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Sample records for demographic factors contributing

  1. Trajectories of antidepressant medication before and after retirement: the contribution of socio-demographic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinonen, Taina; Lahelma, Eero; Martikainen, Pekka

    2013-05-01

    The association between retirement and mental health is assumed to depend on socio-demographic factors, but there is a lack of empirical evidence. We examined antidepressant medication before and after retirement by age, gender, living arrangements, and social class. The material comprised nationally representative register data from Finland. Linear regression analysis was used to calculate changes in antidepressant medication 7.5 years before and after disability (N = 42,937) and old-age (N = 19,877) retirement in 1997-2007 by socio-demographic factors. No changes in antidepressant medication (mean DDD/3-month period) were observed around old-age retirement regardless of the socio-demographic factors. After a slight initial increase in antidepressant medication there was a substantial rise 1.5-0 years before disability retirement, after which there was a marked decrease, particularly during the first 3 years. These effects were less pronounced in retirement due to somatic causes. Age was the strongest modifying factor in retirement due to both depression and somatic causes, with a stronger increase and limited decrease in antidepressant medication among the younger age groups. The post-retirement decrease was also somewhat stronger among men, and among those in higher social classes and those living with a spouse in depression-related retirement. In somatic causes, the pre-retirement increase was stronger among those in higher social classes. Prevention and rehabilitation of mental-health problems in association with work disability should focus particularly on young adults, among whom the strong increase in antidepressant medication before disability retirement, and the continued high levels of medication after the transition signify long periods of morbidity and premature retirement.

  2. The contribution of parental smoking history and socio-demographic factors to the smoking behavior of Israeli women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal-Engelchin, Dorit; Friedmann, Enav; Cwikel, Julie G

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the interplay between sociodemographic factors and parental smoking history in shaping the smoking behavior of Israeli women (N = 302). The study was conducted in the Negev region, which is characterized by a high proportion of immigrants and high percentage of low socioeconomic and educational groups. The specific objectives of this study were to examine: (1) The prevalence and characteristics of women smokers, ex-smokers and never-smokers; and (2) the contribution of education and parent smoking history to women's current smoking. Low levels of education, being Israeli born or veteran immigrants of European-American origin significantly increased the risk of smoking, whereas an orthodox lifestyle and new immigrant status significantly reduced the likelihood of smoking. Occasional smokers reported significantly higher primary care utilization than never smokers. A significant relationship between smoking and pain, gynecological symptoms and depression was found. Results indicate that childhood exposure to maternal smoking was a significant risk factor for smoking, whereas paternal past smoking negatively affects smoking in women. Also, results show that parental educational level affects women's smoking behavior indirectly by influencing their own educational attainment, which in turn is negatively associated with the likelihood of smoking. Mothers with higher education were more likely to smoke, an effect that was reversed for their daughters. Our results demonstrate how demographic, parental and lifestyle factors affect women's smoking in a multi-ethnic society and highlight the need to examine both generational and intergenerational effects.

  3. Health-related quality of life in children with neurofibromatosis type 1: contribution of demographic factors, disease-related factors, and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krab, Lianne C; Oostenbrink, R; de Goede-Bolder, Arja; Aarsen, Femke K; Elgersma, Ype; Moll, Henriëtte A

    2009-03-01

    To investigate health-related quality of life (HR-QOL) in children with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) with parental reports and children's self-reports, and to investigate the potential contribution of demographic factors, disease-specific factors, and problems in school performance or behavior. In a prospective observational study, parents of 58 children with NF1 (32 boys, 26 girls, age 12.2 +/- 2.5 years) visiting a university clinic, and their 43 children 10 years or older were assessed with the Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ). Potential determinants of domain scores were assessed in 3 explorative regression models. Parents reported a significant impact of NF1 on 9/13 CHQ scales, with moderate effect sizes on 8 (general health perceptions, physical functioning, general behavior, mental health, self esteem, family activities, role functioning emotional/behavioral, and parent emotional impact). Children report an impact on bodily pain, and an above average general behavior. Multiple CHQ scales were sensitive to demographic factors and behavioral problems, and 1 to NF1 severity. NF1 visibility and school problems did not influence HR-QOL. Parents, but not the children with NF1, report a profound impact of NF1 on physical, social, behavioral, and emotional aspects of HR-QOL. Multiple HR-QOL domains were most sensitive to behavioral problems, which points to an exciting potential opportunity to improve HR-QOL in children with NF1 by addressing these behavioral problems.

  4. Child diarrhoea and nutritional status in rural Rwanda: a cross-sectional study to explore contributing environmental and demographic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinharoy, Sheela S; Schmidt, Wolf-Peter; Cox, Kris; Clemence, Zachary; Mfura, Leodomir; Wendt, Ronald; Boisson, Sophie; Crossett, Erin; Grépin, Karen A; Jack, William; Condo, Jeanine; Habyarimana, James; Clasen, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    To explore associations of environmental and demographic factors with diarrhoea and nutritional status among children in Rusizi district, Rwanda. We obtained cross-sectional data from 8847 households in May-August 2013 from a baseline survey conducted for an evaluation of an integrated health intervention. We collected data on diarrhoea, water quality, and environmental and demographic factors from households with children <5, and anthropometry from children <2. We conducted log-binomial regression using diarrhoea, stunting and wasting as dependent variables. Among children <5, 8.7% reported diarrhoea in the previous 7 days. Among children <2, stunting prevalence was 34.9% and wasting prevalence was 2.1%. Drinking water treatment (any method) was inversely associated with caregiver-reported diarrhoea in the previous 7 days (PR = 0.79, 95% CI: 0.68-0.91). Improved source of drinking water (PR = 0.80, 95% CI: 0.73-0.87), appropriate treatment of drinking water (PR = 0.88, 95% CI: 0.80-0.96), improved sanitation facility (PR = 0.90, 95% CI: 0.82-0.97), and complete structure (having walls, floor and roof) of the sanitation facility (PR = 0.65, 95% CI: 0.50-0.84) were inversely associated with stunting. None of the exposure variables were associated with wasting. A microbiological indicator of water quality was not associated with diarrhoea or stunting. Our findings suggest that in Rusizi district, appropriate treatment of drinking water may be an important factor in diarrhoea in children <5, while improved source and appropriate treatment of drinking water as well as improved type and structure of sanitation facility may be important for linear growth in children <2. We did not detect an association with water quality. © 2016 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. DEMOGRAPHIC FACTOR OF ECOLOGICAL POLICY

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Demographic factor of ecological policy is analyzed. Анализируется демографическая составляющая экологической политики. Аналізується демографічна складова екологічної політики.

  6. 5 CFR 841.404 - Demographic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Demographic factors. 841.404 Section 841... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-GENERAL ADMINISTRATION Government Costs § 841.404 Demographic factors. (a) The Office of Personnel Management (OPM) will consider the factors listed below...

  7. The contribution of demographic and morbidity factors to self-reported visit frequency of patients: a cross-sectional study of general practice patients in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britt Helena

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the factors that affect patients' utilisation of health services is important for health service provision and effective patient management. This study aimed to investigate the specific morbidity and demographic factors related to the frequency with which general practice patients visit a general practitioner/family physician (GP in Australia. Methods A sub-study was undertaken as part of an ongoing national study of general practice activity in Australia. A cluster sample of 10,755 general practice patients were surveyed through a random sample of 379 general practitioners. The patient reported the number of times he/she had visited a general practitioner in the previous twelve months. The GP recorded all the patient's major health problems, including those managed at the current consultation. Results Patients reported an average of 8.8 visits to a general practitioner per year. After adjusting for other patient demographics and number of health problems, concession health care card holders made on average 2.6 more visits per year to a general practitioner than did non-card holders (p Conclusions Anxiety, back pain and depression are associated with greater patient demand for general practice services than other health problems. The effect of sociodemographic factors on patient utilisation of general practice services is complex. Equity of access to general practice services remains an issue for patients from remote areas, while concession health care card holders are attending general practice more frequently than other patients relative to their number of health problems.

  8. Demographic changes and international factor mobility

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews the extent and policy implications of linkages between demographic changes and international factor mobility. Evidence is found of significant demographic effects on both migration and the current account, but for different reasons neither increased migration nor international transfers of savings is expected to offer much assistance in digesting the variety of demographic transitions expected over the next fifty years. The paper also examines more briefly the effects of de...

  9. Febrile Seizure: Demographic Features and Causative Factors

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    How to cite this article: Esmaili Gourabi H, Bidabadi E, Cheraghalipour  F, Aarabi  Y, Salamat F. Febrile Seizure: Demographic Features and Causative Factors. Iran J Child Neurol Autumn 2012; 6(4):33-37.Abstract Objective Because of geographical and periodical variation, we prompted to determine the demographic features and causative factors for febrile seizure in Rasht. Materials & Methods In this cross-sectional study, all 6–month- to 6-year-old children with the diagnosis of febrile s...

  10. Trust and its Relationship to Demographic Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asghar Mirfardi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Social trust is the main theme in the social life. Trust is “the expectation that arises within a community of regular, honest and cooperative behavior, based on commonly shared norms”. Development, social trust and security are intertwined categories and have interaction to each other. Social trust, as a main factor in social capital, provide social context for developmental programs. This study, examine the affect of Demographic factors on the social trust to others. As social trust is a key factor in social relationship, this study is needed to evaluate such factor according to demographic factors. Approach: This study has been done on existing data about Iranian values and attitudes. Some factors such as gender, age, education level, job situation, marital situation have been studied in this study. Some of these variables such as education, correspondence to development level, especially in social development. This study is done via documental method (archive and Documental data about mentioned themes and second analysis of The Iranian National Values and attitudes Survey (2000. Results: Findings of this study indicated that there is significant relationship between all of independent variables (Gender, age, education level, job situation, marital situation and social trust to families and relatives, there is significant relationship between variables such as gender, education level, job situation, marital situation (independent variables and social trust to friends. Analyzing the data showed that, the residents of less and more developed cities have different situation in trust. Conclusion/Recommendations: This study introduces three types of trust upon the development level of societies. Trust in Iran is an example of trust structure in developing societies.

  11. Who, what, where, when, and why: demographic and ecological factors contributing to hostile school climate for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosciw, Joseph G; Greytak, Emily A; Diaz, Elizabeth M

    2009-08-01

    This study examines how locational (region and locale), community-level (school district poverty and adult educational attainment), and school district-level (district size and ratios of students to key school personnel) variables are related to indicators of hostile school climate for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth. Indicators of hostile climate included frequency of homophobic remarks and victimization regarding sexual orientation and gender expression. We used data from a national survey of LGBT secondary school students (N = 5,420; 57.6% female; 65.5% White; mean age = 15.9). Results from regression analyses demonstrated that LGBT youth in rural communities and communities with lower adult educational attainment may face particularly hostile school climates. School district characteristics contributed little to the variation in LGBT youth's experiences. Findings highlight the importance of considering the multiple contexts that LGBT youth inhabit, particularly as they pertain to educational experiences.

  12. Febrile Seizure: Demographic Features and Causative Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed ESMAILI GOURABI

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available How to cite this article: Esmaili Gourabi H, Bidabadi E, Cheraghalipour  F, Aarabi  Y, Salamat F. Febrile Seizure: Demographic Features and Causative Factors. Iran J Child Neurol Autumn 2012; 6(4:33-37.Abstract Objective Because of geographical and periodical variation, we prompted to determine the demographic features and causative factors for febrile seizure in Rasht. Materials & Methods In this cross-sectional study, all 6–month- to 6-year-old children with the diagnosis of febrile seizure admitted to 17 Shahrivar hospital in Rasht, from August, 2009 to August, 2010 were studied. Age, sex, family history of the disease, seizure types, body temperature upon admission and infectious causes of the fever were recorded. All statistical analysis was performed with SPSS software, version 16. Results Of the 214 children (mean age, 25.24±15.40 months, 124 were boys and 109 had a positive family history. Complex seizures were seen in 39 cases. In patients with a complex febrile seizure, 59% had the repetitive type, 20.5% had the focal type and 20.5% had more than 15 minutes duration of seizures. Most of the repetitive seizures (78.3% occurred in patients under 2 years old; the difference between under and over 2-year-old patients was statistically significant (P=0.02. Study results did not show significant differences between the two genders for simple or complex seizures. The mean body temperature upon admission was 38.2±1.32◦C (38.31±0.82 degrees in boys and 38.04±1.78 in girls. Upper respiratory infections were seen in most patients (74.29%. All cases of lower respiratory infections were boys. There was a statistically significant difference between boys and girls in causes of fever. Conclusion Most of the children had a positive family history and the most common causative factor was upper respiratory infection.  References: Huang MC, Huang CC, Thomas K. Febrile convulsions: development and validation of a questionnaire to measure

  13. Febrile Seizure: Demographic Features and Causative Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed ESMAILI GOURABI

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveBecause of geographical and periodical variation, we prompted to determine the demographic features and causative factors for febrile seizure in Rasht.Materials & MethodsIn this cross-sectional study, all 6–month- to 6-year-old children with the diagnosis of febrile seizure admitted to 17 Shahrivar hospital in Rasht, from August, 2009 to August, 2010 were studied. Age, sex, family history of the disease, seizure types, body temperature upon admission and infectious causes of the fever were recorded. All statistical analysis was performed with SPSS software, version 16.ResultsOf the 214 children (mean age, 25.24±15.40 months, 124 were boys and 109 had a positive family history. Complex seizures were seen in 39 cases. In patients with a complex febrile seizure, 59% had the repetitive type, 20.5% had the focal type and 20.5% had more than 15 minutes duration of seizures. Most of the repetitive seizures (78.3% occurred in patients under 2 years old; the difference between under and over 2-year-old patients was statistically significant (P=0.02. Study results did not show significant differences between the two genders for simple or complex seizures. The mean body temperature upon admission was 38.2±1.32◦C (38.31±0.82 degrees in boys and 38.04±1.78 in girls. Upper respiratory infections were seen in most patients (74.29%. All cases of lower respiratory infections were boys. There was a statistically significant difference between boys and girls in causes of fever.ConclusionMost of the children had a positive family history and the most common causative factor was upper respiratory infection.

  14. The Impact of Extrinsic Demographic Factors on Cantonese Speech Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, Carol K. S.; Cheung, Pamela S. P.; McLeod, Sharynne

    2013-01-01

    This study modeled the associations between extrinsic demographic factors and children's speech acquisition in Hong Kong Cantonese. The speech of 937 Cantonese-speaking children aged 2;4 to 6;7 in Hong Kong was assessed using a standardized speech test. Demographic information regarding household income, paternal education, maternal education,…

  15. Socio-Demographic Factors Influencing Work-Role Salience Among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socio-Demographic Factors Influencing Work-Role Salience Among ... The findings showed that students from lower socio-economic status homes and those ... The need to involve the students\\' parents in career education programmes and ...

  16. socio-demographic factors in under five children with acute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-09-01

    Sep 1, 2013 ... Their socio-demographic factors such as age, sex, breastfeeding status, parents ... acute diarrhoea among under five children in Enugu, Nigeria. ... Malnutrition predisposes .... Determinants of the utilization of children's Health.

  17. Demographic Correlates and Factor Structure of the Family Environment Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boake, Corwin; Salmon, Paul G.

    1983-01-01

    Factor analyzed the Family Environment Scale (FES) subscale scores of 204 families and correlated them with family demographic characteristics. The obtained factor structure showed two major factors similar to "control" and "acceptance-rejection" dimensions in previous research. Results support the FES as part of multimethod…

  18. [Demographic factors and comorbidity associated to prehypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez-Negrete, Adolfo; Márquez-Celedonio, Félix Guillermo; Soler-Huerta, Elizabeth; Rojas-Carrera, Sonia Irma; González-Santes, Mario; Blanco-Cornejo, Aída Verónica; Rojas-Uribe, Magdalena; Texon-Fernández, Obdulia

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: la prehipertensión arterial es la categoría establecida en el JNC-7 para definir las cifras de presión arterial diastólica de 80-89 y sistólica de 120-139 mm Hg que se asocian a riesgo cardiovascular. El objetivo del estudio fue determinar su prevalencia y su asociación con factores sociodemográficos y de comorbilidad en una muestra representativa de la población del estado de Veracruz. Métodos: por medio de muestreo probabilístico y una encuesta transversal, se registraron variables sociodemográficas, estilo de vida, antropometría, presión arterial y glucosa. Se obtuvieron razones de momios (RM) e intervalos de confianza (IC) del 95 % para los factores de riesgo mencionados. Resultados: la prevalencia de prehipertensión fue de 33.8 %, con edad promedio de 40.9 ± 14.2 años en prehipertensos y 50.6 ± 12.7 en hipertensos (p riesgo fue con las personas de sexo masculino que eran mayores de 40 años y que tenían escolaridad básica y comorbilidades como diabetes y enfermedad cardiovascular.

  19. Economic and Demographic Factors Impacting Placement of Students with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurth, Jennifer A.; Mastergeorge, Ann M.; Paschall, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Educational placement of students with autism is often associated with child factors, such as IQ and communication skills. However, variability in placement patterns across states suggests that other factors are at play. This study used hierarchical cluster analysis techniques to identify demographic, economic, and educational covariates…

  20. Socio-Demographic Factors Related to Oral Cancer

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    Abdoul Hossain Madani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The aim of this study was to identify factors related to cancer of oral cavity considering individual socio-demographic characteristics of a hospital based study in Pune. Approach: A case-control study was conducted. The cases were 350 with squamous-cell carcinoma of oral cavity diagnosed between 2005 and 2006 in Morbai, Narandia, Budharani Cancer Institute, Pune, India. Similar number of controls matched for age and sex selected from the background population. Cases and controls were interviewed for general characteristics; age, gender, education and possible socio-demographic factors. Results: Chi-square test in uni-variate analysis and estimate for risk showed that education, occupation and monthly household income were significantly different between cases and controls (pConclusion/Recommendations: Socio-demographic factors such as education, occupation and income do play an important role in development oral cancer.

  1. Demographic Factors Affecting Internet Using Purposes of High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Abdullah Faruk; Güzeller, Cem Oktay

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed at determining the impact of demographic factors on the Internet usage purposes of high school students. The population of the study consisted of students between 9th and 12th grades from the Anatolian high schools, science high schools, social sciences high schools, sports high schools and fine arts high schools in Turkey. The…

  2. Learning Approaches, Demographic Factors to Predict Academic Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tuan Minh

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to predict academic outcome in math and math-related subjects using learning approaches and demographic factors. Design/Methodology/Approach: ASSIST was used as the instrumentation to measure learning approaches. The study was conducted in the International University of Vietnam with 616 participants. An…

  3. Influence of stress factors and socio-demographic characteristics on the sleep quality of nursing students

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    Sonia Betzabeth Ticona Benavente

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To analyze the influence of stress factors and socio-demographic characteristics on the sleep quality of nursing students. Method: An analytical cross-sectional and quantitative study, conducted with 151 nursing students in São Paulo between March and April of 2012. A form for socio-demographic characteristics, the Instrument to Evaluate Stress in Nursing Students and the Pittsburgh Sleep Index were applied. Results: High levels of stress was predominant for Time Management (27.8% and Professional Training (30.5% and low sleep quality (78.8%. The Professional Communication, Professional Training and Theoretical Activity are positively correlated to sleep quality. Work activity, academic year and time for daily studies contributed to a low quality of sleep. Conclusion: Few stress factors from the academic environment and some socio-demographic characteristics contributed to the reduction of sleep quality in students.

  4. Dietary BCAA Intake Is Associated with Demographic, Socioeconomic and Lifestyle Factors in Residents of São Paulo, Brazil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ana Carolina Pallottini; Cristiane Hermes Sales; Diva Aliete dos Santos; Dirce Maria Marchioni; Regina Mara Fisberg

    2017-01-01

    ...) is important for the planning of public policies. This study was undertaken to investigate BCAA consumption, the foods contributing to that consumption and their association with demographic, socioeconomic and lifestyle factors. Methods...

  5. Demographic and audiological factors as predictors of hearing handicap

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    Leposavić Ljubica

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Currently available evidence reveals comparatively few studies of psychological effects of hearing impairments, in spite of the fact that clinicians have for a long time been aware of a connection between the acquired hearing impairment and mental disorders. They are focused on the investigation of dysfunction in general. Thus, three domains of the auditory imbalance may be distinguished: disorder, disability and handicap. 'Handicap', according to the definition of the World Health Organization, is a hindrance in an individual that results from an impairment or disability and represents psychological response of the individual to the impairment. OBJECTIVE Validation of acquired hearing impairment as a risk factor of psychical disorders as well as an analysis of relation of some demographic factors (sex, age, education and audiological factors (degree and duration of the impairment with the frequency of hearing handicap. METHOD MMPI-201 has been applied in 60 subjects affected with otosclerosis, potential candidates for stapedectomy, before and after the surgery. RESULTS Individuals with acquired hearing impairment manifest more frequent disorders of psychical functioning in comparison with general population, while demographic and audiometric parameters did not correlate with acquired hearing handicap. CONCLUSION It may be assumed that the very recognition of demographic and audio-logical factors can not help much in the understanding of the psychological stress associated with hearing impairment.

  6. Crime vs. demographic factors revisited: Application of data mining methods

    OpenAIRE

    Xingan Li; Henry Joutsijoki; Jorma Laurikkala; Martti Juhola

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to inquire about correlations between criminal phenomena and demographic factors. This international-level comparative study used a dataset covering 56 countries and 28 attributes. The data were processed with the Self-Organizing Map (SOM), assisted other clustering methods, and several statistical methods for obtaining comparable results. The article is an exploratory application of the SOM in mapping criminal phenomena through processing of multivariate data. We f...

  7. Influence of demographic and individual difference factors on impulse buying

    OpenAIRE

    Mirela Mihić; Ivana Kursan

    2010-01-01

    The main purpose of the paper is to determine the correlation of consumers’ demographic or socioeconomic characteristics and individual difference factors on the impulse buying behavior with respect to a number of single impulsivity indicators and one collective indicator. The paper consists of theoretical and research aspects. The first part encompasses theoretical insights into the secondary research regarding impulse buying while the practical part presents the methodology and primary rese...

  8. Socio- Demographic Factors And Non- Immunization In Children

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    Singh H

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available An Investigation was conducted to evaluate various socio- demographic variables and non- immunization in children of this region. Among all the children brought to well baby clinics, 20% were not immunized against any of the six killer diseases. Eighty two percent these were from social class I and II. Mothers of 50% and fathers of 40% non â€" immunized children were illiterate. Common factors for non- immunization were illness, ignorance and indifference.

  9. Socio-demographic factors and edentulism: the Nigerian experience

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    Akeredolu Patricia

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rate of total edentulism is said to be increasing in developing countries and this had been attributed mainly to the high prevalence of periodontal diseases and caries. Several reports have shown that non-disease factors such as attitude, behavior, dental attendance, characteristics of health care systems and socio-demographic factors play important roles in the aetiopathogenesis of edentulism. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between socio-demographic factors and edentulism. Methods A total of 152 patients made up of 80 (52.6% males and 72 (47.4% females who presented in two prosthetic clinics located in an urban and a rural area were included in the study. The relationship between gender, age, socio-economic status and edentulism in this study population was established. Results No significant relationship between gender and denture demand was noted in the study. The demand for complete dentures increased with age while the demand for removable partial dentures also increased with age until the 3rd decade and then started to decline. A significant relationship was found between denture demand and the level of education with a higher demand in lower educational groups (p Conclusions The findings in this study revealed a significant relationship between socio-demographic variables and edentulism with age, educational level and socio-economic status playing vital roles in edentulism and denture demand.

  10. Demographic Factors Affecting Internet Using Purposes of High School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Faruk Kılıç

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at determining the impact of demographic factors on the Internet usage purposes of high school students. The population of the study consisted of students between 9th and 12th grades from the Anatolian high schools, science high schools, social sciences high schools, sports high schools and fine arts high schools in Turkey. The sample was chosen through the stratified and cluster sampling procedure. The students were chosen randomly depending on the regions of their school attendance. The sample for this research numbered 3170 students. The research was conducted in the second term of the 2014-2015 academic year. The data were obtained through online forms and the bases of participation are honesty, sincerity, and volunteerism. The data collection tool is a questionnaire and a demographic information form prepared by the researchers. Chi-square Automatic Interaction Detector (CHAID analysis was conducted through SPSS in order to determine the demographic factors affecting the purposes of internet usage among high school students. The results of this research show that 9th grade students in Turkey mostly use the Internet to do homework while students from other grades mostly use the Internet for social networking. The male students use the Internet for playing video games more frequently in comparison with female students. Also, socioeconomic status affects the purpose of Internet usage. Hence it is suggested that teachers talking to male students might use the examples of computers and games and with female students they might relate the topics to social media.

  11. Crime vs. demographic factors revisited: Application of data mining methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingan Li

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to inquire about correlations between criminal phenomena and demographic factors. This international-level comparative study used a dataset covering 56 countries and 28 attributes. The data were processed with the Self-Organizing Map (SOM, assisted other clustering methods, and several statistical methods for obtaining comparable results. The article is an exploratory application of the SOM in mapping criminal phenomena through processing of multivariate data. We found out that SOM was able to group efficiently the present data and characterize these different groups. Other machine learning methods were applied to ensure groups computed with SOM. The correlations obtained between attributes were chiefly weak.

  12. Association between Social and Demographic Factors with Feeding Methods in

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    Maryam Gholamalizadeh

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Healthy Nutrition has an important role in childhood. Food habits of a child probably will continue to adulthood and increase the risk of many chronic diseases. Role of parents in child nutrition as a food producer and eating pattern has recognized to most important factor of child nutrition. Recent studies have shown that the methods used by parents to child feeding have an important role in the child’s diet and BMI. This paper aimed to investigate which parents use which types of parenting control practices to manage their children’s nutrition. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 208 parents with children aged 3-6 years was carried out in 30 primary schools. Measures included demographic and social factors and aspects of child feeding practices.Results: Results showed that stay at home mothers used more modeling practices. Mothers of sons used more pressure to eat than others. Older mothers used less pressure to eat. Mothers with higher BMI used more emotion regulation strategy and less modeling. And mothers with more education used more modeling.Conclusion: The results showed a significant relationship between demographic and social factors with aspects of the feeding practices.

  13. KIR gene content in amerindians indicates influence of demographic factors.

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    Danillo Gardenal Augusto

    Full Text Available Although the KIR gene content polymorphism has been studied worldwide, only a few isolated or Amerindian populations have been analyzed. This extremely diverse gene family codifies receptors that are expressed mainly in NK cells and bind HLA class I molecules. KIR-HLA combinations have been associated to several diseases and population studies are important to comprehend their evolution and their role in immunity. Here we analyzed, by PCR-SSP (specific sequencing priming, 327 individuals from four isolated groups of two of the most important Brazilian Amerindian populations: Kaingang and Guarani. The pattern of KIR diversity among these and other ten Amerindian populations disclosed a wide range of variation for both KIR haplotypes and gene frequencies, indicating that demographic factors, such as bottleneck and founder effects, were the most important evolutionary factors in shaping the KIR polymorphism in these populations.

