antenatal care in this study was measured by the single adequacy indicators which are duration of pregnancy at entry into antenatal care and number of antenatal visits; which are particularly suitable for developing countries. Age of respondents, means of transportation to the PHCs, occupation, location and level of education of the respondents were found to be determinants of whether the pregnant women attended their first antenatal visit in the first trimester, similarly, age of the respondents was a predictor of whether the women made up to four antenatal visits by their third trimester. Occupation and level of education were determinants of whether or not the pregnant women made their first antenatal visits at the first trimester. More respondents who were not working and those who were unskilled workers made their first antenatal visit at the first trimester compared to those who were skilled workers; work place policies and the fact that antenatal booking are made on weekdays and at work hours may hinder or be discouraging to the working class mothers.

  18. The South Australian Allied Health Workforce survey: helping to fill the evidence gap in primary health workforce planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitford, Deirdre; Smith, Tony; Newbury, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    There is a lack of detailed evidence about the allied health workforce to inform proposed health care reforms. The South Australian Allied Health Workforce (SAAHW) survey collected data about the demographic characteristics, employment, education and recruitment and retention of allied health professionals in South Australia. The SAAHW questionnaire was widely distributed and 1539 responses were received. The average age of the sample was 40 years; males were significantly older than females, the latter making up 82% of respondents. Three-quarters of the sample worked in the city; 60% worked full time and the remainder in part-time, casual or locum positions. 'Work-life balance' was the most common attraction to respondents' current jobs and 'Better career prospects' the most common reason for intending to leave. Practice in a rural location was influenced by rural background and rural experience during training. A greater proportion of Generation Y (1982-2000) respondents intended to leave within 2 years than Generation X (1961-81) or Baby Boomers (1943-60). Most respondents were satisfied with their job, although some reported lack of recognition of their knowledge and skills. Systematic, robust allied health workforce data are required for integrated and sustainable primary health care delivery.

  19. Health Disparities Among Mexican American Women Aged 15–44 Years: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999–2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingo, Phyllis A.; Kulkarni, Aniket; Borrud, Lori G.; McDonald, Jill A.; Villalobos, Susie A.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We analyzed the health of Mexican American women aged 15 to 44 years, by generation and language preference, to guide planning for reproductive health services in this growing population. Methods. We used personal interview and medical examination data from the 1999 to 2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. We used SUDAAN for calculating age-adjusted prevalence estimates of demographic and health characteristics. The Satterthwaite adjusted F test and Student t test were used for subgroup comparisons. Results. The women had different health profiles (P < .05) by generation and language preference. Second- and later-generation women and women who used more English were more likely to be sexually active, to have been younger at first intercourse, and to have had more male sexual partners than were first-generation women and women who used more Spanish. Compared with their first-generation counterparts, second- and later-generation women drank more alcohol, were better educated, had higher incomes, and were more likely to have health insurance. Third-generation women were more likely to have delivered a low-birthweight baby than were first-generation women. Conclusions. Differences by generation and language preference suggest that acculturation should be considered when planning interventions to promote healthy reproductive behaviors among Mexican American women. PMID:19443827

  20. Results of a survey to determine demographic and business management factors associated with size and growth rate of rural mixed-animal veterinary practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusk, Amy M; White, Brad J; Goehl, Dan R; Dhuyvetter, Kevin C

    2010-12-15

    To determine potential associations between demographic and business management factors and practice size and growth rate in rural mixed-animal veterinary practices. Cross-sectional survey. 54 mixed-animal practitioners. A cross-sectional survey (96 questions) was electronically disseminated. Responses were collected, and outcomes (number of veterinarians [NV], growth in number of veterinarians [NVG], gross practice income [GPI], growth in gross practice income [GPIG], gross practice income per veterinarian [GPIV], and growth in gross practice income per veterinarian [GPIVG]) were calculated. Bivariate analyses were performed and multivariable models created to determine associations between survey responses and outcomes of interest. Survey respondents were from mixed-animal practices, and most (46/54 [85.2%]) practiced in small communities (business manager. Typically, practices had positive mean growth in NVG (4.4%), GPIG (8.5%), and GPIVG (8.1%), but growth rate was highly variable among practices. Factors associated with growth rate included main species interest, frequency for adjusting prices, use of a marketing plan, service fee structure, and sending a client newsletter. Mixed-animal practices had a large range in size and growth rate. Economic indices were impacted by common business management practices.

