WorldWideScience

Sample records for demographic factors gender

  1. The Relationship between Demographic Factors and Gender Role Attitudes in Women Referring to Mashhad Health Care Centers in 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Fazeli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim:  Gender roles are affected by biosocial and cultural factors. These roles have significant impacts on one’s professional, social, and family life. Therefore, given the recent changes in gender roles in Iran, we aimed to determine the relationship between demographic factors and gender role attitudes among women. Methods:This cross-sectional study was conducted on 712 females, selected via stratified sampling. Data were collected using a demographic checklist and a gender role questionnaire including 2 sections: gender role stereotypes and gender egalitarianism. The validity of this questionnaire was confirmed by content validity and its reliability was verified by internal consistency (α=0.77. For data analysis, ANOVA and correlation coefficient tests were performed, using SPSS version16. Results: The mean scores of gender role stereotypes and egalitarianism were 29.55±4.33 and 112.55±14.64, respectively. Stereotypic and egalitarian attitudes were significantly correlated with age, family size, duration of marriage, women’s age at first childbirth, educational level, intentions to pursue education in future, and occupational status. Conclusion: As to the finding, gender role attitudes were influenced by social, economic, and demographic factors in Iran. By paying attention to these factors, we can implement proper interventions in order to promote personal and social health among women.

  2. Gender inequalities from the demographic perspective

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    Devedžić Mirjana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the meaning of the phrase "the woman’s status in the society" that is recognized in demography as an important cultural factor of demographic development and transitional changes. The analysis indicates qualitative shifts in the woman’s status and simultaneously reveals its importance at present, not only in traditional, but also in modern and developed societies. On the other hand, it explains the importance of sex as a biodemographic determinant, and introduces the concept of gender that sheds another light on the concepts of sex and woman’s status in the society and integrates them. Gender regimes that subsume the inferiority of women in public and private social structures are examined from demographic perspective, albeit only in those phenomenological aspects that can be supported by demographic research, theories, and analyses. To this end, the paper analyzes the effects of strengthening gender equalities on the fertility and mortality transitions, the gender’s impact on the population distribution by sex in South Asian countries, and highlights the key role of gender in interpreting certain social and economic structures. It also stresses the establishing of gender equality as an important element of population policies. The global dimension of the patriarchal society is illustrated through a series of examples of demographic phenomena from various societies. Gender regimes underlie all of these phenomena. The paper puts foreword certain theoretical hypotheses about gender inequalities, and finds their connections with demographic behaviors and demographic indicators. Finally, it summarizes the role of demography in gender (inequality research and the demographic perspective of the way and the speed the demographic equality is being established. Demography is seen as an irreplaceable discipline in examining gender inequalities, especially at the global level. With the advance of qualitative methods in demography

  3. Suicide in Northern Ireland: An Analysis of Gender Differences in Demographic, Psychological, and Contextual Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Siobhan; Corry, Colette; McFeeters, Danielle; Murphy, Sam; Bunting, Brendan

    2016-01-01

    The circumstances surrounding death by suicide can give us insight into the factors affecting suicide risk in particular regions. This study examined gender and circumstances surrounding death by suicide in Northern Ireland from 2005 to 2011. The study analyzed 1,671 suicides (77% male and 23% female cases) using information contained from the coroner's files on suicides and undetermined deaths. Hanging was the most common method and more than one third of the deceased had prior suicide attempts. There was evidence of alcohol use in 41% of the cases. Only, 61% of cases had recorded adverse events; most had multiple and complex combinations of experiences. Relationship and interpersonal difficulties were the most common category of adverse event (40.3%). However, illness and bereavement, employment /financial crisis, and health problems were also common. One third of those who died by suicide were employed, compared with 50.3% who were not in employment. Just over half (50.1%) were known to have a mental health disorder. The results provide the first profile of deaths by suicide in Northern Ireland. They highlight the need to target people who have difficult life experiences in suicide prevention work, notably men, people with employment, financial and relationship crises, and those with mental disorders.

  4. Gender inequalities and demographic behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    A summary was provided of the central findings about gender inequalities in Egypt, India, Ghana, and Kenya published by the Population Council in 1994. These countries exhibited gender inequalities in different ways: the legal, economic, and educational systems; family planning and reproductive health services; and the health care system. All countries had in common a high incidence of widowhood. Widowhood was linked with high levels of insecurity, which were linked with high fertility. Children thus became insurance in old age. In Ghana, women's insecurity was threatened through high levels of marital instability and polygyny. In Egypt, insecurity was translated into economic vulnerability because of legal discrimination against women when family systems were disrupted. In India and all four countries, insecurity was reflective of limited access to education, an impediment to economic autonomy. In all four countries, women's status was inferior due to limited control over reproductive decision making about childbearing limits and contraception. In India, the cultural devaluation of girls contributed to higher fertility to satisfy the desire for sons. In India and Egypt, family planning programs were dominated by male-run organizations that were more concerned about demographic objectives than reproductive health. The universal inequality was the burden women carry for contraception. Family planning programs have ignored the local realities of reproductive behavior, family structures, and gender relations. The assumption that husbands and wives have similar fertility goals or that fathers fully share the costs of children is mistaken in countries such as Ghana. Consequently, fertility has declined less than 13% in Ghana, but fertility has declined by over 30% in Kenya. Family planning programs must be aware of gender issues.

  5. Relationships between adults` participation in leisure time physical activity and demographic factors. Part I: gender and age – review and update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donata Woitas-Ślubowska

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The benefits of regular moderate-to-vigorous leisure-time physical activity (LTPA are well documented, and include reduced morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, depression, and other pervasive conditions. Despite these benefits, adults` participation in regular LTPA is still low. Many previous studies showed associations between adults` participation in LTPA and demographic factors but the results of these researches are inconsistent. The purpose of this study was to perform a systematic review of studies examining the relation between adults` participation in LTPA and two demographic variables: gender and age. Method: The systematic review was limited to four factors: leisure-time physical activity, adults, gender and age. Literature searches were conducted using predefined keywords in 6 key database. A total of 46 potential papers was identified. Of these 46 papers, 25 passed the eligibility criteria and were included in the systematic review. Results: In most of the analyzed studies  showed no significant differences in the percentage of inactive men and women. Among sufficient active individuals there were more men than women. In all analyzed studies found significant association between the level of LTPA and age of men and women. However, the directions of these connections were different in individual countries, and age and gender groups. Conclusion: Relationships between adults` participation in LTPA and gender, and age are specific for men and women in individual countries, and age groups, therefore there is necessity to monitor the level of LTPA in these subgroups. The results of these studies should be useful in the creation of the strategies supported adults` participation in LTPA.

  6. Gender disparities in the association between socio-demographics and non-communicable disease risk factors among adults with disabilities in Shanghai, China

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    Youran Zhang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Non-communicable disease (NCD risk factors can co-exist with disability and cause a greater burden on the health status of adults with disabilities. A lack of egalitarian social policies in China may result in gender disparities in the NCD risk factors of adults with disabilities. However, little is known about the gender disparities in the association between socio-demographics and NCD risk factors among adults with disabilities in China; consequently, we examined this association among adults with disabilities in Shanghai, China. Methods We used the health examination data of 44,896 adults with disabilities in Shanghai in 2014. Descriptive analyses and logistic regression models were conducted to estimate gender disparities in the association between socio-demographics, disability characteristics, and four selected NCD risk factors among adults with disabilities—including high blood pressure, high blood glucose, high blood lipids, and being overweight. We estimated marginal effects (MEs on NCD risk factors between gender and other confounders. Results Women with disabilities were about 11.6 percentage points more likely to suffer from high blood lipids and less likely to develop the other three risk factors than men were. The association of age group, residence permit, education level, marital status, and disability type with health outcomes varied by gender among adults with disabilities. The difference in age effects between men and women was more pronounced in older age groups. Urban residence was associated with less risk of high blood pressure risk among women (ΔME =  − 0.035, p < 0.01, but no significant difference in other NCD risk factors. Education remained a major protective factor against high blood pressure, high blood glucose and being overweight among women with disabilities (MEs < 0, p < 0.05; however, this did not hold for men. The difference in marriage effects between men and women was observed in

  7. demographic factors associated factors associated with malaria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    userpc

    .8%) than those in other nce of 35.4% which was actors can predispose alence of malaria in a study were significantly eveloping guidelines and more effective disease endemic areas (Bashar et therefore attempts to rmation on possible demographic factors d out in four selected geria; Major Ibrahim B. Hospital Zaria, Hajiya.

  8. Relation Between Demographic Factors And Hospitalization In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relation Between Demographic Factors And Hospitalization In Patients With Gastrointestinal Disorders, Using Quantail Regression Analysis. ... East African Journal of Public Health ... Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate relation between demographic factors and hospitalization in gastrointestinal disorders.

  9. 5 CFR 841.404 - Demographic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Demographic factors. 841.404 Section 841.404 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-GENERAL ADMINISTRATION Government Costs § 841.404 Demographic...

  10. Three demographic consequences of gender-specific behavior pattern: The case of Serbia

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    Šobot Ankica

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The focus point in this paper referes to three issues of demographic development in Serbia presented from the gender perspective. Feminization, mortality in men and low reproductive norms are analyzed as effects of relevant behavior of both sexes. This choice is the result of earlier analyses of gender socio-demographic characteristics as well as the researches of demographic phenomena from the perspective of gender roles and gender relations. The gender aspect, as a cognitive concept, implies the importance of the female and male behavior pattern in understanding demographic structures, processes and phenomena. The theoretical foundation was found in the anthropological character of contemporary demography which focuses on the individual’s behavior in the context of interactive relations with the concrete environment. In the context of a complex deterministic basis and interactive connection of various factors, gender roles and gender relations represent a relative segment of social dimension of various demographic issues. Feminization of the middle-aged and older population emphasizes the importance of female perspective, taking into consideration space diversity. Feminization is most intensive in Belgrade. Among the middle-aged women there is a higher proportion of tertiary educated and divorced, and less share of the economically independent, in relation to the remaining region of Central Serbia. As regards older women, irrespective of spatial distribution, widowhood, unfavorable education characteristics, lower economic activity and greater economic dependency are important matters. The issue of retirement has specific importance, and should be solved in the context of educated and socio-professional characteristics of women, in order to promote their social position and gender equality. A shorter life span of the male population requires recognizing specific mortality factors of the middle-aged and older males, in order to eliminate the

  11. Socio-demographic factors and edentulism: the Nigerian experience

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    Akeredolu Patricia

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rate of total edentulism is said to be increasing in developing countries and this had been attributed mainly to the high prevalence of periodontal diseases and caries. Several reports have shown that non-disease factors such as attitude, behavior, dental attendance, characteristics of health care systems and socio-demographic factors play important roles in the aetiopathogenesis of edentulism. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between socio-demographic factors and edentulism. Methods A total of 152 patients made up of 80 (52.6% males and 72 (47.4% females who presented in two prosthetic clinics located in an urban and a rural area were included in the study. The relationship between gender, age, socio-economic status and edentulism in this study population was established. Results No significant relationship between gender and denture demand was noted in the study. The demand for complete dentures increased with age while the demand for removable partial dentures also increased with age until the 3rd decade and then started to decline. A significant relationship was found between denture demand and the level of education with a higher demand in lower educational groups (p Conclusions The findings in this study revealed a significant relationship between socio-demographic variables and edentulism with age, educational level and socio-economic status playing vital roles in edentulism and denture demand.

  12. The effect of socio-demographic factors and sources of sex ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of socio-demographic factors and sources of sex information on romantic love levels among Jimma university students. ... Socio-demographic factors including gender, religion, ethnicity, place of origin (urban/rural), and level of education did not have a statistically significant effect on the romantic love level of the ...

  13. Lab experiments in demographic fieldwork: Understanding gender dynamics in Africa

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    F. Nii-Amoo Dodoo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anthropological literature has long linked bridewealth payments to decision-making about fertility. Recent research underscores the significance of men's preferences regarding women's reproductive behavior, and suggests that bridewealth payments place constraints on women's reproductive autonomy. Yet because survey data on bridewealth are rare, and the collection of new survey data on bridewealth presents serious challenges, this explanation could not be tested. Objective: Our objective in this paper is to highlight the potential utility of lab experiments (in particular, vignette experiments for improving our understanding of gender relations in Africa, using the hypothesized effect of bridewealth on normative constraints on women's reproductive autonomy as an illustration. Methods: We discuss our reasons for turning to lab experiments, and to vignette experiments in particular. We also summarize a series of studies (Horne, Dodoo, and Dodoo 2013; Dodoo, Horne, and Biney 2014 which have implemented our experimental approach. Results: Our experimental evidence shows that bridewealth payments are associated with greater normative constraints on women's reproductive autonomy. We also find that these negative effects of bridewealth are consistent across participant ages, and do not appear to be ameliorated by female schooling. Conclusions: We conclude that lab experiments in general (and vignette experiments in particular are underutilized methodological tools that may be useful for helping us gain a better understanding of the cultural context of gender relations in Africa; and that demographic research more generally may benefit from taking advantage of the strengths of experimental methods.

  14. ROMANIAN DEMOGRAPHIC FACTORS AND THE INVESTMENTS ON CAPITAL MARKET

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    Petric Ioana Ancuta

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The growing interest for investments in capital markets creates the need for studies focused on monitoring and analysing demographic environment in which the investors operate. Its analysis may represent a starting point for finding out opportunities and threats brought by environment for the evolution of Financial Investment Services Companies in Romania. Our paper starts from the assumption that the behaviour of the investor in financial services is influenced by the demographic factors. We focus on some of them, in a descriptive manner. Specifically, they are: monthly net average incomes, gender, age, employment rate and education level of the population. This study also presents a short case of a Financial Investment Services Company named Target Capital.

  15. Effects of Demographic Factors, Body Mass Index, Alcohol Drinking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    9.6) and in females, lower ... fill in a demographic self‑questionnaire that included information about age, gender, ..... of irritable bowel syndrome in young adult Malaysians: A survey .... the development of irritable bowel syndrome in adolescents:.

  16. Demographic and Socioeconomic Factors Influencing Malaria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gyuk et al.

    demographic environment also plays a significant role in the ... Also, Child mortality rates are known to be higher in poor .... especially Christian women have better health education than ... urban life which could have some impacts on malaria prevention .... insecticides, leave in decent areas and are able to access medical ...

  17. Clinico - demographic factors associated with diarrhoeal disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To determine the proportion of under-5 children presenting with diarrhoeal disease, and the clinicodemographic variables associated with the outcome at the emergency paediatric ward (CHER) of the Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, South- East Nigeria. Methods: Clinical and demographic ...

  18. Exploring the relationship between demographic factors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The significant, albeit moderate, positive correlation between fortitude and academic performance highlights the need for further exploration of wellbeing and holistic development of medical students. Support programmes are recommended to bridge the gap related to gender and educational background. Low and fair ...

  19. Gender Differences and Demographics and Type of Cardiac Device ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-02-07

    Feb 7, 2018 ... relation between gender and cardiac device implantation indications and ... cerebrovascular disease, DM = diabetes mellitus, HT = hypertension,. PAD = peripheral arterial ... Figure 2: Trend of device types according to years.

  20. The Impact Of Demographic Factors On Organisational Commitment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Study Investigated the Impact of demographic factors on organization commitment among workers in selected work organizations in Lagos State of Nigeria. This was for the purpose of ascertaining the relevance of demographic factors on workers' commitment to organizations goal achievement in Nigeria. The ex-post ...

  1. Socio-demographic factors and substance use in adolescence

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    Marić Mia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of risky behavior is characteristic in adolescence. Of all forms of risky behavior in adolescence, the use of psychoactive substances - cigarettes, alcohol and illegal psychoactive substances particularly stand out, because of the frequency and degree of prevalence of use, and because of the impact that they have on youth development in this sensitive stage of growing up. Unfortunately, today we are witnessing the fact that such behavior in adolescents has gained an increasingly epidemic character mainly due to the characteristics of the social context in which young people are growing up. The main objective of this research, conducted in the framework of the doctoral dissertation of the author, was determining relations between relevant sociodemographic factors: gender, age, school success, financial status and place of residence of respondents, with the appearance and intensity of use of three types of psychoactive substances - cigarettes, alcohol and illegal psychoactive substances among the general population of adolescents. The sample represents non-clinical young population, and it consists of 529 adolescents, students of the 2nd and 4th class of secondary school (17 and 18 years old. The data was collected by using Scale use of PAS (psychoactive substances in adolescents, which was designed for the purpose of this research, as well as using a set of questions intended for the registration of socio-demographic variables. Respondents filled in questionnaires in groups, during the school lessons. The data show a relationship between the three studied socio-demographic variables with the occurrence and degree of use of psychoactive substances in the adolescence period, such as gender, age and school success of the respondents. As regards gender of respondents associated with the occurrence and degree of alcohol and illegal substance use in adolescents, male adolescents more likely use alcohol and illegal psychoactive substances

  2. Socio-Demographic Factors Relating to Perception and Use of Mobile Technologies in Tertiary Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Kwok-Wing; Smith, Lee

    2018-01-01

    In 2014, we investigated how socio-demographic factors such as gender, teaching disciplines, teaching experience and academic seniority were related to the perception and use of digital mobile technologies in learning and teaching of a group of university teachers from one research-intensive university in New Zealand. Three hundred and eight…

  3. Demographic Factors, Personality and Entrepreneurial Inclination: A Study among Indian University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Richa

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the influence of demographic, social and personal dispositional factors on determining the entrepreneurial inclination. Specifically, the author examined the role of gender, age, stream of study, family business background and six psychological traits of locus of control, tolerance for…

  4. Demographic Factors as Correlates of Health – Seeking Behaviour ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-10-02

    Oct 2, 2014 ... The study concludes that demographic factors like marital status and religious affiliations are correlates to .... before God. The three .... probability of accepting voluntary HIV counselling and testing services than their female.

  5. Modifiable Risk factors of Hypertension and Socio‑demographic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , Hypertension, Modifiable risk factors, Oghara ... to 140/90 mmHg is the most common Non Communicable .... In the first part, data on socio‑demographic variables of the ... blood pressure, and it was measured using sphygmomanometer.

  6. Socio-demographic and clinical factors affecting adherence to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socio-demographic and clinical factors affecting adherence to antihypertensive medications and blood pressure control among patients attending the family practice clinic in a tertiary hospital in northern Nigeria.

  7. Demographics, behavior problems, and psychosexual characteristics of adolescents with gender identity disorder or transvestic fetishism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucker, Kenneth J; Bradley, Susan J; Owen-Anderson, Allison; Kibblewhite, Sarah J; Wood, Hayley; Singh, Devita; Choi, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    This study provided a descriptive and quantitative comparative analysis of data from an assessment protocol for adolescents referred clinically for gender identity disorder (n = 192; 105 boys, 87 girls) or transvestic fetishism (n = 137, all boys). The protocol included information on demographics, behavior problems, and psychosexual measures. Gender identity disorder and transvestic fetishism youth had high rates of general behavior problems and poor peer relations. On the psychosexual measures, gender identity disorder patients had considerably greater cross-gender behavior and gender dysphoria than did transvestic fetishism youth and other control youth. Male gender identity disorder patients classified as having a nonhomosexual sexual orientation (in relation to birth sex) reported more indicators of transvestic fetishism than did male gender identity disorder patients classified as having a homosexual sexual orientation (in relation to birth sex). The percentage of transvestic fetishism youth and male gender identity disorder patients with a nonhomosexual sexual orientation self-reported similar degrees of behaviors pertaining to transvestic fetishism. Last, male and female gender identity disorder patients with a homosexual sexual orientation had more recalled cross-gender behavior during childhood and more concurrent cross-gender behavior and gender dysphoria than did patients with a nonhomosexual sexual orientation. The authors discuss the clinical utility of their assessment protocol.

  8. Gender Differences in Compulsive Buying Disorder: Assessment of Demographic and Psychiatric Co-Morbidities

    OpenAIRE

    Nicoli de Mattos, Cristiana; Kim, Hyoun S.; Requi?o, Marinalva G.; Marasaldi, Renata F.; Filomensky, Tatiana Z.; Hodgins, David C.; Tavares, Hermano

    2016-01-01

    Compulsive buying is a common disorder found worldwide. Although recent research has shed light into the prevalence, etiology and clinical correlates of compulsive buying disorder, less is known about gender differences. To address this empirical gap, we assessed potential gender differences in demographic and psychiatric co-morbidities in a sample of 171 compulsive buyers (20 men and 151 women) voluntarily seeking treatment in São Paulo, Brazil. A structured clinical interview confirmed the ...

  9. Demographic patterns and trends in patenting: Gender, age, and education of inventors

    OpenAIRE

    Ejermo, Olof; Jung, Taehyun

    2012-01-01

    This paper uses register-linked patent records covering an extended period 1985-2007 to analyze detailed demographic profiles of inventors. The analysis covers about 80 percent of all inventors with Swedish addresses listed on European Patent Office records. Examining temporal trends of gender, age, and education shows that the body of inventors is becoming more balanced in gender, younger, and more educated. However, the rate at which female inventors are entering into patenting has slowed d...

  10. How can “gender planning” contribute to tackle the challenges of demographic change?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wankiewicz Heidrun

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Ageing society, lack of skilled workforce, changes in work life careers and changes in partner and family models, a shift in societal roles of women and men, young and old, migration flows from rural to urban, multiple residences and new forms of housing and the related spatial impacts are in focus of demographic change. It is obvious that demographic change is not to be managed without gender and equality issues. Spatial planning has a crucial role in facing these challenges as spatial planning laws demand to ensure equal access to housing, services and labour markets and to organize transparent and inclusive decision making procedures. The paper explores key concepts, methods and selected case studies from Europe on gender planning trying to focus on the potential for innovating planning discipline and tackling with demographic change issues in rural areas. Cases from Bavaria and Austria compared to rural regions in Eastern Germany with high female emigration show concrete planning approaches.

  11. PREDICTORS AND OUTCOME OF ATTITUDES TOWARDS ADVERTISING: DEMOGRAPHICS, PERSONAL FACTORS AND WOM

    OpenAIRE

    Kursan Milaković, Ivana; Mihić, Mirela

    2015-01-01

    Attitudes towards advertising represent an important research concept of consumer behaviour and marketing communication. The main purpose of this research is to explore the importance of demographics (age, gender, education) and personal factors (shopping enjoyment, price sensitivity, intellect) for attitudes towards advertising formation, as well as the influence of such attitudes on word-of-mouth communication (WOM). The research included representative sample of thousand Croatian responden...

  12. Student, Home, and School Socio-Demographic Factors: Links to School, Home, and Community Arts Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Marianne; Martin, Andrew J.; Anderson, Michael; Gibson, Robyn; Liem, Gregory Arief D.; Sudmalis, David

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the role of student (e.g., age, language background, gender), home (e.g., parent/caregiver education), and school (e.g., school type, size) socio-demographic factors in students' school (e.g., in-school arts tuition, arts engagement), home (e.g., parent/caregiver-child arts interaction), and community (e.g., arts attendance,…

  13. Intellectual Leadership of Researchers in Higher Education: Relationship Between the Demographic Factors and Roles (Lithuanian Context)

    OpenAIRE

    Žydžiūnaitė Vilma

    2016-01-01

    The intellectual leadership of educators or teachers represents a topic of a great interest for educational research and practice. Variety of variables or factors have been examined to find the most complete explanations for teachers’, professors’ and educators’ roles, for example, institutional, financial, gender, organizational, spiritual, and intellectual. No literature was found on the relationship between the demographic variables and researchers’ roles in higher education regarding inte...

  14. Demographic Recommendation by means of Group Profile Elicitation Using Speaker Age and Gender Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shepstone, Sven Ewan; Tan, Zheng-Hua; Jensen, Søren Holdt

    2013-01-01

    , which itself is the input to a recommender system. The recommender system finds the content items whose demographics best match the group profile. We tested the effectiveness of the system for several typical home audience configurations. In a survey, users were given a configuration and asked to rate......In this paper we show a new method of using automatic age and gender recognition to recommend a sequence of multimedia items to a home TV audience comprising multiple viewers. Instead of relying on explicitly provided demographic data for each user, we define an audio-based demographic group...... a set of advertisements on how well each advertisement matched the configuration. Unbeknown to the subjects, half of the adverts were recommended using the derived audio demographics and the other half were randomly chosen. The recommended adverts received a significantly higher median rating of 7...

  15. Demographic Factors Affecting Internet Using Purposes of High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Abdullah Faruk; Güzeller, Cem Oktay

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed at determining the impact of demographic factors on the Internet usage purposes of high school students. The population of the study consisted of students between 9th and 12th grades from the Anatolian high schools, science high schools, social sciences high schools, sports high schools and fine arts high schools in Turkey. The…

  16. Relationship between Psycho-Demographic Factors and Perception ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Even though global, corruption is assuming a worrisome dimension in Nigeria. This study investigated the relationship between psychological and demographic factors in predicting the perception of corruption. The cross-sectional correlational study included 600 civil servants; 320 males and 280 females following ...

  17. Clinical and demographic factors associated with sexual behaviour ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: The sexual behaviour and development of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have been mostly overlooked in research and practice. This study aimed to determine the association between certain clinical and demographic factors found in a sample of children with ASDs, and their reported sexual ...

  18. Socio-Demographic Factors in Under Five Children with Acute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the socio-demographic factors in under five children with acute diarrhoea. Design: A prospective cross-sectional study. Setting: Children's Emergency Room and Children's Outpatient Clinic of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria. Subjects: One hundred and seventy-four ...

  19. Gender inequality on the example of socio-demographic structures of Belgrade population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuburović Ankica

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of demographic characteristics from the gender perspective represents a contribution to enlightening the social relations between female and male population in Belgrade. Gender specificity and explicitness of socio-demographic structures indicate to different positions and statuses of the female and male populations. There are more females than men in the total population of the capital city of Serbia. The sex imbalance of age groups is determined by gender differences in the number of born boys and girls, in migration characteristics and in the level of mortality. The male population is greater in the age group up to 20 years old, while the female population is more numerous among the middle-aged and older generations. Gender differences in marital structure, level of education and economic activities cannot be reduced only to demographic limits. A larger rate of married persons among the males in relation to female population is determined by the different behavior in view of remarriage in case of divorce or death of partner. Women are widowed or divorced more often than men, which can be interpreted as a less favorable position in everyday functioning, especially when the women have small or school-age children, as well as in the case of older women. Gender differences in the level of education of Belgrade population are not exceptionally pronounced and are a consequence of unfavorable positions of older women to a certain degree. Differences in economic activity, among other things, are determined by uneven utilization of female and male work force. The rate of economic activity is greater in the male population, and the coefficient of economic dependency in the female population. The gender difference in the rate of supported persons among the work capable population increases the unfavorable social position of women. The characteristics of socio-demographic structures of female and male population of the city of Belgrade vary

  20. Young people with features of gender dysphoria: Demographics and associated difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Vicky; Skagerberg, Elin; Dunsford, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the findings from a cross-sectional study on demographic variables and associated difficulties in 218 children and adolescents (Mean age = 14 years, SD = 3.08, range = 5-17 years), with features of gender dysphoria, referred to the Gender Identity Development Service (GIDS) in London during a 1-year period (1 January 2012-31 December 2012). Data were extracted from patient files (i.e. referral letters, clinical notes and clinician reports). The most commonly reported associated difficulties were bullying, low mood/depression and self-harming. There was a gender difference on some of the associated difficulties with reports of self-harm being significantly more common in the natal females and autism spectrum conditions being significantly more common in the natal males. The findings also showed that many of the difficulties increased with age. Findings regarding demographic variables, gender dysphoria, sexual orientation and family features are reported, and limitations and implications of the cross-sectional study are discussed. In conclusion, young people with gender dysphoria often present with a wide range of associated difficulties which clinicians need to take into account, and our article highlights the often complex presentations of these young people. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. Brand Loyalty Factors Affecting the Hotel Elections of Tourists investigation with Respect to the Demographic Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Tayfun

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to investigate the factors affecting hotel guests’s brand loyalty and these factors is to determine whether there is a difference or not according to the demographic variables. Within this purpose, a survey research was conducted on the guests staying in the five star hotels of Ankara, Turkey. The research was carried out in two stages, namely the pilot study and the main study. As a result of study, while the factors affecting brand loyalty differs based on the gender and the age of the participants (p0,05

  2. Demographic factors associated with moral sensitivity among nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuvesson, Hanna; Lützén, Kim

    2017-11-01

    Today's healthcare environment is often characterized by an ethically demanding work situation, and nursing students need to prepare to meet ethical challenges in their future role. Moral sensitivity is an important aspect of the ethical decision-making process, but little is known regarding nursing students' moral sensitivity and its possible development during nursing education. The aims of this study were to investigate moral sensitivity among nursing students, differences in moral sensitivity according to sample sub-group, and the relation between demographic characteristics of nursing students and moral sensitivity. A convenience sample of 299 nursing students from one university completed a questionnaire comprising questions about demographic information and the revised Moral Sensitivity Questionnaire. With the use of SPSS, non-parametric statistics, including logistic regression models, were used to investigate the relationship between demographic characteristics and moral sensitivity. Ethical considerations: The study followed the regulations according to the Swedish Ethical Review Act and was reviewed by the Ethics Committee of South-East Sweden. The findings showed that mean scores of nursing students' moral sensitivity were found in the middle to upper segment of the rating scale. Multivariate analysis showed that gender (odds ratio = 3.32), age (odds ratio = 2.09; 1.73), and parental status (odds ratio = 0.31) were of relevance to nursing students' moral sensitivity. Academic year was found to be unrelated to moral sensitivity. These demographic aspects should be considered when designing ethics education for nursing students. Future studies should continue to investigate moral sensitivity in nursing students, such as if and how various pedagogical strategies in ethics may contribute to moral sensitivity in nursing students.

  3. Prevalence of Smoking and Associated Factors: Evidence From the CHILILAB Demographic Surveillance System in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thi Thanh Huong, Le; Khanh Long, Tran; Xuan Son, Phung; Thi Tuyet-Hanh, Tran

    2017-07-01

    This study analyzed secondary data from Chi Linh Health and Demographic Surveillance System (CHILILAB) database to identify smoking prevalence and associated demographic factors. Data were extracted from the database of the CHILILAB 2016, which included information on individual smoking behaviors, as well as individual and household demographic data. Descriptive and binary logistic regression analyses were performed with significance level of 0.05. The smoking prevalences were 34.7%, 0.9%, and 16.1% for men, women, and both genders, respectively. A total of 78.2% of current smokers smoked daily inside their houses. Lower smoking status was associated with younger age, being student, rich, and/or single. Future efforts should not only spend on further reduction of smoking rate in Chi Linh Town but should also pay special attention on reducing the prevalence of in-home smoking. This will help to decrease the risk of nonsmokers being exposed to secondhand smoke in their home environment.

  4. Demographic and audiological factors as predictors of hearing handicap

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    Leposavić Ljubica

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Currently available evidence reveals comparatively few studies of psychological effects of hearing impairments, in spite of the fact that clinicians have for a long time been aware of a connection between the acquired hearing impairment and mental disorders. They are focused on the investigation of dysfunction in general. Thus, three domains of the auditory imbalance may be distinguished: disorder, disability and handicap. 'Handicap', according to the definition of the World Health Organization, is a hindrance in an individual that results from an impairment or disability and represents psychological response of the individual to the impairment. OBJECTIVE Validation of acquired hearing impairment as a risk factor of psychical disorders as well as an analysis of relation of some demographic factors (sex, age, education and audiological factors (degree and duration of the impairment with the frequency of hearing handicap. METHOD MMPI-201 has been applied in 60 subjects affected with otosclerosis, potential candidates for stapedectomy, before and after the surgery. RESULTS Individuals with acquired hearing impairment manifest more frequent disorders of psychical functioning in comparison with general population, while demographic and audiometric parameters did not correlate with acquired hearing handicap. CONCLUSION It may be assumed that the very recognition of demographic and audio-logical factors can not help much in the understanding of the psychological stress associated with hearing impairment.

  5. Role of OCB and demographic factors in the relationship of motivation and employee performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yew Huei Tan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This research seeks to broaden the study by investigating the interplay of organizational citizenship behaviour (OCB and demographic factor (gender and organizational tenure on the motivation and employee performance relationship.Design/methodology/approach: Multiple linear regression was used to test the relationship between motivation (intrinsic and extrinsic and employee performance among (n=368 lecturers in Malaysia. To test the mediating effect of OCB, path analysis was employed. Furthermore, the demographic factors (gender and organizational tenure was tested using the moderated multiple regression analysis.Findings: Significant differences in explaining the variance of employee\tperformance was found between intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation. In addition, OCB was found perfectly mediating the relationship of extrinsic motivation and employee performance, however, OCB was found partially mediating the relationship between intrinsic motivation and employee performance. Furthermore, gender and organizational tenure do not show any moderate results in the relationship between OCB and employee performance.Research limitations: Study limitations (e.g. cross-sectional research design and biasness and future opportunities are outlined.Practical implications: Argues that the suitable type of motivation in explaining the variances of employee performance. Also, identifies the important of OCB between the motivation and employee performance relationship, thus gender and organizational tenure were not significant to OCB and employee performance relationship.Social implications: HR can help an organization to succeed, provided that the suitable motivations are adopted to monitor lecturer performance and helping behavior. In addition, HR should not emphasize too much of gender and organizational tenure to justify the lecturer performance as the findings show insignificant relationship.Originality/value: This paper identifies and

  6. Demographic Factors Affecting Internet Using Purposes of High School Students

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah Faruk Kılıç; Cem Oktay Güzeller

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed at determining the impact of demographic factors on the Internet usage purposes of high school students. The population of the study consisted of students between 9th and 12th grades from the Anatolian high schools, science high schools, social sciences high schools, sports high schools and fine arts high schools in Turkey. The sample was chosen through the stratified and cluster sampling procedure. The students were chosen randomly depending on the regions of their school at...

  7. Influence of demographic and individual difference factors on impulse buying

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    Mirela Mihić

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the paper is to determine the correlation of consumers’ demographic or socioeconomic characteristics and individual difference factors on the impulse buying behavior with respect to a number of single impulsivity indicators and one collective indicator. The paper consists of theoretical and research aspects. The first part encompasses theoretical insights into the secondary research regarding impulse buying while the practical part presents the methodology and primary research results. With respect to the subject matter, research goals as well as previous findings and primary research results, corresponding hypotheses were set and mainly confirmed. The results showed that demographic factors, such as the age and working status, are related to most impulse buying indicators and to the impulsivity collective indicator. However, household income produced opposite results. Household income proved to have no major influence on the majority of impulse buying indicators but to be related noticeably to the collective impulsivity indicator, indicating that this result should be regarded with caution. Research results also pointed to the fact that the majority of individual indicators (innovativeness, tendency to the fashionable and shopping enjoyment are positively and negatively related to the impulse buying behavior and that individual difference factors have a greater influence on impulse buying than do demographic characteristics. The paper also summarizes research limitations as well as the work contribution and future research guidelines.

  8. An examination of the association between demographic and educational factors and African American achievement in science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottledge, Michael Christopher

    Objective of the Study: The objective of this research study was to investigate whether an association exists between teacher demographic factors (years of teaching experience and gender), 2 educational factors (certification type and certification pathway) and the percent passing rate of tenth grade African American male students on the 2010 science TAKS. Answers to the following questions were sought: 1. Is there an association between teacher demographic factors and the percent passing rate of their tenth grade African American male students on the 2010 science TAKS? 2. Is there an association between teacher educational factors and the percent passing rate of their tenth grade African American male students on the 2010 science TAKS? 3. Is there an association between teacher demographic factors, educational factors and the percent passing rate of their tenth grade African American male students on the 2010 science TAKS? Status of the Question: According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), science and engineering jobs in the U.S. have increased steadily over recent years and by the year 2016 the number of STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Math) jobs will have grown by more than 21 percent. This increase in science and engineering jobs will double the growth rate of all other workforce sectors combined. The BLS also reports that qualified minority applicants needed to fill these positions will be few and far between. African Americans, Latinos, and other minorities constitute 24 percent of the U.S. population but only 13 percent of college graduates and just 10 percent of people with college degrees who work in science and engineering (Education Trust, 2009). Drawing on the above information, I proposed the following hypotheses to the research questions: H01: There will be no significant statistical association between the demographic factors teacher gender and years of teaching experience and the percent passing rate of their tenth grade African

  9. Demographic Factors Affecting Internet Using Purposes of High School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Faruk Kılıç

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at determining the impact of demographic factors on the Internet usage purposes of high school students. The population of the study consisted of students between 9th and 12th grades from the Anatolian high schools, science high schools, social sciences high schools, sports high schools and fine arts high schools in Turkey. The sample was chosen through the stratified and cluster sampling procedure. The students were chosen randomly depending on the regions of their school attendance. The sample for this research numbered 3170 students. The research was conducted in the second term of the 2014-2015 academic year. The data were obtained through online forms and the bases of participation are honesty, sincerity, and volunteerism. The data collection tool is a questionnaire and a demographic information form prepared by the researchers. Chi-square Automatic Interaction Detector (CHAID analysis was conducted through SPSS in order to determine the demographic factors affecting the purposes of internet usage among high school students. The results of this research show that 9th grade students in Turkey mostly use the Internet to do homework while students from other grades mostly use the Internet for social networking. The male students use the Internet for playing video games more frequently in comparison with female students. Also, socioeconomic status affects the purpose of Internet usage. Hence it is suggested that teachers talking to male students might use the examples of computers and games and with female students they might relate the topics to social media.

  10. Gender Differences in Compulsive Buying Disorder: Assessment of Demographic and Psychiatric Co-Morbidities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoli de Mattos, Cristiana; Kim, Hyoun S; Requião, Marinalva G; Marasaldi, Renata F; Filomensky, Tatiana Z; Hodgins, David C; Tavares, Hermano

    2016-01-01

    Compulsive buying is a common disorder found worldwide. Although recent research has shed light into the prevalence, etiology and clinical correlates of compulsive buying disorder, less is known about gender differences. To address this empirical gap, we assessed potential gender differences in demographic and psychiatric co-morbidities in a sample of 171 compulsive buyers (20 men and 151 women) voluntarily seeking treatment in São Paulo, Brazil. A structured clinical interview confirmed the diagnosis of compulsive buying. Of the 171 participants, 95.9% (n = 164) met criteria for at least one co-morbid psychiatric disorder. The results found that male and female compulsive buyers did not differ in problem severity as assessed by the Compulsive Buying Scale. However, several significant demographic and psychiatric differences were found in a multivariate binary logistic regression. Specifically, male compulsive buyers were more likely to report being non-heterosexual, and reported fewer years of formal education. In regards to psychiatric co-morbidities, male compulsive buyers were more likely to be diagnosed with sexual addiction, and intermittent explosive disorder. Conversely, men had lower scores on the shopping subscale of the Shorter PROMIS Questionnaire. The results suggest that male compulsive buyers are more likely to present with co-morbid psychiatric disorders. Treatment planning for compulsive buying disorder would do well to take gender into account to address for potential psychiatric co-morbidities.

  11. Relationship between demographic and environmental factors and knowledge of secondary school students on natural disasters

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    Cvetković Vladimir M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of quantitative research is to examine the connection between demographic (gender, age and environmental factors (family, school and media and knowledge and perceptions of students about natural disasters. Bearing in mind the orientation of the research design on determination of character and strength of relationships of demographic and environmental factors with the knowledge and perceptions of students about natural disasters, research has explicative goal. The authors use the method of interviewing high school students to identify demographic and environmental factors associated with the knowledge and perceptions of students about natural disasters. The study included 3,063 students of secondary schools in the city of Belgrade. Results suggest the existence of links between gender, success achieved in school and education of parents and the knowledge of students about natural disasters. The results also indicate that the education of students at school and within family does not affect the knowledge, but affects their perception on natural disasters. Bearing in mind the geographical space of Serbia, the study is based only on the Belgrade region, so the findings can be generalized only to the population of students in this area. Research findings indicate potential ways to influence students to raise level of knowledge about natural disasters to a higher level. Given the evident lack of education about natural disasters in Serbia, the study results can be used for policies of educational programs, which would contribute to improving the safety of youth culture. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179045: Development of institutional capacities, standards and procedures for countering organized crime and terrorism in terms of international integration, br. 179034: From encouraging initiative, cooperation and creativity in education to new roles and identities in the society i br. 47008: Improving quality and

  12. Demographic factors and traffic crashes. Part 1, descriptive statistics and models

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-08-01

    This research analyzes the Department of Highway Safety and Motor Vehicle's (DHSMV) 1993 to 1995 crash data. There are four demographic variables investigated throughout the research, which are age, gender, race, and residency. To show general trends...

  13. Demographic And Risk Factors Related To Military Tuberculosis

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    M. Rasolinejad

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Tuberculosis is one the major health care problems in developing countries. Miliary tuberculosis is induced by blood dissemination of multiple tubercle bacilli, the paramount importance of accurate diagnosis of military tuberculosis is because of its dismal outcome if untreated and the chance of cure if diagnosis happens early in the course of the disorder. In this study we describe the demographic and risk factors related to military tuberculosis, which enables us to control and reduce the incidence of military tuberculosis. This ultimately reduces the mortality and morbidity consistent with this disorder. Materials and Methods: we conducted a retrospective case control study, which compares 28 patients with military tuberculosis and 56 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis as control. We reviewed all the patients' documents registered between years 1994-2004, after extracting raw data we analyzed them with chi-square and Fisher exact tests. Results and Conclusion: We found that HIV (P< 0.05 infection and lack of BCG vaccination (P< 0.05 increases the number of military tuberculosis among our patients. In addition we did not find any other significant risk factor.

  14. Coping patterns in special school staff: demographic and organizational factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, J; Dudenhöffer, S; Claus, M; Kimbel, R; Letzel, S; Rose, D-M

    2016-03-01

    Teachers' mental health is commonly discussed in organizational health studies, but studies in special schools are rare. Work-related coping and experience patterns (WCEPs) have been shown to be associated with mental health and intentions to leave. The influence of organizational factors on coping patterns has not been examined. To assess the distribution of WCEPs in special school staff and to identify potential influencing factors. We surveyed a sample of teachers and educational staff in 13 German special schools using the WCEP questionnaire and COPSOQ (Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire). Of 245 teachers and 417 educational staff contacted, 114 teachers (47%) and 252 educational staff (60%) responded, an overall response rate of 55% (366/662). Coping patterns of special school staff were classified as unambitious (30%), excessively ambitious (7%), resigned (17%), healthy-ambitious (12%) or unclassifiable (34%). Furthermore we found several significant relations with demographic and organizational factors. For example, the resigned pattern is associated with age [Exp(B) 1.12; 95% CI 1.05-1.19], emotional demands [Exp(B) 1.07; 95% CI 1.01-1.12], work-family conflict [Exp(B) 1.07; 95% CI 1.03-1.10] and bullying [Exp(B) 1.04; 95% CI 1.00-1.08]. Since emotional and social factors are associated with risky (excessively ambitious or resigned) and unambitious coping patterns in special school teachers and educational staff, interventions should focus on them. Further research could explore causal relations and observe the development of coping styles over time. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Motivational factors, gender and engineering education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolmos, Anette; Mejlgaard, Niels; Haase, Sanne; Egelund Holgaard, Jette

    2013-06-01

    Based on survey data covering the full population of students enrolled in Danish engineering education in autumn 2010, we explore the motivational factors behind educational choice, with a particular aim of comparing male and female students1 reasons for choosing a career in engineering. We find that women are significantly more influenced by mentors than men, while men tend to be more motivated by intrinsic and financial factors, and by the social importance of the engineering profession. Parental influence is low across all programmes and by differentiating between specific clusters of engineering programmes, we further show that these overall gender differences are subtle and that motivational factors are unequally important across the different educational programmes. The findings from this study clearly indicate that intrinsic and social motivations are the most important motivational factors; however, gender and programme differentiation needs to be taken into account, and points towards diverse future strategies for attracting students to engineering education.

  16. Examining demographic and situational factors on animal cruelty motivations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensley, Christopher; Tallichet, Suzanne E; Dutkiewicz, Erik L

    2011-05-01

    Because of the limited number of studies that have examined the motives for childhood animal cruelty, researchers continue to suggest that further systematic study is needed. In a replication of the Hensley and Tallichet study and based on survey data from 180 inmates at one medium- and one maximum-security prison in a southern U.S. state, the present study seeks to further develop this understanding by examining the impact of demographic and situational factors on a range of animal cruelty motivations. Of the 180 inmates, 103 (57%) committed acts of animal cruelty. Logistic regression analyses revealed that respondents who committed childhood animal cruelty out of anger were less likely to cover up their behavior and to be upset by their actions but were more likely to have repeated it. Those who committed animal cruelty to shock others were more likely to reside in urban areas and to have done it alone. Furthermore, respondents who committed animal cruelty for sexual reasons were more likely to have covered up their actions and to have engaged in it repeatedly.

  17. TAXPAYERS KNOWLEDGE: A DESCRIPTIVE EVIDENCE ON DEMOGRAPHIC FACTORS IN MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Rizal Palil

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to determine the demographic factors in influence the behavior of taxpayers. Levene's test shows that there is no significant mean different between male and female, no significant mean different between government and private servants tax knowledge score. Furthermore, there is no significant different between Chinese and Indian score, the different is only 0.10%. As the analysis goes further, Levene' test shows that there is a significant mean different between Malay and Chinese (p < 0.10, a = 0.05 as well as Indian and Chinese (p < 0.10, a = 0.05. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Penelitan ini bertujuan untuk menguji pengaruh faktor-faktor demogarafi yang mempengaruhi prilaku Wajib Pajak. Berdasarkan Uji Levene, penelitian ini membuktikan, bahwa tidak ada perbedaan yang signifikan atas pengetahuan Wajib Pajak antara laki-laki dan perempuan, antara pemerintah dan swasta. Perbedaan pengetahuan Wajib Pajak antara orang China dan Malaysia hanya menunjukkan nilai 0,10%. Analisa selanjutnya melalui uji Levene memperlihatkan bahwa, terdapat perbedaan tingkat pengetahuan pajak yang signifikan antara orang Malaysia dan China (p

  18. Gender disparity in Socio-Demographic variables among the Tribals of Eastern India: a case study of the Santals

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, Amrita; Murry, Benrithung

    2013-01-01

    This paper gives a glimpse of the possible gender disparities that can be intimidated through various socio-demographic variables that exist among the tribals of eastern India by gaining insights from the Santals of Jharkhand, India. Data was collected from 1000 ever married women of the Santals, the largest tribal group of eastern India. The data analysis was based on data collected directly from the field using interview schedule and conclusions are based on qualitative analysis. Gender dis...

  19. Asthma length of stay in hospitals in London 2001-2006: demographic, diagnostic and temporal factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ireneous N Soyiri

    Full Text Available Asthma is a condition of significant public health concern associated with morbidity, mortality and healthcare utilisation. This study identifies key determinants of length of stay (LOS associated with asthma-related hospital admissions in London, and further explores their effects on individuals. Subjects were primarily diagnosed and admitted for asthma in London between 1(st January 2001 and 31(st December 2006. All repeated admissions were treated uniquely as independent cases. Negative binomial regression was used to model the effect(s of demographic, temporal and diagnostic factors on the LOS, taking into account the cluster effect of each patient's hospital attendance in London. The median and mean asthma LOS over the period of study were 2 and 3 days respectively. Admissions increased over the years from 8,308 (2001 to 10,554 (2006, but LOS consistently declined within the same period. Younger individuals were more likely to be admitted than the elderly, but the latter significantly had higher LOS (p<0.001. Respiratory related secondary diagnoses, age, and gender of the patient as well as day of the week and year of admission were important predictors of LOS. Asthma LOS can be predicted by socio-demographic factors, temporal and clinical factors using count models on hospital admission data. The procedure can be a useful tool for planning and resource allocation in health service provision.

  20. Asthma length of stay in hospitals in London 2001-2006: demographic, diagnostic and temporal factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soyiri, Ireneous N; Reidpath, Daniel D; Sarran, Christophe

    2011-01-01

    Asthma is a condition of significant public health concern associated with morbidity, mortality and healthcare utilisation. This study identifies key determinants of length of stay (LOS) associated with asthma-related hospital admissions in London, and further explores their effects on individuals. Subjects were primarily diagnosed and admitted for asthma in London between 1(st) January 2001 and 31(st) December 2006. All repeated admissions were treated uniquely as independent cases. Negative binomial regression was used to model the effect(s) of demographic, temporal and diagnostic factors on the LOS, taking into account the cluster effect of each patient's hospital attendance in London. The median and mean asthma LOS over the period of study were 2 and 3 days respectively. Admissions increased over the years from 8,308 (2001) to 10,554 (2006), but LOS consistently declined within the same period. Younger individuals were more likely to be admitted than the elderly, but the latter significantly had higher LOS (p<0.001). Respiratory related secondary diagnoses, age, and gender of the patient as well as day of the week and year of admission were important predictors of LOS. Asthma LOS can be predicted by socio-demographic factors, temporal and clinical factors using count models on hospital admission data. The procedure can be a useful tool for planning and resource allocation in health service provision.

  1. Socio-Demographic and Economic Factors Affecting the Acceptance of Removable Dentures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, İlgi; Ergün, Gülfem; Semiz, Mustafa

    2007-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate relationships between the socio-demographic and economic factors of patients and the reasons of admission, usage periods of the two types of clinics, frequencies of denture changes, satisfaction levels and preferences of prosthetic dental treatment. Materials and Methods 510 partially and/or totally edentulous patients were studied using a questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of questions; age, gender, education level, income status, problems with dentures, necessity for new dentures. Also asked was the place that the subjects would prefer to get their denture treatment, irrespective of their income level. In this study, Z-test was used to analyze two-sample proportions, T-test was used to determine two-sample means and Chi-square test was used to determine relationship between two classified variables. Results The number of male patients with complete dentures was more than the number of females, with an opposing trend for partial dentures. Irrespective of gender, each patient had had nearly two dentures by the time of questioning. It was also observed that the university clinics were generally preferred by patients from higher income levels with a higher educational level (x2=25.206, Pdenture treatment, regardless of cost, private practice was the preferred-choice. Conclusions With respect to dental condition and the acceptance of removable dentures, there were differences among gender, educational level and income status. PMID:19212485

  2. Intellectual Leadership of Researchers in Higher Education: Relationship Between the Demographic Factors and Roles (Lithuanian Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žydžiūnaitė Vilma

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The intellectual leadership of educators or teachers represents a topic of a great interest for educational research and practice. Variety of variables or factors have been examined to find the most complete explanations for teachers’, professors’ and educators’ roles, for example, institutional, financial, gender, organizational, spiritual, and intellectual. No literature was found on the relationship between the demographic variables and researchers’ roles in higher education regarding intellectual leadership. But a lot of studies are focused on the relationship between demographic and other factors in education: job satisfaction, organizational justice, religion, gender, culture, personal and professional roles, stress, mental health, and mobility. The research issue in this study is related to researchers’/scientists’ work in higher education schools and is focused on intellectual leadership, which consists of different roles. It is worth to think about researchers as intellectual leaders and to discover how they recognize or identify their roles in higher education. In this study, findings answer the following research question: “What are the relationships between researchers’ roles and their gender, work experience, dissertation defence date, and research field?” The object of the research study is the researchers’ roles in higher education. The aim of the study was to reveal the relationship between demographic factors and researchers’ roles in higher education. Data were collected by performing a questioning survey and using a validated questionnaire with 116 statements in total. The sample consisted of 304 researchers working in higher education institutions. For data analysis, Cronbach’s alpha, Mean and ANOVA calculations were used. The research findings reported that the female-researchers’ evaluations were higher in all cases regarding their roles in higher education schools. The results of the study

  3. perceived nutrition benefits and socio-demographic factors affecting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2018-05-07

    May 7, 2018 ... AFFECTING CONSUMPTION OF FOREST FOODS IN EASTERN AND ... P. O. Box 2067, .... and knowledge of health benefits of forest .... R FUNGO et al. 210. TABLE 5. Logistic regression analysis on the socio demographic ...

  4. The role of demographic and motivational factors on mobile commerce usage activities in South Africa

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    Malcolm Cullen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many studies have examined the mobile commerce phenomenon and most of these have focused on understanding the organisational and environmental factors that affect its adoption. Few have examined how an individual’s characteristics and their perceived motivational appetite affect their mobile commerce usage and specifically the activities they engage in.   Objectives: This study examines the role of demographics (individuals’ characteristics and motivational factors on mobile commerce usage activities from the South African perspective.   Method: An objective approach and a positivistic stance were followed. The research model and instrument from earlier studies by Chong (2013a were contextualised to suit this study. Data collection was done through an online questionnaire, 88 responses were received and 81 used for data analysis.   Results: The findings show that age is significantly related to mobile commerce transactions, and one’s education status influences the following mobile commerce usage activities: transactions and location-based services. One’s gender influences how one uses mobile commerce. A significant relationship between all three motivational variables and mobile commerce usage activities is evident.   Conclusion: The findings provide the financial services industry and providers of mobile commerce offerings with a better understanding of the relationships between customer demographics and the mobile commerce activities they engage in. An additional variable of customer income has been identified for future studies to better understand the relationship.

  5. Assessing the effect of demographic factors on conflict situations in Ghana government hospitals

    OpenAIRE

    Dwomoh, Gabriel; Kwarteng, Kofi; Frempong, Evelyn; Frempong, Regina Anima

    2014-01-01

       The   study   seeks   to   examine   the   influence   of   demographic   factors   on   conflict   in  Ghana  government  hospitals.    It  adopted  the  quantitative  approach  which  involves  the  use  of  questionnaires  and  interviews  coupled  with  statistical  analysis  to  assess  the   effect   of   demographic   factors   (age,   educational   level,   gender   and   number   of  years  on  the  job  of  employees)  and  conflict  occurrences  at  the  workplace.    The  use  ...

  6. Young adult and middle age mortality in Butajira demographic surveillance site, Ethiopia: lifestyle, gender and household economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Högberg Ulf

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Public health research characterising the course of life through the middle age in developing societies is scarce. The aim of this study is to explore patterns of adult (15–64 years mortality in an Ethiopian population over time, by gender, urban or rural lifestyle, causes of death and in relation to household economic status and decision-making. Methods The study was conducted in Butajira Demographic Surveillance Site (DSS in south-central Ethiopia among adults 15–64 years old. Cohort analysis of surveillance data was conducted for the years 1987–2004 complemented by a prospective case-referent (case control study over two years. Rate ratios were computed to assess the relationships between mortality and background variables using a Poisson regression model. In the case-referent component, odds ratios (95% confidence intervals were used to assess the effect of certain risk factors that were not included in the surveillance system. Results A total of 367 940 person years were observed in a period of 18 years, in which 2 860 deaths occurred. One hundred sixty two cases and 486 matched for age, sex and place of residence controls were included in the case referent (case control study. Only a modest downward trend in adult mortality was seen over the 18 year period. Rural lifestyle carried a significant survival disadvantage [mortality rate ratio 1.62 (95% CI 1.44 to 1.82, adjusted for gender, period and age group], while the overall effects of gender were negligible. Communicable disease mortality was appreciably higher in rural areas [rate ratio 2.05 (95% CI 1.73 to 2.44, adjusted for gender, age group and period]. Higher mortality was associated with a lack of literacy in a household, poor economic status and lack of women's decision making. Conclusion A complex pattern of adult mortality prevails, still influenced by war, famine and communicable diseases. Individual factors such as a lack of education, low economic

  7. What explains gender inequalities in HIV/AIDS prevalence in sub-Saharan Africa? Evidence from the demographic and health surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drissa Sia

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Women are disproportionally affected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA. The determinants of gender inequality in HIV/AIDS may vary across countries and require country-specific interventions to address them. This study aimed to identify the socio-demographic and behavioral characteristics underlying gender inequalities in HIV/AIDS in 21 SSA countries. Methods We applied an extension of the Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition approach to data from Demographic and Health Surveys and AIDS Indicator Surveys to quantify the differences in HIV/AIDS prevalence between women and men attributable to socio-demographic factors, sexual behaviours, and awareness of HIV/AIDS. We decomposed gender inequalities into two components: the percentage attributable to different levels of the risk factors between women and men (the “composition effect” and the percentage attributable to risk factors having differential effects on HIV/AIDS prevalence in women and men (the “response effect”. Results Descriptive analyses showed that the difference between women and men in HIV/AIDS prevalence varied from a low of 0.68 % (P = 0.008 in Liberia to a high of 11.5 % (P < 0.001 in Swaziland. The decomposition analysis showed that 84 % (P < 0.001 and 92 % (P < 0.001 of the higher prevalence of HIV/AIDS among women in Uganda and Ghana, respectively, was explained by the different distributions of HIV/AIDS risk factors, particularly age at first sex between women and men. In the majority of countries, however, observed gender inequalities in HIV/AIDS were chiefly explained by differences in the responses to risk factors; the differential effects of age, marital status and occupation on prevalence of HIV/AIDS for women and men were among the significant contributors to this component. In Cameroon, Guinea, Malawi and Swaziland, a combination of the composition and response

  8. What explains gender inequalities in HIV/AIDS prevalence in sub-Saharan Africa? Evidence from the demographic and health surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sia, Drissa; Onadja, Yentéma; Hajizadeh, Mohammad; Heymann, S Jody; Brewer, Timothy F; Nandi, Arijit

    2016-11-03

    Women are disproportionally affected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The determinants of gender inequality in HIV/AIDS may vary across countries and require country-specific interventions to address them. This study aimed to identify the socio-demographic and behavioral characteristics underlying gender inequalities in HIV/AIDS in 21 SSA countries. We applied an extension of the Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition approach to data from Demographic and Health Surveys and AIDS Indicator Surveys to quantify the differences in HIV/AIDS prevalence between women and men attributable to socio-demographic factors, sexual behaviours, and awareness of HIV/AIDS. We decomposed gender inequalities into two components: the percentage attributable to different levels of the risk factors between women and men (the "composition effect") and the percentage attributable to risk factors having differential effects on HIV/AIDS prevalence in women and men (the "response effect"). Descriptive analyses showed that the difference between women and men in HIV/AIDS prevalence varied from a low of 0.68 % (P = 0.008) in Liberia to a high of 11.5 % (P distributions of HIV/AIDS risk factors, particularly age at first sex between women and men. In the majority of countries, however, observed gender inequalities in HIV/AIDS were chiefly explained by differences in the responses to risk factors; the differential effects of age, marital status and occupation on prevalence of HIV/AIDS for women and men were among the significant contributors to this component. In Cameroon, Guinea, Malawi and Swaziland, a combination of the composition and response effects explained gender inequalities in HIV/AIDS prevalence. The factors that explain gender inequality in HIV/AIDS in SSA vary by country, suggesting that country-specific interventions are needed. Unmeasured factors also contributed substantially to the difference in HIV

  9. Demographic, criminal and psychiatric factors related to inmate suicide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaauw, E.; Kerkhof, A.J.F.M.; Hayes, L.M.

    2005-01-01

    A review of 19 studies suggests that it may be feasible to identify prisoners with suicide risk on the basis of demographic, psychiatric, and criminal characteristics. The present study aimed to identify combinations of characteristics that are capable of identifying potential suicide victims.

  10. Demographic, criminal, and psychiatric factors related to inmate suicide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaauw, E.; Kerkhof, A.J.; Hayes, L.M.

    2005-01-01

    A review of 19 studies suggests that it may be feasible to identify prisoners with suicide risk on the basis of demographic, psychiatric, and criminal characteristics. The present study aimed to identify combinations of characteristics that are capable of identifying potential suicide victims.

  11. Demographic and attitudinal factors that modify annoyance from transportation noise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miedema, H.M.E.; Vos, H.

    1999-01-01

    The effect of demographic variables (sex, age, education level, occupational status, size of household, homeownership, dependency on the noise source, and use of the noise source) and two attitudinal variables (noise sensitivity and fear of the noise source) on noise annoyance is investigated. It is

  12. Socio-Demographic Factors As Predictor Of Parents' Perspectives ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Correlational Research design was adopted to examine the predictive influence of some socio-demographic variables on perspectives of parents towards the inclusion of HIV and AIDS education in Lagos State schools. Four hundred parents of pupils and students of four primary and secondary schools with diverse ...

  13. Gendered Pathways? Gender, Mediating Factors, and the Gap in Boys' and Girls' Substance Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whaley, Rachel Bridges; Hayes-Smith, Justin; Hayes-Smith, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    A gender gap in alcohol and drug use exists but is somewhat smaller than the gender gap in other forms of delinquency. This article extends studies that examine the gender-delinquency relationship to substance use in particular and estimate the extent to which major risk and protective factors mediate the association between gender and alcohol and…

  14. Comparing the demographic factors of patient with limited and diffuse type of alopecia areata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Daliri

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alopecia areata is a chronic inflammatory disease that involves the hair follicle. Clinically, patients with alopecia areata may have patchy or confluent hair loss on the scalp or body so we conduct a study to compare the demographic aspects of patient with limited and diffuse type of alopecia areata.Materials and Method: We conducted a descriptive-analyzing study in which 306 patient were chosen. The patients were divided into two groups of diffuse and limited Alopecia. Demographic factors including age, gender, disease onset were compared in two groups. Results: Out of 306 patients, 58.8 % were male and 41.2 % were female. 247 patients (80.7% suffered from limited type and 59 patients (19.2% suffered from diffuse type. The mean age of the onset of involvement in limited group was 21.9±12 yr and 15.8±12 yr in diffuse group. The mean duration of involvement in limited group was 18.7 months and 71 months in diffuse group. Conclusion: Diffuse type alopecia areata starts at lower age and has longer duration. Our study results were similar to the others. Like other studies, thyroid disorders and atopic dermatitis are positively correlative to the severity of disease

  15. Demographic Factors as Correlates of Health – Seeking Behaviour ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-10-02

    Oct 2, 2014 ... of health-seeking behaviour of the people of Oyo State, Nigeria. Descriptive ... characteristics of a population expressed statistically as age, gender, educational qualification, income ... before God. The three religious groups discourage extra marital sexual behaviour. ..... mortality in older people. Analysis of ...

  16. Demographic factors influencing the GH system: Implications for the detection of GH doping in sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Anne E; Ho, Ken K Y

    2009-08-01

    Application of methods for detecting GH doping depend on being able to discriminate between abnormal levels due to doping and normal physiological levels of circulating proteins that change in response to exogenous administration. Constituents of the IGF and collagen systems have been shown to be promising markers of GH abuse. Their ultimate utility, however, depends on identification of the factors that regulate their concentrations in blood. Among these are demographic factors that are known to influence these markers in the general population. In a large cross-sectional study of the GH-responsive markers in over 1000 elite athletes from 12 countries representing 4 major ethnic groups and 10 sport types, we have shown that there is a significant negative correlation between age and all the IGF and collagen markers we studied, with a rapid decrease in early adolescence. Age was the major contribution to the variability, equivalent to >80% of the attributable variation in IGF-I and the collagen markers. The IGF axis markers were all significantly higher in women, and the collagen markers significantly higher in men, however, the contribution of gender was smaller than that of age, except for IGFBP-3 and ALS. BMI had a minor contribution to variability of the GH-responsive markers. After adjustment for the confounding influences of age, gender and BMI, the effect of ethnicity in elite athletes was trivial except for IGFBP-3 and ALS, which were both lower in Africans and higher in Caucasians. Compared to age and gender, the contribution of sport type was also modest. Our findings on the influence of age, gender, BMI and sport type have also been confirmed in a study of mostly Caucasian elite athletes in the post-competition setting. In conclusion, age and gender are the major determinants of variability for IGF-I and the collagen markers, whereas ethnicity and sport type have a minor influence. Therefore, a test based on IGF-I and the collagen markers must take age

  17. Prevalence of pathological internet use among adolescents in Europe: demographic and social factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durkee, Tony; Kaess, Michael; Carli, Vladimir; Parzer, Peter; Wasserman, Camilla; Floderus, Birgitta; Apter, Alan; Balazs, Judit; Barzilay, Shira; Bobes, Julio; Brunner, Romuald; Corcoran, Paul; Cosman, Doina; Cotter, Padraig; Despalins, Romain; Graber, Nadja; Guillemin, Francis; Haring, Christian; Kahn, Jean-Pierre; Mandelli, Laura; Marusic, Dragan; Mészáros, Gergely; Musa, George J; Postuvan, Vita; Resch, Franz; Saiz, Pilar A; Sisask, Merike; Varnik, Airi; Sarchiapone, Marco; Hoven, Christina W; Wasserman, Danuta

    2012-12-01

    To investigate the prevalence of pathological internet use (PIU) and maladaptive internet use (MIU) among adolescents in 11 European countries in relation to demographic, social factors and internet accessibility. Cross-sectional survey. The 7th Framework European Union (EU) funded project, Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe (SEYLE), is a randomized controlled trial (RCT) evaluating interventions for risk behaviours among adolescents in Austria, Estonia, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Romania, Slovenia and Spain, with Sweden serving as the coordinating centre. A total of 11 956 adolescents (female/male: 6731/5225; mean age: 14.9 ± 0.89) recruited from randomly selected schools within the 11 study sites. Internet users were classified by gender into three categories: adaptive, maladaptive and pathological, based on their score in the Young Diagnostic Questionnaire for Internet Addiction (YDQ). The overall prevalence of PIU was 4.4%; it was higher among males than females (5.2% versus 3.8%) and differed between countries (χ(2)  = 309.98; d.f. = 20; P Internet Addiction yields a prevalence of 'pathological internet use' of 4.4% among adolescents, but varies by country and gender; adolescents lacking emotional and psychological support are at highest risk. © 2012 The Authors, Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  18. Demographic, criminal and psychiatric factors related to inmate suicide

    OpenAIRE

    Blaauw, E.; Kerkhof, A.J.F.M.; Hayes, L.M.