  14. Demographic factors and genetic variation influence population persistence under environmental change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willi, Yvonne; Hoffmann, Ary A

    2009-01-01

    Population persistence has been studied in a conservation context to predict the fate of small or declining populations. Persistence models have explored effects on extinction of random demographic and environmental fluctuations, but in the face of directional environmental change they should also integrate factors affecting whether a population can adapt. Here, we examine the population-size dependence of demographic and genetic factors and their likely contributions to extinction time under scenarios of environmental change. Parameter estimates were derived from experimental populations of the rainforest species, Drosophila birchii, held in the lab for 10 generations at census sizes of 20, 100 and 1000, and later exposed to five generations of heat-knockdown selection. Under a model of directional change in the thermal environment, rapid extinction of populations of size 20 was caused by a combination of low growth rate (r) and high stochasticity in r. Populations of 100 had significantly higher reproductive output, lower stochasticity in r and more additive genetic variance (V(A)) than populations of 20, but they were predicted to persist less well than the largest size class. Even populations of 1000 persisted only a few hundred generations under realistic estimates of environmental change because of low V(A) for heat-knockdown resistance. The experimental results document population-size dependence of demographic and adaptability factors. The simulations illustrate a threshold influence of demographic factors on population persistence, while genetic variance has a more elastic impact on persistence under environmental change.

  15. Factors contributing to adolescent obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kloub, Manal I; Froelicher, Erika S

    2009-06-01

    Obesity in children is a significant public health concern. The prevalence of overweight and obesity in Jordanian children, and adolescents has increased in the last decade. The consequences of obesity to health in childhood and adulthood have both medical, and economic cost to individuals and society. This paper reviews the factors that contribute to adolescent obesity and emphasizes behavioral and environmental factors. An individual's behaviors such as increased consumption of high caloric foods, increased sedentary activity while decreasing physical activity has been identified as key issues in the development of obesity. Additionally, the current environment in homes, schools, and neighborhoods tend to discourage a healthy lifestyle. A comprehensive approach that involves the whole community is the best strategy for preventing adolescent obesity. Nurses are in a unique position to provide leadership in developing programs for healthier lifestyle choices for adolescents' and adoption of these goals into their daily lives.

  16. Demographic, physical, and radiographic factors associated with functional flatfoot deformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibuya, Naohiro; Kitterman, Ryan T; LaFontaine, Javier; Jupiter, Daniel C

    2014-01-01

    In 1 of our previous studies, the occurrence of self-reported flatfoot was associated with self-reported increased age, male gender, Asian and African American races, veteran status, poor health, increased body mass index, callus, bunion, hammertoe, and arthritis. However, we had to rely on survey data to identify these risk factors, and the accuracy of the survey results was unknown. Therefore, we decided to identify the risk factors associated with flatfeet using objectively and more accurately measured data. A total of 94 patients were enrolled in the present study. The demographic data and physical and radiographic examination results were recorded by the investigators in the clinic. The data were then analyzed to identify the factors unique to flatfoot, measured and defined using a plantar pressure measurement system during natural gait. We learned that a painful tibialis posterior tendon was associated with flatfoot. The calcaneal inclination angle was also decreased in the flatfoot group. The talar declination, intermetatarsal, hallux abductus, and calcaneal cuboid angles, and static calcaneal stance eversion were elevated in the flatfoot group compared with the non-flatfoot group. Systematic evaluation of these associated factors will help in the understanding of the functional status of the flatfoot deformity.

  17. Demographic, criminogenic, and psychiatric factors that predict competency restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colwell, Lori H; Gianesini, Julie

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has investigated the characteristics of competent and incompetent defendants and restorable and nonrestorable defendants. However, less is known about the influence of current treatment variables and other systemic factors on restorability. In the present study, we sought to examine the impact of demographic, criminogenic, historical clinical, and current treatment variables on the restorability and length of stay (LOS) of incompetent defendants. We reviewed the records of 71 male patients who had been court ordered for competency restoration and subsequently discharged from a maximum-security forensic hospital. Results indicated that nonrestorable patients had more prior hospitalizations, incarcerations, and episodes of incompetence, had lower level charges, were diagnosed with a psychotic and cognitive disorder, were prescribed more medications, and had lower global assessment of functioning (GAF) scores. Nonrestorable patients were hospitalized nearly twice as long as those eventually found competent, and patients with lower IQs and lower GAFs and who spent more days on special observations had longer LOS.

  18. Study identifies socio-cultural factors affecting demographic behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    The United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) is undertaking a project that will produce a state-of-the-art paper on sociocultural factors affecting demographic behavior. Particular emphasis will be placed on reproductive behavior in Africa, Asia, Latin America, and the Arab states region. The extent to which this information is incorporated in current population policies and programs will also be examined, and recommendations will be made. The factors to be studied include family and kinship structure; gender status and role; patterns of sexual relations and procreation in general and adolescent sexual behavior and fertility; religion, beliefs, customs, and traditions concerned with sexual relations and procreation; child rearing, socialization, and education; status and role of women; and sociocultural change, change agents, and influentials. The literature search will provide an inventory of methodologies. Guidelines on the use of the methodologies will be drafted for use by project personnel. These will later be tested in pilot studies in rural and urban communities in selected developing countries. The goal is to design programs that will accelerate contraceptive acceptance and sustain contraceptive practice by being sensitive to the sociocultural influences on the reproductive behavior of different subpopulations.

  19. The Effect of Selected Principal Demographic Factors and Student Academic Factors on Overall School Accountability Ratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Karen Collette

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the relationship and predictability of selected principal demographic factors and academic factors on overall school accountability ratings. Specifically, the effect of principals' age, gender and years of experience and TAKS reading and TAKS mathematics score on overall accountability ratings. The population for…

  20. Socio Demographic Factors Related to Smoking among Rural Adolescent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzana Islam Khan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Smoking is one of the leading preventable causes of premature death, disease, and disability. Adolescence is the period of physical, psychological and social maturation from childhood to adulthood and adolescent smoking is a continuous process which is related to many disease factors. Objective: To find out the factors related to smoking among rural adolescents. Materials and method: One hundred and fifty one male adolescent aged 13 to 19 years from rural areas were interviewed with a semi-structured questionnaire during January to June 2013, at Dhamrai Upazilla Health Complex, Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh. The socio demographic details, smoking and depression history were recorded. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D Scale was used to measure the presence of depression. Smoking behavior was measured by a number of questions. Results: Mean(±SD age of the study subjects was 16.8(±1.9 years. Most of the respondents started smoking around the average age of 14.3 years. The study shows that 64% respondents were smokers. Among smokers 80% were influenced by their friends about smoking. Seventy eight percent of the smokers were suffering from depression while 22% of nonsmokers were depressed (p<0.001. Majority (72% of the issues of the smoker parents were smoker (p<0.5. Domestic violence (p<0.001 and stressful events in life (p<0.05 also played significant roles for smoking. Conclusion: Depression, parent smoking and peer smoking, domestic violence, and stressful life events are important factors to start smoking in rural adolescents.

  1. Socio-demographic factors and cervical length in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrović, Dorde; Novakov-Mikić, Aleksandra; Mandić, Vesna

    2008-01-01

    The cervical length is an important factor in the risk evaluation of preterm delivery. The aim of this work was to determine the correlation between the cervical length and the demographic characteristics. A transversal type prospective study was done on a sample of 579 pregnant women at various gestational age of low risk mono-fetal pregnancy. The cervical length was measured by trans-vaginal ultrasound procedure within the regular pregnancy monitoring process. The following data were taken into consideration: the woman's age, her body mass at the beginning of the pregnancy and her height in order to calculate the body mass index as well as her smoking habit at the moment of conception. The mean cervical length was 34.3 mm and 35 mm in the group of women aged 30 and less and 31 and over, respectively. The cervix was insignificantly shorter in younger women (being 34.9 mm/35.9 mm in the 1st trimester, 34.5 mm/35.1 mm in the 2nd one and 33.9 mm/34.7 mm in the 3rd trimester). The sample of 579 pregnant women consisted of 448 non-smokers and 131 smokers. The difference in the length of the cervix in smokers and nonsmokers was not significant (being 32.2 mm/35.9 mm; 35 mm/34 mm and 34.4 mm/33.5 mm in the 1st, 2nd and 3rd trimester, respectively). The correlation between the body mass index and the cervical length was analyzed by trimesters. In the first trimester the increase in the body mass index was followed by the shortening of the cervix; the cervical length was not affected by the BAI in the second trimester, whereas the higher the body mass index the longer the cervix in the third trimester. Our study has shown that the cervical length is affected neither by the age of the woman nor her smoking habit but it is affected by the body mass index at the moment of conception, that linear trend being negative in the 1st trimester but positive in the 3rd one. Since the cervical length may be affected not only by the socio-demographic characteristics but the gynecologic

  2. Self-reported halitosis and associated demographic and behavioral factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanesi, Fernanda Carpes; Kauer, Bruno; Wagner, Tassiane Panta; Daudt, Luciana Dondonis; Haas, Alex Nogueira

    2016-08-22

    Halitosis is still poorly studied in young adults. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of self-reported halitosis and associate it with demographic and behavioral factors in young adult dental students. This cross-sectional study was designed as a census of students enrolled in three initial and three final semesters of a dental course in a Brazilian public university. Of 284 eligible students, 257 (90.5%) completed a self-administered questionnaire. Self-reported halitosis was the primary study outcome, and was assessed with the question "do you feel you have bad breath?". Data on age, gender, frequency of tooth brushing and interproximal cleaning, tongue cleaning, mouth rinse use and dry mouth were collected using the questionnaire, and were considered independent variables. Of the students surveyed, 26.5% reported as never, 51.7% as rarely, 21.4% as sometimes, and 0.4% as always feeling they had halitosis. Morning halitosis was reported by 90.6% of those who reported halitosis. In the final multiple model, last semester students had a 55% lower chance of reporting halitosis, compared with students from the first semesters [odds ratio (OR) 0.46; 95%CI 0.24-0.89]. Women had a 2.57fold higher chance of reporting halitosis (OR = 2.57; 95%CI 1.12-5.93). Dry mouth increased the chance of self-reported halitosis 3.95-fold, compared with absence of dry mouth (OR = 3.95; 95%CI 2.03-7.68). It can be concluded that self-reports of halitosis were low among dental students, but may represent an important complaint. Gender, dry mouth and level of college education of the dentist were factors significantly associated with self-reported halitosis.

  3. Injustice Experience Questionnaire, Japanese Version: Cross-Cultural Factor-Structure Comparison and Demographics Associated with Perceived Injustice

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Objective The Injustice Experience Questionnaire (IEQ) assesses injury-related perceived injustice. This study aimed to (1) develop a Japanese version (IEQ-J), (2) examine its factor structure, validity, and reliability, and (3) discover which demographic variable(s) positively contributed to prediction of IEQ-J scores. Methods Data from 71 patients (33 male, 38 female; age = 20+) with injury pain were employed to investigate factor structure by exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. C...

  4. Inadequate dietary intake of minerals: prevalence and association with socio-demographic and lifestyle factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, Cristiane H; Fontanelli, Mariane de M; Vieira, Diva A S; Marchioni, Dirce M; Fisberg, Regina M

    2017-01-01

    This cross-sectional, population-based study aimed to estimate the prevalence of dietary mineral inadequacies among residents in urban areas of Sao Paulo, to identify foods contributing to mineral intake and to verify possible associations between socio-demographic and lifestyle factors and mineral intake. Data were obtained from the 2008 Health Survey of Sao Paulo (n 1511; mean age 43·6 (sd 23·2), range 14-97 years). Dietary intake of minerals was measured using two 24-h dietary recalls. Socio-demographic and lifestyle data were collected. The prevalence of inadequate intake was estimated according to Dietary Reference Intakes methods. Associations between mineral intake and baseline factors were determined using multiple linear regression. Na, Ca and Mg showed the highest dietary inadequacies. Some age/sex groups had lower intakes of P, Zn, Cu and Se. Rice, beans and bread were the main foods contributing towards mineral intake. Female sex was negatively associated with K, Na, P, Mg, Zn and Mn intakes. All age groups were positively associated with the intakes of K, P, Mg and Mn. Family income above one minimum wage was positively associated with Se intake. Living in a household whose head completed ≥10 years of education was positively associated with Ca and negatively associated with Na intake. Former smoker status was negatively associated with Ca intake. Current smoker status was inversely associated with K, Ca, P and Cu intakes. Sufficient physical activity was positively associated with K, Ca and Mg intakes. Overall, the intakes of all major minerals were inadequate and were influenced by socio-demographic and lifestyle factors.

  5. An exploratory analysis of personality factors contributed to suicide attempts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. N. Suresh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: People who attempt suicide have certain individual predispositions, part of which is contributed by personality traits. Aims: The present study was conducted to identify the psycho-sociodemographic and personality related factors contributing to suicide attempts. Materials and Methods: 104 suicide attempters admitted in various departments and referred to the department of psychiatry of IQRAA Hospital formed the study sample. They were evaluated with a self designed socio-demographic proforma, Eysenck′s Personality Questionnaire Revised, Albert Einstein College of Medicine-Impulsivity Coping Scale, and Past Feelings and Acts of Violence Scale. Statistics Analysis: The data was initially analyzed by percentage of frequencies. Association between socio-demographic and selected psychological factors was analyzed using t-test and Chi-square test. Intercorrelation among psychological factors was calculated by Pearson′s correlation coefficient "r". Results and Conclusion: Factors such as young age, being married, nuclear family, feeling lonely and burden to family, inability to solve the problems of day to day life, and presence of psychiatric diagnosis and personality traits such as neuroticism, impulsivity, and violence were contributed to suicide attempt. A significant positive relationship between these factors was also identified. Findings of the present study call the attention of mental health professionals to identify these high risk factors in susceptible individuals and to modify these factors to prevent them from attempting suicide.

  6. Demographic, criminal and psychiatric factors related to inmate suicide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaauw, E.; Kerkhof, A.J.F.M.; Hayes, L.M.

    2005-01-01

    A review of 19 studies suggests that it may be feasible to identify prisoners with suicide risk on the basis of demographic, psychiatric, and criminal characteristics. The present study aimed to identify combinations of characteristics that are capable of identifying potential suicide victims. Chara

  7. Demographic, criminal and psychiatric factors related to inmate suicide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaauw, E.; Kerkhof, A.J.F.M.; Hayes, L.M.

    2005-01-01

    A review of 19 studies suggests that it may be feasible to identify prisoners with suicide risk on the basis of demographic, psychiatric, and criminal characteristics. The present study aimed to identify combinations of characteristics that are capable of identifying potential suicide victims. Chara

  8. Demographic, criminal and psychiatric factors related to inmate suicide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaauw, E.; Kerkhof, A.J.F.M.; Hayes, L.M.

    2005-01-01

    A review of 19 studies suggests that it may be feasible to identify prisoners with suicide risk on the basis of demographic, psychiatric, and criminal characteristics. The present study aimed to identify combinations of characteristics that are capable of identifying potential suicide victims.

  9. Socio-demographic factors related to functional limitations and care dependency among older Egyptians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boggatz, Thomas; Farid, Tamer; Mohammedin, Ahmed; Dijkstra, Ate; Lohrmann, Christa; Dassen, Theo

    P>Title. Socio-demographic factors related to functional limitations and care dependency among older Egyptians. Aim. This paper is a report of a study determining the relationship of socio-demographic factors to functional limitations and care dependency among older care recipients and non-care

  10. Socio-demographic factors related to functional limitations and care dependency among older Egyptians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boggatz, Thomas; Farid, Tamer; Mohammedin, Ahmed; Dijkstra, Ate; Lohrmann, Christa; Dassen, Theo

    2010-01-01

    P>Title. Socio-demographic factors related to functional limitations and care dependency among older Egyptians. Aim. This paper is a report of a study determining the relationship of socio-demographic factors to functional limitations and care dependency among older care recipients and non-care reci

  11. Effect of Demographic Factors on Empowerment Attributions of Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Ashley H.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of demographic factors on empowerment attributions of parents of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Data were collected to determine differences between demographic factors of participants and self-reported empowerment attributions. A quantitative research design was employed in…

  12. Burnout syndrome in physical therapists - demographic and organizational factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pustułka-Piwnik, Urszula; Ryn, Zdzisław Jan; Krzywoszański, Łukasz; Stożek, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    Professional burnout results from prolonged exposure to chronic, job-related stressors. According to Christina Maslach, professional burnout is a syndrome of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and reduced personal accomplishment. Literature includes a number of reports on burnout syndrome within health service, but hardly ever do they make any references to physiotherapists. The purpose of this study is assessment of the level of professional burnout in a group of physiotherapists and investigating relationships between the indices of burnout syndrome and selected demographic as well as organizational variables. The study group consisted of 151 physiotherapists with at least 3 years of experience, employed in various health service outposts in Krakow, Poland. The Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) was used to measure emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and personal accomplishment. A questionnaire for the description of socio-demographic and work characteristics was used as well. Job burnout among the physiotherapists was manifested by an increased emotional exhaustion and decreased sense of personal achievement. Emotional exhaustion was significantly higher among physi cal therapists working with adults and employed in hospitals, depersonalization was higher among men, hospital workers and employees with seniority from 15 to 19 years, personal accomplishment was decreased among men and less-educated therapists. The study confirmed that indicators of burnout in physiotherapists are significantly associated with selected demographic and organizational variables. It is necessary to undertake a more exhaustive study of burnout in this group of employees, and implement elements of prevention.

  13. Factors Contributing to Institutions Achieving Environmental Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Matthew; Card, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to determine what factors contributed to three universities achieving environmental sustainability. Design/methodology/approach: A case study methodology was used to determine how each factor contributed to the institutions' sustainability. Site visits, fieldwork, document reviews, and interviews with…

  14. Factors Contributing to Institutions Achieving Environmental Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Matthew; Card, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to determine what factors contributed to three universities achieving environmental sustainability. Design/methodology/approach: A case study methodology was used to determine how each factor contributed to the institutions' sustainability. Site visits, fieldwork, document reviews, and interviews with…

  15. Relationship between demographic and environmental factors and knowledge of secondary school students on natural disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetković Vladimir M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of quantitative research is to examine the connection between demographic (gender, age and environmental factors (family, school and media and knowledge and perceptions of students about natural disasters. Bearing in mind the orientation of the research design on determination of character and strength of relationships of demographic and environmental factors with the knowledge and perceptions of students about natural disasters, research has explicative goal. The authors use the method of interviewing high school students to identify demographic and environmental factors associated with the knowledge and perceptions of students about natural disasters. The study included 3,063 students of secondary schools in the city of Belgrade. Results suggest the existence of links between gender, success achieved in school and education of parents and the knowledge of students about natural disasters. The results also indicate that the education of students at school and within family does not affect the knowledge, but affects their perception on natural disasters. Bearing in mind the geographical space of Serbia, the study is based only on the Belgrade region, so the findings can be generalized only to the population of students in this area. Research findings indicate potential ways to influence students to raise level of knowledge about natural disasters to a higher level. Given the evident lack of education about natural disasters in Serbia, the study results can be used for policies of educational programs, which would contribute to improving the safety of youth culture. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179045: Development of institutional capacities, standards and procedures for countering organized crime and terrorism in terms of international integration, br. 179034: From encouraging initiative, cooperation and creativity in education to new roles and identities in the society i br. 47008: Improving quality and

  16. Factors that contribute to the willingness to try "street hypnosis".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Orin C; Gao, Xuan

    2014-01-01

    This study takes a context-specific approach to examine people's willingness to try hypnosis under various conditions and the factors that contribute to their willingness. It examined 378 participants, who completed a web-based hypnosis survey. The results showed that people's willingness to try hypnosis varies by context. Specifically, people are more willing to try hypnosis when it is framed as "peak focus" rather than "hypnosis" and when they perceive the environment as being safer. Moreover, factors including participants' demographics, hypnotists' demographics (relative to the subjects'), participants' control bias, and knowledge of hypnosis affect people's degrees of willingness to try hypnosis, depending on the specific context. The results suggest further analysis of hypnosis occurring in public contexts and the effects it may have on attitudes and therapeutic outcomes.

  17. Burnout syndrome in physical therapists – Demographic and organizational factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urszula Pustułka-Piwnik

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Professional burnout results from prolonged exposure to chronic, job-related stressors. According to Christina Maslach, professional burnout is a syndrome of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and reduced personal accomplishment. Literature includes a number of reports on burnout syndrome within health service, but hardly ever do they make any references to physiotherapists. The purpose of this study is assessment of the level of professional burnout in a group of physiotherapists and investigating relationships between the indices of burnout syndrome and selected demographic as well as organizational variables. Material and Methods: The study group consisted of 151 physiotherapists with at least 3 years of experience, employed in various health service outposts in Krakow, Poland. The Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI was used to measure emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and personal accomplishment. A questionnaire for the description of socio-demographic and work characteristics was used as well. Results: Job burnout among the physiotherapists was manifested by an increased emotional exhaustion and decreased sense of personal achievement. Emotional exhaustion was significantly higher among physical therapists working with adults and employed in hospitals, depersonalization was higher among men, hospital workers and employees with seniority from 15 to 19 years, personal accomplishment was decreased among men and less-educated therapists. Conclusions: The study confirmed that indicators of burnout in physiotherapists are significantly associated with selected demographic and organizational variables. It is necessary to undertake a more exhaustive study of burnout in this group of employees, and implement elements of prevention. Med Pr 2014;65(4:453–462

  18. Socio-demographic factors, behaviour and personality: associations with psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Suzanne Helen; Jayasinghe, Upali W; Fanaian, Mahnaz; Passey, Megan; Lyle, David; Davies, Gawaine Powell; Harris, Mark Ford

    2012-04-01

    Anxiety, psychological distress and personality may not be independent risk factors for cardiovascular disease; however they may contribute via their relationship with unhealthy lifestyle behaviours. This study aimed to examine the association between psychological distress, risk behaviours and patient demographic characteristics in a sample of general practice patients aged 40-65 years with at least one risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Cross-sectional analytic study. Patients, randomly selected from general practice records, completed a questionnaire about their behavioural risk factors and psychological health as part of a cluster randomized controlled trial of a general practice based intervention to prevent chronic vascular disease. The Kessler Psychological Distress Score (K10) was the main outcome measure for the multilevel, multivariate analysis. Single-level bi-variate analysis demonstrated a significant association between higher K10 and middle age (p = 0.001), high neuroticism (p = 0), current smoking (p = 0), physical inactivity (p = 0.003) and low fruit and vegetable consumption (p = 0.008). Socioeconomic (SES) indicators of deprivation (employment and accommodation status) were also significantly associated with higher K10 (p = 0). No individual behavioural risk factor was associated with K10 on multilevel multivariate analysis; however indicators of low SES remained significant (p factors were considered, psychological distress was not associated with behavioural risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Other underlying factors, such as personality type and socioeconomic status, may be associated with both the behaviours and the distress.

  19. Impact of environmental factors on the demographic characteristics in Tomsk Oblast (Russia, 1980-2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugacheva, E.; Mezhibor, A.; Makarenko, T.

    2016-09-01

    The research represents the analysis of essential demographic indexes in Tomsk Oblast (Russia): birth-rate, death-rate, natural increase (1980-2015), migration increase (19972014), and child mortality (1990-2015). Environmental factors were determined as influencing the health and as a consequence, having the impact on the demographic characteristics of the studied region.

  20. STATISTICAL EVALUATION OF THE IMPACT OF ECONOMIC FACTORS ON SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHICS OF THE COUNTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Evseenko

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In theory made a case the necessity of modeling economic and demographic indicators. The influences of economic, social and environmental indicators on social and demographic factors of development country are researeched. Given statistical evaluation of relationships based on correlation and regression analysis method.

  1. Demographic, socio-economic, and cultural factors affecting fertility differentials in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adhikari Ramesh

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traditionally Nepalese society favors high fertility. Children are a symbol of well-being both socially and economically. Although fertility has been decreasing in Nepal since 1981, it is still high compared to many other developing countries. This paper is an attempt to examine the demographic, socio-economic, and cultural factors for fertility differentials in Nepal. Methods This paper has used data from the Nepal Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS 2006. The analysis is confined to ever married women of reproductive age (8,644. Both bivariate and multivariate analyses have been performed to describe the fertility differentials. The bivariate analysis (one-way ANOVA was applied to examine the association between children ever born and women's demographic, socio-economic, and cultural characteristics. Besides bivariate analysis, the net effect of each independent variable on the dependent variable after controlling for the effect of other predictors has also been measured through multivariate analysis (multiple linear regressions. Results The mean numbers of children ever born (CEB among married Nepali women of reproductive age and among women aged 40-49 were three and five children, respectively. There are considerable differentials in the average number of children ever born according to women's demographic, socio-economic, and cultural settings. Regression analysis revealed that age at first marriage, perceived ideal number of children, place of residence, literacy status, religion, mass media exposure, use of family planning methods, household headship, and experience of child death were the most important variables that explained the variance in fertility. Women who considered a higher number of children as ideal (β = 0.03; p Conclusion The average number of children ever born is high among women in Nepal. There are many contributing factors for the high fertility, among which are age at first marriage, perceived ideal

  2. Demographics and limiting factors of tundra nesting birds at the Canning River products

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Products resulting from the Arctic NWR project "Demographics and limiting factors of tundra nesting birds at the Canning River" (PRIMR survey FF07RARC00-010).

  3. Socioeconomic and demographic factors are associated with dietary patterns in a cohort of young Brazilian adults

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arruda, Soraia Pinheiro Machado; da Silva, Antônio Augusto Moura; Kac, Gilberto; Goldani, Marcelo Zubaran; Bettiol, Heloisa; Barbieri, Marco Antônio

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify the main dietary patterns among young adults and to investigate the association of socioeconomic and demographic factors, and social mobility with dietary patterns...

  4. The influence of socio-demographic factors on the nutritional status ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition ... Objectives: To determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity, as well as socio-demographic risk factors associated with childhood overweight and obesity in the Stellenbosch area, Western ...

  5. Effects of Demographic Factors, Body Mass Index, Alcohol Drinking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sciences, Tehran, Iran, 3Department of Inflammatory Bowel Disease, Research Institute for Gastroenterology and Liver. Disease ..... [13] A similar age trend was identified in a ... in food habit, psychological factors may account for this finding.

  6. Attitudes Toward Seeking Professional Psychological Help: Factor Structure and Socio-Demographic Predictors

    OpenAIRE

    Picco, Louisa; Abdin, Edimanysah; Chong, Siow Ann; Pang, Shirlene; Shafie, Saleha; Chua, Boon Yiang; Vaingankar, Janhavi A; Ong, Lue Ping; Tay, Jenny; Subramaniam, Mythily

    2016-01-01

    Attitudes toward seeking professional psychological help (ATSPPH) are complex. Help seeking preferences are influenced by various attitudinal and socio-demographic factors and can often result in unmet needs, treatment gaps, and delays in help-seeking. The aims of the current study were to explore the factor structure of the ATSPPH short form (-SF) scale and determine whether any significant socio-demographic differences exist in terms of help-seeking attitudes. Data were extracted from a pop...