  1. European Health Examination Survey--towards a sustainable monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolonen, Hanna; Koponen, Päivikki; Mindell, Jennifer; Männistö, Satu; Kuulasmaa, Kari

    2014-04-01

    Health examination surveys (HESs), including both questionnaire and physical measurements, and in most cases also collection of biological samples, can provide objective health indicators. This information complements data from health interview surveys and administrative registers, and is important for evidence-based planning of health policies and prevention activities. HESs are valuable data sources for research. The first national HESs in Europe were conducted in the late 1950s and early 1960s. They have recently been carried out in an increasing number of countries, but there has been no joint standardization between the countries. The European Health Examination Survey Pilot Project was conducted in 2009-2012. The European Health Examination Survey Pilot Reference Centre was established and pilot surveys were conducted in 12 countries.  European standardized protocols for key measurements on main chronic disease risk factors (height, weight, waist circumference, blood pressure, blood lipids and fasting glucose or HbA1c) were prepared. European-level training and external quality assessment were organized. Although the level of earlier experience, infrastructures, economic status and cultural settings varied between the pilot countries, it was possible to standardize measurements of HESs across the populations. Obtaining high participation rates was challenging.  HESs provide high-quality and representative population data to support policy decisions and research. For future national HESs, centralized coordination, training and external quality assessment are needed to ensure comparability of the results. Further studies on effects of different survey methods on comparability of the results and on recruitment and motivation of survey participants are needed.

  2. Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY): 1995 Cohort--User Guide. Data Elements A: Demographics. Technical Report 49A

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2012

    2012-01-01

    This technical paper contains information about the variables in the LSAY (Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth) Y95 cohort data set. It groups each variable into data elements which identifies common variables within and across waves. Information is provided about each data element including its purpose, values, base populations and relevant…

  3. High-risk alcohol use and associated socio-demographic, health and psychosocial factors in patients with HIV infection in three primary health care clinics in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veld, Diana Huis In 't; Pengpid, Supa; Colebunders, Robert; Skaal, Linda; Peltzer, Karl

    2017-06-01

    Alcohol use may have a negative impact on the course of HIV disease and the effectiveness of its treatment. We studied patients with HIV who use alcohol and associated socio-demographic, health and psychosocial factors. Outcomes from this study may help in selecting patients from clinical practice with high-risk alcohol use and who are likely to benefit most from alcohol reduction interventions. In a cross sectional study in three primary health care clinics in Pretoria, South Africa, from January 2012 to June 2012, patients with HIV infection were interviewed and patients' medical files were reviewed to obtain data on levels of alcohol use (Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test), patients' socio-demographic characteristics, HIV-related information, health related quality of life (WHOQoL-HIVBref), internalized AIDS stigma, symptoms of depression and adherence to antiretroviral therapy. Analyses consisted of descriptive statistics, bi- and multivariate logistic regression models. A total of 2230 patients (1483 [66.5%] female) were included. The median age was 37 years (interquartile range 31-43), 99.5% were black Africans, 1975 (88.6%) had started ART and the median time on ART was 22 months (interquartile range 9-40). No alcohol was used by 64% of patients, 8.9% were low risk drinkers, 25.1% of patients were hazardous or harmful drinkers and 2.0% had possible alcohol dependence. In multivariate analysis high-risk drinking was positively associated with male gender, never being married, tobacco use, a higher score for the 'level of independence'-domain measured with the WHOQoL-HIVBref questionnaire, and with more depressive symptoms compared to low-risk drinking. This study shows a high prevalence of hazardous or harmful drinking in patients with HIV infection (especially men) attending primary health care clinics in South Africa. Routine screening for alcohol use should be introduced in these clinics and harm reduction interventions should be evaluated, taking

  4. Prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of cooking skills in UK adults: cross-sectional analysis of data from the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Jean; Goffe, Louis; Adamson, Ashley J; Halligan, Joel; O'Brien, Nicola; Purves, Richard; Stead, Martine; Stocken, Deborah; White, Martin

    2015-08-05

    Poor cooking skills may be a barrier to healthy eating and a contributor to overweight and obesity. Little population-representative data on adult cooking skills has been published. We explored prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of cooking skills among adult respondents to wave 1 of the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (2008-9). Socio-demographic variables of interest were sex, age group, occupational socio-economic group and whether or not respondents had the main responsibility for food in their households. Cooking skills were assessed as self-reported confidence in using eight cooking techniques, confidence in cooking ten foods, and ability to prepare four types of dish (convenience foods, a complete meal from ready-made ingredients, a main meal from basic ingredients, and cake or biscuits from basic ingredients). Frequency of preparation of main meals was also reported. Of 509 respondents, almost two-thirds reported cooking a main meal at least five times per week. Around 90 % reported being able to cook convenience foods, a complete meal from ready-made ingredient, and a main dish from basic ingredients without help. Socio-demographic differences in all markers of cooking skills were scattered and inconsistent. Where these were found, women and main food providers were most likely to report confidence with foods, techniques or dishes, and respondents in the youngest age (19-34 years) and lowest socio-economic group least likely. This is the only exploration of the prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of adult cooking skills using recent and population-representative UK data and adds to the international literature on cooking skills in developed countries. Reported confidence with using most cooking techniques and preparing most foods was high. There were few socio-demographic differences in reported cooking skills. Adult cooking skills interventions are unlikely to have a large population impact, but may have important individual effects

  5. [Colombia 2015 National Mental Health Survey. Study Protocol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Restrepo, Carlos; de Santacruz, Cecilia; Rodriguez, María Nelcy; Rodriguez, Viviana; Tamayo Martínez, Nathalie; Matallana, Diana; Gonzalez, Lina M