    2005-01-01

    A review of 19 studies suggests that it may be feasible to identify prisoners with suicide risk on the basis of demographic, psychiatric, and criminal characteristics. The present study aimed to identify combinations of characteristics that are capable of identifying potential suicide victims. Characteristics of 95 suicide victims in the Dutch prison system were compared with those of a random sample of 247 inmates in ten jails. Combinations of indicators for suicide risk were also tested for...

  19. Risk Factors for Gambling Problems: An Analysis by Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hing, Nerilee; Russell, Alex; Tolchard, Barry; Nower, Lia

    2016-06-01

    Differences in problem gambling rates between males and females suggest that associated risk factors vary by gender. Previous combined analyses of male and female gambling may have obscured these distinctions. This study aimed to develop separate risk factor models for gambling problems for males and for females, and identify gender-based similarities and differences. It analysed data from the largest prevalence study in Victoria Australia (N = 15,000). Analyses determined factors differentiating non-problem from at-risk gamblers separately for women and men, then compared genders using interaction terms. Separate multivariate analyses determined significant results when controlling for all others. Variables included demographics, gambling behaviour, gambling motivations, money management, and mental and physical health. Significant predictors of at-risk status amongst female gamblers included: 18-24 years old, not speaking English at home, living in a group household, unemployed or not in the workforce, gambling on private betting, electronic gaming machines (EGMs), scratch tickets or bingo, and gambling for reasons other than social reasons, to win money or for general entertainment. For males, risk factors included: 18-24 years old, not speaking English at home, low education, living in a group household, unemployed or not in the workforce, gambling on EGMs, table games, races, sports or lotteries, and gambling for reasons other than social reasons, to win money or for general entertainment. High risk groups requiring appropriate interventions comprise young adults, especially males; middle-aged female EGM gamblers; non-English speaking populations; frequent EGM, table games, race and sports gamblers; and gamblers motivated by escape.

  20. Impact of demographic factors on employees perceptions on health and safety management in the Greek Ministries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlopoulou Georgia

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to investigate the impact of selected demographic factors on perceptions of office workers regarding the management of health and safety in the office work place. For the data collection it was used a scale validated with a sample of 155 office employees. The final sample of the study was 301 subjects from three large Ministries in the Athens region of Greece, selected randomly. Exploratory factor analysis revealed four factors. A further comparison of the health and safety scale factors toward gender, marital status, working hours, monitoring or not seminars related to workplace safety and involvement or not in accidents in the office revealed that: (a The male employees had more positive perceptions than their female counterparts (t = 2.62, p <0.010. (b Positive perceptions showed and those who had attended seminars on safety and those who were not involved in office accidents (t = 2.16, p <0.032 and t = -2.19, p <0.033, respectively. (c It was also founded that men had more positive perceptions than women in the factor workplace environmental conditions (t = 2.40, p <0.018, while employees who had attended seminars on safety had a higher score on the factor health and safety issues in the office in comparison with their colleagues who did not, (t = 2.17, p <0.031. (d Employees who were involved in office accidents rated higher the questions of the factor health and safety issues in the office (t = -2.52, p <0. 015 and lower the factor workplace environmental conditions (t = -2.07, p = .043. It is concluded that despite the differences in the rating health and safety scale, in relation to selected variables, perceptions of employees regarding the management health and safety in the office work are positive.

  1. Burnout syndrome in physical therapists – Demographic and organizational factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urszula Pustułka-Piwnik

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Professional burnout results from prolonged exposure to chronic, job-related stressors. According to Christina Maslach, professional burnout is a syndrome of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and reduced personal accomplishment. Literature includes a number of reports on burnout syndrome within health service, but hardly ever do they make any references to physiotherapists. The purpose of this study is assessment of the level of professional burnout in a group of physiotherapists and investigating relationships between the indices of burnout syndrome and selected demographic as well as organizational variables. Material and Methods: The study group consisted of 151 physiotherapists with at least 3 years of experience, employed in various health service outposts in Krakow, Poland. The Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI was used to measure emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and personal accomplishment. A questionnaire for the description of socio-demographic and work characteristics was used as well. Results: Job burnout among the physiotherapists was manifested by an increased emotional exhaustion and decreased sense of personal achievement. Emotional exhaustion was significantly higher among physical therapists working with adults and employed in hospitals, depersonalization was higher among men, hospital workers and employees with seniority from 15 to 19 years, personal accomplishment was decreased among men and less-educated therapists. Conclusions: The study confirmed that indicators of burnout in physiotherapists are significantly associated with selected demographic and organizational variables. It is necessary to undertake a more exhaustive study of burnout in this group of employees, and implement elements of prevention. Med Pr 2014;65(4:453–462

  2. Effect of Demographic Factors on Empowerment Attributions of Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Ashley H.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of demographic factors on empowerment attributions of parents of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Data were collected to determine differences between demographic factors of participants and self-reported empowerment attributions. A quantitative research design was employed in…

  3. Evaluating selected demographic factors related to consumer preferences for furniture from commercial and from underutilized species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Nicholls; Matthew Bumgardner

    2007-01-01

    This technical note describes consumer preferences within selected demographic categories in two major Pacific Northwest markets for six domestic wood species. These woods were considered for construction of four furniture pieces. Chi-square tests were performed to determine species preferences based on gender, age, and income. Age and income were statistically...

  4. Evaluating selected demographic factors related to consumer preferences for furniture from commercial and from underutilized species

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Nicholls; Matthew Bumgardner

    2007-01-01

    This technical note describes consumer preferences within selected demographic categories in two major Pacific Northwest markets for six domestic wood species. These woods were considered for construction of four furniture pieces. Chi-square tests were performed to determine species preferences based on gender, age, and income. Age and income were statistically...

  5. Demographic and contextual factors associated with inhalant use among youth in rural Alaska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L. Driscoll

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Abuse of harmful legal products that can be inhaled or ingested is a serious and growing problem in many rural Alaskan communities, and particularly so among preteens. Methods: This study analyses data collected during baseline measurements of a 5-year NIH/NIDA-funded study entitled A Community Trial to Prevent Youth's Abuse of Harmful Legal Products in Alaska. Youth in 8 communities located throughout the state participated in a survey during the fall of 2009 to measure the prevalence and availability of harmful legal products (n=697. The goal of the analysis presented here is to compare the contextual factors of inhalant users and non-users in rural Alaskan communities. Results: As reported in national surveys of substance use among youth, participants in this study indicated using alcohol more than any other substance. Inhalants were the second-most common substance abused, higher than either cigarettes or marijuana. Lifetime use varied among demographic factors such as age, gender and ethnicity as well as contextual factors including academic performance, parent employment, household living situation and income. When compared to non-users, significantly larger proportions of participants reporting lifetime inhalant use indicated easy availability of inhalants in their home, school and retail outlets. Users were also significantly more likely than non-users to have consumed alcohol. Conclusion: Results of this study may inform the development of effective interventions in other rural communities.

  6. Gender Inequality and Emigration: Push factor or Selection process?

    OpenAIRE

    Baudassé, Thierry; Bazillier, Rémi

    2012-01-01

    Our objective in this research is to provide empirical evidence relating to the linkages between gender equality and international emigration. Two theoretical hypotheses can be made for the purpose of analyzing such linkages. The fi rst is that gender inequality in origin countries could be a push factor for women. The second one is that gender inequality may create a \\gender bias" in the selection of migrants within a household or a community. An improvement of gender equality would then inc...

  7. Visualising the demographic factors which shape population age structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Wilson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The population pyramid is one of the most popular tools for visualising population age structure. However, it is difficult to discern from the diagram the relative effects of different demographic components on the size of age-specific populations, making it hard to understand exactly how a population's age structure is formed. Objective: The aim of this paper is to introduce a type of population pyramid which shows how births, deaths, and migration have shaped a population's age structure. Methods: Births, deaths, and population data were obtained from the Human Mortality Database and the Australian Bureau of Statistics. A variation on the conventional population pyramid, termed here a components-of-change pyramid, was created. Based on cohort population accounts, it illustrates how births, deaths, and net migration have created the population of each age group. A simple measure which summarises the impact of net migration on age structure is also suggested. Results: Example components-of-change pyramids for several countries and subnational regions are presented, which illustrate how births, deaths, and net migration have fashioned current population age structures. The influence of migration is shown to vary greatly between populations. Conclusions: The new type of pyramid aids interpretation of a population's age structure and helps to understand its demographic history over the last century.

  8. Motivational factors, gender and engineering education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolmos, Anette; Mejlgaard, Niels; Haase, Sanne Schioldann

    2013-01-01

    Based on survey data covering the full population of students enrolled in Danish engineering education in autumn 2010, we explore the motivational factors behind educational choice, with a particular aim of comparing male and female students1 reasons for choosing a career in engineering. We find...... that women are significantly more influenced by mentors than men, while men tend to be more motivated by intrinsic and financial factors, and by the social importance of the engineering profession. Parental influence is low across all programmes and by differentiating between specific clusters of engineering......; however, gender and programme differentiation needs to be taken into account, and points towards diverse future strategies for attracting students to engineering education....

  9. Gender factors affecting female labour input in the Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gender factors affecting female labour input in the Nigerian University system. ... which mostly affect women‟s job performance in the Nigerian university system. ... are essential in building a gender-friendly university work environment.

  10. EFFECTS OF SOCIOECONOMIC AND DEMOGRAPHIC FACTORS ON CONSUMPTION OF SELECTED FOOD NUTRIENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Nayga, Rodolfo M., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of socioeconomic and demographic factors on the consumption of food energy, protein, vitamin A, vitamin C, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, calcium, phosphorus, and iron are examined. Socioeconomic and demographic factors analyzed are urbanization, region, race, ethnicity, sex, employment status, food stamp participation, household size, weight, height, age, and income. Several of these factors significantly affect consumption of certain nutrients. Income is an important factor affect...

  11. Modifiable risk factors of hypertension and socio demographic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Factors associated with the development of hypertension can be categorized into modifiable and non‑modifiable risk factors. The modifiable risk factors include obesity, physical inactivity, high salt diet, smoking alcohol consumption and others. Aim: This study was aimed to determine the prevalence of ...

  12. Demographic Consequences of Gender Discrimination in China: Simulation Analysis of Policy Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quanbao, Jiang; Marcus W., Feldman

    2013-01-01

    The large number of missing females in China, a consequence of gender discrimination, is having and will continue to have a profound effect on the country's population development. In this paper, we analyze the causes of this gender discrimination in terms of institutions, culture and, economy, and suggest public policies that might help eliminate gender discrimination. Using a population simulation model, we study the effect of public policies on the sex ratio at birth and excess female child mortality, and the effect of gender discrimination on China's population development. We find that gender discrimination will decrease China's population size, number of births, and working age population, accelerate population aging and exacerbate the male marriage squeeze. These results provide theoretical support for suggesting that the government enact and implement public policies aimed at eliminating gender discrimination. PMID:24363477

  13. Demographic Consequences of Gender Discrimination in China: Simulation Analysis of Policy Options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quanbao, Jiang; Shuzhuo, Li; Marcus W, Feldman

    2011-08-01

    The large number of missing females in China, a consequence of gender discrimination, is having and will continue to have a profound effect on the country's population development. In this paper, we analyze the causes of this gender discrimination in terms of institutions, culture and, economy, and suggest public policies that might help eliminate gender discrimination. Using a population simulation model, we study the effect of public policies on the sex ratio at birth and excess female child mortality, and the effect of gender discrimination on China's population development. We find that gender discrimination will decrease China's population size, number of births, and working age population, accelerate population aging and exacerbate the male marriage squeeze. These results provide theoretical support for suggesting that the government enact and implement public policies aimed at eliminating gender discrimination.

  14. PATIENT DEMOGRAPHIC, RISK FACTORS AND SEASONAL VARIATION IN ONSET OF STROKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. M. Kathyayani

    2016-10-01

    gender, smoking, uncontrolled systemic hypertension, elderly age, excessive alcohol consumption and hyperlipidaemia are major risk factors. Further, it showed high seasonal prevalence of stroke during winter season. With better understanding of demographic and risk factors, we can prevent the disease at an early stage and reduce the global burden of disease worldwide.

  15. Demographic Consequences of Gender Discrimination in China: Simulation Analysis of Policy Options

    OpenAIRE

    Quanbao, Jiang; Shuzhuo, Li; Marcus W., Feldman

    2011-01-01

    The large number of missing females in China, a consequence of gender discrimination, is having and will continue to have a profound effect on the country's population development. In this paper, we analyze the causes of this gender discrimination in terms of institutions, culture and, economy, and suggest public policies that might help eliminate gender discrimination. Using a population simulation model, we study the effect of public policies on the sex ratio at birth and excess female chil...

  16. Demographic, genetic, and environmental factors that modify disease course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrie, Ruth Ann

    2011-05-01

    As with susceptibility to disease, it is likely that multiple factors interact to influence the phenotype of multiple sclerosis and long-term disease outcomes. Such factors may include genetic factors, socioeconomic status, comorbid diseases, and health behaviors, as well as environmental exposures. An improved understanding of the influence of these factors on disease course may reap several benefits, such as improved prognostication, allowing us to tailor disease management with respect to intensity of disease-modifying therapies and changes in specific health behaviors, in the broad context of coexisting health issues. Such information can facilitate appropriately adjusted comparisons within and between populations. Elucidation of these factors will require careful study of well-characterized populations in which the roles of multiple factors are considered simultaneously. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The Relationship between Multiple Substance Use, Perceived Academic Achievements, and Selected Socio-Demographic Factors in a Polish Adolescent Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, Joanna; Tabak, Izabela; Dzielska, Anna; Wąż, Krzysztof; Oblacińska, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Predictors of high-risk patterns of substance use are often analysed in relation to demographic and school-related factors. The interaction between these factors and the additional impact of family wealth are still new areas of research. The aim of this study was to find determinants of the most common patterns of psychoactive substance use in mid-adolescence, compared to non-users. A sample of 1202 Polish students (46.1% boys, mean age of 15.6 years) was surveyed in 2013/2014. Four patterns of psychoactive substance use were defined using cluster analysis: non-users—71.9%, mainly tobacco and alcohol users—13.7%, high alcohol and cannabis users—7.2%, poly-users—7.2%. The final model contained the main effects of gender and age, and one three-way (perceived academic achievement × gender × family affluence) interaction. Girls with poor perception of school performance (as compared to girls with better achievements) were at significantly higher risk of being poly-users, in both less and more affluent families (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 5.55 and OR = 3.60, respectively). The impact of family affluence was revealed only in interaction with other factors. Patterns of substance use in mid-adolescence are strongly related to perceived academic achievements, and these interact with selected socio-demographic factors. PMID:28009806

  18. The Relationship between Multiple Substance Use, Perceived Academic Achievements, and Selected Socio-Demographic Factors in a Polish Adolescent Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Mazur

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Predictors of high-risk patterns of substance use are often analysed in relation to demographic and school-related factors. The interaction between these factors and the additional impact of family wealth are still new areas of research. The aim of this study was to find determinants of the most common patterns of psychoactive substance use in mid-adolescence, compared to non-users. A sample of 1202 Polish students (46.1% boys, mean age of 15.6 years was surveyed in 2013/2014. Four patterns of psychoactive substance use were defined using cluster analysis: non-users—71.9%, mainly tobacco and alcohol users—13.7%, high alcohol and cannabis users—7.2%, poly-users—7.2%. The final model contained the main effects of gender and age, and one three-way (perceived academic achievement × gender × family affluence interaction. Girls with poor perception of school performance (as compared to girls with better achievements were at significantly higher risk of being poly-users, in both less and more affluent families (adjusted odds ratio (OR = 5.55 and OR = 3.60, respectively. The impact of family affluence was revealed only in interaction with other factors. Patterns of substance use in mid-adolescence are strongly related to perceived academic achievements, and these interact with selected socio-demographic factors.

  19. Comparison of parental socio-demographic factors in children and adolescents presenting with internalizing and externalizing disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, Nazanin; Roberts, Nasreen; DeGrace, Elizabeth

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to: (a) examine parental socio-demographic factors in children and adolescents referred to an outpatient service for internalizing and externalizing disorders, and (b) compare the demographic variables and diagnoses for the two diagnostic groups. Parents of all children who were referred to the child and adolescent outpatient service were asked to participate. Following their informed consent, they completed a socio-demographic questionnaire for themselves and a Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL) for their child. The CBCL scores and the diagnoses assigned by the psychiatrists were then recorded for each child. Diagnoses were classified as internalizing or externalizing based on the primary DSM-IV diagnosis assigned by the psychiatrists. Data for the two groups were compared for study variables using Pearson correlation, t-tests, one-way ANOVA and logistic regression. Children who had externalizing disorders tended to live with unemployed single parents who had lower education levels and lived in rented or assisted housing. Children with internalizing problems tended to live in owned homes with employed parents. There was no significant association between age or gender for either group. Previous literature has reported an association between low SES and more mental health problems; however, the relationship between different indicators of SES and diagnosis is not clear. Despite small numbers, our study revealed significant differences between the parental socio-demographic factors for externalizing compared with internalizing disorders.

  20. Identity of organizational conflict framework: Evaluating model factors based on demographic characteristics in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaveh Hasani

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE FA Purpose: The purpose of this study was to Identity of organizational conflict framework:  Evaluating model factors based on demographic characteristics in Iran. Design/methodology/approach: Research method is descriptive - applied. The statistical population includes all of the employees in Iran`s Azad Universites with 600 individuals at the time of the study and statistical sample included 234 individuals who were selected using Morgan table. Beside this study, descriptive and inferential statistics were used. Also, reliability approved through Cronbach alpha (0.87. Then, to detect the dimensions causes of organizational conflict, factor analysis in line with the main components was used. Through exploratory analysis, ten principal factors identified. Thereafter, confirmatory factor analysis reconfirmed these factors. Findings and originality/value: The results of study showed that there is no significant difference between the causes of organizational conflict based on the gender. Also, there are significant differences among the causes of organizational conflict based on the variables of age, education and work experience. Research limitations/implications: we adopt a cross sectional research design and as a result inferences regarding causality cannot be drawn. Future studies following a longitudinal design could provide a more dynamic perspective and contribute further to this stream of research. Originality/value: A lot of researches about the conflict management styles, organizational conflict's effects, etc. are conducted by different researchers, but a handful of researches have been conducted in the field of resources and causes of organizational conflict and this is one of the reasons that it is important for researchers to address this issue.

  1. Bridging the Gender Gap: The demographics of scientists in the USDA Forest Service and academia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christel C. Kern; Laura S. Kenefic; Susan L. Stout

    2015-01-01

    Past research has established that diverse scientific communities foster innovation and problem solving more effectively than communities with a narrow range of knowledge, skills, and experience. However, gender diversity among scientists is limited, particularly in natural-resource fields. We compared data on scientist gender and rank from the US Department of...

  2. Cohort Changes in the Socio-Demographic Determinants of Gender Egalitarianism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pampel, Fred

    2011-01-01

    Arguments about the spread of gender egalitarian values through the population highlight several sources of change. First, structural arguments point to increases in the proportion of women with high education, jobs with good pay, commitment to careers outside the family, and direct interests in gender equality. Second, value shift arguments…

  3. Parenting and demographic factors as predictors of adolescent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Previous studies associated conduct disorder among adolescents with great societal damage. ... aggressive behaviour, hostility and deceitfulness) and the effectiveness of ... The results have implications for parenting factors associated with ...

  4. STATISTICAL EVALUATION OF THE IMPACT OF ECONOMIC FACTORS ON SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHICS OF THE COUNTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Evseenko

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In theory made a case the necessity of modeling economic and demographic indicators. The influences of economic, social and environmental indicators on social and demographic factors of development country are researeched. Given statistical evaluation of relationships based on correlation and regression analysis method.

  5. Varying influences of motivation factors on employees' likelihood to perform safe food handling practices because of demographic differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Jason D; Arendt, Susan W; Strohbehn, Catherine H; Meyer, Janell; Paez, Paola

    2010-11-01

    Food safety training has been the primary avenue for ensuring food workers are performing proper food handling practices and thus, serving safe food. Yet, knowledge of safe food handling practices does not necessarily result in actual performance of these practices. This research identified participating food service employees' level of agreement with four factors of motivation (internal motivations, communication, reward-punishment, and resources) and determined if respondents with different demographic characteristics reported different motivating factors. Data were collected from 311 food service employees who did not have any supervisory responsibilities. Intrinsic motivation agreement scores were consistently the highest of all four motivational factors evaluated and did not differ across any of the demographic characteristics considered. In contrast, motivation agreement scores for communication, reward-punishment, and resources did differ based on respondents' gender, age, place of employment, job status, food service experience, completion of food handler course, or possession of a food safety certification. In general, respondents agreed that these motivation factors influenced their likelihood to perform various safe food handling procedures. This research begins to illustrate how employees' demographic characteristics influence their responses to various motivators, helping to clarify the complex situation of ensuring safe food in retail establishments. Future research into why employee willingness to perform varies more for extrinsic motivation than for intrinsic motivation could assist food service managers in structuring employee development programs and the work environment, in a manner that aids in improving external motivation (communication, reward-punishment, and resources) and capitalizing on internal motivation.

  6. THE RELATIONS WITH DEMOGRAPHIC FACTORS AND SUBDIMENSIONS OF ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIORS: A STUDY IN BANKING SECTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KUBİLAY ÖZYER

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study has been made to make clear what are the effects of demographic characteristics on workers’ organizational citizenship behaviors in service business. In this study organizational citizenship behavior was analysed with its subdimenisonals. There are 5 subdimensions as they are, alturism, conscientiousness, courtesy, civic virtue and sportsmanship. To the results of analyses, there are relations between gender, marital status, kids, hierarchical situation in organization, working organization and total organizational citizenship behavior. And also there are relations between these demographic variables and subdimensionals of organizational citizenship behaviors.

  7. Do Social and Cultural Factors Perpetuate Gender Based Violence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gender based violence in Malawi exist at a level that requires special acknowledgement. A survey was conducted to assess how social and cultural factors affect gender-based violence in Malawi. The study revealed that both men and women are victims of gender based violence although women bare the brunt of the ...

  8. Socio-Demographic Factors Associated With Loss Of Visual Acuity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was designed to identify the sociodemographic factors, which significantly affect the visual acuity of glaucoma patients at presentation. It is a prospective study of 154 new patients with a diagnosis of primary open angle glaucoma seen over 1 year and 8 months at the eye clinic of the University of Benin Teaching ...

  9. Socio-demographic Model of Gender Gap in Expected and Actual Wages in Estonia

    OpenAIRE

    Vassil, Kristjan; Eamets, Raul; Mõtsmees, Pille

    2014-01-01

    Estonia ranks consistently on top of the list of countries with the largest gender pay gap. However, irrespective of abundant aggregate level evidence, little is known what motivates the gap at the individual level. In this paper we precisely address the issue of gender pay gap at the individual level. We examine how large is the gender pay gap in actual and expected wages and how it can be explained. We use a rich dataset from Estonian Labour Force Survey on actual wages, and the data from C...

  10. Understanding the gender disparity in HIV infection across countries in sub-Saharan Africa: evidence from the Demographic and Health Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magadi, Monica Akinyi

    2011-01-01

    Women in sub-Saharan Africa bear a disproportionate burden of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections, which is exacerbated by their role in society and biological vulnerability. The specific objectives of this article are to (i) determine the extent of gender disparity in HIV infection; (ii) examine the role of HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) awareness and sexual behaviour factors on the gender disparity and (iii) establish how the gender disparity varies between individuals of different characteristics and across countries. The analysis involves multilevel logistic regression analysis applied to pooled Demographic and Health Surveys data from 20 countries in sub-Saharan Africa conducted during 2003–2008. The findings suggest that women in sub-Saharan Africa have on average a 60% higher risk of HIV infection than their male counterparts. The risk for women is 70% higher than their male counterparts of similar sexual behaviour, suggesting that the observed gender disparity cannot be attributed to sexual behaviour. The results suggest that the risk of HIV infection among women (compared to men) across countries in sub-Saharan Africa is further aggravated among those who are younger, in female-headed households, not in stable unions or marital partnerships or had an earlier sexual debut. PMID:21545443

  11. THE RELATIONS WITH DEMOGRAPHIC FACTORS AND SUBDIMENSIONS OF ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIORS: A STUDY IN BANKING SECTORS

    OpenAIRE

    KUBİLAY ÖZYER; UFUK ORHAN; DEMET DÖNMEZ ORHAN

    2013-01-01

    This study has been made to make clear what are the effects of demographic characteristics on workers’ organizational citizenship behaviors in service business. In this study organizational citizenship behavior was analysed with its subdimenisonals. There are 5 subdimensions as they are, alturism, conscientiousness, courtesy, civic virtue and sportsmanship. To the results of analyses, there are relations between gender, marital status, kids, hierarchical situation in organization, working org...

  12. The impact of socio-demographic and religious factors upon sexual behavior among Ugandan university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agardh, Anette; Tumwine, Gilbert; Östergren, Per-Olof

    2011-01-01

    More knowledge is needed about structural factors in society that affect risky sexual behaviors. Educational institutions such as universities provide an opportune arena for interventions among young people. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between sociodemographic and religious factors and their impact on sexual behavior among university students in Uganda. In 2005, 980 university students (response rate 80%) were assessed by a self-administered questionnaire. Validated instruments were used to assess socio-demographic and religious factors and sexual behavior. Logistic regression analyses were applied. Our findings indicated that 37% of the male and 49% of the female students had not previously had sex. Of those with sexual experience, 46% of the males and 23% of the females had had three or more sexual partners, and 32% of the males and 38% of the females did not consistently use condoms. For those who rated religion as less important in their family, the probability of early sexual activity and having had a high number of lifetime partners increased by a statistically significant amount (OR = 1.7; 95% CI: 1.2-2.4 and OR = 1.6; 95% CI: 1.1-2.3, respectively). However, the role of religion seemed to have no impact on condom use. Being of Protestant faith interacted with gender: among those who had debuted sexually, Protestant female students were more likely to have had three or more lifetime partners; the opposite was true for Protestant male students. Religion emerged as an important determinant of sexual behavior among Ugandan university students. Our findings correlate with the increasing number of conservative religious injunctions against premarital sex directed at young people in many countries with a high burden. of HIV/AIDS. Such influence of religion must be taken into account in order to gain a deeper understanding of the forces that shape sexual behavior in Uganda.

  13. Malignant multiple sclerosis: clinical and demographic prognostic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Hampshire-Araújo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Patients with malignant multiple sclerosis (MMS reach a significant level of disability within a short period of time (Expanded Disability Status Scale score of 6 within five years. The clinical profile and progression of the disease were analyzed in a Brazilian cohort of 293 patients. Twenty-five (8,53% patients were found to have MMS and were compared with the remaining 268 (91,47%. Women, non-white patients, older age at disease onset, shorter intervals between the first attacks, and more attacks in the first two years of the disease were all more common in the MMS group. These findings could serve as prognostic factors when making therapeutic decisions.

  14. Socio-demographic and work-related risk factors for medium- and long-term sickness absence among Italian workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Errico, Angelo; Costa, Giuseppe

    2012-10-01

    Few studies investigated determinants of sickness absence in representative samples of the general population, none of which in Italy. Aim of this study was to assess influence and relative importance of socio-demographic and work-related characteristics on medium- and long-term sickness absence in a random sample of Italian workers. Approximately 60,000 workers participating in a national survey in 2007 were interviewed regarding sickness absence during the whole previous week, and on socio-demographics, employment characteristics and exposure to a set of physical and psychosocial hazards in the workplace. The association between sickness absence and potential determinants was estimated by multivariable logistic regression models stratified by gender. From the final multivariate models, in both genders sickness absence was statistically significantly associated with tenure employment, working in larger firms, exposure to risk of injury and to bullying or discrimination and, among employees, with shift work. In males, sickness absence was also associated with lower education, employment in the public administration and with exposure to noise or vibration, whereas among women also with manual work and ergonomic factors. In both genders, the attributable fraction for employment-related characteristics was higher than that for socio-demographic ones. The association with tenure or salaried jobs, and with employment in larger firms or in the public sector suggests that, besides illness, job security is the most important determinant of sickness absence, consistently with the results of previous studies. However, our results indicate that a reduction in exposure to workplace hazards may contribute to reduce absenteeism.

  15. Gendered Authorship and Demographic Research : An Analysis of 50 Years of Demography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krapf, Sandra; Kreyenfeld, Michaela; Wolf, Katharina

    2016-01-01

    Demography, the official journal of the Population Association of America, has been given the highest rating among demographic journals by the Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI). Our aim here is to investigate the development of research subfields and female authorship in Demography over the last

  16. Effects of Demographic Variables, Perceived Spousal Support, and Gender Role Attitudes on Taiwanese Women's Employability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Luo

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this research was to explore demographic, familial, and attitudinal correlates of Taiwanese women's employment status. Using data from a representative nationwide sample of female workers aged 21 and above (N = 1,047), the author found that (a) the employment rate of females decreased steadily with age, with no sign of reentry into the…

  17. Determinant factors of gender identity: a commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Lih-Mei; Audi, Laura; Magritte, Ellie; Meyer-Bahlburg, Heino F L; Quigley, Charmian A

    2012-12-01

    Paediatric specialists involved in the care of children with disorders of sex development may be expected to provide straightforward answers to questions concerning the "true sex" of a child, reflecting common perceptions of sex/gender as an immutable binary biological reality. This article highlights how much more broad and complex the topic of gender identity and its development is. Many theories have been put forward to advance knowledge of gender identity. Against the breadth and depth of this vast topic, the current overview is inevitably incomplete. It begins by arguing for a more consistent use of 'sex' and 'gender'. It considers in turn three influential theoretical frameworks that lend themselves to empirical research. These are: 1) the role of the brain; 2) the role of socialisation; and 3) multi-dimensional gender development. The article ends by suggesting potentially fruitful questions and areas for future research. Copyright © 2012 Journal of Pediatric Urology Company. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Demographic characteristics, social competence, and behavior problems in children with gender identity disorder: a cross-national, cross-clinic comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; Owen, Allison; Kaijser, Vanessa G; Bradley, Susan J; Zucker, Kenneth J

    2003-02-01

    This study examined demographic characteristics, social competence, and behavior problems in clinic-referred children with gender identity problems in Toronto, Canada (N = 358), and Utrecht, The Netherlands (N = 130). The Toronto sample was, on average, about a year younger than the Utrecht sample at referral, had a higher percentage of boys, had a higher mean IQ, and was less likely to be living with both parents. On the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), both groups showed, on average, clinical range scores in both social competence and behavior problems. A CBCL-derived measure of poor peer relations showed that boys in both clinics had worse ratings than did the girls. A multiple regression analysis showed that poor peer relations were the strongest predictor of behavior problems in both samples. This study-the first cross-national, cross-clinic comparative analysis of children with gender identity disorder-found far more similarities than differences in both social competence and behavior problems. The most salient demographic difference was age at referral. Cross-national differences in factors that might influence referral patterns are discussed.

  19. Impact of demographic factors on usage of stress coping strategies chosen by elderly people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmara Lembas

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Old age is a particular time in which people experience plenty of changes – both progressive and regressive. Their social and economic position is changing, and human beings are confronted with a lot of difficult situations, such as the death of a spouse, illness, retirement – which particularly require them to apply a proper strategy of coping with stress. Objectives. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between the demographic factors and strategies of coping with stress used by elderly people. Material and methods . The study was carried out on a group of 296 residents of Szczecin who are over 60 years old. It was conducted by means of a diagnostic survey with the use of the Inventory to Measure Coping Strategies with Stress – Mini-COPE, as well as an original questionnaire form. The statistical analysis was conducted by means of SPSS Statistics 21.0 (p ≤ 0.05. Results . The results have proven the existence of a relationship between the strategies of coping with stress used by individuals over 60 and factors such as gender, level of education, economic status and financial situation. Conclusions . When coping with stress, men and women apply different strategies. In case of individuals over 60, the higher level of education and financial status they declare, the more eager they are to use active strategies of coping with stress. Seniors with a lower level of education and lower economic status have more trouble adapting to difficult situations. They have problems with taking the initiative and actively dealing with stressful events. They also more often use psychoactive substances as part of their coping mechanism.

  20. Understanding nurses' and physicians' fear of repercussions for reporting errors: clinician characteristics, organization demographics, or leadership factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castel, Evan S; Ginsburg, Liane R; Zaheer, Shahram; Tamim, Hala

    2015-08-14

    Identifying and understanding factors influencing fear of repercussions for reporting and discussing medical errors in nurses and physicians remains an important area of inquiry. Work is needed to disentangle the role of clinician characteristics from those of the organization-level and unit-level safety environments in which these clinicians work and learn, as well as probing the differing reporting behaviours of nurses and physicians. This study examines the influence of clinician demographics (age, gender, and tenure), organization demographics (teaching status, location of care, and province) and leadership factors (organization and unit leadership support for safety) on fear of repercussions, and does so for nurses and physicians separately. A cross-sectional analysis of 2319 nurse and 386 physician responders from three Canadian provinces to the Modified Stanford patient safety climate survey (MSI-06). Data were analyzed using exploratory factor analysis, multiple linear regression, and hierarchical linear regression. Age, gender, tenure, teaching status, and province were not significantly associated with fear of repercussions for nurses or physicians. Mental health nurses had poorer fear responses than their peers outside of these areas, as did community physicians. Strong organization and unit leadership support for safety explained the most variance in fear for both nurses and physicians. The absence of associations between several plausible factors including age, tenure and teaching status suggests that fear is a complex construct requiring more study. Substantially differing fear responses across locations of care indicate areas where interventions may be needed. In addition, since factors affecting fear of repercussions appear to be different for nurses and physicians, tailoring patient safety initiatives to each group may, in some instances, be fruitful. Although further investigation is needed to examine these and other factors in detail, supportive

  1. The persistence of gender inequality in Zimbabwe: factors that ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The persistence of gender inequality in Zimbabwe: factors that impede the ... Specifically, we sought to identify the factors perceived by women school heads to be causes ... all other roles; and lack of support from the home and the workplace.

  2. Demographic factors associated with smoking cessation during pregnancy in New South Wales, Australia, 2000-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passmore, Erin; McGuire, Rhydwyn; Correll, Patricia; Bentley, Jason

    2015-04-18

    Smoking during pregnancy increases the risk of adverse health outcomes for both the mother and the child. Rates of smoking during pregnancy, and rates of smoking cessation during pregnancy, vary between demographic groups. This study describes demographic factors associated with smoking cessation during pregnancy in New South Wales, Australia, and describes trends in smoking cessation in demographic subgroups over the period 2000 - 2011. Data were obtained from the New South Wales Perinatal Data Collection, a population-based surveillance system covering all births in New South Wales. Multivariate logistic regression was used to explore associations between smoking cessation during pregnancy and demographic factors. Between 2000 and 2011, rates of smoking cessation in pregnancy increased from 4.0% to 25.2%. Demographic characteristics associated with lower rates of smoking cessation during pregnancy included being a teenage mother, being an Aboriginal person, and having a higher number of previous pregnancies. Between 2000 and 2011, rates of smoking cessation during pregnancy increased dramatically across all demographic groups. However, specific demographic groups remain significantly less likely to quit smoking, suggesting a need for targeted efforts to promote smoking cessation in these groups.

  3. Demographics and diaspora, gender and genealogy: anthropological notes on Greek population policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxson, H

    1997-01-01

    Since World War II, Greece's birth rate has fallen into a worsening decline. With the steady emigration of Greeks throughout the century to North America, Australia, and Germany, Greece has experienced one of the most rapid population declines in Europe. In 1991, the PASOK government convened a special Parliamentary Commission to study the demographic problem and develop recommendations for its resolution. Released in 1993, and comparing Greece's depressed population growth rates with the markedly higher ones of Albania and Turkey, the report argues that the demographic problem is one of national survival because a decline in the population undermines the territorial integrity and national independence of the country. At least half of all pregnancies in Greece end in abortion, and the report attributes 40% of the declining population growth rate to women who have repeat abortions. To confront the population dilemma, Greek officials are downplaying the diaspora and encouraging women at home to produce more babies. Maternal pensions forwarded by the state as family and population policies are being criticized by Athenian women as a means of professionalizing motherhood and perpetuating a limited vision of female adulthood. The author explores why the declining birth rate is considered to be such a problem in Greece, even though the other countries of Europe are also experiencing birth rate declines; why and how women are blamed for the demographic situation; and why the state, despite its vehement rhetoric, has failed to implement a family policy capable of boosting fertility.

  4. Influence of stress factors and socio-demographic characteristics on the sleep quality of nursing students

    OpenAIRE

    Benavente, Sonia Betzabeth Ticona; Silva, Rodrigo Marques da; Higashi, Aline Baraldi; Guido, Laura de Azevedo; Costa, Ana Lucia Siqueira

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the influence of stress factors and socio-demographic characteristics on the sleep quality of nursing students. Method: An analytical cross-sectional and quantitative study, conducted with 151 nursing students in São Paulo between March and April of 2012. A form for socio-demographic characteristics, the Instrument to Evaluate Stress in Nursing Students and the Pittsburgh Sleep Index were applied. Results: High levels of stress was predominant for Time Management (27.8%) ...

  5. Gender-related factors influencing perceptions of homosexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, F Y; McCreary, D R; Carpenter, K M; Engle, A; Korchynsky, R

    1999-01-01

    There is a long history linking gender role conformity to perceived homosexuality. However, the lack of a systematic theoretical model hinders the elucidation of the interrelationships among gender stereotypes, conformity to gender stereotypes, and perceived homosexuality, as well as other factors which may mediate these relationships. The purpose of the present study was to propose such a model by combining theories of gender stereotype formation and maintenance with research investigating perceptions of homosexuality. Specifically, this study examined college students' perceptions of gender role characteristics in male and female adult target persons and these students' perceptions of the likelihood that the targets were homosexual. Path analysis demonstrated that the sex and occupation of the target person were significantly related to perceived masculinity, femininity, and homosexuality of the target person. Furthermore, individual differences in these relationships were observed, indicating that the sex and gender role characteristics of the participant influenced perceptions of the gender role attributes and homosexuality of the target person.

  6. Gender Factors and Inclusive Economic Growth: The Silent Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Cabeza-García

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The gender factors that trigger economic growth in both high- and low-income countries were investigated in this study. To address these gender factors, four characteristic dimensions of gender inclusion were considered: education, access to the labor market, fertility, and democracy. The relationship between economic growth and gender factors was analyzed in a sample of 127 countries. Value and robustness were added to the results using dynamic models applied to panel data while accounting for endogeneity. We conclude that high fertility in women has negative effects on economic growth. However, when women have greater access to secondary education and the labor market in conditions of equality, the effects are positive. Similarly, the access of women to active political participation has significant effects on economic growth. Overall, this study helps identify which gender factors may promote inclusive economic growth, which is economic growth achieved when both men and women are incorporated in equal conditions.

  7. Socio-demographic and cardiovascular disease risk factors associated with dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaaya, Monique; Phung, Kieu; Atweh, Samir

    2018-01-01

    Little evidence from the Arab region is available on dementia and its associated risk factors. This study is the first in Lebanon to examine the association between community older adults' socio-demographics and cardiovascular disease risk factors (CVDRF) and dementia in the aim of closing...

  8. Can Surgeon Demographic Factors Predict Postoperative Complication Rates After Elective Spinal Fusion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Danielle S; Cook, Ralph W; Weiner, Joseph A; Schallmo, Michael S; Barth, Kathryn A; Singh, Sameer K; Freshman, Ryan D; Patel, Alpesh A; Hsu, Wellington K

    2018-03-01

    Retrospective cohort. Determine whether surgeon demographic factors influence postoperative complication rates after elective spine fusion procedures. Surgeon demographic factors have been shown to impact decision making in the management of degenerative disease of the lumbar spine. Complication rates are frequently reported outcome measurements used to evaluate surgical treatments, quality-of-care, and determine health care reimbursements. However, there are few studies investigating the association between surgeon demographic factors and complication outcomes after elective spine fusions. A database of US spine surgeons with corresponding postoperative complications data after elective spine fusions was compiled utilizing public data provided by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (2011-2013) and ProPublica Surgeon Scorecard (2009-2013). Demographic data for each surgeon was collected and consisted of: surgical specialty (orthopedic vs. neurosurgery), years in practice, practice setting (private vs. academic), type of medical degree (MD vs. DO), medical school location (United States vs. foreign), sex, and geographic region of practice. General linear mixed models using a Beta distribution with a logit link and pairwise comparison with post hoc Tukey-Kramer were used to assess the relationship between surgeon demographics and complication rates. 2110 US-practicing spine surgeons who performed spine fusions on 125,787 Medicare patients from 2011 to 2013 met inclusion criteria for this study. None of the surgeon demographic factors analyzed were found to significantly affect overall complication rates in lumbar (posterior approach) or cervical spine fusion. Publicly available complication rates for individual spine surgeons are being utilized by hospital systems and patients to assess aptitude and gauge expectations. The increasing demand for transparency will likely lead to emphasis of these statistics to improve outcomes. We conclude that none of the

  9. Physical activity and associated socio-demographic factors in adolescents from the eastern region of Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasilewska, Małgorzata; Bergier, Józef

    The introduction and maintenance of healthy habits in the field of physical activity at the early stage of life is particularly important for public health. With increasing of public awareness in physical activity, researchers are increasingly questioning its determinants in different age groups. In this paper we focus on variables such as age, sex and place of residence. To determine what selected socio-demographic factors influence the level of physical activity of school youth from the eastern region of Poland in different domains of daily life. A random sample of 916 Polish school youth from Secondary Schools from Eastern Region of Poland aged 16-18 was interviewed in spring 2016 by diagnostic survey method with the use of the official Polish long version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Analysing the relationship between gender and the level of physical activity statistically significant differences were found in all domains in favour of boys. The level of total physical activity in girls was 5345.5 MET-min./week, whereas in boys – 6556.6 MET-min./week. In the area of total physical activity, the highest values were observed in pupils from small towns and villages, with lower values in the youth living in large and medium-sized cities. When the relationship of age with the level of physical activity in particular domains was examined, only the activity in the work/ school domain (p = 0.0129) spoke in favour of the youngest pupils (2578.7 MET-min./week) when compared to the oldest ones (2226.4 MET-min./week). The level of physical activity in young people from the Eastern region of Poland is decreasing with age, both in girls and boys. It is therefore important, especially for the group emerging adulthood, to offer a wide variety of updated, involving, age and gender-oriented school physical activity classes that could be easily practised outside the school environment to improve the level of physical activity in leisure domain

  10. DEMOGRAPHIC AND LABOUR FORCE AGEING – RISK FACTORS FOR THE SOCIAL PROTECTION SYSTEM IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria POENARU

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Population ageing is one of the main challenges to the economic and social development in the next decades. This article examines the main implications of demographic and labour force ageing on the future of social protection in Romania. The first part presents the mechanisms which define or govern the relationships between social protection and demographic ageing. The second highlights the main risks for the future of the Romanian social protection system and of the people’s social protection derived from increasing dependence rates, including that of older people; also, derived from labour force distribution changing, by gender. The final part focuses on the employment situation of older persons and on trends of paid jobs (employees, both of them having an important impact on social protection.

  11. Gendered Authorship and Demographic Research: An Analysis of 50 Years of Demography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krapf, Sandra; Kreyenfeld, Michaela; Wolf, Katharina

    2016-08-01

    Demography, the official journal of the Population Association of America, has been given the highest rating among demographic journals by the Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI). Our aim here is to investigate the development of research subfields and female authorship in Demography over the last 50 years. We find that female authorship in Demography has risen considerably since the 1980s and that currently a woman is about as likely as a man to be the sole or the first author of a paper published in the journal. However, we find some differences by subfield. Women seem to be overrepresented in the "family and household" research subfield but underrepresented in the "mortality and health" and "data and methods" categories.

  12. Stress Causing Factors Among Teachers in Elementary Schools and Their Relationship with Demographic and Job Characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Agai–Demjaha, Teuta; Minov, Jordan; Stoleski, Sasho; Zafirova, Beti

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Once high levels of work-related stress among teachers were confirmed many studies concentrated on identifying and investigating key stress factors among school teachers. Unfortunately there are very few researches made on stress causing factors among teachers in Republic of Macedonia. AIM: To determine the most frequent stress causing factors among teachers in elementary schools and to investigate their relationship with demographic and job characteristics. METHODOLOGY: W...

  13. Factors contributing to physical Gender Based Violence reported at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    46987.2

    violence, and poverty as well as income disparities and gender inequality stand out as important community and. 4 societal factors. Copperbelt ... of all urban married women had to seek hospital treatment. 9 following domestic violence.

  14. The Effects of Demographic, Internal and External University Environment Factors on Faculty Job Satisfaction in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Minh-Quang

    2016-01-01

    University faculty members with higher job satisfaction are more productive, creative and positive attitude towards their job. Even less is known about university faculty job satisfaction in developing countries like Vietnam. This study examines the effects of demographic, internal and external university environment factors on faculty job…

  15. Hope and Adaptation to Old Age: Their Relationship with Individual-Demographic Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraitou, Despina; Kolovou, Chrysa; Papasozomenou, Chrysa; Paschoula, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between hope as disposition, adaptation to old age, and individual-demographic factors. One hundred and fifty older adults, aged 60-93 years old, completed the Adult Dispositional Hope Scale developed by Snyder et AL. [1991, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60, pp. 570-585], and the Adaptation to…

  16. Effect of Demographic Factors on E-Learning Effectiveness in a Higher Learning Institution in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md. Aminul; Rahim, Noor Asliza Abdul; Liang, Tan Chee; Momtaz, Hasina

    2011-01-01

    This research attempted to find out the effect of demographic factors on the effectiveness of the e-learning system in a higher learning Institution. The students from this institution were randomly selected in order to evaluate the effectiveness of learning system in student's learning process. The primary data source is the questionnaires that…

  17. Demographic Factors and Communal Mastery as Predictors of Academic Motivation and Test Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ünal-Karagüven, M. Hülya

    2015-01-01

    Academic motivation and test anxiety have been still adduced for low performance of students by educators. To know the factors that have an effect on students' academic motivation and test anxiety levels can be helpful to improve students' academic performance. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of demographic variables and…

  18. Entrepreneurship Education: How Psychological, Demographic and Behavioural Factors Predict the Entrepreneurial Intention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Carla S.; Ferreira, Joao J.; Gomes, Daniela N.; Rodrigues, Ricardo Gouveia

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), the purpose of this paper is to approach entrepreneurial intention (EI) and the factors preceding the founding of EI among secondary students, both studying general academic and specific professional programs, and thereby establish causal relationships between psychological, demographic and…

  19. Socio-demographic risk factors for HIV infection in women living in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine socio-demographic risk factors associated with HIV infection in women in Mangaung. Design and setting: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Mangaung, Bloemfontein. Subjects and methods: A representative group of 500 black women (25–44 years) was randomly selected to participate.

  20. Suicide Attempts in an African Schizophrenia Population: An Assessment of Demographic Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niehaus, D.J.H.; Laurent, C.; Jordaan, E.; Koen, L.; Oosthuizen, P.; Keyter, N.; Muller, J. E.; Mbanga, N. I.; Deleuze, J.-F.; Mallet, J.; Stein, D. J.; Emsley, R.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated demographic variables, including affected sibling pair status, as risk factors for suicidal behavior in schizophrenia patients of African (Xhosa) descent. Xhosa subjects with schizophrenia were interviewed with the Diagnostic Interview for Genetic Studies (DIGS) and then stratified into two groups: those with ( n = 90) and…

  1. The Association between Anemia with Demographic Factors in 7-12 Years Children of Yazd City

    OpenAIRE

    M Mosallaieepour Yazdi; M Mirzaei; A Nadjarzade; F MazidiSharafabadi; A Imani; A ZareRahimAbadi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Anemia is regarded as a public health problem worldwide, specifically among children. Therefore, this study, which sought to determine the factors associated with anemia, aimed to assess the association between anemia and demographic factors in children aged 7-12 years old in Yazd. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 390 elementary schools students aged 7-12 years in Yazd were selected randomly by multistage cluster sampling. In addition, the inclusion criteria involved ...

  2. Demographic and social factors associated with homophobia and fear of AIDS in a community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walch, Susan E; Orlosky, Paula M; Sinkkanen, Kimberly A; Stevens, Heather R

    2010-01-01

    Examinations of demographic and social factors associated with homophobia and fear of AIDS are limited by the frequent use of homogeneous, college student samples and limited examination of interrelationships among variables. The present study examined community attitudes toward homosexuality and fear of HIV/AIDS as a function of age, education, race/ethnicity, religious affiliation, political party affiliation, and personal contact with homosexual individuals and persons living with HIV/AIDS. A community sample of 463 adults completed standardized measures of homophobia and fear of AIDS as well as demographic and social background items. When examined separately, each demographic and social factor assessed, with the exception of race/ethnicity, was associated with homophobia and all but race/ethnicity and political party affiliation were associated with fear of AIDS. However, when entered into multiple regression analyses, 24% of the variance in homophobia was predicted by a single variable, including only personal contact with homosexual individuals, while 18% of the variance in fear of AIDS was accounted for by five variables, including personal contact with homosexual individuals, religious affiliation, political affiliation, education, and personal contact with someone living with HIV/AIDS. Findings suggest that it is important to consider intercorrelations among social and demographic factors, particularly when considering homophobia.

  3. Breakfast habits and factors influencing food choices at breakfast in relation to socio-demographic and family factors among European adolescents. The HELENA Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallström, Lena; Vereecken, Carine A; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Patterson, Emma; Gilbert, Chantal C; Catasta, Giovina; Díaz, Ligia-Esperanza; Gómez-Martínez, Sonia; González Gross, Marcela; Gottrand, Frédéric; Hegyi, Adrienn; Lehoux, Claire; Mouratidou, Theodora; Widham, Kurt; Aström, Annika; Moreno, Luis A; Sjöström, Michael

    2011-06-01

    Breakfast consumption has been shown to be an important indicator of a healthy lifestyle. Little is known however about factors influencing breakfast consumption and food choices at breakfast in adolescents. The aim of the present study was therefore to describe breakfast habits, and factors influencing food choices at breakfast within the framework of the EU-funded HELENA Study, in 3528 adolescents from ten European cities. Additionally, socio-demographic differences in breakfast habits and in influencing factors were investigated. Half of the adolescents (and fewer girls than boys) indicated being regular breakfast consumers. Girls with mothers with a high level of education, boys from 'traditional' families and boys who perceived low family affluence were positively associated with breakfast consumption. Boys whose parents gave encouragement and girls whose peers ate healthily were more likely to be regular breakfast consumers. 'Hunger', 'taste', 'health concerns' and 'parents or guardian' were the most important influences on the adolescents' food choices at breakfast. Adolescents from southern Europe and girls reported to be more influenced by personal and socio-environmental factors. Socio-demographic differences, in particular regional and gender differences, need to be considered in discussions surrounding the development of nutritional intervention programs intended for adolescents. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Total Factor Productivity, Demographic Traits and ICT: Empirical Analysis for Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal MEHMOOD

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper advances a model to explain the total factor productivity in Asian countries, most of which are labor surplus and are endowed with substantial human capital. Such promising demographic potentials are considered as complementary factors to use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT. Population with such favorable demographic traits and access to ICT results in higher Total factor productivity (TFP. We call this as Demo-Tech-TFP Model and is tested by using data for 2000-2010 of 24 Asian countries. Econometric concerns like presence of endogenous and/or predetermined covariates and small time-series and cross-sectional dimensions of panel dataset are tackled by using System Generalized Method of Moments (SYS-GMM. Results show considerable support for the Demo-Tech-TFP hypothesis. Need is to design such models that suit the local demography and patterns of technological diffusion currently taking place in developing countries.

  5. Sociocultural and Demographic Risk Factors for the Development of Multiple Sclerosis in Kuwait: A Case - Control Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhail N Al-Shammri

    Full Text Available Immunological, genetic and environmental factors are believed to play important roles in the pathogenesis of Multiple Sclerosis (MS. There have been many studies on risk factors for MS but these have been mainly in Caucasian populations; robust studies in Arab populations remain relatively uncommon. This study therefore aimed to identify behavioral, socio-cultural, and demographic factors associated with development of MS in Kuwait, a high income Arab country, currently undergoing a demographic transition.In this case- control study, 195 Kuwaiti MS patients and 146 healthy age and sex-matched controls were recruited. Both groups of subjects were interviewed using a structured questionnaire, in relation to anthropometric, socio-cultural and demographic data, residence during the 1990/91 Gulf War and current and past medical history, including medications. We also clinically evaluated, and retrospectively reviewed medical records of patients to derive appropriate clinical information, including associated chronic medical illness requiring long-term treatment.On multiple logistic regression analysis after adjustment for potential confounders including age, gender and BMI, in all the subjects, a positive associations prevail with presence of MS and some sociocultural and demographic factors, which included non-Bedouin ethnicity (AOR 2, 95% CI 1.0-3.9, p 0.049, positive family history of MS (AOR 10.6, 95% CI 3.0-36.9, p < 0.001, and low daily sunlight exposure of < 15min/day (AOR 5.3, 95% CI 2.7-10.5 p < 0.001. In addition, while 41.8% of MS patients indicated at least one comorbidity, only 26.8% of the controls reported any associated physical illness, with the suggestion that presence of certain comorbidities might increase MS risk (AOR 2.4, 95% CI 1.3-4.7, p < 0.001. Other risk variables such as smoking status and mode of routine outdoor dressing were not significant in all the MS subjects taken as a whole, but demonstrated variably positive

  6. Socio-demographic factors and the prevalence of burns in children: an overview of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnababtah, Khalid; Khan, Salim; Ashford, Robert

    2016-02-01

    In most countries, socio-demographic factors influence the incidence of burns in children. The aims of this literature review were therefore to identify which of those factors are linked to an increase in the prevalence and identify ways of enhancing burn prevention programmes and preventing practices which play a role in the occurrence of burns in children. A comprehensive search (no time limit) of primary studies, titles and abstracts was undertaken in the following electronic databases; MEDLINE, CINAHL, ERIC, Cochrane Library, PsychInfo and Google Scholar. Socio-demographic factors which were linked to an increased incidence of burns include low household income, living in deprived areas, living in rented accommodation, young mothers, single-parent families and children from ethnic minorities. The level of parental education, parental occupation, and the type and size of accommodation were also cited. A range of socio-demographic factors result in an increase in the prevalence of burns, and the risk is even greater in children who are exposed to a number of these factors. Such information will be useful for planning prevention strategies and identifying further research questions that need to be answered.

  7. DEMOGRAPHIC AND SOCIAL FACTORS INFLUENCING PUBLIC OPINION ON PROSTITUTION: AN EXPLORATORY STUDY IN KWAZULU-NATAL PROVINCE, SOUTH AFRICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Pudifin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines countervailing South African public opinion on the subject of prostitution in South Africa, and identifies the factors which might influence these attitudes. It also investigates the complex relationship between public opinion and the law. Whilst engaging in prostitution constitutes a criminal offence under the Sexual Offences Act 23 of 1957, it is generally ignored by the police, which results in a quasi-legalised reality on the ground. In recent years there has been growing demand for the decriminalisation of prostitution, and as a result the issue is currently under consideration by the South African Law Reform Commission. The Commission released a Discussion Paper on Adult ProSstitution in May 2009, and is expected to make recommendations to parliament for legal reform in this area. An exploratory survey of 512 South Africans revealed interesting correlations between opinion on prostitution and both demographic characteristics (including gender, age, race and education level and so-called "social" characteristics (including religiosity, belief in the importance of gender equality, the acceptance of rape myths, and a belief that prostitutes have no other options. The survey reveals two key findings in respect of the attitudes of South Africans to prostitution. Firstly, an overwhelming majority of South Africans - from all walks of life - remain strongly morally opposed to prostitution, and would not support legal reforms aimed at decriminalising or legalising prostitution. Secondly, our data confirm that these views are strongly influenced by certain demographic and 'social' variables. In particular, race, gender, religiosity, cohabitation status, and socio-economic status were found to be religiosity, cohabitation status, and socio-economic status were found to be statistically significantly related to opinions on prostitution, while other variables - particularly the belief in the importance of gender equality and the

  8. GENDER FACTORS OF SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF A COUNTRY

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    N. Kochkina

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the impact of gender asymmetry on the socio-economic development of the country. Authors detected factors that determine with high level of the probability social development of the society. Econometric relationship between the level of GDP per capita in comparative prices and the socio-cultural and gender factors are developed and estimated. The analysis showed that the level of individualism, indulgence, economic participation, and political empowerment of women in the society have direct linear correlation with GDP per capita. Power distance has opposite inverse correlation with the level of GDP. Application of regression analysis gave the possibility to divide all countries into 9 clusters with similar features. Two-dimensional matrix included GDP per capita and coefficient of implementation of a country gender and sociocultural potential. The recommendations for stimulating economic growth by smoothing gender gaps are proposed.

  9. Factor structure and measurement invariance across various demographic groups and over time for the PHQ-9 in primary care patients in Spain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César González-Blanch

    Full Text Available The Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9 is a widely-used screening tool for depression in primary care settings. The purpose of the present study is to identify the factor structure of the PHQ-9 and to examine the measurement invariance of this instrument across different sociodemographic groups and over time in a sample of primary care patients in Spain. Data came from 836 primary care patients enrolled in a randomized controlled trial (PsicAP study and a subsample of 218 patients who participated in a follow-up assessment at 3 months. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA was used to test one- and two-factor structures identified in previous studies. Analyses of multiple-group invariance were conducted to determine the extent to which the factor structure is comparable across various demographic groups (i.e., gender, age, marital status, level of education, and employment situation and over time. Both one-factor and two-factor re-specified models met all the pre-established fit criteria. However, because the factors identified in the two-factor model were highly correlated (r = .86, the one-factor model was preferred for its parsimony. Multi-group CFA indicated measurement invariance across different demographic groups and across time. The present findings suggest that physicians in Spain can use the PHQ-9 to obtain a global score for depression severity in different demographic groups and to reliably monitor changes over time in the primary care setting.

  10. Outdoor Advertising and Gender Differences : Factors Influencing Perception and Attitudes

    OpenAIRE

    Belinskaya, Yulia

    2015-01-01

    The thesis examines attitudes towards outdoor advertising, with strong emphasis on gender-based differences. The research intends to reveal the most influencing factors, including gender, format, different images and recall. Earlier researchers have argued that females are inclined to rate advertisements more positively than men. Five different, but interconnected studies, one content analysis and four surveys, were implicated in order to measure the responses to advertising. It is further su...

  11. The relative influence of demographic, individual, social, and environmental factors on physical activity among boys and girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barr-Anderson Daheia

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to evaluate the associations of selected demographic, individual, social, and environmental factors with moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA in a sample of children and adolescents. Methods MVPA was assessed among youth (n = 294 10-17-years-old using the ActiGraph accelerometer. Youth completed measures of demographic and individual variables related to physical activity (PA, perceived social support by parents and peers, and perceived neighborhood characteristics. Parents completed the long-form of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. The Physical Activity and Media Inventory was used to measure the home environment and Geographical Information Systems software was used to measure the physical neighborhood environment. Bivariate correlations and hierarchical multiple regression were conducted stratified by gender. Results Boys participated in significantly more MVPA than girls. In hierarchical analyses, peer support, home PA equipment, and temperature were significantly associated with MVPA among boys whereas distance to the school they attended was associated with MVPA among girls. The final models accounted for 25% and 15% of the variance in MVPA among boys and girls, respectively. Conclusions Important differences exist among the individual, social, and environmental factors related to MVPA between boys and girls. Boys' levels of activity appear to be influenced by factors closely linked to unstructured and social types of activities whereas girls' activities relate to internal and external barriers as well as their proximity to their schools. The prospective contribution of these important individual, social, and environmental factors to changes in MVPA among children and adolescents remains to be determined.

  12. A comparative gender study of the factors affecting motivation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of the study is to identify the key factors of motivation for professional and paraprofessional library staff based on their gender and to identify how they rate the various motivational factors. The descriptive survey method was employed and five university libraries were selected for the study. The respondents ...

  13. Association Between the Prevalence of Common Diseases and Demo-Graphic, Occupational Factors in Elderly Staff in IRIB in 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Roshani

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to explaine the association between the prevalence of common diseases and demographic, occupotional factors in elderly staff in IRIB (Tehran center Regarding the increasing of elderly populationin the world, indluding IRAN, the prevalence of the physical disability in this age range is raised which leads to several unfavarable out comes such as: hospitalization, overuse of health care system and mortality rate. For achiving elderly health and preventing of chronic diseases and decreasing prevalence of elderly common diseases, the firsrt step is indentification of their health status. By which, we can recognise their health and medical needs and also prevent their occurrence. Considring relationship between demographic occupational factors and common disease in elderly staff in radio and television centers , unfortunately, I could not find any article. Methods & Materials: This study is a cross-sectional one wich was conducted on 152 enderly patient who were reffered to IRIB Clinic and studied for association between demographic and occupational factors with prevalenc of common diseases. In this reaserch a questionnaire contaning demographic information and history of diseases was used. They were complated with elderly paintent. then the phesition examined them. Data were analyzed with analysis of T-test chi-2 and pearson correlation in spss16. Results: The analysis of our data showed that osteoarthrities (46%, hypertension (36%, heart diseases (35.5% and diabet (21% were the most common diseases in elderly patient that were reffered to IRIB clinic during the year 1389. In this study a significant relactionship was observed between osteoarthrities, hypertension, heart disease and age (P=0.000, BMI (P=0.000, Incom level (P=0.000, education (P=0.000 and physical activity (P=0.01 while, ther was no singificany relationship between heart diseases and diabet whit gender (P=0.17, reffering times to the general

  14. Demographic characteristics, social competence, and behavior problems in children with gender identity disorder : A cross-national, cross-clinic comparative analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen-Kettenis, PT; Owen, A; Kaijser, VG; Bradley, SJ; Zucker, KJ

    This study examined demographic characteristics, social competence, and behavior problems in clinic-referred children with gender identity problems in Toronto, Canada (N = 358), and Utrecht, The Netherlands (N = 130). The Toronto sample was, on average, about a year younger than the Utrecht sample

  15. Gender differences and demographic influences in perceived concern for driver safety and support for impaired driving countermeasures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butters, Jennifer; Mann, Robert E; Wickens, Christine M; Boase, Paul

    2012-12-01

    Driving safety, impaired driving, and legislation to address these concerns remain important issues. It is imperative countermeasures be targeted toward the most appropriate groups. This paper explores the potential relationship between gender and driving attitudes toward safety issues and impaired-driving countermeasures. The data are from the 2007 Impaired Driving Survey commissioned by Transport Canada and Mothers Against Drunk Driving (MADD) Canada. The survey is a, stratified by region, telephone survey of 1,514 Canadian drivers 18years of age and older with a valid driver's license who had driven within the past 30days. The findings illustrate a consistent impact of gender on these issues. Other variables were also identified as relevant factors although less consistently. Current findings suggest that strategies for building support for interventions, or for changing risk perception/concern for risky driving behaviors should be tailored by gender to maximize the potential for behavior change. This information may assist program and policy developers through the identification of more or less receptive target groups. Future research directions are also presented. Copyright © 2012 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The effects of socio-demographic factors and work-life balance on employees’ emotional exhaustion

    OpenAIRE

    Tuğsal, Türker

    2017-01-01

    The object of the research is observing the effects of socio-demographic factors and work-life balance on employees’ emotional exhaustion. The sample of the research consists of 261 participants in retailing, education, service, industry and logistics sectors. In line with the theoretical background, proper methods that are hierarchical regression analysis and analysis of variance (ANOVA) are implemented. The contribution of the research to the existing literature is exploring the relationshi...