  7. Diet patterns are associated with demographic factors and nutritional status in South Indian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehoe, Sarah H; Krishnaveni, Ghattu V; Veena, Sargoor R; Guntupalli, Aravinda M; Margetts, Barrie M; Fall, Caroline H D; Robinson, Sian M

    2014-01-01

    The burden of non-communicable chronic disease (NCD) in India is increasing. Diet and body composition 'track' from childhood into adult life and contribute to the development of risk factors for NCD. Little is known about the diet patterns of Indian children. We aimed to identify diet patterns and study associations with body composition and socio-demographic factors in the Mysore Parthenon Study cohort. We collected anthropometric and demographic data from children aged 9.5 years (n = 538). We also administered a food frequency questionnaire and measured fasting blood concentrations of folate and vitamin B12. Using principal component analysis, we identified two diet patterns. The 'snack and fruit' pattern was characterised by frequent intakes of snacks, fruit, sweetened drinks, rice and meat dishes and leavened breads. The 'lacto-vegetarian' pattern was characterised by frequent intakes of finger millet, vegetarian rice dishes, yoghurt, vegetable dishes and infrequent meat consumption. Adherence to the 'snack and fruit' pattern was associated with season, being Muslim and urban dwelling. Adherence to the lacto-vegetarian pattern was associated with being Hindu, rural dwelling and a lower maternal body mass index. The 'snack and fruit' pattern was negatively associated with the child's adiposity. The lacto-vegetarian pattern was positively associated with blood folate concentration and negatively with vitamin B12 concentration. This study provides new information on correlates of diet patterns in Indian children and how diet relates to nutritional status. Follow-up of these children will be important to determine the role of these differences in diet in the development of risk factors for NCD including body composition.

  8. Factors Contributing to Crashes among Young Drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyndel J. Bates

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Young drivers are the group of drivers most likely to crash. There are a number of factors that contribute to the high crash risk experienced by these drivers. While some of these factors are intrinsic to the young driver, such as their age, gender or driving skill, others relate to social factors and when and how often they drive. This article reviews the factors that affect the risk of young drivers crashing to enable a fuller understanding of why this risk is so high in order to assist in developing effective countermeasures.

  9. Factors Contributing to Crashes among Young Drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Lyndel J; Davey, Jeremy; Watson, Barry; King, Mark J; Armstrong, Kerry

    2014-08-01

    Young drivers are the group of drivers most likely to crash. There are a number of factors that contribute to the high crash risk experienced by these drivers. While some of these factors are intrinsic to the young driver, such as their age, gender or driving skill, others relate to social factors and when and how often they drive. This article reviews the factors that affect the risk of young drivers crashing to enable a fuller understanding of why this risk is so high in order to assist in developing effective countermeasures.

  10. Malignant multiple sclerosis: clinical and demographic prognostic factors

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    Fabrício Hampshire-Araújo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Patients with malignant multiple sclerosis (MMS reach a significant level of disability within a short period of time (Expanded Disability Status Scale score of 6 within five years. The clinical profile and progression of the disease were analyzed in a Brazilian cohort of 293 patients. Twenty-five (8,53% patients were found to have MMS and were compared with the remaining 268 (91,47%. Women, non-white patients, older age at disease onset, shorter intervals between the first attacks, and more attacks in the first two years of the disease were all more common in the MMS group. These findings could serve as prognostic factors when making therapeutic decisions.

  11. How can “gender planning” contribute to tackle the challenges of demographic change?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wankiewicz Heidrun

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Ageing society, lack of skilled workforce, changes in work life careers and changes in partner and family models, a shift in societal roles of women and men, young and old, migration flows from rural to urban, multiple residences and new forms of housing and the related spatial impacts are in focus of demographic change. It is obvious that demographic change is not to be managed without gender and equality issues. Spatial planning has a crucial role in facing these challenges as spatial planning laws demand to ensure equal access to housing, services and labour markets and to organize transparent and inclusive decision making procedures. The paper explores key concepts, methods and selected case studies from Europe on gender planning trying to focus on the potential for innovating planning discipline and tackling with demographic change issues in rural areas. Cases from Bavaria and Austria compared to rural regions in Eastern Germany with high female emigration show concrete planning approaches.

  12. Patients who fall in hospital - Contributing factors

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    M.I. Bright

    1983-09-01

    Full Text Available This is a retrospective study of the factors which contributed to accidental injuries sustained by those patients who fell in a White provincial hospital in die period 1 January to 30 June 1982. The research study was undertaken by Diploma in Nursing Administration students during their 3-week hospital practice at a White provincial hospital.

  13. Evaluating Iowa Community College Student Demographics, Characteristics, Enrollment Factors, and Educational Goals Influence on Retention Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchley-McAvoy, Joan A.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the influence that previously researched and affirmed persistence and early withdrawal factors such as student demographics, enrollment status factors, student characteristics, and student educational goals had on Iowa community college retention rates for the 2005, 2007, and 2009 academic years. It is the researcher's…

  14. Linking Professional, School, Demographic, and Motivational Factors to Desire for Principalship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Allan; Kwan, Paula

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study attempts to link four groups of contextual factors to vice principals' desire for principalship using regression analysis. Relevant items representing context are grouped under professional, school, demographic, and motivational factors. The findings aim to provide greater understanding of the desire, or lack thereof, of vice…

  15. An Examination of the Association between Demographic and Educational Factors and African American Achievement in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottledge, Michael Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Objective of the Study: The objective of this research study was to investigate whether an association exists between teacher demographic factors (years of teaching experience and gender), 2 educational factors (certification type and certification pathway) and the percent passing rate of tenth grade African American male students on the 2010…

  16. Identity of organizational conflict framework: Evaluating model factors based on demographic characteristics in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaveh Hasani

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE FA Purpose: The purpose of this study was to Identity of organizational conflict framework:  Evaluating model factors based on demographic characteristics in Iran. Design/methodology/approach: Research method is descriptive - applied. The statistical population includes all of the employees in Iran`s Azad Universites with 600 individuals at the time of the study and statistical sample included 234 individuals who were selected using Morgan table. Beside this study, descriptive and inferential statistics were used. Also, reliability approved through Cronbach alpha (0.87. Then, to detect the dimensions causes of organizational conflict, factor analysis in line with the main components was used. Through exploratory analysis, ten principal factors identified. Thereafter, confirmatory factor analysis reconfirmed these factors. Findings and originality/value: The results of study showed that there is no significant difference between the causes of organizational conflict based on the gender. Also, there are significant differences among the causes of organizational conflict based on the variables of age, education and work experience. Research limitations/implications: we adopt a cross sectional research design and as a result inferences regarding causality cannot be drawn. Future studies following a longitudinal design could provide a more dynamic perspective and contribute further to this stream of research. Originality/value: A lot of researches about the conflict management styles, organizational conflict's effects, etc. are conducted by different researchers, but a handful of researches have been conducted in the field of resources and causes of organizational conflict and this is one of the reasons that it is important for researchers to address this issue.

  17. Medication adherence among Nigerians with schizophrenia: correlation between clinico-demographic factors and quality of life

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    Oluseun P. Ogunnubi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Medication adherence contributes significantly to symptom remission, recovery and wellbeing in mental illnesses. We evaluated how medication adherence correlates with clinico-demographic factors and quality of life (QoL in a sample of Nigerians with schizophrenia. This descriptive crosssectional study involved 160 randomly selected participants with confirmed diagnosis of schizophrenia based on MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Data on socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of participants were collected with a questionnaire. Medication adherence was assessed with Morisky Medication Adherence Questionnaire, and participants completed the World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale-BREF. The mean age of participants was 38.54 (±11.30 years, and all the participants were on antipsychotics, but only 45% were adherent to their medication. Out of all the participants, 45 (28.2% considered their overall QoL to be good, 97 (60.6% considered theirs to be fair, while 18 (11.2% reported poor QoL. Medication non-adherence correlated negatively with good QoL across multiple dimensions including overall QoL (r=- 0.175, health satisfaction (r=-0.161, physical (r=-0.186 and psychological domain (r=-0.175. Again, participant’s age (r=- 0.190 and age of onset of illness (r=-0.172 correlated negatively with medication nonadherence, and a trend towards relapse delay with medication adherence was also observed (r=-0.155. The effect size of these correlations were however small. Our findings suggest a link between medication adherence and QoL in schizophrenia, such that strategy that addresses medication nonadherence and its determinants may have potential benefits on wellbeing. Further hypotheses-driven studies are desirable.

  18. Extraluminal factors contributing to inflammatory bowel disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arvind Batra; Thorsten Stroh; Britta Siegmund

    2011-01-01

    Many identified and yet unknown factors contribute to the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).The genome-wide association studies clearly support the earlier developed concept that IBD occurs in genetically predisposed individuals who are exposed to distinct environmental factors, which together result in dysregulation of the mucosal immune system. Thus, the majority of previous studies have focused on the immune response within the intestinal wall. The present review aims to emphasize the contribution of three extraluminal structures to this inflammatory process, namely the mesenteric fat tissue, the lymphatics and the microvasculature.Broadening our view across the intestinal wall will not only facilitate our understanding of the disease,but will also us to identify future therapeutic targets.

  19. Extraluminal factors contributing to inflammatory bowel disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batra, Arvind; Stroh, Thorsten; Siegmund, Britta

    2011-01-01

    Many identified and yet unknown factors contribute to the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The genome-wide association studies clearly support the earlier developed concept that IBD occurs in genetically predisposed individuals who are exposed to distinct environmental factors, which together result in dysregulation of the mucosal immune system. Thus, the majority of previous studies have focused on the immune response within the intestinal wall. The present review aims to emphasize the contribution of three extraluminal structures to this inflammatory process, namely the mesenteric fat tissue, the lymphatics and the microvasculature. Broadening our view across the intestinal wall will not only facilitate our understanding of the disease, but will also us to identify future therapeutic targets. PMID:21350706

  20. Demographic factors influencing the GH system: Implications for the detection of GH doping in sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Anne E; Ho, Ken K Y

    2009-08-01

    Application of methods for detecting GH doping depend on being able to discriminate between abnormal levels due to doping and normal physiological levels of circulating proteins that change in response to exogenous administration. Constituents of the IGF and collagen systems have been shown to be promising markers of GH abuse. Their ultimate utility, however, depends on identification of the factors that regulate their concentrations in blood. Among these are demographic factors that are known to influence these markers in the general population. In a large cross-sectional study of the GH-responsive markers in over 1000 elite athletes from 12 countries representing 4 major ethnic groups and 10 sport types, we have shown that there is a significant negative correlation between age and all the IGF and collagen markers we studied, with a rapid decrease in early adolescence. Age was the major contribution to the variability, equivalent to >80% of the attributable variation in IGF-I and the collagen markers. The IGF axis markers were all significantly higher in women, and the collagen markers significantly higher in men, however, the contribution of gender was smaller than that of age, except for IGFBP-3 and ALS. BMI had a minor contribution to variability of the GH-responsive markers. After adjustment for the confounding influences of age, gender and BMI, the effect of ethnicity in elite athletes was trivial except for IGFBP-3 and ALS, which were both lower in Africans and higher in Caucasians. Compared to age and gender, the contribution of sport type was also modest. Our findings on the influence of age, gender, BMI and sport type have also been confirmed in a study of mostly Caucasian elite athletes in the post-competition setting. In conclusion, age and gender are the major determinants of variability for IGF-I and the collagen markers, whereas ethnicity and sport type have a minor influence. Therefore, a test based on IGF-I and the collagen markers must take age

  1. [Socio-demographic and occupational factors associated with gains and losses perceived by employees nearing retirement in a public university].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pissinati, Paloma de Souza Cavalcante; Haddad, Maria do Carmo Fernandez Lourenço; Dalmas, José Carlos; Birolim, Marcela Maria

    2016-10-10

    The aim was to analyze socio-demographic and occupational factors associated with gains and losses perceived by employees nearing retirement in a public university. In an exploratory, cross-sectional, and quantitative survey, employees (n = 164) approaching retirement in a public university in northern Paraná State, Brazil, assigned scales of importance to gains and losses. The data were analyzed with simple and multiple linear regression, based on the sizes of the scales, with socio-demographic and occupational variables as predictors. Employees assigned greater importance to retirement gains than losses. Increasing age was associated with less appreciation for total gains and time for relationships. Longer time on the job contributed to appreciation of total losses and tangible aspects of work. It is necessary to create spaces for reflection in employer institutions that promote listening to workers' needs, especially for older employees with longer time on the job.

  2. Socio-demographic, environmental and caring risk factors for childhood drowning deaths in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Mosharaf; Mani, Kulanthayan K C; Sidik, Sherina Mohd; Hayati, K S; Rahman, A K M Fazlur

    2015-09-10

    Drowning contributes to incapacity and early death in many countries. In low- and middle-income countries, children are the most susceptible to fatalities. Over 50 % of the global drowning deaths occur among children aged under 15 years old with children aged between 1 and 4 years of age being most at risk. In Bangladesh, drowning rates are 10 to 20 times more than those in other developing countries. The object of this study is to determine the socio-demographic, environmental and caring hazard issues for child drowning in Bangladesh. A case-control study was conducted, with data collected from the Bangladesh Health and Injury Survey (BHIS) to identify the social-demographic and environmental factors associated with childhood drowning. The participants represented 171,366 households from seven divisions of Bangladesh-Dhaka, Rajshahi, Chittagong, Barisal, Sylhet, Khulna and Rangpur. The survey was conducted between January and December of 2003. A total of 141 children drowning were identified in the year preceding the survey. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis. The odds ratios with 95% CI intervals were estimated for various associated factors for child drowning deaths. In Bangladesh, in 2003, the incidence of drowning deaths was 104.8 per 100,000 among those aged less than 5 years; 168.7 per 100,000 in rural areas; male 32.4 per 100,000; 112.7 per 100,000 between 10:00 a.m. and 2:00 p.m.; and cannot swim 134.9 per 100,000. The socio-demographic danger factors for child drowning deaths were: being male (OR = 1.45, 95% CI = 1.34-1.78), aged less than 5 years (OR = 2.89, 95% CI = 1.89-3.11), urban areas (OR = 0.67, 95% CI = 0.67-1.87), and mother being illiterate (OR = 1.69, 95% CI = 1.01-2.81). Significant environmental and caring factors included mother/caregiver not being the accompanying person (OR = 25.4, 95% CI = 14.4-45.3) and children cannot swim (OR = 4.5, 95% CI = 1.25-19.4). Drowning is the single largest

  3. Attitudes Toward Seeking Professional Psychological Help: Factor Structure and Socio-Demographic Predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picco, Louisa; Abdin, Edimanysah; Chong, Siow Ann; Pang, Shirlene; Shafie, Saleha; Chua, Boon Yiang; Vaingankar, Janhavi A; Ong, Lue Ping; Tay, Jenny; Subramaniam, Mythily

    2016-01-01

    Attitudes toward seeking professional psychological help (ATSPPH) are complex. Help seeking preferences are influenced by various attitudinal and socio-demographic factors and can often result in unmet needs, treatment gaps, and delays in help-seeking. The aims of the current study were to explore the factor structure of the ATSPPH short form (-SF) scale and determine whether any significant socio-demographic differences exist in terms of help-seeking attitudes. Data were extracted from a population-based survey conducted among Singapore residents aged 18-65 years. Respondents provided socio-demographic information and were administered the ATSPPH-SF. Weighted mean and standard error of the mean were calculated for continuous variables, and frequencies and percentages for categorical variables. Confirmatory factor analysis and exploratory factor analysis were performed to establish the validity of the factor structure of the ATSPPH-SF scale. Multivariable linear regressions were conducted to examine predictors of each of the ATSPPH-SF factors. The factor analysis revealed that the ATSPPH-SF formed three distinct dimensions: "Openness to seeking professional help," "Value in seeking professional help," and "Preference to cope on one's own." Multiple linear regression analyses showed that age, ethnicity, marital status, education, and income were significantly associated with the ATSPPH-SF factors. Population subgroups that were less open to or saw less value in seeking psychological help should be targeted via culturally appropriate education campaigns and tailored and supportive interventions.

  4. Attitudes towards seeking professional psychological help: Factor structure and socio-demographic predictors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louisa ePicco

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Attitudes toward seeking professional psychological help (ATSPPH are complex. Help seeking preferences are influenced by various attitudinal and socio-demographic factors and can often result in unmet needs, treatment gaps and delays in help seeking. The aims of the current study were to explore the factor structure of the ATSPPH short form (-SF scale and determine whether any significant socio-demographic differences exist in terms of help-seeking attitudes. Data were extracted from a population-based survey conducted among Singapore residents aged 18-65 years. Respondents provided socio-demographic information and were administered the ATSPPH-SF. Weighted mean and standard error of the mean were calculated for continuous variables, and frequencies and percentages for categorical variables. Confirmatory factor analysis and exploratory factor analysis were performed to establish the validity of the factor structure of the ATSPPH-SF scale. Multivariable linear regressions were conducted to examine predictors of each of the ATSPPH-SF factors. The factor analysis revealed that the ATSPPH-SF formed three distinct dimensions: ‘Openness to seeking professional help’, ‘Value in seeking professional help’ and ‘Preference to cope on one’s own’. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that age, gender, ethnicity, marital status, education, and employment status were significantly associated with the ATSPPH-SF factors. Population subgroups that were less open to or saw less value in seeking psychological help should be targeted via culturally appropriate education campaigns and tailored and supportive interventions.

  5. Social Cognitive and Demographic Factors Related to Adolescents' Intrinsic Satisfaction with School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briones, Elena; Tabernero, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    Based on social cognitive theory, the purpose of this study is to examine certain social cognitive and demographic factors involved in intrinsic satisfaction amongst secondary school students of different cultural backgrounds in a new migrant-receiving country. Given the role of schools in youth acculturation and adaptation, it is important to…

  6. Gender Differences in Suicide Risk by Socio-Demographic Factors in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Y. K.; Ip, W. C.; Kwan, P.

    2005-01-01

    Some peculiarly low male-to-female suicide ratios have been reported in the Far Eastern populations. This article attempts to investigate whether there are gender differences in suicide risk by socio-demographic factors in Hong Kong, and hereby to explain the low male-to-female suicide ratios. The effects of marital status, duration-of-residence,…

  7. Demographic Factors, Personality and Entrepreneurial Inclination: A Study among Indian University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Richa

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the influence of demographic, social and personal dispositional factors on determining the entrepreneurial inclination. Specifically, the author examined the role of gender, age, stream of study, family business background and six psychological traits of locus of control, tolerance for…

  8. Entrepreneurship Education: How Psychological, Demographic and Behavioural Factors Predict the Entrepreneurial Intention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Carla S.; Ferreira, Joao J.; Gomes, Daniela N.; Rodrigues, Ricardo Gouveia

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), the purpose of this paper is to approach entrepreneurial intention (EI) and the factors preceding the founding of EI among secondary students, both studying general academic and specific professional programs, and thereby establish causal relationships between psychological, demographic and…

  9. The Influence of Demographic Risk Factors on Children's Behavioral Regulation in Prekindergarten and Kindergarten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanless, Shannon B.; McClelland, Megan M.; Tominey, Shauna L.; Acock, Alan C.

    2011-01-01

    Research Findings: The present study examined the role of demographic risk factors in the development of children's behavioral regulation. We investigated whether being from a low-income family and being an English language learner (ELL) predicted behavioral regulation between prekindergarten and kindergarten. Results indicated that children from…

  10. Effect of Demographic Factors on E-Learning Effectiveness in a Higher Learning Institution in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md. Aminul; Rahim, Noor Asliza Abdul; Liang, Tan Chee; Momtaz, Hasina

    2011-01-01

    This research attempted to find out the effect of demographic factors on the effectiveness of the e-learning system in a higher learning Institution. The students from this institution were randomly selected in order to evaluate the effectiveness of learning system in student's learning process. The primary data source is the questionnaires that…

  11. Social Cognitive and Demographic Factors Related to Adolescents' Intrinsic Satisfaction with School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briones, Elena; Tabernero, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    Based on social cognitive theory, the purpose of this study is to examine certain social cognitive and demographic factors involved in intrinsic satisfaction amongst secondary school students of different cultural backgrounds in a new migrant-receiving country. Given the role of schools in youth acculturation and adaptation, it is important to…

  12. Predicting efficiency of post-induction mask ventilation based on demographic and anatomical factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Saghaei

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: Using EMV is an easy and reliable tool for measuring efficiency of mask ventilation. Based on the result of this study, EMV can be estimated from patient′s demographic and physical factors. In edentolous patients, using the lip-over-mask method results in adequate ventilation of lungs.

  13. Demographic Factors and Communal Mastery as Predictors of Academic Motivation and Test Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ünal-Karagüven, M. Hülya

    2015-01-01

    Academic motivation and test anxiety have been still adduced for low performance of students by educators. To know the factors that have an effect on students' academic motivation and test anxiety levels can be helpful to improve students' academic performance. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of demographic variables and…

  14. Hope and Adaptation to Old Age: Their Relationship with Individual-Demographic Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraitou, Despina; Kolovou, Chrysa; Papasozomenou, Chrysa; Paschoula, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between hope as disposition, adaptation to old age, and individual-demographic factors. One hundred and fifty older adults, aged 60-93 years old, completed the Adult Dispositional Hope Scale developed by Snyder et AL. [1991, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60, pp. 570-585], and the Adaptation to…

  15. The Effects of Demographic, Internal and External University Environment Factors on Faculty Job Satisfaction in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Minh-Quang

    2016-01-01

    University faculty members with higher job satisfaction are more productive, creative and positive attitude towards their job. Even less is known about university faculty job satisfaction in developing countries like Vietnam. This study examines the effects of demographic, internal and external university environment factors on faculty job…

  16. Gut Microbiota: A Contributing Factor to Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harakeh, Steve M; Khan, Imran; Kumosani, Taha; Barbour, Elie; Almasaudi, Saad B; Bahijri, Suhad M; Alfadul, Sulaiman M; Ajabnoor, Ghada M A; Azhar, Esam I

    2016-01-01

    Obesity, a global epidemic of the modern era, is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and diabetes. The pervasiveness of obesity and overweight in both developed as well as developing populations is on the rise and placing a huge burden on health and economic resources. Consequently, research to control this emerging epidemic is of utmost importance. Recently, host interactions with their resident gut microbiota (GM) have been reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of many metabolic diseases, including obesity, diabetes, and CVD. Around 10(14) microorganisms reside within the lower human intestine and many of these 10(14) microorganisms have developed mutualistic or commensal associations with the host and actively involved in many physiological processes of the host. However, dysbiosis (altered gut microbial composition) with other predisposing genetic and environmental factors, may contribute to host metabolic disorders resulting in many ailments. Therefore, delineating the role of GM as a contributing factor to obesity is the main objective of this review. Obesity research, as a field is expanding rapidly due to major advances in nutrigenomics, metabolomics, RNA silencing, epigenetics, and other disciplines that may result in the emergence of new technologies and methods to better interpret causal relationships between microbiota and obesity.

  17. Gut Microbiota: a contributing factor to obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve M Harakeh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Obesity, a global epidemic of the modern era, is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD and diabetes. The pervasiveness of obesity and overweight in both developed as well as developing populations is on the rise and placing a huge burden on health and economic resources. Consequently, research to control this emerging epidemic is of utmost importance. Recently, host interactions with their resident gut microbiota (GM have been reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of many metabolic diseases, including obesity, diabetes, and CVD. Around 1014 microorganisms reside within the lower human intestine and many of these 1014microorganisms have developed mutualistic or commensal associations with the host and actively involved in many physiological processes of the host. However, dysbiosis (altered gut microbial composition with other predisposing genetic and environmental factors, may contribute to host metabolic disorders resulting in many ailments. Therefore, delineating the role of GM as a contributing factor to obesity is the main objective of this review.Obesity research, as a field is expanding rapidly due to major advances in nutrigenomics, metabolomics, RNA silencing, epigenetics and other disciplines that may result in the emergence of new technologies and methods to better interpret causal relationships between microbiota and obesity.

  18. Gut Microbiota: A Contributing Factor to Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harakeh, Steve M.; Khan, Imran; Kumosani, Taha; Barbour, Elie; Almasaudi, Saad B.; Bahijri, Suhad M.; Alfadul, Sulaiman M.; Ajabnoor, Ghada M. A.; Azhar, Esam I.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity, a global epidemic of the modern era, is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and diabetes. The pervasiveness of obesity and overweight in both developed as well as developing populations is on the rise and placing a huge burden on health and economic resources. Consequently, research to control this emerging epidemic is of utmost importance. Recently, host interactions with their resident gut microbiota (GM) have been reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of many metabolic diseases, including obesity, diabetes, and CVD. Around 1014 microorganisms reside within the lower human intestine and many of these 1014 microorganisms have developed mutualistic or commensal associations with the host and actively involved in many physiological processes of the host. However, dysbiosis (altered gut microbial composition) with other predisposing genetic and environmental factors, may contribute to host metabolic disorders resulting in many ailments. Therefore, delineating the role of GM as a contributing factor to obesity is the main objective of this review. Obesity research, as a field is expanding rapidly due to major advances in nutrigenomics, metabolomics, RNA silencing, epigenetics, and other disciplines that may result in the emergence of new technologies and methods to better interpret causal relationships between microbiota and obesity. PMID:27625997

  19. Trends in the neonatal mortality rate in the last decade with respect to demographic factors and health care resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govande, Vinayak; Ballard, Amy R; Koneru, Madhavi; Beeram, Madhava

    2015-07-01

    To understand factors contributing to the neonatal mortality rate (NMR), we studied trends in the NMR during 2000 to 2009 with respect to demographic factors and health care resources. Birth- and death-linked mortality data for 14,168 neonatal deaths that occurred between 2000 and 2009 were obtained from the Texas Department of Health and Human Services. Demographic factors and health care resource data were analyzed using analysis of variance, chi-square tests, and linear regression analysis. The average NMR increased from 3.37 in 2000 to 3.77 in 2009. The NMR in blacks ranged from 6.57 to 8.97 during the study period. Among the babies who died, the mean birthweight decreased from 1505 to 1275 g (P < 0.001) and the mean gestational age decreased from 28.4 to 27.8 weeks (P < 0.001). Cesarean section deliveries increased from 32.7% to 44.9% (P < 0.001). The percentage of mothers receiving prenatal care increased from 81.4% to 86.6% (P < 0.001). Mothers with a college education increased from 8.8% to 20.5% (P < 0.001). The median household income increased from $41,047 to $49,189 (P < 0.001). The number of neonatal intensive care unit beds increased from 33.4 to 56 per 10,000 births, and the number of neonatologists increased from 0.27 to 0.40 per 10,000 women of 15 to 44 years of age. In conclusion, the NMR didn't improve despite improvements in demographic factors and health care resources. Racial disparities persist, with a high NMR in the black population. We speculate a possible genetic predisposition related to ethnicity, and a potentially higher rate of extreme prematurity might have contributed to a high NMR in the study population.