    2016-12-01

    The 2015 National Mental Health Survey (NMHS) is the fourth mental survey conducted in Colombia, and is part of the National System of Surveys and Population Studies for health. A narrative description is used to explain the background, references, the preparation, and characteristics of the 2015 NMHS. The 2015 NMHS and its protocol emerge from the requirements that support the national and international policies related to mental health. Together with the Ministry of Health and Social Protection, the objectives, the collection tools, the sample, and the operational plan are defined. The main objective was to obtain updated information about the mental health, mental problems and disorders, accessibility to health services, and an evaluation of health conditions. Participants were inhabitants from both urban and rural areas, over 7 years old, and in whom the comprehension of social determinants and equity were privileged. An observational cross-sectional design with national, regional and age group representativity, was used. The age groups selected were 7-11, 12-17, and over 18 years old. The regions considered were Central, Orient, Atlantic, Pacific, and Bogota. The calculated sample had a minimum of 12,080 and a maximum of 14,496 participants. A brief summary of the protocol of the 2015 NMHS is presented. The full document with all the collection tools can be consulted on the Health Ministry webpage. Copyright © 2016. Publicado por Elsevier España.

  6. Workplace Harassment and Morbidity Among US Adults: Results from the National Health Interview Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khubchandani, Jagdish; Price, James H

    2015-06-01

    Most research on workplace harassment originates from European countries.Prevalence of workplace harassment and associated morbidity has not been well studied in the United States. The purpose of this study was to assess in a sample of US workers the prevalence of workplace harassment and the psychological and physical health consequences of workplace harassment. The 2010 National Health Interview Survey data were analyzed in 2014 for this study. We computed the prevalence of workplace harassment, assessed the demographic and background characteristics of victims of harassment, and tested the association between harassment and selected health risk factors by using logistic regression analysis. Statistical significance was established as p workplace in the past 12 months. The odds of harassment were significantly higher for females (OR 1.47, p health of employees in the past 12 months. Analysis was stratified by gender and distinct health risk patterns for men and women victims were observed. Workplace harassment in the US is associated with significant health risk factors and morbidity. Workplace policies and protocols can play a significant role in reducing harassment and the associated negative health outcomes.

  7. [Physical activity in adult working population: results from the European National Health Survey for Spain (2009)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casado-Pérez, Carmen; Hernández-Barrera, Valentín; Jiménez-García, Rodrigo; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, Cesar; Carrasco-Garrido, Pilar; Palacios-Ceña, Domingo

    2015-11-01

    1) To describe physical activity in the Spanish adult working population aged 16-70 years in 2009, and 2) to describe the prevalence of physical activity according to socio-demographic features, self-perceived health status, co-morbidity, and lifestyle habits. An epidemiological population based descriptive study was conducted using individual data taken from the European Health Survey for Spain. Community. The number of subjects aged 16-70 years included in the study was 10,928 (5,628 women and 5,300 men). None. Physical activity and intensity were assessed from questions included in the interview-survey. An analysis was performed on the socio-demographic characteristics and self-rated physical and mental health, using multivariate logistic regression models. Not having a partner (OR 1.44; P<.001), have university studies (OR 1.62; P<.001), non-smoker (OR 1.50; P<.001), and taking medications (OR 1.22; P<.5) were a predictor of intense physical activity in men. The first 3 factors are equal for intense activity in women. In contrast, obesity (OR 0.58; P<.001), and 36-50 years (OR 0.68; P<.001) were factors related to low activity in men. Aged between 36-50 years (OR 1.26; P<.01), suffering≥2 co-morbid conditions (OR 1.30; P<.001), and non-smoker (OR 1.17; P<.5) were also associated with higher probability of reporting moderate physical activity in women. The positive mental health was significant for physical activity in both sexes (OR 1.01; P<.5). This study identified several factors that appear to influence physical activity in the Spanish adult working population, with potential implications for healthcare providers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Baseline Demographic and Clinical Characteristics of Patients with Adrenal Incidentaloma from a Single Center in China: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lele Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate the clinical and endocrinological characteristics of patients with adrenal incidentaloma (AI. Materials and Methods. This retrospective study enrolled 1941 AI patients hospitalized at the Department of Endocrinology, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, China, between January 1997 and December 2016. The patient gender, age at visits, imaging features, functional status, and histological results were analyzed. Results. Of the 1941 patients, 984 (50.70% were men. The median age was 52 years (interquartile range: 44–69 years. 140 cases had bilateral AI. Endocrine evaluation showed that 1411 (72.69% patients had nonfunctional tumor, 152 (7.83% had subclinical Cushing syndrome (SCS, and 82 (4.33% had primary hyperaldosteronism. A total of 925 patients underwent operation for removal of 496 cortical adenomas (53.62%, 15 adrenal cortical carcinomas (1.62%, and 172 pheochromocytomas (18.59%. The bilateral group had a higher proportion of SCS (18.57% versus 7.10%, P<0.001, P=0.006. A mass size of 46 mm was of great value in distinguishing malignant tumors from the benign tumors, with sensitivity of 88.2% and specificity of 95.5%. Conclusions. We reported the baseline demographic and clinical characteristics of patients with AI in a large series from a single center in China.