  17. Mediating and moderating influences of demographic factors in adult tobacco use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalfakzuali Chhakchhuak

    2018-03-01

    The study has given us baseline results of the mediators and moderators of demographic factors in tobacco use. For effective interventions targeting vulnerable groups like women, children and people from low education background, interventions should include training, cessation treatments and awareness assimilated through the church, Young Mizo Association, primary schools and health care centers. Focusing on these key areas will be very important in customizing and enhancing tobacco interventions among the present population.

  18. Childhood vaccination in rural southwestern Ethiopia: the nexus with demographic factors and women's autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wado, Yohannes Dibaba; Afework, Mesganaw Fantahun; Hindin, Michelle J

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination can reduce child mortality significantly and is a cost effective way to improve child health.Worldwide, more than 22 million children do not receive the basic recommended vaccinations.Vaccination coverage in Ethiopia remains low. Research on child health has focused on socio-economic factors such as maternal education and access to health care, but little attention has been given to demographic factors and women's autonomy within the household. The purpose of this study was to examine the influences of demographic factors and women's autonomy on the completion of childhood vaccination in rural Ethiopia. A cross-sectional community-based study was conducted in a Health and Demographic Survelliance System (HDSS) in southwestern Ethiopia. Data were drawn from a random sample of women with children aged 12-24 months (n = 889). Information on maternal socio-demographic characteristics and household variables were collected using an interviewer-administered structured questionnaire. Vaccination data were obtained from vaccination cards or mother's recall. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the association of independent variables with completion of childhood vaccination. Of 889 children aged 12-24 months, 690 (78%) had received at least one vaccination. Only 37% (95% CI, 33.5-39.9) were fully vaccinated. Women's decision making autonomy, number of under-five children in the household, mother's education, use of antenatal care services and proximity to health facility were the main factors associated with full vaccination status. Completion of basic vaccination series is very low in the study area. Initiatives that enhance women's autonomy within the household and that promote healthy timing and spacing of pregnancies may help in improving child health through vaccination.

  19. Factors Associated with Gender-Affirming Surgery and Age of Hormone Therapy Initiation Among Transgender Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckwith, Noor; Reisner, Sari L.; Zaslow, Shayne; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Keuroghlian, Alex S.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: Gender-affirming surgeries and hormone therapy are medically necessary treatments to alleviate gender dysphoria; however, significant gaps exist in the research and clinical literature on surgery utilization and age of hormone therapy initiation among transgender adults. Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of electronic health record data from a random sample of 201 transgender patients of ages 18–64 years who presented for primary care between July 1, 2010 and June 30, 2015 (inclusive) at an urban community health center in Boston, MA. Fifty percent in our analyses were trans masculine (TM), 50% trans feminine, and 24% reported a genderqueer/nonbinary gender identity. Regression models were fit to assess demographic, gender identity-related, sexual history, and mental health correlates of gender-affirming surgery and of age of hormone therapy initiation. Results: Overall, 95% of patients were prescribed hormones by their primary care provider, and the mean age of initiation of masculinizing or feminizing hormone prescriptions was 31.8 years (SD=11.1). Younger age of initiation of hormone prescriptions was associated with being TM, being a student, identifying as straight/heterosexual, having casual sexual partners, and not having past alcohol use disorder. Approximately one-third (32%) had a documented history of gender-affirming surgery. Factors associated with increased odds of surgery were older age, higher income levels, not identifying as bisexual, and not having a current psychotherapist. Conclusion: This study extends our understanding of prevalence and factors associated with gender-affirming treatments among transgender adults seeking primary care. Findings can inform future interventions to expand delivery of clinical care for transgender patients. PMID:29159310

  20. Identification of Socio-demographic and Psychological Factors Affecting Women's Propensity to Breastfeed: An Italian Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Mattei, Valentina E; Carnelli, Letizia; Bernardi, Martina; Jongerius, Chiara; Brombin, Chiara; Cugnata, Federica; Ogliari, Anna; Rinaldi, Stefania; Candiani, Massimo; Sarno, Lucio

    2016-01-01

    Background: Exclusive breastfeeding until 6 months postpartum is a World Health Organization objective and benefits have been demonstrated for both mother and infant. It is important to clarify which factors influence breastfeeding intentions. Our objective was to assess and identify socio-demographic and psychological factors associated with breastfeeding intention in a sample of pregnant Italian women. Materials and Methods: This prospective study included 160 pregnant women. The following psychological constructs were measured using standardized questionnaires: anxiety, prenatal attachment, adult attachment, personality traits, and intention to breastfeed. Socio-demographic data were also collected using a self-report questionnaire. Assessment took place after the 20th gestational week. Results: Self-employment, age and feeding received as an infant were significantly related to breastfeeding intention. Regarding psychological factors, we also found that Neuroticism was negatively associated with mother's breastfeeding intentions. Relationships between psychological constructs and breastfeeding attitude were examined and represented within a graphical modeling framework. Conclusion: It may be possible to identify women that are less inclined to breastfeed early on in pregnancy. This may aid healthcare staff to pay particular attention to women who show certain socio-demographic and psychological characteristics, so as to fulfill more focused programs.

  1. Brazilian adolescents' prosocial moral judgment and behavior: relations to sympathy, perspective taking, gender-role orientation, and demographic characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, N; Zhou, Q; Koller, S

    2001-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine demographic and individual difference variables that predict level of prosocial moral judgment and self-reported prosocial behavior and to test mediating or moderating relations among predictors. The relations of prosocial moral reasoning and self-reported prosocial behavior to perspective taking, sympathy, age, sociometric status, and gender-role orientation were examined with a sample of 149 Brazilian adolescents who completed a series of questionnaire measures. Prosocial moral judgment was expected to be predicted by both sympathy and perspective taking, whereas sympathy or prosocial moral judgment was expected to mediate the relations of femininity and perspective taking to prosocial behavior. Self-reported perspective taking and sympathy interacted when predicting prosocial moral judgment; adolescents who were high in either sympathy or perspective taking (or both) scored high in prosocial moral reasoning. A feminine orientation predicted sympathy and perspective taking, perspective taking predicted prosocial moral reasoning and sympathy, and sympathy had both direct and indirect paths (through moral judgment) to prosocial behavior. The findings generally were consistent with the contention that both the tendency to take others' perspectives and to sympathize are related to level of prosocial moral reasoning, which in turn motivates prosocial behavior. Moreover, patterns of correlations among variables were similar to those found in the United States.

  2. Occupational and demographic factors associated with violence in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Donna; Gillespie, Gordon; Kowalenko, Terry; Succop, Paul; Sanker, Maria; Farra, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    Violence against health care workers is a serious and growing problem. The objectives of this cross-sectional study were to (a) describe the frequency of workplace violence (WPV) against emergency department (ED) workers; (b) identify demographic and occupational characteristics related to WPV; and (c) identify demographic and occupational characteristics related to feelings of safety and level of confidence when dealing with WPV. Survey data were collected from 213 workers at 6 hospital EDs. Verbal and physical violence was prevalent in all 6 EDs. There were no statistically significant differences in the frequency of violence for age, job title, patient population, and hospital location. Sexual harassment was the only category of violence affected by gender with females having a greater frequency. Feelings of safety were positively related to the frequency of WPV. Females were significantly more likely to feel unsafe and have less confidence in dealing with WPV. The study findings indicate that all ED workers are at risk of violence, regardless of personal and occupational characteristics. Feelings of safety are related to job satisfaction and turnover. Violence has serious consequences for the employers, employees, and patients. It is recommended that administration, managers, and employees collaborate to develop and implement prevention strategies to reduce and manage the violence.

  3. Motivational Factors, Gender and Engineering Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolmos, Anette; Mejlgaard, Niels; Haase, Sanne; Holgaard, Jette Egelund

    2013-01-01

    Based on survey data covering the full population of students enrolled in Danish engineering education in autumn 2010, we explore the motivational factors behind educational choice, with a particular aim of comparing male and female students reasons for choosing a career in engineering. We find that women are significantly more influenced by…

  4. IMMIGRATION AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT: THE EFFECTS OF SOCIO CULTURAL AND DEMOGRAPHIC FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çağdaş Şirin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Academic engagement during the high school years, a period in which young people go through tremendous change, is one of the key predictors of success for college entrance and later developmental periods. This study aims to evaluate the effect of immigration on the academic achievement of high school students. Participants were 1016 students (545 male, 567 female attending high schools from four provinces in Istanbul that have the highest rates of immigration (Zeytinburnu, Gaziosmanpasa, Büyükçekmece and Esenyurt Regions. The sample was drawn from students in all four years of High School. This study provides a snapshot of migrant students’ academic achievement profiles as well as the demographic determinants that might have an influence on their performance such as gender, number of siblings, generation, working status and selected majors variables. Results demonstrated that third generation have higher English score but lower Turkish language score than the first generation, gender plays a significant role on English and Turkish Language score but not on Math score.

  5. Socio-demographic, ecological factors and dengue infection trends in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akter, Rokeya; Naish, Suchithra; Hu, Wenbiao; Tong, Shilu

    2017-01-01

    Dengue has been a major public health concern in Australia. This study has explored the spatio-temporal trends of dengue and potential socio- demographic and ecological determinants in Australia. Data on dengue cases, socio-demographic, climatic and land use types for the period January 1999 to December 2010 were collected from Australian National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System, Australian Bureau of Statistics, Australian Bureau of Meteorology, and Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics and Sciences, respectively. Descriptive and linear regression analyses were performed to observe the spatio-temporal trends of dengue, socio-demographic and ecological factors in Australia. A total of 5,853 dengue cases (both local and overseas acquired) were recorded across Australia between January 1999 and December 2010. Most the cases (53.0%) were reported from Queensland, followed by New South Wales (16.5%). Dengue outbreak was highest (54.2%) during 2008-2010. A highest percentage of overseas arrivals (29.9%), households having rainwater tanks (33.9%), Indigenous population (27.2%), separate houses (26.5%), terrace house types (26.9%) and economically advantage people (42.8%) were also observed during 2008-2010. Regression analyses demonstrate that there was an increasing trend of dengue incidence, potential socio-ecological factors such as overseas arrivals, number of households having rainwater tanks, housing types and land use types (e.g. intensive uses and production from dryland agriculture). Spatial variation of socio-demographic factors was also observed in this study. In near future, significant increase of temperature was also projected across Australia. The projected increased temperature as well as increased socio-ecological trend may pose a future threat to the local transmission of dengue in other parts of Australia if Aedes mosquitoes are being established. Therefore, upgraded mosquito and disease surveillance at different ports should

  6. Impact of socio-demographic factors on the mitigating actions for climate change: a path analysis with mediating effects of attitudinal variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masud, Muhammad Mehedi; Akhatr, Rulia; Nasrin, Shamima; Adamu, Ibrahim Mohammed

    2017-12-01

    Socio-demographic factors play a significant role in increasing the individual's climate change awareness and in setting a favorable individual attitude towards its mitigation. To better understand how the adversative effects of climate change can be mitigated, this study attempts to investigate the impact of socio-demographic factors on the mitigating actions of the individuals (MAOI) on climate change. Qualitative data were collected from a face-to-face survey of 360 respondents in the Kuala Lumpur region of Malaysia through a close-ended questionnaire. Analysis was conducted on the mediating effects of attitudinal variables through the path model by using the SEM. Findings indicate that the socio-demographic factors such as gender, age, education, income, and ethnicity can greatly influence the individual's awareness, attitude, risk perception, and knowledge of climate change issues. The results drawn from this study also revealed that the attitudinal factors act as a mediating effect between the socio-demographic factors and the MAOI, thereby, indicating that both the socio-demographic factors and the attitudinal factors have significant effects on the MAOI towards climate change. The outcome of this study can help policy makers and other private organizations to decide on the appropriate actions to take in managing climate change effects. These actions which encompass improving basic climate change education and making the public more aware of the local dimensions of climate change are important for harnessing public engagement and support that can also stimulate climate change awareness and promote mitigating actions to n protect the environment from the impact of climate change.

  7. The Role of Demographic Factors of International Students on Teaching Preferences: An Empirical Research from the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Pramila

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This empirical research was conducted in a medium-sized private university located in the north-eastern region of the USA. The purpose of this paper was to understand whether demographic attributes (age, gender, country of origin and years of stay in the USA) of international students will predict any preferences for specific teaching…

  8. Prevalence and socio-demographic factors associated with overweight and obesity among adolescents in Kaski district, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bishwas Acharya

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The occurrence of overweight and obesity is at increasing level in low income and developing countries and is not limited to high income countries only. Adolescent is at high risk for its development. Rationale: To find out the prevalence and associated socio-demographic factors responsible for overweight and obesity which are unrecognized health problems and are risk factors for non-communicable disease. To date no study has been done focusing overweight and obesity in Kaski district, Nepal and very few in context of Nepal. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity and their association with socio demographic factors among higher secondary school level adolescents in Kaski district, Nepal. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in Kaski district among 838 adolescents randomly selected from 12 schools using multistage cluster sampling from 24th October to 4th December, 2013 using self-administered questionnaire and anthropometric assessment. BMI for age was calculated using WHO Anthroplus software v.1.0.4 using cut off value of 85th percentile and 95th percentile for overweight and obesity respectively. Statistical analysis was done using SPSSv. 16.  Results: The study revealed 8.1% prevalence of overweight and obesity of among higher secondary level school adolescents with 5.8% overweight and 2.3% obese. Urban respondents were found significantly more overweight/obese than village respondents (p=0.001, OR=2.360. Adolescents of ethnic/indigenous group (p<0.001, OR=2.56, fathers’ with government job (p=0.011, OR=2.08, mothers’ with teaching job (p=0.038, OR=2.57 and average monthly family income more than or equal to NRs.25, 000 (p=0.007, OR=1.97 were found significantly more overweight and obese. But, other socio demographic factors like gender (p=0.26, birth order (p=0.404 and parents’ education (p=0.121 for fathers’ and p=0.282 for mothers’ education weren’t significantly

  9. The influence of demographic, environmental and physical factors on functional independence post stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.V. Mamabolo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The magnitude of disability observed in strokesurvivors is believed to be dependent in part, on the severity of neurological deficits incurred. A s important but less well understood, is thecontribution of demographic, physical and environmental factors. The objective of this study was to establish what demographic, environmentaland physical factors influence functional independence post stroke. Method: Convenience sampling was used in the selection of subjects from four stroke outpatient public health facilities in the Gauteng Province of South Africa. The data were collected using a structured questionnaire. The analytical tools used included descriptive statistics to measure percentages and cross tabulations to measure the level of associations between functional independence and some of the demographic factors. The Barthel Index was computed to establish the degree of functional independence. Finally the influence of factors on functional independence was investigated using bivariate logistic regressions.Results: The results showed that younger patients (18 - 34 yrs may have a higher likelihood of functional independence compared to older patients at the time of discharge from hospital (18 - 34 years: Odds Ratio = 1. Patients without helpers were more likely to be functionally independent than those with a helper (p = 0.03. Involvement in household activities (p = 0.01, participation in community activities (p = 0.02 and bowel and bladder continence (p = 0.003 and p = 0.04 improved the likelihood of functional independence.Conclusion and im plications: Factors that influence functional independence post stroke are: age, bowel and bladder continence, the presence of a caregiver, participation in household and community activities. It is also of value to encourage patients to participate in household and community activities post stroke as well as being less dependent on helpers in an effort to attain functional independence post

  10. Who exhibits more energy-saving behavior in direct and indirect ways in china? The role of psychological factors and socio-demographics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Shu; Zhang, Yanbing; Zhao, Dingtao

    2016-01-01

    This research explores the possibilities for further energy saving in households in the Chinese context by conducting of a survey on energy curtailment behaviors. We examine how people's demographic characteristics and psychological factors affect their direct and indirect energy curtailment behaviors at home, as well as the different effects of these antecedents. Results suggest that people with high sense of environmental responsibility and curtailment attitude are more likely to engage in both direct and indirect energy curtailment actions. Generally, indirect energy curtailment behavior is more strongly related to psychological and socio-demographic factors than direct behavior, and these socio-demographic factors vary for direct and indirect behaviors. Interesting patterns emerged with respect to gender, age, family structure, family income, and level of education. Results indicate that strengthening publicity and education to increase environmental awareness among Chinese urban residents would be effective in reducing household energy consumption, especially when the said measures target a specific population and specific behaviors. - Highlights: •A survey is used to explore Chinese urban residents' energy curtailment behaviors. •Make a distinction between direct and indirect energy curtailment behaviors. •Effects of demographic and psychological variables are different on two behaviors. •Policy should target at specific behaviors and specific population.

  11. Mandible Fracture Complications and Infection: The Influence of Demographics and Modifiable Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odom, Elizabeth B; Snyder-Warwick, Alison K

    2016-08-01

    Mandible fractures account for 36 to 70 percent of all facial fractures. Despite their high prevalence, the literature lacks a comprehensive review of demographics, fracture patterns, timing of management, antibiotic selection, and outcomes, particularly when evaluating pediatric versus adult patients. The authors aim to determine the complication and infection rates after surgical treatment of mandibular fractures and the bacterial isolates and antibiotic sensitivities from mandible infections after open reduction and internal fixation at their institution. Data were collected retrospectively for all mandible fractures treated at the authors' institution between 2003 and 2013. Patients were divided into pediatric (younger than 16 years) and adult (16 years or older) subgroups. Demographics, fracture location, fracture cause, comorbidities, antibiotic choice, and subsequent complications and infections were analyzed. Data were evaluated using appropriate statistical tests for each variable. Three hundred ninety-five patients were evaluated. Demographics and fracture cause were similar to those reported in current literature. Of the 56 pediatric patients, complications occurred in 5.6 percent. Time from injury to operative intervention did not affect outcome. The complication rate was 17.5 percent and the infection rate was 9.4 percent in the adult subgroup. Time from injury to operative intervention, sex, and edentulism were not significant predictors of complication or infection. Tobacco use, number of fractures, number of fractures fixated, and surgical approach were predictors of complication and infection. Perioperative ampicillin-sulbactam had a significantly lower risk of infection. Certain demographic and operative factors lead to significantly higher risks of complications after surgical management of mandibular fractures. Ampicillin-sulbactam provides effective antibiotic prophylaxis. Risk factor modification may improve outcomes. Risk, IV.

  12. Factors Influencing the Gender Breakdown of Academic Radiology Residency Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, James C; Yoon, Sora C; Cater, Sarah Wallace; Grimm, Lars J

    2017-07-01

    To determine the gender distribution of radiology residency programs and identify associations with radiology departmental factors. The residency programs affiliated with the top 50 research medical school from US News and World Report were identified. The gender of all radiology residency graduates from each program from 2011 to 2015 were collected. Radiology departmental factors were collected: gender of chairperson, gender of program director, gender of faculty, geographic location, and city population of the residency program. The median percentage of female radiology faculty and residents were calculated and classified as above or below the median. Comparisons were made between residency programs and departmental factors via a Pearson χ 2 univariate test or logistic regression. There were 618 (27.9%) female and 1,598 (72.1%) male residents in our study, with a median female representation of 26.4% in each program. Programs with a female residency program director were significantly more likely to have an above-median percentage of female residents versus a male program director (68.4% versus 38.7%, P = .04). Programs in the Northeast (70.6%) and West (70.0%) had higher above-median female representation than the South (10.0%) and Midwest (38.5%, P < .01). There was no association with city population size (P = .40), gender of faculty (P = .40), residency size (P = .91), or faculty size (P = .15). Radiology residency programs with a female residency program director and those in the Northeast or West have a greater concentration of female residents. Residency programs that aim to increase female representation should investigate modifiable factors that can improve their recruitment practices. Copyright © 2017 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Demographic factors, workplace factors and active transportation use in the USA: a secondary analysis of 2009 NHTS data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Tyler D; Jakicic, John M; Fertman, Carl I; Barone Gibbs, Bethany

    2017-05-01

    While active transportation has health, economic and environmental benefits, participation within the USA is low. The purpose of this study is to examine relationships of demographic and workplace factors with health-enhancing active transportation and commuting. Participants in the 2009 National Household Travel Survey reported demographics, workplace factors (time/distance to work, flextime availability, option to work from home and work start time) and active transportation (for any purpose) or commuting (to and from work, workers only) as walking or biking (≥10 min bouts only). Multiple logistic regression examined cross-sectional relationships between demographics and workplace factors with active transportation and commuting. Among 152 573 participants, active transportation was reported by 1.11% by biking and 11.74% by walking. Among 111 808 working participants, active commuting was reported by 0.80% by biking and 2.76% by walking. Increased odds (pbike but decreased odds of walk transporting. Inconsistent patterns were observed by race, but whites had greater odds of any biking (p<0.05). Odds of active commuting were higher with a flexible schedule (p<0.001), the option to work from home (p<0.05), shorter time and distance to work (both p<0.001), and work arrival time between 11:00 and 15:59 (walking only, p=0.001). Active transportation differed across demographic and workplace factors. These relationships could inform infrastructure policy decisions and workplace wellness programming targeting increased active transportation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  14. Prevalence and risk factors for gender based violence during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Gender Based Violence (GBV) is a pervasive and systemic public health problem affecting pregnant women but there is paucity of data on the magnitude of GBV during pregnancy and the factors associated with it in Kenya, particularly in areas where the prevalence of GBV in the general population is ...

  15. Gender Factors in Capital Sourcing and Accessibility by Arable Crop ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Female farmers' access to loan was positively influenced by their level of education and length of loan repayment period. The access to loan by the female farmers was significantly and negatively influenced by value of required collaterals, size of their households, and interest charges on the loans. Gender related factors ...

  16. Factors Influencing Gender Based Violence among Men and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study determined the factors associated with gender based violence among 3000 men and women in selected states in Nigeria. Respondents who had experienced physical violence were 806(26.9%), comprising 353(11.8%) males and 453(15.1%) females (p<0.001). Respondents who had experienced sexual ...

  17. Identification of risk factors and demographic features of patients with peri partum cardiomyopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharieff, S.; Khan, Shah-e-Zaman

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To describe and identify the demographic features and risk factors for peri partum cardiomyopathy (PPCM). Design: A prospective study: The study was conducted at the department of Adult Cardiology, National Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases (NICVD), Karachi, Pakistan from December 1999 to August 2001. Subjects and Methods: A total of 35 consecutive patients diagnosed to have peri partum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) on echocardiogram were enrolled. Proforma containing demographic characteristics and established risk factors for PPCM was established and filled carefully. The data gathered was analyzed statistically. Results: The mean age at the time of diagnosis was 30.8-6.74 years. Urdu speaking (Mohajir) population was found to be more affected ethnic group (42.9%) Majority of the patients was from lower socio-economic group with poor nutritional status (77%) and multiparous (77.14%). 25.7% had past history of PPCM and 71.4% presented during postpartum period. Mortality at six months was 22.8% while 42.9% had persistent disease and only 34.3% recovered completely. Conclusion: Advanced age, lower economic group with poor nutritional status, multi parity and past history of peri partum cardiomyopathy were identified as risk factors for the development of PPCM, especially among Mohajir population. There was no statistically significant difference between the clinical features and outcome of patients presented first time or with recurrent PPCM. We identified advanced age (>30 years), high LVEDD, and low ejection fraction (EF) at initial presentation as poor prognostic factors. (author)

  18. Socio-demographic and dietary factors associated with obesity among female university students in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musaiger, Abdulrahman O; Hammad, Shatha S; Tayyem, Reema F; Qatatsheh, Ala A

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to explore the socio-demographic and dietary factors that may be associated with obesity among female university students in Jordan. A cross-sectional survey was carried out among 406 female students recruited from two universities in Jordan. Data were collected through self-reporting, using a previously validated questionnaire. Weight and height were measured and body mass index was calculated to determine the weight status of the participants. High educational level of mothers [odds ratio (OR)=1.25] and monthly pocket money of more than 200 Jordanian Dinars (OR=1.67) were found to be risk factors for obesity, whereas a sibling ranking of more than six was a protective factor (OR=0.31). Those who were eating from the university cafeteria had double the risk for obesity (OR=2.41) than those who did not. Regular eating of meals and snacking between meals were found to be protective factors (OR ranged from 0.42 to 0.79). Regular consumption of milk products, fruit, canned fruit juices, bakery products and legumes were found to be protective factors. In contrast, the regular consumption of potato chips (OR=1.35), chicken (OR=1.51), and fish (OR=1.45) were found to be risk factors for obesity. Using a chi-square test, none of the factors studied showed significant association with obesity. A program to promote healthy eating among university students in Jordan should consider the local socio-demographic and food behavior factors that could be related to obesity to ensure the effectiveness of such a program.

  19. Assessment of demographic and pathoanatomic risk factors in recurrent patellofemoral instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiemstra, Laurie Anne; Kerslake, Sarah; Lafave, Mark

    2017-12-01

    The WARPS/STAID classification employs clinical assessment of presenting features and anatomic characteristics to identify two distinct subsets of patients within the patellofemoral instability population. The purpose of this study was to further define the specific demographics and the prevalence of risky pathoanatomies in patients classified as either WARPS or STAID presenting with recurrent patellofemoral instability. A secondary purpose was to further validate the WARPS/STAID classification with the Banff Patella Instability Instrument (BPII), the Marx activity scale and the Patellar Instability Severity Score (ISS). A convenience sample of 50 patients with recurrent patellofemoral instability, including 25 WARPS and 25 STAID subtype patients, were assessed. Clinical data were collected including assessment of demographic risk factors (sex, BMI, bilaterality of symptoms, affected limb side and age at first dislocation) and pathoanatomic risk factors (TT-TG distance, patella height, patellar tilt, grade of trochlear dysplasia, Beighton score and rotational abnormalities of the tibia or femur). Patients completed the BPII and the Marx activity scale. The ISS was calculated from the clinical assessment data. Patients were stratified into the WARPS or STAID subtypes for comparative analysis. An independent t test was used to compare demographics, the pathoanatomic risk factors and subjective measures between the groups. Convergent validity was tested with a Pearson r correlation coefficient between the WARPS/STAID and ISS scores. Demographic risk factors statistically associated with a WARPS subtype included female sex, age at first dislocation and bilaterality. Pathoanatomic risk factors statistically associated with a WARPS subtype included trochlear dysplasia, TT-TG distance, generalized ligamentous laxity, patellar tilt and rotational abnormalities. The independent t test revealed a significant difference between the ISS scores: WARPS subtype (M = 4.4, SD

  20. DIFFERENCES OF THE FACTORS AFFECTING THE ATTITUDES OF EMPLOYED INDIVIDUALS TOWARDS GREEN PRODUCT ADVERTISEMENTS BY THEIR DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahir BENLİ

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The reckless consumption of nature to respond to any need has led to the disruption of natural balance and nearly extinction of environmental resources. Environmental problems created by the damage to the structure of nature not only affect the ecological system, but also pose an immense challenge for human health. Hence, the consumers who have become aware that resources and living spaces to maintain their living conditions have been increasingly declining are inclined to adopt a more sensitive attitude in consumption process. Businesses have also turned to green advertising for the promotion of their products and services to strengthen their presence and elude competition with other businesses under these circumstances. This study aims to identify the factors that affect the consumer attitudes of the employed individuals on green advertisements for the businesses, and examine their differences according to demographic features. The reason for the selection of employed individuals is assumption that they will be effective of consumers having purchasing income especially in qualified green product purchasing decisions. The questionnaire form designed for this purpose was conducted on 400 individuals selected through convenience sampling method among people living in central district of Kastamonu. It was found that the factors affecting these employed individuals attitudes towards green product advertisements significantly differ according to gender, marital status, age, education and occupation

  1. Health-related and socio-demographic factors associated with frailty in the elderly: a systematic literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda de Carvalho Mello

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Frailty is a syndrome that leads to practical harm in the lives of elders, since it is related to increased risk of dependency, falls, hospitalization, institutionalization, and death. The objective of this systematic review was to identify the socio-demographic, psycho-behavioral, health-related, nutritional, and lifestyle factors associated with frailty in the elderly. A total of 4,183 studies published from 2001 to 2013 were detected in the databases, and 182 complete articles were selected. After a comprehensive reading and application of selection criteria, 35 eligible articles remained for analysis. The main factors associated with frailty were: age, female gender, black race/color, schooling, income, cardiovascular diseases, number of comorbidities/diseases, functional incapacity, poor self-rated health, depressive symptoms, cognitive function, body mass index, smoking, and alcohol use. Knowledge of the complexity of determinants of frailty can assist the formulation of measures for prevention and early intervention, thereby contributing to better quality of life for the elderly.

  2. Impact of demographic factors, early family relationships and depressive symptomatology in teenage pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinlivan, Julie A; Tan, Louisa H; Steele, Angela; Black, Kirsten

    2004-04-01

    Teenage pregnancy has been well studied from a demographic risk perspective, but less data examining the early interpersonal family experiences of teenage mothers are available. We aimed to explore the relative impact of demographic, early interpersonal family relationships and depressive symptomatology as associations for teenage, as compared to non-teenage, childbearing. A prospective cross-sectional cohort study was undertaken. Institutional ethics committee approval and informed consent were obtained. Data from consecutive teenage (teenage) and non-teenage (control) subgroups of antenatal women were compared. Subjects were interviewed and completed the following questionnaires: demographic, drug use and lifestyle; early life experiences; Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS); and General Health Questionnaire-28. In multivariate analysis, the following factors had a significant independent association with younger age of motherhood in order of magnitude: a history of parental separation/divorce in early childhood; exposure to family violence in early childhood; illicit drug use (ever or in pregnancy); idealization of the pregnancy; low family income; a positive HADS-A or HADS-D subscale score; and a low level of education. Interventions to reduce the rate of teenage births need to be multifocal and should include strategies to address early childhood exposure to parental separation and violence, reduce idealization of pregnancy, diagnose psychological symptomatology and offer alternative career choices to children defaulting in the education system.

  3. Demographic and Environmental Factors Associated with Mental Health: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayeun Kim

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Relevant demographic and environmental conditions need to be understood before tailoring policies to improve mental health. Using community health survey data from 25 communities in Seoul, 2013, cross-sectional associations between mental health and community level environments were assessed. Mental health outcomes (self-rated stress levels (SRS and depressive symptoms (DS were analyzed. Community environmental factors included green space, green facilities, and annual PM10 level (AnnPM10; socio-demographic factors included sex, age, education, labor market participation, comorbidity, sleep hours, physical activity, smoking, and drinking. A total of 23,139 people with the following characteristics participated: men (44.2%; age groups 19−39 (36.0%, 40−59 (39.4%, 60−74 (19.2%, and 75+ (5.4%. Women had higher odds ratios (OR for SRS [OR 1.22, 95% Confidence interval (CI 1.17–1.27] and DS [OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.42–1.71]. Regular physical activity predicted SRS [OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.84–0.95] and DS [OR 0.98, 95% CI 0.88–1.10]; current smoking and drinking were adversely associated with both SRS and DS. Higher accessibility to green space (Q4 was inversely associated with DS [OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.81−0.97] compared to lower accessibility (Q1. AnnPM10, annual levels for particles of aerodynamic diameter <10 µm (PM10, among communities was associated with poorer SRS [OR 1.02, 95% CI 1.00–1.04] by 10 μg/m3 increases. Therefore, both demographic and environmental factors should be considered to understand mental health conditions among the general population.

  4. Job Satisfaction of Secondary School Teachers: Effect of Demographic and Psycho-Social Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Briones, Elena; Tabernero, Carmen; Arenas, Alicia

    2010-01-01

    Based on Social Cognitive Theory, the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of several demographic and psycho-social factors involved in teachers' job satisfaction. The sample consisted of 68 secondary school teachers in cultural diversity settings. Their average age was 43.56 years old (SD =10.93); 60.3% were women and 38.2% were men. Path analyses showed that the teachers' job satisfaction was significantly and positively related to personal achievement and perceived support from...

  5. Effect of demographic factors on brachytherapy treatment results in patients with endometrial cancer 1995-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurczyk, Mieczysława U; Chmaj-Wierzchowska, Karolina; Klofik, Joanna; Sajdak, Stefan; Opala, Tomasz

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 1 in 20 female cancers in Europe is of the endometrium. Endometrial carcinoma is the most common gynaecologic cancer. Considering the fact that an upward tendency has recently been observed in morbidity due to this type of cancer, this is a serious medical problem. The presented report describes the results of the analysis of selected demographic factors and their effect on the incidence of endometrial cancer. Analysis of the results of treatment of endometrial cancer during 1995-2010 was also an objective of the study. Based on medical records obtained from the HDR Laboratory of Brachytherapy at the Gynaecological & Obstetrics Clinical Hospital, University of Medical Sciences in Poznań, the results of treatment of patients with endometrial cancer by brachytherapy were analyzed. The analysis covered a group of 400 patients. More than a half of the patients completed their education on the level of elementary or secondary school. Taking into consideration the weight of the patients, it appeared that most women had excessive body weight. Most frequently, concomitant hypertension was observed. Moreover, the age at menarche was 12 and 13. Demographic factors exert a significant effect on the incidence of endometrial cancer. 1. Overweight and obesity are important risk factors of endometrial cancer. 2. A strong relationship is observed between the occurrence of hypertension or diabetes, and the development of endometrial cancer. 3. Women who come from the rural environment and continue to live in this environment are more likely to contract endometrial cancer.

  6. Demographic, medical, and psychiatric factors in work and marital status after mild head injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderploeg, Rodney D; Curtiss, Glenn; Duchnick, Jennifer J; Luis, Cheryl A

    2003-01-01

    To explore factors associated with long-term outcomes of work and marital status in individuals who had experienced a mild head injury (MHI), as well as those who had not. Population-based study using logistical regression analyses to investigate the impact of preinjury characteristics on work and marital status. Two groups of Vietnam-era Army veterans: 626 who had experienced a MHI an average of 8 years before examination, and 3,896 who had not. Demographic characteristics, concurrent medical conditions, early life psychiatric problems, loss of consciousness (LOC), and interactions among these variables were used to predict current work and marital status. Multiple variables were associated with work and marital status in the sample with MHI, accounting for approximately 23% and 17% of the variance in these two outcome variables, respectively. In contrast, the same factors accounted for significantly less variance in outcome in the sample without a head injury-13.3% and 9.4% for work and marital status, respectively. These findings suggest a more potent role for and increased vulnerability to the influence of demographic, medical, and psychiatric factors on outcomes after a MHI. That is, MHI itself moderates the influence of preinjury characteristics on work and marital status. In addition, in those who had a MHI, moderator relationships were found between education and LOC for both work and marital status. Similarly, complex moderator relationships among race, region of residence, and LOC were found for both work and marital status outcomes.

  7. Social and demographic factors that influence the diagnosis of autistic spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Ginny; Steer, Colin; Golding, Jean

    2011-12-01

    Recent studies in epidemiology have highlighted the existence of children with autistic difficulties who remain undiagnosed. Other studies have identified 'access barriers' to clinics which include factors mediated by parents as well as health and education services. The purpose of this study was to examine whether social and demographic factors play a role in receiving a diagnosis of autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) independently of symptom severity. Retrospective secondary analysis of a longitudinal UK cohort study, namely, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). With the severity of autistic traits held constant, boys were more likely to receive an ASD diagnosis than girls. Younger mothers and mothers of first-born children were significantly less likely to have children diagnosed with ASD. Maternal depression before and around the time of their children's autistic difficulties was associated with lack of diagnosis. The study provides evidence that social as well as biological factors can influence whether children are brought to the clinic.

  8. Differentiation of behavioral health factors among students depending on selected socio-demographic, environmental and cultural factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Ślusarska

    2015-02-01

    Abstract Introduction. Behavioral factors of health are an important area of empirical cognition from the perspective of long-term individual as well as social investment in health. Aim. The assessment of health behaviors and their differentiation due to selected socio-demographic and environmental-cultural characteristics in a group of young adults. Materials and methods. Cross-sectional studies in the group of students of the city of Lublin were performed using the Health Behavior Inventory (HBI by Z. Juczyński. The study also included the survey questions in the field of socio-demographic and cultural- environmental indicators. Results. The analysis concerned data on 1,593 randomly selected people (63.53% women, 36.47% men, aged 20-35 years (x = 22.16, SD =2.81. In the group, at 45.07% of students, the rate of intensity of health behaviors according to HBI was low, at 39.60% - was the average, and in only 11.30% -it was high. Conclusions. In the group, low rates of health behaviors intensity predominated. Among women, the students of medical university, non-smokers and those characterized by regular physical activity a higher level of health behaviors was shown.   Key words: behavioral factors, socio-demographic indicators, health status, young adults.

  9. Gender Differences in Psychosocial Risk and Protective Factors for Adolescent Alcohol Use and Misuse in Jamaica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Whitehorne-Smith

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study sought to determine if there were gender differences in the impact of five psychosocial risk and protective factors for adolescent alcohol use. The five factors considered by the study were family relationships, self-esteem, peer pressure, religious involvement and school performance. Method: This was a cross-sectional quantitative study which utilized a 96-item self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire captured key demographic and alcohol-related information. It also consisted of three standardized scales: the Cernkovich and Giordano’s Family Relationship Scale, Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale and the CAGE questionnaire. Data were collected from students 12−18 years old in three schools in the Kingston and St Andrew area in Jamaica. Results: There were 240 participants in the study, 121 males and 119 females. The findings revealed that there were no significant differences between male and female adolescent alcohol use in the last 30 days. There was also no significant difference between male and female adolescent risk of substance abuse. Logistic regression analysis of risk factor for each gender revealed that for males, their family relationship, peer pressure and self-esteem were significant predictors for alcohol use, while for females, peer pressure and school performance were significant predictors for alcohol use. Religious involvement was not found to be a significant protective factor for either gender. Conclusion: Gender differences in risk and protective factors exist among Jamaican adolescents. Further research needs to be done to determine the extent of these differences which need to be considered in the development of prevention and intervention programmes.

  10. Demographic, socio-economic, and cultural factors affecting fertility differentials in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adhikari Ramesh

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traditionally Nepalese society favors high fertility. Children are a symbol of well-being both socially and economically. Although fertility has been decreasing in Nepal since 1981, it is still high compared to many other developing countries. This paper is an attempt to examine the demographic, socio-economic, and cultural factors for fertility differentials in Nepal. Methods This paper has used data from the Nepal Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS 2006. The analysis is confined to ever married women of reproductive age (8,644. Both bivariate and multivariate analyses have been performed to describe the fertility differentials. The bivariate analysis (one-way ANOVA was applied to examine the association between children ever born and women's demographic, socio-economic, and cultural characteristics. Besides bivariate analysis, the net effect of each independent variable on the dependent variable after controlling for the effect of other predictors has also been measured through multivariate analysis (multiple linear regressions. Results The mean numbers of children ever born (CEB among married Nepali women of reproductive age and among women aged 40-49 were three and five children, respectively. There are considerable differentials in the average number of children ever born according to women's demographic, socio-economic, and cultural settings. Regression analysis revealed that age at first marriage, perceived ideal number of children, place of residence, literacy status, religion, mass media exposure, use of family planning methods, household headship, and experience of child death were the most important variables that explained the variance in fertility. Women who considered a higher number of children as ideal (β = 0.03; p Conclusion The average number of children ever born is high among women in Nepal. There are many contributing factors for the high fertility, among which are age at first marriage, perceived ideal

  11. Demographic, socio-economic, and cultural factors affecting fertility differentials in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Ramesh

    2010-04-28

    Traditionally Nepalese society favors high fertility. Children are a symbol of well-being both socially and economically. Although fertility has been decreasing in Nepal since 1981, it is still high compared to many other developing countries. This paper is an attempt to examine the demographic, socio-economic, and cultural factors for fertility differentials in Nepal. This paper has used data from the Nepal Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS 2006). The analysis is confined to ever married women of reproductive age (8,644). Both bivariate and multivariate analyses have been performed to describe the fertility differentials. The bivariate analysis (one-way ANOVA) was applied to examine the association between children ever born and women's demographic, socio-economic, and cultural characteristics. Besides bivariate analysis, the net effect of each independent variable on the dependent variable after controlling for the effect of other predictors has also been measured through multivariate analysis (multiple linear regressions). The mean numbers of children ever born (CEB) among married Nepali women of reproductive age and among women aged 40-49 were three and five children, respectively. There are considerable differentials in the average number of children ever born according to women's demographic, socio-economic, and cultural settings. Regression analysis revealed that age at first marriage, perceived ideal number of children, place of residence, literacy status, religion, mass media exposure, use of family planning methods, household headship, and experience of child death were the most important variables that explained the variance in fertility. Women who considered a higher number of children as ideal (beta = 0.03; p Muslim women (beta = 0.07; p media (beta = -0.05; p women in Nepal. There are many contributing factors for the high fertility, among which are age at first marriage, perceived ideal number of children, literacy status, mass media exposure

  12. Association between parental socio-demographic factors and declined linear growth of young children in Jakarta

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    Hartono Gunardi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Indonesia, approximately 35.5% of children under five years old were stunted. Stunting is related to shorter adult stature, poor cognition and educational performance, low adult wages, lost productivity, and higher risk of nutrition-related chronic disease. The aim of this study was to identify parental socio-demographic risk factors of declined linear growth in children younger than 2 years old.Methods: This was a cohort-prospective study between August 2012 and May 2014 at three primary community health care centers (Puskesmas in Jakarta, Indonesia, namely Puskesmas Jatinegara, Mampang, and Tebet. Subjects were healthy children under 2 years old, in which their weight and height were measured serially (at 6–11 weeks old and 18–24 months old. The length-for-age based on those data was used to determine stature status. The serial measurement was done to detect growth pattern. Parental socio-demographic data were obtained from questionnairesResults: From the total of 160 subjects, 14 (8.7% showed declined growth pattern from normal to stunted and 10 (6.2% to severely stunted. As many as 134 (83.8% subjects showed consistent normal growth pattern. Only 2 (1.2% showed improvement in the linear growth. Maternal education duration less than 9 years (RR=2.60, 95% CI=1.23–5.46; p=0.02 showed statistically significant association with declined linear growth in children.Conclusion: Mother with education duration less than 9 years was the determining socio-demographic risk factor that contributed to the declined linear growth in children less than 2 years of age.

  13. QUALITY OF LIFE IN PATIENTS WITH INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASE: importance of clinical, demographic and psychosocial factors

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    Joana MAGALHÃES

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Context Inflammatory bowel disease causes physical and psychosocial consequences that can affect the health related quality of life. Objectives To analyze the relationship between clinical and sociodemographic factors and quality of life in inflammatory bowel disease patients. Methods Ninety two patients with Crohn’s disease and 58 with ulcerative colitis, filled in the inflammatory bowel disease questionnaire (IBDQ-32 and a questionnaire to collect sociodemographic and clinical data. The association between categorical variables and IBDQ-32 scores was determined using Student t test. Factors statistically significant in the univariate analysis were included in a multivariate regression model. Results IBDQ-32 scores were significantly lower in female patients (P<0.001, patients with an individual perception of a lower co-workers support (P<0.001 and career fulfillment (P<0.001, patients requiring psychological support (P = 0.010 and pharmacological treatment for anxiety or depression (P = 0.002. A multivariate regression analysis identified as predictors of impaired HRQOL the female gender (P<0.001 and the perception of a lower co-workers support (P = 0.025 and career fulfillment (P = 0.001. Conclusions The decrease in HRQQL was significantly related with female gender and personal perception of disease impact in success and social relations. These factors deserve a special attention, so timely measures can be implemented to improve the quality of life of patients.

  14. Impact of personality traits and demographic factors on relationship to deal sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sudzina, Frantisek; Pavlicek, Antonin

    2017-01-01

    There is an increasing body of research about deal sites. But there is still exists a gap when it comes to factors influencing potential or existing users of deal sites. The aim of this paper is to investigate impact of gender, city of origin, and personality traits on relationship to deal sites....... Big Five Inventory framework is used for personality traits. The research was conducted in the Czech Republic. With regards to the findings, city of origin has a significant effect, and openness to experience a borderline significant effect on the relationship to deal sites....

  15. Effects of Socio demographic factors on plasma ascorbic acid and alpha tocopherol anti oxidants during pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sylvester, I.E.; Paul, A.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the plasma levels of vitamins C and E at the various stages of pregnancy and to correlate their plasma levels with the socio-demographic factors of pregnant Nigerians. Methodology: The pregnant cases (n=180) were randomly selected according to gestational ages. And the controls (n=20) were non-pregnant women of the same age. Plasma levels of both vitamins were assayed with well established laboratory methods. Results: The mean plasma vitamins C and E in the pregnant cases was lower (by 17-23%) than controls across the three trimesters, p<0.0001. The correlation of vitamin C versus maternal age was significant; r = - 0.59, p<0.05; the mean plasma level of vitamin C declined by 57% as the maternal age increases from 22-37 years. Conclusion: The mean plasma Ascorbic acid and Alpha-tocopherol are reduced during pregnancy and socio-demographic factors have mild effects on the plasma levels of these vitamins. (author)

  16. Demographics and Personality Factors Associated with Burnout among Nurses in a Singapore Tertiary Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhaliwal, Satvinder S.; Ayre, Tracy Carol; Uthaman, Thendral; Fong, Kuan Yok; Tien, Choo Eng; Zhou, Huaqiong; Della, Phillip

    2016-01-01

    Background. The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence and extent of burnout among nurses in Singapore and investigate the influence of demographic factors and personal characteristics on the burnout syndrome. Methods. A cross-sectional survey design was adopted. All registered nurses working in Singapore General Hospital were approached to participate. A questionnaire eliciting data on demographics, burnout (measured using the Maslach Burnout Inventory, MBI), and personality profile (measured using the NEO Five-Factor Inventory, NEO-FFI) was used. Results. 1830 nurses out of 3588 responded (response rate: 51%). Results from 1826 respondents were available for analysis. The MBI identified 39% to have high emotional exhaustion (EE, cut-off score of >27), 40% having high depersonalization (DP, cut-off score of >10), and 59% having low personal accomplishment (PA, cut-off score of nurses less than 30 years with high to very high neuroticism were more likely to experience high EE, high DP, and low PA. Conclusion. Younger nurses in Singapore are at increased risk of burnout. Personality traits also played a significant role in the experience of burnout. PMID:27478835

  17. The Impact of Demographic and Socioeconomic Factors on Major Salivary Gland Cancer Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olarte, Lucia S; Megwalu, Uchechukwu C

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the impact of demographic and socioeconomic factors on survival in patients with major salivary gland malignancies. Population-based study using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) cancer database. The study cohort consisted of 10,735 men and women ages 20 and older who were diagnosed with major salivary gland carcinoma from 1973 to 2009. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that the overall and disease-specific survival was higher for women than for men (P impact on overall survival. Male sex (HR = 1.38; 95% CI, 1.27-1.49), increasing age, and single status (HR = 1.29; 95% CI, 1.19-1.39) had poor prognostic impact on disease-specific survival. For patients with salivary gland malignancies, there is a survival benefit for younger patients, female patients, and married patients. This highlights the significance of demographic factors on survival outcomes for patients with salivary gland malignancies and highlights areas for further research on health disparities. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2014.

  18. Psychosocial and demographic factors influencing pain scores of patients with knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberly, Lauren; Richter, Dustin; Comerci, George; Ocksrider, Justin; Mercer, Deana; Mlady, Gary; Wascher, Daniel; Schenck, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Pain levels in patients with osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee are commonly assessed by using a numeric scoring system, but results may be influenced by factors other than the patient's actual physical discomfort or disease severity, including psychosocial and demographic variables. We examined the possible relation between knee-pain scores and several psychosocial, sociodemographic, disease, and treatment variables in 355 patients with knee OA. The pain-evaluation instrument was a 0- to 10-point rating scale. Data obtained retrospectively from the patients' medical records were demographic characteristics, body mass index (BMI), concomitant disorders, illicit and prescription drug use, alcohol use, smoking, knee OA treatment, and severity of knee OA indicated by Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) radiographic grade. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine whether these variables correlated with reported pain scores. On univariate analysis, higher pain scores were significantly associated with Native American or Hispanic ethnicity; a higher BMI; current prescription for an opioid, antidepressant, or gabapentinoid medication; depression; diabetes mellitus; fibromyalgia; illicit drug use; lack of health insurance; smoking; previous knee injection; and recommendation by the clinician that the patient undergo knee surgery. Neither the patient's sex nor the KL grade showed a correlation. On multivariate analysis, depression, current opioid prescription, and Native American or Hispanic ethnicity retained a significant association with higher pain scores. Our results in a large, ethnically diverse group of patients with knee OA suggest that psychosocial and sociodemographic factors may be important determinants of pain levels reported by patients with knee OA.

  19. E-cigarette Use Related to Demographic Factors in Hawai'i.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, Jason C; Davis, James W; Taira, Deborah A

    2016-10-01

    E-cigarette use is rapidly expanding in the United States and is projected to be a $3 billion industry by the end of this year. E-cigarette use in Hawai'i is significantly higher than national averages. The goal of this study was to examine the relationship in Hawai'i between demographic characteristics and several aspects of e-cigarette use including percentage of residents trying e-cigarettes, reasons for use, and perceived effects on health. Survey data were collected from a random sample of Hawai'i residents via the telephone in the summer of 2015, using methodology similar to that of the Hawai'i Health Survey. Chi-squared tests found e-cigarette use to be significantly associated with age ( P =.001), gender ( P =.03), ethnicity ( P e-cigarettes, 21% said their use of regular cigarettes did not change, 6% said they reduced use of regular cigarettes, and 20% said they completely stopped smoking regular cigarettes. Multivariable logistic regression results suggest Native Hawaiians (OR=29.1, P =.01) and Filipinos (OR=24.3, P =.01) were significantly more likely to report perceived improved health due to e-cigarette use compared to Caucasians. Given existing health disparities for Native Hawaiians and Filipinos, the fact that these groups are significantly more likely than other ethnic/racial groups to report that e-cigarettes improved their health bears notice and highlights the need for additional research in this area.

  20. Socio-economic and demographic factors related to HIV status in urban informal settlements in the Eastern Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenkamp, Liana; Venter, Danie; Walsh, Corinna; Dana, Pelisa

    2014-09-01

    The prevalence of HIV&AIDS is embedded in social and economic inequity and the relationship between social determinants and HIV incidence is well established. The aim of this study was to determine which socio-economic and demographic factors are related to HIV status in the age group 18 to 49 years in informal settlements in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 3 informal settlements (n = 752) during March 2013 within the Nelson Mandela Bay and Buffalo City districts. A proportional cluster sample was selected and stratified by area and formal plot/squatter households in open areas. Respondents who volunteered to participate had to provide informed written consent before trained, bilingual peer educators interviewed them and completed the structured questionnaire. HIV status was determined and information on demographic and socio-economic variables was included in the bivariate analysis. The prevalence of HIV was higher, at 17.3%, than the 2011 estimated national prevalence among the general population in South Africa. The level of education (χ(2) = 5.50, df = 1, p < 0.05), geographical site (χ(2) = 7.41, df = 2, p < 0.05), gender (χ(2) = 33.10, df = 1, p < 0.0005), household food insecurity (χ(2) = 4.77, df = 1, p < 0.05), cooking with cast iron pots (χ(2) = 15.0, df = 3, p < 0.05) and availability of perceived 'wealth' indicators like mobile telephones and refrigerators (χ(2) = 9.67, df = 2, p < 0.05) were significantly associated with HIV-status. No significant associations could be demonstrated between household income, the number of people living in the household and the availability of electricity/water and HIV status. As the observed levels of HIV prevalence underlined gender bias and failure to graduate from high school, future interventions should focus on HIV prevention in female schoolchildren. However, HIV infection is also prevalent among wealthier individuals in informal settlements, which indicates that

  1. The prevalence of substance use among adolescents and its correlation with social and demographic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakić, Dušica B; Rakić, Branislava; Milošević, Zoran; Nedeljković, Ivan

    2014-05-01

    BACKROUND/AIM: Adolescence is the period of greatest risk of starting to use substances: cigarette smoking, alcohol and illicit drugs. In the first decade of this millennium substance use among adolescents has increased. The aim of this study was to explore the prevalence of substances use among adolescents and its correlation with social and demographic factors. The study was conducted among adolescents in Novi Sad during 2010-2011 and included 594 conveniently selected adolescents (275 male and 319 female), aged 15-19 years. A special questionnaire was used and statistical analysis performed in SPSS17. The correlation between parameters was evaluated by the Pearson correlation method and frequency differences were analysed using χ2 test and starting level was p pocket money (cigarette smoking p pocket money weekly and good school performance are protective factors in prevention of substances use among adolescents.

  2. Influence Of Demographic Factors And History Of Malaria With The Incidence Malaria In MORU PHC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudirman Manumpa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaria morbidity in Moru health center, with parameter Annual Parasite Incident (API, amounted to 16.9% in 2014. This figure was still high when compared to the target of eliminating malaria in Indonesia about <1% in 2030. Incidence of malaria is more common in children aged 5 months - <12 years. This high rates of malaria leads to poverty, low level of learning achievement of children and in pregnant women causing low birth weight in babies and death. The purpose of this study was to analyze the factors that influence the incidence of tertian and Tropikana malaria or combined Tropikana and tertian (mix in Moru PHC in sub-district Alor Southwestern, Alor Regency.This study used a cross-sectional design, the population of study were all patients undergoing peripheral blood examination in Moru PHC’s laboratory from June to October 2015. The number of samples in this study was 173 respondents. The sampling technique was Simple Random Sampling. Instruments of data collection were a questionnaire and observation sheet.Results of the study by Chi-Square test showed that the factors influencing the incidence of malaria were socioeconomic status (sig 0,000, education level (sig 0.001. By using multivariate analysis with logistic regression test, results were obtained the age of 5 months - <12 value (sig 0.025 and socioeconomic status (sig 0,000 influencing the incidence of malaria.Variables that affect the incidence of malaria were demographic factors such as age, education level, socioeconomic status. It is advisable to harness swamp thus improving the economic status of society and build permanent house. Keywords: incidence malaria, demographic factors, history of malaria

  3. PREVALENCE, RISK FACTORS AND SOCIO DEMOGRAPHIC CO-RELATES OF ADOLESCENT HYPERTENSION IN DISTRICT GHAZIABAD

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    Gajendra Kumar Gupta

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypertension is a chronic condition of concern due to its role in the causation of coronary heart disease, stroke and other  complications. It is one of the major risk factors for cardio-vascular mortality accounting for 20-50% of all deaths. Children with higher blood pressure tend to maintain those levels during adulthood also. Objectives:  Assess the prevalence of hypertension in adolescents (11-18 years, its risk factors and their socio-demographic co-relates. Material and Method:  Prevalence of adolescent hypertension in previous studies was 7% and the sample size accordingly came to be 1314 with a relative precision of 20%. Multistage sampling technique was used. Half each of the sample size was covered in urban and rural areas . Households in the selected colonies in the urban areas and villages were randomly selected and the adolescents interviewed and examined. Their responses were recorded on a pretested questionnaire and results drawn. Data were analysed using Epi-info and SPSS and chi-square test applied. Results:   Prevalence of adolescent hypertension was found to be 5.3% (72 out of 1340; significantly associated with type of family (P<0.001, educational status (P<0.001, occupation (P<0.001, BMI (P<0.01, and smoking habit (P<0.05. However, no relationship of hypertension was found with salt intake, type of diet, exercise, alcohol consumption, stress and family history of hypertension. Conclusion: Socio-demographic factors certainly influence the prevalence and probability of occurrence of adolescent hypertension but the effect of established risk factors (for adult hypertension needs to be further evaluated for adolescent hypertension and more studies are required in this area.

  4. Reading, Demographic, Social and Psychological Factors Related to Pre-adolescent Smoking and Non-smoking Behaviors and Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunseri, Albert J.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    A study examined reading, demographic, social, and psychological factors related to preadolescent smoking and nonsmoking behaviors and attitudes. Variables studied included reading achievement, family involvement, and racial and sex differences. (Authors/CJ)

  5. Problematic internet use among high school students: Prevalence, associated factors and gender differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigna-Taglianti, Federica; Brambilla, Romeo; Priotto, Bruna; Angelino, Remo; Cuomo, GianLuca; Diecidue, Roberto

    2017-11-01

    This study aimed to measure the prevalence of Problematic Internet Use (PIU) among high school students and to identify factors associated with PIU underlining gender differences. The students filled a self-administered, anonymous questionnaire collecting information on demographic characteristics and patterns of Internet use. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with PIU in the overall sample and by gender. Twenty-five schools and 2022 students participated in the survey. Prevalence of PIU was 14.2% among males and 10.1% among females. Males 15-year-olds and females 14-year-olds had the highest PIU prevalence that progressively lowered with age among females. Only 13.5% of pupils declared parents controlled their Internet use. The sensation of feeling lonely, the frequency of use, the number of hours of connection, and visiting pornographic websites were associated with the risk of PIU in both genders. Attending vocational schools, the activities of chatting and file downloading, and the location of use at Internet point among males, and younger age among females were associated with PIU, whilst information searching was protective among females. PIU could become a public health problem in the next years. The physical and mental health consequences should be studied. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Sebum, acne, skin elasticity, and gender difference - which is the major influencing factor for facial pores?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, B Y; Choi, J W; Park, K C; Youn, S W

    2013-02-01

    Enlarged facial pores have been esthetic problems and have become a matter of cosmetic concern. Several factors are supposed to be related to the enlargement of facial pores, although scientific evaluations were not performed yet. To assess the correlation between facial pores and possible relating factors such as age, gender, sebum secretion, skin elasticity, and the presence of acne, using objective bioengineering instruments. Sixty volunteers, 30 males and 30 females, participated in this study. Various parameters of facial pores were assessed using the Robo Skin Analyzer. The facial sebum secretion and skin elasticity were measured using the Sebumeter and the Cutometer, respectively. These data were compared and correlated to examine the possible relationship between facial pores and age, sebum secretion and skin elasticity, according to gender and the presence of acne. Male gender and the existence of acne were correlated with higher number of facial pores. Sebum secretion levels showed positive correlation with facial pores. The R7 parameter of skin elasticity was negatively correlated with facial pores, suggesting increased facial pores with decreased skin elasticity. However, the age and the severity of acne did not show a definite relationship with facial pores. Male, increased sebum and decreased skin elasticity were mostly correlated with facial pore development. Further studies on population with various demographic profiles and more severe acne may be helpful to elucidate the potential effect of aging and acne severity on facial pores. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  7. Factors Associated With Tobacco Smoking Among Male Adolescents: the Role of Psychologic, Behavioral, and Demographic Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barati

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Tobacco smoking among adolescents has been a concern for researchers and health organizations in recent years. However, predisposing factors to smoking initiation among Iranian adolescents are not well recognized. Objectives This study aimed to determine the prevalence of tobacco smoking and to investigate the role of psychologic, behavioral, and demographic risk factors in adolescents' smoking status. Patients and Methods This cross-sectional study was performed on 810 male adolescents recruited through cluster random sampling method in Hamadan in 2014. The participants received a self-administered questionnaire that contained questions about tobacco smoking behavior and demographic, behavioral, and psychologic variables. Data were analyzed by SPSS16 through independent-samples t test, Chi square, and logistic regression. Results A total of 139 persons (17.1% were tobacco smoker and the mean (SD age at smoking initiation was 13.7 (2.2 years. Sense of need, decreasing stress, having a smoker friend, and inability to reject smoking suggestion were common reasons associated with tobacco smoking (P < 0.05. In addition, statistically significant differences between tobacco smokers and nonsmokers were found in the age, grade, mother's job, and education (P < 0.05. In comparison to non-smokers, tobacco smokers evaluated a typical smoker as less immature, more popular, more attractive, more self-confident, more independent, and less selfish person (P < 0.05. Conclusions The results showed that the effect of several psychosocial, behavioral, and demographic risk factors on adolescents' smoking status. Thus, design and implementation of interventions based on the results of the present study may be effective in preventing tobacco smoking among adolescents.

  8. Demographic factors and land-use planning in the small islands of Southern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliani, Lamberto; Rossi, Orazio

    1992-09-01

    Since the end of the 1970s, the southern European countries have shown an exceptional reduction in fertility rate. From the highest levels among the developed nations, these countries dropped beneath the substitution rate level: in Greece there is an average of about 1.5 children per woman, and Italy (starting three to four years ago), with 1.3 children per woman, is now the country with the lowest fecundity rate in the world. Land-use planning in southern European small islands therefore requires substantial revision. In the areas where western civilization began, which are highly populated and have a long history, cultural and ethnic aspects of tradition are fundamental to environmental management and to the defense of historical heritage. They also place a strong value on sustaining tourism, the most relevant economic activity, that allows them to survive and maintain a high welfare level. For some decades they have had populations with a marked presence of young people and high emigration rates, but now they are fast becoming dominated by the elderly and must prepare for a period of fast reduction in youth of the workforce, while the peripheral areas of Asia and Africa are entering a sudden demographic growth phase. The demographic structure has also been deeply altered both by previous migrations and by random variations, as usually happens in all small communities. Social services for younger and older people have had to be adapted rapidly, reorganizing high-school management, hospital and health-care structures, in-house assistance, and so on. There is a need to rethink the job market and favor the immigration of highly specialized workers, which is a necessity for technical evolution. Sustainable development is constrained nowadays not only by the scarcity of natural resources, but also by the quality and quantity of human resources. Proper policies for population and land-use planning are highly correlated factors; they have to be considered with respect

  9. Rural AIDS Diagnoses in Florida: Changing Demographics and Factors Associated With Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trepka, Mary Jo; Niyonsenga, Theophile; Maddox, Lorene M.; Lieb, Spencer

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To compare demographic characteristics and predictors of survival of rural residents diagnosed with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) with those of urban residents. Methods Florida surveillance data for people diagnosed with AIDS during 1993–2007 were merged with 2000 Census data using ZIP code tabulation areas (ZCTA). Rural status was classified based on the ZCTA’s rural-urban commuting area classification. Survival rates were compared between rural and urban areas using survival curves and Cox proportional hazards models controlling for demographic, clinical, and area-level socioeconomic and health care access factors. Findings Of the 73,590 people diagnosed with AIDS, 1,991 (2.7%) resided in rural areas. People in the most recent rural cohorts were more likely than those in earlier cohorts to be female, non-Hispanic black, older, and have a reported transmission mode of heterosexual sex. There were no statistically significant differences in the 3-, 5-, or 10-year survival rates between rural and urban residents. Older age at the time of diagnosis, diagnosis during the 1993–1995 period, other/unknown transmission mode, and lower CD4 count/percent categories were associated with lower survival in both rural and urban areas. In urban areas only, being non-Hispanic black or Hispanic, being US born, more poverty, less community social support, and lower physician density were also associated with lower survival. Conclusions In rural Florida, the demographic characteristics of people diagnosed with AIDS have been changing, which may necessitate modifications in the delivery of AIDS-related services. Rural residents diagnosed with AIDS did not have a significant survival disadvantage relative to urban residents. PMID:23802929

  10. Demographic Factors and Hospital Size Predict Patient Satisfaction Variance- Implications for Hospital Value-Based Purchasing

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Daniel C.; Ornstein, Katherine; Holcombe, Randall F.