  20. Clinicopathological, but not socio-demographic factors affect the prognosis in cervical carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munagala, Radha; Rai, Shesh N; Ganesharajah, Selvaluxmy; Bala, Nagarajan; Gupta, Ramesh C

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the prognostic factors, such as clinical, histological and socio-demographic features affecting the event-free and overall survival of the patients with stage I-III carcinoma of the cervix. Eighty-nine patients with International FIGO stage I-III cervical cancer were treated radiation therapy and follow-up of 5-7 years were analyzed for various clinical, histopathological and socio-demographic factors influencing prognosis. Survival estimations were performed using the Kaplan-Meier method, and were compared using the un-weighted log-rank test and multivariable analysis using the Cox proportional hazards model. The median age was 46 years (range, 28-65 years). The 5-year event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OAS), along with standard error (SE), were 65.2% (7.0%) and 81.4% (6.1%), respectively. Significant prognostic factors for EFS include, stage (P=0.019), pelvic lymph node metastasis (P=0.013), parametrial (PMT) involvement (P=0.025), number of parametria involved (P=0.000) and tumor size (P=0.034). However, number of parametrial invasion was only significant prognostic factors for overall survival (P=0.015); 5-year survival rate was significantly lower in patients with both PMT involved (58%) than with one PMT involved (>85%). Using a multivariable analysis, we found that number of PMT involved being the only independent significant factor for the development of recurrent disease. None of the socio-demographic factors analyzed were of prognostic importance on event-free and overall survival in cervical cancer patients. Several clinicopathological factors were of prognostic significance but none of the socio-demographic factors analyzed had any role in determining patient outcome. Hence, in cervical cancer, prognosis is more likely dependent on clinical than socio-demographic factors unlike several other cancers where their significant role is well documented. Study of clinical and demographic characteristics

  1. Associations of psychological capital, demographic and occupational factors with cigarette smoking among Chinese underground coal miners

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Li; Xu, Xin; Wu, Hui; Yang, Yilong; Wang, Lie

    2015-01-01

    Background As a specific male occupational group, underground coal miners have been commonly found to have a high prevalence of cigarette smoking. It is of urgent need to explore some factors that could be intervened to reduce smoking from personal or internal perspective. The purpose of the present study was to examine the associations of psychological capital (PsyCap), demographic and occupational factors with smoking among Chinese underground coal miners. Methods A cross-sectional survey w...

  2. Demographic and social factors associated with homophobia and fear of AIDS in a community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walch, Susan E; Orlosky, Paula M; Sinkkanen, Kimberly A; Stevens, Heather R

    2010-01-01

    Examinations of demographic and social factors associated with homophobia and fear of AIDS are limited by the frequent use of homogeneous, college student samples and limited examination of interrelationships among variables. The present study examined community attitudes toward homosexuality and fear of HIV/AIDS as a function of age, education, race/ethnicity, religious affiliation, political party affiliation, and personal contact with homosexual individuals and persons living with HIV/AIDS. A community sample of 463 adults completed standardized measures of homophobia and fear of AIDS as well as demographic and social background items. When examined separately, each demographic and social factor assessed, with the exception of race/ethnicity, was associated with homophobia and all but race/ethnicity and political party affiliation were associated with fear of AIDS. However, when entered into multiple regression analyses, 24% of the variance in homophobia was predicted by a single variable, including only personal contact with homosexual individuals, while 18% of the variance in fear of AIDS was accounted for by five variables, including personal contact with homosexual individuals, religious affiliation, political affiliation, education, and personal contact with someone living with HIV/AIDS. Findings suggest that it is important to consider intercorrelations among social and demographic factors, particularly when considering homophobia.

  3. Relationship between Selected Socio-Demographic Factors and Cancer of Oral Cavity - A Case Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madani, Abdoul Hossain; Dikshit, Madhurima; Bhaduri, Debanshu; Jahromi, Abdolreza Sotoodeh; Aghamolaei, Teamur

    2010-08-11

    The aim of this study was to recognize factors associated with cancer of oral cavity considering socio-demographic characteristics. The cases were 350 with squamous-cell carcinoma of oral cavity diagnosed between 2005 and 2006 in Morbai, Narandia, Budharani Cancer Institute, Pune, India. Similar number of controls match for age and sex selected from the background population. Cases and controls were interviewed for tobacco related habits and general characteristics; age, gender, education and possible socio-demographic factors. Chi-square test in uni-variate analysis and estimate for risk showed that education, occupation and monthly household income were significantly different between cases and controls (P currency (OR = 1.7, CI 1.2-2.3) were significant risk factors for oral cancer. While, there was no significant relationship between religious and or marital status either in males or females.

  4. Total Factor Productivity, Demographic Traits and ICT: Empirical Analysis for Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal MEHMOOD

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper advances a model to explain the total factor productivity in Asian countries, most of which are labor surplus and are endowed with substantial human capital. Such promising demographic potentials are considered as complementary factors to use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT. Population with such favorable demographic traits and access to ICT results in higher Total factor productivity (TFP. We call this as Demo-Tech-TFP Model and is tested by using data for 2000-2010 of 24 Asian countries. Econometric concerns like presence of endogenous and/or predetermined covariates and small time-series and cross-sectional dimensions of panel dataset are tackled by using System Generalized Method of Moments (SYS-GMM. Results show considerable support for the Demo-Tech-TFP hypothesis. Need is to design such models that suit the local demography and patterns of technological diffusion currently taking place in developing countries.

  5. Socio-demographic factors and the prevalence of burns in children: an overview of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnababtah, Khalid; Khan, Salim; Ashford, Robert

    2016-02-01

    In most countries, socio-demographic factors influence the incidence of burns in children. The aims of this literature review were therefore to identify which of those factors are linked to an increase in the prevalence and identify ways of enhancing burn prevention programmes and preventing practices which play a role in the occurrence of burns in children. A comprehensive search (no time limit) of primary studies, titles and abstracts was undertaken in the following electronic databases; MEDLINE, CINAHL, ERIC, Cochrane Library, PsychInfo and Google Scholar. Socio-demographic factors which were linked to an increased incidence of burns include low household income, living in deprived areas, living in rented accommodation, young mothers, single-parent families and children from ethnic minorities. The level of parental education, parental occupation, and the type and size of accommodation were also cited. A range of socio-demographic factors result in an increase in the prevalence of burns, and the risk is even greater in children who are exposed to a number of these factors. Such information will be useful for planning prevention strategies and identifying further research questions that need to be answered.

  6. Attitude to substance abuse: do personality and socio-demographic factors matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimian Boogar, Isaac; Tabatabaee, Sayed Mosa; Tosi, Jalileh

    2014-09-01

    Substance abuse is a serious global problem that is affected by multiple psychosocial and socio-demographic factors. This study aimed to investigate the leading factors in positive attitude and tendency toward substance abuse in terms of personality, socio-economic, and socio-demographic factors. In a cross-sectional study, 200 college students (105 females and 95 males) residing in Damghan University dormitory in northeast of Iran were recruited by random sampling from March to July 2013. The participants were instructed and asked to complete the NEO FIVE-factor Inventory, the attitude to substance abuse scale, and the demographic questionnaire. Then data were analyzed by stepwise multiple regression employing PASW 18. Being male sex and neuroticism had a significant positive role in predicting positive attitude toward substance abuse in university students. In addition, agreeableness, conscientiousness, openness, and socio-economic status had a significant negative role in predicting tendency toward substance abuse (P 0.05). Lower agreeableness, decreased conscientiousness, higher neuroticism, diminished openness, low socio-economic status, and male sex might make university students more inclined to substance abuse. Thus, it is reasonable to show the importance of these factors in tailored prevention programs.

  7. FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO PERINATAL MORTALITY : OPTIMIZING OUTCOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshmi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the various causes of perinatal deaths and adopt strategies to improve perinatal outcome at a referral teaching hospital in North Kerala. METHODS: A prospective observational study conducted at Institute of Maternal and Child Health, Government Medical College, Kozhikode. All perinatal deaths during the period January 2013 to December 2014 were analysed and from this factors responsible for perinatal deaths were identified. RESULTS: Out of total 30,042 deliveries , there were 966 perinatal deaths during the study period. 566 were still births and 400 early neonatal deaths. The perinatal mortality rate was 31.1 per 1000 live births. Perinatal asphyxia was the major cause of perinatal mortality. The important factors contributing to perinatal asphyxia were prematurity (39%, abruptio placenta (19% and MSAF ( 12%. Among the antenatal factors, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy leading to iatrogenic elective preterm delivery were the most important. CONCLUSION: Perinatal asphyxia due to prematurity and low birth weight emerged as the most important cause of perinatal mortality in this study and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy were the most important antenatal complication leading to prematurity

  8. Socio-demographic Moderators of Associations Between Psychological Factors and Latinas' Breast Cancer Screening Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, L G; Elder, J P; Haughton, J; Martinez, M E; Arredondo, E M

    2017-07-27

    This study tested whether socio-demographic factors moderated associations between psychological factors and Latinas' breast cancer screening behaviors. 222 churchgoing Latinas (40-65 years) in San Diego, CA completed surveys assessing socio-demographics (e.g., income and acculturation), psychological factors (e.g., perceived barriers to screening), and cancer screening behaviors. Multilevel models examined associations of socio-demographic and psychological factors (and their interactions) with adherence to annual mammography or clinical breast exam (CBE) screening. Although no main effects were found, there were moderation effects. Acculturation moderated associations between perceived barriers to screening and both screening outcomes, with inverse associations only among the high-acculturation group. Education moderated the relationship between perceived barriers to screening and CBE screening, with an inverse association only among the low-education group. Marital status moderated the relationship between depressive symptoms and CBE screening, with an inverse association only among single/non-partnered participants. Interventions are needed targeting psychological barriers to breast cancer screening among Latinas.

  9. Brand Loyalty Factors Affecting the Hotel Elections of Tourists investigation with Respect to the Demographic Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Tayfun

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to investigate the factors affecting hotel guests’s brand loyalty and these factors is to determine whether there is a difference or not according to the demographic variables. Within this purpose, a survey research was conducted on the guests staying in the five star hotels of Ankara, Turkey. The research was carried out in two stages, namely the pilot study and the main study. As a result of study, while the factors affecting brand loyalty differs based on the gender and the age of the participants (p0,05

  10. Demographics and Personality Factors Associated with Burnout among Nurses in a Singapore Tertiary Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhaliwal, Satvinder S.; Ayre, Tracy Carol; Uthaman, Thendral; Fong, Kuan Yok; Tien, Choo Eng; Zhou, Huaqiong; Della, Phillip

    2016-01-01

    Background. The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence and extent of burnout among nurses in Singapore and investigate the influence of demographic factors and personal characteristics on the burnout syndrome. Methods. A cross-sectional survey design was adopted. All registered nurses working in Singapore General Hospital were approached to participate. A questionnaire eliciting data on demographics, burnout (measured using the Maslach Burnout Inventory, MBI), and personality profile (measured using the NEO Five-Factor Inventory, NEO-FFI) was used. Results. 1830 nurses out of 3588 responded (response rate: 51%). Results from 1826 respondents were available for analysis. The MBI identified 39% to have high emotional exhaustion (EE, cut-off score of >27), 40% having high depersonalization (DP, cut-off score of >10), and 59% having low personal accomplishment (PA, cut-off score of burnout. Personality traits also played a significant role in the experience of burnout. PMID:27478835

  11. Demographics and Personality Factors Associated with Burnout among Nurses in a Singapore Tertiary Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Shin Yuh; Dhaliwal, Satvinder S; Ayre, Tracy Carol; Uthaman, Thendral; Fong, Kuan Yok; Tien, Choo Eng; Zhou, Huaqiong; Della, Phillip

    2016-01-01

    Background. The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence and extent of burnout among nurses in Singapore and investigate the influence of demographic factors and personal characteristics on the burnout syndrome. Methods. A cross-sectional survey design was adopted. All registered nurses working in Singapore General Hospital were approached to participate. A questionnaire eliciting data on demographics, burnout (measured using the Maslach Burnout Inventory, MBI), and personality profile (measured using the NEO Five-Factor Inventory, NEO-FFI) was used. Results. 1830 nurses out of 3588 responded (response rate: 51%). Results from 1826 respondents were available for analysis. The MBI identified 39% to have high emotional exhaustion (EE, cut-off score of >27), 40% having high depersonalization (DP, cut-off score of >10), and 59% having low personal accomplishment (PA, cut-off score of burnout. Personality traits also played a significant role in the experience of burnout.

  12. Student, Home, and School Socio-Demographic Factors: Links to School, Home, and Community Arts Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Marianne; Martin, Andrew J.; Anderson, Michael; Gibson, Robyn; Liem, Gregory Arief D.; Sudmalis, David

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the role of student (e.g., age, language background, gender), home (e.g., parent/caregiver education), and school (e.g., school type, size) socio-demographic factors in students' school (e.g., in-school arts tuition, arts engagement), home (e.g., parent/caregiver-child arts interaction), and community (e.g., arts attendance,…

  13. The role of socio-demographic factors on self-rated happiness: The case of Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Cheah, Yong Kang; Tang, Chor Foon

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the role of socio-demographic determinants on individual’s level of happiness. Primary survey data on Penang, Malaysia is used for analysis. Based on the findings, being married and Malay are associated with higher probability of feeling very happy or happy. Nevertheless, individuals who suffer from chronic diseases are more likely to have unhappy or very unhappy feelings. The rest of the factors such as income, education, age, gender, and employment status are found to ha...

  14. Explaining union participation: The effects of union commitment and demographic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Bolton

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the relationship between trade union commitment and union participation among blue-collar workers in South Africa. Survey questionnaires were completed by 93 participants (response rate = 62 %. Findings are consistent with previous research and showed that after controlling for demographic factors, 43% of the variance in participation can be explained by union commitment. In this study, Black participants displayed significantly higher levels of commitment and participation than their Coloured counterparts did.

  15. Student, Home, and School Socio-Demographic Factors: Links to School, Home, and Community Arts Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Marianne; Martin, Andrew J.; Anderson, Michael; Gibson, Robyn; Liem, Gregory Arief D.; Sudmalis, David

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the role of student (e.g., age, language background, gender), home (e.g., parent/caregiver education), and school (e.g., school type, size) socio-demographic factors in students' school (e.g., in-school arts tuition, arts engagement), home (e.g., parent/caregiver-child arts interaction), and community (e.g., arts attendance,…

  16. The Relationship between Demographic Factors and Substance Craving Among Drug-Dependents

    OpenAIRE

    F PoorSeyedMousaiee; V. Mousavi; M Kafi

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study was conducted with the aim of examining the role of demographic factors such as age, marital status, education degree, the age of initiating addiction, duration of addiction, monthly cost of drug use, and an incarceration history in the intensity of addicts’ craving for substance use. Method: In this descriptive and cross-sectional study, 195 male addicts, after being interviewed, were selected as the participants of the study via convenience sampling method. They consti...

  17. [Association of socio-demographic factors with the age at death due to cardiovascular diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, Juan; Lavanderos, Sebastián; Riquelme, Camilo; Morales, Andrea

    2016-11-01

    The association of cardiovascular diseases with socio-demographic factors has not been fully explored. To analyze the association of socio-demographic features with the survival time of individuals who died due to cardiovascular diseases. The death registries published by the Ministry of Health were analyzed. All deaths due to cardiovascular diseases occurred between 2001 and 2013 in people aged over one year were considered. Using a principal component analysis, the age at death was associated with socio-demographic features such as sex, marital status, residence zone, schooling, work status and medical care prior to death. A total of 293,370 cardiovascular deaths were analyzed. The median age at death was 77 years. Not receiving medical care prior to death, was significantly associated with a lower age at the moment of the decease, mainly between 20 and 80 years of age. Among men, being occupationally active (hazard ratio (HR = 1.5 p Socio-demographic profiles are associated with the age at death due to cardiovascular diseases. The effect of not receiving medical care on the age at death is noteworthy and reflects social inequities in the access to health care.

  18. Relationship Between Dietary Patterns and Socio- Demographic or Lifestyle Factors in Urban School- Aged Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huan WANG; Yun CHEN; Wei CHEN; Ai ZHAO; Yu-mei ZHANG; Zhi-shen MU

    2014-01-01

    Objective To identify the dietary patterns in urban school-aged children in China and determine the relations with socio-demographic or lifestyle factors.MethodsA total of 620 school-aged children from 7 cities in China were recruited in a cross-sectional study and their dietary data over the preceding 6 months were recorded via questionnaire between 2011-2012. The dietary patterns were identified using principal components analysis. Mann-Whitney U or Kruskal-Walis H test was preformed to reveal the relationship between dietary patterns and socio-demographic or lifestyle characteristics. Results Three major dietary patterns were identified. The traditional pattern had high positive relationships with grains, potatoes, vegetables, fruits, vegetables and soybeans/soybean products. The high-protein pattern was characterized by large positive coefficient for fruits, fish/shrimps, eggs, milk/milk products, soybeans/soybean products and salt. The oil/fat and beverage pattern with highly related with grains, meat/poultry, eggs, oil/fat, salt and beverages. The relationships between the dietary patterns and various socio-demographic or lifestyle characteristics were analyzed.Conclusion Three dietary patterns were identified. A clear association was found between the dietary patterns and socio-demographic or lifestyle characteristics.

  19. Identification of Socio-demographic and Psychological Factors Affecting Women's Propensity to Breastfeed: An Italian Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Mattei, Valentina E; Carnelli, Letizia; Bernardi, Martina; Jongerius, Chiara; Brombin, Chiara; Cugnata, Federica; Ogliari, Anna; Rinaldi, Stefania; Candiani, Massimo; Sarno, Lucio

    2016-01-01

    Background: Exclusive breastfeeding until 6 months postpartum is a World Health Organization objective and benefits have been demonstrated for both mother and infant. It is important to clarify which factors influence breastfeeding intentions. Our objective was to assess and identify socio-demographic and psychological factors associated with breastfeeding intention in a sample of pregnant Italian women. Materials and Methods: This prospective study included 160 pregnant women. The following psychological constructs were measured using standardized questionnaires: anxiety, prenatal attachment, adult attachment, personality traits, and intention to breastfeed. Socio-demographic data were also collected using a self-report questionnaire. Assessment took place after the 20th gestational week. Results: Self-employment, age and feeding received as an infant were significantly related to breastfeeding intention. Regarding psychological factors, we also found that Neuroticism was negatively associated with mother's breastfeeding intentions. Relationships between psychological constructs and breastfeeding attitude were examined and represented within a graphical modeling framework. Conclusion: It may be possible to identify women that are less inclined to breastfeed early on in pregnancy. This may aid healthcare staff to pay particular attention to women who show certain socio-demographic and psychological characteristics, so as to fulfill more focused programs.

  20. The Relationship between Demographic Factors and Substance Craving Among Drug-Dependents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F PoorSeyedMousaiee

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was conducted with the aim of examining the role of demographic factors such as age, marital status, education degree, the age of initiating addiction, duration of addiction, monthly cost of drug use, and an incarceration history in the intensity of addicts’ craving for substance use. Method: In this descriptive and cross-sectional study, 195 male addicts, after being interviewed, were selected as the participants of the study via convenience sampling method. They constituted six groups of opium smokers, heroin inhalers, heroin smokers, heroin injectors, methamphetamine smokers, and crack smokers and answered the questions of demographic characteristics and Franken’s desire for drug questionnaire. Indeed, substance craving of the respondents was measured by the computerized test of measuring visual indicators of substance craving. Results: The results showed that there is a significant positive relationship between education degree and induced substance craving, monthly cost of drug use and induced substance craving, and also between education degree and instantaneous substance craving. Conclusion: Some demographic factors can be important factors in predicting substance craving in addicts, which is, in itself, among the significant dimensions in treatment process.

  1. Socio-demographic, ecological factors and dengue infection trends in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akter, Rokeya; Naish, Suchithra; Hu, Wenbiao; Tong, Shilu

    2017-01-01

    Dengue has been a major public health concern in Australia. This study has explored the spatio-temporal trends of dengue and potential socio- demographic and ecological determinants in Australia. Data on dengue cases, socio-demographic, climatic and land use types for the period January 1999 to December 2010 were collected from Australian National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System, Australian Bureau of Statistics, Australian Bureau of Meteorology, and Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics and Sciences, respectively. Descriptive and linear regression analyses were performed to observe the spatio-temporal trends of dengue, socio-demographic and ecological factors in Australia. A total of 5,853 dengue cases (both local and overseas acquired) were recorded across Australia between January 1999 and December 2010. Most the cases (53.0%) were reported from Queensland, followed by New South Wales (16.5%). Dengue outbreak was highest (54.2%) during 2008-2010. A highest percentage of overseas arrivals (29.9%), households having rainwater tanks (33.9%), Indigenous population (27.2%), separate houses (26.5%), terrace house types (26.9%) and economically advantage people (42.8%) were also observed during 2008-2010. Regression analyses demonstrate that there was an increasing trend of dengue incidence, potential socio-ecological factors such as overseas arrivals, number of households having rainwater tanks, housing types and land use types (e.g. intensive uses and production from dryland agriculture). Spatial variation of socio-demographic factors was also observed in this study. In near future, significant increase of temperature was also projected across Australia. The projected increased temperature as well as increased socio-ecological trend may pose a future threat to the local transmission of dengue in other parts of Australia if Aedes mosquitoes are being established. Therefore, upgraded mosquito and disease surveillance at different ports should

  2. Can Psychological, Social and Demographical Factors Predict Clinical Characteristics Symptomatology of Bipolar Affective Disorder and Schizophrenia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciukiewicz, Malgorzata; Pawlak, Joanna; Kapelski, Pawel; Łabędzka, Magdalena; Skibinska, Maria; Zaremba, Dorota; Leszczynska-Rodziewicz, Anna; Dmitrzak-Weglarz, Monika; Hauser, Joanna

    2016-09-01

    Schizophrenia (SCH) is a complex, psychiatric disorder affecting 1 % of population. Its clinical phenotype is heterogeneous with delusions, hallucinations, depression, disorganized behaviour and negative symptoms. Bipolar affective disorder (BD) refers to periodic changes in mood and activity from depression to mania. It affects 0.5-1.5 % of population. Two types of disorder (type I and type II) are distinguished by severity of mania episodes. In our analysis, we aimed to check if clinical and demographical characteristics of the sample are predictors of symptom dimensions occurrence in BD and SCH cases. We included total sample of 443 bipolar and 439 schizophrenia patients. Diagnosis was based on DSM-IV criteria using Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. We applied regression models to analyse associations between clinical and demographical traits from OPCRIT and symptom dimensions. We used previously computed dimensions of schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder as quantitative traits for regression models. Male gender seemed protective factor for depression dimension in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder sample. Presence of definite psychosocial stressor prior disease seemed risk factor for depressive and suicidal domain in BD and SCH. OPCRIT items describing premorbid functioning seemed related with depression, positive and disorganised dimensions in schizophrenia and psychotic in BD. We proved clinical and demographical characteristics of the sample are predictors of symptom dimensions of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. We also saw relation between clinical dimensions and course of disorder and impairment during disorder.

  3. Smoking Behavior and Demographic Risk Factors in Argentina: A Population-Based Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Eugenio; Kaplan, Celia Patricia; Guil, Valeria; Gregorich, Steven E.; Mejia, Raul; J.Pérez-Stable, Eliseo

    2007-01-01

    Background Demographic and socioeconomic factors associated with smoking behavior were evaluated in a nationwide household survey in Argentina to describe the status of the tobacco epidemic. Methods Face-to-face interviews with adults, age 20 and older, assessed smoking status, frequency, and age of initiation. Multivariate logistic regression was used to compare social and demographic characteristics. Results Of the 43,863 participants, 38% of men and 24% of women were current smokers, and 20% of current smokers smoked occasionally. For older men and women, smoking was less prevalent and their probability of quitting higher. Men with more than high school education were less likely to be current smokers. Rates for women did not differ by education. Conclusions The lower smoking rates among men with more education suggest that Argentina has begun to transition to the next stage of the tobacco epidemic. Tobacco control policy must direct efforts to change smoking behavior. PMID:18037987

  4. Correlation of Demographic and Clinical Characteristics with Rheumatoid Factor Seropositivity in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Maizatul Akmal; Ghazali, Wan Syamimee Wan; Yahya, Nurul Khaiza; Wong, Kah Keng

    2016-11-01

    The rheumatoid factor (RF) blood test is the most commonly adopted test for the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). RA patients who are seropositive for RF might face a greater likelihood of developing more aggressive symptoms. Our goal was to study the demographic and clinical characteristics, as well as their correlation with RF seropositivity, among a series of 80 RA patients aged ≥ 18 years who attend Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM). Of the 80 RA patients included in this study, 66 (82.5%) were female and 14 (17.5%) were male. No significant associations between RF seropositivity and demographic and/or clinical characteristics or other laboratory investigations were observed, including gender, morning stiffness, individual joint involvement (from multiple sites of the body), and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) measurement. However, a significant association between RF seropositivity and patients aged ≥ 50 was found (P = 0.032). RF seropositivity was found to be more common in much older RA patients.

  5. The influence of demographic, environmental and physical factors on functional independence post stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.V. Mamabolo

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The magnitude of disability observed in strokesurvivors is believed to be dependent in part, on the severity of neurological deficits incurred. A s important but less well understood, is thecontribution of demographic, physical and environmental factors. The objective of this study was to establish what demographic, environmentaland physical factors influence functional independence post stroke. Method: Convenience sampling was used in the selection of subjects from four stroke outpatient public health facilities in the Gauteng Province of South Africa. The data were collected using a structured questionnaire. The analytical tools used included descriptive statistics to measure percentages and cross tabulations to measure the level of associations between functional independence and some of the demographic factors. The Barthel Index was computed to establish the degree of functional independence. Finally the influence of factors on functional independence was investigated using bivariate logistic regressions.Results: The results showed that younger patients (18 - 34 yrs may have a higher likelihood of functional independence compared to older patients at the time of discharge from hospital (18 - 34 years: Odds Ratio = 1. Patients without helpers were more likely to be functionally independent than those with a helper (p = 0.03. Involvement in household activities (p = 0.01, participation in community activities (p = 0.02 and bowel and bladder continence (p = 0.003 and p = 0.04 improved the likelihood of functional independence.Conclusion and im plications: Factors that influence functional independence post stroke are: age, bowel and bladder continence, the presence of a caregiver, participation in household and community activities. It is also of value to encourage patients to participate in household and community activities post stroke as well as being less dependent on helpers in an effort to attain functional independence post

  6. The contribution of the socio-demographic characteristics on suicidal ideation among Israeli soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelef, Leah; Ayzen, Evyatar; Yavnai, Nirit; Fruchter, Eyal; Sarid, Orly

    2016-01-01

    Suicidal ideation is a risk factor for suicide attempt. The aim of the present study is to compare suicidal ideation of different groups with different distress. 100 soldiers, aged 18-21, divided into four research cohorts: soldiers who had carried out a suicide attempt (n = 40); soldiers with a psychiatric diagnosis (n = 20); soldiers having high severity adjustment difficulties (n = 20); and a control group of soldiers, having neither a history of mental health diagnosis, nor adjustment difficulties (n = 20). All completed the suicide ideation scale. Half of the attempters had a psychiatric diagnosis (depression or anxiety) on the day of their enlistment and 37.5 % of them had a specified personality disturbance. The attempters were characterized by previously-attempted suicide (p < .01). The lowest mean values (M = 1.95, SD = .67) were among the attempter (F = 3.173, df = 3, p = .02) in motivation for military service. The variable expressing low motivation for military service was the sole predictor of suicide ideation (p = .032). Early diagnosis facilitated better monitoring by military mental health officers.

  7. Associations of Breast Density With Demographic, Reproductive, and Lifestyle Factors in a Developing Southeast Asian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dung Yun Trieu, Phuong; Mello-Thoms, Claudia; Peat, Jennifer K; Doan Do, Thuan; Brennan, Patrick C

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how breast density interacted with demographic, reproductive, and lifestyle features among Vietnamese women. Mammographic density and established risk factors for breast cancer were collected from 1651 women (345 cancer cases and 1306 normal cases) in Vietnam. The association of breast density categories with potential risk factors was investigated using Spearman's test for continuous variables and χ(2) tests for categorical variables. Independent factors associated with high breast density and breast cancer in specific density groupings were assessed using logistic regression. Results showed that high breast density was significantly associated with young age, low body mass index, low number of children, early age at having the last child, premenopausal status, and increased vegetable consumption. Reproductive factors were key agents associated with breast cancer for women with high breast density, which was not so evident for women with low breast density.