  9. Smoking during pregnancy: findings from the 2009-2010 Canadian Community Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yang; Shooshtari, Shahin; Forget, Evelyn L; Clara, Ian; Cheung, Kwong F

    2014-01-01

    Smoking during pregnancy may cause many health problems for pregnant women and their newborns. However, there is a paucity of research that has examined the predictors of smoking during pregnancy in Canada. This study used data from the 2009-2010 Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) to estimate the prevalence of smoking during pregnancy and examine the demographic, socioeconomic, health-related and behavioral determinants of this behavior. The data were obtained from the 2009-2010 CCHS master data file. Weighted estimates of the prevalence were calculated. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine demographic, socioeconomic, health related and behavioral characteristics associated with smoking behavior during pregnancy. Women living in the Northern Territories had a high rate of smoking during pregnancy (59.3%). The prevalence of smoking during pregnancy was also high among women under 25 years old, of low socioeconomic status, who reported not having a regular medical doctor, being fair to poor in self-perceived health, having at least one chronic disease, having at least one mental illness, being heavy smokers, and being regular alcohol drinkers. Results from multivariable logistic regression revealed that the odds of smoking during pregnancy were decreased with increasing age (odds ratio [OR], 0.95; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.91-0.99), having a regular family doctor [OR, 0.24; 95% CI, 0.11-0.52], having highest level of family income [OR, 0.09; 95% CI, 0.03-0.29]. Mothers who reported poor or fair self-perceived health [OR, 2.13; 95% CI, 0.96-4.71] and those who had at least one mental illness [OR, 1.81; 95% CI, 1.00-3.28] had greater odds of smoking during pregnancy. There are a number of demographic, socio-economic, health-related and behavioral characteristics that should be considered in developing and implementing effective population health promotional strategies to prevent smoking during pregnancy, promoting health and well-being of

  10. Geochemical surveys in the United States in relation to health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourtelot, H.A.

    1979-01-01

    Geochemical surveys in relation to health may be classified as having one, two or three dimensions. One-dimensional surveys examine relations between concentrations of elements such as Pb in soils and other media and burdens of the same elements in humans, at a given time. The spatial distributions of element concentrations are not investigated. The primary objective of two-dimensional surveys is to map the distributions of element concentrations, commonly according to stratified random sampling designs based on either conceptual landscape units or artificial sampling strata, but systematic sampling intervals have also been used. Political units have defined sample areas that coincide with the units used to accumulate epidemiological data. Element concentrations affected by point sources have also been mapped. Background values, location of natural or technological anomalies and the geographic scale of variation for several elements often are determined. Three-dimensional surveys result when two-dimensional surveys are repeated to detect environmental changes. -Author

  11. Brief 77 Health Physics Enrollments and Degrees Survey, 2015 Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2016-03-15

    The 2015 Health Physics Enrollments and Degrees Survey reports degrees granted between September 1, 2014 and August 31, 2015. Enrollment information refers to the fall term 2015. Twenty-two academic programs were included in the survey universe, with all 22 programs providing data. The enrollments and degrees information comprises students majoring in health physics or in an option program equivalent to a major. The report includes enrollment information on undergraduate students and graduate students and information by degree level for post-graduation plans.

  12. Health inequalities in Armenia - analysis of survey results”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonoyan Tamara

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Prevailing sociopolitical and economic obstacles have been implicated in the inadequate utilization and delivery of the Armenian health care system. Methods A random survey of 1,000 local residents, from all administrative regions of Armenia, concerned with health care services cost and satisfaction was conducted. Participation in the survey was voluntary and the information was collected using anonymous telephone interviews. Results The utilization of health care services was low, particularly in rural areas. This under-utilization of services correlated with low income of the population surveyed. The state funded health care services are inadequate to ensure availability of free-of-charge services even to economically disadvantaged groups. Continued reliance on direct out-of pocket and illicit payments, for medical services, are serious issues which plague healthcare, pharmaceutical and medical technology sectors of Armenia. Conclusions Restructuring of the health care system to implement a cost-effective approach to the prevention and treatment of diseases, especially disproportionately affect the poor, should be undertaken. Public payments, increasing the amount of subsidies for poor and lower income groups through a compulsory health insurance system should be evaluated and included as appropriate in this health system redesign. Current medical services reimbursement practices undermine the principle of equity in financing and access. Measures designed to improve healthcare access and affordability for poor and disadvantaged households should be enacted.