    2016-01-01

    Background Hospital Value-Based Purchasing (HVBP) incentivizes quality performance based healthcare by linking payments directly to patient satisfaction scores obtained from Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS) surveys. Lower HCAHPS scores appear to cluster in heterogeneous population dense areas and could bias CMS reimbursement. Objective Assess nonrandom variation in patient satisfaction as determined by HCAHPS. Design Multivariate regression modeling was performed for individual dimensions of HCAHPS and aggregate scores. Standardized partial regression coefficients assessed strengths of predictors. Weighted Individual (hospital) Patient Satisfaction Adjusted Score (WIPSAS) utilized four highly predictive variables and hospitals were re-ranked accordingly. Setting 3,907 HVBP-participating hospitals. Patients 934,800 patient surveys, by most conservative estimate. Measurements 3,144 county demographics (U.S. Census), and HCAHPS. Results Hospital size and primary language (‘non-English speaking’) most strongly predicted unfavorable HCAHPS scores while education and white ethnicity most strongly predicted favorable HCAHPS scores. The average adjusted patient satisfaction scores calculated by WIPSAS approximated the national average of HCAHPS scores. However, WIPSAS changed hospital rankings by variable amounts depending on the strength of the predictive variables in the hospitals’ locations. Structural and demographic characteristics that predict lower scores were accounted for by WIPSAS that also improved rankings of many safety-net hospitals and academic medical centers in diverse areas. Conclusions Demographic and structural factors (e.g., hospital beds) predict patient satisfaction scores even after CMS adjustments. CMS should consider WIPSAS or a similar adjustment to account for the severity of patient satisfaction inequities that hospitals could strive to correct. PMID:25940305

  11. The associations of vegetable consumption with food mavenism, personal values, food knowledge and demographic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farragher, Tahlia; Wang, Wei C; Worsley, Anthony

    2016-02-01

    Poor dietary choices, in particular low consumption of fruits and vegetables are associated with the prevalence of diet related diseases. Ways to increase consumption are urgently required. This paper examines the associations of demographic, psychographic and food knowledge variables with reported vegetable consumption. An online questionnaire was administered in late 2012 to a national sample 2146 Australians who were selected to represent the Australian population in terms of age, sex, education and location of residence. It was divided into sections which assessed food knowledge, food involvement, food mavenism, personal values and personality factors, demographic characteristics and reported consumption of 13 vegetables and the total number of servings of vegetables per day. Principal components analyses of the individual vegetable consumption ratings derived three forms of vegetable consumption scores. These and total serving per day were used as dependent variables in a structural equation model to identify pathways between them and their likely antecedents. Three types of vegetable consumption were formed:Salad vegetables (onion, tomato and lettuce);Dinner vegetables (carrot, peas and beans); and'Green' vegetables (cabbage, spinach broccoli and cauliflower). Food mavenism, food knowledge, food involvement and equality-universalist values mediated the relationships between demographics and conscientiousness and the vegetable consumption variables. The three types of vegetable consumption and total servings per day were associated with different antecedent pathways. The mediating roles of food mavenism, food knowledge, food involvement and equality-universalist values may present opportunities for health promotion and the horticultural industry to increase population vegetable intake. Further research is required to test these associations via experimental and longitudinal studies and qualitative investigation of the meaning and place of the three forms of

  12. Racial and gender discrimination: risk factors for high blood pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, N

    1990-01-01

    Despite controversy as to the biologic and/or social meaning of 'race' and 'sex', few public health studies have directly examined the impact of racial or gender discrimination on health. One plausible condition they might affect is hypertension, since stress and internalized anger may constitute important risk factors for this disease. The present investigation therefore sought to determine the feasibility of asking questions pertaining to race- and gender-biased treatment plus response to unfair treatment, and to assess their predictive value regarding self-reported high blood pressure. Using random-digit dialing, 51 black and 50 white women, ages 20-80, who resided in Alameda County, CA in 1987, were identified and interviewed by phone. Among black respondents, those who stated they usually accepted and kept quiet about unfair treatment were 4.4 times more likely to report hypertension than women who said they took action and talked to others (P = 0.01 for linear trend); no clear association existed among white respondents. The age-adjusted risk of high blood pressure among black respondents who recounted experiencing zero instances of race- and gender-biased treatment was 2.6 times greater than that of black women who reported one or more such instances (95% CI = 0.7, 10.5). Among white respondents, gender discrimination was not associated with hypertension. These results suggest that an internalized response to unfair treatment, plus non-reporting of race and gender discrimination, may constitute risk factors for high blood pressure among black women. They also bolster the view that subjective appraisal of stressors may be inversely associated with risk of hypertension.

  13. Diet patterns are associated with demographic factors and nutritional status in South Indian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehoe, Sarah H; Krishnaveni, Ghattu V; Veena, Sargoor R; Guntupalli, Aravinda M; Margetts, Barrie M; Fall, Caroline H D; Robinson, Sian M

    2014-01-01

    The burden of non-communicable chronic disease (NCD) in India is increasing. Diet and body composition 'track' from childhood into adult life and contribute to the development of risk factors for NCD. Little is known about the diet patterns of Indian children. We aimed to identify diet patterns and study associations with body composition and socio-demographic factors in the Mysore Parthenon Study cohort. We collected anthropometric and demographic data from children aged 9.5 years (n = 538). We also administered a food frequency questionnaire and measured fasting blood concentrations of folate and vitamin B12. Using principal component analysis, we identified two diet patterns. The 'snack and fruit' pattern was characterised by frequent intakes of snacks, fruit, sweetened drinks, rice and meat dishes and leavened breads. The 'lacto-vegetarian' pattern was characterised by frequent intakes of finger millet, vegetarian rice dishes, yoghurt, vegetable dishes and infrequent meat consumption. Adherence to the 'snack and fruit' pattern was associated with season, being Muslim and urban dwelling. Adherence to the lacto-vegetarian pattern was associated with being Hindu, rural dwelling and a lower maternal body mass index. The 'snack and fruit' pattern was negatively associated with the child's adiposity. The lacto-vegetarian pattern was positively associated with blood folate concentration and negatively with vitamin B12 concentration. This study provides new information on correlates of diet patterns in Indian children and how diet relates to nutritional status. Follow-up of these children will be important to determine the role of these differences in diet in the development of risk factors for NCD including body composition. © 2013 The Authors. Maternal and Child Nutrition published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Socio-economic and demographic factors influencing nutritional status among early childbearing young mothers in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Ashraful; Islam, Nurul; Bharati, Premananda; Aik, Saw; Hossain, Golam

    2016-08-26

    Early childbearing influences women's health. This study aims to examine the effects of socio-demographic factors on nutritional status of early childbearing mothers in Bangladesh based on Body Mass Index (BMI) as the indicator. Data was extracted from Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS)-2011. The survey was performed on 17,842 married women aged 15-49. We focused on early childbearing mothers (age ≤ 24, and who had delivered their first child ≤ 20). Mothers who were underweight (BMI ≤ 18.5 kg/m(2)) would be further classified into various grades of chronic energy deficiency (CED): mild (17.0 ≤ BMI Bangladesh is very high (32.1 %), associated with the still common practice of teenage marriage. Education level, wealth index, occupation, place of residence, age at first marriage and parity were important predictors for their nutritional status. The government and non-government organizations should take initiatives to reduce the prevalence of underweight mothers in Bangladesh.

  15. The impact of environmental and demographic factors on nursing job satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahnavard, Farnaz; Sadati, Ahmad Kalateh; Hemmati, Sorror; Ebrahimzade, Najmeh; Sarikhani, Yaser; Heydari, Seyed Taghi; Lankarani, Kamran Bagheri

    2018-04-01

    This study aims to evaluate all aspects of job satisfaction in registered nurses working in different hospitals in Shiraz, Iran. This cross-sectional study was performed during February to August 2015 in Shiraz, Iran. It comprised of 371 registered nurses working in government and private hospitals using multi-stage cluster sampling. Job satisfaction was evaluated using 5 items of the Job Descriptive Index (JDI) consisting of 63 questions developed by Smith, Kendall, and Hulin (1969). Statistical tests including independent sample t test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used in order to identify the relation between job satisfaction, and demographic features and work environment. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 15.0, using descriptive statistics, independent-samples t-test, and ANOVA. Our findings showed no relationship between demographic variables and job satisfaction. However, a significant association was observed between environmental aspects such as work rotation (fixed versus rotating) nurse's status (staff vs. supervisors), type of hospitals (governmental vs. private) and work (psatisfaction about pay significantly (p=0.03). The results concerning younger nurses have different types of satisfaction based on several environmental factors. Nurses' policy makers must pay more attention to nurses' satisfaction and focus on reducing the various inequalities.

  16. Gender gap on concept inventories in physics: What is consistent, what is inconsistent, and what factors influence the gap?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Adrian; McKagan, Sarah B.; Sayre, Eleanor C.

    2013-12-01

    “male-oriented” questions or refraining from asking demographic questions before administering the test are not supported by the evidence. Other factors, such as gender differences in background preparation, scores on different kinds of assessment, and splits between how students respond to test questions when answering for themselves or for a “scientist” do contribute to a difference between male and female responses, but the size of these differences is smaller than the size of the overall gender gap, suggesting that the gender gap is most likely due to the combination of many small factors rather than any one factor that can easily be modified.

  17. Gender gap on concept inventories in physics: What is consistent, what is inconsistent, and what factors influence the gap?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Madsen

    2013-11-01

    changing the wording of “male-oriented” questions or refraining from asking demographic questions before administering the test are not supported by the evidence. Other factors, such as gender differences in background preparation, scores on different kinds of assessment, and splits between how students respond to test questions when answering for themselves or for a “scientist” do contribute to a difference between male and female responses, but the size of these differences is smaller than the size of the overall gender gap, suggesting that the gender gap is most likely due to the combination of many small factors rather than any one factor that can easily be modified.

  18. Social, economic and demographic factors relating to interregional migration in the Philippines: 1970-1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llasa, R N

    1982-10-01

    The study attempts to identify the different social, economic, and demographic factors relating to interregional migration in the Philippines for the decade 1970-1980. The dependent variable used is the regional net migration rate estimated through the national growth rate method. Using the rank order correlation technique, the relationship between the dependent variable and the different independent variables were determined. It is found that the following variables were positively related to interregional migration: percentage of 20-29 year old population, previous in-migrants, median family income, land area, primacy index, level of urbanization, level of education, and percentage of never married population. However, the first 3 variables mentioned seem to be the most significant determinants of regional net migration rates, which indicates that net migration in the Philippines during the last decade tends to be more dependent upon previous migration patterns and less dependent upon current socioeconomic development.

  19. Demographic factors and retrieval of object and proper names after age 70.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gitit Kavé

    Full Text Available This research aimed to investigate whether demographic factors are similarly related to retrieval of object and proper names.The sample included 5,907 individuals above age 70 who participated in the Health and Retirement Study between 2004 and 2012. Participants were asked to name two objects as well as the US President and Vice President. Latent growth curve models examined the associations of age, education, and self-rated health with baseline levels and change trajectories in retrieval.Age and education were more strongly related to retrieval of proper names than to retrieval of object names, both for baseline scores and for change trajectory. Similar effects of self-rated health emerged for both types of stimuli.The results show that examining object names and proper names together as indication of cognitive status in the HRS might overlook important differences between the two types of stimuli, in both baseline performance and longitudinal change.

  20. Studies investigating economic, agricultural-economic and demographic factors influencing land use dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora, R.; San Juan, C.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we review studies investigating economic, agricultural-economic and demographic factors influencing land use dynamics, making special emphasis on the policy framework in the European Union. We find several conclusions, among which the following should be emphasized. First, this review highlights the existence of different methodologies to build up models to identify the effects of policy reforms affecting land use and desertification. Second, use of micro data to set up an econometric-process simulation model of land use has already been used with success. Third, in the geographical distribution of land use, prices drive all short and long-rung processes. Finally, logistic models have recently been used to study micro decisions at the agricultural sector to identify relative rents and land characteristics such as location and soil fertility as main determinants of land use patters. (Author) 8 refs.

  1. Demographic, Operational, and Healthcare Utilization Factors Associated with Emergency Department Patient Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Matthew W.; Salzman, Joshua G.; LeFevere, Robert C.; Thomas, Avis J.; Isenberger, Kurt M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The primary aim of this study was to determine which objectively-measured patient demographics, emergency department (ED) operational characteristics, and healthcare utilization frequencies (care factors) were associated with patient satisfaction ratings obtained from phone surveys conducted by a third-party vendor for patients discharged from our ED. Methods This is a retrospective, observational analysis of data obtained between September 2011 and August 2012 from all English- and Spanish-speaking patients discharged from our ED who were contacted by a third-party patient satisfaction vendor to complete a standardized nine-item telephone survey by a trained phone surveyor. We linked data from completed surveys to the patient’s electronic medical record to abstract additional demographic, ED operational, and healthcare utilization data. We used univariate ordinal logistic regression, followed by two multivariate models, to identify significant predictors of patient satisfaction. Results We included 20,940 patients for analysis. The overall patient satisfaction ratings were as follows: 1=471 (2%); 2=558 (3%); 3=2,014 (10%), 4=5,347 (26%); 5=12,550 (60%). Factors associated with higher satisfaction included race/ethnicity (Non-Hispanic Black; Hispanic patients), age (patients ≥65), insurance (Medicare), mode of arrival (arrived by bus or on foot), and having a medication ordered in the ED. Patients who felt their medical condition did not improve, those treated in our ED behavioral health area, and those experiencing longer wait times had reduced satisfaction. Conclusion These findings provide a basis for development and evaluation of targeted interventions that could be used to improve patient satisfaction in our ED. PMID:26265963

  2. SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC FACTORS INFLUENCING FAMILY SIZE AMONG RURAL POPULATION OF DISTRICT NAINITAL, UTTARAKHAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Pandey

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: India is the second most populous country in the world. A decline in its population growth rate has been shown amounting to during the last decades. The decline in the family size is important step towards population stabilization for our country. The status of family size is related to various demographic, socio-economic, cultural factors and attitude towards use of family planning methods. Objective: To assess the relationship of family size with socio-economic factors and effect of contraceptive use. Methodology: A cross sectional house to house survey to know the family size and socio-demographic was conducted in the adopted villages of field practice area. The study subjects are the married women of reproductive age group (15-49 years. Results: About half (44.9% of respondents were aged more than 35 years and only (0.9% were < 19 years. The family size in our study was 2.55. About 54.5% of respondents have family size d" 2. About two-third of families (65% with size less than or equals to two were of nuclear type. Education level of family has significant relationship with small family size. About 90% of the respondents and their spouse of family size two or less were literate. A significant association was found between occupation of the spouse and family size. The spouses of the respondents with family size more than two were mainly engaged in agriculture (29.7% and as labourer (38.5%. Among the families with family size of more than two, majority were from middle (81% and lower (14.9% class. There is no significant effect of use of contraceptives on the family size.

  3. Socio-demographic factors associated with domestic violence in urban slums, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, Shahina; Donta, Balaiah; Nair, Saritha; Prakasam, C.P.

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Domestic violence is identified as a public heath problem. It is associated with adverse maternal health. This study examined the prevalence and determinants of domestic violence among women in urban slums of Mumbai, India. Methods: A community based cross-sectional household survey was carried out among eligible women for the study during September 2012 to January 2013. A total of 1137 currently married women aged 18-39 yr with unmet need for family planning and having at least one child were selected using cluster systematic random sampling from two urban slums. Information on socio-demographic, reproductive and domestic violence was collected through face-to-face interview using a pretested structured questionnaire after obtaining informed written consent. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were carried out to find the socio-demographic factors associated with ever experienced domestic violence among women. Results: The prevalence of women ever experiencing domestic violence in the community was 21.2 per cent. Women whose husband consumed alcohol [RR: 2.17, (95% CI: 1.58-2.98)] were significantly at an increased risk of ever experiencing domestic violence than their counterparts. Risk of domestic violence was twice [RR: 2.00, (95% CI: 1.35-2.96)] for women who justified wife beating than women who did not justify wife beating. Interpretation & conclusions: The findings showed that domestic violence was prevalent in urban slums. Factors like early marriage, working status, justified wife beating and husbands use of alcohol were significantly associated with domestic violence. PMID:26205021

  4. Associations of the vaginal microbiota with HIV infection, bacterial vaginosis, and demographic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chehoud, Christel; Stieh, Daniel J; Bailey, Aubrey G; Laughlin, Alice L; Allen, Shannon A; McCotter, Kerrie L; Sherrill-Mix, Scott A; Hope, Thomas J; Bushman, Frederic D

    2017-04-24

    We sought to investigate the effects of HIV infection on the vaginal microbiota and associations with treatment and demographic factors. We thus compared vaginal microbiome samples from HIV-infected (HIV+) and HIV-uninfected (HIV-) women collected at two Chicago area hospitals. We studied vaginal microbiome samples from 178 women analyzed longitudinally (n = 324 samples) and collected extensive data on clinical status and demographic factors. We used 16S rRNA gene sequencing to characterize the bacterial lineages present, then UniFrac, Shannon diversity, and other measures to compare community structure with sample metadata. Differences in microbiota measures were modest in the comparison of HIV+ and HIV- samples, in contrast to several previous studies, consistent with effective antiretroviral therapy. Proportions of healthy Lactobacillus species were not higher in HIV- patients overall, but were significantly higher when analyzed within each hospital in isolation. Rates of bacterial vaginosis were higher among African-American women and HIV+ women. Bacterial vaginosis was associated with higher frequency of HIV+. Unexpectedly, African-American women were more likely to switch bacterial vaginosis status between sampling times; switching was not associated with HIV+ status. The influence of HIV infection on the vaginal microbiome was modest for this cohort of well suppressed urban American women, consistent with effective antiretroviral therapy. HIV+ was found to be associated with bacterial vaginosis. Although bacterial vaginosis has previously been associated with HIV transmission, most of the women studied here became HIV+ many years before our test for bacterial vaginosis, thus implicating additional mechanisms linking HIV infection and bacterial vaginosis.

  5. SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC FACTORS INFLUENCING FAMILY SIZE AMONG RURAL POPULATION OF DISTRICT NAINITAL, UTTARAKHAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Pandey

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: India is the second most populous country in the world. A decline in its population growth rate has been shown amounting to during the last decades. The decline in the family size is important step towards population stabilization for our country. The status of family size is related to various demographic, socio-economic, cultural factors and attitude towards use of family planning methods. Objective: To assess the relationship of family size with socio-economic factors and effect of contraceptive use. Methodology: A cross sectional house to house survey to know the family size and socio-demographic was conducted in the adopted villages of field practice area. The study subjects are the married women of reproductive age group (15-49 years. Results: About half (44.9% of respondents were aged more than 35 years and only (0.9% were < 19 years. The family size in our study was 2.55. About 54.5% of respondents have family size d" 2. About two-third of families (65% with size less than or equals to two were of nuclear type. Education level of family has significant relationship with small family size. About 90% of the respondents and their spouse of family size two or less were literate. A significant association was found between occupation of the spouse and family size. The spouses of the respondents with family size more than two were mainly engaged in agriculture (29.7% and as labourer (38.5%. Among the families with family size of more than two, majority were from middle (81% and lower (14.9% class. There is no significant effect of use of contraceptives on the family size.

  6. Socio-demographic factors associated with domestic violence in urban slums, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahina Begum

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Domestic violence is identified as a public heath problem. It is associated with adverse maternal health. This study examined the prevalence and determinants of domestic violence among women in urban slums of Mumbai, India. Methods: A community based cross-sectional household survey was carried out among eligible women for the study during September 2012 to January 2013. A total of 1137 currently married women aged 18-39 yr with unmet need for family planning and having at least one child were selected using cluster systematic random sampling from two urban slums. Information on socio-demographic, reproductive and domestic violence was collected through face-to-face interview using a pretested structured questionnaire after obtaining informed written consent. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were carried out to find the socio-demographic factors associated with ever experienced domestic violence among women. Results: The prevalence of women ever experiencing domestic violence in the community was 21.2 per cent. Women whose husband consumed alcohol [RR: 2.17, (95% CI: 1.58-2.98] were significantly at an increased risk of ever experiencing domestic violence than their counterparts. Risk of domestic violence was twice [RR: 2.00, (95% CI: 1.35-2.96] for women who justified wife beating than women who did not justify wife beating. Interpretation & conclusions: The findings showed that domestic violence was prevalent in urban slums. Factors like early marriage, working status, justified wife beating and husbands use of alcohol were significantly associated with domestic violence.

  7. Impact of Delayed Time to Advanced Imaging on Missed Appointments Across Different Demographic and Socioeconomic Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daye, Dania; Carrodeguas, Emmanuel; Glover, McKinley; Guerrier, Claude Emmanuel; Harvey, H Benjamin; Flores, Efrén J

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of wait days (WDs) on missed outpatient MRI appointments across different demographic and socioeconomic factors. An institutional review board-approved retrospective study was conducted among adult patients scheduled for outpatient MRI during a 12-month period. Scheduling data and demographic information were obtained. Imaging missed appointments were defined as missed scheduled imaging encounters. WDs were defined as the number of days from study order to appointment. Multivariate logistic regression was applied to assess the contribution of race and socioeconomic factors to missed appointments. Linear regression was performed to assess the relationship between missed appointment rates and WDs stratified by race, income, and patient insurance groups with analysis of covariance statistics. A total of 42,727 patients met the inclusion criteria. Mean WDs were 7.95 days. Multivariate regression showed increased odds ratio for missed appointments for patients with increased WDs (7-21 days: odds ratio [OR], 1.39; >21 days: OR, 1.77), African American patients (OR, 1.71), Hispanic patients (OR, 1.30), patients with noncommercial insurance (OR, 2.00-2.55), and those with imaging performed at the main hospital campus (OR, 1.51). Missed appointment rate linearly increased with WDs, with analysis of covariance revealing underrepresented minorities and Medicaid insurance as significant effect modifiers. Increased WDs for advanced imaging significantly increases the likelihood of missed appointments. This effect is most pronounced among underrepresented minorities and patients with lower socioeconomic status. Efforts to reduce WDs may improve equity in access to and utilization of advanced diagnostic imaging for all patients. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Fear of crime in Belgrade: Testing a socio-demographic and social-psychological factors model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović-Ćitić Branislava

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite a wealth of research practice, the conceptualization of fear of crime and the ways in which this fear is measured remain the subject of intense theoretical debate in criminological and sociological disciplines. Taking as a starting point the need for a theoretical explanation of fear of crime and the existing research which has confirmed the relevance of the model which integrates socio-demographic and social-psychological factors, a study was conducted in order to examine the predictive capabilities of these factors and compare the results with those of similar studies in the region. The analysis was based on the data obtained in the course of the regional research project 'Fear of Crime in Large Cities', carried out in 2009 in the capital cities of former Yugoslav republics on a multistage random sample using the method of in-home interview. A hierarchical multiple regression analysis was applied on a sample of 397 adult respondents residing in urban parts of Belgrade in order to draw conclusions on how the variables of the integrated model can help explain the differences in the level of fear of crime. Fear of crime, as a dependent variable, was measured using six vignettes after the reliability and unidimensionality of the construct was confirmed. The results of the regression analysis showed that the proposed model was able to account for 42% of the differences in fear of crime. With regard to the socio-demographic variables (introduced in the first step and accounting for 31% of the variance, it was determined that women express the greatest fear of crime as they avoid being alone in their neighbourhoods at night, visit nearby friends less frequently and believe that the streets, shops, and woods in their immediate surroundings are not safe. Regarding the social-psychological variables (which accounted for the additional 11% of the variance, a higher level of fear was found in persons who believe that other people pose a threat to

  9. Factors influencing choice of skilled birth attendance at ANC: evidence from the Kenya demographic health survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyongesa, Caroline; Xu, Xiaoyue; Hall, John J; Macharia, William M; Yego, Faith; Hall, Brigid

    2018-04-10

    In Kenya, skilled attendance at delivery is well below the international target of 90% and the maternal mortality ratio is high at 362 (CI 254-471) per 100,000 live births despite various interventions. The preventative role of skilled attendance at delivery makes it a benchmark indicator for safe motherhood. Maternal health data from the Service Provision Assessment Survey, a subset of the 2010 Kenya Demographic Health Survey was analyzed. Logistic regression models were employed using likelihood ratio test to explore association between choice of skilled attendance and predictor variables. Overall, 94.8% of women are likely to seek skilled attendance at delivery. Cost, education level, number of antenatal visits and sex of provider were strongly associated with client's intention to deliver with a skilled birth attendant at delivery. Women who reported having enough money set aside for delivery were 4.34 (p < 0.002, 95% CI: 1.73; 10.87) times more likely to seek skilled attendance. Those with primary education and above were 6.6 times more likely to seek skilled attendance than those with no formal education (p < 0.001, 95% CI: 3.66; 11.95). Women with four or more antenatal visits were 5.95 (p < 0.018, 95% CI: 1.35; 26.18) times more likely to seek skilled attendance. Compared to men, female providers impacted more on the client's plan (OR = 2.02 (p < 0.014, 95% CI: 1.35; 3.53). Interventions aimed at improving skilled attendance at delivery should include promotion of formal education of women and financial preparation for delivery. Whenever circumstances permit, women should be allowed to choose gender of preferred professional attendant at delivery.

  10. The Study of Physical Activity AmongElderly of Karaj City and its Relationship with Some the Demographic Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Asadi Shavaki

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Backgrounds and Objective:Physical activity is one of the important and effective factors associated with the human health. The elderly are among the most vulnerable groups in many diseases and disorders that exercise can prevent of many of these diseases. The aims of this study is to determine the level of physical activity among elderly of Karaj city and its relationship with some the demographic factors. Materials and Method: This cross-sectional study was conducted in the first half of 2014 and in health centers of Karaj city, Iran. The study population were people older than 60 years (n=286 who referred to these centers. A short physical activity questionnaire (IPAQ was used to collect data. Data were analyzed by SPSS and the descriptive and analytical tests.  Results: The age mean of elderly was 67/37 ± 6/5 years. The majority of them (52/4% were woman & (54/2 % were in families with 4-6 members. About physical activity level in participant finding show that 50/5% were in low level, 43/1% intermediate and 6/4% were in high level. A significant relationship was between gender & job in elderly with level of physical activity (P<0/05.  Conclusion: According to the results it seems that for encourage and remove the barriers of doing physical activity in elderly, basic plans must be done at the macro level of management. So it is suggested that more researches and interventions about barriers of doing physical activity be done in elderly of Karaj city.  

  11. [Socio-demographic factors and tobacco smoking among the Rzeszow's collage students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binkowska-Bury, Monika; Chmiel-Połeć, Zdzisława; Marć, Małgorzata; Januszewicz, Paweł

    2008-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is the most known single factor of the highest impact on the number of cancerous deceases. Chemical compound contained in the tobacco smoke have an affect on strong mutagen and carcinogenic actions. Among 400 chemical compound 40 of them have a proven carcinogenic action for human. From the medical point of view the most important are: nicotine- responsible as well as for the pharmacologic tobacco smoking addiction, carbon monoxide, carcinogenic and irritant substances. Regular monitoring of the tobacco smoking among academic students might be used in the actions considering the health risk management. The aim of the study was identifying the relation among selected socio-demographic factors like: age, sex, major, permanent residence, parent's education, material status, medical profile and tobacco smoking among academic students. The research was carried out among 521: science, humanities and medical stationary students. The research was conducted with a usage of the chi-squared evenness test. The research shows that sex and place of residence are the two factors having the most impact on tobacco smoking among academic students. Academic students originated from town or cities as well as men are more often to make a decision on smoking tobacco.

  12. [Clinical and demographic profile and risk factors for Clostridium difficile infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal, Carlos; Pacheco, Carlos; Jaimes, Fabián

    2017-01-24

    Clostridium difficile infection is the leading cause of nosocomial infectious diarrhea. The increasing incidence added to a lower rate of response to the initial treatment and higher rates of relapse has generated a higher burden of the disease. To determine the clinical characteristics of hospitalized patients with C. difficile infection. We made a nested case-cohort study. We reviewed medical records of the patients with nosocomial diarrhea for whom an assay for toxin A-B of C. difficile had been requested from February, 2010, to February, 2012. We defined case as a patient with diarrhea and a positive assay for the toxin, and control as those patients with a negative assay for the toxin. We collected data on demographic and clinical characteristics, risk factors, hospital length of stay, treatment, and complications. We collected data from 123 patients during the follow-up period, 30 of whom were positive for the toxin. Mean age in the study population was 49 years and 60% were men. The main symptoms were abdominal pain (35%) and fever (34%). The principal complications were electrolytic alteration and severe sepsis with secondary acute kidney injury. Mortality was 13% and independent factors associated to the appearance of the infection were the use of proton pump inhibitors and previous gastrointestinal tract surgery. The use of proton pump inhibitors and previous gastrointestinal tract surgery were factors associated to C. difficile infection.

  13. Gender differences in risk factors for coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yen Y; Gast, Gerrie-Cor M; van der Schouw, Yvonne T

    2010-02-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD), traditionally considered a male disease, is also a major threat to women. This review article addresses independent risk factors for CHD that are specific for women as well as non-gender-specific risk factors and how their effects differ between men and women. Although polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in women is associated with an adverse metabolic risk profile, current evidence regarding future risk of CHD is conflicting. Preeclampsia is consistently associated with higher risk of CHD later in life. Menopause is associated with an increased risk of CHD, and the earlier the onset of menopause, the larger the risk. Existing data on postmenopausal hormone therapy (HT) was inconclusive with regard to possible protection when HT is initiated close to menopause in young peri- or postmenopausal women. Evidence on use of low-dose oral contraceptives strongly suggests no increased risk of CHD. Although levels of physical inactivity are similar for men and women, the higher prevalences of hypertension, diabetes, and obesity in older women portends a greater risk in women than in men. Additionally, risk factors like smoking, hypertriglyceridemia and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels have greater impact in women than in men. This review indicates that acknowledgement of non-gender-specific risk factors in addition to those that are unique to women would help optimize diagnosis, treatment and earlier prevention of CHD in women. Further research is needed to ascertain if incorporating these gender-specific risks into a clinically used risk stratification model would change outcome in women. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Stress Causing Factors Among Teachers in Elementary Schools and Their Relationship with Demographic and Job Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agai-Demjaha, Teuta; Minov, Jordan; Stoleski, Sasho; Zafirova, Beti

    2015-09-15

    Once high levels of work-related stress among teachers were confirmed many studies concentrated on identifying and investigating key stress factors among school teachers. Unfortunately there are very few researches made on stress causing factors among teachers in Republic of Macedonia. To determine the most frequent stress causing factors among teachers in elementary schools and to investigate their relationship with demographic and job characteristics. We performed a descriptive-analytical model of a cross-sectional study which involved 300 teachers employed in nine elementary schools. Evaluation of examined subjects included completion of a specially designed questionnaire. Among six categories of factors that generate work related stress (job demands, control, relationships, role, changes and support) control and support had the highest mean scores. Within the control category the highest levels of perceived teacher's work-related stress were caused by the following factors - changes in terms and conditions without consultation and given responsibility without the authority to take decisions. 141 out of the interviewed teachers (47%) have mentioned changes in terms and conditions without consultation as very stressful, while another 50 (16.67%) have reported it as stressful. 123 out of interviewed teachers (41%) have stated given responsibility without the authority to take decisions as very stressful, with another 105 (35%) have reported it as stressful. In the category support the highest levels of perceived teacher's work-related stress were caused by stress factors - lack of funds/resources to do the job and limited or no access to training. Out of 300 interviewed teachers, 179 (59.67%) have reported lack of funds/resources to do the job as very stressful, while another 50 (16.67%) as stressful. There is no significant relationship between the stress factor limited or no access to training and demographic and job characteristics. Our findings confirm that

  15. Gender Roles, Gender (In)equality and Fertility: An Empirical Test of Five Gender Equity Indices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mills, M.

    2010-01-01

    The division of gender roles in the household and societal level gender (in)equality have been situated as one of the most powerful factors underlying fertility behaviour. Despite continued theoretical attention to this issue by demographers, empirical research integrating gender roles and equity in

  16. Medication adherence among Nigerians with schizophrenia: correlation between clinico-demographic factors and quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluseun P. Ogunnubi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Medication adherence contributes significantly to symptom remission, recovery and wellbeing in mental illnesses. We evaluated how medication adherence correlates with clinico-demographic factors and quality of life (QoL in a sample of Nigerians with schizophrenia. This descriptive crosssectional study involved 160 randomly selected participants with confirmed diagnosis of schizophrenia based on MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Data on socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of participants were collected with a questionnaire. Medication adherence was assessed with Morisky Medication Adherence Questionnaire, and participants completed the World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale-BREF. The mean age of participants was 38.54 (±11.30 years, and all the participants were on antipsychotics, but only 45% were adherent to their medication. Out of all the participants, 45 (28.2% considered their overall QoL to be good, 97 (60.6% considered theirs to be fair, while 18 (11.2% reported poor QoL. Medication non-adherence correlated negatively with good QoL across multiple dimensions including overall QoL (r=- 0.175, health satisfaction (r=-0.161, physical (r=-0.186 and psychological domain (r=-0.175. Again, participant’s age (r=- 0.190 and age of onset of illness (r=-0.172 correlated negatively with medication nonadherence, and a trend towards relapse delay with medication adherence was also observed (r=-0.155. The effect size of these correlations were however small. Our findings suggest a link between medication adherence and QoL in schizophrenia, such that strategy that addresses medication nonadherence and its determinants may have potential benefits on wellbeing. Further hypotheses-driven studies are desirable.

  17. Gender inequality: The challenge of contemporary demography

    OpenAIRE

    Šobot Ankica

    2010-01-01

    Gender perspective is a heuristic device in researching social phenomena, and gender inequality is a social fact which requires an adequate answer. Also, social differences between women and men are examined as relevant factors of demographic phenomena. The contemporary demography is opening up space not only for the gender aspect, but also for gender inequality as a relevant research topic. This paper discusses the possibilities of demographic approach to studying social inequality between w...

  18. Nine demographic factors and their relationship to attitudes toward abortion legalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mileti, D S; Barnett, L D

    1972-03-01

    The 1967 Gallup Poll on attitudes toward abortion legislation taken for the Population Council was studied by multivariate analysis of 9 demographic factors: age, family income, occupation of household head, race, section of the country, sex, city size, education and religion. The poll was taken in two waves that totaled 6,065 cases (after weighting for a representative sample and elimination of "don't know" and "no answer" responses). The question asked for approval or disapproval of the legalization of abortion for the four "hard" reasons: mother's health, rape, incest, or expected child deformity. The analysis revealed that age, family income, occupation of household head, race, section of the country, and sex did not in themselves have an effect on attitudes towards abortion legalization, though they sometimes were an influence in combination with other variables. Significant statistical correlations were found between approval of abortion legalization and increasing city size and higher educational level. Abortion approval also increases along a religious scale from Jewish-Protestant-Catholic. The most significant theoretical conclusion of the study was that 6 of the 9 factors were not influential on abortion attitudes and the remaining 3 did not have strong predictive-explanatory power as expected. Re-examination of the causes of abortion attitudes is needed.

  19. Study of socio-demographic factors affecting prevalence of hypertension among bank employees of Surat City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momin, Mohmmedirfan H; Desai, Vikas K; Kavishwar, Abhay B

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases including hypertension are increasing in developing countries especially among high-risk group people like bank employees. A cross-sectional study of 1493 bank employees of Surat city was conducted during August, 2004 to September, 2005 to study the prevalence of hypertension among bank employees and the effects of socio-demographic factors on prevalence of hypertension. Data were analyzed using epi 6 software. The χ[2] -test was applied as a nonparametric test of statistical significance. Prevalence of hypertension was 30.4% and prehypertension was 34.5%. Out of 455 found as hypertensive, 258 (56.70%) were not having any symptoms at the time of examination. Prevalence was high among persons with age 50 years and above (48.5%); among male (32.5%) as compared to female (23.1%); among employees having small family size; among separated/divorcee person (40.0%). Prevalence of hypertension increased with seniority of the official position of bank employee with highest prevalence among managers (45.9%). Prevalence of hypertension was noted highest among the higher socioeconomic group; SEC I (35.0%) followed by class II (20.4%). Effects of different risk factors of hypertension were observed here. This study may help in identifying the common profile of hypertensive or persons at risk, which may further help in identifying the risk group and planning the group specific IEC interventions.

  20. The Familial Factors and Demographic Characteristics of Children with Drug Poisoning

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    Muzaffer Özenir

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was to investigate the demographic characteristics, role of family factors, etiology and the factors affecting the prognosis in children who had been admitted to our hospital between 04 August 2007 and 24 January 2009 due to intoxication and, based on these data, to determine the preventive measures that can be taken. Methods: One hundred and one children (61 girls and 33 boys were included in the study. Patient age and sex, manner of poisoning, time between ingestion of poison and hospital admission, and attitudes and behaviors of families were recorded. Results: The poisoned patients represented 1.23%of all pediatric emergency admissions. The mean age of the patients was 6.75±5.30 years (range: 2-16. Self-poisoning was detected in 49 cases and 52 cases were accidental poisoning. It was seen that adolescent over 12 years of age were more prone to suicidal poisoning and children aged 2-6 years were more susceptible to accidental poisoning. Paracetamol (13.8% and amitriptyline (10.7% were the most common drugs. Conclusion: Although there are important improvements in the management of intoxication,family education and preventive measurements are of great importance. (The Medical Bulletin of Haseki 2013;51:157-61

  1. Demographic, Behavioural and Normative Risk Factors for Gambling Problems Amongst Sports Bettors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hing, Nerilee; Russell, Alex M T; Vitartas, Peter; Lamont, Matthew

    2016-06-01

    Sports betting is growing exponentially, is heavily marketed and successfully targets young adult males. Associated gambling problems are increasing. Therefore, understanding risk factors for problem gambling amongst sports bettors is an increasingly important area of research to inform the appropriate design and targeting of public health and treatment interventions. This study aimed to identify demographic, behavioural and normative risk factors for gambling problems amongst sports bettors. An online survey of 639 Australian sports bettors using online, telephone and retail betting channels was conducted. Results indicated that vulnerable sports bettors for higher risk gambling are those who are young, male, single, educated, and employed full-time or a full-time student. Risk of problem gambling was also found to increase with greater frequency and expenditure on sports betting, greater diversity of gambling involvement, and with more impulsive responses to betting opportunities, including in-play live action betting. Normative influences from media advertising and from significant others were also associated with greater problem gambling risk. The results of this study can inform a suite of intervention, protection and treatment initiatives targeted especially at young male adults and adolescents that can help to limit the harm from this gambling form.

  2. Association of missing paternal demographics on infant birth certificates with perinatal risk factors for childhood obesity

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    Erika R. Cheng

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of fathers in the development of obesity in their offspring remains poorly understood. We evaluated associations of missing paternal demographic information on birth certificates with perinatal risk factors for childhood obesity. Methods Data were from the Linked CENTURY Study, a database linking birth certificate and well-child visit data for 200,258 Massachusetts children from 1980–2008. We categorized participants based on the availability of paternal age, education, or race/ethnicity and maternal marital status on the birth certificate: (1 pregnancies missing paternal data; (2 pregnancies involving unmarried women with paternal data; and (3 pregnancies involving married women with paternal data. Using linear and logistic regression, we compared differences in smoking during pregnancy, gestational diabetes, birthweight, breastfeeding initiation, and ever recording a weight for length (WFL ≥ the 95th percentile or crossing upwards ≥2 WFL percentiles between 0–24 months among the study groups. Results 11,989 (6.0 % birth certificates were missing paternal data; 31,323 (15.6 % mothers were unmarried. In adjusted analyses, missing paternal data was associated with lower birthweight (β -0.07 kg; 95 % CI: −0.08, −0.05, smoking during pregnancy (AOR 4.40; 95 % CI: 3.97, 4.87, non-initiation of breastfeeding (AOR 0.39; 95 % CI: 0.36, 0.42, and with ever having a WFL ≥ 95th percentile (AOR 1.10; 95 % CI: 1.01, 1.20. Similar associations were noted for pregnancies involving unmarried women with paternal data, but differences were less pronounced. Conclusions Missing paternal data on the birth certificate is associated with perinatal risk factors for childhood obesity. Efforts to understand and reduce obesity risk factors in early life may need to consider paternal factors.

  3. Emotional intelligence, personality, and gender as factors in disordered eating patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zysberg, Leehu

    2014-08-01

    We examined the hypotheses that proposing higher levels of emotional intelligence (ability test and self-report) and lower neuroticism, extraversion, and agreeableness associate with lower levels of disordered eating. In a correlational study, 126 Israeli college students completed two measures of emotional intelligence, a brief five-factor personality test, demographic data questionnaires, and questionnaires assessing food preoccupation, namely, the Body Weight, Image and Self-Esteem Scale and the Appearance Schema Inventory. Results suggested that ability emotional intelligence is associated with disordered eating beyond gender and personality. Self-reported emotional intelligence did not associate with any of the outcomes after controlling for personality. Implications and applications are briefly discussed. © The Author(s) 2013.

  4. Social and Demographic Factors Influencing Inferior Vena Cava Filter Retrieval at a Single Institution in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, S. Christian, E-mail: csmith@aemrc.arizona.edu; Shanks, Candace, E-mail: Candace.Shanks@osumc.edu; Guy, Gregory, E-mail: Gregory.Guy@osumc.edu; Yang, Xiangyu, E-mail: Xiangyu.Yang@osumc.edu; Dowell, Joshua D., E-mail: Joshua.Dowell@osumc.edu [The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology (United States)

    2015-10-15

    PurposeRetrievable inferior vena cava filters (IVCFs) are associated with long-term adverse events that have increased interest in improving filter retrieval rates. Determining the influential patient social and demographic factors affecting IVCF retrieval is important to personalize patient management strategies and attain optimal patient care.Materials and MethodsSeven-hundred and sixty-two patients were retrospectively studied who had a filter placed at our institution between January 2011 and November 2013. Age, gender, race, cancer history, distance to residence from retrieval institution, and insurance status were identified for each patient, and those receiving retrievable IVCFs were further evaluated for retrieval rate and time to retrieval.ResultsOf the 762 filters placed, 133 were permanent filters. Of the 629 retrievable filters placed, 406 met the inclusion criteria and were eligible for retrieval. Results revealed patients with Medicare were less likely to have their filters retrieved (p = 0.031). Older age was also associated with a lower likelihood of retrieval (p < 0.001) as was living further from the medical center (p = 0.027). Patients who were white and had Medicare were more likely than similarly insured black patients to have their filters retrieved (p = 0.024).ConclusionsThe retrieval rate of IVCFs was most influenced by insurance status, distance from the medical center, and age. Race was statistically significant only when combined with insurance status. The results of this study suggest that these patient groups may need closer follow-up in order to obtain optimal IVCF retrieval rates.

  5. Social and Demographic Factors Influencing Inferior Vena Cava Filter Retrieval at a Single Institution in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, S. Christian; Shanks, Candace; Guy, Gregory; Yang, Xiangyu; Dowell, Joshua D.

    2015-01-01

    PurposeRetrievable inferior vena cava filters (IVCFs) are associated with long-term adverse events that have increased interest in improving filter retrieval rates. Determining the influential patient social and demographic factors affecting IVCF retrieval is important to personalize patient management strategies and attain optimal patient care.Materials and MethodsSeven-hundred and sixty-two patients were retrospectively studied who had a filter placed at our institution between January 2011 and November 2013. Age, gender, race, cancer history, distance to residence from retrieval institution, and insurance status were identified for each patient, and those receiving retrievable IVCFs were further evaluated for retrieval rate and time to retrieval.ResultsOf the 762 filters placed, 133 were permanent filters. Of the 629 retrievable filters placed, 406 met the inclusion criteria and were eligible for retrieval. Results revealed patients with Medicare were less likely to have their filters retrieved (p = 0.031). Older age was also associated with a lower likelihood of retrieval (p < 0.001) as was living further from the medical center (p = 0.027). Patients who were white and had Medicare were more likely than similarly insured black patients to have their filters retrieved (p = 0.024).ConclusionsThe retrieval rate of IVCFs was most influenced by insurance status, distance from the medical center, and age. Race was statistically significant only when combined with insurance status. The results of this study suggest that these patient groups may need closer follow-up in order to obtain optimal IVCF retrieval rates

  6. Sexual Risk Behavior Among Youth With Bipolar Disorder: Identifying Demographic and Clinical Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krantz, Megan; Goldstein, Tina; Rooks, Brian; Merranko, John; Liao, Fangzi; Gill, Mary Kay; Diler, Rasim; Hafeman, Danella; Ryan, Neal; Goldstein, Benjamin; Yen, Shirley; Hower, Heather; Hunt, Jeffrey; Keller, Martin; Strober, Michael; Axelson, David; Birmaher, Boris

    2018-02-01

    This study aims to document rates of sexual activity among youth with bipolar spectrum disorder (BD) and to examine demographic and clinical factors associated with first sexual activity and sexual risk behavior during follow-up. The sample was drawn from the Course and Outcome of Bipolar Youth (COBY) study of 413 youth 7 to 17 years at baseline who met criteria for bipolar spectrum disorder according to the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Aged Children. Psychiatric symptoms during follow-up were assessed using the Adolescent Longitudinal Interview Follow-Up Evaluation (ALIFE). Sexual behavior and level of sexual risk (e.g., unprotected sex, multiple partners, and/or partners with known sexually transmitted infections) were assessed by trained evaluators using the ALIFE Psychosocial Functioning Scale. Analyses were conducted in relation to first sexual behavior during follow-up and then to subsequent sexual behaviors (mean 9.7 years, standard deviation 3.2). Sexually active COBY youth (n = 292 of 413; 71%) were more likely females, using substances, and not living with both parents. Consistent with findings among healthy youth, earlier first sexual activity in the sample was significantly associated with low socioeconomic status, female sex, comorbid disruptive behavior disorder, and substance use. As with healthy youth, sexual risk behavior during follow-up was significantly associated with non-Caucasian race, low socioeconomic status, substance use, and history of sexual abuse. Of those COBY youth who were sexually active, 11% reported sexual assault or abuse, 36% reported becoming pregnant (or the significant other becoming pregnant), and 15% reported having at least 1 abortion (or the significant other having an abortion) during follow-up. Hypomanic symptoms during follow-up were temporally associated with the greatest risk for sexual risk behavior. Demographic and clinical factors could help identify youth with bipolar spectrum

  7. Demographic and Substance Use Factors Associated with Non-Violent Alcohol-Related Injuries among Patrons of Australian Night-Time Entertainment Districts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerri Coomber

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the relationship between patron demographics, substance use, and experience of recent alcohol-related accidents and injuries that were not due to interpersonal violence in night-time entertainment districts. Cross-sectional interviews (n = 4016 were conducted around licensed venues in entertainment districts of five Australian cities. Demographic factors associated with non-violent alcohol-related injuries were examined, including gender, age, and occupation. The association between substance use on the night of interview; blood alcohol concentration (BAC, pre-drinking, energy drink consumption, and illicit drug use; and experience of injury was also explored. Thirteen percent of participants reported an alcohol-related injury within the past three months. Respondents aged younger than 25 years were significantly more likely to report an alcohol-related injury. Further, a significant occupation effect was found indicating the rate of alcohol-related injury was lower in managers/professionals compared to non-office workers. The likelihood of prior alcohol-related injury significantly increased with BAC, and self-reported pre-drinking, energy drink, or illicit drug consumption on the night of interview. These findings provide an indication of the demographic and substance use-related associations with alcohol-related injuries and, therefore, potential avenues of population-level policy intervention. Policy responses to alcohol-related harm must also account for an assessment and costing of non-violent injuries.

  8. Demographic and Substance Use Factors Associated with Non-Violent Alcohol-Related Injuries among Patrons of Australian Night-Time Entertainment Districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coomber, Kerri; Mayshak, Richelle; Hyder, Shannon; Droste, Nicolas; Curtis, Ashlee; Pennay, Amy; Gilmore, William; Lam, Tina; Chikritzhs, Tanya; Miller, Peter G

    2017-01-12

    This study examined the relationship between patron demographics, substance use, and experience of recent alcohol-related accidents and injuries that were not due to interpersonal violence in night-time entertainment districts. Cross-sectional interviews ( n = 4016) were conducted around licensed venues in entertainment districts of five Australian cities. Demographic factors associated with non-violent alcohol-related injuries were examined, including gender, age, and occupation. The association between substance use on the night of interview; blood alcohol concentration (BAC), pre-drinking, energy drink consumption, and illicit drug use; and experience of injury was also explored. Thirteen percent of participants reported an alcohol-related injury within the past three months. Respondents aged younger than 25 years were significantly more likely to report an alcohol-related injury. Further, a significant occupation effect was found indicating the rate of alcohol-related injury was lower in managers/professionals compared to non-office workers. The likelihood of prior alcohol-related injury significantly increased with BAC, and self-reported pre-drinking, energy drink, or illicit drug consumption on the night of interview. These findings provide an indication of the demographic and substance use-related associations with alcohol-related injuries and, therefore, potential avenues of population-level policy intervention. Policy responses to alcohol-related harm must also account for an assessment and costing of non-violent injuries.

  9. Changes in Attitude towards Gender Inequality in the

    OpenAIRE

    Vakil Ahmadi

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Gender inequality stems from social factors in each society. In theories of gender inequality, it has been assumed that family role in reproduction of gender inequality is of crucial importance (Bourdieu 2001, Chaftez 1999, dyson 2001). Demographic transition is one of the factors in the structure of family changes in recent century. Demographic transition is applied to changes from high levels of mortality and fertility to low levels (Lucas & meyer 2002). Demographic transit...

  10. Reviewing Sexual Function After Delivery and Its Association with Some of the Demographic Marital Satisfaction Factors

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    Kh. Broumandfar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Desirable sexual function has an important role in strengthening the marital life of the couples. Sexual disorders can cause mental pressure and affect quality of life and marital relationship. Methods: This was a descriptive correlation study in one group and one phase covering multivariables. The study sample included 384 women after delivery period that had the following inclusion criteria: the age of at least 18 years, delivery in 38-42 pregnancy weeks, primiparous and multiparous women, living in the city, single pregnancy, and twelve months elapsed from the delivery. The required data such demographic, marital satisfaction and sexual function index were collected through reporting questionnaire. The data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistical methods using software SPSS. Results: The findings of the study indicated that the most prevalent disorder of the sexual relationship in postpartum was dyspareunia and the least prevalent was the sexual desire. There was no significant association between sexual function and, age, education degree , body mass index ,body size and job, but there was a significant association for other factors such as the economic, residence and marital satisfaction (p<0.01. Conclusion: It is recommended that sexual problems after delivery be placed on the list of health teaching issues to pass easily this period of time. Women should be assured that these problems gradually would be improved and they should learn using proper techniques to decrease dyspareunia which is a sexual disorder in postpartum period.

  11. Association between Eating Out and Socio-Demographic Factors of University Students in Chongqing, China

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    Ping Hu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available (1 Objective: We aimed to explore the current situation of eating out and the association with socio-demographic factors of university students in Chongqing, China. (2 Methods: We used self-administered questionnaires to collect information. There are 14 universities in Chongqing; four (Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing University, Chongqing Normal University, and Chongqing University of Science & Technology were randomly selected. In each selected university, two disciplines were randomly selected. (3 Results: 4595 university students participated in the study. The frequency of eating out was relatively high. The frequency of eating out among females was higher than that among males during weekdays. The two main reasons for eating out were having an opportunity to meet friends (56.0% and improving diet (39.6%. Bistros (61.7% and hot-pot restaurants (41.1% were the favorite places for eating out. Only 36.0% of the participants said they considered nutrition and food safety when selecting restaurants. The majority of the participants demonstrated a high demand for nutrition and food safety knowledge when eating out (77.7%. (4 Conclusions: The higher the monthly living expenses were, the higher the frequency of eating out was. An intervention strategy to reduce the frequency or change the behavior of eating out should be formulated by considering the students’ perspectives.

  12. Projection of Big Cities Waste Management and Cost Based on Economic and Demographic Factors in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajati, Gita; Padmi, Tri; Benno Rahardyan, dan

    2017-12-01

    Nowadays, solid waste management continues to be a major challenge in urban areas, especially in developing country. It is triggered by population growth, economic growth, industrialization and urbanization. Indonesia itselfs categorized into developing country. Indonesia's government has many program in order to increase the economic growth. One of them is MP3EI (Masterplan Percepatan dan Perluasan Pembangunan Ekonomi Indonesia. This program should be suppported by right waste management system. If Indonesia's waste management system can't afford the economic growth, it will trigger health and environmental problems. This study's purpose is to develop the socio-economic-environment model that can be used as a basis planning for the facility and cost of waste management systems. In this paper we used the development of Khajuria model test method. This method used six variables, which are GDP, population, population density, illiteracy, school's period and economic growth. The result showed that development of Khajuria test could explained the influence of economic and demographic factors to waste generation, 65.6%. The projection of waste generation shows that Pangkalpinang, Pekanbaru and Serang are the cities with the highest waste generation for the next five years. The number of dump truck and TPS in DKI Jakarata is the highest within another city, which is 39.37%. For the next five years, the waste management system in our study areas cost maximum 0.8% from GDP (Gross Domestic Products).

  13. Prevalence and socio-demographic factors affecting anaemia in pregnant women of Dibrugarh District, Assam, India

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    Indrani Gogoi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anaemia is the most common nutritional deficiency observed globally. Anaemia worsens during pregnancy leading to adverse maternal and fetal outcome. Dibrugarh district has the highest maternal mortality in the country, one of the major factor being anaemia during pregnancy. Aims & Objectives: To assess the prevalence and socio-demographic determinants of anaemia in pregnant women of Dibrugarh District. Material & Methods: A community based, cross-sectional study was conducted in a block selected randomly. Study period was for the period from May’2015 to February’2016. Study sample included 290 participants. Results: Prevalence of anaemia among study participants was found to be 73.1%. (Mild 10%, moderate 43.1 % and severe 20%. Mean haemoglobin of study subjects was 9.07±2.26 g/dl. Average age of the study subjects was 23.24±4. Majority (27.2% had their education upto primary school level and belong to class IV socioeconomic status. Univariate analysis and multiple logistic regression analysis shows educational qualification, socioeconomic status and type of housing are statistically associated with anaemia during pregnancy. Conclusion: Anaemia is rampant in the community needing urgent action to prevent morbidity amongst both mother and child

  14. Prevalence and socio-demographic factors affecting anaemia in pregnant women of Dibrugarh District, Assam, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrani Gogoi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anaemia is the most common nutritional deficiency observed globally. Anaemia worsens during pregnancy leading to adverse maternal and fetal outcome. Dibrugarh district has the highest maternal mortality in the country, one of the major factor being anaemia during pregnancy. Aims & Objectives: To assess the prevalence and socio-demographic determinants of anaemia in pregnant women of Dibrugarh District. Material & Methods: A community based, cross-sectional study was conducted in a block selected randomly. Study period was for the period from May’2015 to February’2016. Study sample included 290 participants. Results: Prevalence of anaemia among study participants was found to be 73.1%. (Mild 10%, moderate 43.1 % and severe 20%. Mean haemoglobin of study subjects was 9.07±2.26 g/dl. Average age of the study subjects was 23.24±4. Majority (27.2% had their education upto primary school level and belong to class IV socioeconomic status. Univariate analysis and multiple logistic regression analysis shows educational qualification, socioeconomic status and type of housing are statistically associated with anaemia during pregnancy. Conclusion: Anaemia is rampant in the community needing urgent action to prevent morbidity amongst both mother and child

  15. Socio-demographic characteristics and risk factors among HIV/AIDS patients in Kano, Northern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliyasu, Z; Arotiba, J T; Babashani, M

    2004-01-01

    There has been no description of the characteristics of HIV/AIDS patients that are referred to this antiretroviral treatment centre. The information could be useful in planning for prevention, care and support of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) and people affected by AIDS (PABA). To describe the socio-demographic characteristics and identify risk factors among HIV/AIDS patients presenting to Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital. Analysis of a prospectively collected data on 205 consecutive patients presenting to Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital from May 2002 to June 2003. Out of the 205 HIV positive patients seen, there were 112 (54.6%) males and 93 (45.4%) females giving a sex ratio of 1.2:1. The age range was 18 to 61 years with an overall mean S.D of 33.7 +/- [corrected] 8 years. The mean for males was 37.3 +/- [corrected] 7.8 years compared to 29.56 years for females. This difference was statistically significant (t = 8.1 DF = 201 P homosexuality. The need for a sustained multi-sectoral preventive effort and the scaling up of treatment and community care initiatives were stressed.

  16. Association between Eating Out and Socio-Demographic Factors of University Students in Chongqing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ping; Wu, Tingting; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, Yan; Lu, Lu; Zeng, Huan; Shi, Zu-Min; Sharma, Manoj; Xun, Lei; Zhao, Yong

    2017-10-30

    (1) Objective : We aimed to explore the current situation of eating out and the association with socio-demographic factors of university students in Chongqing, China. (2) Methods : We used self-administered questionnaires to collect information. There are 14 universities in Chongqing; four (Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing University, Chongqing Normal University, and Chongqing University of Science & Technology) were randomly selected. In each selected university, two disciplines were randomly selected. (3) Results : 4595 university students participated in the study. The frequency of eating out was relatively high. The frequency of eating out among females was higher than that among males during weekdays. The two main reasons for eating out were having an opportunity to meet friends (56.0%) and improving diet (39.6%). Bistros (61.7%) and hot-pot restaurants (41.1%) were the favorite places for eating out. Only 36.0% of the participants said they considered nutrition and food safety when selecting restaurants. The majority of the participants demonstrated a high demand for nutrition and food safety knowledge when eating out (77.7%). (4) Conclusions : The higher the monthly living expenses were, the higher the frequency of eating out was. An intervention strategy to reduce the frequency or change the behavior of eating out should be formulated by considering the students' perspectives.

  17. Demographic factors influencing educational placement of the hearing-impaired child with a cochlear implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yehudai, Noam; Tzach, Naama; Shpak, Talma; Most, Tova; Luntz, Michal

    2011-08-01

    To analyze educational placement settings of Israeli children with cochlear implants (CIs) and evaluate the prognostic influence of the following demographic variables on mainstreaming: age at implantation, experience with CI, socioeconomic status, ethnicity, and parents' educational level. Retrospective review. Tertiary referral center. The study population comprised 245 children with severe-to-profound hearing impairment and at least 1 year of experience with a unilateral CI. Mean age at implantation was 4.5 ± 3.9 years, and mean duration of CI use was 5.4 ± 2.8 years. Follow-up review and statistical analysis of available data on educational placement after cochlear implantation. Placement in mainstream education. Regular schools were attended by 89 children (36.3%) and special education schools by 156 (63.7%). Variables found to be significantly associated with mainstream educational placement were younger age at implantation, higher level of parental education, higher socioeconomic status, and ethnicity. Multivariate analysis using a logistic regression model revealed that the factor with the highest positive correlation with mainstreaming was parental education level. Our results show that parental education, a variable that the health system cannot control, significantly influences postimplantation results in term of educational placement and can thus limit the chances of implanted children to achieve mainstream placement even when identified and implanted at an early age.

  18. Economic, demographic and social factors of energy demand in Mexican households, 2008-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez Pena, Rafael

    This research project focuses on estimating the effect of economic, demographic, and social factors in residential energy demand in Mexico from 2008 to 2014. Therefore, it estimates demand equations for electricity, natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), coal and natural gas using Mexican household data from 2008 to 2014. It also applies accessibility theory and it estimates energy access indicators using different specifications of demand for LPG in 2014. Sprawl measures, gravity model, and central place theory are the accessibility theory supporting the energy access indicators. Results suggest the greater the household income, the population size, the educational level of the householder, the energy access, and the lower the energy price and the household size, the greater the demand for energy in Mexico from 2008 to 2014. The greater the education, the lower the demand for firewood and coal. LPG and firewood have a monopolistically competitive market structure. Energy access indicators informed by accessibility theory are statistically significant and show the expected sign when applied to LPG in Mexican household in 2014.

  19. The prevalence of substance use among adolescents and its correlation with social and demographic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakić Dušica B.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Backround/Aim. Adolescence is the period of greatest risk of starting to use substances: cigarette smoking, alcohol and illicit drugs. In the first decade of this millennium substance use among adolescents has increased. The aim of this study was to explore the prevalence of substances use among adolescents and its correlation with social and demographic factors. Methods. The study was conducted among adolescents in Novi Sad during 2010-2011 and included 594 conveniently selected adolescents (275 male and 319 female, aged 15-19 years. A special questionnaire was used and statistical analysis performed in SPSS17. The correlation between parameters was evaluated by the Pearson correlation method and frequency differences were analysed using χ2 test and starting level was p < 0.05. Results. The prevalence of substance use was statistically higher in males. Cigarettes were smoked daily by 21.45% males and 15.67% females (p < 0.01, alcohol was consumed by 81.6% males and 69.11% females (p < 0.001 and illicit drugs were used by 13.65% males and 8.30% females (p < 0.05. There was a positive correlation between smoking cigarettes and alcohol consumption, but negative between smoking cigarettes and the use of illicit drugs (p < 0.01. The prevalence of substance use was statistically higher among adolescents with poor achievement in school (p < 0.01, who lived in a broken home (illicit drugs p < 0.01 and who had more pocket money (cigarette smoking p < 0.01, and alcohol consumption p < 0.5. Conclusion. Stable family, lower amount of pocket money weekly and good school performance are protective factors in prevention of substances use among adolescents.

  20. Effects of demographic factors and information sources on United States consumer perceptions of animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKendree, M G S; Croney, C C; Widmar, N J O

    2014-07-01

    As consumers have become more interested in understanding how their food is produced, scrutiny and criticism have increased regarding intensified food animal production methods. Resolution of public concerns about animal agricultural practices depends on understanding the myriad factors that provide the basis for concerns. An online survey of 798 U.S. households was conducted to investigate relationships between household characteristics (demographics, geographic location, and experiences) and level of concern for animal welfare as well as sources used to obtain information on the subject. Because recent media attention has focused on animal care practices used in the U.S. swine industry, respondents were also asked specific questions pertaining to their perceptions of pig management practices and welfare issues and their corresponding pork purchasing behavior. Respondents reporting higher levels of concern about animal welfare were more frequently female, younger, and self-reported members of the Democratic Party. Fourteen percent of respondents reported reduction in pork consumption because of animal welfare concerns with an average reduction of 56%. Over half of the respondents (56%) did not have a primary source for animal welfare information; those who identified a primary information source most commonly used information provided by animal protection organizations, the Humane Society of the United States (HSUS), and People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA). Midwest participants were significantly, at the 5% significance level, less concerned about domestic livestock animal welfare and more frequently reported not having a source for animal welfare information than those from other regions of the United States. Overall, the U.S. livestock and poultry industries and other organizations affiliated with animal agriculture appear to be less used public sources of information on animal welfare than popular animal protection organizations. Improved

  1. Clinical and demographic factors associated with urinary tract infection in young febrile infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorc, Joseph J; Levine, Deborah A; Platt, Shari L; Dayan, Peter S; Macias, Charles G; Krief, William; Schor, Jeffrey; Bank, David; Shaw, Kathy N; Kuppermann, Nathan

    2005-09-01

    Previous research has identified clinical predictors for urinary tract infection (UTI) to guide urine screening in febrile children or =38 degrees C) infants who were pediatric emergency departments from October through March 1999-2001 were eligible. Clinical appearance was evaluated using the Yale Observation Scale. UTI was defined as growth of a known bacterial pathogen from a catheterized specimen at a level of (1) > or =50000 cfu/mL or (2) > or =10000 cfu/mL in association with a positive dipstick test or urinalysis. We used bivariate tests and multiple logistic regression to identify demographic and clinical factors that were associated with the likelihood of UTI. A total of 1025 (67%) of 1513 eligible patients were enrolled; 9.0% of enrolled infants received a diagnosis of UTI. Uncircumcised male infants had a higher rate of UTI (21.3%) compared with female (5.0%) and circumcised male (2.3%) infants. Infants with maximum recorded temperature of > or =39 degrees C had a higher rate of UTI (16.3%) than other infants (7.2%). After multivariable adjustment, UTI was associated with being uncircumcised (odds ratio: 10.4; bias-corrected 95% confidence interval: 4.7-31.4) and maximum temperature (odds ratio: 2.4 per degrees C; 95% confidence interval: 1.5-3.6). Factors that were reported previously to be associated with risk for UTI in infants and toddlers, such as white race and ill appearance, were not significantly associated with risk for UTI in this cohort of young infants. Being uncircumcised and height of fever were associated with UTI in febrile infants who were < or =60 days of age. Uncircumcised male infants were at particularly high risk and may warrant a different approach to screening and management.

  2. ACCEPTABILITY EVALUATION FOR USING ICRP TISSUE WEIGHTING FACTORS TO CALCULATE EFFECTIVE DOSE VALUE FOR SEPARATE GENDER-AGE GROUPS OF RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Repin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An article describes radiation risk factors for several gender-age population groups according to Russian statistical and medical-demographic data, evaluates the lethality rate for separate nosologic forms of malignant neoplasms based on Russian cancer registries according to the method of the International Agency for Cancer Research. Relative damage factors are calculated for the gender-age groups under consideration. The tissue weighting factors recommended by ICRP to calculate effective doses are compared with relative damage factors calculated by ICRP for the nominal population and with similar factors calculated in this work for separate population cohorts in theRussian Federation. The significance of differences and the feasibility of using tissue weighting factors adapted for the Russian population in assessing population risks in cohorts of different gender-age compositions have been assessed.

  3. Health Literacy among Medically Underserved: The Role of Demographic Factors, Social Influence, and Religious Beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christy, Shannon M; Gwede, Clement K; Sutton, Steven K; Chavarria, Enmanuel; Davis, Stacy N; Abdulla, Rania; Ravindra, Chitra; Schultz, Ida; Roetzheim, Richard; Meade, Cathy D

    2017-11-01

    The current study examined the sociodemographic and psychosocial variables that predicted being at risk for low health literacy among a population of racially and ethnically diverse patients accessing primary care services at community-based clinics. Participants (N = 416) were aged 50-75 years, currently not up-to-date with colorectal cancer (CRC) screening, at average CRC risk, and enrolled in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) aimed at promoting CRC screening. Participants completed a baseline interview that assessed health literacy as measured by Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine-Revised, sociodemographic factors, and psychosocial variables (e.g., health beliefs) prior to randomization and receipt of an intervention. Thirty-six percent of the participants were found to be at risk for low health literacy. Sociodemographic and psychosocial variables were assessed as predictors of being at risk for low health literacy using logistic regression. In the final model, predictors were male gender, being from a racial/ethnic minority group, being unable to work, having higher social influence scores, and having higher religious belief scores. These findings suggest several patient characteristics that may be associated with low health literacy, and highlight the importance of supporting all patients through simplified and clear communications and information to improve understanding of CRC screening information.