  8. Suicidal thoughts in persons treated for alcohol dependence: The role of selected demographic and clinical factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziółkowski, Marcin; Czarnecki, Damian; Chodkiewicz, Jan; Gąsior, Krzysztof; Juczyński, Artur; Biedrzycka, Agata; Gruszczyńska, Ewa; Nowakowska-Domagała, Katarzyna

    2017-09-01

    Greater knowledge is needed of potential predictive factors for suicide in cases of alcohol addiction. Therefore, the aim of the study was to identify the socio-demographic variables and clinical factors associated with alcohol dependence which may have an influence on the occurrence of suicidal thoughts in alcohol-dependent patients. A group of 510 patients (396 male and 114 female) diagnosed with alcohol dependence syndrome were interviewed during the third week of therapy according to the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the Penn Alcohol Craving Scale (PACS) and the Short Alcohol Dependence Data Questionnaire (SADD). Socio-demographic data was also collected. The results of a binary logistic regression with suicidal thoughts as a dependent variable show that 63 out of the 510 participants (12% of the sample) reported the presence of suicidal thoughts. Alcohol dependence and alcohol craving appear to increase the likelihood of suicidal thoughts, and participants presenting psychiatric disorders were twice as likely to demonstrate suicidal ideation as those who did not. Alcohol dependence, alcohol craving and psychiatric comorbidity may be regarded as risk factors for suicidal ideation in the studied sample, with the only protective factor being living in a relationship. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Fever after percutaneous nephrolithotomy: contributing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi Aghdas, Farzaneh; Akhavizadegan, Hamed; Aryanpoor, Aryan; Inanloo, Hassan; Karbakhsh, Mojgan

    2006-08-01

    The exact mechanism of fever and urosepsis after percutaneous procedures has not been established. This research studied the frequency of fever after percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) and the contributing factors. In a cross-sectional study, from September 2003 to March 2004, all 217 patients with nephrolithiasis treated with PCNL at the Labbafinegad Specialized Urology Center were studied. Data were collected before, during, and after surgery. The frequency of fever after PCNL was 25.8% (n=56) although in 62.2% of the cases (n=135), no prophylactic antibiotics had been administered. The mean durations of hospitalization in patients with and without fever were 5.4+/-2.3 and 3.4+/-1.7 days, respectively (p=0.001). Significant correlations were observed between fever and female sex (p=0.005), positive urine culture (p=0.02), and nephrostomy tube insertion (p=0.041). Other variables did not prove to be significant. In logistic regression analysis, female sex and nephrostomy tube insertion were independently related to post-operative fever. Although a considerable proportion of our patients had not received prophylactic antibiotics, the rate of fever after PCNL was no higher than is reported in the literature. Use of only a short course of antibiotics before surgery for staghorn stones did not result in a higher rate of fever. Female sex created a higher risk for fever, probably because of the greater propensity to urinary tract infection. The significant relation of a nephrostomy tube to fever could be attributed to its role as a foreign body or to use in more complicated cases.

  10. Socio-demographic and dietary factors associated with obesity among female university students in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musaiger, Abdulrahman O; Hammad, Shatha S; Tayyem, Reema F; Qatatsheh, Ala A

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to explore the socio-demographic and dietary factors that may be associated with obesity among female university students in Jordan. A cross-sectional survey was carried out among 406 female students recruited from two universities in Jordan. Data were collected through self-reporting, using a previously validated questionnaire. Weight and height were measured and body mass index was calculated to determine the weight status of the participants. High educational level of mothers [odds ratio (OR)=1.25] and monthly pocket money of more than 200 Jordanian Dinars (OR=1.67) were found to be risk factors for obesity, whereas a sibling ranking of more than six was a protective factor (OR=0.31). Those who were eating from the university cafeteria had double the risk for obesity (OR=2.41) than those who did not. Regular eating of meals and snacking between meals were found to be protective factors (OR ranged from 0.42 to 0.79). Regular consumption of milk products, fruit, canned fruit juices, bakery products and legumes were found to be protective factors. In contrast, the regular consumption of potato chips (OR=1.35), chicken (OR=1.51), and fish (OR=1.45) were found to be risk factors for obesity. Using a chi-square test, none of the factors studied showed significant association with obesity. A program to promote healthy eating among university students in Jordan should consider the local socio-demographic and food behavior factors that could be related to obesity to ensure the effectiveness of such a program.

  11. Association between contraceptive use and socio-demographic factors of young fecund women in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Ahmed Zohirul; Rahman, Mosiur; Mostofa, Md Golam

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to explore the association between socio-demographic factors and contraceptive use among fecund women under 25years old. This study utilized a cross-sectional data (n=3744) extracted from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey 2011. Differences in the use of contraceptives by socio-demographic characteristics were assessed by χ(2) analyses. Binary logistic regression was used to identify the determinants of contraceptive use among young women. This study observed that 71% fecund women aged below 25years used contraceptives. Getting family planning (FP) methods from FP workers increases the likelihood of using contraceptives among young women because outreach activities by FP workers and accessibility of FP related information pave the way of using contraceptives. Husband-wife joint participation in decision making on health care increases the likelihood of using contraceptives. Participation of women in decision making on health care could be achieved by promoting higher education and gainful employment for women. Reproductive and sex education should be introduced in schools to prepare the young for healthy and responsible living. Moreover, policy makers should focus on developing negotiation skills in young women by creating educational and employment opportunities since husband-wife joint participation in decision making increases contraceptive use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. CPITN changes during pregnancy and maternal demographic factors ‘impact on periodontal health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidi Maybodi, Fahimeh; Haerian-Ardakani, Ahmad; Vaziri, Farzaneh; Khabbazian, Arezoo; Mohammadi-Asl, Salem

    2015-01-01

    Background: There have been speculations about the effects of hormonal changes and socio-demographic factors on periodontal health during pregnancy. Objective: According to the lack of sufficient epidemiologic information about the periodontal status of pregnant women in Yazd, this study was accomplished to determine the changes of Community Periodontal Index for Treatment Needs (CPITN) during pregnancy and evaluating the possible relationship between this index and demographic characteristics of the mothers. Materials and Methods: This was a longitudinal descriptive study. The samples included 115 pregnant women who were referred to health centers of Yazd, Iran. The mothers’ data were obtained from a questionnaire consisted of 3 parts: consent paper, demographic data and CPITN records. Examination was performed with dental unit light, flat dental mirror and WHO’s scaled probe. Results: In the beginning of the study, 60.1% of checked sextants had healthy gingival status. 25.9% had code1 and 14% had code 2. Code 3 and 4 were not seen in any sextants. There was a significant relationship between lower CPITN and higher maternal education, occupation and more frequencies of tooth-brushing but there was not a relationship between CPITN and mother’s age and number of pregnancies. CPITN had a significant relationship with increasing of the gestational age. Conclusion: There might be a relationship between increasing the month of pregnancy and more periodontal treatment needs. CPITN Increasing during pregnancy shows the importance of periodontal cares during this period. PMID:26000000

  13. Dietary patterns in pregnancy and associations with socio-demographic and lifestyle factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northstone, K; Emmett, P; Rogers, I

    2007-01-01

    Objective To obtain distinct dietary patterns in the third trimester of pregnancy using principal components analysis (PCA); to determine associations with socio-demographic and lifestyle factors. Design and methods A total of 12 053 pregnant women partaking in a population-based cohort study recorded current frequency of food consumption via questionnaire in 1991-1992. Dietary patterns identified using PCA were related to social and demographic characteristics and lifestyle factors. Results Five dietary patterns were established and labelled to best describe the types of diet being consumed in pregnancy. The ‘health conscious’ component described a diet based on salad, fruit, rice, pasta, breakfast cereals, fish, eggs, pulses, fruit juices, white meat and non-white bread. The ‘traditional’ component loaded highly on all types of vegetables, red meat and poultry. The ‘processed’ component was associated with high-fat processed foods. The ‘confectionery’ component was characterized by snack foods with high sugar content and the final ‘vegetarian’ component loaded highly on meat substitutes, pulses, nuts and herbal tea and high negative loadings were seen with red meat and poultry. There were strong associations between various socio-demographic variables and all dietary components; in particular, a ‘health conscious’ diet was positively associated with increasing education and age and non-white women. There was a negative association with increased parity, single, non-working women, those who smoked and who were overweight pre-pregnancy. Opposite associations were seen with the ‘processed’ component. Conclusions Distinct dietary patterns in pregnancy have been identified. There is clear evidence of social patterning associated with the dietary patterns, these social factors need to be accounted for in future studies using dietary patterns. This study will form the basis for further work investigating pregnancy outcome. PMID:17375108

  14. Some medico-socio-demographic factors and intra-uterine growth retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhabra, S; Bhandari, V

    1996-04-01

    In the present prospective pilot study an attempt has been made to find out the correlation between some maternopaternal factors (demographic, socio-economic and medical) that suggest a high risk for intra-uterine growth retardation. The mean height and booking weight of women in study group were significantly less than the height and weight of women in control group (p instrumental vaginal delivery, emergency caesarean section for foetal distress, incidence of intrapartum foetal distress, and number of babies with low Apgar scores at 1 and 5 minutes were significantly more in the study group (p < .05 and p < 0.001 respectively for operative delivery and Apgar scores).

  15. Impact of socio demographic factors on the severity of maternal anaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambarisha Bhandiwad

    2016-03-01

    Conclusions: Anaemia in pregnancy is associated with several social and demographic factors. Strategies must be taken from the conceptional level itself by providing proper antenatal counseling and women should be economically empowered and good antenatal care must be made available and accessible to all of them. Even with routine iron prophylaxis in pregnancy, still the prevalence of anaemia is high, so should we consider one or two doses of routine parenteral iron therapy for all pregnant women? [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(3.000: 868-872

  16. Demographic factors and cancer mortality. A mathematical model for cancer mortality in Denmark 1943-78

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, K

    1983-01-01

    Deaths from cancer in Denmark from 1943-1978 were extracted from the Danish National Death Register at the Danish Institute for Clinical Epidemiology. This paper illustrates the relationship between demographic factors and mortality from a large group of cancers, which increases progressively from...... likelihood estimates of b and k were found iteratively for each of the 280 combinations of sex--cancer site--residence--cohort. For fixed sex and cancer site the relationship between age, residence and cohort was examined. It appeared that k was independent of residence. For 10 of the male cancers and 12...

  17. Impact of demographic and psychosocial factors on hysterosalpingography pain and discomfort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony C. Ugwu

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hysterosalpingography (HSG is an important diagnostic procedure in the investigation of infertility. It is the radiographic delineation of uterine and tubal cavities and is part of the diagnostic evaluation of conjugal infertility. This diagnostic procedure is associated with high levels of anxiety, pain and stress from various causes. This study was designed to investigate the impact of demographic and psychosocial factors on HSG pain and discomfort.Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the impact of demographic and psychosocial factors on hysterosalpingography pain and discomfort.Method: One hundred hysterosalpingography referrals were recruited for this study. Verbal detector scales were used to assess pain perception, Likert scales were used to assess the psychosocial variables, while visual analogue scales were used to assess discomfort. Pearson’s correlations were conducted. Tests were two-tailed, with p < 0.05 indicating statistical signifcance.Results: Some of the patients (34% indicated that the administration of analgesics prior to the procedure reduced the pain and discomfort associated with the procedure. Mean ± standard deviation of pain and discomfort were 2.82 ± 0.77 and 6.36 ± 2.19 respectively. Age correlated signifcantly with pain perception (r = -0.22, P < 0.05, while pain correlated signifcantly with perception of discomfort (r = -0.46, P < 0.05.Conclusion: Age signifcantly correlated with pain. This is a factor that could be harnessed for clinical use.

  18. Relationship between Selected Socio-Demographic Factors and Cancer of Oral Cavity - A Case Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdoul Hossain Madani

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to recognize factors associated with cancer of oral cavity considering socio-demographic characteristics. The cases were 350 with squamous-cell carcinoma of oral cavity diagnosed between 2005 and 2006 in Morbai, Narandia, Budharani Cancer Institute, Pune, India. Similar number of controls match for age and sex selected from the background population. Cases and controls were interviewed for tobacco related habits and general characteristics; age, gender, education and possible socio-demographic factors. Chi-square test in uni-variate analysis and estimate for risk showed that education, occupation and monthly household income were significantly different between cases and controls (P < 0.001. Irrespective to gender, relative risk, here odds ratio, (OR of low level of education (OR = 5.3, CI 3.7–7.6, working in field as a farmer (OR = 2.5, CI 1.7–3.7, and monthly household income less than 5000 Indian Rupees currency (OR = 1.7, CI 1.2–2.3 were significant risk factors for oral cancer. While, there was no significant relationship between religious and or marital status either in males or females.

  19. Association between Demographic Factors and Osteoporosis in Urban Iranian Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Keramat

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Several demographic factors may be considered as barriers to osteoporosis prevention like high rate of illiteracy and low socioeconomic status in developing countries, there is lack of studies that assess the relationship between socioeconomic status and osteoporosis. This study was a case-control study and it was conducted in two bone mineral density centers in Tehran. Case group includes 163 osteoporotic menopaused women. Controls were selected from same bone mineral density center and matched to the case patients according to age groups. The odds ratios with 95% confidence interval for demographic risk factors of osteoporosis were as follow: illiteracy (no schooling 2.31(1.06,5.06 in public center, 12.18(1.41,105.57 in private center, illiteracy of husband 3.76(1.04,13.69 in public center, occupation (being a housewife 2.041(1.19,3.50 in public center. In this study we did not found a strong association between occupation and osteoporosis. High education level was shown as a protective factor of osteoporosis in both centers.

  20. Psychosocial Variables Contribute to Length of Stay and Discharge Destination after Lumbar Surgery Independent of Demographic and Clinical Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancuso, Carol A; Duculan, Roland; Craig, Chad M; Girardi, Federico P

    2017-07-03

    Prospective analysis of resource utilization (RU) after lumbar surgery. To determine contributions of patient psychosocial variables to RU, specifically length of stay (LOS) and discharge destination. Associations between demographic/clinical variables and RU are well-established; less is known about associations between psychosocial variables, such as social support and depressive/anxiety symptoms, and RU. Preoperatively 532 patients provided standard ratings of depressive and anxiety symptoms and amount of social support. Clinical variables included calculation of a composite score reflecting invasiveness of surgery. Two outcomes were considered: LOS ≤ 3 or > 3 days; and discharged home without external services or discharged with external services. Independent variables in multivariable logistic models were demographic/clinical and psychosocial variables. Mean age was 56 years, 55% were men, 87% had degenerative conditions, 40% had a positive depression screen, 62% had anxiety greater than population norms, and 77% reported as much social support as wanted. Variables that remained associated with a LOS > 3 days (53%) in multivariable analysis were: older age (OR 1.8, CI 1.2-2.8); female gender (OR 1.9, CI 1.2-2.9), less social support (OR1.4, CI 1.1-1.7); obesity (OR1.8, CI 1.1-2.8), worse functional status (OR 1.0, CI 1.0-1.0) and more invasive surgery (OR 3.0, CI 2.4-3.7). Variables that remained associated with discharged with external services (17%) in multivariable analysis were: older age (OR 3.3, CI 1.9-5.9); less social support (OR 1.3, CI 1.0-1.7); positive depression screen (OR 1.9, CI 1.1-3.4); more anxiety (OR 2.4, CI 1.3-4.2); major comorbidity (OR 1.7, CI 1.0-2.8); and more invasive surgery (OR 1.9, CI 1.5-2.5). This study confirms the importance of demographic/clinical variables as predictors of greater RU after lumbar surgery and provides preliminary evidence for the importance of concurrent psychosocial variables, particularly less social

  1. Overweight and Obesity in Italian Adolescents: Examined Prevalence and Socio-Demographic Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galfo, Myriam; D'Addezio, Laura; Censi, Laura; Roccaldo, Romana; Martone, Deborah

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of overweight and obesity derived from measured data of weight and height in a cross-sectional sample of adolescents in the Italian region of Lazio and to analyse their association with different socio-demographic factors. The study was conducted in a representative sample of 15-16-year-old adolescents recruited in secondary schools between December 2011 and May 2012. 369 adolescents were investigated. Body weight, height and waist circumference were measured. The BMI of each subject was calculated, and the prevalence of overweight and obesity was determined by age and sex using the IOTF reference values and WHO growth standards. Waist circumference/height ratio (WC/Ht) was calculated and the subjects were classified using the cut-off of 0.5: WC/Ht≥0.5 and WC/Htsocio-demographic characteristics were assessed via questionnaire. The percentages of overweight and obesity were high, 15.4% and 7.9%, respectively, with significant difference between males and females (19.1% vs. 12.6% for overweight and 11.1% vs. 5.3% for obese) using the IOFT reference. The ratio WC/Ht≥0.5 was observed in 12.7% of the sample (all the obese and 29.8% of the overweight subjects). Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that gender, school municipality, mother's employment status, and family structure had a significant effect on ponderal status (overweight/obesity vs. normal weight). These findings show a high prevalence of body weight excess associated with socio-demographic factors in the Italian sample investigated, and the need for effective public health interventions to combact obesity with particular attention to disadvantaged adolescents.

  2. Socio-demographic factors and self-reported funtional status: the significance of social support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlachonikolis IG

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the present work was to investigate the relative importance of socio-demographic and physical health status factors for subjective functioning, as well as to examine the role of social support. Methods A cross-sectional health survey was carried out in a Greek municipality. 1356 adults of the general population were included in the study. Personal interviews were conducted with house-to-house visits. The response rate was 91.2%. Functioning has been measured by five indexes: 'The Social Roles and Mobility' scale (SORM, 'The Self-Care Restrictions' scale (SCR, 'The Serious Limitations' scale (SL, 'The Minor Self-care Limitations' scale (MSCR and 'The Minor Limitations in Social Roles and Mobility' scale (MSORM. Results Among the two sets of independent variables, the socio-demographic ones had significant influence on the functional status, except for MSORM. Allowing for these variables, the physical health status indicators had also significant effects on all functioning scales. Living arrangements and marital status had significant effects on four out of five indexes, while arthritis, Parkinson's disease, past stroke and kidney stones had significant effects on the SCR and SL scales. Conclusions These results suggest that socio-demographic factors are as important as physical health variables in affecting a person's ability to function normally in their everyday life. Social support appears to play a significant role in explaining differences in subjective functioning: people living alone or only with the spouse, particularly the elderly, seem to be in greater risk for disability problems and should be targeted by preventive programs in the community.

  3. The relative influence of demographic, individual, social, and environmental factors on physical activity among boys and girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barr-Anderson Daheia

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to evaluate the associations of selected demographic, individual, social, and environmental factors with moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA in a sample of children and adolescents. Methods MVPA was assessed among youth (n = 294 10-17-years-old using the ActiGraph accelerometer. Youth completed measures of demographic and individual variables related to physical activity (PA, perceived social support by parents and peers, and perceived neighborhood characteristics. Parents completed the long-form of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. The Physical Activity and Media Inventory was used to measure the home environment and Geographical Information Systems software was used to measure the physical neighborhood environment. Bivariate correlations and hierarchical multiple regression were conducted stratified by gender. Results Boys participated in significantly more MVPA than girls. In hierarchical analyses, peer support, home PA equipment, and temperature were significantly associated with MVPA among boys whereas distance to the school they attended was associated with MVPA among girls. The final models accounted for 25% and 15% of the variance in MVPA among boys and girls, respectively. Conclusions Important differences exist among the individual, social, and environmental factors related to MVPA between boys and girls. Boys' levels of activity appear to be influenced by factors closely linked to unstructured and social types of activities whereas girls' activities relate to internal and external barriers as well as their proximity to their schools. The prospective contribution of these important individual, social, and environmental factors to changes in MVPA among children and adolescents remains to be determined.

  4. Persistent postmastectomy pain in breast cancer survivors: analysis of clinical, demographic, and psychosocial factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belfer, Inna; Schreiber, Kristin L; Shaffer, John R; Shnol, Helen; Blaney, Kayleigh; Morando, Alexandra; Englert, Danielle; Greco, Carol; Brufsky, Adam; Ahrendt, Gretchen; Kehlet, Henrik; Edwards, Robert R; Bovbjerg, Dana H

    2013-10-01

    Persistent postmastectomy pain (PPMP) is increasingly recognized as a major individual and public health problem. Although previous studies have investigated surgical, medical, and demographic risk factors, in this study we aimed to more clearly elucidate the relationship of psychosocial factors to PPMP. Postmastectomy patients (611) were queried about pain location, severity, and burden 38.3 ± 35.4 months postoperatively. Validated questionnaires for depressive symptoms, anxiety, sleep, perceived stress, emotional stability, somatization, and catastrophizing were administered. Detailed surgical, medical, and treatment information was abstracted from patients' medical records. One third (32.5%) of patients reported PPMP, defined as ≥3/10 pain severity in the breast, axilla, side, or arm, which did not vary according to time since surgery. Multiple regression analysis revealed significant and independent associations between PPMP and psychosocial factors, including catastrophizing, somatization, anxiety, and sleep disturbance. Conversely, treatment-related factors including surgical type, axillary node dissection, surgical complication, recurrence, tumor size, radiation, and chemotherapy were not significantly associated with PPMP. These data confirm previous studies suggesting that PPMP is relatively common and provide new evidence of significant associations between psychosocial characteristics such as catastrophizing with PPMP, regardless of the surgical and medical treatment that patients receive, which may lead to novel strategies in PPMP prevention and treatment. This cross-sectional cohort study of 611 postmastectomy patients investigated severity, location, and frequency of pain a mean of 3.2 years after surgery. Significant associations between pain severity and individual psychosocial attributes such as catastrophizing were found, whereas demographic, surgical, medical, and treatment-related factors were not associated with persistent pain. Copyright

  5. Nutrient patterns and their association with socio-demographic, lifestyle factors and obesity risk in rural South African adolescents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pisa, Pedro T; Pedro, Titilola M; Kahn, Kathleen; Tollman, Stephen M; Pettifor, John M; Norris, Shane A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify and describe the diversity of nutrient patterns and how they associate with socio-demographic and lifestyle factors including body mass index in rural black South...

  6. Professional Demographic Factors That Influence Iranian Auditors Perceptions Of The Fraud-Detecting Effectiveness Of Red Flags

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Weifang Yang; Glen D. Moyes; Hamed Hamedian; Azar Rahdarian

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between professional demographic factors concerning external and internal auditors and the perceived level of effectiveness of the Statement of Auditing Standard (SAS...

  7. The Relationship of Socio-Demographic Factors, Fertility Behavior and Child’s Perceived Value with Fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmoude, Elham; Behnam, Haniye; Barati-Far, Saeede; Kabirian, Maryam

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Fertility intention is one of the strongest predictors of couple’s fertility behavior that is affected by many variables. This study aimed to identify the relationship of socio-demographic factors, fertility behavior, and child’s perceived value with fertility intention of women in a region in the east Iran Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, 241 married women aged between 15 and 49 years of Torbat Heydariyeh City in 2015, were studied. The data collection scales included a demographic information form, fertility information questionnaire and Trommsdorff’s child value questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS 16 by Chi-square, Kruskal-Wallis, t-independent test and logistic regression. The significance level of Pcosts of children (P=0.001). In addition, in subjects with children of both sexes, intention for childbearing was significantly lower when compared to subjects with only one sex in children (P=0.001). However, when the logistic regression test was performed, being housewife, number of children, having children of both sexes, benefit and costs of children showed statistical significance (Pcurrent children, having children of both sexes, and perceived childbearing costs are important in determining the odds that a woman will intend to have a child. These findings can contribute to the realization of new population programs towards higher fertility rate in the country. PMID:28409166

  8. The epidemiology of observed temperament: Factor structure and demographic group differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willoughby, Michael T; Stifter, Cynthia A; Gottfredson, Nisha C

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated the factor structure of observational indicators of children's temperament that were collected across the first three years of life in the Family Life Project (N=1205) sample. A four-factor model (activity level, fear, anger, regulation), which corresponded broadly to Rothbart's distinction between reactivity and regulation, provided an acceptable fit the observed data. Tests of measurement invariance demonstrated that a majority of the observational indicators exhibited comparable measurement properties for male vs. female, black vs. white, and poor vs. not-poor children, which improved the generalizability of these results. Unadjusted demographic group comparisons revealed small to moderate sized differences (Cohen ds=|.23-.42|) in temperamental reactivity and moderate to large sized differences (Cohen ds=-.64--.97) in regulation. Collectively, demographic variables explained more of the variation in regulation (R(2)=.25) than in reactivity (R(2)=.02-.06). Follow-up analyses demonstrated that race differences were substantially diminished in magnitude and better accounted for by poverty. These results help to validate the distinction between temperamental reactivity and regulation using observational indicators.

  9. FAMILY AND SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC RISK FACTORS FOR PSYCHOPATHY AMONG PRISON INMATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan A. Valdivia

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A field study was conducted with prison inmates to explore to what extent family and socio-demographic characteristics represent risk factors for psychopathy and delinquent behavior. A psychopathy scale derived from Hare’s Revised Psychopathy Checklist and an instrument containing questions related to family and socio-demographic characteristics were administered to 178 prison inmates. The psychopathy scale’s reliability (α = .92 and construct validity were established. A confirmatory factor analysis provided support for a model showing a negative association between psychopathy and age at which the person stopped living with his family of origin, age of first incarceration, severity of delinquent acts, length of prison sentence, and length of time spent in prison. (χ2/df = 1.40, FD = 1.34, PNI = 0.38, RMSEA =.04, IFI = .94, CFI = .94 and TLI = .93. Furthermore, the model sustained a positive association of psychopathy with income and frequency of incarceration. Level of education and age were eliminated from the model given that no significant associations were found among these variables and psychopathy. The validation of this model enables to interpret research findings in relation with attachment theory.

  10. Effect of situational, attitudinal and demographic factors on railway vibration annoyance in residential areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peris, Eulalia; Woodcock, James; Sica, Gennaro; Sharp, Calum; Moorhouse, Andrew T; Waddington, David C

    2014-01-01

    Railway induced vibration is an important source of annoyance among residents living in the vicinity of railways. Annoyance increases with vibration magnitude. However, these correlations between the degree of annoyance and vibration exposure are weak. This suggests that railway vibration induced annoyance is governed by more than just vibration level and therefore other factors may provide information to understand the wide variation in annoyance reactions. Factors coming into play when considering an exposure-response relationship between level of railway vibration and annoyance are presented. The factors investigated were: attitudinal, situational and demographic factors. This was achieved using data from field studies comprised of face-to-face interviews and internal vibration measurements (N = 755). It was found that annoyance scores were strongly influenced by two attitudinal factors: Concern of property damage and expectations about future levels of vibration. Type of residential area and age of the respondent were found to have an important effect on annoyance whereas visibility of the railway and time spent at home showed a significant but small influence. These results indicate that future railway vibration policies and regulations focusing on community impact need to consider additional factors for an optimal assessment of railway effects on residential environments.