  13. [Demographic, socioeconomic, and health profile of working and non-working Brazilian children and adolescents: an analysis of inequalities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miquilin, Isabella de Oliveira Campos; Marín-León, Leticia; Luz, Verônica Gronau; La-Rotta, Ehideé Isabel Gómez; Corrêa Filho, Heleno Rodrigues

    2015-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe the work done by Brazilian children and adolescents and compare the socioeconomic and health profile of those that worked (or were looking for work) versus non-working youngsters. Based on the 2008 Brazilian National Sample Household Survey (PNAD/2008), we selected children and adolescents 5 to 17 years of age, divided into two analytical categories: "workers" (working or looking for employment) and "non-workers". We calculated prevalence rates for the characteristics of their main work, as well as socioeconomic and health variables comparing the two categories. Poisson regression was used to estimate prevalence ratios, adjusted by health characteristics, with "non-workers" as the reference category. Compared to "non-workers", the "workers" category was associated with a higher proportion of boys; age 14 to 17 years; black or brown skin color; lower school attendance; and worse housing conditions. Child labor was associated with worse self-rated health; chronic backache; arthritis or rheumatism; and depression. Effective policies to support families need to be strengthened to effectively fight child labor.

  14. [Incidence of pollinosis in Switzerland. Results of a representative demographic survey with consideration of other allergic disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wüthrich, B; Schnyder, U W; Henauer, S A; Heller, A

    1986-07-08

    In a survey carried out between January and April 1985 covering all of Switzerland except the Canton of Ticino and including 2524 males and females (49% and 51% respectively) aged 15 to 74 years, the subjects were interviewed regarding pollinosis symptoms during the pollen season of 1984 and in previous years, and questioned about other allergic symptoms. Individuals with pollinosis or with family members suffering from pollinosis received an additional questionnaire. This first extraterritorial survey of Switzerland showed that every tenth Swiss aged 15 or over suffers from hay fever (incidence 9.6%). In addition, 3% had suffered from pollinosis previously. In the 15-24 age group the incidence was 16%. It fell with advancing age and was only 4.2% in the over-60 age group. No statistically significant differences were found between incidences in town (9%) and country (10%) and between the sexes. Hay fever morbidity in individuals with higher education (14.5%) and in certain occupations (student, apprentice - 21%) and among job levels "manager, senior civil servant, senior employee" (13.8%) was higher than in other categories. This representative survey confirmed that in Switzerland hay fever is commoner than in 1926 and 1958. The symptoms of pollen allergy are known: symptoms predominate in May (53%) and June (62%) including rhinitis in 94%, conjunctivitis in 82% and asthma in 24%. In 11% pollen allergy was already manifest in the first four years of life, in 62% before puberty and in 80% before the age of 20.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Health surveys of cyanobacteria in drinking and recreational waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guadalupe Martínez Juárez

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Environmental surveys of drinking and recreational waters with the objective of related health risk control are a common component in public health policy. Based in updated scientific knowledge proliferation of Cyanobacteria constitutes a new risk, and it should be considered in public health programs. The principal objective of this work is to assess the presence of cyanobacteria and microcystins in drinking and recreational waters. Results of a four year survey in the sanitary department of Talavera de la Reina are presented. A descriptive study of the presence of cyanobacteria and microcystins, in non treated water from two reservoirs at the pick up point and after treatment in the exit point from two treatment plants. The same approach has been used in two recreational summer natural water reservoirs. Every fifteen days samples were analysed for cyanobateria recount and free microcystin level determination by ELISA essay. From the results of the analysis in drinking water we concluded that microcystines levels in non treated water from reservoirs are not high, less than 6 per cent of samples showed a positive results for microcystins. Treatment was effective as no sample after treatment showed a positive result for microcystins. 48 per cent of recreational water samples showed levels above 100,000 cells per ml, which corresponds to the WHO moderate adverse effect risk guide level. Public health policy should include systematic level survey of cyanobaterias from drinking and recreational water. Exposure related health adverse effects surveys should be conducted.

  16. Synthesizing Exoplanet Demographics: A Single Population of Long-Period Planetary Companions to M Dwarfs Consistent with Microlensing, Radial Velocity, and Direct Imaging Surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Clanton, Christian

    2015-01-01

    We present the first study to synthesize results from five different exoplanet surveys using three independent detection methods: microlensing, radial velocity, and direct imaging. The constraints derived herein represent the most comprehensive picture of the demographics of large-separation (>~ 2 AU) planets orbiting the most common stars in our Galaxy that has been constructed to date. We assume a simple, joint power-law planet distribution function of the form d^2N_{pl}/[dlog(m_p)dlog(a)] = A(m_p/M_{Sat})^{alpha}(a/2.5 AU)^{beta} with an outer cutoff radius of the separation distribution function of a_{out}. Generating populations of planets from these models and mapping them into the relevant observables for each survey, we use actual or estimated detection sensitivities to determine the expected observations for each survey. Comparing with the reported results, we derive constraints on the parameters {alpha, beta, A, a_{out}} that describe a single population of planets that is simultaneously consistent ...