  4. The connection of socio-demographic factors and child-parent relationships to the psychological aspects of children’s development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobkin V. S.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Preschool childhood is a time of rapid development. During this period a child`s interaction with significant adults plays a very important role. The parent, as a mediator, defines the “zone of proximal development” (Vygotsky, 1984. The common assumption is that to determine a parent’s position, it is important to acknowledge both socio-demographic factors and the parameters which define the socio-psychological aspects of parent-child relationship. Hence, the type of research where a child’s psychological development is studied in the context of the socio-demographic and socio-psychological factors which determine the social situation of development, is very promising. Based on our previous research (Sobkin, Marich, 2002; Cheie, Veraksa, 2015, a program of experimental research intended to determine the interconnections between the socio-demographic and socio-psychological parameters of parent-child relationships, and the level of a child’s psychic development, was designed. The research was based upon the material obtained through testing 59 children between 5 and 7 years old with specially collected psychological testing methods (Veraksa A.N. etc, as well as from the results of a special sociological questionnaire presented to their mothers (Sobkin V.S. etc. The research was carried out in 2014-2015 in municipal kindergartens of Moscow. Among the socio-demographic factors analyzed, the most significant results were related to the child’s gender, the family structure, and the mother’s education. Thus, boys showed higher results on visual memory tests, and girls scored better on tests for self-control and social intelligence (higher ability to detect the reason for someone else’s negative emotions. Children from single-parent families had better results on verbal memory tests, but scored lower on those for self-control. Also they had less ability for decentration. The differences in mothers’ educational levels influenced the

  5. Factors signifying gender differences in clinical presentation of sarcoidosis among Estonian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lill, Hille; Kliiman, Kai; Altraja, Alan

    2016-05-01

    Sarcoidosis is endemically prevalent in Northern Europe, but gender differences among the sarcoidosis population have not yet been compositely addressed. To reveal independent factors that formulate gender differences in the presentation of sarcoidosis. All Caucasian patients with confirmed sarcoidosis were recruited from the outpatient department of the Lung Clinic of the Tartu University Hospital, Estonia, between February 2009 and April 2011. Data on demographics, complaints, symptoms, clinical presentation, extrapulmonary manifestations, radiographic stage, lung function parameters and sarcoidosis-related laboratory indices were all drawn from patients' clinical records at presentation. Factors characteristic of female gender were estimated using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Of 230 cases included, there were significantly more females (56.5%, P = 0.005). After adjustment for age, females appeared distinguishable from males by older age [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.04, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02-1.07], less frequent smoking (OR 0.25, 95% CI 0.13-0.49), higher probability of extrapulmonary complaints (OR 2.06, 95% CI 1.16-3.65) and musculoskeletal sarcoidosis (OR 3.22, 95% CI 1.65-6.29), and after adjustment for both age and smoking status lower forced expiratory volume in 1 s and lung carbon monoxide diffusing coefficient % predicted (OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.82-0.97 and OR 0.98, 95% CI 0.96-0.995, respectively), but by higher forced vital capacity % predicted (OR 1.12, 95% CI 1.03-1.22). Women with sarcoidosis are independently characterized by greater airflow obstruction, lower lung diffusing coefficient, older age, less smoking, and more frequent extrapulmonary complaints and musculoskeletal involvement. This may urge special attention when addressing female patients in both differential diagnostic and management settings. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Demographic, health-related, and work-related factors associated with body mass index and body fat percentage among workers at six Connecticut manufacturing companies across different age groups: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza, Jennifer L; Dugan, Alicia G; Faghri, Pouran D; Gorin, Amy A; Huedo-Medina, Tania B; Kenny, Anne M; Cherniack, Martin G; Cavallari, Jennifer M

    2015-01-01

    Effective workplace interventions that consider the multifactorial nature of obesity are needed to reduce and prevent obesity among adults. Furthermore, the factors associated with obesity may differ for workers across age groups. Therefore, the objective of this study was to identify demographic, health-related, and work-related factors associated with baseline and changes in body mass index (BMI) and body fat percentage (BFP) and among Connecticut manufacturing workers acrossage groups. BMI and BFPof 758 workers from six Connecticut manufacturing companies were objectively measuredat two time points approximately 36 months apart. Demographic, health-related, and work-related factors wereassessed via questionnaire. All variables were included in linear regression models to identify factors associated with baseline and changes in BMI and BFP for workers in 3 age groups: 55 years (28 %). There were differences in baseline and changes in BMI and BFP among manufacturing workers across age groups. Being interested in changing weight was significantly (p gender (BMI p = 0.04), female gender (BFP p gender (BMI p = 0.02), female gender (BFP p gender (BFP p 55 year age category. Few factors were associated with change in BMI or BFP across any age category. Among manufacturing workers, we identified associations between individual, health-related, and work-related factors and baseline BMIand BFP that differed by age. Such results support the use of strategies tailored to the challenges faced by workers in specific age groups rather than adopting a one size fits all approach. Effective interventions should consider a full range of individual, health-related, and work-related factors. More work must be done to identify factors or strategies associated with changes in obesity over time.

  7. A tale of two epidemics: gender differences in socio-demographic characteristics and sexual behaviors among HIV positive individuals in Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista-Arredondo, Sergio; Servan-Mori, Edson; Beynon, Fenella; González, Andrea; Volkow, Patricia

    2015-12-16

    To date, the HIV epidemic in Mexico has been concentrated mainly among men who have sex with men, butheterosexual transmission, particularly to women, is increasingly important. This study examine gender differences in socio-demographic characteristics and risk behaviors of HIV positive individuals in Mexico City. We analyzed data from a cross-sectional survey of 1,490 clinic patients (male:female ratio 8:1) with HIV inMexico City in 2010. We examined socio-demographic characteristics, risk behavior, and history of HIV infection.From multivariate non-linear probability (probit) models we calculated predicted probabilities by sex of several outcomes: marginalization, demographic and sexual risk behaviors. Significant differences were found between men and women. Multivariate models suggest that women had lower schooling levels; were less likely to have been employed in the past month and earn more than the minimal wage; more likely to have children, to have been sexually abused, to never have used condoms and to report having been infected by a stable partner. Additionally, women were less likely to report having a partner with a history of migration to the USA and to have engaged in transactional sex. Significant differences exist between men and women with HIV in Mexico City in terms of their socioeconomicand behavioral profiles, which translate into differences in terms of exposure to HIV infection. Women face social and economic vulnerability while men tend to have riskier sexual behavior. Gender issues must be approached in prevention and treatment efforts, using diverse methods to target those most vulnerable and at risk.

  8. Gender differences in factors associated with suicidal ideation and depressive symptoms among middle-aged workers in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugawara, Norio; Yasui-Furukori, Norio; Sasaki, Giro; Tanaka, Osamu; Umeda, Takashi; Takahashi, Ippei; Danjo, Kazuma; Matsuzaka, Masashi; Kaneko, Sunao; Nakaji, Shigeyuki

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess middle-aged Japanese workers for possible gender differences in the risk factors associated with depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation. 5,878 workers (40-60 yr of age) (3,631 males and 2,247 females) were recruited from randomly selected companies in northern Japan. Demographic and lifestyle factors, suicidal ideation rate, and the data for the Brief Job Stress Questionnaire (BJSQ) and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies for Depression scale (CES-D) were obtained from the self-report questionnaires. After adjusting for possible confounding variables, marital status, absent of stress reduction technique and low job compatibility were significant independent risk factors for suicidal ideation among males. In females, marital status, feeling of insufficient sleep and absence of stress reduction techniques were significant independent risk factors after adjusting for all variables. Under the same adjustments, temporary employment also showed a protective effect against female suicidal ideation. In conclusion, our results suggest that factors related to suicidal ideation differed by gender. Different approaches for each gender might be useful in the development of suicide prevention programs. However, interpretation of work-related effects, such as temporary employment, interpersonal conflict and transportation industry, was hampered by lack of data concerning personal income, working hours and organizational commitment. Additional studies are needed to examine the longitudinal relationships between the risk factors associated with suicidal ideation and depressive symptoms.

  9. Demographic and ecological risk factors for human influenza A virus infections in rural Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root, Elisabeth Dowling; Agustian, Dwi; Kartasasmita, Cissy; Uyeki, Timothy M; Simões, Eric A F

    2017-09-01

    Indonesia has the world's highest reported mortality for human infections with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A(H5N1) virus. Indonesia is an agriculturally driven country where human-animal mixing is common and provides a unique environment for zoonotic influenza A virus transmission. To identify potential demographic and ecological risk factors for human infection with seasonal influenza A viruses in rural Indonesia, a population-based study was conducted in Cileunyi and Soreang subdistricts near Bandung in western Java from 2008 to 2011. Passive influenza surveillance with RT-PCR confirmation of influenza A viral RNA in respiratory specimens was utilized for case ascertainment. A population census and mapping were utilized for population data collection. The presence of influenza A(H3N2) and A(H1N1)pdm09 virus infections in a household was modeled using Generalized Estimating Equations. Each additional child aged <5 years in a household increased the odds of H3N2 approximately 5 times (OR=4.59, 95%CI: 3.30-6.24) and H1N1pdm09 by 3.5 times (OR=3.53, 95%CI: 2.51-4.96). In addition, the presence of 16-30 birds in the house was associated with an increased odds of H3N2 (OR=5.08, 95%CI: 2.00-12.92) and H1N1pdm09 (OR=12.51 95%CI: 6.23-25.13). Our findings suggest an increase in influenza A virus infections in rural Indonesian households with young children and poultry. © 2017 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Demographic histories, isolation and social factors as determinants of the genetic structure of Alpine linguistic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coia, Valentina; Capocasa, Marco; Anagnostou, Paolo; Pascali, Vincenzo; Scarnicci, Francesca; Boschi, Ilaria; Battaggia, Cinzia; Crivellaro, Federica; Ferri, Gianmarco; Alù, Milena; Brisighelli, Francesca; Busby, George B J; Capelli, Cristian; Maixner, Frank; Cipollini, Giovanna; Viazzo, Pier Paolo; Zink, Albert; Destro Bisol, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Great European mountain ranges have acted as barriers to gene flow for resident populations since prehistory and have offered a place for the settlement of small, and sometimes culturally diverse, communities. Therefore, the human groups that have settled in these areas are worth exploring as an important potential source of diversity in the genetic structure of European populations. In this study, we present new high resolution data concerning Y chromosomal variation in three distinct Alpine ethno-linguistic groups, Italian, Ladin and German. Combining unpublished and literature data on Y chromosome and mitochondrial variation, we were able to detect different genetic patterns. In fact, within and among population diversity values observed vary across linguistic groups, with German and Italian speakers at the two extremes, and seem to reflect their different demographic histories. Using simulations we inferred that the joint effect of continued genetic isolation and reduced founding group size may explain the apportionment of genetic diversity observed in all groups. Extending the analysis to other continental populations, we observed that the genetic differentiation of Ladins and German speakers from Europeans is comparable or even greater to that observed for well known outliers like Sardinian and Basques. Finally, we found that in south Tyroleans, the social practice of Geschlossener Hof, a hereditary norm which might have favored male dispersal, coincides with a significant intra-group diversity for mtDNA but not for Y chromosome, a genetic pattern which is opposite to those expected among patrilocal populations. Together with previous evidence regarding the possible effects of "local ethnicity" on the genetic structure of German speakers that have settled in the eastern Italian Alps, this finding suggests that taking socio-cultural factors into account together with geographical variables and linguistic diversity may help unveil some yet to be understood

  11. Demographic histories, isolation and social factors as determinants of the genetic structure of Alpine linguistic groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Coia

    Full Text Available Great European mountain ranges have acted as barriers to gene flow for resident populations since prehistory and have offered a place for the settlement of small, and sometimes culturally diverse, communities. Therefore, the human groups that have settled in these areas are worth exploring as an important potential source of diversity in the genetic structure of European populations. In this study, we present new high resolution data concerning Y chromosomal variation in three distinct Alpine ethno-linguistic groups, Italian, Ladin and German. Combining unpublished and literature data on Y chromosome and mitochondrial variation, we were able to detect different genetic patterns. In fact, within and among population diversity values observed vary across linguistic groups, with German and Italian speakers at the two extremes, and seem to reflect their different demographic histories. Using simulations we inferred that the joint effect of continued genetic isolation and reduced founding group size may explain the apportionment of genetic diversity observed in all groups. Extending the analysis to other continental populations, we observed that the genetic differentiation of Ladins and German speakers from Europeans is comparable or even greater to that observed for well known outliers like Sardinian and Basques. Finally, we found that in south Tyroleans, the social practice of Geschlossener Hof, a hereditary norm which might have favored male dispersal, coincides with a significant intra-group diversity for mtDNA but not for Y chromosome, a genetic pattern which is opposite to those expected among patrilocal populations. Together with previous evidence regarding the possible effects of "local ethnicity" on the genetic structure of German speakers that have settled in the eastern Italian Alps, this finding suggests that taking socio-cultural factors into account together with geographical variables and linguistic diversity may help unveil some yet

  12. The influence of school demographic factors and perceived student discrimination on delinquency trajectory in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Thao N; Stockdale, Gary

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of school demographic factors and youth's perception of discrimination on delinquency in adolescence and into young adulthood for African American, Asian, Hispanic, and white racial/ethnic groups. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), models testing the effect of school-related variables on delinquency trajectories were evaluated for the four racial/ethnic groups using Mplus 5.21 statistical software. Results revealed that greater student ethnic diversity and perceived discrimination, but not teacher ethnic diversity, resulted in higher initial delinquency estimates at 13 years of age for all groups. However, except for African Americans, having a greater proportion of female teachers in the school decreased initial delinquency estimates. For African Americans and whites, a larger school size also increased the initial estimates. Additionally, lower social-economic status increased the initial estimates for whites, and being born in the United States increased the initial estimates for Asians and Hispanics. Finally, regardless of the initial delinquency estimate at age 13 and the effect of the school variables, all groups eventually converged to extremely low delinquency in young adulthood, at the age of 21 years. Educators and public policy makers seeking to prevent and reduce delinquency can modify individual risks by modifying characteristics of the school environment. Policies that promote respect for diversity and intolerance toward discrimination, as well as training to help teachers recognize the precursors and signs of aggression and/or violence, may also facilitate a positive school environment, resulting in lower delinquency. Copyright © 2011 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The Relationship Between Demographic Factors and Prevalence of 10 Healthy Lifestyle Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmut Kilic

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Lifestyle preferences are closely associated with cardiovascular disease and all deaths. The aim of this study was to establish the relationship between demographic factors and prevalence of 10 healthy lifestyle behaviors (HLSB in adults. Material and Method: This is a cross-sectional study. The study was conducted on 1815 adults living in the central province of Yozgat, in 2011. The data was collected via questionnaire from, prepared by the researchers based on the literature, by filling through the interviewer. Data were analyzed by binary logistic regression analysis. Results: In adults, determination of 10 HLSBs were more common seen; not alcohol intake, within 2 years blood pressure measured, not smoking, within 5 years cholesterol, and within 3 years blood sugar measured ( 91.0, 78.2, 67.0, 56.9, 54.8% respectively, and the lowest rates were seen sufficient exercise, restraining salt and fat intake, adequate fruit and vegetable consumption, and have a normal body mass index (23.7, 26.4, 29.6, 30.0, 35.6% respectively. While 22.5% of the participants have three or fewer HLSBs, 20.8% had seven and above HLSBs. With any chronic disease ones, female, the age of older ones, high levels of education and economic ones have higher rates of HLSBs. Discussion: To health promotion, %u201Chealthy lifestyle behaviors%u201D should be followed by health personnel who working in family health centers, and it should be focused on this subject by the public spotlight, the health services of school and occupational as well as.

  14. Demographic, socioeconomic, and behavioral factors affecting patterns of tooth decay in the permanent dentition: principal components and factor analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, John R; Polk, Deborah E; Feingold, Eleanor; Wang, Xiaojing; Cuenco, Karen T; Weeks, Daniel E; DeSensi, Rebecca S; Weyant, Robert J; Crout, Richard; McNeil, Daniel W; Marazita, Mary L

    2013-08-01

    Dental caries of the permanent dentition is a multifactorial disease resulting from the complex interplay of endogenous and environmental risk factors. The disease is not easily quantitated due to the innumerable possible combinations of carious lesions across individual tooth surfaces of the permanent dentition. Global measures of decay, such as the DMFS index (which was developed for surveillance applications), may not be optimal for studying the epidemiology of dental caries because they ignore the distinct patterns of decay across the dentition. We hypothesize that specific risk factors may manifest their effects on specific tooth surfaces leading to patterns of decay that can be identified and studied. In this study, we utilized two statistical methods of extracting patterns of decay from surface-level caries data to create novel phenotypes with which to study the risk factors affecting dental caries. Intra-oral dental examinations were performed on 1068 participants aged 18-75 years to assess dental caries. The 128 tooth surfaces of the permanent dentition were scored as carious or not and used as input for principal components analysis (PCA) and factor analysis (FA), two methods of identifying underlying patterns without a priori knowledge of the patterns. Demographic (age, sex, birth year, race/ethnicity, and educational attainment), anthropometric (height, body mass index, waist circumference), endogenous (saliva flow), and environmental (tooth brushing frequency, home water source, and home water fluoride) risk factors were tested for association with the caries patterns identified by PCA and FA, as well as DMFS, for comparison. The ten strongest patterns (i.e. those that explain the most variation in the data set) extracted by PCA and FA were considered. The three strongest patterns identified by PCA reflected (i) global extent of decay (i.e. comparable to DMFS index), (ii) pit and fissure surface caries and (iii) smooth surface caries, respectively. The

  15. Survey of independent inventors: An overview. [Includes information on demographics, gender, ethnicity, education, income, employment, areas of invention, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whalley, P.

    1992-01-01

    Independent inventors are important but little-researched members of the US technical community. The survey reported on here is the first in modern times to attempt to provide a profile of the US independent inventor that goes beyond a single geographical or organizational locale. The report that follows provides an overview of the demographics, practices and concerns of the modern US inventor as represented by the members of leading US inventor organizations. It is by no means comprehensive but seeks to be indicative of the issues raised in the survey each which will be dealt with more comprehensively in future publications.

  16. Socio-Demographic Factors Affecting Levels of Cultural and Non-Cultural Prejudice: Comparing Korean, Chinese, and Japanese College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hyun Sook; Jung, Sun Young; Lee, Jeeyon

    2017-01-01

    This study examined how socio-demographic factors related to the levels of cultural and non-cultural prejudice among college students from Korea, China, and Japan. We used data collected from the Asian Value Survey. The main findings are as follows. First, Chinese students showed the lowest levels of cultural and non-cultural prejudice. Second,…

  17. Effects of Demographic Characteristics, Educational Background, and Supporting Factors on ICT Readiness of Technical and Vocational Teachers in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alazzam, Abu-Obaideh; Bakar, Ab Rahim; Hamzah, Ramlah; Asimiran, S.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine ICT readiness and the effects of demographic characteristics, educational background, and support factors on the ICT readiness of technical and vocational teachers in Malaysia. The questionnaire was administered to 329 technical and vocational teachers who are teaching engineering subjects in Malaysian…

  18. Socio-Demographic and Practice-Oriented Factors Related to Proficiency in Problem Solving: A Lifelong Learning Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjardins, Richard; Ederer, Peer

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the relative importance of different socio-demographic and practice-oriented factors that are related to proficiency in problem solving in technology-rich environments (PSTREs) and by extension may be related to complex problem solving (CPS). The empirical analysis focuses on the proficiency measurements of PSTRE made…

  19. A model of gender prejudice, power, and discrimination: How hierarchy-enhancing factors predominate over hierarchy-attenuating factors

    OpenAIRE

    Kleinlogel, E. P.; Dietz, J.

    2015-01-01

    Gender inequalities remain an issue in our society and particularly in the workplace. Several factors can explain this gender difference in top-level managerial positions such as career ambitions but also biases against women. In our chapter, we propose a model explaining why gender inequalities and particularly discrimination against women is still present in our societies despite social norms and existing legislation on gender equality. To this purpose, we review research on discrimination ...

  20. Lipid-load in peripheral blood mononuclear cells: Impact of food-consumption, dietary-macronutrients, extracellular lipid availability and demographic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameer, Fatima; Munir, Rimsha; Usman, Hina; Rashid, Rida; Shahjahan, Muhammad; Hasnain, Shahida; Zaidi, Nousheen

    2017-04-01

    Lipid-load in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) has recently gained attention of the researchers working on nutritional regulation of metabolic health. Previous works have indicated that the metabolic circuitries in the circulating PBMCs are influenced by dietary-intake and macronutrient composition of diet. In the present work, we analyzed the impact of diet and dietary macronutrients on PBMCs' lipid-load. The overall analyses revealed that dietary carbohydrates and fats combinatorially induce triglyceride accumulation in PBMCs. On the other hand, dietary fats were shown to induce significant decrease in PBMCs' cholesterol-load. The effects of various demographic factors -including age, gender and body-weight- on PBMCs' lipid-load were also examined. Body-weight and age were both shown to affect PBMC's lipid-load. Our study fails to provide any direct association between extracellular lipid availability and cholesterol-load in both, freshly isolated and cultured PBMCs. The presented work significantly contributes to the current understanding of the impact of food-consumption, dietary macronutrients, extracellular lipid availability and demographic factors on lipid-load in PBMCs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  1. Association between socio-demographic, psychosocial, material and occupational factors and self-reported health among workers in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütte, Stefanie; Chastang, Jean-François; Parent-Thirion, Agnès; Vermeylen, Greet; Niedhammer, Isabelle

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the associations between socio-demographic, psychosocial, material and occupational factors and self-reported health (SRH) in the European working population. Another objective was to examine whether these associations varied according to occupation and country. This study was based on data from the European quality of life survey 2007 including 17,005 workers from 31 European countries. SRH was measured using a single item. Factors were classified into four different groups: socio-demographic, psychosocial, material and occupational factors. The associations between these factors and SRH were examined using multilevel logistic regression analyses including interaction tests. When all four groups of factors were studied together, age, occupation, urbanization level, origin, trust level, social exclusion, material deprivation, financial and neighbourhood problems, access to medical services, quality of public services, psychological job demands, job reward, work-life imbalance and dangerous/unhealthy working conditions were associated with poor SRH. Almost no differences were found in these associations according to occupation and country. Various factors were associated with poor SRH. This study gave a first European overview of the associations between socio-demographic, psychosocial, material and occupational factors and SRH in Europe and could provide better advice to policy-makers at a European level. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Socio-demographic factors influencing knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) regarding malaria in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashar, Kabirul; Al-Amin, H M; Reza, Md Selim; Islam, Muzahidul; Asaduzzaman; Ahmed, Touhid Uddin

    2012-12-18

    A clear understanding of the social and behavioral risk factors, and knowledge gaps, related to exposure to malaria are essential when developing guidelines and recommendations for more effective disease prevention in many malaria endemic areas of the world including Bangladesh and elsewhere in the South East Asia. To-date, the level of knowledge that human populations, residing in moderate to high malaria risk zones, have with respect to the basic pathogen transmission dynamics, risk factors for malaria or disease preventative strategies, has not been assessed in Bangladesh. The purpose of this study was to address this gap by conducting surveys of the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of people, from variable socio-demographic backgrounds, residing in selected rural malaria endemic areas in Bangladesh. The KAP survey was conducted in portions of six different malaria endemic districts in Bangladesh from July to October 2011. The survey consisted of interviewing residence of these malaria endemic districts using a structured questionnaire and interviewers also completed observational checklists at each household where people were interviewed. The study area was further divided into two zones (1 and 2) based on differences in the physical geography and level of malaria endemicity in the two zones. Data from the questionnaires and observational checklists were analysised using Statistical Package for Social Sciences 16.0 (SPSS, Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). A total of 468 individuals from individual households were interviewed, and most respondents were female. Monthly incomes varied within and among the zones. It was found that 46.4% and 41% of respondents' family had malaria within the past one year in zones 1 and 2, respectively. Nearly 86% of the respondents did not know the exact cause of malaria or the role of Anopheles mosquitoes in the pathogen's transmission. Knowledge on malaria transmission and symptoms of the respondents of zones 1 and 2 were

  3. Role of disease and demographic factors as determinants of return migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handlos, Line Neerup; Petersen, Jorgen Holm; Bygbjerg, Ib Christian

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: A number of aspects of the health status of migrants who return to their country of origin have been explored in the literature; however, a more general description of the incidence of disease and demographic characteristics is lacking. The aim of this research was to contribute such a desc......AIMS: A number of aspects of the health status of migrants who return to their country of origin have been explored in the literature; however, a more general description of the incidence of disease and demographic characteristics is lacking. The aim of this research was to contribute...

  4. Examining the Impact of Gender on the Factor Structure of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory--Revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anestis, Joye C.; Caron, Kelly M.; Carbonell, Joyce L.

    2011-01-01

    Research on the factor structure of psychopathy has yielded mixed results, supporting anywhere from one to three factors. Additionally, most of this research has used all-male samples, and the possibility of structural invariance across gender has not been examined. Using a mixed-gender sample of 360 undergraduates, the factor structure of the…

  5. The influence of social factors on gender health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Male births exceed female births by 5-6% (for a sex ratio at birth of 1.05-1.06) while a women's life expectancy, on a global scale, is about 6 years longer. Thus within various age groups the male:female ratio changes over time. Until age 50 years men outnumber women; thereafter their numbers show a sharp decline. Consequently at age 80 years, there are many more women than men. An estimated 25% of this male excess mortality is due to biological causes, the rest being explained by behavioural, cultural and environmental factors. For both women and men, the main health risks related to lifestyle are smoking, alcohol, unhealthy diet and physical inactivity. In the year 2010, overweight (BMI: 25-29 kg/m(2)) and obesity (BMI: >30 kg/m(2)) were responsible for over 3 million deaths, with similar relative risks in men and women for overweight and obesity. Smoking and alcohol are the major causes of the global gender gap in mortality. For women in some parts of the world however pregnancy is also hazardous. On a global scale, in 2013 about 300 000 deaths were related to pregnancy, with sub-Saharan Africa registering the highest maternal mortality: over 500 maternal deaths per 100 000 births. Additional woman's health risks arise from gender discrimination, including sex-selective abortion, violence against women and early child marriage. Providers should be aware of the effect that these risks can have on both reproductive and general health. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. The analysis of chosen economic and demographic factors which affect Czech health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Kotrba

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Mission of the health care institutions is very different from the other organizations – healing illnesses and restore health of patients. The basic aim of this paper is to identify and describe selected factors of external environment based on the analysis and extrapolation of public economic and demographical data from the database of Czech statistical office, Institute for health information and statistic in the Czech Republic, OECD and database of European Commission which will have very significant influence for function of Czech health care system up to the 2050. People in the Czech Republic will be one of the oldest in the second part of the 21st century. This fact will be connected with higher expenses for health care with the consequences of numerous groups of older people. With the middle length of life is 74 years old by man and 80 years old by woman. There were 20 % of people over 60 years old in Czech population in 2005 and we can expect 37 % of these people in 2050. Future estimation assume grow of healthcare expenses from the present 6.0 % HDP in the 2007 to 7.6 % in the 2037 and 8.4 % in the 2060. The ratio of private expenses in the Czech healthcare system isn’t big; it oscillates around 10 % of total expenses. The ratio of public expenses is still running down in the long time and doesn’t reach the level of the other neighbouring states in the EU. Ageing of the population is connected with the total healthcare expenses per person growth as well; the expenses are very different according to the age of a person and are growing up with the age. The most significant growth can be seen from the age of fifty years. It was higher by 3.8 years of life for women and by 5.17 years for men if we compare years 1992 and 2007. The birth rate isn’t sufficient for reproduction of population; Czech population will decrease. There will be lower total number of economically active people according to the assumptions of

  7. Understanding low fertility in Poland: Demographic consequences of gendered discrimination in employment and post-socialist neoliberal restructuring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Z. Mishtal

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available After the state socialist regime of Poland collapsed in 1989, the nation's total fertility rate plummeted from 2.1 to 1.27 by 2007. Simultaneously, Poland severely reduced social service provisions and restricted access to family planning. A three-month mixed-methods research study was conducted in 2007 in Gdansk to investigate Polish women's reproductive intentions and decision making. These data reveal that discriminatory practices by employers against pregnant women and women with small children are decisive in women's decisions to postpone or forego childbearing. The case of Poland demonstrates the urgent need to redress fundamental gendered discrimination in employment before work-family reconciliation policies can be effective.

  8. Dancing with Demographers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Heather-Jane

    2000-01-01

    Demographic projections concerning the shortage of teachers in Canada, their pay scale, the feminization of teaching, the gender gap in salaries, and teacher autonomy have often been incorrect, or correct for the wrong reasons. Instead of relying on demographic predictions, teachers should contemplate who they really want to be professionally,…

  9. Child, Maternal and Demographic Factors Influencing Caregiver-Reported Autistic Trait Symptomatology in Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, D. A.; Gan, D.; Kung, J.; Baron-Cohen, S.; Allison, C.; Chen, H.; Saw, S. M.; Chong, Y. S.; Rajadurai, V. S.; Tan, K. H.; Shek, P. C. L.; Yap, F.; Broekman, B. F. P.; Magiati, I.

    2018-01-01

    Current research on children's autistic traits in the general population relies predominantly on caregiver-report, yet the extent to which individual, caregiver or demographic characteristics are associated with informants' ratings has not been sufficiently explored. In this study, caregivers of 396 Singaporean two-year-olds from a birth cohort…

  10. Wilderness and primitive area recreation participation and consumption: an examination of demographic and spatial factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Michael Bowker; D. Murphy; H. Ken Cordell; Donald B.K. English; J.C. Bergstrom; C.M. Starbuck; C.J. Betz; G.T. Green

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the influence of demographic and spatial variables on individual participation and consumption of wildland area recreation. Data from the National Survey on Recreation and the Environment are combined with geographical information systembased distance measures to develop nonlinear regression models used to predict both participation and the number...

  11. Impact of Demographic, Socioeconomic and Psychological Factors on Glycemic Self-Management in Adults with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Alicia Gonzalez Zacarias

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes Mellitus (DM is reported as one of the most complex chronic diseases worldwide. In the United States, Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM is the seventh leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Individuals with diabetes require lifelong personal care to reduce the possibility of developing long-term complications. A good knowledge of diabetes risk factors, including obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, family history of DM, and sedentary lifestyle, play an essential role in prevention and treatment. Also, socio-demographic, economic, psychological, and environmental factors are directly and indirectly associated with diabetes control and health outcomes. Our review intends to analyze the interaction between demographics, knowledge, environment, and other diabetes-related factors based on an extended literature search, and to provide insight for improving glycemic control and reducing the incidence of chronic complications.

  12. Does food group consumption vary by differences in socioeconomic, demographic, and lifestyle factors in young adults? The Bogalusa Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh-Taskar, Priya; Nicklas, Theresa A; Yang, Su-Jau; Berenson, Gerald S

    2007-02-01

    To examine if food group consumption varies by differences in socioeconomic, demographic, and lifestyle factors in young adults from a semirural setting in Louisiana. Cross-sectional. Young adults (n=1,266, 74% European American, 26% African American; 39% men, 61% women) aged 20 to 38 years, enrolled in the Bogalusa Heart Study. Food group consumption was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire. Socioeconomic (eg, income and education), demographic (eg, age, sex, and ethnicity), and lifestyle (eg, marital status and physical activity) information was obtained by a self-administered questionnaire and the subjects were stratified according to these groups. Analysis of covariance (adjusted for covariates) was used to detect differences in the mean servings of food groups consumed per day between the various socioeconomic, demographic, and lifestyle groups. Compared to income$45,000 had lower consumption of burgers/sandwiches (Pconsumption of mixed dishes (P12 years of education. European-American men consumed more servings of dairy products (Pfood group consumption varies by socioeconomic, demographic, and lifestyle factors in young adults from a semirural setting. Food and nutrition professionals who encounter diverse populations need to consider the influence of income, education, sex, ethnicity, marital status, and physical activity on food consumption patterns when planning diets, nutrition education programs, and interventions for young adults.

  13. Factor Structure of a Multidimensional Gender Identity Scale in a Sample of Chinese Elementary School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Yu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the factor structure of a scale based on the four-dimensional gender identity model (Egan and Perry, 2001 in 726 Chinese elementary school students. Exploratory factor analyses suggested a three-factor model, two of which corresponded to “Felt Pressure” and “Intergroup Bias” in the original model. The third factorGender Compatibility” appeared to be a combination of “Gender Typicality” and “Gender Contentment” in the original model. Follow-up confirmatory factor analysis (CFA indicated that, relative to the initial four-factor structure, the three-factor model fits the current Chinese sample better. These results are discussed in light of cross-cultural similarities and differences in development of gender identity.

  14. Specific demographic factors could predict deceased potential cornea donors: A retrospective study from Beijing Tongren Hospital Eye Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Zhang, Yingnan; Zhang, Jing; Yu, Jin; Liang, Qingfeng; Pan, Zhiqiang

    2017-12-01

    Compared with evident cornea donors (ECDs), deceased potential cornea donors (DPCDs) have no obvious donor identifications to reference, which causes many eligible cornea tissues to be wasted. The demographic characteristics of DPCDs might be different from those of ECDs owing to the following different features: donation consent provided by relatives and willingness to donate before death. Thus, the aim of this study is to reveal the demographic characteristics of DPCDs by comparing DPCDs and ECDs.The demographic factors of 138 donors (both DPCDs and ECDs) were collected from the Beijing Tongren Hospital Eye Bank database and analyzed. To differentiate DPCDs from ECDs using the above-mentioned features, we interviewed the relatives of the donors by telephone. The relatives' attitudes toward cornea donation and their suggestions for our donation service were also acquired during the interview. Two logistic regressions were performed to reveal the demographic factors influencing the 2 features and indicate DPCDs.The donors had certain demographic characteristics (elderly, secondary, or tertiary education level, central district resident), and the most frequent cause of death for the donors was a malignant tumor (n = 56, 43.1%). All the relatives had positive attitudes toward cornea donations, and they hoped to increase publicity efforts to encourage more people to donate and establish more convenient and efficient access for cornea donation. In univariate regressions, age (P = .004, >50 years: odds ratio [OR] = 6.89, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.82-26.05), marital status (P = .043, divorced: OR = 9.00,95% CI: 1.33-60.80) significantly influenced relative consent, whereas age (P = .001, >50 years: OR = 15.00, 95% CI: 3.00-74.98), and family address (P = .001, central district: OR = 1) were significant factors influencing the willingness to donate before death. In multivariate regression, age (P = .021, >50 years: OR = 8

  15. The correlation between effective factors of e-learning and demographic variables in a post-graduate program of virtual medical education in Tehran University of Medical Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golband, Farnoosh; Hosseini, Agha Fatemeh; Mojtahedzadeh, Rita; Mirhosseini, Fakhrossadat; Bigdeli, Shoaleh

    2014-01-01

    E-learning as an educational approach has been adopted by diverse educational and academic centers worldwide as it facilitates learning in facing the challenges of the new era in education. Considering the significance of virtual education and its growing practice, it is of vital importance to examine its components for promoting and maintaining success. This analytical cross-sectional study was an attempt to determine the relationship between four factors of content, educator, learner and system, and effective e-learning in terms of demographic variables, including age, gender, educational background, and marital status of postgraduate master's students (MSc) studying at virtual faculty of Tehran University of Medical Sciences. The sample was selected by census (n=60); a demographic data gathering tool and a researcher-made questionnaire were used to collect data. The face and content validity of both tools were confirmed and the results were analyzed by descriptive statistics (frequency, percentile, standard deviation and mean) and inferential statistics (independent t-test, Scheffe's test, one-way ANOVA and Pearson correlation test) by using SPSS (V.16). The present study revealed that There was no statistically significant relationship between age and marital status and effective e-learning (P>0.05); whereas, there was a statistically significant difference between gender and educational background with effective e-learning (Pe-learning can help managers and designers to make the right decisions about educational components of e-learning, i.e. content, educator, system and learner and improve them to create a more productive learning environment for learners.

  16. Characterization of salt consumption among hypertensives according to socio-demographic and clinical factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Sia Perin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the relationship between the behaviors of salt consumption and socio-demographic and clinical variables. METHOD: sodium consumption was evaluated using the methods: self-reporting (considering 3 different behaviors related to salt consumption, 24- hr dietary recall, discretionary salt, food frequency questionnaire, estimation of total sodium intake and 24-hr urinary excretion of sodium (n=108. RESULTS: elevated salt intake according to the different measurements of consumption of the nutrient was associated with the variables: male sex, low level of schooling and monthly income, being Caucasian, and being professionally inactive; and with the clinical variables: elevated Body Mass Index, tensional levels, ventricular hypertrophy and the number of medications used. CONCLUSION: the data obtained shows a heterogenous association between the different behaviors related to salt consumption and the socio-demographic and clinical variables. This data can be used to optimize the directing of educational activities with a view to reducing salt consumption among hypertensives.

  17. Gender Difference as a Factor in Teachers' Perceptions of Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prawat, Richard S.; Jarvis, Robert

    1980-01-01

    Teacher perceptions of students as influenced by differences in student gender are examined. Elementary school teachers' perceptions of students were assessed by their rating children in their classes on various dimensions. Results showed student ability/achievement are more potent in teacher perceptions than gender. (Author/GK)

  18. The Effect of Demographic, Economic, and Nutrition Factors on the Frequency of Food Away from Home

    OpenAIRE

    Binkley, James K.

    2005-01-01

    Food away from home, especially fast food, is often cited as contributing to rising obesity. This negative publicity can affect the demand for restaurant meals. In this study econometric models explaining visits to table service and fast food restaurants are estimated. The explanatory variables include not only standard demographic and economic measures but also measures of nutrition knowledge, attitudes, and concerns. Effects for the former are similar to those found in past studies. For nut...

  19. Demographic factors associated with knowledge of colorectal cancer symptoms in a UK population-based survey.

    OpenAIRE

    Yardley, C.; Glover, C.; Allen-Mersh, T. G.

    2000-01-01

    Greater public awareness of colorectal cancer symptoms might result in earlier presentation with improved cure by available treatments, but little is known about the extent of public knowledge of colorectal cancer symptoms. We asked a sample of the general population about knowledge of colorectal cancer symptoms and assessed demographic characteristics associated with differences in knowledge. A population-based telephone enquiry into knowledge of colorectal cancer-associated symptoms was con...

  20. Socio-demographic and Lifestyle Factors in Breastfeeding Mothers, Referring to Isfahan Health Centers

    OpenAIRE

    Zahra Sohrabi; Fatemeh Momenzadeh; Seyedeh Zahra Aemmi; Malihe Tabibi; Zahra Musavi; Mitra Savabi

    2016-01-01

    Background The feeding importance of child in first two years of life and mental damage caused by malnutrition during this period is obvious. However the mother's lifestyle and long-term effects on the health of the mother and infant during breastfeeding period should not be neglected. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the relationship between the demographic characteristics and lifestyle of breastfeeding mothers referring to health centers in Isfahan. Materials and Methods In this cro...

  1. The forest and the trees: Industrialization, demographic change, and the ongoing gender revolution in Sweden and the United States, 1870-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Stanfors

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The separate spheres, in which men dominate the public sphere of politics, arts, media, and wage work and women dominate the private sphere of unpaid production and caring, is a powerful configuration in much social theory (including Parsons, Becker, and Goode, which posited that with industrialization, family structures and activities would converge towards the nuclear family with strict gender roles. Objective: This paper examines the major trends unraveling the gender division of family support and care that reached its peak in the mid-20th century, often called the 'worker-carer' or the 'separate spheres' model, by comparing the experiences of Sweden and the United States. Methods: We use data that includes time series of macro-level demographic and economic indicators, together with cross-sectional data from censuses and time use surveys. Results: The unraveling of the separate spheres began with the increase in the labor force participation of married women and continues with the increase in men's involvement with their homes and children, but its foundations were laid in the 19th century, with industrialization. We show that despite short-term stalls, slowdowns, and even reverses, as well as huge differences in policy contexts, the overall picture of increasing gender sharing in family support and care is strongly taking shape in both countries. Contribution: By doing a comparative, in-depth analysis, it becomes clear that the extreme role specialization within the couple that divided caring from 'work,' though theoretically important, applied only for a limited period in Northern Europe and the United States, however important it might be in other regions.

  2. Socio-Demographic Factors, Social Support, Quality of Life, and HIV/AIDS in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrefa-Gyan, Tina; Cornelius, Llewellyn J; Okundaye, Joshua

    2016-01-01

    The increase in the access to biomedical interventions for people living with HIV/AIDS in the developing world has not been adequately matched with the requisite psychosocial treatments to help improve the effectiveness of biomedical interventions. Therefore, in this study the author seeks to determine whether socio-demographic characteristics and social support are associated with quality of life in individuals diagnosed with HIV/AIDS in Ghana. A convenience sample of 300 HIV/AIDS support group members was obtained via cross-sectional design survey. The Medical Outcome Studies (MOS) HIV Health Survey, the MOS Social Support Survey (MOS-SSS), and demographic questionnaire instruments were used to assess quality of life, social support, and demographic information respectively. Multiple regression analysis showed that there was a positive association between overall social support and overall quality of life (r = .51). It also showed that being younger, male, attending support group meetings for over a year, and having ≥ 13 years of schooling related to higher quality of life. Implications of the findings for practice, policy, and research in Ghana and the rest of the developing world are discussed.

  3. [Socioeconomic, demographic, nutritional, and physical activity factors in the glycemic control of adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Rosana de Morais Borges; Fornés, Nélida Schmid; Stringhini, Maria Luiza Ferreira

    2011-04-01

    To identify the association of socioeconomic, demographic, nutritional and of physical activity factors in the glycemic control of adolescents with T1DM. Sectional study of 71 adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Socioeconomic, demographic and anthropometric data were obtained. The glycemic control was classified by the index of glycated hemoglobin (A1C). Four 24-hours recalls of food consumption and physical activity were applied. The A1C was inadequate for the majority of the adolescents. The low educational level of the caregivers influenced the inadequate glycemic control. Patients with lower insulin dose presented better glycemic control. The food consumption was high of fat and poor of carbohydrate. Most of the patients were sedentary. Factors related to education, insulin and food consumption influenced the glycemic control.

  4. Trends in contraceptive use and distribution of births with demographic risk factors in Ethiopia: a sub-national analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Shiferaw, Solomon; Abdullah, Muna; Mekonnen, Yared; Ma?ga, Abdoulaye; Akinyemi, Akanni; Amouzou, Agbessi; Friedman, Howard; Barros, Aluisio J. D.; Hounton, Sennen

    2015-01-01

    Background: Evidence shows that family planning contributes to the decline in child mortality by decreasing the proportions of births that are considered high risk. The main objective of the present analysis was to examine the trends in use of modern contraceptives and their relationship with total fertility rate (TFR) and distribution of births by demographic risk factors as defined by mother’s age, birth interval, and birth order at the sub-national level in Ethiopia.Design: Analyses used d...

  5. Dietary BCAA Intake Is Associated with Demographic, Socioeconomic and Lifestyle Factors in Residents of São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallottini, Ana Carolina; Sales, Cristiane Hermes; Vieira, Diva Aliete Dos Santos; Marchioni, Dirce Maria; Fisberg, Regina Mara

    2017-05-02

    Identifying which risk groups have a higher intake of branched chain amino acids (BCAA) is important for the planning of public policies. This study was undertaken to investigate BCAA consumption, the foods contributing to that consumption and their association with demographic, socioeconomic and lifestyle factors. Data from the Health Survey of São Paulo, a cross-sectional population-based survey ( n = 1662; age range 12-97 years), were used. Dietary intake was measured using 24-h dietary recalls. Baseline characteristics were collected. Associations between BCAA intake and demographic, socioeconomic and lifestyle factors were determined using linear regression. Total BCAA intake was 217.14 mg/kg·day (Leu: 97.16 mg/kg·day; Ile: 56.44 mg/kg·day; Val: 63.54 mg/kg·day). BCAA intake was negatively associated with female sex in adolescents and adult groups, with no white race in adolescents, and with former smoker status in adults. Conversely, BCAA was positively associated with household per capita income in adolescents and adults. No associations were observed in the older adults group. Main food contributors to BCAA were unprocessed red meat, unprocessed poultry, bread and toast, beans and rice. Adolescents and adults were the most vulnerable to having their BCCA intake influenced by demographic, socioeconomic and lifestyle factors.

  6. Dietary BCAA Intake Is Associated with Demographic, Socioeconomic and Lifestyle Factors in Residents of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Pallottini

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Identifying which risk groups have a higher intake of branched chain amino acids (BCAA is important for the planning of public policies. This study was undertaken to investigate BCAA consumption, the foods contributing to that consumption and their association with demographic, socioeconomic and lifestyle factors. Methods: Data from the Health Survey of São Paulo, a cross-sectional population-based survey (n = 1662; age range 12–97 years, were used. Dietary intake was measured using 24-h dietary recalls. Baseline characteristics were collected. Associations between BCAA intake and demographic, socioeconomic and lifestyle factors were determined using linear regression. Results: Total BCAA intake was 217.14 mg/kg·day (Leu: 97.16 mg/kg·day; Ile: 56.44 mg/kg·day; Val: 63.54 mg/kg·day. BCAA intake was negatively associated with female sex in adolescents and adult groups, with no white race in adolescents, and with former smoker status in adults. Conversely, BCAA was positively associated with household per capita income in adolescents and adults. No associations were observed in the older adults group. Main food contributors to BCAA were unprocessed red meat, unprocessed poultry, bread and toast, beans and rice. Conclusions: Adolescents and adults were the most vulnerable to having their BCCA intake influenced by demographic, socioeconomic and lifestyle factors.

  7. The gendered effects of foreign investment and prolonged state ownership on mortality in Hungary: an indirect demographic, retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheiring, Gábor; Stefler, Dénes; Irdam, Darja; Fazekas, Mihaly; Azarova, Aytalina; Kolesnikova, Irina; Köllő, János; Popov, Vladimir; Szelenyi, Ivan; Marmot, Michael; Murphy, Michael; McKee, Martin; Bobak, Martin; King, Lawrence

    2018-01-01

    Research on the health outcomes of globalisation and economic transition has yielded conflicting results, partly due to methodological and data limitations. Specifically, the outcomes of changes in foreign investment and state ownership need to be examined using multilevel data, linking macro-effects and micro-effects. We exploited the natural experiment offered by the Hungarian economic transition by means of a multilevel study designed to address these gaps in the scientific literature. For this indirect demographic, retrospective cohort study, we collected multilevel data related to Hungary between 1995 and 2004 from the PrivMort database and other sources at the town, company, and individual level to assess the relation between the dominant company ownership of a town and mortality. We grouped towns into three ownership categories: dominant state, domestic private, and foreign ownership. We did population surveys in these towns to collect data on vital status and other characteristics of survey respondents' relatives. We assessed the relation between dominant ownership and mortality at the individual level. We used discrete-time survival modelling, adjusting for town-level and individual-level confounders, with clustered SEs. Of 83 eligible towns identified, we randomly selected 52 for inclusion in the analysis and analysed ownership data from 262 companies within these towns. Additionally, between June 16, 2014, and Dec 22, 2014, we collected data on 78 622 individuals from the 52 towns, of whom 27 694 were considered eligible. After multivariable adjustment, we found that women living in towns with prolonged state ownership had significantly lower odds of dying than women living in towns dominated by domestic private ownership (odds ratio [OR] 0·74, 95% CI 0·61-0·90) or by foreign investment (OR 0·80, 0·69-0·92). Prolonged state ownership was associated with protection of life chances during the post-socialist transformation for women. The indirect

  8. Dietary Risk Factors by Race/Ethnicity, Age-Group, and Gender in a Representative Sample of US Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccaro, J A; Huffman, F G

    2017-01-01

    To explore the relationships among ethnicity/race, gender, demographics, age-group and dietary health in a nationally representative sample of older adults. Cross-sectional study. Data for this study were collected by interview in the mobile examination centers from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 2011 - 2012. U.S. representative sample of adults aged 55 years and older (N = 1860) from five ethnic/racial groups. All participants read, understood, and signed informed consent forms under data collection procedures by trained individuals. Sociodemographics were collected by trained interviewers using a general questionnaire. Food groups were determined by 24-hour recall using the validated USDA Automated Multiple-Pass Method. Data were presented by cross-tabulation and logistic regression to investigate relationships among race/ethnicity, gender, and age groups. Over 70% of older adults failed to consume 2.75 cups of combined fruits and vegetables. Other Hispanics (Hispanics excluding Mexican Americans) had higher Odds of sugar-containing food consumption compared to non-Hispanic Whites (adjusted model). Being older and female were protective factors for over-consumption of sugar. Older Americans are not meeting dietary guidelines and there are differences by gender and ethnicity. Since diet has been associated with quality of life and medical costs, public health interventions can benefit by knowing age-, gender- and racial/ethnic- specific dietary behaviors.

  9. Situational and Demographic Factors in the Sudden Growth of Pall Mall, 2002-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Anushree; Fix, Brian V; Delnevo, Cristine D; Cummings, K Michael; O'Connor, Richard J

    2018-05-03

    Pall Mall gained significant brand share in the cigarette market between 2002 and 2013. We sought to determine whether demographic shifts occurred among the participants reporting Pall Mall as their usual brand during this time span. We examined National Survey of Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) data from 2002-2014. Demographic characteristics included age, education, ethnicity, income, and cigarette use (cigarettes per day, daily/non-daily smoking, and nicotine dependence). We also examined RJ Reynolds investor reports and shareholder documents to determine the impact of tobacco marketing on the growth of Pall Mall. Over 2002-2014, Pall Mall has gained among smokers 26 to 34 years of age. More Pall Mall smokers in 2014 report higher incomes (over $75000), and also report lower scores on measures of cigarette dependence, compared to 2002. Pall Mall smokers over time seem to share characteristics of premium cigarette brands smokers. The profile of the typical Pall Mall smoker has changed as the brand has gained market share. An association exists between brand positioning and economic forces, which has contributed to an increase in the market share for Pall Mall. It is well known that cigarette marketing drives the sale of tobacco products. The growth in the market share of Pall Mall serves as an excellent example to demonstrate how economic uncertainty paired with brand positioning and advertising worked together to serve as a catalyst for the rapid growth observed for this brand. This paper also looked at various demographic changes that occurred among Pall Mall smokers over a 12 year period and compared them to smokers of all other cigarette brands. The results of this analysis demonstrate the importance of monitoring trends over time among cigarette smokers.

  10. School District Personnel Selection Practices: Exploring the Effects of Demographic Factors on Rural Values within a Person-Organization Fit Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Paula S.; Miller, Stephen K.

    A study examined the extent to which demographic factors predict rural values in Kentucky public school district hiring officials. Among the demographic factors considered were school district metropolitan classification, school district size, community racial composition, decision makers' position in the organizational hierarchy, and decision…

  11. 287 Factors That Promote Gender Imbalance in the Teaching of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    good working environment to teachers and equip the laboratories for effective ... Ibibio women at the early part of this century scarcely had access to education yet .... is still gender disparity in enrolment, performance and completion of science.

  12. Gender analysis of factors affecting facilitation of agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It ascertained the perception of the gender groups on the organizational, job related and ... and ensure balanced working conditions for both men and women facilitators in the NFDP III. This will help to ultimately improve their job performance.

  13. Teachers' Attitude and Gender Factor as Determinant of Pupils ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    Abstract. Teachers are regarded as the basic tools in education and curriculum .... The analysis in table 1 showed that teachers' attitude have significant effect ... Iroegbu, T.O (1998) Problem based learning, numerical ability and gender as.

  14. Assessing economic and demographic factors that influence United States dairy demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, C G; Yen, S T; Dong, D; Blayney, D P

    2011-07-01

    Low-fat dairy products are key components of a healthy diet for all Americans. As the USDA increases its focus on nutrition and healthy eating, it is important to understand the underlying demands for dairy products, both the healthy and the less healthy ones. The consumption of fluid milk products has decreased over the last decade, whereas milk used for manufactured dairy products such as cheese, ice cream, yogurt, and butter, and for use as an ingredient in other food products, has risen. The objective of this study is to determine the effects of changes in demographic variables, retail prices, and total dairy expenditure on at-home consumption of dairy products, using purchase data from Nielsen 2007 Homescan (ACNielsen, New York, NY) data. To derive the demand elasticities for 16 products, a censored Almost Ideal Demand System model is used. Results reveal that demographic variables do have effects on the purchase of the 16 products, and own-price elasticities are 1 or greater for all 16 products for both uncompensated and compensated elasticities except 4: ice cream, refrigerated yogurt, processed cheese, and margarine. A substitution relationship exists among all fluid milk categories, natural and processed cheese, low-fat ice cream, and refrigerated yogurt, butter, and margarine. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Socio-demographic and Lifestyle Factors in Breastfeeding Mothers, Referring to Isfahan Health Centers

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    Zahra Sohrabi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background The feeding importance of child in first two years of life and mental damage caused by malnutrition during this period is obvious. However the mother's lifestyle and long-term effects on the health of the mother and infant during breastfeeding period should not be neglected. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the relationship between the demographic characteristics and lifestyle of breastfeeding mothers referring to health centers in Isfahan. Materials and Methods In this cross-sectional study, 190 breastfeeding mothers were selected by quota sampling from Isfahan-Iran. Demographic and lifestyle questionnaires were completed. Data were analyzed by descriptive and analytical statistical methods using of SPSS-16. Results The majority of mothers (88.9% in breast feeding period have an appropriate lifestyle. The most favorable conditions among different aspects of lifestyle related to spiritual health and the most unfavorable is related to sports and fitness. There was a direct and significant relationship between mother's education and prevention of accidents (r=0.34, P

  16. Consumption of healthy foods and associated socio-demographic factors among Russian, Somali and Kurdish immigrants in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebayo, Folasade A; Itkonen, Suvi T; Koponen, Päivikki; Prättälä, Ritva; Härkänen, Tommi; Lamberg-Allardt, Christel; Erkkola, Maijaliisa

    2017-05-01

    We evaluated the consumption of healthy foods among Russian, Somali and Kurdish immigrants in Finland, and examined the relationship between socio-demographic factors and food consumption. We used data from the Migrant Health and Wellbeing Study (Maamu), a population-based health interview and examination survey in six different municipalities in Finland between 2010 and 2012. Altogether, 635 men and 737 women, aged 18-64 years, of Russian ( n = 527), Somali ( n = 337) and Kurdish ( n = 508) origin were included. The important socio-demographic determinants of healthy food consumption - sex, age, education, place of residence and household size - were assessed by logistic regression. Based on the consumption frequencies of recommended healthy foods - fruits, berries, vegetables, fish and rye bread - immigrants of Russian origin had higher consumption of healthy foods than their peers of Kurdish and Somali origin. Low consumption of fresh vegetables, fruits and berries was found among Somali immigrants. Sex and age were the most important determinants of healthy food consumption, as women and older age groups had diets closer to the national nutrition recommendations. High educational level was also positively associated with healthy food consumption. We found ethnic differences in the consumption of healthy foods among the immigrant groups of Russian, Somali and Kurdish origin in Finland. Socio-demographic factors, especially age, sex and education, seem to also play an important role in immigrants' food consumption. Further studies examining the consumption of fruits, berries and fresh vegetables among Somali immigrants in Finland are needed.

  17. The Role of Defense Mechanisms, Personality and Demographical Factors on Complicated Grief following Death of a loved one by Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Rahimian-Boogar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Identification of the risk factors and psychological correlates of prolonged grief disorder is vital for health promotions in relatives of persons who died of cancer. The aim of this research was to investigate the role of defense mechanisms, character dimension of personality and demographic factors on complicated grief following a loss of a family member to cancer .Method: A number of 226 persons who had lost a family member to cancer in a cancer institute at Tehran University of Medical Science were selected through compliance sampling and completed the Inventory of complicated Grief-Revised (ICG-R, the Defense Styles Questionnaire (DSQ, the Character dimension of Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI, and the Demographical questionnaire. Data were analyzed by stepwise multiple regression analysis, using the PASW version 18 .Results: Findings revealed that neurotic defense style had a significant positive predictive role in the complicated grief; and cooperativeness, age of the deceased person, self-transcendence and mature defense style had a significant negative predictive role in complicated grief (p<0.001. R2 was 0.73 for the final model (p<.001.Conclusion: The results revealed that two character dimensions (low cooperativeness and self-transcendence, high neurotic defense style and young age of the deceased person were involved in the psychopathological course of the complicated and prolonged grief. It was concluded that personality characteristics of the grieving persons and demographics of the deceased person should be addressed in designing tailored interventions for complicated grief.

  18. An examination of bullying in georgia schools: demographic and school climate factors associated with willingness to intervene in bullying situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldammer, Lori; Swahn, Monica H; Strasser, Sheryl M; Ashby, Jeffrey S; Meyers, Joel

    2013-08-01

    Research dedicated to identification of precursors to cases of aggravated bullying in schools has led to enhanced knowledge of risk factors for both victimization and perpetration. However, characteristics among those who are more likely to intervene in such situations are less understood. The purpose of this study is to examine the associations between demographic characteristics, school climate and psychosocial factors, and willingness to intervene in a bullying situation among middle and high school students in Georgia. We computed analyses using cross-sectional data from the Georgia Student Health Survey II (GSHS 2006) administered to public school students in grades 6, 8, 10, and 12 (n=175,311). We used logistic regression analyses to determine the demographic, school climate and psychosocial factors associated with a willingness to intervene in a bullying situation. Students who were white and who were girls were most likely to report willingness to intervene in bullying situations. Several school-climate factors, such as feeling safe at school, liking school, feeling successful at school and perceiving clear rules at school, were associated with willingness to intervene, while youth who reported binge drinking were less willing to intervene. These findings, while preliminary, indicate that girls, students who are white, and students who experience a relatively positive school climate and adaptive psychosocial factors are more likely to report that they would intervene in bullying situations. These findings may guide how bullying is addressed in schools and underscore the importance of safe school climates.

  19. Socio-demographic and clinical factors related to mortality among the geriatric suicide attempters admitted to the emergency department

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    Yılmaz Zengin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The ratio of elderly people in Turkey is rapidly growing. Accordingly, psychiatric problems and suicidality among elderly people are growing concerns. In this study, we aimed to investigate the socio-demographic characteristics of older people who attempted suicide by drug and to identify risk factors affecting mortality. Methods: Patients who were over 65 years old and admitted to the emergency department of a university hospital due to drug-related suicide attempt between January 1, 2004 and December 30, 2014, were included into this retrospective cross-sectional study. Relationship between suicide attempt and mortality was investigated in regard to socio-demographic and clinical factors. Patients were divided into two groups according to whether they survived or died. Results: Of the 107 patients included in the study, 68.2% were female and 31.8% were male; 34.6% were married. Common reasons for suicide attempt were depression (34.6% and domestic violence (30.8%. Analgesics (33.6% were the most common drugs used in suicide attempts. The analysis of the factors related to suicide attempt and mortality revealed that significant factors were loneliness, being widowed, being retired, having adjustment disorder and anxiety disorder. Conclusion: Loneliness, being widowed, being retired, adjustment disorder, and anxiety disorder were found as the risk factors affecting mortality in geriatric suicide attempts.

  20. Measuring Women's Empowerment in Sub-Saharan Africa: Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analyses of the Demographic and Health Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibitola O. Asaolu

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Women's status and empowerment influence health, nutrition, and socioeconomic status of women and their children. Despite its benefits, however, research on women's empowerment in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA is limited in scope and geography. Empowerment is variably defined and data for comparison across regions is often limited. The objective of the current study was to identify domains of empowerment from a widely available data source, Demographic and Health Surveys, across multiple regions in SSA.Methods: Demographic and Health Surveys from nineteen countries representing four African regions were used for the analysis. A total of 26 indicators across different dimensions (economic, socio-cultural, education, and health were used to characterize women's empowerment. Pooled data from all countries were randomly divided into two datasets—one for exploratory factor analysis (EFA and the other for Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA—to verify the factor structure hypothesized during EFA.Results: Four factors including attitudes toward violence, labor force participation, education, and access to healthcare were found to define women's empowerment in Central, Southern, and West Africa. However, in East Africa, only three factors were relevant: attitudes toward violence, access to healthcare ranking, and labor force participation. There was limited evidence to support household decision-making, life course, or legal status domains as components of women's empowerment.Conclusion: This foremost study advances scholarship on women's empowerment by providing a validated measure of women's empowerment for researchers and other stakeholders in health and development.

  1. A cross-sectional study of socio-demographic factors associated with patient access to primary care in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kert, Suzana; Švab, Igor; Sever, Maja; Makivić, Irena; Pavlič, Danica Rotar

    2015-04-21

    Primary care (PC) is the provision of universally accessible, integrated, person-centred, comprehensive health and community services. Professionals active in primary care teams include family physicians and general practitioners (FP/GPs). There is concern in Slovenia that the current economic crisis might change the nature of PC services. Access, one of the most basic requirements of general practice, is universal in Slovenia, which is one of the smallest European countries; under national law, compulsory health insurance is mandatory for its citizens. Our study examined access to PC in Slovenia during a time of economic crisis as experienced and perceived by patients between 2011 and 2012, and investigated socio-demographic factors affecting access to PC in Slovenia. Data were collected as a part of a larger international study entitled Quality and Costs of Primary Care in Europe (QUALICOPC) that took place during a period of eight months in 2011 and 2012. 219 general practices were included; in each, the aim was to evaluate 10 patients. Dependent variables covered five aspects of access to PC: communicational, cultural, financial, geographical and organizational. 15 socio-demographic factors were investigated as independent variables. Descriptive statistics, factor analysis and multilevel analysis were applied. There were 1,962 patients in the final sample, with a response rate of 89.6%. The factors with the most positive effect on access to PC were financial and cultural; the most negative effects were caused by organizational problems. Financial difficulties were not a significant socio-demographic factor. Greater frequency of visits improves patients' perception of communicational and cultural access. Deteriorating health conditions are expected to lower perceived geographical access. Patients born outside Slovenia perceived better organizational access than patients born in Slovenia. Universal medical insurance in Slovenia protects most patients from PC

  2. Home and Motivational Factors Related to Science-Career Pursuit: Gender differences and gender similarities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jongho; Lee, Hyunjoo; McCarthy-Donovan, Alexander; Hwang, Hyeyoung; Yim, Sonyoung; Seo, EunJin

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine whether gender differences exist in the mean levels of and relations between adolescents' home environments (parents' view of science, socio-economic status (SES)), motivations (intrinsic and instrumental motivations, self-beliefs), and pursuit of science careers. For the purpose, the Programmed for International Student Assessment 2006 data of Korean 15-year-old students were analysed. The results of the study showed that girls had lower levels of science intrinsic and instrumental motivations, self-beliefs, and science-career pursuit (SCP) as well as their parents' values in science less than boys. Gender similarities, rather than gender differences, existed in patterns of causal relationship among home environments, motivations, and SCP. The results showed positive effects for parents' higher value in science and SES on motivations, SCP, and for intrinsic and instrumental motivations on SCP for girls and boys. These results provide implications for educational interventions to decrease gender differences in science motivations and SCP, and to decrease adolescents' gender stereotypes.