  11. PREVALENCE, RISK FACTORS AND SOCIO DEMOGRAPHIC CO-RELATES OF ADOLESCENT HYPERTENSION IN DISTRICT GHAZIABAD

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    Gajendra Kumar Gupta

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypertension is a chronic condition of concern due to its role in the causation of coronary heart disease, stroke and other  complications. It is one of the major risk factors for cardio-vascular mortality accounting for 20-50% of all deaths. Children with higher blood pressure tend to maintain those levels during adulthood also. Objectives:  Assess the prevalence of hypertension in adolescents (11-18 years, its risk factors and their socio-demographic co-relates. Material and Method:  Prevalence of adolescent hypertension in previous studies was 7% and the sample size accordingly came to be 1314 with a relative precision of 20%. Multistage sampling technique was used. Half each of the sample size was covered in urban and rural areas . Households in the selected colonies in the urban areas and villages were randomly selected and the adolescents interviewed and examined. Their responses were recorded on a pretested questionnaire and results drawn. Data were analysed using Epi-info and SPSS and chi-square test applied. Results:   Prevalence of adolescent hypertension was found to be 5.3% (72 out of 1340; significantly associated with type of family (P<0.001, educational status (P<0.001, occupation (P<0.001, BMI (P<0.01, and smoking habit (P<0.05. However, no relationship of hypertension was found with salt intake, type of diet, exercise, alcohol consumption, stress and family history of hypertension. Conclusion: Socio-demographic factors certainly influence the prevalence and probability of occurrence of adolescent hypertension but the effect of established risk factors (for adult hypertension needs to be further evaluated for adolescent hypertension and more studies are required in this area.

  12. Demographic factors and land-use planning in the small islands of Southern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliani, Lamberto; Rossi, Orazio

    1992-09-01

    Since the end of the 1970s, the southern European countries have shown an exceptional reduction in fertility rate. From the highest levels among the developed nations, these countries dropped beneath the substitution rate level: in Greece there is an average of about 1.5 children per woman, and Italy (starting three to four years ago), with 1.3 children per woman, is now the country with the lowest fecundity rate in the world. Land-use planning in southern European small islands therefore requires substantial revision. In the areas where western civilization began, which are highly populated and have a long history, cultural and ethnic aspects of tradition are fundamental to environmental management and to the defense of historical heritage. They also place a strong value on sustaining tourism, the most relevant economic activity, that allows them to survive and maintain a high welfare level. For some decades they have had populations with a marked presence of young people and high emigration rates, but now they are fast becoming dominated by the elderly and must prepare for a period of fast reduction in youth of the workforce, while the peripheral areas of Asia and Africa are entering a sudden demographic growth phase. The demographic structure has also been deeply altered both by previous migrations and by random variations, as usually happens in all small communities. Social services for younger and older people have had to be adapted rapidly, reorganizing high-school management, hospital and health-care structures, in-house assistance, and so on. There is a need to rethink the job market and favor the immigration of highly specialized workers, which is a necessity for technical evolution. Sustainable development is constrained nowadays not only by the scarcity of natural resources, but also by the quality and quantity of human resources. Proper policies for population and land-use planning are highly correlated factors; they have to be considered with respect

  13. The associations of vegetable consumption with food mavenism, personal values, food knowledge and demographic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farragher, Tahlia; Wang, Wei C; Worsley, Anthony

    2016-02-01

    Poor dietary choices, in particular low consumption of fruits and vegetables are associated with the prevalence of diet related diseases. Ways to increase consumption are urgently required. This paper examines the associations of demographic, psychographic and food knowledge variables with reported vegetable consumption. An online questionnaire was administered in late 2012 to a national sample 2146 Australians who were selected to represent the Australian population in terms of age, sex, education and location of residence. It was divided into sections which assessed food knowledge, food involvement, food mavenism, personal values and personality factors, demographic characteristics and reported consumption of 13 vegetables and the total number of servings of vegetables per day. Principal components analyses of the individual vegetable consumption ratings derived three forms of vegetable consumption scores. These and total serving per day were used as dependent variables in a structural equation model to identify pathways between them and their likely antecedents. Three types of vegetable consumption were formed:Salad vegetables (onion, tomato and lettuce);Dinner vegetables (carrot, peas and beans); and'Green' vegetables (cabbage, spinach broccoli and cauliflower). Food mavenism, food knowledge, food involvement and equality-universalist values mediated the relationships between demographics and conscientiousness and the vegetable consumption variables. The three types of vegetable consumption and total servings per day were associated with different antecedent pathways. The mediating roles of food mavenism, food knowledge, food involvement and equality-universalist values may present opportunities for health promotion and the horticultural industry to increase population vegetable intake. Further research is required to test these associations via experimental and longitudinal studies and qualitative investigation of the meaning and place of the three forms of

  14. Rural AIDS Diagnoses in Florida: Changing Demographics and Factors Associated With Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trepka, Mary Jo; Niyonsenga, Theophile; Maddox, Lorene M.; Lieb, Spencer

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To compare demographic characteristics and predictors of survival of rural residents diagnosed with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) with those of urban residents. Methods Florida surveillance data for people diagnosed with AIDS during 1993–2007 were merged with 2000 Census data using ZIP code tabulation areas (ZCTA). Rural status was classified based on the ZCTA’s rural-urban commuting area classification. Survival rates were compared between rural and urban areas using survival curves and Cox proportional hazards models controlling for demographic, clinical, and area-level socioeconomic and health care access factors. Findings Of the 73,590 people diagnosed with AIDS, 1,991 (2.7%) resided in rural areas. People in the most recent rural cohorts were more likely than those in earlier cohorts to be female, non-Hispanic black, older, and have a reported transmission mode of heterosexual sex. There were no statistically significant differences in the 3-, 5-, or 10-year survival rates between rural and urban residents. Older age at the time of diagnosis, diagnosis during the 1993–1995 period, other/unknown transmission mode, and lower CD4 count/percent categories were associated with lower survival in both rural and urban areas. In urban areas only, being non-Hispanic black or Hispanic, being US born, more poverty, less community social support, and lower physician density were also associated with lower survival. Conclusions In rural Florida, the demographic characteristics of people diagnosed with AIDS have been changing, which may necessitate modifications in the delivery of AIDS-related services. Rural residents diagnosed with AIDS did not have a significant survival disadvantage relative to urban residents. PMID:23802929

  15. Approaches for the direct estimation of lambda, and demographic contributions to lambda, using capture-recapture data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, James D.; Hines, James E.

    2002-01-01

    We first consider the estimation of the finite rate of population increase or population growth rate, u i , using capture-recapture data from open populations. We review estimation and modelling of u i under three main approaches to modelling openpopulation data: the classic approach of Jolly (1965) and Seber (1965), the superpopulation approach of Crosbie & Manly (1985) and Schwarz & Arnason (1996), and the temporal symmetry approach of Pradel (1996). Next, we consider the contributions of different demographic components to u i using a probabilistic approach based on the composition of the population at time i + 1 (Nichols et al., 2000b). The parameters of interest are identical to the seniority parameters, n i , of Pradel (1996). We review estimation of n i under the classic, superpopulation, and temporal symmetry approaches. We then compare these direct estimation approaches for u i and n i with analogues computed using projection matrix asymptotics. We also discuss various extensions of the estimation approaches to multistate applications and to joint likelihoods involving multiple data types.

  16. A longitudinal study of demographic factors associated with stressors and symptoms in African refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Sulani; Gavian, Margaret; Frazier, Patricia; Johnson, David; Spring, Marline; Westermeyer, Joseph; Butcher, James; Halcon, Linda; Robertson, Cheryl; Savik, Kay; Jaranson, James

    2013-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess differences in premigration, transit, and resettlement stressor exposure and post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms as a function of demographic characteristics (i.e., gender, ethnicity, age, time in United States) and to examine the concurrent and longitudinal relations between stressor exposure and PTSD symptoms. The sample consisted of adult (18-78 years) Somali and Oromo refugee men and women (N = 437). Qualitative data regarding participants' self-nominated worst stressors collected at Time 2 (T2) informed the development of quantitative scales assessing premigration, transit, and resettlement stress created using items collected at Time 1 (T1). PTSD symptoms were measured at both T1 and T2. Quantitative analyses showed that levels of stressor exposure and PTSD symptoms differed as a function of refugee demographic characteristics. For example, Oromo, more recent, women, and older refugees reported more premigration and resettlement stressors. Oromo refugees and refugee men reported more PTSD symptoms in regression analyses with other factors controlled. Premigration, transit, and resettlement stressor exposure generally was associated with higher PTSD symptom levels. Results underscore the importance of assessing stress exposure comprehensively throughout the refugee experience and caution against overgeneralizing between and within refugee groups.

  17. Dissatisfaction with body image among adolescent students: association with socio-demographic factors and nutritional status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelegrini, Andreia; Coqueiro, Raildo da Silva; Beck, Carmem Cristina; Ghedin, Karoliny Debiasi; Lopes, Adair da Silva; Petroski, Edio Luiz

    2014-04-01

    This article seeks to determine the prevalence of dissatisfaction with body image and its association with socio-demographic factors and nutritional status among adolescents. The following socio-demographic data, anthropometric variables, and perception of body image (n = 660) were collected. The prevalence of dissatisfaction with body image was 71.4%. Girls wished to reduce the size of their body silhouette, whereas boys wished to increase it. The desire to reduce body size was positively associated with female gender, with increased waist circumference and with excess weight. On the other hand, the desire to increase body size was negatively associated with the female gender and waist circumference, and was positively associated with ages 16, 17 and 18 + 19 years. Dissatisfaction with body image is highly prevalent among adolescents, though it is manifested differently in boys and girls. Increased abdominal fat, excess weight and female gender were predictors of dissatisfaction due to excess weight, and male gender and advanced age were predictors of dissatisfaction due to thinness.

  18. Characterization of breast density in Vietnam and its association with demographic, reproductive and lifestyle factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trieu, Phuong Dung (Yun); Mello-Thoms, Claudia; Peat, Jenny; Do, Thuan Doan; Brennan, Patrick C.

    2017-03-01

    This study aims to investigate patterns of breast density among women in Vietnam and their association with demographic, reproductive and lifestyle features. Mammographic densities of 1,651 women were collected from the two largest breast cancer screening and treatment centers in Ha Noi and Ho Chi Minh city. Putative factors associated with breast density were obtained from self-administered questionnaires which considered demographic, reproductive and lifestyle elements and were provided by women who attended mammography examinations. Results show that a large proportion of Vietnamese women (78.4%) had a high breast density. With multivariable logistic regression, significant associations of high breast density were evident with women with less than 55 years old (OR=3.0), having BMI less than 23 (OR=2.2), experiencing pre-menopausal status (OR=2.9), having less than three children (OR=1.7), and being less than 32 years old when having their last child (OR=1.8). Participants who consumed more than two vegetable servings per day also had an increased risk of higher density (OR=2.6). The findings suggest some unique features regarding mammographic density amongst Vietnamese compared with westernized women.

  19. Comparing the demographic factors of patient with limited and diffuse type of alopecia areata

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    Mina Daliri

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alopecia areata is a chronic inflammatory disease that involves the hair follicle. Clinically, patients with alopecia areata may have patchy or confluent hair loss on the scalp or body so we conduct a study to compare the demographic aspects of patient with limited and diffuse type of alopecia areata.Materials and Method: We conducted a descriptive-analyzing study in which 306 patient were chosen. The patients were divided into two groups of diffuse and limited Alopecia. Demographic factors including age, gender, disease onset were compared in two groups. Results: Out of 306 patients, 58.8 % were male and 41.2 % were female. 247 patients (80.7% suffered from limited type and 59 patients (19.2% suffered from diffuse type. The mean age of the onset of involvement in limited group was 21.9±12 yr and 15.8±12 yr in diffuse group. The mean duration of involvement in limited group was 18.7 months and 71 months in diffuse group. Conclusion: Diffuse type alopecia areata starts at lower age and has longer duration. Our study results were similar to the others. Like other studies, thyroid disorders and atopic dermatitis are positively correlative to the severity of disease

  20. The role of socio-demographic factors in premature cervical cancer mortality in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermedo-Carrasco, Silvia; Waldner, Cheryl L

    2016-09-15

    While cervical cancer (CC) is an important cause of premature mortality in Colombia, the impact of socio-demographic factors on CC mortality in young women is not well understood. The primary objective of this study was to identify differences in CC mortality among Colombian women aged 20-49 years associated with education, type of health insurance, urban or rural and region of residence, and to determine whether differences in mortality associated with education or insurance varied by age. Cervical cancer deaths for 2005-2013 and risk factors were obtained from the National Administrative Department of Statistics. Populations at risk were calculated from age-stratified population projections and the 2010 National and Demographic Health Survey. Negative binomial regression models, stratified by age, were used to examine associations between socio-demographic factors and mortality rates and whether the effects of education and health insurance varied by age. Multiple imputation was used to examine the importance of missing data. Differences of CC mortality were identified among women with limited to no education compared to highly educated women, with the largest disparity in the youngest age group (IRR 26.8, 95 % CI 6.65-108). Differences in mortality associated with health insurance also varied based on age group. Women with contributory and special health insurance had lower mortality rates than women with subsidised or no health insurance, except in the youngest age group. No differences were observed between women with subsidised and those with no insurance in any age group. Mortality rates were high among women who resided in urban areas and in the Atlantic, Central, Pacific, and Amazon-Orinoquía regions of Colombia. Missing values in the mortality database did not impact the findings from this study. Limited education was most strongly associated with premature CC mortality in the youngest women. Subsidised insurance did not appear to provide significant

  1. Intellectual Leadership of Researchers in Higher Education: Relationship Between the Demographic Factors and Roles (Lithuanian Context

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    Žydžiūnaitė Vilma

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The intellectual leadership of educators or teachers represents a topic of a great interest for educational research and practice. Variety of variables or factors have been examined to find the most complete explanations for teachers’, professors’ and educators’ roles, for example, institutional, financial, gender, organizational, spiritual, and intellectual. No literature was found on the relationship between the demographic variables and researchers’ roles in higher education regarding intellectual leadership. But a lot of studies are focused on the relationship between demographic and other factors in education: job satisfaction, organizational justice, religion, gender, culture, personal and professional roles, stress, mental health, and mobility. The research issue in this study is related to researchers’/scientists’ work in higher education schools and is focused on intellectual leadership, which consists of different roles. It is worth to think about researchers as intellectual leaders and to discover how they recognize or identify their roles in higher education. In this study, findings answer the following research question: “What are the relationships between researchers’ roles and their gender, work experience, dissertation defence date, and research field?” The object of the research study is the researchers’ roles in higher education. The aim of the study was to reveal the relationship between demographic factors and researchers’ roles in higher education. Data were collected by performing a questioning survey and using a validated questionnaire with 116 statements in total. The sample consisted of 304 researchers working in higher education institutions. For data analysis, Cronbach’s alpha, Mean and ANOVA calculations were used. The research findings reported that the female-researchers’ evaluations were higher in all cases regarding their roles in higher education schools. The results of the study

  2. Studies investigating economic, agricultural-economic and demographic factors influencing land use dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mora, R.; San Juan, C.

    2009-07-01

    In this paper, we review studies investigating economic, agricultural-economic and demographic factors influencing land use dynamics, making special emphasis on the policy framework in the European Union. We find several conclusions, among which the following should be emphasized. First, this review highlights the existence of different methodologies to build up models to identify the effects of policy reforms affecting land use and desertification. Second, use of micro data to set up an econometric-process simulation model of land use has already been used with success. Third, in the geographical distribution of land use, prices drive all short and long-rung processes. Finally, logistic models have recently been used to study micro decisions at the agricultural sector to identify relative rents and land characteristics such as location and soil fertility as main determinants of land use patters. (Author) 8 refs.

  3. Maternal help-seeking for child developmental concerns: Associations with socio-demographic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eapen, Valsamma; Walter, Amelia; Guan, Jane; Descallar, Joseph; Axelsson, Emma; Einfeld, Stewart; Eastwood, John; Murphy, Elisabeth; Beasley, Deborah; Silove, Natalie; Dissanayake, Cheryl; Woolfenden, Sue; Williams, Katrina; Jalaludin, Bin; The 'Watch Me Grow' Study Group

    2017-06-29

    To examine socio-demographic factors associated with maternal help-seeking for child developmental concerns in a longitudinal birth cohort study. An understanding of these factors is critical to improving uptake of services to maximise early identification and intervention for developmental concerns. A birth cohort was recruited from the post-natal wards of two teaching hospitals and through community nurses in South Western Sydney, Australia, between November 2011 and April 2013. Of the 4047 mothers approached, 2025 consented to participate (response rate = 50%). Socio-demographic and service use information was collected after the child's birth and when the child was 18 months of age. Sources of help were divided into three categories (formal health services, other formal services and informal supports) and compound variables were created by summing the number of different sources identified by mothers. Significantly more sources of help were intended to be used and/or actually accessed by mothers born in Australia, whose primary language was English, with higher levels of education and annual household income, and among mothers of first-born children. Developmental concerns are known to increase with increased psychosocial adversity. Our findings of reduced intent to access and use of services by socio-economically disadvantaged families and those from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds suggests that an inverse care effect is in operation whereby those children with the greatest health needs may have the least access to services. Possible explanations for this, and recommendations for improving service accessibility for these populations through targeted and culturally appropriate services, are discussed. © 2017 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  4. Evaluation of Demographics and Climatic Factors/Disease Relationship in Patients with Pityriasis Rosea

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    Emel Bülbül Başkan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Pityriasis rosea (PR is an acute onset, self-limiting papulosquamous skin disease. The etiology of the disease is totally unknown, however, many epidemiological and clinical studies have suggested that infectious agents may cause the disease. Seasonal changes in the incidence may be an epidemiologic evidence for potential infectious etiology. In this study, we aimed to analyze the demographic data of PR patients and to explore the role of climatic factors in the etiology of the disease. Material and Method: We retrospectively reviewed the patient files of PR cases that had been followed up in our clinic between 2000 and 2005. Demographic data of the patients as well as the date of applications were recorded. Temperature, raining, pressure and humidity data for the City of Bursa for years 2000-2005 were obtained from the General Directorate of Meteorology, Republic of Turkey. Any potential relationship between onset time of PR and meteorological parameters was investigated statistically by using cluster analysis. Results: We reviewed the medical records of 413 patients, of whom 271 were female and 142 were male. Herald plaque was seen in 88 patients (21.3%. Pityriasis rosea was observed predominantly in persons between 20 and 29 years of age (139 patients; 33.6%. Distribution of number of cases between 2000-2005 was 51, 57, 80, 75, 63, 87. The highest number of patients was seen in winter (n: 122; 29.5% followed by spring (n: 101; 24.4%, autumn (n: 101; 24.4% and summer (n: 89; 21.7%. No statistically significant difference was found between annual and seasonal changes in the incidence of PR (p>0.05.Conclusion: We conclude that although the relation between PR and seasonal factors was not statistically significant in our study, multi-centric studies on large series of patients are needed to further investigate this topic.

  5. SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC FACTORS INFLUENCING FAMILY SIZE AMONG RURAL POPULATION OF DISTRICT NAINITAL, UTTARAKHAND

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    Sanjay Pandey

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: India is the second most populous country in the world. A decline in its population growth rate has been shown amounting to during the last decades. The decline in the family size is important step towards population stabilization for our country. The status of family size is related to various demographic, socio-economic, cultural factors and attitude towards use of family planning methods. Objective: To assess the relationship of family size with socio-economic factors and effect of contraceptive use. Methodology: A cross sectional house to house survey to know the family size and socio-demographic was conducted in the adopted villages of field practice area. The study subjects are the married women of reproductive age group (15-49 years. Results: About half (44.9% of respondents were aged more than 35 years and only (0.9% were < 19 years. The family size in our study was 2.55. About 54.5% of respondents have family size d" 2. About two-third of families (65% with size less than or equals to two were of nuclear type. Education level of family has significant relationship with small family size. About 90% of the respondents and their spouse of family size two or less were literate. A significant association was found between occupation of the spouse and family size. The spouses of the respondents with family size more than two were mainly engaged in agriculture (29.7% and as labourer (38.5%. Among the families with family size of more than two, majority were from middle (81% and lower (14.9% class. There is no significant effect of use of contraceptives on the family size.

  6. Current trends of Mycobacterium tuberculosis molecular epidemiology in Saudi Arabia and associated demographical factors.

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    Al-Hajoj, Sahal; Varghese, Bright; Al-Habobe, Farah; Shoukri, Mohammed M; Mulder, Arnout; van Soolingen, Dick

    2013-06-01

    Data are scarce on demographical factors related to the population structure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Saudi Arabia. A study was conducted on 902 clinical isolates to explore current trends in the phylogeography and associated demographical factors of tuberculosis by using spoligotyping and 24 loci based MIRU-VNTR typing. Young male patients (aged 16-29 and 30-44) were predominant in this cohort. The phylogenetic diversity among M. tuberculosis isolates was found high, as almost all known genetic lineages were identified. Delhi/CAS (26.4%), EAI (13.7%) and Haarlem (11.3%) were the most common lineages observed, particularly among the low age groups (16-29 and 30-44 years), whereas elderly patients (>60 years) showed a predominance in the lineages S, Ghana, TUR and Uganda-I. A statistically significant association was observed between gender of the patients and lineages of EAI (p value 0.026) and LAM (p value 0.005). Overall, molecular strain cluster rate was 34.4% with an elevated rate among patients aged below 15 years (43.1%), while cases among the elderly (>60 years) showed the lowest degree of clustering (12.5%). The largest level of clustering was noticed among cases caused by strains of the lineages Haarlem (59.8%), Beijing (55.8%) and LAM (42.8%). The current population structure of M. tuberculosis in Saudi Arabia is highly diverse with significant associations to demography, transmission dynamics and origin of the patients. The difference in genotype distributions among low and high aged patients reflects the ongoing change in the strain population structure in the country.

  7. Associations of the vaginal microbiota with HIV infection, bacterial vaginosis, and demographic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chehoud, Christel; Stieh, Daniel J; Bailey, Aubrey G; Laughlin, Alice L; Allen, Shannon A; McCotter, Kerrie L; Sherrill-Mix, Scott A; Hope, Thomas J; Bushman, Frederic D

    2017-04-24

    We sought to investigate the effects of HIV infection on the vaginal microbiota and associations with treatment and demographic factors. We thus compared vaginal microbiome samples from HIV-infected (HIV+) and HIV-uninfected (HIV-) women collected at two Chicago area hospitals. We studied vaginal microbiome samples from 178 women analyzed longitudinally (n = 324 samples) and collected extensive data on clinical status and demographic factors. We used 16S rRNA gene sequencing to characterize the bacterial lineages present, then UniFrac, Shannon diversity, and other measures to compare community structure with sample metadata. Differences in microbiota measures were modest in the comparison of HIV+ and HIV- samples, in contrast to several previous studies, consistent with effective antiretroviral therapy. Proportions of healthy Lactobacillus species were not higher in HIV- patients overall, but were significantly higher when analyzed within each hospital in isolation. Rates of bacterial vaginosis were higher among African-American women and HIV+ women. Bacterial vaginosis was associated with higher frequency of HIV+. Unexpectedly, African-American women were more likely to switch bacterial vaginosis status between sampling times; switching was not associated with HIV+ status. The influence of HIV infection on the vaginal microbiome was modest for this cohort of well suppressed urban American women, consistent with effective antiretroviral therapy. HIV+ was found to be associated with bacterial vaginosis. Although bacterial vaginosis has previously been associated with HIV transmission, most of the women studied here became HIV+ many years before our test for bacterial vaginosis, thus implicating additional mechanisms linking HIV infection and bacterial vaginosis.

  8. Relation between Lifestyle and Socio-Demographic Factors and Body Composition among the Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeinali, Fahime; Habibi, Nahal; Samadi, Mehnoosh; Azam, Kamal; Djafarian, Kurosh

    2016-08-01

    Aging is accompanied by various changes that can cause changes in diet and body composition resulting sometimes in malnutrition and disability in the elderly. Changes in body composition among the elderly are mainly the result of physical inactivity and nutrition. This study was designed to examine the relationship between lifestyle and socio-demographic factors and body composition. A cross-sectional study was carried out with 380 elderly people aged 60 and over in district 5 of Tehran, Iran. Their body composition was measured by Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis and the Actigraph device was used for assessing physical activity patterns. A three-day food recall was conducted to measure their intake of energy and macronutrients. Lifestyle and socio-demographic information were collected by interview using a pretested questionnaire. Overweight, obesity and central obesity were more prevalent in women than in men (p<0.001). Moreover, 57.1% and 18.7% of participants had high and very high fat mass index, respectively. High fat mass index was seen in 47% of men and 37.5% of women who had normal body mass index (BMI). Meanwhile, age, gender, physical activity, energy intake, the percentage of energy from fat and protein, educational level, job, television watching time, smoking, chronic diseases, and taking medicine were significantly associated with anthropometric measurements (p<0.05). Overweight, obesity and high body fat percentage were common among the aged. Considering the factors that are significantly associated with body composition, programs that can increase their awareness about the dietary balance and suitable physical activity should be organized to address these problems.

  9. Role of OCB and demographic factors in the relationship of motivation and employee performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yew Huei Tan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This research seeks to broaden the study by investigating the interplay of organizational citizenship behaviour (OCB and demographic factor (gender and organizational tenure on the motivation and employee performance relationship.Design/methodology/approach: Multiple linear regression was used to test the relationship between motivation (intrinsic and extrinsic and employee performance among (n=368 lecturers in Malaysia. To test the mediating effect of OCB, path analysis was employed. Furthermore, the demographic factors (gender and organizational tenure was tested using the moderated multiple regression analysis.Findings: Significant differences in explaining the variance of employee\tperformance was found between intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation. In addition, OCB was found perfectly mediating the relationship of extrinsic motivation and employee performance, however, OCB was found partially mediating the relationship between intrinsic motivation and employee performance. Furthermore, gender and organizational tenure do not show any moderate results in the relationship between OCB and employee performance.Research limitations: Study limitations (e.g. cross-sectional research design and biasness and future opportunities are outlined.Practical implications: Argues that the suitable type of motivation in explaining the variances of employee performance. Also, identifies the important of OCB between the motivation and employee performance relationship, thus gender and organizational tenure were not significant to OCB and employee performance relationship.Social implications: HR can help an organization to succeed, provided that the suitable motivations are adopted to monitor lecturer performance and helping behavior. In addition, HR should not emphasize too much of gender and organizational tenure to justify the lecturer performance as the findings show insignificant relationship.Originality/value: This paper identifies and

  10. [Socio-demographic factors and tobacco smoking among the Rzeszow's collage students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binkowska-Bury, Monika; Chmiel-Połeć, Zdzisława; Marć, Małgorzata; Januszewicz, Paweł

    2008-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is the most known single factor of the highest impact on the number of cancerous deceases. Chemical compound contained in the tobacco smoke have an affect on strong mutagen and carcinogenic actions. Among 400 chemical compound 40 of them have a proven carcinogenic action for human. From the medical point of view the most important are: nicotine- responsible as well as for the pharmacologic tobacco smoking addiction, carbon monoxide, carcinogenic and irritant substances. Regular monitoring of the tobacco smoking among academic students might be used in the actions considering the health risk management. The aim of the study was identifying the relation among selected socio-demographic factors like: age, sex, major, permanent residence, parent's education, material status, medical profile and tobacco smoking among academic students. The research was carried out among 521: science, humanities and medical stationary students. The research was conducted with a usage of the chi-squared evenness test. The research shows that sex and place of residence are the two factors having the most impact on tobacco smoking among academic students. Academic students originated from town or cities as well as men are more often to make a decision on smoking tobacco.