  17. Health-related quality of life in Russian adults with epilepsy: the effect of socio-demographic and clinical factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melikyan, Elina; Guekht, Alla; Milchakova, Larisa; Lebedeva, Anna; Bondareva, Irina; Gusev, Eugeny

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate socio-demographic and clinical factors influencing the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of adult patients with epilepsy in a naturalistic treatment setting in Russia. The QOLIE-31 questionnaire and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were completed by 208 patients with a broad clinical spectrum of epilepsy (the mean age was 31.49±13.20 years and ranged from 18 to 74 years). In Russian adult patients with epilepsy, lower mean QOLIE-31 scores were obtained compared with previously published international data for overall HRQOL, emotional well-being, and cognitive functioning and social functioning subscales (pfactor associated with all HRQOL domains, except for medication effects and emotional well-being, whereas gender, education, family status, seizure type, employment, lateralization of epileptic foci, number of antiepileptic drugs, and the reported adverse events did not significantly affect HRQOL. The present study has revealed that longer duration of epilepsy, older age, higher seizure frequency, and depression are the potential predictors of worse HRQOL in adult Russian patients with epilepsy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Who experiences seclusion? An examination of demographics and duration in a public acute inpatient mental health service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavulak, Jacinta; Petrakis, Melissa

    2017-07-01

    Restrictive interventions such as seclusion may occur during an acute mental health crisis. Such interventions are experienced by people as traumatic and counter to recovery. The current study aimed to investigate the use of seclusion and who was secluded amongst patients presenting with psychotic symptomology. All acute inpatient admissions were examined across a 12-month period January-December 2013. Electronic and paper records were accessed and audited for all 655 admissions. There were 91 admissions that included a seclusion and 200 seclusion events. There were 79 unique patients who experienced seclusion. For those experiencing seclusion: two-thirds were male, 49% were either homeless or had no fixed abode, 32% received case management in the community prior to their inpatient stay, and 56% were unemployed or not in the workforce. The median and mode duration of seclusion was 4 h. By understanding seclusion interventions better, changes can be made to enhance practice. This descriptive research into seclusion has clarified the demographics of who is most likely to experience seclusion, for how long, and the implications for reducing restrictive interventions. How the social work role could contribute to reforms to protect and enhance the rights and well-being of marginalized members of our communities, at their most vulnerable, is considered.

  19. Diaper Dermatitis in Infants Admitted to Social Pediatrics Health Center: Role of Socio-demographic Factors and Infant Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayaoglu, Semra; Kivanc-Altunay, Ilknur; Sarikaya, Sezgi

    2015-10-01

    To determine infant diaper dermatitis (DD) at pediatrics health center; its relation to socio-demographic factors and infant care. The study included 113 infants aged 0-24 mo. Data on infants' age, sex, weight, mothers' education, nutrition, diaper change frequency, cleaning methods and prophylactic cream use were recorded. Infants with minimum one time rash, were accepted to have DD. Seventy six (67.3 %) infants had DD [32 girls (42.1 %), 44 boys (57 %), mean age: 6.5 mo]. Infants with DD had significantly higher age than those without (p 0.001). DD frequency in infants ≥4.5 mo-old was 5.8(2.4-13.7) times more than in infants ≤4.5 mo. Cleaning material types did not affect DD frequency. No significant difference was observed in DD with diaper change of ≤3 times and ≥4 times. Significant difference in DD increase was observed with supplementary food intake vs. without it (p 0.000). DD frequency in infants with supplementary food intake was 6.4 times (2.4-17.1) more than in those without it. Human milk intake was statistically significant in causing less occurrence of DD as shown in univariate model (p food intake and lack of cream use seem to be accountable for DD whereas human milk intake lessened the occurrence of DD. Mothers should be informed on dermatitis care and encouraged for breastfeeding.

  20. Modeling indoor TV/screen viewing and adult physical and mental health: Health Survey for England, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiue, Ivy

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to model indoor TV/screen viewing and a series of adult health conditions and cognitive performance in a country-wide, population-based setting in recent years. Data was retrieved from Health Survey for England, 2012. Information on demographics, lifestyle factors, self-reported health conditions, and TV and/or screen watching hours in adults was collected by household interviews. Chi-square test and survey-weighted logistic and multi-nominal modeling were performed. Of 8114 English adults aged 18-98, 4138 people (51.1 %) watched TV and/or screen daily for 2 h or more on average. Two thousand five-hundred people (30.9 %) watched for 3 h or more. TV and/or screening watching for 2+ hours was associated with endocrine or metabolic disorders, diabetes, mental disorders (including poor scores in General Health Questionnaire and Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale), nervous system disorders, eye complaints, circulatory system disorders, respiratory system disorders, musculoskeletal system disorders, and self-rated health. TV and/or screen watching for 3+ hours was associated with digestive disorders and clotting disorder. TV and/or screen watching for 5+ hours was associated with cancer. TV and/or screen watching for 6+, 8+, or 11+ hours was associated with bladder disease, genito-urinary system disorders or bowel disease, respectively. There were no risk associations (within 20 h) found with ear complaints, infectious disease, and blood system disorders. Future educational and public health programs minimizing TV and/or screen viewing in order to protect from physical inactivity and X-radiation might be needed while research on the combined effect of physical inactivity and X-radiation should be explored.