  3. Does Depth Matter? Factors Affecting Choice of Vulvoplasty Over Vaginoplasty as Gender-Affirming Genital Surgery for Transgender Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, David; Witten, Jonathan; Berli, Jens; Dugi, Daniel

    2018-04-26

    Gender-affirming vaginoplasty aims to create the external female genitalia (vulva) as well as the internal vaginal canal; however, not all patients desire nor can safely undergo vaginal canal creation. Our objective is to describe the factors influencing patient choice or surgeon recommendation of vulvoplasty and to assess the patient's satisfaction with this choice. Gender-affirming genital surgery consults were reviewed from March 2015 until December 2017, and patients scheduled for or who had completed vulvoplasty were interviewed by telephone. We report demographic data and the reasons for choosing vulvoplasty as gender-affirming surgery for patients who either completed or were scheduled for surgery, in addition to patient reports of satisfaction with choice of surgery, satisfaction with the surgery itself, and sexual activity after surgery. In total, 486 patients were seen in consultation for trans-feminine gender-affirming genital surgery: 396 requested vaginoplasty and 39 patients requested vulvoplasty. 30 Patients either completed or are scheduled for vulvoplasty. Vulvoplasty patients were older and had higher body mass index than those seeking vaginoplasty. The majority (63%) of the patients seeking vulvoplasty chose this surgery despite no contra-indications to vaginoplasty. The remaining patients had risk factors leading the surgeon to recommend vulvoplasty. Of those who completed surgery, 93% were satisfied with the surgery and their decision for vulvoplasty. Vulvoplasty creates the external appearance of female genitalia without creation of a neovaginal canal; it is associated with high satisfaction and low decision regret. This is the first study of factors impacting a patient's choice of or a surgeon's recommendation for vulvoplasty over vaginoplasty as gender-affirming genital surgery; it also is the first reported series of patients undergoing vulvoplasty only. Limitations of this study include its retrospective nature, non-validated questions

  4. [Socioeconomic, cultural and demographic maternal factors associated with dietary patterns of infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotero, Andréa Marques; Cabral, Poliana Coelho; da Silva, Giselia Alves Pontes

    2015-12-01

    To analyze dietary patterns of infants and its association with maternal socioeconomic, cultural, and demographic variables. A cross-sectional study was conducted with two groups of mothers of children up to 24 months (n=202) living in the city of Maceió, Alagoas, Northeast Brazil. The case group consisted of mothers enrolled in a Family Health Unit. The comparison group consisted of mothers who took their children to two private pediatric offices of the city. Dietary intake was assessed using a qualitative and validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The evaluation of the FFQ was performed by a method in which the overall rate of consumption frequency is converted into a score. Children of higher income families and mothers with better education level (control group) showed the highest median of consumption scores for fruits and vegetables (pde Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  5. Combining demographic and genetic factors to assess population vulnerability in stream species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erin L, Landguth; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Jones, Leslie W.; Waples, Robin S.; Whited, Diane; Lowe, Winsor H.; Lucotch, John; Neville, Helen; Luikart, Gordon

    2014-01-01

    Accelerating climate change and other cumulative stressors create an urgent need to understand the influence of environmental variation and landscape features on the connectivity and vulnerability of freshwater species. Here, we introduce a novel modeling framework for aquatic systems that integrates spatially explicit, individual-based, demographic and genetic (demogenetic) assessments with environmental variables. To show its potential utility, we simulated a hypothetical network of 19 migratory riverine populations (e.g., salmonids) using a riverscape connectivity and demogenetic model (CDFISH). We assessed how stream resistance to movement (a function of water temperature, fluvial distance, and physical barriers) might influence demogenetic connectivity, and hence, population vulnerability. We present demographic metrics (abundance, immigration, and change in abundance) and genetic metrics (diversity, differentiation, and change in differentiation), and combine them into a single vulnerability index for identifying populations at risk of extirpation. We considered four realistic scenarios that illustrate the relative sensitivity of these metrics for early detection of reduced connectivity: (1) maximum resistance due to high water temperatures throughout the network, (2) minimum resistance due to low water temperatures throughout the network, (3) increased resistance at a tributary junction caused by a partial barrier, and (4) complete isolation of a tributary, leaving resident individuals only. We then applied this demogenetic framework using empirical data for a bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) metapopulation in the upper Flathead River system, Canada and USA, to assess how current and predicted future stream warming may influence population vulnerability. Results suggest that warmer water temperatures and associated barriers to movement (e.g., low flows, dewatering) are predicted to fragment suitable habitat for migratory salmonids, resulting in the loss

  6. On the reasons of radical forms of social protest: Reflections about principles of ‘Malthusian trap’ and demographic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E E Shults

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers reasons for radical mass forms of social protest in the context of the ‘Malthusian trap’ and structural-demographic theory of Jack Goldstone, which have become popular in the last two decades. The author critically evaluates these two conceptions and comes to the conclusion that the principles they underline are just concomitant factors, i.e. additional risk factors for political systems and regimes, rather than causes of radical mass forms of social protest. The author suggests a method of analysis that consists of studying the circumstances, i.e. the wide historical context, in which mass forms of social protest usually emerge, and provides a large number of illustrative examples. The scientific approach to the identification of social-historical determinants of radical forms of social protest implies that if something is a reason/cause of an event, then this reason/cause must be present whenever there is such an event both alone or within a complex of concomitant factors. The ‘Malthusian trap’ and demographic factors cannot be traced in all manifestations of radical mass forms of social protest in modern and contemporary history. Moreover, the ‘Malthusian trap’ and demographic pressure on the economy and social system do not always lead to mass forms of social protest. The wave of radical forms of social protest in the last decade, i.e. the so-called ‘color revolutions’, ‘Arab spring’, protest actions in France, England and the USA, once again confirms the relevance of the author’s approach and the importance of critical study of the traditional conceptions.

  7. Home and Motivational Factors Related to Science-Career Pursuit: Gender Differences and Gender Similarities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jongho; Lee, Hyunjoo; McCarthy-Donovan, Alexander; Hwang, Hyeyoung; Yim, Sonyoung; Seo, EunJin

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine whether gender differences exist in the mean levels of and relations between adolescents' home environments (parents' view of science, socio-economic status (SES)), motivations (intrinsic and instrumental motivations, self-beliefs), and pursuit of science careers. For the purpose, the Programmed for…

  8. Knowledge in schizophrenia: The Portuguese version of KAST (Knowledge About Schizophrenia Test) and analysis of social-demographic and clinical factors' influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daltio, C S; Attux, C; Ferraz, M B

    2015-10-01

    Schizophrenia is a complex disorder, and the knowledge about it can have a positive impact. The purpose of this study was to make the translation and cultural adaptation of the Knowledge About Schizophrenia Test (KAST) into Portuguese and determine the influence of clinical and socio-demographic factors on knowledge. The test was applied to 189 caregivers of patients enrolled in Schizophrenia Program of the Federal University of São Paulo, 30 caregivers of clinical patients of the General Outpatient Clinic of the same University, and 30 health professionals. The face and content validity of the test was established. The mean value (SD) obtained with the application of the final version to caregivers of schizophrenic patients was 12.96 (2.45) - maximum 17. Level of knowledge increased considering the following order: caregivers of clinical patients, caregivers of patients with schizophrenia and mental health professionals. The intraclass correlation coefficient (0.592) obtained in the test-retest was statistically significant. An influence of social class, race, gender and education of the caregiver on the test was observed, and the last two factors were more relevant. The KAST translated and adapted into Portuguese is a valid instrument and can be used as an evaluation tool on psychoeducational interventions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Age and gender might influence big five factors of personality: a preliminary report in Indian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magan, Dipti; Mehta, Manju; Sarvottam, Kumar; Yadav, Raj Kumar; Pandey, R M

    2014-01-01

    Age and gender are two important physiological variables which might influence the personality of an individual. The influence of age and gender on big five personality domains in Indian population was assessed in this cross-sectional study that included 155 subjects (female = 76, male = 79) aged from 16-75 years. Big five personality factors were evaluated using 60-item NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) at a single point in time. Among the big five factors of personality, Conscientiousness was positively correlated (r = 0.195; P personality traits might change with age, and is gender-dependent.

  10. Association of smoking behavior and socio-demographic factors, work, lifestyle and mental health of Japanese civil servants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Lizhen; Sekine, Michikazu; Gaina, Alexandru; Nasermoaddeli, Ali; Kagamimori, Sadanobu

    2007-11-01

    Few studies have examined the individual and social impact of smoking behavior in the Japanese population. The purpose of this study was to clarify the association between smoking behavior and socio-demographic factors, lifestyle, mental health and work characteristics of Japanese civil servants. A self-administered questionnaire survey of 1,439 employees (821 men and 618 women) aged 20-64 yr was conducted in a local government department in 2001. The questionnaire included items on socio-demographic factors, education level, grade of employment, lifestyle, affect balance scale, and work characteristics. Smoking status was divided into current smoker, ex-smoker and never smoked. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the relationship between smoking and the other items. Men presented a higher smoking prevalence rate than women (53.1% vs. 4.9%). In men, a strong relationship between current smoker and advanced age (40 yr or older), low education level, less physical activity, irregular breakfast and negative affect balance was found. Among men with a low education, the prevalence of smoking cessation was significantly lower in comparison to men with a high education. In women, being young (20-29 yr), unmarried (single or other), having a hobby, and irregular breakfast were associated with smoking behavior. Furthermore, smoking cessation was significantly associated with having a hobby and negative affect balance. The above results suggest that socio-demographic, lifestyle and mental health characteristics are independently associated with current smoking. These factors should be considered in smoking cessation policies as program components.

  11. More than Numbers: Individual and Contextual Factors in How Gender Diversity Affects Women's Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner-Rubino, Kathi; Settles, Isis H.; Stewart, Abigail J.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined factors related to workplace gender diversity in a sample of 87 college-educated White women. Specifically, we investigated the moderating effects of one individual difference variable (sensitivity to sexism) and one contextual variable (perceptions of the workplace climate) in the relationship between the gender composition at…

  12. Autism Spectrum Disorder Risk Factors and Autistic Traits in Gender Dysphoric Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderLaan, Doug P.; Leef, Jonathan H.; Wood, Hayley; Hughes, S. Kathleen; Zucker, Kenneth J.

    2015-01-01

    Gender dysphoria (GD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are associated. In 49 GD children (40 natal males), we examined ASD risk factors (i.e., birth weight, parental age, sibling sex ratio) in relation to autistic traits. Data were gathered on autistic traits, birth weight, parents' ages at birth, sibling sex ratio, gender nonconformity, age,…

  13. Gender-Specific Risk Factors for Intimate Partner Homicide: A Nationwide Register-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weizmann-Henelius, Ghitta; Gronroos, Matti; Putkonen, Hanna; Eronen, Markku; Lindberg, Nina; Hakkanen-Nyholm, Helina

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined gender differences in intimate partner homicide (IPH) and offender characteristics with the focus on putative gender-specific risk factors in a nationwide consecutive sample of homicide offenders. Data on all offenders (N = 642; 91 females, 551 males) convicted of homicide and subjected to a forensic psychiatric…

  14. Demographic and clinical factors related to ostomy complications and quality of life in veterans with an ostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittman, Joyce; Rawl, Susan M; Schmidt, C Max; Grant, Marcia; Ko, Clifford Y; Wendel, Christopher; Krouse, Robert S

    2008-01-01

    spiritual). This study found important relationships between demographic and clinical factors and ostomy complications. Skin problems, leakage, and difficulty adjusting predicted total quality of life scores and domains. Establishing relationships among ostomy complications and demographic, clinical factors, and quality of life can enhance identification of patients at risk for the development of complications and is an important first step in identifying the development of effective interventions to reduce the negative impact of complications for people with ostomies. Further study of predictors and outcomes of ostomy complications is needed to improve care.

  15. Socioeconomic, cultural and demographic maternal factors associated with dietary patterns of infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Marques Sotero

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze dietary patterns of infants and its association with maternal socioeconomic, cultural, and demographic variables. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with two groups of mothers of children up to 24 months (n=202 living in the city of Maceió, Alagoas, Northeast Brazil. The case group consisted of mothers enrolled in a Family Health Unit. The comparison group consisted of mothers who took their children to two private pediatric offices of the city. Dietary intake was assessed using a qualitative and validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ. The evaluation of the FFQ was performed by a method in which the overall rate of consumption frequency is converted into a score. Results: Children of higher income families and mothers with better education level (control group showed the highest median of consumption scores for fruits and vegetables (p<0.01 and meat, offal, and eggs (p<0.01, when compared with children of the case group. On the other hand, the median of consumption scores of manufactured goods was higher among children in the case group (p<0.01. Conclusions: Maternal socioeconomic status influenced the quality of food offered to the infant. In the case group, children up to 24 months already consumed industrial products instead of healthy foods on their menu.

  16. Psychological Factors Including Demographic Features, Mental Illnesses, and Personality Disorders as Predictors in Internet Addiction Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malihe Farahani

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Problematic internet use is an important social problem among adolescents and has become a global health issue. This study identified predictors and patterns of problematic internet use among adult students.Method: In this study, 400 students were recruited using stratified sampling technique. Participants were selected among students from 4 universities in Tehran and Karaj, Iran, during 2016 and 2017. Internet Addiction Test (IAT, Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory - Third Edition (MCMI-III, Structured Clinical Interview for DSM (SCID-I, and semi-structured interview were used to diagnose internet addiction. Then, the association between main psychiatric disorders and internet addiction was surveyed. Data were analyzed using SPSS18 software by performing descriptive statistics and multiple logistic regression analysis methods. P- Values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant.Results: After controlling the demographic variables, it was found that narcissistic personality disorder, obsessive- compulsive personality disorder, anxiety, bipolar disorders, depression, and phobia could increase the odds ratio (OR of internet addiction by 2.1, 1.1, 2.6, 1.1, 2.2 and 2.5-folds, respectively (p-value<0.05, however, other psychiatric or personality disorders did not have a significant effect on the equation.Conclusion: The findings of this study revealed that some mental disorders affect internet addiction. Considering the sensitivity and importance of the cyberspace, it is necessary to evaluate mental disorders that correlate with internet addiction.

  17. Demographic responses of Heterocypris incongruens (Ostracoda related to stress factors of competition, predation and food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocio Fernandez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Heterocypris incongruens is a widely distributed ostracod which can maintain its populations under stressful conditions such as those in temporary ponds and under low-quality diets, for example, detritus. It often co-occurs with cladocerans and fish living in shallow water bodies. Nevertheless, little is known about its response to the presence of predators, its consumption capacity of cyanobacteria typically present in eutrophic systems, and its interaction with other species in similar habits. We studied here the demographic responses of H. incongruens fed the green alga Scenedesmus acutus, two strains of Microcystis cf. aeruginosa and Limnothrix sp. Experiments were conducted separately and together in the presence of the cladoceran Simocephalus vetulus and the cichlid fish, Oreochromis kairomones. The ostracod maintained growth in all treatments, the reproductive output decreased on dietary Limnothrix sp., and its life expectancy was significantly lower with the toxic strain of Microcystis. The coexistence of both crustacean species increased the rate of population growth (~ 0.33 day-1 of S. vetulus and life expectancy (36-44 days of H. incongruens on the test diets compared with controls (23-33 days. Our study suggests facilitation affects the interaction between the two microcrustaceans, especially on poor quality cyanobacterial diets.

  18. Gender as a factor in delivering sustainable energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clancy, Joy S.; Islam, A.K.M.S.; Infield, D.G.

    2002-01-01

    This paper reviews the role of energy in contributing to the solution of a major development objective: moving people out of poverty. Understanding gender issues, especially the crucial role women play in household energy provision, is important in the design and implementation of appropriate energy

  19. Self Efficacy, Self Esteem, and Gender as Factors Predicting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For most new students, adjusting to an unfamiliar academic setting can induce homesickness. While most studies have investigated homesickness as a negative outcome of relocation, the present study extended the literature by examining the influence of self esteem, self efficacy, and gender on homesickness among ...

  20. Identification of Factors Contributing to Gender Disparity in an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in absolute numbers while female dismissal rates soared alarmingly between 2000/01-2004/05. To bridge the gender disparity in participation, the paper recommends intervention strategies aimed at bolstering academic achievement and positive self-concept among female students. East African Social Science Research ...

  1. Differences among Age, Gender and School Factors in Ghanaian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The conclusion of the study was that there were differences with respect to age, gender, course of study and school type in students' aspirations for entrepreneurial careers, while there was none regarding form/class level. Among the counselling implications are that counsellors must take into consideration personal and ...

  2. How demographic and economic factors have influenced ways of residing measured by urbanisation, type of dwelling, and type of tenure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Hedvig

    2005–2007. Urban sprawl and overinvestment in business premises and housing were important risks to be considered. The high economic activity also led to an increase in the cost of housing and hence to affordability problems in major cities. Many new urban quarters and towns came into planning...... in this period. The aim is especially to give an overview of how the economic and financial crisis affected the ways of residing in ten countries in: a) the Nordic countries, b) Western Europe, and in c) Eastern Europe. This is done by analysing how demographic and economic factors have influenced ways...

  3. Effect of Attitudinal, Situational and Demographic Factors on Annoyance Due to Environmental Vibration and Noise from Construction of a Light Rapid Transit System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Wong-McSweeney

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to determine what non-exposure factors influence the relationship between vibration and noise exposure from the construction of a Light Rapid Transit (LRT system and the annoyance of nearby residents. Noise and vibration from construction sites are known to annoy residents, with annoyance increasing as a function of the magnitude of the vibration and noise. There is not a strong correlation between exposure and levels of annoyance suggesting that factors not directly related to the exposure may have an influence. A range of attitudinal, situational and demographic factors are investigated with the aim of understanding the wide variation in annoyance for a given vibration exposure. A face-to-face survey of residents (n = 350 near three sites of LRT construction was conducted, and responses were compared to semi-empirical estimates of the internal vibration within the buildings. It was found that annoyance responses due to vibration were strongly influenced by two attitudinal variables, concern about property damage and sensitivity to vibration. Age, ownership of the property and the visibility of the construction site were also important factors. Gender, time at home and expectation of future levels of vibration had much less influence. Due to the measurement methods used, it was not possible to separate out the effects of noise and vibration on annoyance; as such, this paper focusses on annoyance due to vibration exposure. This work concludes that for the most cost-effective reduction of the impact of construction vibration and noise on the annoyance felt by a community, policies should consider attitudinal factors.

  4. Impact of demographic factors on management competencies of the municipal sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tripolitsioti Alexandra

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to define the competencies required for the administration of the sports facilities, of the municipal sport organizations and to compare them with selected variables, such as age, educational level, type of degree and years of employment. In the study participated 401 sport’s facilities managers, of the Municipal sport organizations of the country. They answered in a questionnaire designed for the study purposes, which was sent to them postal. The Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA between age, educational level, type of degree and years of employment revealed that: a there were statistically significant differences between the different age groups for the facility management factor (F(3, 397= 4.947, p< 0.002 and governance factor (F(3, 397= 3.170, p< 0.024, b there were statistically significant differences between the PhD holders, the Master holders, the Higher Education graduates or any other title for the event management factor (F(3, 397= 3.073, p< 0.028 and first aid/crisis management factor (F(3, 397= 4.311, p< 0.005, c there were statistically significant differences between the different titles for the first aid- crisis management factor (F(3, 397= 10.264, p< 0.000 and governance factor (F(3, 397= 4.104, p< 0.007 and d there were statistically significant differences between the total years of employment for the first aid-crisis management factor (F(3, 397= 6.869, p< 0.000 and governance factor (F(3, 397= 3.779, p< 0.011. It is concluded that the competency factors of the Sport’s Facilities managers of the municipal sport organizations are affected by the age, the educational level, the type of degree and the years of employment.

  5. Socio-demographic factors related to under-diagnosis of childhood asthma in Upper Silesia, Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan E. Zejda

    2017-06-01

    Among non-medical determinants of undiagnosed asthma the age of a child plays a major role. Another factors of importance is the large distance between residence and health centre, and low parental attention at home.

  6. Parent Involvement in School Conceptualizing Multiple Dimensions and Their Relations with Family and Demographic Risk Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Kohl, Gwynne O.; Lengua, Liliana J.; McMahon, Robert J.

    2000-01-01

    Parent involvement (PI) in school is associated with more positive academic performance and social competence in children. However, there are inadequacies in current measures of PI and a need for a better understanding of predictors of PI. In this study, measures were obtained from a normative sample of 387 children in kindergarten and first grade from high-risk neighborhoods in 4 different sites. First, a confirmatory factor analysis of a theoretical factor model of PI identified 6 reliable ...

  7. Analyzing the Impact of Residential Building Attributes, Demographic and Behavioral Factors on Natural Gas Usage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Livingston, Olga V.; Cort, Katherine A.

    2011-03-03

    This analysis examines the relationship between energy demand and residential building attributes, demographic characteristics, and behavioral variables using the U.S. Department of Energy’s Residential Energy Consumption Survey 2005 microdata. This study investigates the applicability of the smooth backfitting estimator to statistical analysis of residential energy consumption via nonparametric regression. The methodology utilized in the study extends nonparametric additive regression via local linear smooth backfitting to categorical variables. The conventional methods used for analyzing residential energy consumption are econometric modeling and engineering simulations. This study suggests an econometric approach that can be utilized in combination with simulation results. A common weakness of previously used econometric models is a very high likelihood that any suggested parametric relationships will be misspecified. Nonparametric modeling does not have this drawback. Its flexibility allows for uncovering more complex relationships between energy use and the explanatory variables than can possibly be achieved by parametric models. Traditionally, building simulation models overestimated the effects of energy efficiency measures when compared to actual "as-built" observed savings. While focusing on technical efficiency, they do not account for behavioral or market effects. The magnitude of behavioral or market effects may have a substantial influence on the final energy savings resulting from implementation of various energy conservation measures and programs. Moreover, variability in behavioral aspects and user characteristics appears to have a significant impact on total energy consumption. Inaccurate estimates of energy consumption and potential savings also impact investment decisions. The existing modeling literature, whether it relies on parametric specifications or engineering simulation, does not accommodate inclusion of a behavioral component. This

  8. Gender as a prognostic factor and its impact on the incidence of multiple sclerosis in Lorraine, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debouverie, M

    2009-11-15

    We sought to identify (a) the change of incidence rates among gender from 1990 to 2002 from the LORSEP (Lorraine Multiple Sclerosis) population-based cohort, and (b) the role of gender as a predictive demographic factor of disability during the initial course of the disease among multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. The incidence rates of multiple sclerosis (MS) in Lorraine, France, have significantly increased in women, but not in men, from 1990 to 2002 but this increase in incidence of MS was not related to a better ascertainment of patients with mild disability. A total of 2871 MS patients were analyzed. For relapsing-remitting (RR) patients, a multivariate analysis showed that a shorter time to the assignment of an EDSS score of 3 and 4 was associated with the late onset MS, incomplete recovery from the first relapse and a high number of relapses during the first 5 years after the MS onset. Median times were not influenced by gender or by time between the first two relapses. The data were very different for the time between the assignment of scores of 4 and 6, since the median times were not influenced by any of the predicting variables.

  9. Impact of demographic, genetic, and bioimpedance factors on gestational weight gain and birth weight in a Romanian population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mărginean, Claudiu; Mărginean, Cristina Oana; Bănescu, Claudia; Meliţ, Lorena; Tripon, Florin; Iancu, Mihaela

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The present study had 2 objectives, first, to investigate possible relationships between increased gestational weight gain and demographic, clinical, paraclinical, genetic, and bioimpedance (BIA) characteristics of Romanian mothers, and second, to identify the influence of predictors (maternal and newborns characteristics) on our outcome birth weight (BW). We performed a cross-sectional study on 309 mothers and 309 newborns from Romania, divided into 2 groups: Group I—141 mothers with high gestational weight gain (GWG) and Group II—168 mothers with normal GWG, that is, control group. The groups were evaluated regarding demographic, anthropometric (body mass index [BMI], middle upper arm circumference, tricipital skinfold thickness, weight, height [H]), clinical, paraclinical, genetic (interleukin 6 [IL-6]: IL-6 -174G>C and IL-6 -572C>G gene polymorphisms), and BIA parameters. We noticed that fat mass (FM), muscle mass (MM), bone mass (BM), total body water (TBW), basal metabolism rate (BMR) and metabolic age (P mothers with high GWG. BW was positively correlated with mothers’ FM (P G polymorphism was higher in the control group (P = 0.042). We observed that high GWG may be an important predictor factor for the afterward BW, being positively correlated with FM, TBW, BMR, metabolic age of the mothers, and negatively with the mother's smoking status. Variant genotype (GG+GC) of the IL-6 -572C>G gene polymorphism is a protector factor against obesity in mothers. All the variables considered explained 14.50% of the outcome variance. PMID:27399105

  10. Spatial prevalence of intellectual disability and related socio-demographic factors in Iran, using GWR: Case study (2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Goli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although intellectual disability (ID is a common disability in Iran, there is no investigation on the spatial distribution pattern of these patients in national level and the spatial maps for recognition the areas with higher prevalence of IDs and local neighborhoods of these regions or effect of socio-demographic factor on this scattering is not still available. This proposition motivated us to assess the population with ID in our country. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, we applied Moran′s Index (Moran′s I which includes information about the strength of the neighboring association between counties, as global univariate distribution assessment. A geographically weighted regression was used to explore relation between ID patient′s prevalence and some socio-demographic factors (migration and illiteracy rate, physician number (PN/10,000 people and health-care centers (HCCs/10,000 people. Results: We found that spatial clusters of ID patients exist among Iran counties (Moran′s I = 0.36, P 0.3. Conclusions: According to the results, our Initial hypothesis about the existence of spatial clusters in distribution of people with ID in Iran was proven. Spatial autocorrelation between migration and illiteracy rate and prevalence of patients with ID was shown and was in agreement with our hypothesis. However, our supposition that the prevalence should have inverse relationship with PN and HCC was rejected.

  11. Prevalence of Common Mental Disorders in a Rural District of Kenya, and Socio-Demographic Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Kiima

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Association between common mental disorders (CMDs, equity, poverty and socio-economic functioning are relatively well explored in high income countries, but there have been fewer studies in low and middle income countries, despite the considerable burden posed by mental disorders, especially in Africa, and their potential impact on development. This paper reports a population-based epidemiological survey of a rural area in Kenya. A random sample of 2% of all adults living in private households in Maseno, Kisumu District of Nyanza Province, Kenya (50,000 population, were studied. The Clinical Interview Schedule-Revised (CIS-R was used to determine the prevalence of common mental disorders (CMDs. Associations with socio-demographic and economic characteristics were explored. A CMD prevalence of 10.8% was found, with no gender difference. Higher rates of illness were found in those who were of older age and those in poor physical health. We conclude that CMDs are common in Kenya and rates are elevated among people who are older, and those in poor health.

  12. Demographic Characteristics of Ghanaian Optometry Students and Factors Influencing Their Career Choice and Institution of Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boadi-Kusi, Samuel Bert; Kyei, Samuel; Mashige, Khathutshelo Percy; Abu, Emmanuel Kwasi; Antwi-Boasiako, Daniel; Halladay, Abraham Carl

    2015-01-01

    Optometry is only provided at tertiary level in two institutions in Ghana, with an average of 50 students graduating each year for a population of approximately 24.6 million. No information on the demography of optometry students and factors that influence their choice of optometry as a career and institution of learning is available. This…

  13. Jordanian Mothers' Perceptions of Their Children's Social Competence: An Examination of Family Factors and Demographic Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Taleb, Tagreed Fathi; AlZoubi, Rifa Rafe

    2015-01-01

    Children's social competence is an area of research that receives minimal attention from Jordanian researchers. It is important to investigate this area of development so as to provide parents with information about the nature of social competence and possible factors affecting its development. This research study examined Jordanian mothers'…

  14. Economic, Demographic, and Sociological Factors Influencing the Geographic Mobility of Young Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lewis H.

    Geographic mobility of the labor force is an adjustment mechanism essential to the maintenance of a growing economy which is undergoing technological change and a rising educational level. This study analyzes the factors which influence mobility decisions to determine whether these choices are made on the basis of rational economic motives. To…

  15. Post-MBA Industry Shifts: An Investigation of Career, Educational and Demographic Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Alvin; Bento, Regina; Arbaugh, J. B.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine factors that predict industry-level career change among MBA graduates. Design/methodology/approach: The study analyzed longitudinal data from the Management Education Research Institute (MERI)'s Global MBA Graduate Survey Dataset and MBA Alumni Perspectives Survey Datasets, using principal component…

  16. Family extension and the elderly: economic, demographic, and family cycle factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobrin, F E

    1981-05-01

    This paper reports on the results of applying a multivariate regression model of living arrangements choices to census data on the 1970 U. S. population of nonmarried, nonparenting adults. The model examines the factors affecting living with (1) relatives or (2) living alone or with nonrelatives. These factors include sex, income, marital history, and age. In addition, the model tests whether living arrangements choices differ for the elderly relative to other ages. The analysis shows that higher income, the experience of divorce, and being male are all associated with a higher probability of nonfamily living. Widowhood has the same effect, but only for women. The central finding, however, is that there is no special role for the elderly in living arrangements choices.

  17. Factors Associated with Malnutrition among Under-Five Children: Illustration using Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey, 2014 Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashis Talukder

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Child malnutrition remains one of the major public health problems in many parts of the world, especially in a developing country like Bangladesh. Several socioeconomic and demographic factors are responsible for this condition. The present study was conducted to uncover the risk factors associated with malnutrition among under-five children in Bangladesh by analyzing the data from a nationally representative Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS in 2014. The ordinal dependent variable—child nutrition status (severely malnourished, moderately malnourished, and nourished—was developed by calculating weight-for-age Z score (WAZ. Bivariate analysis was conducted by performing gamma measure and chi-square test of independence to explore the association between child nutrition status and selected independent variables. To know the adjusted effects of covariates, a popular ordinal model—namely, the proportional odds (PO model—was considered. All the selected covariates were found highly significant (p < 0.01 in the bivariate setup. However, in the multivariate setup, father’s and mother’s education, wealth index, mother’s body mass index (BMI, and antenatal care service during pregnancy were found highly significant (p < 0.01 factors for child malnutrition. Among the divisions, only Dhaka had more control on child malnutrition, compared to the Sylhet division. Birth interval of children was also reported as a significant factor at a 5% level of significance. Finally, the results of this paper strongly highlighted the necessity of increasing parent’s education level, improving the mother’s nutritional status, and increasing facilities providing antenatal care service in order to achieve better nutrition status among under-five children in Bangladesh.

  18. Relations between organizational commitment and demographic factors: a research in banking sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nizamettin Dogar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this research is to answer if organizational commitment changes according to demografic factors. Inputs gained from 200 person sample group from banking sector. According to the analysis it is found that affective and continuance commitment increases with age and job experience, and all componenets of commitment increase according to time in the last job. With the results derived from analysis, research’s support to organizational theory is discussed and some advices put forward.

  19. Stress Causing Factors Among Teachers in Elementary Schools and Their Relationship with Demographic and Job Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teuta Agai–Demjaha

    2015-07-01

    CONCLUSION: Our findings confirm that within the control category, the highest levels of perceived teacher’s work-related stress were caused by changes in terms and conditions without consultation and given responsibility without the authority to take decisions, while in the category support, the same was true for stress factors lack of funds/resources to do the job and limited or no access to training. We have also concluded that the lower-grade school teachers, female teachers, teachers for whom this is the first job and teachers with university education perceive more often the lack of authority to take decisions as a very stressful factor than the upper-grade school teachers, male teachers, teachers previously employed in another workplace, and those with high education. The lower-grade school teachers, older teachers and teachers with university education perceive more often changes in education as a very stressful factor than the upper grade school teachers, younger teachers and those with high education.

  20. Socio-demographic and maternal factors in anaemia in pregnancy at booking in Kano, northern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwizu, E N; Iliyasu, Z; Ibrahim, S A; Galadanci, H S

    2011-12-01

    Anaemia in pregnancy still causes significant maternal morbidity and mortality in the developing countries including Nigeria. The burden and underlying factors are varied even within countries. We studied the prevalence of anaemia at booking and underlying factors in a teaching hospital in northern Nigeria. Using the capillary technique and blood film, the packed cell volume (PCV) and red cell morphology of 300 pregnant women was determined. Additional information was obtained on sociodemographic characteristics, obstetric and past medical history using an interviewer administered questionnaire. Of the 300 pregnant women studied, 51 (17%) [95% Confidence Interval (CI)=12.9%-21.7%] were anaemic. Specifically, 12.7% and 4.3% of the women had mild and moderate anaemia respectively. Blood film of 74.5%, 15.7% and 11.8% anaemic women showed normochromic normocytic, haemolytic and microcytic hypochromic pictures respectively. Low educational attainment [Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR)=2.13], being single or divorced [AOR=2.02], high parity [AOR=2.06], late booking [AOR=2.71] and short intervals between pregnancies [AOR=2.37] were significant predictors of anaemia in pregnancy. The high prevalence of anaemia in pregnancy related to low educational and economic status especially among women with background obstetric risk factors calls for vigilance, sustained health education and chemoprophylaxis for pregnant women.

  1. Gender-differences in risk factors for suicidal behaviour identified by perceived burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness and acquired capability: cross-sectional analysis from a longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donker, Tara; Batterham, Philip J; Van Orden, Kimberly A; Christensen, Helen

    2014-01-01

    The Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicidal Behavior (IPT) is supported by recent epidemiological data. Unique risk factors for the IPT constructs have been identified in community epidemiological studies. Gender differences in these risk factors may contribute substantially to our understanding of suicidal risk, and require further investigation. The present study explores gender differences in the predictors and correlates of perceived burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness and acquired capability for suicide. Participants (547 males, 739 females) aged 32-38 from the PATH through Life study, an Australian population-based longitudinal cohort study (n=1,177) were assessed on perceived burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness and acquired capability for suicide using the Interpersonal Needs Questionnaire and Acquired Capability for Suicide Survey, and on a range of demographic, social support, psychological, mental health and physical health measures. Gender differences in the predictors of the IPT constructs were assessed using linear regression analyses. Higher perceived burdensomeness increased suicide ideation in both genders, while higher thwarted belongingness increased suicide ideation only in females. In females, thwarted belongingness was uniquely related to perceived burdensomeness, while greater physical health was significantly associated with greater thwarted belongingness in males but not in females. There were trends suggesting greater effects of being single and greater perceived burdensomeness for men, and stronger effects of less positive friendship support for women associated with greater thwarted belongingness. Men and women differ in the pattern of psychological characteristics that predict suicide ideation, and in the factors predicting vulnerability. Suicide prevention strategies need to take account of gender differences.

  2. Does maternal environmental tobacco smoke interact with social-demographics and environmental factors on congenital heart defects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoqing; Nie, Zhiqiang; Chen, Jimei; Guo, Xiaoling; Ou, Yanqiu; Chen, Guanchun; Mai, Jinzhuang; Gong, Wei; Wu, Yong; Gao, Xiangmin; Qu, Yanji; Bell, Erin M; Lin, Shao; Zhuang, Jian

    2018-03-01

    Congenital heart defects (CHDs) are a major cause of death in infancy and childhood. Major risk factors for most CHDs, particularly those resulting from the combination of environmental exposures with social determinants and behaviors, are still unknown. This study evaluated the main effect of maternal environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), and its interaction with social-demographics and environmental factors on CHDs in China. A population-based, matched case-control study of 9452 live-born infants and stillborn fetuses was conducted using the Guangdong Registry of Congenital Heart Disease data (2004-2014). The CHDs were evaluated by obstetrician, pediatrician, or cardiologist, and confirmed by cardia tomography/catheterization. Controls were randomly chosen from singleton newborns without any malformation, born in the same hospital as the cases and 1:1 matched by infant sex, time of conception, and parental residence (same city and town to ensure sufficient geographical distribution for analyses). Face-to-face interviews were conducted to collect information on demographics, behavior patterns, maternal disease/medication, and environmental exposures. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals of ETS exposure on CHDs while controlling for all risk factors. Interactive effects were evaluated using a multivariate delta method for maternal demographics, behavior, and environmental exposures on the ETS-CHD relationship. Mothers exposed to ETS during the first trimester of pregnancy were more likely to have infants with CHD than mothers who did not (aOR = 1.44, 95% CI 1.25-1.66). We also observed a significant dose-response relationship when mothers were exposed to ETS and an increasing number of risk factors and CHDs. There were greater than additive interactions for maternal ETS and migrant status, low household income and paternal alcohol consumption on CHDs. Maternal low education also modified the ETS

  3. Factors associated with postnatal care utilisation in Rwanda: A secondary analysis of 2010 Demographic and Health Survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rwabufigiri, Bernard N; Mukamurigo, Judith; Thomson, Dana R; Hedt-Gautier, Bethany L; Semasaka, Jean Paul S

    2016-05-31

    Postnatal care (PNC) in the first seven days is important for preventing morbidity and mortality in mothers and new-borns. Sub-Saharan African countries, which account for 62 % of maternal deaths globally, have made major efforts to increase PNC utilisation, but utilisation rates remains low even in countries like Rwanda where PNC services are universally available for free. This study identifies key socio-economic and demographic factors associated with PNC utilisation in Rwanda to inform improved PNC policies and programs. This is a secondary analysis of the 2010 Demographic and Health Survey, a national multi-stage, cross-sectional survey. In bivariate analysis, we used chi-square tests to identify demographic and socio-economic factors associated with PNC utilisation at α = 0.1. Pearson's R statistic (r > 0.5) was used to identify collinear covariates, and to choose which covariate was more strongly associated with PNC utilisation. Manual backward stepwise logistic regression was performed on the remaining covariates to identify key factors associated with PNC utilisation at α = 0.05. All analyses were performed in Stata 13 adjusting for sampling weights, clustering, and stratification. Of the 2,748 women with a live birth in the last two years who answered question about PNC utilisation, 353 (12.8 %) returned for PNC services within seven days after birth. Three factors were positively associated with PNC use: delivering at a health facility (OR: 2.97; 95 % CI: 2.28-3.87), being married but not involved with one's own health care decision-making (OR: 1.69; 95 % CI: 1.17, 2.44) compared to being married and involved; and being in the second (OR: 1.46; 95 % CI: 1.01-2.09) or richest wealth quintile (OR: 2.04; 95 % CI: 1.27-3.29) compared to the poorest. Mother's older age at delivery was negatively associated with PNC use (20-29 - OR: 0.51, 95 % CI: 0.29-0.87; 30-39 - OR: 0.47, 95 % CI: 0.27-0.83; 40-49 - OR: 0.32, 95 % CI: 0.16-0.64). Low PNC

  4. Demographic factors and hospital size predict patient satisfaction variance--implications for hospital value-based purchasing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Daniel C; Ornstein, Katherine A; Holcombe, Randall F

    2015-08-01

    Hospital Value-Based Purchasing (HVBP) incentivizes quality performance-based healthcare by linking payments directly to patient satisfaction scores obtained from Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS) surveys. Lower HCAHPS scores appear to cluster in heterogeneous population-dense areas and could bias Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) reimbursement. Assess nonrandom variation in patient satisfaction as determined by HCAHPS. Multivariate regression modeling was performed for individual dimensions of HCAHPS and aggregate scores. Standardized partial regression coefficients assessed strengths of predictors. Weighted Individual (hospital) Patient Satisfaction Adjusted Score (WIPSAS) utilized 4 highly predictive variables, and hospitals were reranked accordingly. A total of 3907 HVBP-participating hospitals. There were 934,800 patient surveys by the most conservative estimate. A total of 3144 county demographics (US Census) and HCAHPS surveys. Hospital size and primary language (non-English speaking) most strongly predicted unfavorable HCAHPS scores, whereas education and white ethnicity most strongly predicted favorable HCAHPS scores. The average adjusted patient satisfaction scores calculated by WIPSAS approximated the national average of HCAHPS scores. However, WIPSAS changed hospital rankings by variable amounts depending on the strength of the predictive variables in the hospitals' locations. Structural and demographic characteristics that predict lower scores were accounted for by WIPSAS that also improved rankings of many safety-net hospitals and academic medical centers in diverse areas. Demographic and structural factors (eg, hospital beds) predict patient satisfaction scores even after CMS adjustments. CMS should consider WIPSAS or a similar adjustment to account for the severity of patient satisfaction inequities that hospitals could strive to correct. © 2015 Society of Hospital Medicine.

  5. Socio-demographic factors related to under-diagnosis of childhood asthma in Upper Silesia, Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zejda, Jan E; Farnik, Małgorzata; Smółka, Irena; Lawson, Joshua; Brożek, Grzegorz M

    2017-06-07

    Introduction. The presented study of 4,535 children aged 7-17 years in the Upper Silesian region of Poland yielded 186 cases of previously known asthma, and 44 children with newly diagnosed asthma. The aim of the presented study was to identify non-medical factors that could explain why children with a newly established diagnosis ('undiagnosed asthma') had not been diagnosed in the past. Materials and method. The study was performed according to a case-control design. Parents of the children answered questionnaires on socio-economic status and family-related factors. Statistical determinants of undiagnosed asthma were explored using raw (OR) and logistic odds ratios with their 95% confidence intervals (logOR, 95%CI). Results. Children with undiagnosed asthma were younger compared to the group with previously known asthma (11.3±2.1 vs. 12.6±2.5 years; p=0.0008). Newly diagnosed cases were more frequent in children who had less parental attention (less than 1 hour/day spent by parent with child - OR=4.36; 95%CI: 1.76-10.81) and who were not registered with specialized health care (OR=2.20; 95%CI: 0.95-5.06). Results of logistic regression analysis suggest that under-diagnosis of asthma is related to age below 12 years - logOR = 3.59 (95%CI: 1.28-10.36), distance to a health centre > 5 km - logOR = 3.45 (95%CI: 1.05-11.36), time spent with child Conclusion. Among non-medical determinants of undiagnosed asthma the age of a child plays a major role. Another factors of importance is the large distance between residence and health centre, and low parental attention at home.

  6. EJSCREEN Demographic Indicators 2015 Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    EJSCREEN uses demographic factors as very general indicators of a community's potential susceptibility to the types of environmental factors included in this screening tool. There are six demographic indicators: Demographic Index, Supplementary Demographic Index, Individuals under Age 5, Individuals over Age 64, Percent Low-Income, Linguistic Isolation, Percent Minority, and Less than High School Education.

  7. Cognitive function in schizophrenia and its association with socio-demographics factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharti T Talreja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Schizophrenia is a chronic and debilitating psychiatric illness consisting primarily of positive and negative symptoms. However, cognitive deficits in various domains have been consistently replicated in patients with schizophrenia. Therefore, the present study was designed to assess cognitive impairment in schizophrenia and to correlate the same with sociodemographic factors. Materials and Methods: Cognitive function in 100 patients with schizophrenia as per Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM IV-TR criteria attending the psychiatry outpatient department (OPD of Department of Psychiatry, SBKS MIRC was assessed using Addenbrooke′s Cognitive Examination Revised (ACER rating scale and Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE and sociodemographic details was obtained using semistructured proforma. Data was analyzed by Chi-square and t-test. Results: About 70% patients of schizophrenia were found to have cognitive dysfunction for attention, concentration, memory, language, and executive function. Positive symptoms were associated with memory (P2 years and belonging to urban habitat showed more cognitive dysfunction. Male patients were associated with impairment in two domains of ACER: Language and memory. Conclusion: The study findings depict that persistent cognitive deficits are seen in patients with schizophrenia. Its correlation with sociodemographic factors showed that patients with >2 years of illness and belonging to urban habitat showed more cognitive dysfunction. Male patients were associated with language and memory impairment. Our study recommends that the neurocognitive impairment should be included in the DSM-V diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia.

  8. [Life satisfaction and related socio-demographic factors during female midlife].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuadros, José Luis; Pérez-Roncero, Gonzalo R; López-Baena, María Teresa; Cuadros-Celorrio, Angela M; Fernández-Alonso, Ana María

    2014-01-01

    To assess life satisfaction and related factors in middle-aged Spanish women. This was a cross-sectional study including 235 women aged 40 to 65, living in Granada (Spain), healthy companions of patients visiting the obstetrics and gynecology clinics. They completed the Diener Satisfaction with Life Scale, the Menopause Rating Scale, the Perceived Stress Scale, the Insomnia Severity Index and a sociodemographic questionnaire containing personal and partner data. Internal consistency of each tool was also calculated. Almost two-thirds (61.3%) of the women were postmenopausal, and 43.8% had abdominal obesity, 36.6% had insomnia, 18.7% had poor menopause-related quality of life, 31.9% performed regular exercise, and 5.1% had severe financial problems. Life satisfaction showed significant positive correlations (Spearman's test) with female and male age, and inverse correlations with menopause-related quality of life, perceived stress and insomnia. In the multiple linear regression analysis, high life satisfaction is positively correlated with having a partner who performed exercise, and inversely with having work problems, perceived stress and the suspicion of partner infidelity. These factors explained 40% of the variance of the multiple regression analysis for life satisfaction in middle-aged women. Life satisfaction is a construct related to perceived stress, work problems, and having a partner, while aspects of menopause and general health had no significant influence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Socio-demographic factors of valuing autonomous and conformist educational styles in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Zoran

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of preference of educational styles is highly relevant, since it points out both to the more general underlying value orientations and the expected or desired effects of socialization process. This paper deals with the level of acceptance and factors of valuing the autonomous and conformist educational styles among Serbian citizens, operationalised through estimation of importance of qualities that children should learn at home. Based on the three waves of World Values Survey, the analysis of data from Serbia was performed in longitudinal perspective in the period from 1996 to 2006 (total N=3700, as well as in comparative perspective, when the data obtained in Serbia were compared with the data collected in the European countries that participated in the last, fifth wave of World Values Survey (total N=23941. The results indicate that, in the observed period, on the average two thirds of citizens (64% are characterized by preference of autonomous educational style, while respondents' education and population size of settlement figure as the most important factors of preference. However, according to the level of acceptance of autonomy, Serbia is placed 16th out of 21 analyzed European countries, and therefore, in comparative perspective, valuing of autonomy in the country is on a relatively low level. The results imply that by a non-selective encouragement of autonomy in all students, by cooperation with parents or a more general promotion of knowledge, school may play an important role in this process.

  10. Factor structure of PTSD, and relation with gender in trauma survivors from India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charak, Ruby; Armour, Cherie; Elklit, Ask; Angmo, Disket; Elhai, Jon D.; Koot, Hans M.

    2014-01-01

    Background The factor structure of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been extensively studied in Western countries. Some studies have assessed its factor structure in Asia (China, Sri Lanka, and Malaysia), but few have directly assessed the factor structure of PTSD in an Indian adult sample. Furthermore, in a largely patriarchal society in India with strong gender roles, it becomes imperative to assess the association between the factors of PTSD and gender. Objective The purpose of the present study was to assess the factor structure of PTSD in an Indian sample of trauma survivors based on prevailing models of PTSD defined in the DSM-IV-TR (APA, 2000), and to assess the relation between PTSD factors and gender. Method The sample comprised of 313 participants (55.9% female) from Jammu and Kashmir, India, who had experienced a natural disaster (N=200) or displacement due to cross-border firing (N=113). Results Three existing PTSD models—two four-factor models (Emotional Numbing and Dysphoria), and a five-factor model (Dysphoric Arousal)—were tested using Confirmatory Factor Analysis with addition of gender as a covariate. The three competing models had similar fit indices although the Dysphoric Arousal model fit significantly better than Emotional Numbing and Dysphoria models. Gender differences were found across the factors of Re-experiencing and Anxious arousal. Conclusions Findings indicate that the Dysphoric Arousal model of PTSD was the best model; albeit the fit indices of all models were fairly similar. Compared to males, females scored higher on factors of Re-experiencing and Anxious arousal. Gender differences found across two factors of PTSD are discussed in light of the social milieu in India. PMID:25413575

  11. Factor structure of PTSD, and relation with gender in trauma survivors from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charak, Ruby; Armour, Cherie; Elklit, Ask; Angmo, Disket; Elhai, Jon D; Koot, Hans M

    2014-01-01

    The factor structure of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been extensively studied in Western countries. Some studies have assessed its factor structure in Asia (China, Sri Lanka, and Malaysia), but few have directly assessed the factor structure of PTSD in an Indian adult sample. Furthermore, in a largely patriarchal society in India with strong gender roles, it becomes imperative to assess the association between the factors of PTSD and gender. The purpose of the present study was to assess the factor structure of PTSD in an Indian sample of trauma survivors based on prevailing models of PTSD defined in the DSM-IV-TR (APA, 2000), and to assess the relation between PTSD factors and gender. The sample comprised of 313 participants (55.9% female) from Jammu and Kashmir, India, who had experienced a natural disaster (N=200) or displacement due to cross-border firing (N=113). Three existing PTSD models-two four-factor models (Emotional Numbing and Dysphoria), and a five-factor model (Dysphoric Arousal)-were tested using Confirmatory Factor Analysis with addition of gender as a covariate. The three competing models had similar fit indices although the Dysphoric Arousal model fit significantly better than Emotional Numbing and Dysphoria models. Gender differences were found across the factors of Re-experiencing and Anxious arousal. Findings indicate that the Dysphoric Arousal model of PTSD was the best model; albeit the fit indices of all models were fairly similar. Compared to males, females scored higher on factors of Re-experiencing and Anxious arousal. Gender differences found across two factors of PTSD are discussed in light of the social milieu in India.

  12. Factor structure of PTSD, and relation with gender in trauma survivors from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruby Charak

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The factor structure of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD has been extensively studied in Western countries. Some studies have assessed its factor structure in Asia (China, Sri Lanka, and Malaysia, but few have directly assessed the factor structure of PTSD in an Indian adult sample. Furthermore, in a largely patriarchal society in India with strong gender roles, it becomes imperative to assess the association between the factors of PTSD and gender. Objective: The purpose of the present study was to assess the factor structure of PTSD in an Indian sample of trauma survivors based on prevailing models of PTSD defined in the DSM-IV-TR (APA, 2000, and to assess the relation between PTSD factors and gender. Method: The sample comprised of 313 participants (55.9% female from Jammu and Kashmir, India, who had experienced a natural disaster (N=200 or displacement due to cross-border firing (N=113. Results: Three existing PTSD models—two four-factor models (Emotional Numbing and Dysphoria, and a five-factor model (Dysphoric Arousal—were tested using Confirmatory Factor Analysis with addition of gender as a covariate. The three competing models had similar fit indices although the Dysphoric Arousal model fit significantly better than Emotional Numbing and Dysphoria models. Gender differences were found across the factors of Re-experiencing and Anxious arousal. Conclusions: Findings indicate that the Dysphoric Arousal model of PTSD was the best model; albeit the fit indices of all models were fairly similar. Compared to males, females scored higher on factors of Re-experiencing and Anxious arousal. Gender differences found across two factors of PTSD are discussed in light of the social milieu in India.

  13. Factors Associated with Short-Term Transitions of Nondaily Smokers: Socio-demographic Characteristics and Other Tobacco Product Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yingning; Sung, Hai-Yen; Yao, Tingting; Lightwood, James; Max, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    Aims To examine the transitions in smoking status among nondaily smokers who transitioned to daily or former smokers or remained as nondaily smokers over a 12-month period. We analyzed factors associated with these transitions, including the use of cigars and smokeless tobacco (SLT). Design Secondary data analyses using pooled data from the 2003, 2006/07 and 2010/11 Tobacco Use Supplements to the Current Population Survey (TUS-CPS). Setting USA Participants Self-respondents aged 18+ who have smoked for more than 5 years and were nondaily smokers 12 months before the interview (n = 13,673 or 14.5% of current smokers). Measurements Multinomial logistic regression model to determine the correlates of nondaily-to-daily, stable nondaily, and nondaily-to-former smoking transitions among nondaily smokers at baseline. The model controlled for socio-demographic factors and the use of cigars and SLT. Findings 2.6% of adults in our sample were nondaily smokers at baseline. Among these, 69.7% remained nondaily smokers (stable nondaily smokers), 18.4% became daily smokers (nondaily-to-daily smokers), and 11.9% quit smoking (nondaily-to-former smokers) after 12 months. The nondaily-to-daily vs. stable nondaily smoking transition was less likely among those who were aged 65+ (p=0.018), male (pnon-Hispanic Asian (p=0.032), without a college degree, widowed/divorced/separated (p=0.013) or never married (p=0.011), and current users of cigars (p=0.003) compared with the appropriate reference group. Conclusions While over two-thirds of nondaily smokers in the USA remain as such after 12 months, others become daily smokers or quit. The likelihood of remaining stable nondaily smokers and of transition from nondaily-to-daily and nondaily-to-former smokers is associated with socio-demographics factors and current use of cigars and smokeless tobacco. PMID:27886652

  14. Child diarrhoea and nutritional status in rural Rwanda: a cross-sectional study to explore contributing environmental and demographic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinharoy, Sheela S; Schmidt, Wolf-Peter; Cox, Kris; Clemence, Zachary; Mfura, Leodomir; Wendt, Ronald; Boisson, Sophie; Crossett, Erin; Grépin, Karen A; Jack, William; Condo, Jeanine; Habyarimana, James; Clasen, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    To explore associations of environmental and demographic factors with diarrhoea and nutritional status among children in Rusizi district, Rwanda. We obtained cross-sectional data from 8847 households in May-August 2013 from a baseline survey conducted for an evaluation of an integrated health intervention. We collected data on diarrhoea, water quality, and environmental and demographic factors from households with children <5, and anthropometry from children <2. We conducted log-binomial regression using diarrhoea, stunting and wasting as dependent variables. Among children <5, 8.7% reported diarrhoea in the previous 7 days. Among children <2, stunting prevalence was 34.9% and wasting prevalence was 2.1%. Drinking water treatment (any method) was inversely associated with caregiver-reported diarrhoea in the previous 7 days (PR = 0.79, 95% CI: 0.68-0.91). Improved source of drinking water (PR = 0.80, 95% CI: 0.73-0.87), appropriate treatment of drinking water (PR = 0.88, 95% CI: 0.80-0.96), improved sanitation facility (PR = 0.90, 95% CI: 0.82-0.97), and complete structure (having walls, floor and roof) of the sanitation facility (PR = 0.65, 95% CI: 0.50-0.84) were inversely associated with stunting. None of the exposure variables were associated with wasting. A microbiological indicator of water quality was not associated with diarrhoea or stunting. Our findings suggest that in Rusizi district, appropriate treatment of drinking water may be an important factor in diarrhoea in children <5, while improved source and appropriate treatment of drinking water as well as improved type and structure of sanitation facility may be important for linear growth in children <2. We did not detect an association with water quality. © 2016 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Health-Related Quality of Life of Latin-American Immigrants and Spanish-Born Attended in Spanish Primary Health Care: Socio-Demographic and Psychosocial Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinero-Fort, Miguel Ángel; Gómez-Campelo, Paloma; Bragado-Alvárez, Carmen; Abánades-Herranz, Juan Carlos; Jiménez-García, Rodrigo; de Burgos-Lunar, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Background This study compares the health-related quality of life of Spanish-born and Latin American-born individuals settled in Spain. Socio-demographic and psychosocial factors associated with health-related quality of life are analyzed. Methods A cross-sectional Primary Health Care multi center-based study of Latin American-born (n = 691) and Spanish-born (n = 903) outpatients from 15 Primary Health Care Centers (Madrid, Spain). The Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) was used to assess health-related quality of life. Socio-demographic, psychosocial, and specific migration data were also collected. Results Compared to Spanish-born participants, Latin American-born participants reported higher health-related quality of life in the physical functioning and vitality dimensions. Across the entire sample, Latin American-born participants, younger participants, men and those with high social support reported significantly higher levels of physical health. Men with higher social support and a higher income reported significantly higher mental health. When stratified by gender, data show that for men physical health was only positively associated with younger age. For women, in addition to age, social support and marital status were significantly related. Both men and women with higher social support and income had significantly better mental health. Finally, for immigrants, the physical and mental health components of health-related quality of life were not found to be significantly associated with any of the pre-migration factors or conditions of migration. Only the variable “exposure to political violence” was significantly associated with the mental health component (p = 0.014). Conclusions The key factors to understanding HRQoL among Latin American-born immigrants settled in Spain are age, sex and social support. Therefore, strategies to maintain optimal health outcomes in these immigrant communities should include public policies on

  16. Demographic, Clinical, and Prognostic Factors of Ovarian Clear Cell Adenocarcinomas According to Endometriosis Status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnack, Tine H; Høgdall, Estrid; Thomsen, Lotte Nedergaard

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Women with endometriosis carry an increased risk for ovarian clear cell adenocarcinomas (CCCs). Clear cell adenocarcinoma may develop from endometriosis lesions. Few studies have compared clinical and prognostic factors and overall survival in patients diagnosed as having CCC according...... to endometriosis status. METHODS: Population-based prospectively collected data on CCC with coexisting pelvic (including ovarian; n = 80) and ovarian (n = 46) endometriosis or without endometriosis (n = 95) were obtained through the Danish Gynecological Cancer Database. χ Test, independent-samples t test, logistic...... regression, Kaplan-Meier test, and Cox regression were used. Statistical tests were 2 sided. P values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. RESULTS: Patients with CCC and pelvic or ovarian endometriosis were significantly younger than CCC patients without endometriosis, and a higher...

  17. Mental Health of People Who Are Going to Marry and Its Relation to Some of Their Demographic Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Ghazivakili

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Marriage is one of the most important events during an individual's life. Mental health as a component of personal characteristics, are associated with marital satisfaction. considering the role of mental health in a successful marriage, the impact of family health on community mental health, and major role of couples in this regard the present study aimed to determine the Mental health of people who are going to marry and its relation to some of their demographic factors in karaj 2012. Material and Methods: We performed a cross sectional study on the established group of 600 people who attended premarital assessment in a health center. They were selected by convenient sampling method. The data collection instrument was a demographic questionnaire and standardized Goldberge mental health (GHQ-28 questionnaire. The data was analyzed with SPSS/18 using descriptive and inferential statistical methods.(P<0.05 Findings: The mean score of mental health questionnaire was (16/2 ± 9/9. The results also showed that mental health and sex, religion, place of birth, marital history and employment status were significantly related (P<0.05 such that the mental health of men, Shea, born in the village, no history of marriage, and have a permanent job was higher. Conclusion: Recent research results indicate the desirability of mental health in 80.3 percent of in new couples.

  18. Dietary Patterns in Pregnancy in New Zealand—Influence of Maternal Socio-Demographic, Health and Lifestyle Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare R. Wall

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Exploration of dietary pattern associations within a multi-ethnic society context has been limited. We aimed to describe dietary patterns of 5664 pregnant women from the Growing Up in New Zealand study, and investigate associations between these patterns and maternal socio-demographic, place of birth, health and lifestyle factors. Participants completed a food frequency questionnaire prior to the birth of their child. Principal components analysis was used to extract dietary patterns and multivariable analyses used to determine associations. Four dietary components were extracted. Higher scores on, ‘Junk’ and ‘Traditional/White bread’, were associated with decreasing age, lower educational levels, being of Pacific or Māori ethnicity and smoking. Higher scores on, ‘Health conscious’ and ‘Fusion/Protein’, were associated with increasing age, better self-rated health, lower pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI and not smoking. Higher scores on ‘Junk’ and ‘Health conscious’ were associated with being born in New Zealand (NZ, whereas higher scores on ‘Fusion/Protein’ was associated with being born outside NZ and being of non-European ethnicity, particularly Asian. High scores on the ‘Health conscious’ dietary pattern showed the highest odds of adherence to the pregnancy dietary guidelines. In this cohort of pregnant women different dietary patterns were associated with migration, ethnicity, socio-demographic characteristics, health behaviors and adherence to dietary guidelines.

  19. Where Do You Feel Safest?: Demographic Factors and Place of Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperlich, M.; Gabriel, C.; Seng, J.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The vast majority of planned out-of-hospital births in the United States occur among white women; no study has addressed whether black women prefer out-of-hospital birth less or whether this racial disparity is due to other causes such as constrained access. This study sought to answer the question of whether white and black women feel safest giving birth in out-of-hospital settings at different rates, and whether this answer is associated with other socioeconomic indicators. Methods An interview of 634 nulliparous women during the third trimester of their pregnancy in Michigan provided data regarding where women felt safest giving birth. Feeling safest giving birth out-of-hospital was examined in relation to socioeconomic factors including race, age, household income, education, residence in a high-crime neighborhood, partnered status, and type of insurance. Results This study found that black and white women say they feel safest giving birth in out-of-hospital settings at similar rates (11.5% and 13.1% respectively). Logistic regression results showed that poverty and having education beyond high school were the only sociodemographic indicators significantly associated with feeling safest giving birth out-of-hospital. Discussion Disparities evident in planned homebirth and birth center rates cannot be explained by racial differences in feelings toward out-of-hospital birth and should be addressed more specifically in public policy and future studies. PMID:27623132

  20. Where Do You Feel Safest? Demographic Factors and Place of Birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperlich, Mickey; Gabriel, Cynthia; Seng, Julia

    2017-01-01

    The vast majority of planned out-of-hospital births in the United States occur among white women; no study has addressed whether black women prefer out-of-hospital birth less or whether this racial disparity is due to other causes such as constrained access. This study sought to answer the question of whether white and black women feel safest giving birth in out-of-hospital settings at different rates and whether this answer is associated with other socioeconomic indicators. An interview of 634 nulliparous women during the third trimester of their pregnancy in Michigan provided data regarding where women felt safest giving birth. Feeling safest giving birth out-of-hospital was examined in relation to socioeconomic factors including race, age, household income, education, residence in a high-crime neighborhood, partnered status, and type of insurance. This study found that black and white women say they feel safest giving birth in out-of-hospital settings at similar rates (11.5% and 13.1%, respectively). Logistic regression results showed that poverty and having education beyond high school were the only sociodemographic indicators significantly associated with feeling safest giving birth out-of-hospital. Disparities evident in planned home birth and birth center rates cannot be explained by racial differences in feelings toward out-of-hospital birth and should be addressed more specifically in public policy and future studies. © 2016 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  1. Ecological theatre and the evolutionary game: how environmental and demographic factors determine payoffs in evolutionary games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argasinski, K; Broom, M

    2013-10-01

    In the standard approach to evolutionary games and replicator dynamics, differences in fitness can be interpreted as an excess from the mean Malthusian growth rate in the population. In the underlying reasoning, related to an analysis of "costs" and "benefits", there is a silent assumption that fitness can be described in some type of units. However, in most cases these units of measure are not explicitly specified. Then the question arises: are these theories testable? How can we measure "benefit" or "cost"? A natural language, useful for describing and justifying comparisons of strategic "cost" versus "benefits", is the terminology of demography, because the basic events that shape the outcome of natural selection are births and deaths. In this paper, we present the consequences of an explicit analysis of births and deaths in an evolutionary game theoretic framework. We will investigate different types of mortality pressures, their combinations and the possibility of trade-offs between mortality and fertility. We will show that within this new approach it is possible to model how strictly ecological factors such as density dependence and additive background fitness, which seem neutral in classical theory, can affect the outcomes of the game. We consider the example of the Hawk-Dove game, and show that when reformulated in terms of our new approach new details and new biological predictions are produced.

  2. Maternal Demographic and Psychosocial Factors Associated with Low Birth Weight in Eastern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin-Ming Li

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between birth weight and maternal sociodemographic characteristics was examined in a sample from two teaching hospitals in eastern Taiwan. Using a structured questionnaire, we conducted face- to-face interviews with women at antenatal clinics between 1998 and 1999 in Hualien City. One year later, we took the outcome of pregnancy from medical records and birth certificates from the Public Health Bureau of Hualien County. Of the 1,128 single live births, 6.8% had low birth weight (LBW using the World Health Organization cut-off of 2,500 g. LBW was more common in teenage ( 30 years, first-time, and unmarried mothers; those with basic/intermediate educational attainment; and residents of aboriginal districts. Teenage pregnancies were more likely than those in adults to be unplanned, and such mothers had smoking or alcohol-drinking behavior. Prevention of teenage pregnancy is crucial to lower LBW rates in eastern Taiwan. For adult mothers, basic or intermediate educational attainment, residence in an aboriginal district, and first-term pregnancy were significant factors associated with LBW, after adjustment for other psychosocial attributes, such as psychologic distress and poor family support. Thus, we should pay more attention when caring for pregnant women with such sociodemographic characteristics, and ensure that they have adequate prenatal care and can adopt a healthy lifestyle.

  3. Demographic and Operational Factors Predicting Study Completion in a Multisite Case-Control Study of Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Chyrise B; Browne, Erica N; Alexander, Aimee A; Collins, Jack; Dahm, Jamie L; DiGuiseppi, Carolyn G; Levy, Susan E; Moody, Eric J; Schieve, Laura A; Windham, Gayle C; Young, Lisa; Daniels, Julie L

    2018-03-01

    Participant attrition can limit inferences drawn from study results and inflate research costs. We examined factors associated with completion of the Study to Explore Early Development (2007-2011), a multiple-component, case-control study of risk factors for autism spectrum disorder in preschoolers, conducted in California, Colorado, Georgia, Maryland, North Carolina, and Pennsylvania. Participants (n = 3,769) were asked to complete phone interviews, questionnaires, an in-person evaluation, and biologic sampling. We examined whether participant demographic and administrative factors predicted completion using mixed-effects logistic regression models. Completion of individual key study components was generally 70% or higher. However, 58% of families completed all per-protocol data elements (defined a priori as key study components). Per-protocol completion differed according to mother's age, race, educational level, driving distance to clinic, number of contact attempts to enroll, and number of telephone numbers provided (all P < 0.05). Case status was not associated with completion, despite additional data collection for case-confirmation. Analysis of a subset that completed an early interview revealed no differences in completion by household factors of income, primary language spoken, number of adults, or number of children with chronic conditions. Differences in completion by race and education were notable and need to be carefully considered in developing future recruitment and completion strategies.