  11. Demographic and contextual factors associated with inhalant use among youth in rural Alaska

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    David L. Driscoll

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Abuse of harmful legal products that can be inhaled or ingested is a serious and growing problem in many rural Alaskan communities, and particularly so among preteens. Methods: This study analyses data collected during baseline measurements of a 5-year NIH/NIDA-funded study entitled A Community Trial to Prevent Youth's Abuse of Harmful Legal Products in Alaska. Youth in 8 communities located throughout the state participated in a survey during the fall of 2009 to measure the prevalence and availability of harmful legal products (n=697. The goal of the analysis presented here is to compare the contextual factors of inhalant users and non-users in rural Alaskan communities. Results: As reported in national surveys of substance use among youth, participants in this study indicated using alcohol more than any other substance. Inhalants were the second-most common substance abused, higher than either cigarettes or marijuana. Lifetime use varied among demographic factors such as age, gender and ethnicity as well as contextual factors including academic performance, parent employment, household living situation and income. When compared to non-users, significantly larger proportions of participants reporting lifetime inhalant use indicated easy availability of inhalants in their home, school and retail outlets. Users were also significantly more likely than non-users to have consumed alcohol. Conclusion: Results of this study may inform the development of effective interventions in other rural communities.

  12. Is bad living better than good death? Impact of demographic and cultural factors on health state preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xuejing; Liu, Gordon Guoen; Luo, Nan; Li, Hongchao; Guan, Haijing; Xie, Feng

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the impact of demographic and cultural factors on health preferences among Chinese general population. The Chinese EQ-5D-5L valuation study was conducted between December 2012 and January 2013. A total of 1296 participants were recruited from the general public at Beijing, Chengdu, Guiyang, Nanjing, and Shenyang. Each participant was interviewed to measure preferences for ten EQ-5D-5L health states using composite time trade-off and seven pairs of states using discrete choice experiment (data were not included in this study). At the end of the interview, each participant was also asked to provide their demographic information and answers to two questions about their attitudes towards whether bad living is better than good death (LBD) and whether they believe in an afterlife. Generalized linear model and random effects logistic models were used to examine the impact of demographic and cultural factors on health preferences. Participants who had serious illness experience received college or higher education, or agree with LBD were more likely to value health states positively and have a narrower score range. Participants at Beijing were more likely to be non-traders, value health states positively, less likely to reach the lowest possible score, and have narrower score range compared with all other four cities after controlling for all other demographic and culture factors. Health state preference is significantly affected by factors beyond demographics. These factors should be considered in achieving a representative sample in valuation studies in China.

  13. Contributions of sociodemographic factors to criminal behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mundia L

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Lawrence Mundia, Rohani Matzin, Salwa Mahalle, Malai Hayati Hamid, Ratna Suriani Osman Psychological Studies and Human Development Academic Group, Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah Institute of Education, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei Abstract: We explored the extent to which prisoner sociodemographic variables (age, education, marital status, employment, and whether their parents were married or not influenced offending in 64 randomly selected Brunei inmates, comprising both sexes. A quantitative field survey design ideal for the type of participants used in a prison context was employed to investigate the problem. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis with backward elimination identified prisoner marital status and age groups as significantly related to offending. Furthermore, hierarchical multinomial logistic regression analysis with backward elimination indicated that prisoners’ age, primary level education, marital status, employment status, and parental marital status as significantly related to stealing offenses with high odds ratios. All 29 nonrecidivists were false negatives and predicted to reoffend upon release. Similarly, all 33 recidivists were projected to reoffend after release. Hierarchical binary logistic regression analysis revealed age groups (24–29 years and 30–35 years, employed prisoner, and primary level education as variables with high likelihood trends for reoffending. The results suggested that prisoner interventions (educational, counseling, and psychotherapy in Brunei should treat not only antisocial personality, psychopathy, and mental health problems but also sociodemographic factors. The study generated offending patterns, trends, and norms that may inform subsequent investigations on Brunei prisoners. Keywords: crimes, prisoner, sociodemographic, recidivism, interventions, Brunei

  14. Health-related and socio-demographic factors associated with frailty in the elderly: a systematic literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda de Carvalho Mello

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Frailty is a syndrome that leads to practical harm in the lives of elders, since it is related to increased risk of dependency, falls, hospitalization, institutionalization, and death. The objective of this systematic review was to identify the socio-demographic, psycho-behavioral, health-related, nutritional, and lifestyle factors associated with frailty in the elderly. A total of 4,183 studies published from 2001 to 2013 were detected in the databases, and 182 complete articles were selected. After a comprehensive reading and application of selection criteria, 35 eligible articles remained for analysis. The main factors associated with frailty were: age, female gender, black race/color, schooling, income, cardiovascular diseases, number of comorbidities/diseases, functional incapacity, poor self-rated health, depressive symptoms, cognitive function, body mass index, smoking, and alcohol use. Knowledge of the complexity of determinants of frailty can assist the formulation of measures for prevention and early intervention, thereby contributing to better quality of life for the elderly.

  15. Demographic, Behavioural and Normative Risk Factors for Gambling Problems Amongst Sports Bettors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hing, Nerilee; Russell, Alex M T; Vitartas, Peter; Lamont, Matthew

    2016-06-01

    Sports betting is growing exponentially, is heavily marketed and successfully targets young adult males. Associated gambling problems are increasing. Therefore, understanding risk factors for problem gambling amongst sports bettors is an increasingly important area of research to inform the appropriate design and targeting of public health and treatment interventions. This study aimed to identify demographic, behavioural and normative risk factors for gambling problems amongst sports bettors. An online survey of 639 Australian sports bettors using online, telephone and retail betting channels was conducted. Results indicated that vulnerable sports bettors for higher risk gambling are those who are young, male, single, educated, and employed full-time or a full-time student. Risk of problem gambling was also found to increase with greater frequency and expenditure on sports betting, greater diversity of gambling involvement, and with more impulsive responses to betting opportunities, including in-play live action betting. Normative influences from media advertising and from significant others were also associated with greater problem gambling risk. The results of this study can inform a suite of intervention, protection and treatment initiatives targeted especially at young male adults and adolescents that can help to limit the harm from this gambling form.

  16. Association of psychosocial and demographic factors with postpartum negative thoughts and appraisals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Pauline L; Holden, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    The impact of psychosocial and demographic factors on symptoms of postpartum depression remains unclear. This study aimed to explore whether particular maternal sociodemographic variables were associated with postpartum negative thoughts and negative appraisals. Data were collected from a community sample of 181 mothers with infants aged 0 to 7 months. Participants completed and returned anonymous questionnaires including the Postnatal Negative Thoughts Questionnaire (PNTQ) and a sociodemographic questionnaire. The PNTQ is a self-report scale to detect and measure postpartum negative cognitions. It consists of 2 factors: "baby- related and motherhood negative thoughts" (BRM-NT) and "appraisals of cognition, emotion and situation" (ACES). Analyses revealed that practical and emotional support and satisfaction with this support were related to low ACES scores, and mothers of infant boys were more likely to have high ACES scores (ie, more negative appraisals of their own thinking). Satisfaction with practical and emotional support was also related to low BRM-NT scores. Logistic regression analyses revealed that sex of infant predicted ACES scores, whereby having a boy predicted high ACES scores. In conclusion, this study found that postpartum negative thoughts and negative appraisals are correlated with the amount and satisfaction of support received, and having an infant boy was found to reliably predict a tendency to appraise thoughts negatively.

  17. Association of missing paternal demographics on infant birth certificates with perinatal risk factors for childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Erika R; Hawkins, Summer Sherburne; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Gillman, Matthew W; Taveras, Elsie M

    2016-07-14

    The role of fathers in the development of obesity in their offspring remains poorly understood. We evaluated associations of missing paternal demographic information on birth certificates with perinatal risk factors for childhood obesity. Data were from the Linked CENTURY Study, a database linking birth certificate and well-child visit data for 200,258 Massachusetts children from 1980-2008. We categorized participants based on the availability of paternal age, education, or race/ethnicity and maternal marital status on the birth certificate: (1) pregnancies missing paternal data; (2) pregnancies involving unmarried women with paternal data; and (3) pregnancies involving married women with paternal data. Using linear and logistic regression, we compared differences in smoking during pregnancy, gestational diabetes, birthweight, breastfeeding initiation, and ever recording a weight for length (WFL) ≥ the 95th percentile or crossing upwards ≥2 WFL percentiles between 0-24 months among the study groups. 11,989 (6.0 %) birth certificates were missing paternal data; 31,323 (15.6 %) mothers were unmarried. In adjusted analyses, missing paternal data was associated with lower birthweight (β -0.07 kg; 95 % CI: -0.08, -0.05), smoking during pregnancy (AOR 4.40; 95 % CI: 3.97, 4.87), non-initiation of breastfeeding (AOR 0.39; 95 % CI: 0.36, 0.42), and with ever having a WFL ≥ 95th percentile (AOR 1.10; 95 % CI: 1.01, 1.20). Similar associations were noted for pregnancies involving unmarried women with paternal data, but differences were less pronounced. Missing paternal data on the birth certificate is associated with perinatal risk factors for childhood obesity. Efforts to understand and reduce obesity risk factors in early life may need to consider paternal factors.

  18. PATIENT DEMOGRAPHIC, RISK FACTORS AND SEASONAL VARIATION IN ONSET OF STROKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. M. Kathyayani

    2016-10-01

    gender, smoking, uncontrolled systemic hypertension, elderly age, excessive alcohol consumption and hyperlipidaemia are major risk factors. Further, it showed high seasonal prevalence of stroke during winter season. With better understanding of demographic and risk factors, we can prevent the disease at an early stage and reduce the global burden of disease worldwide.

  19. Women's Career Success: A Factor Analytic Study of Contributing Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskill, LuAnn Ricketts

    1991-01-01

    A survey of 466 women employed in retailing received 205 responses identifying (1) factors influencing the success and advancement of women in retailing and (2) how those factors differ for women in upper versus middle positions. Upper-level executives placed more importance on ambition and abilities; midlevel executives credited opportunity and…

  20. Socio-demographic factors, comorbidity and diagnostic delay among women diagnosed with cervical, endometrial or ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robinson, Kirstine Magtengaard; Christensen, K B; Ottesen, B

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the association between socio-demographic factors, comorbidity and diagnostic delay among gynaecological cancer patients. A questionnaire was sent to 1052 women diagnosed with cervical, endometrial or ovarian cancer between October 2006 and December 2007 in Denmark. Long...... diagnosed with cervical and endometrial cancer as opposed to ovarian cancer, and with working as opposed to being retired. In conclusion, this study found that socio-demographic factors and comorbidity play a role in the probability of experiencing long delays. If delays in diagnosis are to be reduced...

  1. Demographic Clinical and Prognostic Factors of Primary Ovarian Adenocarcinomas of Serous and Clear Cell Histology-A Comparative Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnack, Tine H; Høgdall, Estrid; Nedergaard, Lotte;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare clinical demographic and prognostic factors as well as overall survival in a nationwide cohort of patients diagnosed with ovarian clear cell carcinoma (oCCC) and high grade ovarian serous adenocarcinoma (oSAC) during 2005 to 2013. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Population...... poorer among oCCC than oSAC cases in analyses restricted to stages III and IV (odds ratio, 1.87; 95% confidence interval, 1.35-2.61), whereas no difference between early stage oCCC and oSAC was observed. CONCLUSIONS: The study confirms that demographic features and risk factors differ between oCCC and o...

  2. Effects of socio-demographic, personality and medical factors on quality of life of postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieder-Huszla, Sylwia; Szkup, Małgorzata; Jurczak, Anna; Samochowiec, Agnieszka; Samochowiec, Jerzy; Stanisławska, Marzanna; Rotter, Iwona; Karakiewicz, Beata; Grochans, Elżbieta

    2014-06-26

    Numerous studies show that changes occurring in a woman's organism during menopause may lower her quality of life. This study involved 630 healthy postmenopausal women from Poland. Its purpose was to assess their quality of life in relation to socio-demographic variables, medical data and personality profiles. The authors used the Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) to assess quality of life, the NEO-Five Factor Inventory to measure personality traits, and the Blatt-Kupperman Menopausal Index to estimate severity of climacteric symptoms. The study demonstrated significant relationships between quality of life and variables such as: age, education, employment status, and the use of menopausal hormone therapy. An analysis of personality traits revealed correlations between the openness to experience scores and the quality of life within physical functioning, vitality, and mental health. Neuroticism, agreeableness and extroversion significantly correlated with all quality of life domains. (1) Age, education and employment status have significant effects on the selected quality of life domains after menopause. (2) Quality of life within the general health domain was assessed lower by MHT-users (Menopausal hormone theraphy (MHT)). (3) Health-related quality of life is also influenced by personality traits, which are relatively stable throughout life.

  3. Optimal Breast Biopsy Decision-Making Based on Mammographic Features and Demographic Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhatwal, Jagpreet; Alagoz, Oguzhan; Burnside, Elizabeth S

    2010-11-01

    Breast cancer is the most common non-skin cancer affecting women in the United States, where every year more than 20 million mammograms are performed. Breast biopsy is commonly performed on the suspicious findings on mammograms to confirm the presence of cancer. Currently, 700,000 biopsies are performed annually in the U.S.; 55%-85% of these biopsies ultimately are found to be benign breast lesions, resulting in unnecessary treatments, patient anxiety, and expenditures. This paper addresses the decision problem faced by radiologists: When should a woman be sent for biopsy based on her mammographic features and demographic factors? This problem is formulated as a finite-horizon discrete-time Markov decision process. The optimal policy of our model shows that the decision to biopsy should take the age of patient into account; particularly, an older patient's risk threshold for biopsy should be higher than that of a younger patient. When applied to the clinical data, our model outperforms radiologists in the biopsy decision-making problem. This study also derives structural properties of the model, including sufficiency conditions that ensure the existence of a control-limit type policy and nondecreasing control-limits with age.

  4. Demographic factors influencing educational placement of the hearing-impaired child with a cochlear implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yehudai, Noam; Tzach, Naama; Shpak, Talma; Most, Tova; Luntz, Michal

    2011-08-01

    To analyze educational placement settings of Israeli children with cochlear implants (CIs) and evaluate the prognostic influence of the following demographic variables on mainstreaming: age at implantation, experience with CI, socioeconomic status, ethnicity, and parents' educational level. Retrospective review. Tertiary referral center. The study population comprised 245 children with severe-to-profound hearing impairment and at least 1 year of experience with a unilateral CI. Mean age at implantation was 4.5 ± 3.9 years, and mean duration of CI use was 5.4 ± 2.8 years. Follow-up review and statistical analysis of available data on educational placement after cochlear implantation. Placement in mainstream education. Regular schools were attended by 89 children (36.3%) and special education schools by 156 (63.7%). Variables found to be significantly associated with mainstream educational placement were younger age at implantation, higher level of parental education, higher socioeconomic status, and ethnicity. Multivariate analysis using a logistic regression model revealed that the factor with the highest positive correlation with mainstreaming was parental education level. Our results show that parental education, a variable that the health system cannot control, significantly influences postimplantation results in term of educational placement and can thus limit the chances of implanted children to achieve mainstream placement even when identified and implanted at an early age.

  5. Effects of Socio-Demographic, Personality and Medical Factors on Quality of Life of Postmenopausal Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieder-Huszla, Sylwia; Szkup, Małgorzata; Jurczak, Anna; Samochowiec, Agnieszka; Samochowiec, Jerzy; Stanisławska, Marzanna; Rotter, Iwona; Karakiewicz, Beata; Grochans, Elżbieta

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies show that changes occurring in a woman’s organism during menopause may lower her quality of life. This study involved 630 healthy postmenopausal women from Poland. Its purpose was to assess their quality of life in relation to socio-demographic variables, medical data and personality profiles. The authors used the Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) to assess quality of life, the NEO-Five Factor Inventory to measure personality traits, and the Blatt-Kupperman Menopausal Index to estimate severity of climacteric symptoms. The study demonstrated significant relationships between quality of life and variables such as: age, education, employment status, and the use of menopausal hormone therapy. An analysis of personality traits revealed correlations between the openness to experience scores and the quality of life within physical functioning, vitality, and mental health. Neuroticism, agreeableness and extroversion significantly correlated with all quality of life domains. Conclusions: (1) Age, education and employment status have significant effects on the selected quality of life domains after menopause. (2) Quality of life within the general health domain was assessed lower by MHT-users (Menopausal hormone theraphy (MHT)). (3) Health-related quality of life is also influenced by personality traits, which are relatively stable throughout life. PMID:24972032

  6. Effects of Socio-Demographic, Personality and Medical Factors on Quality of Life of Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Wieder-Huszla

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies show that changes occurring in a woman’s organism during menopause may lower her quality of life. This study involved 630 healthy postmenopausal women from Poland. Its purpose was to assess their quality of life in relation to socio-demographic variables, medical data and personality profiles. The authors used the Short Form Health Survey (SF-36 to assess quality of life, the NEO-Five Factor Inventory to measure personality traits, and the Blatt-Kupperman Menopausal Index to estimate severity of climacteric symptoms. The study demonstrated significant relationships between quality of life and variables such as: age, education, employment status, and the use of menopausal hormone therapy. An analysis of personality traits revealed correlations between the openness to experience scores and the quality of life within physical functioning, vitality, and mental health. Neuroticism, agreeableness and extroversion significantly correlated with all quality of life domains. Conclusions: (1 Age, education and employment status have significant effects on the selected quality of life domains after menopause. (2 Quality of life within the general health domain was assessed lower by MHT-users (Menopausal hormone theraphy (MHT. (3 Health-related quality of life is also influenced by personality traits, which are relatively stable throughout life.

  7. Obesity, socio-demographic and attitudinal factors associated with sugar-sweetened beverage consumption: Australian evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Christina M; Meng, Xingqiong; Hendrie, Gilly A; Hendrie, Delia; Sullivan, Denise; Pratt, Iain S; Kerr, Deborah A; Scott, Jane A

    2016-02-01

    To explore factors associated with sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption in Australia. Pooled data from Western Australian (WA) and South Australian (SA) 2009 and 2012 nutrition monitoring survey series interviews of 2,832 WA and 10,764 SA adults aged 18 to 64 years. Demographic data were collected and independent samples t-test, analysis of variance, multiple logistic regression performed. Obese participants were more likely to consume SSB than healthy weight participants (SA: OR=1.77; 95% CI 1.56-2.02; WA: OR=1.53; 1.05-2.24). SA obese participants consumed more SSB per day (152.0 mL; 140.7-163.5) than healthy weight (80.1 mL; 73.2-88.2; pfood (4.55; 2.71-7.64) and bought meals away from home the day prior (1.55; 1.15-2.09) were more likely to consume SSB. SA adults rating their health highest were less likely to consume SSB (0.62; 0.54-0.72). SSB consumers are more likely to be male, have little interest in health, or have purchased a meal away from home. Increasing awareness of the adverse health effects of consumption may be a first step in curbing SSB intake. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.

  8. Prevalence and socio-demographic factors affecting anaemia in pregnant women of Dibrugarh District, Assam, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrani Gogoi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anaemia is the most common nutritional deficiency observed globally. Anaemia worsens during pregnancy leading to adverse maternal and fetal outcome. Dibrugarh district has the highest maternal mortality in the country, one of the major factor being anaemia during pregnancy. Aims & Objectives: To assess the prevalence and socio-demographic determinants of anaemia in pregnant women of Dibrugarh District. Material & Methods: A community based, cross-sectional study was conducted in a block selected randomly. Study period was for the period from May’2015 to February’2016. Study sample included 290 participants. Results: Prevalence of anaemia among study participants was found to be 73.1%. (Mild 10%, moderate 43.1 % and severe 20%. Mean haemoglobin of study subjects was 9.07±2.26 g/dl. Average age of the study subjects was 23.24±4. Majority (27.2% had their education upto primary school level and belong to class IV socioeconomic status. Univariate analysis and multiple logistic regression analysis shows educational qualification, socioeconomic status and type of housing are statistically associated with anaemia during pregnancy. Conclusion: Anaemia is rampant in the community needing urgent action to prevent morbidity amongst both mother and child

  9. Demographic and ecological risk factors for human influenza A virus infections in rural Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root, Elisabeth Dowling; Agustian, Dwi; Kartasasmita, Cissy; Uyeki, Timothy M; Simões, Eric A F

    2017-09-01

    Indonesia has the world's highest reported mortality for human infections with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A(H5N1) virus. Indonesia is an agriculturally driven country where human-animal mixing is common and provides a unique environment for zoonotic influenza A virus transmission. To identify potential demographic and ecological risk factors for human infection with seasonal influenza A viruses in rural Indonesia, a population-based study was conducted in Cileunyi and Soreang subdistricts near Bandung in western Java from 2008 to 2011. Passive influenza surveillance with RT-PCR confirmation of influenza A viral RNA in respiratory specimens was utilized for case ascertainment. A population census and mapping were utilized for population data collection. The presence of influenza A(H3N2) and A(H1N1)pdm09 virus infections in a household was modeled using Generalized Estimating Equations. Each additional child aged influenza A virus infections in rural Indonesian households with young children and poultry. © 2017 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Demographic and clinical factors associated with response to smallpox vaccine in preimmunized volunteers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Bossi

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: In March 2003, the French Ministry of Health implemented a program on preparedness and response to a biological attack using smallpox as weapon. This program included the establishment of a preoutbreak national team that could be revaccinated against smallpox. OBJECTIVE: To identify demographic and clinical factors associated with vaccination success defined as the presence of a pustule at the inoculation site at day 8 (days 7-9, with an undiluted vaccinia virus derived from a Lister strain among preimmunized volunteers. VOLUNTEERS AND METHODS: From March 2003 to November 2006, we have studied prospectively 226 eligible volunteers. Demographic data were recorded for each volunteer (age, sex, number of previously smallpox vaccinations and date of the last vaccination. Smallpox vaccine adverse reactions were diagnosed on the basis of clinical examination performed at days 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 after revaccination. RESULTS: A total of 226 volunteers (sex ratio H/F = 2.7 were revaccinated. Median age was 45 years (range: 27-63 yrs. All volunteers completed follow-up. Median number of vaccinations before revaccination was 2 (range: 1-8. The median delay between time of the study and the last vaccination was 29 years (range; 18-60 yrs. Sixty-one volunteers (27% experienced one (n = 40 or more (n = 21 minor side effects during the 2-14 days after revaccination. Successful vaccination was noted in 216/226 volunteers (95.6% at day 8 and the median of the pustule diameter was 5 mm (range: 1-20 mm. Size of the pustule at day 8 was correlated with age (p = 0.03 and with the presence of axillary adenopathy after revaccination (p = 0.007. Sex, number of prior vaccinations, delay between the last vaccination and revaccination, and local or systemic side effects with the exception of axillary adenopathy, were not correlated with the size of the pustule at day 8. CONCLUSIONS: Previously vaccinated volunteers can be successfully revaccinated with the

  11. Prevalence of disability and associated factors in Dabat Health and Demographic Surveillance System site, northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chala, Mulugeta Bayisa; Mekonnen, Solomon; Andargie, Gashaw; Kebede, Yigzaw; Yitayal, Mezgebu; Alemu, Kassahun; Awoke, Tadesse; Wubeshet, Mamo; Azmeraw, Temesgen; Birku, Melkamu; Tariku, Amare; Gebeyehu, Abebaw; Shimeka, Alemayehu; Gizaw, Zemichael

    2017-10-02

    Despite the high burden of disability in Ethiopia, little is known about it, particularly in the study area. Hence, this study aimed to investigate the prevalence and factors associated with disability at Dabat Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) site, northwest Ethiopia. A population-based study was conducted from October to December 2014 at Dabat HDSS site. A total of 67,395 people were included in the study. The multivariable binary logistic regression analysis was employed to identify factors associated with disability. The Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) with a 95% Confidence Interval (CI) was estimated to show the strength of association. A p-value of disability giving a prevalence rate of 1.82%, of which, about 39% was related to a vision disability. The high odds of disability were observed among the elderly (≥50 years) [AOR: 4.49; 95% CI: 1.95, 10.33], severely food in-secured [AOR: 2.11; 95% CI: 1.59, 2.80], and separated marital status [AOR: 7.52; 95% CI: 1.18, 47.84]. While having a paid job [AOR: 0.46; 95% CI: 0.28, 0.77], being in the richest quintile [AOR: 0.55; 95% CI: 0.41, 0.75], and high engagement in work-related physical activities [AOR: 0.36; 95% CI: 0.27, 0.49] were inversely associated with the disability. Disability is a major public health problem, and the burden is noticeable in the study area. Vision disability is the highest of all disabilities. Thus, efforts must be made on educating the public about disability and injury prevention. Measures that reduce disability should target the elderly, the poorer and the unemployed segment of the population.

  12. Dietary patterns of French adults: associations with demographic, socio-economic and behavioural factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertin, M; Touvier, M; Dubuisson, C; Dufour, A; Havard, S; Lafay, L; Volatier, J-L; Lioret, S

    2016-04-01

    Although the French eating model may differ from those of other countries, no studies to date have investigated dietary patterns in a wide age range of adults and at the national level. We aimed to identify dietary patterns (DP) of French adults and assess their associations with demographic, socio-economic and behavioural factors. The present study included 2624 adults (1087 men, 1537 women) aged 18-79 years from the cross-sectional national French INCA2 dietary survey. Dietary data were collected using a 7-day estimated food record. Clusters of DP were derived using principal component analysis and clustering, conjointly. Age-adjusted logistic regression analyses were used to investigate the association between DP and correlates. Five DP were identified, namely 'traditional', 'prudent', 'diversified', 'processed' and 'sandwiches'. Men were more likely to follow a traditional diet and women the 'prudent' pattern. Members of the 'processed' and 'sandwiches' patterns were younger compared to non-members. Healthier dietary patterns were overall positively associated with a higher socio-economic position, healthier behaviours (in terms of sedentary behaviours and smoking status) and lower body mass index. Under-reporting of energy intake, restrictive diet to lose weight and dietary supplement consumption were also related to specific DP, although differentially in men and women. Associations with contextual factors (i.e. household composition, agglomeration size and region) were also observed. The identification of adults' dietary patterns and associated behaviours (all modifiable) is important for the conceptualisation of multi-behavioural programs. The additional information on social and environmental correlates is also essential for targeting the most vulnerable population groups in the context of such public health interventions. © 2015 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  13. The prevalence of substance use among adolescents and its correlation with social and demographic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakić Dušica B.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Backround/Aim. Adolescence is the period of greatest risk of starting to use substances: cigarette smoking, alcohol and illicit drugs. In the first decade of this millennium substance use among adolescents has increased. The aim of this study was to explore the prevalence of substances use among adolescents and its correlation with social and demographic factors. Methods. The study was conducted among adolescents in Novi Sad during 2010-2011 and included 594 conveniently selected adolescents (275 male and 319 female, aged 15-19 years. A special questionnaire was used and statistical analysis performed in SPSS17. The correlation between parameters was evaluated by the Pearson correlation method and frequency differences were analysed using χ2 test and starting level was p < 0.05. Results. The prevalence of substance use was statistically higher in males. Cigarettes were smoked daily by 21.45% males and 15.67% females (p < 0.01, alcohol was consumed by 81.6% males and 69.11% females (p < 0.001 and illicit drugs were used by 13.65% males and 8.30% females (p < 0.05. There was a positive correlation between smoking cigarettes and alcohol consumption, but negative between smoking cigarettes and the use of illicit drugs (p < 0.01. The prevalence of substance use was statistically higher among adolescents with poor achievement in school (p < 0.01, who lived in a broken home (illicit drugs p < 0.01 and who had more pocket money (cigarette smoking p < 0.01, and alcohol consumption p < 0.5. Conclusion. Stable family, lower amount of pocket money weekly and good school performance are protective factors in prevention of substances use among adolescents.