  1. Medical Students' Satisfaction and Academic Performance with Problem-Based Learning in Practice-Based Exercises for Epidemiology and Health Demographics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Mejías, E.; Amezcua-Prieto, C.; Martínez-Ruiz, V.; Olvera-Porcel, M. C.; Jiménez-Moleón, J. J.; Lardelli Claret, P.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of problem-based learning (PBL) on university students' satisfaction with and academic performance in a course on epidemiology and social and demographic health. The participants in this interventional study were 529 students (272 in the intervention group and 257 in the control group) enrolled in a…

  2. How are Closeness and Conflict in Student-Teacher Relationships Associated with Demographic Factors, School Functioning and Mental Health in Norwegian Schoolchildren Aged 6-13?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drugli, May Britt

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the association between teacher-reported student-teacher relationship quality (closeness and conflict) and demographic factors, school functioning and child mental health in a cross-sectional study. The study was conducted among a national sample of Norwegian school children (N?=?825) in grades 1 to 7. Bivariate analyses and…

  3. Informed citizen and empowered citizen in health: results from an European survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prokosch Hans-Ulrich

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The knowledge about the relationship between health-related activities on the Internet (i.e. informed citizens and individuals' control over their own experiences of health or illness (i.e. empowered citizens is valuable but scarce. In this paper, we investigate the correlation between four ways of using the Internet for information on health or illness and citizens attitudes and behaviours toward health professionals and health systems and establish the profile of empowered eHealth citizens in Europe. Methods Data was collected during April and May 2007 (N = 7022, through computer-assisted telephone interviews (CATI. Respondents from Denmark, Germany, Greece, Latvia, Norway, Poland and Portugal participated in the survey. The profiles were generated using logistic regressions and are based on: a socio-demographic and health information, b the level of use of health-related online services, c the level of use of the Internet to get health information to decide whether to consult a health professional, prepare for a medical appointment and assess its outcome, and d the impact of online health information on citizens' attitudes and behavior towards health professionals and health systems. Results Citizens using the Internet to decide whether to consult a health professional or to get a second opinion are likely to be frequent visitors of health sites, active participants of online health forums and recurrent buyers of medicines and other health related products online, while only infrequent epatients, visiting doctors they have never met face-to-face. Participation in online health communities seems to be related with more inquisitive and autonomous patients. Conclusions The profiles of empowered eHealth citizens in Europe are situational and country dependent. The number of Europeans using the Internet to get health information to help them deal with a consultation is raising and having access to online health information

  4. [Association between demographic characteristics and psychosocial factors of job stress in a sample of health care workers employed in two Italian hospitals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortese, C G; Gerbaudo, Laura; Benso, P G; Violante, B

    2009-01-01

    Job stress has negative effects on both health care work ers' (HCW) health and on work organization. To assess whether the presence of stressful conditions, individually considered, or combined in the iso-strain model, is significantly associated with specific socio-demographic characteristics, also with the aim of providing organizational tools for management to reduce stress in the working environment according to Italian law 81/2008. The extended version of the Job Content Questionnaire was administered to 265 healthy HCW in seven paired wards of two hospitals. The five psychosocial scales Job Demand (JD), Job Control (JC), Social Support (SS), Skill Underutilization (SuS), and Job Insecurity (JI) were calculated. The factors JD, JC, and SS were combined together to separate a group of 33 HCW in iso-strain conditions from another group of 232 HCW not in iso-strain conditions. Several socio-demographic variables were collected. Statistically significant associations were found between socio-demographic characteristics and psychosocial factors, whereas the iso-strain conditions were not related to any socio-demographic parameter. Data suggest the need for alternative policies to reduce job stress: for example, actions addressed to operative units or HCW with specific socio-demographic characteristics could be effective in improving individual psychosocial factors; however, integrated actions aimed at reorganizing the working environment as a whole should be implemented to correct iso-strain conditions.

  5. Findings from the oral health study of the Danish Health Examination Survey 2007-2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongstad, Johanne; Ekstrand, Kim; Qvist, Vibeke

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective. The aims of the oral part of the Danish Health Examination Survey (DANHES 2007-2008) were (1) to establish an oral health database for adult Danes and (2) to explore the influence of general diseases and lifestyle on oral health. This paper presents the study population, exami...

  6. Baseline demographic profile and general health influencing the post-radiotherapy health related quality-of-life in women with gynaecological malignancy treated with pelvic irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sourav Sau

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cancer specific survival and quality-of-life (QOL assessment are important in evaluating cancer treatment outcomes. Baseline demographic profiles have significant effects on follow-up health related QOL (HRQOL and affect the outcome of treatments. Materials and Methods: Post-operative gynaecological cancer patients required adjuvant pelvic radiation enrolled longitudinal assessment study. Patients had completed the short form-36 (SF-36 questionnaire before the adjuvant radiotherapy and functional assessments of cancer therapy-general module at 6 th month′s follow-up period to assess the HRQOL. Baseline variables were race, age, body mass index (BMI, education, marital status, type of surgery, physical composite scores (PCS and mental composite scores (MCS summary scores of the SF-36. Univariate and multivariate regression analysis used to determine the influence of these variables on post-radiotherapy HRQOL domains. Results: Baseline PCS, MCS, age, education and marital status had positively correlation with post-radiotherapy HRQOL while higher BMI had a negative impact in univariate analysis. In multivariate regression analysis, education and MCS had a positive correlation while higher BMI had a negative correlation with HRQOL domains. Conclusion: Enhance our ability to detect demographic variables and modify those factors and develops new treatment aimed at improving all aspect of gynaecological cancer including good QOL.