  4. Auditing Search Engines for Differential Satisfaction Across Demographics

    OpenAIRE

    Mehrotra, R.; Anderson, A.; Diaz, F.; Sharma, A.; Wallach, H. M.; Yilmaz, E.

    2017-01-01

    Many online services, such as search engines, social media platforms, and digital marketplaces, are advertised as being available to any user, regardless of their age, gender, or other demographic factors. However, there are growing concerns that these services may systematically underserve some groups of users. In this paper, we present a framework for internally auditing such services for differences in user satisfaction across demographic groups, using search engines as a case study. We fi...

  5. Total rewards that retain: A study of demographic preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Monica Pregnolato; Mark H.R. Bussin; Anton F. Schlechter

    2017-01-01

    Orientation: Changing workplace demographics and a dearth of employees with scarce skills have forced employers to better understand the various factors that retain talented employees. Research purpose: In this empirical study, the reward preferences and ideal combination of total reward elements (based on an estimation of their relative importance) that retain employees from various demographic groups, including employees of different race, gender and age groups, were investigated. M...

  6. Socioeconomic and Demographic Factors for Spousal Resemblance in Obesity Status and Habitual Physical Activity in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Jen Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies suggested that the married population has an increased risk of obesity and assimilation between spouses’ body weight. We examined what factors may affect married spouses’ resemblance in weight status and habitual physical activity (HPA and the association of obesity/HPA with spouses’ sociodemoeconomic characteristics and lifestyles. Medical Expenditure Panel Survey data of 11,403 adult married couples in the US during years 2006–2008 were used. Absolute-scale difference and relative-scale resemblance indices (correlation and kappa coefficients in body mass index (BMI and HPA were estimated by couples’ socioeconomic and demographic characteristics. We found that spousal difference in BMI was smaller for couples with a lower household income, for who were both unemployed, and for older spouses. Correlation coefficient between spouses’ BMI was 0.24, differing by race/ethnicity and family size. Kappa coefficient for weight status (obesity: BMI ≥ 30, overweight: 30 > BMI ≥ 25 was 0.11 and 0.35 for HPA. Never-working women’s husbands had lower odds of obesity than employed women’s husbands (OR = 0.69 (95% CI = 0.53–0.89. Men’s unemployment status was associated with wives’ greater odds of obesity (OR = 1.31 (95% CI = 1.01–1.71. HPA was associated with men’s employment status and income level, but not with women’s. The population representative survey showed that spousal resemblance in weight status and HPA varied with socioeconomic and demographic factors.

  7. Blood donation by African migrants and refugees in Australia: the role of demographic and socio-economic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuilten, Z; Waters, N; Polonsky, M; Renzaho, A

    2014-02-01

    To establish blood donation rates among African refugees and migrants and identify demographic and socio-economic factors that are associated with their blood donation. A cross-sectional survey of 425 migrants and refugees living in Victoria and South Australia was used to assess blood donation status. The association between blood donation and demographic and socio-economic factors was assessed using multiple logistic regression analysis. Overall, 73 participants (17·2%; 95% CI: 13·6-20·8) reported having donated blood previously. Of the total sample, 2·4% (95% CI: 0·9-3·8) reported having given blood in Australia; 12·9% (95% CI: 9·7-16·1) had given blood prior to migration to Australia (i.e. country of birth or transition); and 1·9% (95% CI: 0·6-3·2) indicated they had given blood in an unspecified country. In the univariate model, age, country of birth, blood donation knowledge, religion, educational attainment, migration and employment status were all associated with blood donation status. However, in the multivariate model, only age >45 years (odds ratio [OR] 5·72; 95% CI 2·11-15·46), African region of origin (OR 15·89; 95% CI 3·89-65) and blood donation knowledge (OR 4·46; 95% CI 1·57-12·7) were associated with blood donation. In order to increase the number of blood donors among African migrants, promoting knowledge and awareness of issues associated with blood donation in Australia should be emphasized. Consideration should be given to identifying these potential migrant donors to improve the availability of compatible blood for patients of African descent. © 2013 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  8. Coffee Drinking Is Widespread in the United States, but Usual Intake Varies by Key Demographic and Lifestyle Factors123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftfield, Erikka; Freedman, Neal D; Dodd, Kevin W; Vogtmann, Emily; Xiao, Qian; Sinha, Rashmi; Graubard, Barry I

    2016-01-01

    Background: Despite widespread popularity and possible health effects, the prevalence and distribution of coffee consumption in US adults are poorly characterized. Objective: We sought to estimate usual daily coffee intakes from all coffee-containing beverages, including decaffeinated and regular coffee, among US adults according to demographic, socioeconomic, and health-related factors. Methods: Dietary intake data from ≤2 nonconsecutive 24-h dietary recalls and a food-frequency questionnaire administered during the NHANES 2003–2006 were used to estimate the person-specific probability of consuming coffee on a particular day and the usual amount consumed on consumption days. Trends in population mean coffee consumption over time were evaluated by using multiple linear regression and 1-d 24-h recall data from NHANES 2003–2012. Analyses were weighted to be representative of the US adult population aged ≥20 y. Results: An estimated 154 million adults, or 75% of the US population, aged ≥20 y reported drinking coffee; 49% reported drinking coffee daily. Prevalence did not vary by sex, education, income, or self-reported general health (all P ≥ 0.05) but did vary by age, race/ethnicity, smoking status, and alcohol drinking (all P coffee drinkers, the mean ± SE usual intake was 14.1 ± 0.5 fluid ounces/d (417 ± 15 mL/d). Mean usual intakes were higher in men than women, in older age groups than in those aged 20 to coffee consumption was stable from 2003 to 2012 (P-trend = 0.09). Conclusions: Coffee is widely consumed in the United States, with usual intakes varying by lifestyle and demographic factors, most notably by age. Longitudinal studies are needed to determine whether observed differences by age reflect birth cohort effects or changes in drinking patterns over the lifetime. PMID:27489008

  9. Body Esteem Among Women with Multiple Sclerosis and its Relationship with Demographic, Clinical and Socio-Psychological Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilski, M; Tasiemski, T; Dąbrowski, A

    2016-06-01

    The principal aim of this study was to verify if specific socio-demographic, clinical, and socio-psychological factors are correlates of body esteem in women with multiple sclerosis (MS). The study included 185 women with MS who completed the Body Esteem Scale (BES), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale (MSIS-29), Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire (B-IPQ), Actually Received Support Scale (a part of the Berlin Social Support Scale), and Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS). The patients were recruited as a result of cooperation with the Multiple Sclerosis Rehabilitation Centre in Borne Sulinowo and Polish Society of Multiple Sclerosis. The demographic characteristics of the participants and their illness-related problems were determined with a self-report survey. A hierarchical multiple regression revealed that four factors, psychological condition (R (2) = 0.23, p ≤ 0.001), received support (R (2) = 0.28, p ≤ 0.001), personal control (R (2) = 0.30, p ≤ 0.001), and physical condition (R (2) = 0.31, p ≤ 0.001), were significant correlates of the general body esteem in our study group of women with MS. The model explained 31 % of variance in body esteem. Positive body esteem, an important component of self-esteem in women with MS, is associated with better social support, overcoming negative illness-related appraisals and improvement of psychological well-being. Subjective perception of a negative impact of MS on one's physical condition may be helpful in the identification of women with MS being at increased risk of decreased body esteem.

  10. Demographic factors, social problems and material amenities as predictors of psychological distress: a cross-sectional study in Karachi, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidwai, Rubeena

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown high prevalence rates for stress and psychiatric morbidity in rural areas of Pakistan, but prevalence findings from urban areas vary widely (between 18 and 70%). Many of these studies have focused on special populations and may not be representative of the general population in urban settings. The purpose of the present study was to ascertain prevalence and predictors of psychological distress in a representative sample of community dwelling adults from mid-low to low-income urban areas of Karachi, Pakistan. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken utilizing probability-based sampling from five mid-low to low-income communities of Karachi. Measures included the twelve-item Urdu version of general health questionnaire (GHQ-12), a demographic questionnaire, and questions about financial, health-related and family problems and about access to services and material amenities owned. Seventeen per cent of respondents (N = 1,188) were positive for psychological distress. More females were distressed than males and migrant groups had higher prevalence of distress as compared with natives of the city. Although other studies have shown low education or income to be associated with emotional distress and non-psychotic psychiatric morbidity, our study suggested that having limited income or education may make one more vulnerable to social problems that in turn may be associated with greater distress. An access to services and material amenities had a small but significant association with decreased distress. The overall national prevalence rates may not reveal the influence of gender, region (rural v. urban) and migration on psychological distress. Further research is needed to address mental health of migrant groups in urban centers of Pakistan.

  11. Gender identity outcomes in children with disorders/differences of sex development: Predictive factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakula, Dana M; Mullins, Alexandria J; Sharkey, Christina M; Wolfe-Christensen, Cortney; Mullins, Larry L; Wisniewski, Amy B

    2017-06-01

    Disorders/differences of sex development (DSD) comprise multiple congenital conditions in which chromosomal, gonadal, and/or anatomical sex are discordant. The prediction of future gender identity (i.e., self-identifying as male, female, or other) in children with DSD can be imprecise, and current knowledge about the development of gender identity in people with, and without DSD, is limited. However, sex of rearing is the strongest predictor of gender identity for the majority of individuals with various DSD conditions. When making decisions regarding sex of rearing biological factors (e.g., possession of a Y chromosome, degree and duration of pre- and postnatal androgen exposure, phenotypic presentation of the external genitalia, and fertility potential), social and cultural factors, as well as quality of life should be considered. Information on gender identity outcomes across a range of DSD diagnoses is presented to aid in sex of rearing assignment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Understanding Factors that Shape Gender Attitudes in Early Adolescence Globally: A Mixed-Methods Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Susannah; Blum, Robert Wm; Moreau, Caroline; Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman; Herbert, Ann; Amin, Avni

    2016-01-01

    Background Early adolescence (ages 10–14) is a period of increased expectations for boys and girls to adhere to socially constructed and often stereotypical norms that perpetuate gender inequalities. The endorsement of such gender norms is closely linked to poor adolescent sexual and reproductive and other health-related outcomes yet little is known about the factors that influence young adolescents’ personal gender attitudes. Objectives To explore factors that shape gender attitudes in early adolescence across different cultural settings globally. Methods A mixed-methods systematic review was conducted of the peer-reviewed literature in 12 databases from 1984–2014. Four reviewers screened the titles and abstracts of articles and reviewed full text articles in duplicate. Data extraction and quality assessments were conducted using standardized templates by study design. Thematic analysis was used to synthesize quantitative and qualitative data organized by the social-ecological framework (individual, interpersonal and community/societal-level factors influencing gender attitudes). Results Eighty-two studies (46 quantitative, 31 qualitative, 5 mixed-methods) spanning 29 countries were included. Ninety percent of studies were from North America or Western Europe. The review findings indicate that young adolescents, across cultural settings, commonly express stereotypical or inequitable gender attitudes, and such attitudes appear to vary by individual sociodemographic characteristics (sex, race/ethnicity and immigration, social class, and age). Findings highlight that interpersonal influences (family and peers) are central influences on young adolescents’ construction of gender attitudes, and these gender socialization processes differ for boys and girls. The role of community factors (e.g. media) is less clear though there is some evidence that schools may reinforce stereotypical gender attitudes among young adolescents. Conclusions The findings from this

  13. Understanding Factors that Shape Gender Attitudes in Early Adolescence Globally: A Mixed-Methods Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kågesten, Anna; Gibbs, Susannah; Blum, Robert Wm; Moreau, Caroline; Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman; Herbert, Ann; Amin, Avni

    2016-01-01

    Early adolescence (ages 10-14) is a period of increased expectations for boys and girls to adhere to socially constructed and often stereotypical norms that perpetuate gender inequalities. The endorsement of such gender norms is closely linked to poor adolescent sexual and reproductive and other health-related outcomes yet little is known about the factors that influence young adolescents' personal gender attitudes. To explore factors that shape gender attitudes in early adolescence across different cultural settings globally. A mixed-methods systematic review was conducted of the peer-reviewed literature in 12 databases from 1984-2014. Four reviewers screened the titles and abstracts of articles and reviewed full text articles in duplicate. Data extraction and quality assessments were conducted using standardized templates by study design. Thematic analysis was used to synthesize quantitative and qualitative data organized by the social-ecological framework (individual, interpersonal and community/societal-level factors influencing gender attitudes). Eighty-two studies (46 quantitative, 31 qualitative, 5 mixed-methods) spanning 29 countries were included. Ninety percent of studies were from North America or Western Europe. The review findings indicate that young adolescents, across cultural settings, commonly express stereotypical or inequitable gender attitudes, and such attitudes appear to vary by individual sociodemographic characteristics (sex, race/ethnicity and immigration, social class, and age). Findings highlight that interpersonal influences (family and peers) are central influences on young adolescents' construction of gender attitudes, and these gender socialization processes differ for boys and girls. The role of community factors (e.g. media) is less clear though there is some evidence that schools may reinforce stereotypical gender attitudes among young adolescents. The findings from this review suggest that young adolescents in different cultural

  14. Understanding Factors that Shape Gender Attitudes in Early Adolescence Globally: A Mixed-Methods Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kågesten

    Full Text Available Early adolescence (ages 10-14 is a period of increased expectations for boys and girls to adhere to socially constructed and often stereotypical norms that perpetuate gender inequalities. The endorsement of such gender norms is closely linked to poor adolescent sexual and reproductive and other health-related outcomes yet little is known about the factors that influence young adolescents' personal gender attitudes.To explore factors that shape gender attitudes in early adolescence across different cultural settings globally.A mixed-methods systematic review was conducted of the peer-reviewed literature in 12 databases from 1984-2014. Four reviewers screened the titles and abstracts of articles and reviewed full text articles in duplicate. Data extraction and quality assessments were conducted using standardized templates by study design. Thematic analysis was used to synthesize quantitative and qualitative data organized by the social-ecological framework (individual, interpersonal and community/societal-level factors influencing gender attitudes.Eighty-two studies (46 quantitative, 31 qualitative, 5 mixed-methods spanning 29 countries were included. Ninety percent of studies were from North America or Western Europe. The review findings indicate that young adolescents, across cultural settings, commonly express stereotypical or inequitable gender attitudes, and such attitudes appear to vary by individual sociodemographic characteristics (sex, race/ethnicity and immigration, social class, and age. Findings highlight that interpersonal influences (family and peers are central influences on young adolescents' construction of gender attitudes, and these gender socialization processes differ for boys and girls. The role of community factors (e.g. media is less clear though there is some evidence that schools may reinforce stereotypical gender attitudes among young adolescents.The findings from this review suggest that young adolescents in different

  15. Measuring the factors influencing entrepreneurial e-Commerce growth in Saudi Arabia (I.S. Success factors & Demographics measurements)

    OpenAIRE

    Almehmadi, Bander

    2010-01-01

    The construction of an evaluation mechanism for entrepreneurial e-Commerce projects can be foreseen as vital to help tolerate any obstacles or source of failure that might arise in the path of the new business. Establishing a framework that encapsulates all crucial factors is a mandatory requirement in this evaluation process in order to set standers by which a firm could measure its success ability and predict and reveal all bottlenecks by carrying a full proactive inspection rather than ...

  16. Factors Relating to Managerial Stereotypes: The Role of Gender of the Employee and the Manager and Management Gender Ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoker, Janka I; Van der Velde, Mandy; Lammers, Joris

    2012-03-01

    PURPOSE: Several studies have shown that the traditional stereotype of a "good" manager being masculine and male still exists. The recent changes in the proportion of women and female managers in organizations could affect these two managerial stereotypes, leading to a stronger preference for feminine characteristics and female leaders. This study examines if the gender of an employee, the gender of the manager, and the management gender ratio in an organization are related to employees' managerial stereotypes. DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: 3229 respondents working in various organizations completed an electronic questionnaire. FINDINGS: The results confirm our hypotheses that, although the general stereotype of a manager is masculine and although most prefer a man as a manager, female employees, employees with a female manager, and employees working in an organization with a high percentage of female managers, have a stronger preference for feminine characteristics of managers and for female managers. Moreover, we find that proximal variables are much stronger predictors of these preferences than more distal variables. IMPLICATIONS: Our study suggests that managerial stereotypes could change as a result of personal experiences and changes in the organizational context. The results imply that increasing the proportion of female managers is an effective way to overcome managerial stereotyping. ORIGINALITY/VALUE: This study examines the influence on managerial stereotypes of various proximal and distal factors derived from theory among a large group of employees (in contrast to students).

  17. Gender determination from diagnostic factors on anteroposterior pelvic radiographs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Memarian

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: The results of this study revealed that the evaluation of the radiographic images of pelvic bones by assessing the mentioned factors can be useful for sex determination from skeletal remains. However, ethical considerations should also be taken into account while using these factors.

  18. Socio-demographic and health-related factors associated with cognitive impairment in the elderly in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiu Herng-Chia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cognitive impairment is an age-related condition as the rate of cognitive decline rapidly increases with aging. It is especially important to better understand factors involving in cognitive decline for the countries where the older population is growing rapidly. The aim of this study was to examine the association between socio-demographic and health-related factors and cognitive impairment in the elderly in Taiwan. Methods We analysed data from 2119 persons aged 65 years and over who participated in the 2005 National Health Interview Survey. Cognitive impairment was defined as having the score of the Mini Mental State Examination lower than 24. The χ2 test and multiple logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association between cognitive impairment and variables of socio-demography, chronic diseases, geriatric conditions, lifestyle, and dietary factors. Results The prevalence of cognitive impairment was 22.2%. Results of multivariate analysis indicated that low education, being single, low social support, lower lipid level, history of stroke, physical inactivity, non-coffee drinking and poor physical function were associated with a higher risk of cognitive impairment. Conclusion Most of the characteristics in relation to cognitive impairment identified in our analysis are potentially modifiable. These results suggest that improving lifestyle behaviours such as regular exercise and increased social participation could help prevent or decrease the risk of cognitive impairment. Further investigations using longitudinal data are needed to clarify our findings.

  19. Sunbed use among 64,000 Danish students and the associations with demographic factors, health-related behaviours, and appearance-related factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Maria Kristine Hagelskær; Køster, Brian; Juul, Lise

    2017-01-01

    Sunbed use is associated with an increased risk for skin cancer and is particularly dangerous for younger persons. The objective of this study was to assess how demographic factors, health-related behaviours and appearance-related factors are associated with sunbed use. Cross-sectional data from...... a smoker, been binge-drinking, longer duration of exercise and been dieting were also associated with sunbed use. For females, poor dietary habits were also associated with sunbed use. Feeling overweight was associated with lower odds for sunbed use for males, but with higher odds for females. Lower body......-related factors and sunbed use. Understanding these relations could help to identify high-risk groups and guide preventive strategies for sunbed use and skin cancer prevention....

  20. The gender difference on the Mental Rotations test is not due to performance factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, M S

    1998-05-01

    Men score higher than women on the Mental Rotations test (MRT), and the magnitude of this gender difference is the largest of that on any spatial test. Goldstein, Haldane, and Mitchell (1990) reported finding that the gender difference on the MRT disappears when "performance factors" are controlled--specifically, when subjects are allowed sufficient time to attempt all items on the test or when a scoring procedure that controls for the number of items attempted is used. The present experiment also explored whether eliminating these performance factors results in a disappearance of the gender difference on the test. Male and female college students were allowed a short time period or unlimited time on the MRT. The tests were scored according to three different procedures. The results showed no evidence that the gender difference on the MRT was affected by the scoring method or the time limit. Regardless of the scoring procedure, men scored higher than women, and the magnitude of the gender difference persisted undiminished when subjects completed all items on the test. Thus there was no evidence that performance factors produced the gender difference on the MRT. These results are consistent with the results of other investigators who have attempted to replicate Goldstein et al.'s findings.

  1. [Gender violence and other factors associated with emotional distress in female users of public health services in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez-Santiago, Rosario; Juárez-Ramírez, Clara; Salgado-de Snyder, V Nelly; Agoff, Carolina; Avila-Burgos, Leticia; Híjar, Martha C

    2006-01-01

    To identify and describe the factors associated with emotional distress in a national sample of women users of public health services in Mexico, such a Secretaria de Salud (SSA), Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS), Instituto de Seguridad y Servicios Sociales de los Trabajadores del Estado (ISSSTE). This research study was conducted using the database of the National Survey of Violence against Women that consisted of the responses of a total of 26 042 female users of health care services provided by the Mexican government health agencies. The Personal Health Scale (ESP per its initials in Spanish) was used to assess emotional distress. To measure violence a 19-item scale which explores different types of violence as well as severity was used. The relationship between emotional distress and gender violence was determined through a binary logistic regression model, as were economic status and demographic variables. One of the most important findings of this study is the high prevalence of emotional distress (15.3%) among women seeking health care services from the public sector and the relationship of such emotional distress with the experience of marital physical, psychological, and sexual violence. Factors associated with emotional distress among female users of health care services were age (26 and older); activity (laborer); working hours (71 hours a week or more); alcohol intake (greater intake); abuse during childhood (frequency and types of abuse); severity of marital violence (severe violence); socioeconomic status (very low SES); and type of dwelling (urban). The principal predictor of emotional distress was intimate partner abuse, especially in severe expression. The next predictor was violence in childhood. Taking into consideration these predictors it is recommended to use screening instruments to identify emotional distress and gender violence in health setting. It is important to design and implement attention and reference programs in public

  2. Measurement and Socio-Demographic Variation of Social Capital in a Large Population-Based Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieminen, Tarja; Martelin, Tuija; Koskinen, Seppo; Simpura, Jussi; Alanen, Erkki; Harkanen, Tommi; Aromaa, Arpo

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: The main objective of this study was to describe the variation of individual social capital according to socio-demographic factors, and to develop a suitable way to measure social capital for this purpose. The similarity of socio-demographic variation between the genders was also assessed. Data and methods: The study applied…

  3. Individual, household and contextual factors associated with skilled delivery care in Ethiopia: Evidence from Ethiopian demographic and health surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezmur, Markos; Navaneetham, Kannan; Letamo, Gobopamang; Bariagaber, Hadgu

    2017-01-01

    Despite evidence that social contexts are key determinants of health, research into factors associated with maternal health service utilization in Ethiopia has often focused on individual and household factors. The downside is that this underestimates the importance of taking contextual factors into account when planning appropriate interventions in promoting safe motherhood in the country. The purpose of this study is to fill this knowledge gap drawing attention to the largely unexplored contextual factors affecting the uptake of skilled attendance at delivery in a nationally representative sample. Data for the study comes from two rounds of the Ethiopian Demographic and Health Surveys (EDHS) conducted in the year 2005 and 2011. Analysis was done using a two-level multivariable multilevel logistic regression model with data from 14, 242 women who had a live birth in the five years preceding the surveys clustered within 540 (in the year 2005) and 624 (in the year 2011) communities. The results of the study point to multiple levels of measured and unmeasured factors affecting the uptake of skilled delivery care in the country. At community level, place of residence, community level of female education and fertility significantly predict the uptake of skilled delivery care. At individual and household level, maternal age, birth order, maternal education, household wealth and access to media predict the uptake of such service. Thus, there is a need to consider community contexts in the design of maternal health programs and employ multi-sectorial approach to addressing barriers at different levels. For example, improving access and availability of skilled delivery care should eventually enhance the uptake of such services at community level in Ethiopia. At individual level, efforts to promote the uptake of such services should constitute targeted interventions paying special attention to the needs of the youth, the multiparous, the less educated and women in the

  4. Individual, household and contextual factors associated with skilled delivery care in Ethiopia: Evidence from Ethiopian demographic and health surveys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markos Mezmur

    Full Text Available Despite evidence that social contexts are key determinants of health, research into factors associated with maternal health service utilization in Ethiopia has often focused on individual and household factors. The downside is that this underestimates the importance of taking contextual factors into account when planning appropriate interventions in promoting safe motherhood in the country. The purpose of this study is to fill this knowledge gap drawing attention to the largely unexplored contextual factors affecting the uptake of skilled attendance at delivery in a nationally representative sample. Data for the study comes from two rounds of the Ethiopian Demographic and Health Surveys (EDHS conducted in the year 2005 and 2011. Analysis was done using a two-level multivariable multilevel logistic regression model with data from 14, 242 women who had a live birth in the five years preceding the surveys clustered within 540 (in the year 2005 and 624 (in the year 2011 communities. The results of the study point to multiple levels of measured and unmeasured factors affecting the uptake of skilled delivery care in the country. At community level, place of residence, community level of female education and fertility significantly predict the uptake of skilled delivery care. At individual and household level, maternal age, birth order, maternal education, household wealth and access to media predict the uptake of such service. Thus, there is a need to consider community contexts in the design of maternal health programs and employ multi-sectorial approach to addressing barriers at different levels. For example, improving access and availability of skilled delivery care should eventually enhance the uptake of such services at community level in Ethiopia. At individual level, efforts to promote the uptake of such services should constitute targeted interventions paying special attention to the needs of the youth, the multiparous, the less educated and

  5. Demographic, risk factors and motivations among blood donors with reactive serologic tests for syphilis in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, S C; de Almeida-Neto, C; Nishiya, A S; Oliveira, C D L; Ferreira, J E; Alencar, C S; Levi, J E; Salles, N A; Mendrone, A; Sabino, E C

    2014-06-01

    To identify the demographic characteristics, risk factors and motivations for donating among blood donors with reactive serologic tests for syphilis. Post-donation interviews with syphilis seropositive blood donors improve recruitment and screening strategies. This case-control study compares 75 Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) > 8, EIA+ (enzyme immunoassay) and FTA-ABS+ (fluorescent treponemal antibody); 80 VDRL-, EIA+ and FTA-ABS+; and 34 VDRL- and EIA- donors between 2004 and 2009. Donors were assessed by their demographic characteristics, sexual behaviour, history of alcohol and illicit drugs use, and motivations to donate. Donors with VDRL > 8 were more likely to be divorced [AOR = 12·53; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·30-120·81], to have had more than six sexual partners (AOR=7·1; 95% CI 1·12-44·62) and to report male-male-sex in the past 12 months (AOR=8·18; 95% CI 1·78-37·60). Donors with VDRL-, EIA+ and FTA-ABS+ were less likely to be female (AOR=0·26; 95% CI 0·07-0·96), more likely to be older (AOR=10·2; 95% CI 2·45-42·58 ≥ 39 and illicit drugs use; 30·7% (VDRL > 8) and 12·5% (VDRL-, EIA+ and FTA-ABS+) of donors reported that they had been at risk for HIV infection (P = 0·004). One-third of donors came to the blood bank to help a friend or a relative who needed blood. Although donors exposed to syphilis reported and recognised some high risk behaviour, most were motivated by direct appeal to donate blood. Monitoring the risk profile of blood donors can benefit public health and improve blood safety. © 2014 The Authors. Transfusion Medicine © 2014 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  6. Gender Differences in Risk Factors for Single and Recurrent Falls Among the Community-Dwelling Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Mei O

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to identify gender differences in risk factors of fall accidents among older people, and whether these factors differ between single and recurrent fallers. A total of 4,426 individuals aged ≥65 years from two large-scale health surveys provided data. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify risk factors and to determine the risk model for falling and recurrent falling in men and women separately. Three major risk factors for falling regardless of gender or fall history are fear of falling, limitations in activities of daily living (ADL, and age ≥75 years. Fear of falling remains one of the common modifiable risk factors. Among those without a fall history, the use of sedatives or tranquilizers increases the risk of falling. Regarding gender differences, ADL limitations and fear of falling appear to be stronger fall risk factors for men than for women. Among women, alcohol use and educational level are significant risk factors for falling, while loneliness is associated with recurrent falling. Men with fear of falling or ADL limitations are at higher risk to have a recurrent fall accident than women with these conditions. Having a visual impairment or living with someone is associated with recurrent falling among men. Our findings emphasize the importance of multifactorial fall interventions, taking into account a variety of subgroup characteristics such as gender and fall history.

  7. Gender differences in factors associated with sexual intercourse among Estonian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Part, Kai; Rahu, Kaja; Rahu, Mati; Karro, Helle

    2011-06-01

    To examine factors associated with early sexual intercourse among 15 to 16-year-old adolescents by gender. The data were collected from a random sample of Estonian basic schools' ninth grade pupils in 1999 using self-completed questionnaires. A multivariate logistic regression analysis for boys and girls was used to test for associations between sexual intercourse, and personal gender role-related attitudes, attitudes towards sexual intercourse, pubertal timing, smoking status and experience of drunkenness. Of the respondents, 14.6% of boys and 13.1% of girls had experienced sexual intercourse. Traditional gender role-related attitudes were associated with sexual intercourse among girls, but not among boys. Smoking and experience of drunkenness was strongly associated with sexual intercourse for both genders. Gender differences in the association between gender role-related attitudes and early sexual intercourse were observed among 15 to 16-year-olds in Estonia. Smoking and experience of drunkenness were strongly related to sexual intercourse for both genders.

  8. Factors affecting cognitive function according to gender in community-dwelling elderly individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miwon Kim

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES This study aimed to identify the factors affecting the cognitive function of elderly people in a community by gender. METHODS We obtained 4,878 secondary data of people aged ≥65 years in 2016 at a dementia prevention center in Gyeyang-gu, Incheon. Data were obtained through Mini-Mental Status Examination optimized for screening dementia and a questionnaire. The data were statistically analyzed using analysis of variance, analysis of covariance, and hierarchical regression. RESULTS There were significant differences in cognitive function according to gender, and the differences were significant even when age was controlled, but gender differences disappeared when education was controlled. Age, education, social activities, number of comorbid diseases, and alcohol drinking affected cognitive function through interaction with gender, but interaction with gender disappeared when education was controlled. Regression analysis showed that depression, cohabitant, social activities etc., had a significant impact on both men and women under controlled education and age. In men, the effect of social activities was greater than that of women, and hyperlipidemia had the effect only in women. CONCLUSIONS The differences in gender-related cognitive functions were due to differences in gender education period. The period of education is considered to have a great influence on cognitive function in relation to the economic level, occupation, and social activity.

  9. Variability of perfluoroalkyl substance concentrations in pregnant women by socio-demographic and dietary factors in a Spanish birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzano-Salgado, Cyntia B; Casas, Maribel; Lopez-Espinosa, Maria-Jose; Ballester, Ferran; Martinez, David; Ibarluzea, Jesus; Santa-Marina, Loreto; Schettgen, Thomas; Vioque, Jesus; Sunyer, Jordi; Vrijheid, Martine

    2016-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) might affect child health; but maternal determinants of PFAS exposure are unclear. We evaluated the socio-demographic and dietary factors of prenatal PFAS concentrations in a Spanish birth cohort. We analyzed perfluorohexanesulfonic acid (PFHxS), perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) in 1216 plasma samples collected during the 1(ST) trimester of pregnancy (2003-2008). We used multivariable linear regressions to assess the geometric mean (GM) ratios of PFAS concentrations by socio-demographic and dietary factors. We used analysis of variance (ANOVA) to assess the variability of PFAS concentrations by maternal factors. GM PFAS concentrations ranged from 0.55ng/mL for PFHxS to 5.77ng/mL for PFOS. Women born outside of Spain had lower PFAS concentrations (e.g. GM ratio for PFHxS 0.53[95%CI: 0.46, 0.60] than Spanish women. PFHxS and PFOA concentrations were higher in mothers from the regions of Sabadell (2.13[1.93, 2.35] and 1.73[1.60, 1.88], respectively) and Valencia (1.40[1.28, 1.54] and 1.42[1.31, 1.53], respectively) than Gipuzkoa. PFOA and PFNA concentrations decreased with parity (≥2 children: 0.79[0.67, 0.94] and 0.82[0.68, 0.99], respectively). Younger women (i.e. 6months compared to those who never breastfed (0.79[0.67, 0.94] and 0.82[0.71, 0.95], respectively). High intake of fish and shellfish during pregnancy (i.e. ≥5.6 servings/week) was associated with 11% (1.11[1.04, 1.18]) higher PFOS concentrations than the lowest intake group. Our ANOVA models explained 26% to 40% of PFAS concentrations variability. Prenatal PFAS concentrations were mainly determined by maternal country of birth, region of residence, previous breastfeeding and age. Fish and shellfish intake also contributed to PFOS and PFOA concentrations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Role of Actors and Gender Factor in Disaster Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundogdu, Oguz; Isik, Ozden; Ozcep, Ferhat; Goksu, Goksel

    2014-05-01

    In Turkey, the discussions in the modern sense about disaster management begun after the 1992 Erzincan and the 1995 Dinar earthquakes, faulting in terms of features and effects. These earthquakes are "Urban Earthquakes'' with effects and faulting charectristics, and have led to radical changes in terms of disaster and disaster management. Disaster Management, to become a science in the world, but with the 1999 Izmit and Duzce earthquakes in Turkey has begun to take seriously on the agenda. Firstly, such as Civil Defense and Red Crescent organizations, by transforming its own, have entered into a new organizing effort. By these earthquakes, NGO's have contributed the search-rescue efforts in the field and to the process of normalization of life. Because "the authority and responsibilities" of NGO's could not be determined, and could not be in planning and scenario studies, we faced the problems. Thus, to the citizens of our country-specific "voluntary" has not benefited enough from the property. The most important development in disaster management in 2009, the Disaster and Emergency Management Presidency (AFAD) has been the establishment. However, in terms of coordination and accreditation to the target point has been reached yet. Another important issue in disaster management (need to be addressed along with disaster actors) is the role of women in disasters. After the Golcuk Earthquake, successful field works of women and women's victimization has attracted attention in two different directions. Gender-sensitive policies should be noted by the all disaster actors due to the importance of the mitigation, and these policies should take place in laws, regulations and planning.

  11. Socio-demographic and lifestyle factors associated with overweight in a representative sample of 11-15 year olds in France: Results from the WHO-Collaborative Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godeau Emmanuelle

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of overweight in children and adolescents is high and overweight is associated with poor health outcomes over short- and long-term. Lifestyle factors can interact to influence overweight. Comprehensive studies linking overweight concomitantly with several demographic and potentially-modifiable lifestyle factors and health-risk behaviours are limited in adolescents - an age-group characterized by changes in lifestyle behaviours and high prevalence of overweight. Thus, the objective of the current study was to examine the association of overweight with several socio-demographic and lifestyle variables simultaneously in a representative sample of adolescents. Methods A nationally representative sample of 11-15 year-olds (n = 7154 in France participated as part of the WHO-Collaborative Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC study. Students reported data on their age, height, weight, socio-demographic variables, lifestyle factors including nutrition practices, physical activity at two levels of intensity (moderate and vigorous, sedentary behaviours, as well as smoking and alcohol consumption patterns using standardized HBSC protocols. Overweight (including obesity was defined using the IOTF reference. The multivariate association of overweight with several socio-demographic and lifestyle factors was examined with logistic regression models. Results The adjusted odds ratios for the association with overweight were: 1.80 (95% CI: 1.37-2.36 for low family affluence; 0.73 (0.60-0.88 for eating breakfast daily; 0.69 (0.56-0.84 for moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA; and 0.71 (0.59-0.86 for vigorous physical activity (VPA. Significant interactions between age and gender as well as television (TV viewing and gender were noted: for boys, overweight was not associated with age or TV viewing; in contrast, for girls overweight correlated negatively with age and positively with TV viewing. Fruit and vegetable

  12. THE INFLUENCE OF THE CHOSEN SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC FACTORS ON THE QUALITY OF LIFE IN WOMEN AFTER GYNAECOLOGICAL SURGICAL PROCEDURES

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    Beata Karakiewicz

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to assess how the chosen socio-demographic factors effect the quality of life in the patients after gynaecological surgical procedures. Materials and Methods: Research was conducted in 2007 among 250 women operated in the Department of Reproduction and Gynaecology, the Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin. In this survey-based study, we used a standardized quality of life questionnaire, the Women’s Health Questionnaire (WHQ, developed by Dr Myra Hunter at London University. Results: The most numerous patients were those with sleep disorders (38,8%, 37,6% of the surveyed complained of troublesome menstrual symptoms, 26,8% of respondents had disturbing somatic symptoms, short memory and problems with concentration. The lowest percentage of women (12,4% felt anxiety and fear associated with the past gynaecological surgical procedure. Conclusions: 1. General satisfaction and good disposition is declared by the majority of patients after gynaecological surgical procedures. 2. Age, education, having a partner, place of residence, and the number of children are the factors which have significant effect on the quality of life in women after gynaecological procedures.

  13. Relationship between adolescents’ family function with socio-demographic characteristics and behaviour risk factors in a primary care facility

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    Abu S. Muyibi

    2010-10-01

    Objective: This study assesses the relationship between adolescents’ family functioning with socio-demographic characteristics and behavioural risk factors. Method: The research was a cross-sectional, hospital-based study carried out at the General Outpatients Department, University College Hospital (GOPD,UCH, Ibadan, over a period of three months. Four hundred subjects were recruited using a modified Guideline for Adolescent Preventive Services (GAPS questionnaire, with an incorporated family APGAR (Adaptation,Partnership, Growth, Affection, Resolve score table. The results were analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS, version 11 and the findings on the family assessment and behavioural risk factors were relayed to the respondents. Results: The ages of the adolescents ranged from 10 to 19 years. Of the subjects, 8% were sexually active. Mean age for first coitus among the respondents was 15 ± 2.4 years. The rate of ingestion of alcohol and cigarette smoking was very low. The family APGAR scores obtained revealed that 84.5% subjects were rated as having a functional family (7–10 points and 15.5% of the subjects were rated as having a dysfunctional family (0–6 points. There was a significant association between perceived family function and subjects’ occupation (p = 0.01, parent social class (p = 0.00 and subjects’ sexual activities (p = 0.00. Conclusion: The majority of the adolescents were rated as having functional families. Dysfunctional families had significantly sexually active respondents.

  14. Sedentary risk factors across genders and job roles within a university campus workplace: preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhatib, Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether sedentary job role and gender are reflected by sedentary risk factors within a university campus. Following institutional ethical approval, 80 U.K. university campus employees were recruited, and 34 of them (age 47.8 ± 11.9 years, height 169 ± 1.0 cm, body mass 72.0 ± 14.1 kg) were measured for their systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), blood glucose (Glu), total serum blood cholesterol (Cho), dominant (DHG) and nondominant handgrip strength (NHG), body fat percentage (Fat%), trunk flexibility (Flex), peak cardiorespiratory capacity (V.O2max), and answered a physical activity questionnaire (IPAQ). The data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA with job role and gender as independent factors, and each measured risk as a dependent factor. Gender had significant effects (pworkplace.

  15. Influence of socio-demographic, labour and professional factors on nursing perception concerning practice environment in Primary Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parro Moreno, Ana; Serrano Gallardo, Pilar; Ferrer Arnedo, Carmen; Serrano Molina, Lucía; de la Puerta Calatayud, M Luisa; Barberá Martín, Aurora; Morales Asencio, José Miguel; de Pedro Gómez, Joan

    2013-11-01

    To analyze the perception of nursing professionals of the Madrid Primary Health Care environment in which they practice, as well as its relationship with socio-demographic, work-related and professional factors. Cross-sectional, analytical, observational study. Questionnaire sent to a total of 475 nurses in Primary Health Care in Madrid (former Health Care Areas 6 and 9), in 2010. Perception of the practice environment using the Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index (PES-NWI) questionnaire, as well as; age; sex; years of professional experience; professional category; Health Care Area; employment status and education level. There was a response rate of 69.7% (331). The raw score for the PES-NWI was: 81.04 [95%CI: 79.18-82.91]. The factor with the highest score was "Support from Managers" (2.9 [95%CI: 2.8-3]) and the lowest "Workforce adequacy" (2.3 [95%CI: 2.2-2.4]). In the regression model (dependent variable: raw score in PES-NWI), adjusted by age, sex, employment status, professional category (coefficient B=6.586), and years worked at the centre (coefficient B=2.139, for a time of 0-2 years; coefficient B=7.482, for 3-10 years; coefficient B=7.867, for over 20 years) remained at p≤0.05. The support provided by nurse managers is the most highly valued factor in this practice environment, while workforce adequacy is perceived as the lowest. Nurses in posts of responsibility and those possessing a higher degree of training perceive their practice environment more favourably. Knowledge of the factors in the practice environment is a key element for health care organizations to optimize provision of care and to improve health care results. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  16. Lifestyle Factors and Gender-Specific Risk of Stroke in Adults with Diabetes Mellitus: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jian; Guan, Tianjia; Shen, Ying; Chao, Baohua; Li, Mei; Wang, Longde; Liu, Yuanli

    2018-07-01

    The lifestyle interventions are effective preventive measures for stroke in general population, and the stroke risk with lifestyle factors may be modified by gender, health conditions, etc. Therefore, we conducted a case-control study to investigate the gender-specific association between stroke risk and lifestyle factors in adults with diabetes based on the China National Stroke Screening Survey. Structured questionnaires were used to collect demographic data and information regarding lifestyle factors, history of chronic medical conditions, and family history of stroke and the status of treatment. The case group comprised individuals diagnosed with first-ever stroke in 2013-2014 screening period. Their corresponding controls (frequency-matched for age group and urban/rural ratio) were randomly selected from individuals with diabetes without stroke. There were 170 total stroke cases (500 controls) and 152 ischemic stroke cases (456 controls) among men with diabetes, and 183 total stroke cases (549 controls) and 168 ischemic stroke cases (504 controls) among women with diabetes. We found that physical inactivity was significantly associated with increased risk of total stroke (odds ratio [OR] = 1.50, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02-2.21) and of ischemic stroke (OR = 1.57, 95% CI 1.04-2.36) in women with diabetes. We found no significant association of smoking, overweight/obesity, or physical inactivity with risk of total or ischemic stroke in men with diabetes. Among the lifestyle factors of smoking, overweight/obesity, and physical inactivity, physical inactivity might increase the risk of total and ischemic stroke in women with diabetes. Copyright © 2018 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Gender factors influencing technical efficiency of cassava farmers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work was therefore conducted in Akwa Ibom state to examine factors influencing the technical efficiency of farmer groups in cassava production. In carrying out the study, 120 respondents were randomly selected from two agricultural zones in the State and interviewed with interview schedule. Data were analyzed using ...

  18. Gender differences in the developmental trajectories, risk factors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research suggests that neonatal insults were found to be better predictors of male antisocial behaviors relative to females. Research also suggests that neurocognitive differences (e.g., ADHD) were more predictive of antisocial behaviors in males than in females. Social factors (i.e., family-related and peer related) were ...

  19. gender and school types as factors responsible for job stress

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Emeka Egbochuku

    public Universities should be looked into so that all factors responsible for stress might be .... universities in Malaysia, university academic staffs faced more problems .... adjustment with different coping styles. .... in college students: The role of rumination and stress. ... International Journal of Stress Management, 8, 285–29.

  20. Gender Differences in How Retirees Perceive Factors Influencing Unretirement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong-Stassen, Marjorie; Staats, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Returning to paid employment after retirement is occurring in many developed countries and can be expected to increase in the future. This study compared how women (n = 202) and men (n = 347) who had retired from a managerial or professional career occupation perceived factors associated with unretirement. Retired professional women perceived…

  1. Sickness presence in the Swedish Police in 2007 and in 2010: Associations with demographic factors, job characteristics, and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taloyan, Marina; Kecklund, Göran; Thörn, Licia; Kjeldgård, Linnea; Westerlund, Hugo; Svedberg, Pia; Alexanderson, Kristina

    2016-06-23

    Sickness presence (SP) is a complex phenomenon that has been shown to predict sickness absence, poor work performance, and suboptimal self-rated health. However, more research is needed to increase the understanding of how SP relates to occupational factors, demographic variables, and self-rated health. The aims of this study were to investigate (1) the prevalence of SP among the Police employees in Sweden in 2007 and in 2010; (2) the association between demographics, seniority, occupational group (police officer vs civil servant), and self-reported health on the one hand and SP on the other hand for both years separately. Survey data from Swedish Police employees from 2007 (n = 17,512) and 2010 (n = 18,415) were analyzed using logistic regression to assess odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). The prevalence of SP was stable between the years, but the proportion who stated that they had not been ill at all decreased from 2007 to 2010 (28.0% vs. 23.6%), while the proportion stating always having stayed at home when ill did not differ; 45.0% in 2007 to 45.8% in 2010. The ORs of SP were higher among those with suboptimal self-rated health compared to those with optimal self-rated health (4.38 (95% CI 4.02- 4.78) and 4.31 (3.96- 4.70) in 2007 and 2010, respectively) and among police officers compared with civilians (1.26 (1.17-1.36) and 1.19 (1.10-1.28)), whereas no clear patterns were found for age, gender, and seniority. The prevalences of SP were about the same in 2007 and 2010 and were slightly lower compared to in previous studies. The strong association between SP and suboptimal self-rated health suggests that high levels of SP may be an early marker of future illness and sickness absence. In future studies of SP it is important to account for having been ill, that is, at risk of SP.

  2. The prevalence of hepatitis B virus infection markers and socio-demographic risk factors in HIV-infected patients in Southern Brazil

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    Saulo Martins

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Hepatitis B virus (HBV and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infections are two of the world's most important infectious diseases. Our objective was to determine the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg and hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc prevalences among adult HIV-infected patients and identify the associations between socio-demographic variables and these HBV infection markers. Methods This study was performed from October 2012 to March 2013. Three hundred HIV-seropositive patients were monitored by the Clinical Analysis Laboratory of Professor Polydoro Ernani de São Thiago University Hospital, Santa Catarina, Brazil. The blood tests included HBsAg, anti-HBc immunoglobulin M (IgM and total anti-HBc. Patients reported their HIV viral loads and CD4+ T-cell counts using a questionnaire designed to collect sociodemographic data. Results The mean patient age was 44.6 years, the mean CD4 T-cell count was 525/mm3, the mean time since beginning antiretroviral therapy was 7.6 years, and the mean time since HIV diagnosis was 9.6 years. The overall prevalences of HBsAg and total anti-HBc were 2.3% and 29.3%, respectively. Among the individuals analyzed, 0.3% were positive for HBsAg, 27.3% were positive for total anti-HBc, and 2.0% were positive either for HBsAg or total anti-HBc and were classified as chronically HBV-infected. Furthermore, 70.3% of the patients were classified as never having been infected. Male gender, age >40 years and Caucasian ethnicity were associated with an anti-HBc positive test. Conclusions The results showed an intermediate prevalence of HBsAg among the studied patients. Moreover, the associations between the anti-HBc marker and socio-demographic factors suggest a need for HBV immunization among these HIV-positive individuals, who are likely to have HIV/HBV coinfection.

  3. What Matters Most? Assessing the Influence of Demographic Characteristics, College-Specific Risk Factors, and Poly-Drug Use on Nonmedical Prescription Drug Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanier, Christina; Farley, Erin J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Although prior recent research has revealed a significant relationship between the nonmedical use of prescription drugs, demographic characteristics, college-specific risk factors, and other substance use among college students, there remains a need to conduct a comparative analysis on the differential impact these factors may have on…

  4. Prevalence of mental health disorders and its associated demographic factors in resettled Afghan refugees of Dalakee Refugee Camp in Bushehr Province 2005

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    Fatemeh Azizi

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Iran has received Afghan refugees for many years. Few studies have been done to assess psychiatric morbidity among Afghan refugees in Iran, especially those who are resettled in camps. This study has been designed to determine the prevalence of mental health problems and the associated demographic factors, in Afghan refugees resettled in Dalakee refugee camp of Bushehr Province, in 2005. Methods: In this cross-sectional survey, a Persian version of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28 was administered to 321 resettled Afghan refugees with the minimum age of 15 years old who were randomly selected among 2200 residents of Dalakee refugee camp in Bushehr Province. Results: Among mental health subscales, the prevalence of social dysfunction, psychosomatic problem, anxiety and depression in the studied population were 80.1%, 48.9%, 39.3% and 22.1%, respectively. The total prevalence of mental health disorders in this camp was 88.5%. Male gender, living with more than eight persons per house, and being age ten or under at migration time were associated with higher level of social dysfunction. Higher rate of psychosomatic problem was associated with unemployment, being born in Iran, being age ten or under at migration time, and having no entertaining programs. Having 1-3 children, living with more than eight persons per house, and positive history of chronic disease were associated with higher level of anxiety. Having no entertaining programs, and family members' death during migration were associated with higher level of depression. Conclusion: Mental health problems related to immigration and living in camps, are common among Afghan refugees.

  5. Association of socio-economic and demographic factors with physical activity of males and females aged 20–69 years

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    Elżbieta Biernat

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available [b]Objective[/b]. To assess the physical activity of working residents of Warsaw aged 20–69 years, as well as to identify the socio-demographic factors associated with their levels of physical activity. [b]Materials and method[/b]. The study involved 2,544 working residents of Warsaw aged 20–69 years. The short version of the IPAQ was applied and four physical activity levels (insufficient, sufficient, augmented, high were distinguished. The relationships between physical activity and gender, age, BMI, education, economic and martial status as well as participation in recreation were determined. [b]Results[/b]. High levels of physical activity were reached by 8% of respondents, 22% achieved augmented level, 32% were sufficiently and 32% insufficiently active. Out of 2544 studied subjects, 6% declared complete sedentariness. Females were, as compared to males, more frequently (p<0.05 insufficiently active (35.9 vs. 31.9%. In obese and overweight subjects insufficient physical activity predominated (42.9 and 36.2%, respectively and was significantly more frequent than in subjects with normal BMI (31.0%. Moreover, the subjects living in partner relationships were significantly (p<0.05 more frequently insufficiently active than those staying single (36.3 vs. 30.3%. Respondents who declared regular participation in leisure activities were less frequently insufficiently active (20.0% and more frequently met the criteria of sufficient (37.6%, augmented (28.0% or high (14.4% level of physical activity. No significant effects were found with respect to education of respondents. [b]Conclusions[/b]. Prophylactic schedules associated with the improvement of physical activity level should be addressed particularly to females, people taking up recreation occasionally or to those not involved in recreation at all, living in partner relationships, youngest (21–30 years, in obese and overweight and in the lowest economic category.

  6. Gender Differences in Risk Factors for Single and Recurrent Falls Among the Community-Dwelling Elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Yu Mei O; Fatima El Fakiri

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify gender differences in risk factors of fall accidents among older people, and whether these factors differ between single and recurrent fallers. A total of 4,426 individuals aged ≥65 years from two large-scale health surveys provided data. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify risk factors and to determine the risk model for falling and recurrent falling in men and ...

  7. Variation in style morph frequencies in tristylous Lythrum salicaria in the Iberian Peninsula: the role of geographical and demographic factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Joana; Castro, Sílvia; Loureiro, João; Barrett, Spencer C. H.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims The balance between stochastic forces and negative frequency-dependent selection largely determines style morph frequencies in heterostylous populations. Investigation of morph frequencies at geographical range limits can provide insights into the forces maintaining the floral polymorphism, and the factors causing biased morph ratios. Here, we investigate style morph frequencies in populations at the south-western European range limit of tristylous Lythrum salicaria, to explore the role of demographic and geographical factors influencing morph ratios in its native range. Methods We measured morph composition and evenness, and the size of 96 populations, along a north to south latitudinal transect from Galicia to Andalucia, Iberian Peninsula, traversing a steep climatic gradient. To examine the potential influence of morph-specific fitness components on morph ratios, we examined reproductive traits in 19 populations. Key Results Most populations of L. salicaria were trimorphic (94·79 %), the majority exhibiting 1 : 1 : 1 morph ratios (68·75 %). Populations with biased morph ratios had a deficiency of the short-styled morph. Population size and morph evenness were positively associated with latitude, with smaller populations and those with less even morph ratios occurring towards the south. Greater variance in morph evenness was evident at the southern range margin. There were no consistent differences in components of reproductive fitness among style morphs, but southern populations produced less fruit and seed than more northerly populations. Conclusions Our results demonstrate the influence of finite population size on morph frequencies in L. salicaria. However, they also illustrate the resilience of Iberian populations to the factors causing deviations from isoplethy and morph loss, especially at the southern range limit where populations are smaller. The maintenance of tristyly in small populations of L. salicaria may be aided

  8. Gastro-esophageal reflux disease symptoms and demographic factors as a pre-screening tool for Barrett's esophagus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinxue Liu

    Full Text Available Barrett's esophagus (BE occurs as consequence of reflux and is a risk factor for esophageal adenocarcinoma. The current "gold-standard" for diagnosing BE is endoscopy which remains prohibitively expensive and impractical as a population screening tool. We aimed to develop a pre-screening tool to aid decision making for diagnostic referrals.A prospective (training cohort of 1603 patients attending for endoscopy was used for identification of risk factors to develop a risk prediction model. Factors associated with BE in the univariate analysis were selected to develop prediction models that were validated in an independent, external cohort of 477 non-BE patients referred for endoscopy with symptoms of reflux or dyspepsia. Two prediction models were developed separately for columnar lined epithelium (CLE of any length and using a stricter definition of intestinal metaplasia (IM with segments ≥ 2 cm with areas under the ROC curves (AUC of 0.72 (95%CI: 0.67-0.77 and 0.81 (95%CI: 0.76-0.86, respectively. The two prediction models included demographics (age, sex, symptoms (heartburn, acid reflux, chest pain, abdominal pain and medication for "stomach" symptoms. These two models were validated in the independent cohort with AUCs of 0.61 (95%CI: 0.54-0.68 and 0.64 (95%CI: 0.52-0.77 for CLE and IM ≥ 2 cm, respectively.We have identified and validated two prediction models for CLE and IM ≥ 2 cm. Both models have fair prediction accuracies and can select out around 20% of individuals unlikely to benefit from investigation for Barrett's esophagus. Such prediction models have the potential to generate useful cost-savings for BE screening among the symptomatic population.

  9. Socio-demographic, biological, and psychological factors that predict the formation of anxiety and depressive disorders in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryabokon N.O.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: to analyze the influence of socio-demographic, biological, and psychological factors on the formation of anxiety-depressive disorders (ADD in children. Material and methods: 160 6–14-year-old children with (ADD being treated at the Sumy Oblast Pediatric Hospital and Sumy regional clinical psychoneurologic dispensary were examined. The diagnosis of standard ADD was conducted by ICD-10 and DSM_IV criteria. We used clinical psychopathological, somatoneurological, pathopsychological methods (depression rating scale CDRS-R; reactive and personal anxiety Spielberger—Hanin scale, L.K.Yahyn, D.M.Mendelevych questionnaires as well as socio-psychological interviewing and surveys («Scale of family environment» S.Y. Kupriyanov, «Scale of family adaptability and cohesion» — FACES-3, D.H. Olson. Results. The formation of ADD in children is associated with the child being exposed to a number of social, psychological and biological factors, among which the most important are: pathological forms of upbringing, incomplete family and labor migration of parents, education progenitors, bad habits of parents, disharmonious social relations between mothers and children, severe chronic illness of a parent, conflicts in the family and at school, excessive psycho-emotional pressure on the child and school bullying, genetics, burdened perinatal period, psychopathological symptoms during the first year of life and frequent respiratory infections in children. Conclusions. Determined the descriptiveness of the factors that should be considered when developing programs of early socio-therapeutically intervention in the rehabilitation of children with ADD and predicting the formation of resistance to treatment of the psychopathology at the later stages of ontogenesis.

  10. Gastro-esophageal reflux disease symptoms and demographic factors as a pre-screening tool for Barrett's esophagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinxue; Wong, Angela; Kadri, Sudarshan R; Corovic, Andrej; O'Donovan, Maria; Lao-Sirieix, Pierre; Lovat, Laurence B; Burnham, Rodney W; Fitzgerald, Rebecca C

    2014-01-01

    Barrett's esophagus (BE) occurs as consequence of reflux and is a risk factor for esophageal adenocarcinoma. The current "gold-standard" for diagnosing BE is endoscopy which remains prohibitively expensive and impractical as a population screening tool. We aimed to develop a pre-screening tool to aid decision making for diagnostic referrals. A prospective (training) cohort of 1603 patients attending for endoscopy was used for identification of risk factors to develop a risk prediction model. Factors associated with BE in the univariate analysis were selected to develop prediction models that were validated in an independent, external cohort of 477 non-BE patients referred for endoscopy with symptoms of reflux or dyspepsia. Two prediction models were developed separately for columnar lined epithelium (CLE) of any length and using a stricter definition of intestinal metaplasia (IM) with segments ≥ 2 cm with areas under the ROC curves (AUC) of 0.72 (95%CI: 0.67-0.77) and 0.81 (95%CI: 0.76-0.86), respectively. The two prediction models included demographics (age, sex), symptoms (heartburn, acid reflux, chest pain, abdominal pain) and medication for "stomach" symptoms. These two models were validated in the independent cohort with AUCs of 0.61 (95%CI: 0.54-0.68) and 0.64 (95%CI: 0.52-0.77) for CLE and IM ≥ 2 cm, respectively. We have identified and validated two prediction models for CLE and IM ≥ 2 cm. Both models have fair prediction accuracies and can select out around 20% of individuals unlikely to benefit from investigation for Barrett's esophagus. Such prediction models have the potential to generate useful cost-savings for BE screening among the symptomatic population.

  11. Gender differences in (metacognitive and motivational-emotional factors of reading comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svjetlana Kolić-Vehovec

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to establish, from the aspect of gender, the degree to which reading comprehension is connected with students' academic achievement, potential gender differences between (metacognitive and motivational-emotional factors of reading comprehension, and to identify the most important predictors of reading comprehension for exploratory and narrative texts. The results of study, which included 380 Slovenian and Croatian students with the average age of 10;6 years, showed that: (i reading comprehension significantly determines academic achievement regardless of students' gender; (ii there are significant gender differences in most of the factors of reading comprehension (girls summarize texts better, have more metacognitive knowledge of reading, show greater reading interest, feel more competent for reading and in general feel better while reading; (iii the predictive value of cognitive, motivational, and emotional predictors differ for exploratory and narrative texts (for exploratory texts metacognitive factors have the greatest predictive value; for narrative texts motivatonal-emotional factors have the greatest predictive value for boys, and metacognitive factors for girls.

  12. Influence of gender and other factors on medical student specialty interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Veronica; Shulruf, Boaz; Poole, Phillippa

    2014-09-12

    Medical schools must select and educate to meet anticipated health needs. Factors influencing career choice include those of the student and their background as well as subsequent experience. Women have comprised over 50% of medical classes for over 20 years. This study describes gender patterns of current specialty interest among medical students at the University of Auckland, and models the predictive effect of gender compared to other career influencing factors. The study analysed career intention survey data from 711 graduating medical students (response rate, 79%) from 2006 to 2011. Interest level was highest for medicine, followed by subspecialty surgery, general practice and paediatrics. There were differences by gender for most specialties, but not for general practice. Women were more likely than men to be interested in Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Paediatrics, Geriatrics, Public Health or General Medicine, and less interested in Surgery, Anaesthesia, Emergency Medicine or post graduate study. Each specialty had a different pattern of influencing factors with the most important factor being the experience on a clinical attachment. Factors in career choice are complex and vary by gender and specialty. General practice levels of interest are too low for workforce needs. Predictive models need to be validated in longer term studies but may help guide selection and curriculum design.

  13. Gender differences in the factor structure of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in war-exposed adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Cherie; Elhai, Jon D; Layne, Christopher M; Shevlin, Mark; Duraković-Belko, Elvira; Djapo, Nermin; Pynoos, Robert S

    2011-05-01

    DSM-IV's three-factor model of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is rarely empirically supported, whereas other four-factor models (King et al., 1998; Simms, Watson, & Doebbeling, 2002) have proven to be better representations of PTSD's latent structure. To date, a clear consensus as to which model provides the best representation of PTSD's underlying dimensions has yet to be reached. The current study investigated whether gender is associated with factor structure differences using the King et al. (1998) model of reexperiencing, avoidance, numbing, and hyperarousal PTSD symptoms. Participants were war-exposed Bosnian secondary/high school boys and girls (N=1572) assessed nearly two years after the 1992-1995 Bosnian conflict. Confirmatory factor analytic tests of measurement invariance across PTSD model parameters revealed many significant sex-linked differences. Implications regarding the potential role of gender as a moderator of the King et al. (1998) model's factor structure are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Socioeconomic and Gender Group Differences in Early Literacy Skills: A Multiple-Group Confirmatory Factor Analysis Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Julia Ai Cheng; Al Otaiba, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Socioeconomic status and gender are important demographic variables that strongly relate to academic achievement. This study examined the early literacy skills differences between 4 sociodemographic groups, namely, boys ineligible for free or reduced-price lunch (FRL), girls ineligible for FRL, boys eligible for FRL, and girls eligible for FRL.…

  15. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Gender, and Risk Factors: World Trade Center Tower Survivors 10 to 11 Years After the September 11, 2001 Attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowler, Rosemarie M; Adams, Shane W; Gocheva, Vihra V; Li, Jiehui; Mergler, Donna; Brackbill, Robert; Cone, James E

    2017-12-01

    Ten to eleven years after the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks, probable posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was evaluated in 1,755 World Trade Center (WTC) evacuees based on data from the WTC Health Registry. Characteristics of men and women were compared and factors associated with PTSD symptom severity were examined using the PTSD Checklist (PCL). Compared with men (n = 1,015, 57.8%), women (n = 740, 42.2%) were younger and of lower socioeconomic status. Ten to eleven years after September 11, 2001, 13.7% of men and 24.1% of women met criteria for PTSD. Results indicated that when considered with all other variables (i.e., demographic, socioeconomic and social resources, exposure to the attacks, life events), gender was not a significant predictor of PTSD symptom severity. Being younger on September 11, 2001, unemployed, less educated, and/or having higher exposure to the attacks, unmet mental health care needs, and less social support predicted higher PCL scores for both genders (βs = .077 to .239). Demographic characteristics and socioeconomic resources (ΔR 2 = .113) accounted for the largest amount of variance in PCL scores over and above exposure/evacuation, mental healthcare needs, and social support variables (ΔR 2 = .093 to .102). When trends of unmet mental healthcare needs were analyzed, the most prevalent response for men was that they preferred to manage their own symptoms (15.1%), whereas the most prevalent response for women was that they could not afford to pay for mental health care (14.7%). Although the prevalence of probable PTSD in women tower survivors was approximately twice as high as it was for men, this is attributable largely to demographic and socioeconomic resource factors and not gender alone. Implications for treatment and interventions are discussed. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  16. Factor structure of the CES-D and measurement invariance across gender in Mainland Chinese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mengcheng; Armour, Cherie; Wu, Yan; Ren, Fen; Zhu, Xiongzhao; Yao, Shuqiao

    2013-09-01

    The primary aim was to examine the depressive symptom structure of Mainland China adolescents using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were simultaneously conducted to determine the structure of the CES-D in a large scale, representative adolescent samples recruited from Mainland China. Multigroup CFA (N = 5059, 48% boys, mean = 16.55±1.06) was utilized to test the factorial invariance of the depressive symptom structure, which was generated by EFA and confirmed by CFA across gender. The CES-D can be interpreted in terms of 3 symptom dimensions. Additionally, factorial invariance of the new proposed model across gender was supported at all assuming different degrees of invariance. Mainland Chinese adolescents have specific depressive symptom structure, which is consistent across gender. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Diaper Dermatitis in Infants Admitted to Social Pediatrics Health Center: Role of Socio-demographic Factors and Infant Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayaoglu, Semra; Kivanc-Altunay, Ilknur; Sarikaya, Sezgi

    2015-10-01

    To determine infant diaper dermatitis (DD) at pediatrics health center; its relation to socio-demographic factors and infant care. The study included 113 infants aged 0-24 mo. Data on infants' age, sex, weight, mothers' education, nutrition, diaper change frequency, cleaning methods and prophylactic cream use were recorded. Infants with minimum one time rash, were accepted to have DD. Seventy six (67.3 %) infants had DD [32 girls (42.1 %), 44 boys (57 %), mean age: 6.5 mo]. Infants with DD had significantly higher age than those without (p 0.001). DD frequency in infants ≥4.5 mo-old was 5.8(2.4-13.7) times more than in infants ≤4.5 mo. Cleaning material types did not affect DD frequency. No significant difference was observed in DD with diaper change of ≤3 times and ≥4 times. Significant difference in DD increase was observed with supplementary food intake vs. without it (p 0.000). DD frequency in infants with supplementary food intake was 6.4 times (2.4-17.1) more than in those without it. Human milk intake was statistically significant in causing less occurrence of DD as shown in univariate model (p milk intake lessened the occurrence of DD. Mothers should be informed on dermatitis care and encouraged for breastfeeding.