  7. Weight, socio-demographics, and health behaviour related correlates of academic performance in first year university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deliens, Tom; Clarys, Peter; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Deforche, Benedicte

    2013-12-17

    This study aimed to examine differences in socio-demographics and health behaviour between Belgian first year university students who attended all final course exams and those who did not. Secondly, this study aimed to identify weight and health behaviour related correlates of academic performance in those students who attended all course exams. Anthropometrics of 101 first year university students were measured at both the beginning of the first (T1) and second (T2) semester of the academic year. An on-line health behaviour questionnaire was filled out at T2. As a measure of academic performance student end-of-year Grade Point Averages (GPA) were obtained from the university's registration office. Independent samples t-tests and chi2-tests were executed to compare students who attended all course exams during the first year of university and students who did not carry through. Uni- and multivariate linear regression analyses were conducted to identify correlates of academic performance in students who attended all course exams during the first year of university. Students who did not attend all course exams were predominantly male, showed higher increases in waist circumference during the first semester and consumed more French fries than those who attended all final course exams. Being male, lower secondary school grades, increases in weight, Body Mass Index and waist circumference over the first semester, more gaming on weekdays, being on a diet, eating at the student restaurant more frequently, higher soda and French fries consumption, and higher frequency of alcohol use predicted lower GPA's in first year university students. When controlled for each other, being on a diet and higher frequency of alcohol use remained significant in the multivariate regression model, with frequency of alcohol use being the strongest correlate of GPA. This study, conducted in Belgian first year university students, showed that academic performance is associated with a wide range

  8. A Survey of Health Care Models that Encompass Multiple Departments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanberkel, Peter T.; Boucherie, Richardus J.; Hans, Elias W.; Hurink, Johann L.; Litvak, Nelli

    2009-01-01

    In this survey we review quantitative health care models to illustrate the extent to which they encompass multiple hospital departments. The paper provides general overviews of the relationships that exists between major hospital departments and describes how these relationships are accounted for by

  9. A survey of health care models that encompass multiple departments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanberkel, P.T.; Boucherie, Richardus J.; Hans, Elias W.; Hurink, Johann L.; Litvak, Nelli

    2009-01-01

    In this survey we review quantitative health care models to illustrate the extent to which they encompass multiple hospital departments. The paper provides general overviews of the relationships that exists between major hospital departments and describes how these relationships are accounted for by

  10. Imperial County baseline health survey potential impact of geothermal energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deane, M.

    1981-06-01

    The survey purpose, methods, and statistical methods are presented. Results are discussed according to: area differences in background variables, area differences in health variables, area differences in annoyance reactions, and comparison of symptom frequencies with age, smoking, and drinking. Included in appendices are tables of data, enumeration forms, the questionnaire, interviewer cards, and interviewer instructions. (MHR)

  11. Health sciences libraries building survey, 1999–2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Logan

    2010-01-01

    Objective: A survey was conducted of health sciences libraries to obtain information about newer buildings, additions, remodeling, and renovations. Method: An online survey was developed, and announcements of survey availability posted to three major email discussion lists: Medical Library Association (MLA), Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries (AAHSL), and MEDLIB-L. Previous discussions of library building projects on email discussion lists, a literature review, personal communications, and the author's consulting experiences identified additional projects. Results: Seventy-eight health sciences library building projects at seventy-three institutions are reported. Twenty-two are newer facilities built within the last ten years; two are space expansions; forty-five are renovation projects; and nine are combinations of new and renovated space. Six institutions report multiple or ongoing renovation projects during the last ten years. Conclusions: The survey results confirm a continuing migration from print-based to digitally based collections and reveal trends in library space design. Some health sciences libraries report loss of space as they move toward creating space for “community” building. Libraries are becoming more proactive in using or retooling space for concentration, collaboration, contemplation, communication, and socialization. All are moving toward a clearer operational vision of the library as the institution's information nexus and not merely as a physical location with print collections. PMID:20428277

  12. Synthesizing Exoplanet Demographics: A Single Population of Long-period Planetary Companions to M Dwarfs Consistent with Microlensing, Radial Velocity, and Direct Imaging Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clanton, Christian; Gaudi, B. Scott

    2016-03-01

    We present the first study to synthesize results from five different exoplanet surveys using three independent detection methods: microlensing, radial velocity, and direct imaging. The constraints derived herein represent the most comprehensive picture of the demographics of large-separation (≳2 AU) planets orbiting the most common stars in our Galaxy that has been constructed to date. We assume a simple, joint power-law planet distribution function of the form {d}2{N}{{pl}}/(d{log} {m}p d{log} a)={ A }{({m}p/{M}{{Sat}})}α {(a/2.5{{AU}})}β with an outer cutoff radius of the separation distribution function of aout. Generating populations of planets from these models and mapping them into the relevant observables for each survey, we use actual or estimated detection sensitivities to determine the expe