  18. Factors Associated With HIV Testing Among Men in Haiti: Results From the 2012 Demographic and Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conserve, Donaldson F; Iwelunmor, Juliet; Whembolua, Guy-Lucien; Sofolahan-Oladeinde, Yewande; Teti, Michelle; Surkan, Pamela J

    2017-09-01

    HIV testing serves as the gateway to HIV prevention and treatment. However, research examining men's HIV testing behaviors in the Caribbean remains limited. The Andersen Behavioral Model of Health Services Utilization was used to examine factors associated with HIV testing among 7,354 men who participated in the 2012 Demographic and Health Survey conducted in Haiti. Few men (35%) reported having ever been tested for HIV. Logistic regression analyses revealed that HIV testing increased with education and wealth. Marital status was associated with HIV testing, with married men more likely to have been tested (adjusted odds ratio: 2.57, 95% CI [2.07, 3.19]) than unmarried men. Positive attitudes toward people living with HIV, indicated by willing to care for a relative who has HIV/AIDS, was also correlated with higher odds of having been tested (adjusted odds ratio: 1.28, 95% CI [1.08, 1.51]). Men who reported condom use during last sex were more likely to have been tested (odds ratio: 1.58, 95% CI [1.33, 1.88). The findings indicate that HIV testing rates remain low among men in Haiti and more efforts are needed to increase HIV testing among men who are not married, have low level of education, and engage in unprotected sex.

  19. Socio-Demographic and Lifestyle Factors Predict 5-Year Changes in Adiposity among a Group of Black South African Adults

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    Cornelie Nienaber-Rousseau

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The rising prevalence of obesity and excessive adiposity are global public health concerns. Understanding determinants of changes in adiposity over time is critical for informing effective evidence-based prevention or treatment. However, limited information is available to achieve this objective. Cultural, demographic, environmental, and behavioral factors including socio-economic status (SES likely account for obesity development. To this end, we related these variables to anthropometric measures in 1058 black adult Tswana-speaking South Africans who were HIV negative in a prospective study over five years. Body mass index (BMI and waist circumference increased in both sexes, whereas triceps skinfold thickness remained the same. Over the five years, women moved to higher BMI categories and more were diagnosed with central obesity. Age correlated negatively, whereas SES, physical activity, energy, and fat intake correlated positively with adiposity markers in women. In men, SES, marital status, physical activity, and being urban predicted increases in adiposity. For women, SES and urbanicity increased, whereas menopause and smoking decreased adiposity. Among men, smokers had less change in BMI than those that never smoked over five years. Our findings suggest that interventions, focusing on the urban living, the married and those with the highest SES—the high-risk groups identified herein—are of primary importance to contain morbidity and premature mortality due to obesity in black South Africans.

  20. Adult anthropometric measures and socio-demographic factors influencing age at menarche of university students in malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Md Golam; Wee, Ai-Sze; Ashaie, Maeirah; Kamarul, T

    2013-09-01

    Early onset of menarche has been shown to be associated with breast cancer and ischaemic heart disease. Studies on age at menarche of the Malaysian population are poorly documented. This study aimed to determine the influence of anthropometric and socio-demographic factors on the age at menarche of university students in Malaysia. Data were obtained in 2010-11 from 961 students between the ages of 18 and 25 years from the University of Malaya using stratified sampling, and multiple regression analysis was applied. Sixty-three per cent of students reached menarche at the age of 12 or 13 years, with the mean and median of age at menarche being 12.45 ± 1.17 and 12.01 years, respectively. Menarcheal age was positively associated with height (pObese and overweight students reached menarche earlier than students who were underweight or of normal weight (p<0.01). The variations in age at menarche among the Malaysian ethnic groups were statistically insignificant. The results suggest that heavier and first-born students from small families are more likely to attain menarche earlier than their counterparts.

  1. Factors associated with socio-demographic characteristics and antenatal care and iron supplement use in Ethiopia, Kenya, and Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verney, Allison; Reed, Barbara A; Lumumba, Jude B; Kung'u, Jacqueline K

    2018-02-01

    Antenatal care (ANC) offers remarkable opportunities to reach a large number of women with effective nutrition and health interventions, including iron (Fe) supplementation. However, all women do not equally seek nor benefit from ANC. We aimed to identify characteristics associated with ANC and Fe use among women in hard-to-reach areas in Afar, Ethiopia; Sedhiou and Kolda, Senegal; and Kakamega, Kenya. Women who gave birth within 1 year preceding the survey (n = 4,575) from 15 different sub-regions were randomly selected and surveyed. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify associations of socio-demographic characteristics with ANC and Fe use. Factors that showed positive associations with ANC uptake included education, income, possession of a mobile phone, and the occupation of the mother or another household member. Beginning ANC in the first trimester associated positively with achievement of 4 or more ANC visits, and having any ANC visits related positively with Fe intake. Distance to the nearest health facility was negatively associated, and type of nearest facility and counselling and health education were positively associated with some outcomes. The results from these surveys demonstrate the need to ensure access of services across all population groups and can help identify ANC programming needs. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Investigating the Relationship between Demographic Factors and Choice of Delivery Method in Pregnant Women in the City of Savojbolagh.

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    Zahra Dadashi Eynsheykh

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the increased rate of cesarean section in recent decades and natural desire of women probably due to social, economic& cultural issues in our country. While that in many cases, vaginal delivery can be replaced by unnecessary cesarean. In the absence of need the trend of cesarean section has implications for both future healthy populations and the equitable distribution of maternity resources. The aim of the present study was to investigate demographic factors associated with the choice of delivery method.In this descriptive cross- sectional study with a random sampling, 283 pregnant women who were referred for control of pregnancy to two primary health care centers two health base were interviewed by Completing the questionnaire. After gathering information data by SPSS software &via descriptive statistical indicators were analyzed.35/7% of pregnant women who were studied willing to perform cesarean section. There was a significant relationship between the having a history of cesarean section and referral place for control of pregnancy with selection of the labor type (P 0.001. The reasons for selection of cesarean section were fear of labor pain, Prevention of genital rupture & physician recommendation.The rate of selecting cesarean section is higher than acceptable World Health Organization. Therefore, careful planning should be done to raise awareness, improve attitudes and change false beliefs in pregnant women & their husbands by health service's personnel.

  3. Gender Differences in Risk Factors for Adolescent Binge Drinking and Implications for Intervention and Prevention

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    Allyson L. Dir

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol use, particularly binge drinking (BD, is a major public health concern among adolescents. Recent national data show that the gender gap in alcohol use is lessening, and BD among girls is rising. Considering the increase in BD among adolescent girls, as well as females’ increased risk of experiencing more severe biopsychosocial negative effects and consequences from BD, the current review sought to examine gender differences in risk factors for BD. The review highlights gender differences in (1 developmental-related neurobiological vulnerability to BD, (2 psychiatric comorbidity and risk phenotypes for BD, and (3 social-related risk factors for BD among adolescents, as well as considerations for BD prevention and intervention. Most of the information gleaned thus far has come from preclinical research. However, it is expected that, with recent advances in clinical imaging technology, neurobiological effects observed in lower mammals will be confirmed in humans and vice versa. A synthesis of the literature highlights that males and females experience unique neurobiological paths of development, and although there is debate regarding the specific nature of these differences, literature suggests that these differences in turn influence gender differences in psychiatric comorbidity and risk for BD. For one, girls are more susceptible to stress, depression, and other internalizing behaviors and, in turn, these symptoms contribute to their risk for BD. On the other hand, males, given gender differences across the lifespan as well as gender differences in development, are driven by an externalizing phenotype for risk of BD, in part, due to unique paths of neurobiological development that occur across adolescence. With respect to social domains, although social and peer influences are important for both adolescent males and females, there are gender differences. For example, girls may be more sensitive to pressure from peers to fit in and

  4. Implications of research staff demographics for psychological science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Does, Serena; Ellemers, Naomi; Dovidio, John F; Norman, Jasmine B; Mentovich, Avital; van der Lee, Romy; Goff, Phillip Atiba

    2018-03-01

    Long-standing research traditions in psychology have established the fundamental impact of social categories, such as race and gender, on people's perceptions of themselves and others, as well as on the general human cognition and behavior. However, there is a general tendency to ignore research staff demographics (e.g., researchers' race and gender) in research development and research reports. Variation in research staff demographics can exert systematic and scientifically informative influences on results from psychological research. Consequently, research staff demographics need to be considered, studied, and/or reported, along with how these demographics were allowed to vary across participants or conditions (e.g., random assignment, matched with participant demographics, or included as a factor in the experimental design). In addition to providing an overview of multidisciplinary evidence of research staff demographics effects, we discuss how research staff demographics might influence research findings through (a) ingroup versus outgroup effects, (b) stereotype and (implicit) bias effects, and (c) priming and social tuning effects. Finally, an overview of recommended considerations is included (see the Appendix) to help illustrate how to systematically incorporate relevant research staff demographics in psychological science. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. The impact of demographic, health-related and social factors on dental services utilization: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reda, Seif Magdy; Krois, Joachim; Reda, Sophie Franziska; Thomson, William Murray; Schwendicke, Falk

    2018-04-16

    Regular and/or preventive dental services utilization is an indicator of healthcare access and associated with improved health outcomes. We assessed the proportion of individuals regularly/preventively utilizing dental services, and how this was affected by demographic, health-related and social factors. Three electronic databases (Medline, Embase, Central) were searched (2005-2017). We included observational studies investigating the association between preventive/regular dental service utilization and age, oral and general health, edentulism, family structure and health literacy. The proportion of individuals with regular/preventive utilization overall and in different sub-groups were extracted. Random-effects meta-analyses, with subgroup analyses by region, were performed. Meta-regression was used to assess whether and how associations changed with time and countries' human developmental status (HDI). 103 studies on 7,395,697 participants from 28 countries were included. The global mean (95% CI) proportion of individuals regularly/preventively utilizing dental services was 54% (50-59%). In countries with higher HDI, more individuals regularly/preventively utilized services (p Age did not have a significant impact on utilization in adults (OR = 1.00; 0.89-1.12). Utilization was significantly lower in younger than older children (OR = 0.52; 0.46-0.59), individuals with poorer general health (OR = 0.73; 0.65-0.80) and poorer oral health (OR = 0.64; 0.52-0.75), edentulous individuals (OR = 0.32; 0.23-0.41), and individuals with less supportive family structures (OR = 0.81; 0.73-0.89) or poor health literacy (OR = 0.41; 0.01-0.81). The observed differences within populations did not significantly change with time and were universally present. Regular/preventive utilization varied widely between and within countries. Understanding and tackling the reasons underlying this may help to consistently improve utilization. Higher developmental

  6. Spatial analysis of under-5 mortality and potential risk factors in the Basse Health and Demographic Surveillance System, the Gambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, John; Jasseh, Momodou; Mackenzie, Grant; Castro, Marcia C

    2015-07-01

    To describe the spatial pattern in under-5 mortality rates in the Basse Health and Demographic Surveillance System (BHDSS) and to test for associations between under-5 deaths and biodemographic and socio-economic risk factors. Using data on child survival from 2007 to 2011 in the BHDSS, we mapped under-5 mortality by km(2) . We tested for spatial clustering of high or low death rates using Kulldorff's spatial scan statistic. Associations between child death and a variety of biodemographic and socio-economic factors were assessed with Cox proportional hazards models, and deviance residuals from the best-fitting model were tested for spatial clustering. The overall death rate among children under 5 was 0.0195 deaths per child-year. We found two spatial clusters of high death rates and one spatial cluster of low death rates; children in the two high clusters died at a rate of 0.0264 and 0.0292 deaths per child-year, while in the low cluster, the rate was 0.0144 deaths per child-year. We also found that children born to Fula mothers experienced, on average, a higher hazard of death, whereas children born in the households in the upper two quintiles of asset ownership experienced, on average, a lower hazard of death. After accounting for the spatial distribution of biodemographic and socio-economic characteristics, we found no residual spatial pattern in child mortality risk. This study demonstrates that significant inequality in under-5 death rates can occur within a relatively small area (1100 km(2) ). Risks of under-5 mortality were associated with mother's ethnicity and household wealth. If high mortality clusters persist, then equity concerns may require additional public health efforts in those areas. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Nightlife violence: a gender-specific view on risk factors for violence in nightlife settings: a cross-sectional study in nine European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnitzer, Susanne; Bellis, Mark A; Anderson, Zara; Hughes, Karen; Calafat, Amador; Juan, Montse; Kokkevi, Anna

    2010-06-01

    Within nightlife settings, youth violence places large burdens on both nightlife users and wider society. Internationally, research has identified risk factors for nightlife violence. However, few empirical studies have assessed differences in risk factors between genders. Here, a pan-European cross-sectional survey of 1,341 nightlife users aged 16 to 35 assessed a variety of risk-taking traits, including violence, sexual, alcohol, and drug-related current and historic behaviors. Results show that the likelihood of having been involved in a physical fight in nightlife increases with younger age, drunkenness, and increasing preference for tolerant venues for both genders. The odds of involvement in a fight for females who were drunk five or more times in the past 4 weeks were almost five times higher than those who were never drunk (odds ratio for males 1.99). Use of cocaine more than doubled the risk of involvement in violence among males. However, no association was found for females. For heterosexual men, the odds for violence almost doubled compared with bisexual or homosexual men, whereas for women heterosexuality was a protective factor. The effects of structural risk factors (e.g., bar and club characteristics) for nightlife violence differed by gender. To develop effective violence prevention measures in nightlife, considerations need to be made regarding the demographic composition of patrons in addition to wider structural elements within the nighttime environment.

  8. Gender differences in the influence of economic, lifestyle, and psychosocial factors on later-life health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prus, Steven G; Gee, Ellen

    2003-01-01

    Gender differences in exposure to social resources play a significant role in influencing gender inequalities in health. A related question--and our focus--asks whether these inequalities are also influenced by gendered vulnerabilities to social forces. Specifically, this paper examines the differential impact of social forces on the health of elderly (65+) men and women. Multiple linear regression analysis is used to estimate gender differences in the influence of socioeconomic, lifestyle, and psychosocial factors on both self-rated health and overall functional health using data from the 1994-1995 National Population Health Survey. Key findings include: 1) the relationship between income and health is significant for older women only, whereas the converse holds for education; 2) having an acceptable body weight is positively associated with health for elderly women only; and 3) stress-related factors are stronger determinants of health for older women. Our findings shed light on the processes of healthy aging for men and women, and suggest that interventions to improve the health of elderly Canadians need to be gender-specific.

  9. Factor structure and gender stability in the multidimensional condom attitudes scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starosta, Amy J; Berghoff, Christopher R; Earleywine, Mitch

    2015-06-01

    Sexually transmitted infections continue to trouble the United States and can be attenuated through increased condom use. Attitudes about condoms are an important multidimensional factor that can affect sexual health choices and have been successfully measured using the Multidimensional Condom Attitudes Scale (MCAS). Such attitudes have the potential to vary between men and women, yet little work has been undertaken to identify if the MCAS accurately captures attitudes without being influenced by underlying gender biases. We examined the factor structure and gender invariance on the MCAS using confirmatory factor analysis and item response theory, within-subscale differential item functioning analyses. More than 770 participants provided data via the Internet. Results of differential item functioning analyses identified three items as differentially functioning between the genders, and removal of these items is recommended. Findings confirmed the previously hypothesized multidimensional nature of condom attitudes and the five-factor structure of the MCAS even after the removal of the three problematic items. In general, comparisons across genders using the MCAS seem reasonable from a methodological standpoint. Results are discussed in terms of improving sexual health research and interventions. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. The Higher Order Factor Structure and Gender Invariance of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Aidan G. C.; Lukowitsky, Mark R.; Pincus, Aaron L.; Conroy, David E.

    2010-01-01

    The Pathological Narcissism Inventory (PNI) is a recently developed multidimensional inventory for the assessment of pathological narcissism. The authors describe and report the results of two studies that investigate the higher order factor structure and gender invariance of the PNI. The results of the first study indicate that the PNI has a…

  11. Diversity in Primary Teacher Education Gender Differences in Student Factors and Curriculum Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geerdink, Gerda; Bergen, Theo; Dekkers, Hetty

    2011-01-01

    In the Netherlands only a small number of male students opt for primary school teaching and a relatively large percentage of them leave without graduating. A small-scale research project was set up to explore the question: Can gender-specific student factors be identified in relation to the initial teacher education curriculum that leads to the…

  12. Diversity in Primary Teacher Education : Gender differences in Student Factors and Curriculum perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerda Geerdink; H. Dekkers; T. Bergen

    2011-01-01

    In the Netherlands only a small number of male students opt for primary school teaching and a relatively large percentage of them leave without graduating. A small-scale research project was set up to explore the question: Can gender-specific student factors be identified in relation to the initial

  13. Effect of Child Gender and Psychosocial Factors on Physical Activity From Fifth to Sixth Grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forthofer, Melinda; Dowda, Marsha; O'Neill, Jennifer R; Addy, Cheryl L; McDonald, Samantha; Reid, Lauren; Pate, Russell R

    2017-12-01

    Gender differences in physical activity (PA) trajectories during adolescence are well documented, yet little research has examined whether the determinants of these trajectories vary by child's gender. This study is one of few prospective examinations of gender differences in the influences of psychosocial and socioenvironmental factors on changes in objectively measured PA. Students and parents from elementary and middle schools located in 2 school districts in South Carolina were enrolled in a prospective cohort study of changes in children's PA from elementary to middle school. Measures included children's and/or parents' ratings of various psychosocial and socioenvironmental factors as well as objectively measured PA, children's anthropometric characteristics, and neighborhood factors at fifth and sixth grades. Parents' reports of children's sport and class participation, parent-reported support for PA, and neighborhood resources for PA were protective against declines in PA for both boys and girls. The effects of 2 factors-children's self-efficacy and parents' leisure-time PA-on changes in PA over time were moderated by the child's gender. A better understanding of these dynamics may inform the development of interventions.

  14. Gender Differences in Factors Related to Parenting Styles: A Study of High Performing Science Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Carol; Lewko, John H.

    1994-01-01

    Examined parenting styles within families of high performing science students and explored gender differences in the factors associated with authoritative parenting style. Found that the authoritative parenting style was predominant among study participants and that a greater number of family-related variables emerge for females, whereas more…

  15. Are There Gender-Specific Risk Factors for Suicidal Activity among Patients with Schizophrenia and Depression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Kalman J.; Harrow, Martin; Faull, Robert N.

    2012-01-01

    Are there gender-specific risk factors for suicidal activity among patients with schizophrenia and depression? A total of 74 schizophrenia patients (51 men, 23 women) and 77 unipolar nonpsychotic depressed patients (26 men, 51 women) from the Chicago Follow-up Study were studied prospectively at 2 years posthospitalization and again at 7.5 years.…

  16. [Socioeconomic inequalities and age and gender differences in cardiovascular risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-González, Ángel A; Bennasar-Veny, Miquel; Tauler, Pedro; Aguilo, Antoni; Tomàs-Salvà, Matias; Yáñez, Aina

    2015-01-01

    To describe the cardiovascular risk factors in a working population in the Balearic Islands and to examine whether differences by social class vary according to age and gender. A cross-sectional study was carried out in a sample of active workers aged 20-65 years in the Balearic Islands. The participants were included in the study during their annual work health assessment in 2011. The following variables were collected: occupation, social class, age, gender, height, weight, smoking, blood pressure, lipid profile, and glucose levels. Cardiovascular risk was calculated using two different equations (Framingham and REGICOR). Differences by social class were observed for most cardiovascular risk factors. The pattern of these differences differed depending on age group and gender. Differences in obesity by social class increased with age in women but decreased in men. More differences in hypertension by social class were found among women than among men, with differences increasing with age in both genders. Significant differences by social class were found among women in lipid profile, and these differences increased with age, mainly for low levels of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol. Inequalities in cardiovascular risk factors by social class were higher among women than among men. Some cardiovascular risk factors such as smoking and obesity showed significant inequalities from a very early age. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. Factor Structure and Gender Stability of the Brazilian Version of the Pornography Consumption Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltieri, Danilo Antonio; de Oliveira, Vitor Henrique; de Souza Gatti, Ana Luísa; Junqueira Aguiar, Ana Saito; de Souza Aranha E Silva, Renata Almeida

    2016-10-02

    There are a few instruments available to measure pornograhy consumption-related constructs, and this lack of instruments can compromise the validity of research findings. The Pornography Consumption Inventory (PCI) assesses four motivations for pornography consumption, and it has been validated in hypersexual men and medical students. However, whether the psychometric properties of this instrument are comparable across genders remains unclear. Multigroup confirmatory factor analysis (MGCFA) was used to verify the invariance of the structure of the PCI across male (100) and female (105) university students. The confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) for each group showed a reasonably good fit of the data to the four-factor model. The MGCFA model included only factor loadings constrained to be equal between both genders (ΔCFI 0.05). However, the ΔCFI did not support a strong and strict factorial invariance, ΔCFI > 0.01. Although both genders seemed to agree with the conceptualization of pornography and motivations for consuming it, the PCI was not gender-invariant, as men showed a stronger degree of motivation to consume pornographic material than women did. The implications of these findings regarding the measurement of motivations for pornography use are outlined.

  18. Explaining IT Professionals' Organizational Commitment Based on Age, Gender, and Personality Trait Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Javaid A.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to test the Emotional Stability dimension of the Big Five factors of personality traits theory to predict or explain a relationship with Employee Organizational Commitment, when the relationship between Emotional Stability (ES) and Employee Organizational Commitment (EOC) was moderated by Gender and AgeGroup.…

  19. Diversity in primary teacher education gender differences in student factors and curriculum perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerdink, G.; Bergen, T.C.M.; Dekkers, Hetty

    2010-01-01

    In the Netherlands only a small number of male students opt for primary school teaching and a relatively large percentage of them leave without graduating. A small-scale research project was set up to explore the question: Can gender-specific student factors be identified in relation to the initial

  20. Trends in contraceptive use and distribution of births with demographic risk factors in Ethiopia: a sub-national analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiferaw, Solomon; Abdullah, Muna; Mekonnen, Yared; Maïga, Abdoulaye; Akinyemi, Akanni; Amouzou, Agbessi; Friedman, Howard; Barros, Aluisio J D; Hounton, Sennen

    2015-01-01

    Evidence shows that family planning contributes to the decline in child mortality by decreasing the proportions of births that are considered high risk. The main objective of the present analysis was to examine the trends in use of modern contraceptives and their relationship with total fertility rate (TFR) and distribution of births by demographic risk factors as defined by mother's age, birth interval, and birth order at the sub-national level in Ethiopia. Analyses used data from three Demographic and Health Surveys in Ethiopia (2000, 2005, and 2011), which are nationally representative data collected through questionnaire-based interviews from women 15-49 using a stratified, two-stage cluster sampling. First, we examined the trends of and relationship between TFR (in the 3 years before each survey) and modern contraceptive use among currently married women in all administrative regions over the time period 2000-2011 using linear regression analysis. We also examined the relationship between birth risks and under-five mortality using the no-risk group as a reference. Finally, multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to estimate the relationship between the effect of being a resident in one of the regions and having an avoidable birth risk (which includes births to mothers younger than 18 and older than 34 years, birth interval of less than 24 months and birth order higher than third) after adjusting for select covariates including wealth, educational status, residence, religion and exposure to family planning information. Sub-national-level regression analysis showed an inverse relationship between modern contraceptive use among married women and the TFR, with an average decrease of TFR by one child per woman associated with a 13 percentage point increase in modern contraceptive use between 2000 and 2011. A high percentage of births in Ethiopia (62%) fall in one of the risk categories (excluding first births), with wide regional variation from 55% in

  1. Trends in contraceptive use and distribution of births with demographic risk factors in Ethiopia: a sub-national analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon Shiferaw

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Evidence shows that family planning contributes to the decline in child mortality by decreasing the proportions of births that are considered high risk. The main objective of the present analysis was to examine the trends in use of modern contraceptives and their relationship with total fertility rate (TFR and distribution of births by demographic risk factors as defined by mother's age, birth interval, and birth order at the sub-national level in Ethiopia. Design: Analyses used data from three Demographic and Health Surveys in Ethiopia (2000, 2005, and 2011, which are nationally representative data collected through questionnaire-based interviews from women 15–49 using a stratified, two-stage cluster sampling. First, we examined the trends of and relationship between TFR (in the 3 years before each survey and modern contraceptive use among currently married women in all administrative regions over the time period 2000–2011 using linear regression analysis. We also examined the relationship between birth risks and under-five mortality using the no-risk group as a reference. Finally, multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to estimate the relationship between the effect of being a resident in one of the regions and having an avoidable birth risk (which includes births to mothers younger than 18 and older than 34 years, birth interval of less than 24 months and birth order higher than third after adjusting for select covariates including wealth, educational status, residence, religion and exposure to family planning information. Results: Sub-national-level regression analysis showed an inverse relationship between modern contraceptive use among married women and the TFR, with an average decrease of TFR by one child per woman associated with a 13 percentage point increase in modern contraceptive use between 2000 and 2011. A high percentage of births in Ethiopia (62% fall in one of the risk categories (excluding first

  2. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ: Factor Structure and Gender Equivalence in Norwegian Adolescents.

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    Tormod Bøe

    Full Text Available Although frequently used with older adolescents, few studies of the factor structure, internal consistency and gender equivalence of the SDQ exists for this age group, with inconsistent findings. In the present study, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA was used to evaluate the five-factor structure of the SDQ in a population sample of 10,254 16-18 year-olds from the youth@hordaland study. Measurement invariance across gender was assessed using multigroup CFA. A modestly modified five-factor solution fitted the data acceptably, accounting for one cross loading and some local dependencies. Importantly, partial measurement non-invariance was identified, with differential item functioning in eight items, and higher correlations between emotional and conduct problems for boys compared to girls. Implications for use clinically and in research are discussed.

  3. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ): Factor Structure and Gender Equivalence in Norwegian Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bøe, Tormod; Hysing, Mari; Skogen, Jens Christoffer; Breivik, Kyrre

    2016-01-01

    Although frequently used with older adolescents, few studies of the factor structure, internal consistency and gender equivalence of the SDQ exists for this age group, with inconsistent findings. In the present study, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to evaluate the five-factor structure of the SDQ in a population sample of 10,254 16-18 year-olds from the youth@hordaland study. Measurement invariance across gender was assessed using multigroup CFA. A modestly modified five-factor solution fitted the data acceptably, accounting for one cross loading and some local dependencies. Importantly, partial measurement non-invariance was identified, with differential item functioning in eight items, and higher correlations between emotional and conduct problems for boys compared to girls. Implications for use clinically and in research are discussed.

  4. Comparison of metabolic syndrome with growing epidemic syndrome Z in terms of risk factors and gender differences.

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    Uyar, Meral; Davutoğlu, Vedat; Aydın, Neriman; Filiz, Ayten

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study is to compare metabolic syndrome with syndrome Z growing epidemic in terms of risk factors, demographic variables, and gender differences in our large cohort at southeastern area in Turkey. Data of patients admitted to sleep clinic in University of Gaziantep from January 2006 to January 2011 were retrospectively evaluated. ATP III and JNC 7 were used for defining metabolic syndrome and hypertension. Data of 761 patients were evaluated. Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, coronary artery disease, pulmonary hypertension, and left ventricular hypertrophy were more common in patients with syndrome Z than in patients without metabolic syndrome. Age, waist/neck circumferences, BMI, triglyceride, glucose, and Epworth sleepiness scale score were detected higher, whereas the minimum oxygen saturation during sleep was lower in patients with syndrome Z. Metabolic syndrome was more common in sleep apneic subjects than in controls (58 versus 30 %). Female sleep apneics showed higher rate of metabolic syndrome than those of males (74 versus 52 %). Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, coronary artery disease, and left ventricular hypertrophy were detected higher in males with syndrome Z than in males without metabolic syndrome. Snoring and excessive daytime sleepiness were detected higher in females with syndrome Z than in females without metabolic syndrome. Systemic/pulmonary hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and left ventricular hypertrophy were more common in females with syndrome Z than in females without metabolic syndrome. Complaints of headache and systemic/pulmonary hypertension were more common among females than males with syndrome Z. Female syndrome Z patients had lower minimum oxygen saturation than male patients with syndrome Z. Metabolic syndrome in sleep apneic patients is more prevalent than in controls. All metabolic syndrome parameters were significantly different among obstructive sleep apneic patients with respect to gender with more severe

  5. Anaemia prevalence and associated factors among lactating mothers in Ethiopia: evidence from the 2005 and 2011 demographic and health surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakew, Yihunie; Biadgilign, Sibhatu; Haile, Demewoz

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify factors associated with anaemia in lactating mothers in Ethiopia. Design A cross-sectional secondary analysis of data pooled from two rounds of the 2005 and 2011 Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS) was used. A multivariate logistic regression model was applied to determine the factors associated with anaemia. Population A total of 7332 lactating mothers (2285 from EDHS 2005 and 5047 from EDHS 2011) were included from 11 administrative states of Ethiopia. Main outcome measures Lactating mothers considered anaemic if haemoglobin level Somali region, followed by 43.8% (95% CI 31.83% to 56.87%) in the Afar region. The multivariate statistical model showed that having a husband who had attended primary education (adjusted OR (AOR) 0.79; 95% CI 0.68 to 0.91), working during the 12 months preceding the survey (AOR 0.71; 95% CI 0.63 to 0.80), having a normal maternal body mass index (18.5–24.99 kg/m2) (AOR 0.78; 95% CI 0.68 to 0.89), being in the middle wealth quintile (AOR 0.83; 95% CI 0.71 to 0.98) or rich wealth quintile (AOR 0.83; 95% CI 0.70 to 0.98), having ever used family planning (AOR 0.68; 95% CI 0.57 to 0.80), having attended antenatal care (ANC) for the indexed pregnancy four times or more (AOR 0.73; 95% CI 0.59 to 0.91), having experienced time variation between the two surveys (AOR 0.73; 95% CI 0.64 to 0.85), and breastfeeding for 2 years (AOR 0.76; 95% CI 0.66 to 0.87) were factors associated with lower odds of having anaemia in lactating mothers. Conclusions Anaemia is highly prevalent among lactating mothers, particularly in the pastoralist communities of Somali and Afar. Promoting partner education, improving maternal nutritional status, and creating behavioural change to use family planning and ANC services at health facilities are recommended interventions to reduce the prevalence of anaemia among lactating mothers in Ethiopia. PMID:25872935

  6. Demographic, health services and socio-economic factors associated with pulmonary tuberculosis mortality in Los Altos Region of Chiapas, Mexico.

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    Nájera-Ortiz, J C; Sánchez-Pérez, H J; Ochoa-Díaz, H; Arana-Cedeño, M; Lezama, Ma Salazar; Mateo, M Martín

    2008-08-01

    Chiapas is one of the Mexican states having the highest rates of Pulmonary Tuberculosis (PTB), due to the numerous factors impeding its management and control (poverty, poor housing and nutrition, shortage of health resources, among others). To analyse the PTB mortality of a cohort of patients in Los Altos Region of Chiapas, who had been diagnosed with PTB from January 1, 1998 to December 31, 2002; and, to identify demographic, socioeconomic and health services utilization factors, associated with death from PTB. Analysis of a cohort of patients aged over 14 years diagnosed with PTB in the above mentioned period (n = 431) in Los Altos region of Chiapas. The records of the Tuberculosis Programme were reviewed, and patients were located through a search attempting to locate them in their homes. Those found alive were interviewed and asked to provide sputum samples. In the case of deceased patients, a verbal autopsy was obtained from a member of their family. The records of the PTB Programme in the area were incomplete and erroneous in many cases. The results of the home follow-up visits were: 208 (48%) patients located alive, five of whom were still PTB positive (three with multi-drug resistance); 145 (34%) could not be located and 78 (18%) had already died. Apparently, in at least 40 cases, the deaths were associated with PTB. Of these forty, 33 (83%) died without having received any medical care. The factors associated with dying from PTB were: 45 and over years of age (OR = 1.3; 95% CI = 0.98-1.3), 0-3 schooling years (OR = 3.3; 95% CI = 1.1-9.6), engaged in agriculture (OR = 2.2; 95% CI = 1.1-4.4), not living in main villages of their municipality (OR = 1.2; 95% CI = 1.0-1.3), living in a rural community (OR = 2.7; 95% CI = 1.1-6.8), not having been treated in DOTS (OR = 1.2; 95% CI = 1.0-1.3) and having defaulted from treatment (OR = 11.5; 95% CI = 5.3-24.8). The high rate of mortality due to PTB observed constitutes a serious public health problem deserving

  7. Anaemia prevalence and associated factors among lactating mothers in Ethiopia: evidence from the 2005 and 2011 demographic and health surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakew, Yihunie; Biadgilign, Sibhatu; Haile, Demewoz

    2015-04-14

    To identify factors associated with anaemia in lactating mothers in Ethiopia. A cross-sectional secondary analysis of data pooled from two rounds of the 2005 and 2011 Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS) was used. A multivariate logistic regression model was applied to determine the factors associated with anaemia. A total of 7332 lactating mothers (2285 from EDHS 2005 and 5047 from EDHS 2011) were included from 11 administrative states of Ethiopia. Lactating mothers considered anaemic if haemoglobin level prevalence of anaemia among lactating mothers was 22.1% (95% CI 21.13% to 23.03%). The highest prevalence was 48.7% (95% CI 40.80% to 56.62%) found in the Somali region, followed by 43.8% (95% CI 31.83% to 56.87%) in the Afar region. The multivariate statistical model showed that having a husband who had attended primary education (adjusted OR (AOR) 0.79; 95% CI 0.68 to 0.91), working during the 12 months preceding the survey (AOR 0.71; 95% CI 0.63 to 0.80), having a normal maternal body mass index (18.5-24.99 kg/m(2)) (AOR 0.78; 95% CI 0.68 to 0.89), being in the middle wealth quintile (AOR 0.83; 95% CI 0.71 to 0.98) or rich wealth quintile (AOR 0.83; 95% CI 0.70 to 0.98), having ever used family planning (AOR 0.68; 95% CI 0.57 to 0.80), having attended antenatal care (ANC) for the indexed pregnancy four times or more (AOR 0.73; 95% CI 0.59 to 0.91), having experienced time variation between the two surveys (AOR 0.73; 95% CI 0.64 to 0.85), and breastfeeding for 2 years (AOR 0.76; 95% CI 0.66 to 0.87) were factors associated with lower odds of having anaemia in lactating mothers. Anaemia is highly prevalent among lactating mothers, particularly in the pastoralist communities of Somali and Afar. Promoting partner education, improving maternal nutritional status, and creating behavioural change to use family planning and ANC services at health facilities are recommended interventions to reduce the prevalence of anaemia among lactating mothers in

  8. Gender differences in extreme mathematical achievement: an international perspective on biological and social factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penner, Andrew M

    2008-01-01

    Genetic and other biological explanations have reemerged in recent scholarship on the underrepresentation of women in mathematics and the sciences. This study engages this debate by using international data-including math achievement scores from the Third International Mathematics and Sciences Study and country-level data from the World Bank, the United Nations, the International Labour Organization, the World Values Survey, and the International Social Survey Programme-to demonstrate the importance of social factors and to estimate an upper bound for the impact of genetic factors. The author argues that international variation provides a valuable opportunity to present simple and powerful arguments for the continued importance of social factors. In addition, where previous research has, by and large, focused on differences in population means, this work examines gender differences throughout the distribution. The article shows that there is considerable variation in gender differences internationally, a finding not easily explained by strictly biological theories. Modeling the cross-national variation in gender differences with country-level predictors reveals that differences among high achievers are related to gender inequality in the labor market and differences in the overall status of men and women.

  9. Risk factors for low birth weight in Nigeria: evidence from the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey

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    Maznah Dahlui

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low birth weight (LBW continues to be the primary cause of infant morbidity and mortality. Objective: This study was undertaken to identify the predictors of LBW in Nigeria. Design: The data for this study was extracted from the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey conducted by the National Population Commission. Several questionnaires were used in the survey, some covering questions on pregnancy characteristics. The inclusion criteria include mothers who gave birth to a child 5 years before the interview and aged 15–49 years who were either permanent residents or visitors present in the household on the night before the survey conducted. The birth weight of the infants was recorded from written records from the hospital cards or the mothers’ recall. Results: The prevalence of LBW in this study was 7.3%. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed an adjusted significant odds ratio for mothers from North West region (aOR 10.67; 95% CI [5.83–19.5], twin pregnancy (aOR 5.11; 95% CI [3.11–8.39], primiparous mother (aOR 2.08; 95% CI [1.15–3.77], maternal weight of less than 70 kg (aOR 1.92; 95% CI [1.32–2.78], and manual paternal employment (aOR 1.91; 95% CI [1.08–3.37]. Conclusions: The risk factors for LBW identified in this study are modifiable. In order to reduce this menace in Nigeria, holistic approaches such as health education, maternal nutrition, improvement in socio-economic indices, and increasing the quality and quantity of the antenatal care services are of paramount importance.

  10. The Use of Physiotherapy among Patients with Subacromial Impingement Syndrome: Impact of Sex, Socio-Demographic and Clinical Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, David Høyrup; Frost, Poul; Frich, Lars Henrik; Falla, Deborah; Svendsen, Susanne Wulff

    2016-01-01

    Background Physiotherapy with exercises is generally recommended in the treatment of patients with subacromial impingement syndrome (SIS). Objective We aimed to investigate the use of physiotherapy in patients with SIS in Danish hospital settings as part of initial non-surgical treatment and after SIS-related surgery and to evaluate to which extent sex, socio-demographic and clinical factors predict the use of physiotherapy. Methods Using national health registers, we identified 57,311 patients who had a first hospital contact with a diagnosis of ICD-10, groups M75.1–75.9, 1 July 2007 to 30 June 2011. Records of physiotherapy were extracted within 52 weeks after first contact (or until surgery), and for surgically treated patients within 26 weeks after surgery. Predictors of the use of physiotherapy after first contact and after surgery were analysed as time-to-event. Results Within 52 weeks after first contact, 43% of the patients had physiotherapy and 30% underwent surgery. Within 26 weeks after surgery, 80% had a record of physiotherapy. After first contact and after surgery, exercise was part of physiotherapy in 65% and 84% of the patients, respectively. A public hospital contact, physiotherapy before hospital contact, administrative region, female sex, a diagnosis of other or unspecified disorders (M75.8-M75.9), and surgical procedure predicted higher use of physiotherapy. Low education level predicted slightly lower use of physiotherapy after first contact, but not after surgery. Conclusion In patients with SIS in Danish hospital settings, physiotherapy was more often used after surgery than as part of initial non-surgical treatment. The use of physiotherapy was less common among men than women, whereas unequal use of physiotherapy in relation to education level was not noticeable. The use of physiotherapy with exercises in initial non-surgical treatment was relatively limited. PMID:26954692

  11. Influence of household demographic and socio-economic factors on household expenditure on tobacco in six New Independent States

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    Gotsadze George

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To identify demographic and socio-economic factors that are associated with household expenditure on tobacco in Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russian Federation, and Tajikistan. Methods Secondary analysis of the data available through the World Bank Living Standards Monitoring Survey conducted in aforementioned countries in 1995–2000. The role of different variables (e.g. mean age of household members, household area of residence, household size, share of adult males, share of members with high education in determining household expenditure on tobacco (defined as tobacco expenditure share out of total monthly HH consumption was assessed by using multiple regression analysis. Results Significant differences were found between mean expenditure on tobacco between rich and poor – in absolute terms the rich spend significantly more compared with the poor. Poor households devote significantly higher shares of their monthly HH consumption for tobacco products. Shares of adult males were significantly associated with the share of household consumption devoted for tobacco. There was a significant negative association between shares of persons with tertiary education within the HH and shares of monthly household consumption devoted for tobacco products. The correlation between household expenditures on tobacco and alcohol was found to be positive, rather weak, but statistically significant. Conclusion Given the high levels of poverty and high rates of smoking in the New Independent States, these findings have important policy implications. They indicate that the impact and opportunity costs of smoking on household finances are more significant for the poor than for the rich. Any reductions in smoking prevalence within poor households could have a positive economic impact.

  12. Association of socio‐demographic factors with overweight and obesity among rural school going adolescents in Rohtak district, Haryana

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    BM Vashisht

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Childhood obesity is one of the most serious public health challenges of the 21st century. The problem is global and is steadily affecting many low‐income and middle‐income countries. Childhood obesity is associated with higher chances of premature deaths and disabilities in adulthood. It is also evident that nearly 75% of the obese adolescents remain obese as adults thus increasing the risk of Non Communicable Diseases (NCDs. Aim and Objectives To study the prevalence and associated socio‐demographic factors of overweight and obesity among rural school going adolescents. Material and Methods The present study was conducted in Lakhanmajra block of Rohtak district over a period of one year from July 2016 to June 2017. 750 students from six co‐ educational government senior secondary schools were included in the study. Data were collected using pre‐designed, pre‐tested, semi structured interview schedule. Collected data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0. Results Prevalence of overweight and obesity was 6.7% and 1.1% respectively. Maximum prevalence of obesity/overweight was found in the age group 13‐14 years (11.2%. Obesity/overweight was more prevalent in males (9.4% in comparison to females (3.4%. 14.3% of the study subjects belonging to three generation family, 11.7% belonging to joint and 4.5% belonging to the nuclear families were found to obese/ overweight. 11% and 5.1% of the study subjects with 6‐10 family members and 5 and less than five family members were obese/ overweight. Conclusion Childhood obesity continues in adult life and thus gives rise to diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Thus it is the need of the hour to address this problem and to devise programs and strategies to prevent overweight/obesity among children and adolescents because today’s children are future of the nation.

  13. Occupational and demographic factors associated with drug use among female sex workers at the China-Myanmar border.

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    Hail-Jares, Katie; Choi, Sugy; Duo, Lin; Luo, Zhi; Huang, Z Jennifer

    2016-04-01

    Within the last decade, the use of amphetamine type stimulants (ATS) has swelled in Myanmar. Regionally, female sex workers have reported turning to ATS for occupational reasons. In doing so, drug-using female sex workers (FSW) face compounded risks for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STI). Here, we examine the factors that impact FSW drug use in Muse, a town along the China-Myanmar border. In 2012, 101 FSW were recruited from entertainment venues and brothels along the Myanmar-Chinese border. Participants participated in a self-administered behavioral survey covering demographics, drug use, sex work, and risk behaviors. Bivariate and regression analyses were conducted in SPSS. Thirty four percent of respondents indicated current drug use. ATS derivatives were the most commonly used drugs (87.5%) with injection drug use being nearly non-existent in the sample. Drug using FSWs were older, had engaged in sex work longer, had more Chinese clients, and were more likely to have a previous boyfriend who had used drugs. They were also 3.5 times more likely to report a STI. Client condom use, HIV testing rates, and familiarity with public health resources did not statistically differ by drug use status. More research is needed to examine how romantic and professional sexual relationships push-and-pull FSW into using drugs. Our results suggest that diverse safer sex strategies, beyond client condom use, should be promoted with drug using FSWs, including strategies that acknowledge the impact of ATS use. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Prevalence and socio-demographic factors associated with anaemia in pregnancy in a primary health centre in Rivers State, Nigeria

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    Geraldine U. Ndukwu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anaemia, though a common problem in Nigeria, has not been adequately studied amongst pregnant women in primary health care facilities. Objective: This study is aimed at determining the prevalence of anaemia and sociodemographic factors associated with anaemia in pregnancy in a primary health centre in Rivers State, Nigeria. Methodology: This is a cross-sectional study carried out in a primary health centre. Association between variables was analysed using the Chi-square test. Results: Two hundred and twenty-seven pregnant women whose ages ranged from 16 to 40 years with a mean age of 26.8 ± 4.3 years were recruited for the study. The haemoglobin concentration ranged from 6 g/dL – 15 g/dL with a mean of 10.10 ± 1.27g/dL. A total of 142 (62.6% participants were anaemic. Anaemia was observed to be least prevalent in women within the extremes of reproductive age (≤ 20 years and 36–40 years. There was no statistically significant association between age, educational level and marital status (p > 0.05. The association of anaemia with social class was statistically significant (p = 0.000. Severe anaemia was not a common finding amongst the patients but it was significantly associated with educational status (p = 0.02 and socio-economic status (p = 0.03. Conclusion: The prevalence of anaemia amongst the pregnant participants in the primary health centre was high. Out of all the socio-demographic characteristics, only socio-economic status was significantly associated with anaemia. It is recommended that the socio-economic status of women should be enhanced in line with the Millennium Development Goals to prevent anaemia and to enhance pregnancy outcomes.

  15. The Role of Exercise Self-Efficacy, Perceived Exertion, Event-Related Stress, and Demographic Factors in Predicting Physical Activity among College Freshmen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brannagan, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The focus of this study was to examine the relationship among precursors to physical activity, including exercise self-efficacy, perceived exertion, stress, and demographic factors, among college students. Design: This study employed an associational design. Setting: The study population was college freshmen in southeast Louisiana who…

  16. How are Closeness and Conflict in Student-Teacher Relationships Associated with Demographic Factors, School Functioning and Mental Health in Norwegian Schoolchildren Aged 6-13?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drugli, May Britt

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the association between teacher-reported student-teacher relationship quality (closeness and conflict) and demographic factors, school functioning and child mental health in a cross-sectional study. The study was conducted among a national sample of Norwegian school children (N?=?825) in grades 1 to 7. Bivariate analyses and…

  17. The Misuse of Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids among Iranian Recreational Male Body-Builders and Their Related Psycho-Socio-Demographic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angoorani, Hooman; Halabchi, Farzin

    2015-12-01

    The high prevalence and potential side effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) misuse by athletes has made it a major public health concern. Epidemiological studies on the abuse of such drugs are mandatory for developing effective preventive drug control programs in sports community. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of AAS abuse and their association with some psycho-socio-demographic factors in Iranian male recreational body-builders. Between March and October 2011; 906 recreational male body-builders from 103 randomly selected bodybuilding clubs in Tehran, Iran were participated in this study. Some psycho-socio- demographic factors including age, job, average family income, family size, sport experience (months), weekly duration of the sporting activity (h), purpose of participation in sporting activity, mental health as well as body image (via General Health Questionnaire and Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire, respectively), and history of AAS use were obtained by interviews using questionnaires. Participants were all recreational male body-builders [mean age (SD): 25.7 (7.1), ranging 14-56 yr]. Self-report of AAS abuse was registered in 150 body-builders (16.6%). Among different psycho-socio-demographic factors, only family income and sport experience were inversely associated with AAS abuse. Lifetime prevalence of AAS abuse is relatively high among recreational body-builders based on their self-report. Some psycho-socio-demographic factors including family income and sport experience may influence the prevalence of AAS abuse.

  18. Gender differences in the relations between work-related physical and psychosocial risk factors and musculoskeletal complaints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooftman, W.E.; Poppel, M.N.M. van; Beek, A.J. van der; Bongers, P.M.; Mechelen, W. van

    2004-01-01

    Gender differences in the prevalence of musculoskeletal complaints might be explained by differences in the effect of exposure to work-related physical and psychosocial risk factors. A systematic review was conducted to examine gender differences in the relations between these risk factors and

  19. Sexual Minority Health and Health Risk Factors: Intersection Effects of Gender, Race, and Sexual Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Ning; Ruther, Matt

    2016-06-01

    Although population studies have documented the poorer health outcomes of sexual minorities, few have taken an intersectionality approach to examine how sexual orientation, gender, and race jointly affect these outcomes. Moreover, little is known about how behavioral risks and healthcare access contribute to health disparities by sexual, gender, and racial identities. Using ordered and binary logistic regression models in 2015, data from the 2013 and 2014 National Health Interview Surveys (n=62,302) were analyzed to study disparities in self-rated health and functional limitation. This study examined how gender and race interact with sexual identity to create health disparities, and how these disparities are attributable to differential exposure to behavioral risks and access to care. Conditional on sociodemographic factors, all sexual, gender, and racial minority groups, except straight white women, gay white men, and bisexual non-white men, reported worse self-rated health than straight white men (pnon-white men, were more likely to report a functional limitation than straight white men (pgender, and racial minority groups. Sexual, gender, and racial identities interact with one another in a complex way to affect health experiences. Efforts to improve sexual minority health should consider heterogeneity in health risks and health outcomes among sexual minorities. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The influence of gender on entrepreneurial intention: The mediating role of perceptual factors

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    Carmen Camelo-Ordaz

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The empirical evidence devoted to analyze the impact of perceptual factors in explaining the differences in the entrepreneurial intention of men and women is still limited and not entirely conclusive (Shinnar et al., 2012; Wilson et al., 2009. This non-conclusive research is significantly more noteworthy when the analysis is focused on the entrepreneurial intention of men and women once they become entrepreneurs. Drawing on this gap and taking as starting point the premises of Social Feminist Theory, our paper aims to examine the mediating role of perceptual factors on the relationship between gender and entrepreneurial intention of non-entrepreneurs and entrepreneurs. Drawing on a sample provided by the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor Project of 21,697 Spanish non-entrepreneurs and 2899 Spanish entrepreneurs, our results have shown that, in general terms, perceptual factor fully mediate the relationship between gender and the entrepreneurial intention of non-entrepreneurs, whereas such mediating impact disappears when people become entrepreneurs.

  1. Racial and gender discrimination, early life factors, and chronic physical health conditions in midlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Jasmine A; Terry, Mary Beth; Tehranifar, Parisa

    2014-01-01

    Most studies of perceived discrimination have been cross-sectional and focused primarily on mental rather than physical health conditions. We examined the associations of perceived racial and gender discrimination reported in adulthood with early life factors and self-reported physician diagnosis of chronic physical health conditions. We used data from a racially diverse birth cohort of U.S. women (n = 168; average age, 41 years) with prospectively collected early life data (e.g., parental socioeconomic factors) and adult reported data on perceived discrimination, physical health conditions, and relevant risk factors. We performed modified robust Poisson regression owing to the high prevalence of the outcomes. Fifty percent of participants reported racial and 39% reported gender discrimination. Early life factors did not have strong associations with perceived discrimination. In adjusted regression models, participants reporting at least three experiences of gender or racial discrimination had a 38% increased risk of having at least one physical health condition (relative risk, 1.38; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.87). Using standardized regression coefficients, the magnitude of the association of having physical health condition(s) was larger for perceived discrimination than for being overweight or obese. Our results suggest a substantial chronic disease burden associated with perceived discrimination, which may exceed the impact of established risk factors for poor physical health. Copyright © 2014 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Khat Chewing Practice and Associated Factors among Adults in Ethiopia: Further Analysis Using the 2011 Demographic and Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haile, Demewoz; Lakew, Yihunie

    2015-01-01

    Khat chewing has become a highly prevalent practice and a growing public health concern in Ethiopia. Although there have been many small scale studies, very limited national information has been available in the general population. This study aimed to identify factors associated with khat chewing practice among Ethiopian adults. The study used the 2011 Ethiopian demographic and health survey data. The survey was cross-sectional by design and used a multistage cluster sampling procedure. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression models with adjusted odds ratio (AOR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) were used to quantify the predictors. The overall khat chewing prevalence was 15.3% (95% CI: 14.90-15.71). Regional variation was observed with the highest in Harari [(53.2% (95% CI: 43.04-63.28)] and lowest in Tigray regional state [(1.1% (95% CI: 0.72-1.66)]. Multivariable analysis showed that Islam followers were 23.8 times more likely to chew khat as compared to Orthodox followers. Being a resident in Oromiya, South Nation, Nationalities and People (SNNP), Gambella, Harari and Dire Dawa regions had 1.9, 1.6, 3.1, 5.2 and 3.5 times higher odds of chewing khat as compared to Addis Ababa residents, respectively. Adults in the age group 45-49 years were 3.6 times more likely to chew khat as compared to 15-19 years. The middle and richest wealth quintiles were 1.3 and 1.5 times more likely to chew khat, respectively, as compared to the poorest category. Rural residents had 1.3 odds of chewing khat than urban residents. Those individuals who had occupation in sales, agriculture, service sector, skilled and unskilled manual workers were 1.6, 1.3, 2.4, 1.7 and 2.3 times more likely to chew khat, respectively, as compared to those who have no occupation. Females were 77% less likely to chew khat as compared to males. Formerly married and those experienced in child death had 1.4 and 1.2 times higher odds to chew khat as compared with those never married and never

  3. A 5-year retrospective study of demographic, anamnestic, and clinical factors related to psychiatric hospitalizations of adolescent patients

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    Di Lorenzo R

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rosaria Di Lorenzo,1 Nina Cimino,2 Elena Di Pietro,3 Gabriella Pollutri,4 Vittoria Neviani,5 Paola Ferri2 1Service of Psychiatric Diagnosis and Treatment, Department of Mental Health, AUSL Modena, Modena, 2School of Nursing, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, 3School of Neuro-Psychiatry, 4School of Psychiatry, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, 5 “The Medlar”, Villa Igea Hospital, Modena, Italy Background: Psychiatric emergencies of children and adolescents have greatly increased during the last years, but this phenomenon has not been studied in detail. The aim of this study was to analyze the correlation between acute psychiatric hospitalizations of adolescents and selected variables to highlight risk factors for psychiatric emergencies. Methods: This retrospective research was conducted in the acute psychiatric public ward, Service of Psychiatric Diagnosis and Treatment (SPDT, and in the residential facility for adolescents, “The Medlar”, located in Modena. The sample was constituted by all adolescent patients (n=101, age range 14–18 who had acute hospitalizations (n=140 in SPDT and had been successively transferred to “The Medlar” (n=83, from February 2, 2010 to January 31, 2015. From clinical charts, we extracted demographic and anamnestic characteristics of patients and clinical variables related to hospitalizations. Data were statistically analyzed. Results: Sixty-one percent of our patients lived with one divorced parent, with adoptive or immigrant family, or in institutions; 51% had experienced stressful events during childhood; 81% had a normal intellective level, but only 6% presented regular school performance. Parental psychiatric illness was negatively related, in a statistically significantly way, with onset age of adolescent mental disorders (coefficient -2.28, 95% confidence interval [CI]: -3.53 to 1.01, P<0.001, single linear regression; odds ratio: 4.39, 95% CI: 1.43–13.47, P<0.010, single logistic

  4. Gender differences in risk factors for cigarette smoking initiation in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvestre, Marie-Pierre; Wellman, Robert J; O'Loughlin, Erin K; Dugas, Erika N; O'Loughlin, Jennifer

    2017-09-01

    We investigated whether established risk factors for initiating cigarette smoking during adolescence (parents, siblings, friends smoke; home smoking rules, smokers at home, exposure to smoking in cars, academic performance, susceptibility to smoking, depressive symptoms, self-esteem, school connectedness, use of other tobacco products) are associated with initiation in preadolescents, and whether the effects of these factors differ by gender. In spring 2005, baseline data were collected in self-report questionnaires from 1801 5th grade students including 1553 never-smokers (mean age=10.7years), in the longitudinal AdoQuest I Study in Montréal, Canada. Follow-up data were collected in the fall and spring of 6th grade (2005-2006). Poisson regression analyses with robust variance estimated the effects of each risk factor on initiation and additive interactions with gender were computed to assess the excess risk of each risk factor in girls compared to boys. 101 of 1399 participants in the analytic sample (6.7% of boys; 7.7% of girls) initiated smoking during follow-up. After adjustment for age, gender and maternal education, all risk factors except academic performance and school connectedness were statistically significantly associated with initiation. Paternal and sibling smoking were associated with initiation in girls only, and girls with lower self-esteem had a significant excess risk of initiating smoking in 6th grade. Risk factors for smoking initiation in preadolescents mirror those in adolescents; their effects do not differ markedly by gender. Preventive programs targeting children should focus on reducing smoking in the social environment and the dangers of poly-tobacco use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Prognostic impact of demographic factors and clinical features on the mode of death in high-risk patients after myocardial infarction--a combined analysis from multicenter trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yap, Yee Guan; Duong, Trinh; Bland, J Martin

    2005-01-01

    mortality, whereas diabetes was only predictive of all-cause mortality. Smoking habit and atrial fibrillation had no prognostic value. Similar parameters were also predictive of short-term mortality, but not identical. CONCLUSIONS: Our study has shown that in high-risk patients post MI, who have been...... preselected using LVEF or frequent ventricular premature beats, demographic and clinical features are powerful predictors of mortality in the thrombolytic era. We propose that demographic and clinical factors should be considered when designing risk stratification or survival studies, or when identifying high...

  6. Gender Roles, Gender (Inequality and Fertility: An Empirical Test of Five Gender Equity Indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda Mills

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The division of gender roles in the household and societal level gender (inequality have been situated as one of the most powerful factors underlying fertility behaviour. Despite continued theoretical attention to this issue by demographers, empirical research integrating gender roles and equity in relation to fertility remains surprisingly sparse. This paper first provides a brief review of previous research that has examined gender roles and fertility followed by a comparison of six prominent gender equality indices: Gender-related Development Index (GDI, Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM, Gender Gap Index (GGI, Gender Equality Index (GEI, the European Union Gender Equality Index (EU-GEI and the Social Institutions and Gender Index (SIGI. The paper then tests how five of these indices impact fertility intentions and behaviour using a series of multilevel (random-coefficient logistic regression models, applying the European Social Survey (2004/5. The GDI, with its emphasis on human development, adjusted for gender, has the strongest and significant effect on fertility intentions. The EU-GEI, which focuses on the universal caregiver model, uncovers that more equity significantly lowers fertility intentions, but only for women. The remaining indicators show no significant impact. The paper concludes with a reflection and suggestions for future research.

  7. The Gender Wage Gap: Does a Gender Gap in Reservation Wages Play a Part?

    OpenAIRE

    Caliendo, Marco; Lee, Wang-Sheng; Mahlstedt, Robert

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on re-examining the gender wage gap and the potential role that reservation wages play. Based on two waves of rich data from the IZA Evaluation Dataset Survey we examine the importance of gender differences in reservation wages to explain the gender gap in realized wages for a sample of newly unemployed individuals actively searching for a full-time job in Germany. The dataset includes measures for education, socio-demographics, labor market history, psychological factors a...

  8. Female migrant sex workers in Moscow: gender and power factors and HIV risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weine, Stevan; Golobof, Alexandra; Bahromov, Mahbat; Kashuba, Adrianna; Kalandarov, Tohir; Jonbekov, Jonbek; Loue, Sana

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to build formative knowledge regarding HIV risks in female migrant sex workers in Moscow, focusing on gender and power. This was a collaborative ethnographic study, informed by the theory of gender and power, in which researchers conducted minimally structured interviews with 24 female sex workers who were migrants to Moscow and who provided sexual services to male migrant laborers. Overall, the female migrant sex workers engaged in HIV risk behaviors and practiced inadequate HIV protection with their clients. These behaviors were shaped by gender and power factors in the realms of labor, behavior, and cathexis. In the labor realm, because some female migrants were unable to earn enough money to support their families, they were pushed or pulled into sex work providing service to male migrants. In the behavior realm, many female migrant sex workers were intimidated by their male clients, feared violence, and lacked access to women's health care and prevention. In the cathexis realm, many had a sense of shame, social isolation, emotional distress, and lacked basic HIV knowledge and prevention skills. To prevent HIV transmission requires addressing the gender and power factors that shape HIV/AIDS risks among female migrant sex workers through multilevel intervention strategies.

  9. An examination of multilevel factors that may explain gender differences in children's physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo, Noe C; Corder, Kirsten; Marshall, Simon; Norman, Gregory J; Patrick, Kevin; Sallis, Jim F; Elder, John P

    2013-09-01

    Girls are less physically active than boys, yet no single study has examined the factors that may explain gender differences in children's physical activity (PA). This study was a cross-sectional analysis of data from 116 caregivers and their children aged 5-8 years who participated in the MOVE study. Caregivers reported various factors that may relate to children's PA (eg, encouragement for child PA and PA equipment at home). Child PA was measured by 7-day accelerometry. Linear regression tested for the variance in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) explained by gender and several variables. Gender and ethnicity interactions were examined. Caregivers were mostly female (97%), mean age 38 ± 6 years, mean BMI 28 ± 6 (kg/m2). Child's mean age was 8.1 ± 0.7, 54% were female and 40% were overweight/obese. Girls were less physically active than boys (54.1 ± 19.7 vs. 65.2 ± 28.0 daily minutes of MVPA, respectively). Among girls, more days of PE/week was associated with greater MVPA. Among boys, greater parent support for PA, greater parent modeling for PA, and greater number of PA equipment in the home were associated with greater MVPA. This study supports that boys and girls have different correlates for MVPA, which may partly explain gender differences in PA.

  10. Gender differences and related factors affecting online gaming addiction among Taiwanese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Chih-Hung; Yen, Ju-Yu; Chen, Cheng-Chung; Chen, Sue-Huei; Yen, Cheng-Fang

    2005-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the extent to which gender and other factors predict the severity of online gaming addiction among Taiwanese adolescents. A total of 395 junior high school students were recruited for evaluation of their experiences playing online games. Severity of addiction, behavioral characteristics, number of stressors, and level of satisfaction with daily life were compared between males and females who had previously played online games. Multiple regression analysis was used to explore gender differences in the relationships between severity of online gaming addiction and a number of variables. This study found that subjects who had previously played online games were predominantly male. Gender differences were also found in the severity of online gaming addiction and motives for playing. Older age, lower self-esteem, and lower satisfaction with daily life were associated with more severe addiction among males, but not among females. Special strategies accounting for gender differences must be implemented to prevent adolescents with risk factors from becoming addicted to online gaming.

  11. Gender differences in depression risk and coping factors in a clinical sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, K; Roy, K; Mitchell, P; Brownhill, S; Parker, G

    2002-07-01

    To examine gender differences in depression risk and coping factors in a clinical sample of patients with a diagnosis of DSM-IV major depression. Patients were assessed for substance use and abuse, family history of psychiatric disorder, interpersonal depressogenic factors and lifetime history of anxiety disorders. Trait anxiety, coping styles when depressed, parental bonding, marital features and personality style were also measured. Patients were reassessed at 12-month follow-up. There were few gender differences in experience of depression (either in duration, type or severity prior to treatment) in a group with established episodes of major depression but women reported more emotional arousability when depressed. Women reported higher rates of dysfunctional parenting and childhood sexual abuse, and rated their partners as less caring and as more likely to be a depressogenic stressor. Men were more likely to have a generalized anxiety disorder at assessment, to use recreational drugs prior to presentation. Men were rated as having a more rigid personality style and 'Cluster A' personality traits both at assessment and follow-up. There were few gender differences in severity or course of established episodes of major depression. Gender differences were related to levels of arousal, anxiety disorders, and repertoires for dealing with depression, rather than depressive symptoms per se.

  12. Changing demographics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vetter, B.M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on changing population demographics, poor academic preparation for and a decreasing interest in engineering among college students which indicates possible shortages ahead, particularly among chemical and petroleum engineers. The talent pool for engineering must be enlarged to include women and minority men, if we are to ensure an adequate future supply for the U.S

  13. Factors Relating to Managerial Stereotypes: The Role of Gender of the Employee and the Manager and Management Gender Ratio

    OpenAIRE

    Stoker, Janka I.; Van der Velde, Mandy; Lammers, Joris

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Several studies have shown that the traditional stereotype of a ?good? manager being masculine and male still exists. The recent changes in the proportion of women and female managers in organizations could affect these two managerial stereotypes, leading to a stronger preference for feminine characteristics and female leaders. This study examines if the gender of an employee, the gender of the manager, and the management gender ratio in an organization are related to employees? manag...

  14. Demographic Profile of Older Adults Using Wheeled Mobility Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amol M. Karmarkar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine whether the use of wheeled mobility devices differed with respect to age, gender, residential setting, and health-related factors among older adults. A total of 723 adults ageing 60 and older are representing three cohorts, from nursing homes, the Center for Assistive Technology, and the wheelchair registry from the Human Engineering Research Laboratories. Wheeled mobility devices were classified into three main groups: manual wheelchairs, power wheelchairs, and scooters. Our results found factors including age, gender, diagnosis, and living settings to be associated with differences in use of manual versus powered mobility devices. Differences in use were also noted for subtypes of manual (depot, standard, and customized and powered (scooter, standard, and customized mobility devices, on demographic, living arrangements, and health-related factors. Consideration of demographic, health-related, and environmental factors during the prescription process may help clinicians identify the most appropriate mobility device for the user.

  15. A First Look at Gender Inequality as a Societal Risk Factor for Dating Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gressard, Lindsay A; Swahn, Monica H; Tharp, Andra Teten

    2015-09-01

    One of ten U.S. high school students is a victim of adolescent dating violence (ADV). Understanding ADV risk factors guides prevention efforts; however, research examining community- and societal-level risk factors is scant. Societal gender ine