  14. nf2 contributions to fermionic four-loop form factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Roman N.; Smirnov, Alexander V.; Smirnov, Vladimir A.; Steinhauser, Matthias

    2017-07-01

    We compute the four-loop contributions to the photon quark and Higgs quark form factors involving two closed fermion loops. We present analytical results for all nonplanar master integrals of the two nonplanar integral families which enter our calculation.

  15. Assessment of factors contributing to flood disaster in Ibadan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of factors contributing to flood disaster in Ibadan Metropolis: Implication for environmental health education. ... dumping of refuse inside waterways, the role of environmental health officers and level of adherence to the city master ...

  16. Frequency of pediatric medication administration errors and contributing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan, Suzan; Kocaman, Gulseren; Ozturk, Candan; Seren, Seyda

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the frequency of pediatric medication administration errors and contributing factors. This research used the undisguised observation method and Critical Incident Technique. Errors and contributing factors were classified through the Organizational Accident Model. Errors were made in 36.5% of the 2344 doses that were observed. The most frequent errors were those associated with administration at the wrong time. According to the results of this study, errors arise from problems within the system.

  17. Socio-Demographic Factors Affecting Levels of Cultural and Non-Cultural Prejudice: Comparing Korean, Chinese, and Japanese College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hyun Sook; Jung, Sun Young; Lee, Jeeyon

    2017-01-01

    This study examined how socio-demographic factors related to the levels of cultural and non-cultural prejudice among college students from Korea, China, and Japan. We used data collected from the Asian Value Survey. The main findings are as follows. First, Chinese students showed the lowest levels of cultural and non-cultural prejudice. Second,…

  18. Socio-Demographic and Practice-Oriented Factors Related to Proficiency in Problem Solving: A Lifelong Learning Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjardins, Richard; Ederer, Peer

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the relative importance of different socio-demographic and practice-oriented factors that are related to proficiency in problem solving in technology-rich environments (PSTREs) and by extension may be related to complex problem solving (CPS). The empirical analysis focuses on the proficiency measurements of PSTRE made…

  19. An Analysis of the Impact of Demographic, Structural, Student, and Financial Factors on Texas High School Mathematics Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Alisa

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships of demographic (indicators describing student characteristics), structural (indicators describing school characteristics), student (indicators of student academic achievement), and financial (indicators of instructional expenditures) factors to student mathematics achievement. A sample (n…

  20. Socio-Demographic and Practice-Oriented Factors Related to Proficiency in Problem Solving: A Lifelong Learning Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjardins, Richard; Ederer, Peer

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the relative importance of different socio-demographic and practice-oriented factors that are related to proficiency in problem solving in technology-rich environments (PSTREs) and by extension may be related to complex problem solving (CPS). The empirical analysis focuses on the proficiency measurements of PSTRE made…

  1. The Relationship among Principals' Emotional Intelligence Skills with Respect to School Accountability Ratings and Selected Demographic Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labby, Sandra A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship among principals' emotional intelligence skills, school accountability ratings, and selected demographic factors. Method: The sample was comprised of Texas public school principals from elementary, middle school/junior high, and high schools and their school accountability…

  2. Goodenough-Harris Test Estimates of Intellectual Maturity of Youths 12-17 Years: Demographic and Socioeconomic Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Dale B.; Pinder, Glenn D.

    The results of a modified version of the Goodenough-Harris Drawing Test are presented in relation to selected demographic and socioeconomic factors as they affect youths aged 12-17 years in the noninstitutionalized population of the United States. Findings are based on data gathered on a sample of 6,768 adolescents who participated in the Health…

  3. Effects of Demographic Characteristics, Educational Background, and Supporting Factors on ICT Readiness of Technical and Vocational Teachers in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alazzam, Abu-Obaideh; Bakar, Ab Rahim; Hamzah, Ramlah; Asimiran, S.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine ICT readiness and the effects of demographic characteristics, educational background, and support factors on the ICT readiness of technical and vocational teachers in Malaysia. The questionnaire was administered to 329 technical and vocational teachers who are teaching engineering subjects in Malaysian…

  4. Physical activity levels and associated socio-demographic factors in Bangladeshi adults: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moniruzzaman, Mohammad; Ahmed, M S A Mansur; Zaman, Mohammad Mostafa

    2017-01-11

    Low level of physical activity (PA) has become an important public health problem even in low-income countries. The objectives of this study were to measure PA levels, determine the prevalence of low PA and identify socio-demographic factors associated with it in Bangladeshi adults. Data from 792 (urban, 395; rural, 397) Bangladeshi adults (25-64 years) were included in this population-based cross-sectional study conducted in 2011. Global Physical Activity Questionnaire version 2 (GPAQ-2) was used to measure PA. The metabolic equivalent task (MET) in minutes per week was calculated to determine total PA. Participants were categorized into low, moderate and high PA groups. Logistic regression was used to assess socio-demographic factors associated with low level of PA. Median MET-minute of total PA per week was almost double in the rural area (1720) than the urban area (960). The overall prevalence of low PA was 50.3% (95% CI: 46.8-53.8), urban 59.5% (54.7-64.3) and rural 41.9% (37.0-46.8). Women in general were more inactive (women 63.1% [58.3-67.9], men 39.3% [34.6-44.0]). The main contributions to total PA were from work (urban 40.0%, rural 77.0%) and active commute (57.0%, 21.0%). Leisure-time PA represented a very small proportion (<3.0%). Multiple logistic regressions found a significant association of urban residence (OR = 2.2; 95% CI: 1.5-3.2), women (2.1; 1.4-3.9), oldest age group 55-64 years (15.6; 7.5-32.2) compared to youngest age group 25-34 years, graduation or further education (8.6; 4.1-17.7), and higher socio-economic class (2.4; 1.4-4.2) compared to poor with insufficient PA. This study identifies low PA in a rural and urban population in Bangladesh and that further large-scale population studies are warranted.

  5. CDC Kerala 12: Socio-demographic factors among children (2-6 y) with autism--a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Babu; Padmam, M S Razeena; Nair, M K C; Leena, M L; Russell, Paul Swamidhas Sudhakar

    2014-12-01

    To compare the socio-demographic factors among children between 2 and 6 y of age with autism and a control group of normal children. One hundred forty three confirmed cases of 2-6 y-old children with autism, attending autism clinic of Child Development Centre, who had a CARS score of more than 30 were included in the study. Two hundred normal children in the same age group were recruited from the well-baby/immunization clinic of SAT Hospital, Thiruvananthapuram. Data was collected using a structured pre-piloted questionnaire consisting of 11 socio-demographic possible risk factors. The multivariate analysis on socio-demographic characteristics as possible risk factors for autism has shown that (i) upper and upper middle socioeconomic status (OR: 7.13; CI: 3.26-15.57) and (ii) male gender (OR: 3.95; CI: 2.22-7.04) were significant risk factors for autism, whereas place of residence, rural (OR: 0.41; CI: 0.24-0.68) is a protective factor. This case control study involving 143 children between 2 and 6 y with autism as per CARS criteria and a control group of 200 normal children has shown that upper and upper middle socioeconomic status and (ii) male gender are significant risk factors for autism, whereas place of residence, rule is a protective factor.

  6. The Relationship Between Demographic Factors and Prevalence of 10 Healthy Lifestyle Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmut Kilic

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Lifestyle preferences are closely associated with cardiovascular disease and all deaths. The aim of this study was to establish the relationship between demographic factors and prevalence of 10 healthy lifestyle behaviors (HLSB in adults. Material and Method: This is a cross-sectional study. The study was conducted on 1815 adults living in the central province of Yozgat, in 2011. The data was collected via questionnaire from, prepared by the researchers based on the literature, by filling through the interviewer. Data were analyzed by binary logistic regression analysis. Results: In adults, determination of 10 HLSBs were more common seen; not alcohol intake, within 2 years blood pressure measured, not smoking, within 5 years cholesterol, and within 3 years blood sugar measured ( 91.0, 78.2, 67.0, 56.9, 54.8% respectively, and the lowest rates were seen sufficient exercise, restraining salt and fat intake, adequate fruit and vegetable consumption, and have a normal body mass index (23.7, 26.4, 29.6, 30.0, 35.6% respectively. While 22.5% of the participants have three or fewer HLSBs, 20.8% had seven and above HLSBs. With any chronic disease ones, female, the age of older ones, high levels of education and economic ones have higher rates of HLSBs. Discussion: To health promotion, %u201Chealthy lifestyle behaviors%u201D should be followed by health personnel who working in family health centers, and it should be focused on this subject by the public spotlight, the health services of school and occupational as well as.

  7. Demographic Histories, Isolation and Social Factors as Determinants of the Genetic Structure of Alpine Linguistic Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coia, Valentina; Capocasa, Marco; Anagnostou, Paolo; Pascali, Vincenzo; Scarnicci, Francesca; Boschi, Ilaria; Battaggia, Cinzia; Crivellaro, Federica; Ferri, Gianmarco; Alù, Milena; Brisighelli, Francesca; Busby, George B. J.; Capelli, Cristian; Maixner, Frank; Cipollini, Giovanna; Viazzo, Pier Paolo; Zink, Albert; Destro Bisol, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Great European mountain ranges have acted as barriers to gene flow for resident populations since prehistory and have offered a place for the settlement of small, and sometimes culturally diverse, communities. Therefore, the human groups that have settled in these areas are worth exploring as an important potential source of diversity in the genetic structure of European populations. In this study, we present new high resolution data concerning Y chromosomal variation in three distinct Alpine ethno-linguistic groups, Italian, Ladin and German. Combining unpublished and literature data on Y chromosome and mitochondrial variation, we were able to detect different genetic patterns. In fact, within and among population diversity values observed vary across linguistic groups, with German and Italian speakers at the two extremes, and seem to reflect their different demographic histories. Using simulations we inferred that the joint effect of continued genetic isolation and reduced founding group size may explain the apportionment of genetic diversity observed in all groups. Extending the analysis to other continental populations, we observed that the genetic differentiation of Ladins and German speakers from Europeans is comparable or even greater to that observed for well known outliers like Sardinian and Basques. Finally, we found that in south Tyroleans, the social practice of Geschlossener Hof, a hereditary norm which might have favored male dispersal, coincides with a significant intra-group diversity for mtDNA but not for Y chromosome, a genetic pattern which is opposite to those expected among patrilocal populations. Together with previous evidence regarding the possible effects of “local ethnicity” on the genetic structure of German speakers that have settled in the eastern Italian Alps, this finding suggests that taking socio-cultural factors into account together with geographical variables and linguistic diversity may help unveil some yet to be understood

  8. Demographic histories, isolation and social factors as determinants of the genetic structure of Alpine linguistic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coia, Valentina; Capocasa, Marco; Anagnostou, Paolo; Pascali, Vincenzo; Scarnicci, Francesca; Boschi, Ilaria; Battaggia, Cinzia; Crivellaro, Federica; Ferri, Gianmarco; Alù, Milena; Brisighelli, Francesca; Busby, George B J; Capelli, Cristian; Maixner, Frank; Cipollini, Giovanna; Viazzo, Pier Paolo; Zink, Albert; Destro Bisol, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Great European mountain ranges have acted as barriers to gene flow for resident populations since prehistory and have offered a place for the settlement of small, and sometimes culturally diverse, communities. Therefore, the human groups that have settled in these areas are worth exploring as an important potential source of diversity in the genetic structure of European populations. In this study, we present new high resolution data concerning Y chromosomal variation in three distinct Alpine ethno-linguistic groups, Italian, Ladin and German. Combining unpublished and literature data on Y chromosome and mitochondrial variation, we were able to detect different genetic patterns. In fact, within and among population diversity values observed vary across linguistic groups, with German and Italian speakers at the two extremes, and seem to reflect their different demographic histories. Using simulations we inferred that the joint effect of continued genetic isolation and reduced founding group size may explain the apportionment of genetic diversity observed in all groups. Extending the analysis to other continental populations, we observed that the genetic differentiation of Ladins and German speakers from Europeans is comparable or even greater to that observed for well known outliers like Sardinian and Basques. Finally, we found that in south Tyroleans, the social practice of Geschlossener Hof, a hereditary norm which might have favored male dispersal, coincides with a significant intra-group diversity for mtDNA but not for Y chromosome, a genetic pattern which is opposite to those expected among patrilocal populations. Together with previous evidence regarding the possible effects of "local ethnicity" on the genetic structure of German speakers that have settled in the eastern Italian Alps, this finding suggests that taking socio-cultural factors into account together with geographical variables and linguistic diversity may help unveil some yet to be understood

  9. Demographic histories, isolation and social factors as determinants of the genetic structure of Alpine linguistic groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Coia

    Full Text Available Great European mountain ranges have acted as barriers to gene flow for resident populations since prehistory and have offered a place for the settlement of small, and sometimes culturally diverse, communities. Therefore, the human groups that have settled in these areas are worth exploring as an important potential source of diversity in the genetic structure of European populations. In this study, we present new high resolution data concerning Y chromosomal variation in three distinct Alpine ethno-linguistic groups, Italian, Ladin and German. Combining unpublished and literature data on Y chromosome and mitochondrial variation, we were able to detect different genetic patterns. In fact, within and among population diversity values observed vary across linguistic groups, with German and Italian speakers at the two extremes, and seem to reflect their different demographic histories. Using simulations we inferred that the joint effect of continued genetic isolation and reduced founding group size may explain the apportionment of genetic diversity observed in all groups. Extending the analysis to other continental populations, we observed that the genetic differentiation of Ladins and German speakers from Europeans is comparable or even greater to that observed for well known outliers like Sardinian and Basques. Finally, we found that in south Tyroleans, the social practice of Geschlossener Hof, a hereditary norm which might have favored male dispersal, coincides with a significant intra-group diversity for mtDNA but not for Y chromosome, a genetic pattern which is opposite to those expected among patrilocal populations. Together with previous evidence regarding the possible effects of "local ethnicity" on the genetic structure of German speakers that have settled in the eastern Italian Alps, this finding suggests that taking socio-cultural factors into account together with geographical variables and linguistic diversity may help unveil some yet

  10. Prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms in hospital nurse technicians and licensed practical nurses: associations with demographic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta F. C. Moreira

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective : This cross-sectional study aimed at analyzing: 1. the main musculoskeletal symptoms (MSS presented by hospital nursing workers and; 2. personal, occupational, and health factors related to MSS among them. Method : Two questionnaires were filled in by 245 nurse technicians (NTs and licensed practical nurses (LPNs (response rate 95% associated with direct patient care sectors from a hospital. These questionnaires were: the standardized version of the Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire (NMQ and one including questions on 15 demographic independent variables potentially related to outcomes from the NMQ. Univariate analyses and binary logistic regression analyses were performed to identify which variables would explain the occurrence of MSS in different body regions. Results: The low back (57%, shoulder (52%, and neck (48% were identified as the most affected regions. The logistic regression analysis showed that low back symptoms in the last 12 months were significantly associated with LPN activities (OR=2.36; CI=1.24-4.5 and previous sick leave due to MSS (OR=5.97; CI=1.2-29.1. Smoking was significantly associated with symptoms in the low back (OR=2.77; CI=1.13-6.8 and thoracic spine (OR=2.37; CI=1.04-5.40. Physical exercise showed a protective effect on the cervical spine (OR=0.42; CI=0.23-0.77. Previous sick leave was significantly associated with pain in the knees (OR=4.24; CI=1.33-13.5 and in the upper limbs (OR=5.36; CI=1.07-26.7. Conclusions: The nursing workers who were evaluated presented a high prevalence of MSS. Previous history of sick leave was strongly associated with the presence of symptoms in various body regions. These results indicate the need for preventive programs in the hospital environment in order to control more severe MSS in nursing professionals.

  11. The Contributing Factors of Pragmatic Failure in China's ELT Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Qi-yuan

    2013-01-01

    Pragmatic failure is the inability to understand what is meant by what is said, which can often lead to misunderstanding or confusion in cross-cultural communication. For this reason, the present article explores the contributing factors of pragmatic failure in China's ELT Classrooms. According to the exploration, the following factors are found…

  12. Demographic, socioeconomic, and behavioral factors affecting patterns of tooth decay in the permanent dentition: principal components and factor analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, John R; Polk, Deborah E; Feingold, Eleanor; Wang, Xiaojing; Cuenco, Karen T; Weeks, Daniel E; DeSensi, Rebecca S; Weyant, Robert J; Crout, Richard; McNeil, Daniel W; Marazita, Mary L

    2013-08-01

    Dental caries of the permanent dentition is a multifactorial disease resulting from the complex interplay of endogenous and environmental risk factors. The disease is not easily quantitated due to the innumerable possible combinations of carious lesions across individual tooth surfaces of the permanent dentition. Global measures of decay, such as the DMFS index (which was developed for surveillance applications), may not be optimal for studying the epidemiology of dental caries because they ignore the distinct patterns of decay across the dentition. We hypothesize that specific risk factors may manifest their effects on specific tooth surfaces leading to patterns of decay that can be identified and studied. In this study, we utilized two statistical methods of extracting patterns of decay from surface-level caries data to create novel phenotypes with which to study the risk factors affecting dental caries. Intra-oral dental examinations were performed on 1068 participants aged 18-75 years to assess dental caries. The 128 tooth surfaces of the permanent dentition were scored as carious or not and used as input for principal components analysis (PCA) and factor analysis (FA), two methods of identifying underlying patterns without a priori knowledge of the patterns. Demographic (age, sex, birth year, race/ethnicity, and educational attainment), anthropometric (height, body mass index, waist circumference), endogenous (saliva flow), and environmental (tooth brushing frequency, home water source, and home water fluoride) risk factors were tested for association with the caries patterns identified by PCA and FA, as well as DMFS, for comparison. The ten strongest patterns (i.e. those that explain the most variation in the data set) extracted by PCA and FA were considered. The three strongest patterns identified by PCA reflected (i) global extent of decay (i.e. comparable to DMFS index), (ii) pit and fissure surface caries and (iii) smooth surface caries, respectively. The

  13. Prevalence of depressive symptoms and associated socio-demographic factors among recruits during military training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin Zubair, Usama; Mansoor, S; Rana, M H

    2015-06-01

    Military training is a stressful and unusual event. It may predispose individuals towards mental health problems. The stress of military training has been shown to result in depressive symptoms that can potentially influence the combat ability of a soldier. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of depressive symptoms among recruits during military training in Northern Pakistan and analyse the associated socio-demographic factors. The study was carried out at the Mujahid Force Center, Bhimber, in Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJK) in the North of Pakistan. This is one of the training institutes of the Pakistan Army. The sample population comprised of 313 adult men undergoing military training at Bhimber AJK. General Health Questionnaire 12 (GHQ-12) was used to screen for any psychiatric illness, and those with a score>4 were administered the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) to record the presence and severity of depressive symptoms. Age, service type (general duty soldier, cook or clerk), education, level of family income, marital status, tobacco smoking, use of naswar (tobacco based substance), worrying about future and social support status were correlated with depressive symptoms to evaluate the association of these factors with depression in the study population. Out of 313 recruits screened with GHQ-12, 232 were found to have a score of 4 or more as an indicator of the presence of psychiatric morbidity, and had the BDI administered. Of these 232 recruits, 31.5% had no depressive symptoms, 41.4% had mild, 17.7% had moderate and 9.5% had severe depressive symptoms. With logistic regression, we found significant correlation among depressive symptoms and level of family income, worrying about future and lack of social support. Prevalence of depressive symptoms was high among recruits. Special attention should be paid to recruits from low socioeconomic background and those who lack social support and who worry about the future. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group

  14. 人口因素、中国经济增长与社会发展%Demographic Factor, Chinese Economic Growth and Social Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王新军; 赵静

    2012-01-01

      中国的人口转变不仅带来了人口自然增长率的下降,同时引起了人口年龄结构的巨大改变,总抚养比的降低为我国经济及社会发展带来了“人口红利”.以中国人口转变过程为背景,讨论了不同阶段人口结构的动态变化对经济增长的作用大小,并检验了其影响渠道及作用条件,发现人口因素的发展变化对我国1996—2010年经济增长率的相对贡献率达到20.18%,但这一过程的实现需要依赖良好的制度和政策环境.%  Demographic transition in China has not only brought the decline of natural population growth rate, but also caused dramatic changes in the population aging structure, and the declining total dependency ratio created the demographic window for Chinese Economy. Based on China's demographic transition, this paper discusses the economic implications of demographic change, and verifies its influence channel and the necessary policy and institutional context. The result indicates that the overall demographic factors contributed 20.18% to China's annual economic growth rate from 1996 to 2010, which greatly depended on the implementation of favorable economic and social environment.

  15. European Clearinghouse - Contributing Factors to Incidents Related to Reactivity Management

    OpenAIRE

    BRUYNOOGHE Christiane; NOEL MARC

    2009-01-01

    In this paper shortcomings in reactivity management reported to the IAEA Incident Reporting System in the period 1981-2008 are investigated and contributing factors to reactivity management incidents are analysed. The aim of theworkwas to identify the initiating factors and associated root causes. Five of the seven factors identified for all events were present in the 1999 Shika-1 event where criticality has been unexpectedly reached and maintained during fifteen minutes. Most of the events r...

  16. The Association of Socio-Demographic Status, Lifestyle Factors and Dietary Patterns with Total Urinary Phthalates in Australian Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Peter Y.; Wittert, Gary A.; Taylor, Anne W.; Martin, Sean A.; Milne, Robert W.; Shi, Zumin

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the associations between socio-demographic status, lifestyle factors, dietary patterns and urinary total phthalate concentration in a cohort of South Australian men. Method We randomly selected 1527 males aged 39 to 84 from wave two of the Men Androgen Inflammation Lifestyle Environment and Stress (MAILES) study. Total phthalate concentration was examined in fasting morning urine samples. Socio-demographic and lifestyle factors were assessed by questionnaire. Food intake was assessed by food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Dietary patterns were constructed using factor analysis. Results Total phthalates were detected in 99.6% of the urine samples. The overall geometric mean (95% CI) of total phthalate concentration was 112.4 (107.5–117.5) ng/mL. The least square geometric means (LSGMs) of total phthalate concentration were significantly higher among people who were obese (127.8 ng/mL), consuming less than two serves fruit per day (125.7 ng/mL) and drinking more than one can (375mL) of carbonated soft drink per day (131.9 ng/mL). Two dietary patterns were identified: a prudent dietary pattern and a western dietary pattern. Both the western dietary pattern (p = 0.002) and multiple lifestyle risk factors including smoking, obesity, insufficient physical activity and the highest quartile of the western dietary pattern (psocio-demographic status. Conclusion Phthalate exposure is ubiquitous and positively associated with lifestyle risk factors in urban dwelling Australian men. PMID:25875472

  17. The association of socio-demographic status, lifestyle factors and dietary patterns with total urinary phthalates in Australian men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Peter Y; Wittert, Gary A; Taylor, Anne W; Martin, Sean A; Milne, Robert W; Shi, Zumin

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the associations between socio-demographic status, lifestyle factors, dietary patterns and urinary total phthalate concentration in a cohort of South Australian men. We randomly selected 1527 males aged 39 to 84 from wave two of the Men Androgen Inflammation Lifestyle Environment and Stress (MAILES) study. Total phthalate concentration was examined in fasting morning urine samples. Socio-demographic and lifestyle factors were assessed by questionnaire. Food intake was assessed by food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Dietary patterns were constructed using factor analysis. Total phthalates were detected in 99.6% of the urine samples. The overall geometric mean (95% CI) of total phthalate concentration was 112.4 (107.5-117.5) ng/mL. The least square geometric means (LSGMs) of total phthalate concentration were significantly higher among people who were obese (127.8 ng/mL), consuming less than two serves fruit per day (125.7 ng/mL) and drinking more than one can (375mL) of carbonated soft drink per day (131.9 ng/mL). Two dietary patterns were identified: a prudent dietary pattern and a western dietary pattern. Both the western dietary pattern (p = 0.002) and multiple lifestyle risk factors including smoking, obesity, insufficient physical activity and the highest quartile of the western dietary pattern (psocio-demographic status. Phthalate exposure is ubiquitous and positively associated with lifestyle risk factors in urban dwelling Australian men.

  18. Comparison of parental socio-demographic factors in children and adolescents presenting with internalizing and externalizing disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, Nazanin; Roberts, Nasreen; DeGrace, Elizabeth

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to: (a) examine parental socio-demographic factors in children and adolescents referred to an outpatient service for internalizing and externalizing disorders, and (b) compare the demographic variables and diagnoses for the two diagnostic groups. Parents of all children who were referred to the child and adolescent outpatient service were asked to participate. Following their informed consent, they completed a socio-demographic questionnaire for themselves and a Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL) for their child. The CBCL scores and the diagnoses assigned by the psychiatrists were then recorded for each child. Diagnoses were classified as internalizing or externalizing based on the primary DSM-IV diagnosis assigned by the psychiatrists. Data for the two groups were compared for study variables using Pearson correlation, t-tests, one-way ANOVA and logistic regression. Children who had externalizing disorders tended to live with unemployed single parents who had lower education levels and lived in rented or assisted housing. Children with internalizing problems tended to live in owned homes with employed parents. There was no significant association between age or gender for either group. Previous literature has reported an association between low SES and more mental health problems; however, the relationship between different indicators of SES and diagnosis is not clear. Despite small numbers, our study revealed significant differences between the parental socio-demographic factors for externalizing compared with internalizing disorders.

  19. Socio-demographic factors and their impact on the number of resections for patients with recurrent glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sia, Y; Field, K; Rosenthal, M; Drummond, K

    2013-10-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most aggressive malignant brain tumour. Having a second or subsequent operation at recurrence may be a positive prognostic factor for survival. Recent studies suggest that socio-demographic variables may influence survival, raising the question whether surgical care differs based on these variables. We examined the relationship between selected socio-demographic variables and the number of repeat operations undergone by patients with recurrent GBM. Data from all patients diagnosed with GBM between 2001 and 2011 was obtained from a clinical database maintained across two institutions (one public, one private). The clinical and socio-demographic factors for patients who received one operation were compared to those who had two or more operations, using chi-squared analyses to determine statistical differences between groups. Socioeconomic status was measured using the Index of Relative Socioeconomic Advantage and Disadvantage scores. Of 553 patients, 449 (81%) had one operation and 104 (19%) had ≥2 operations. Patients who had ≥2 operations were significantly younger (median 55 years versus 64 years, psocio-demographic background. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Risk factors for under-5 mortality: evidence from Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey, 2004-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abir, Tanvir; Agho, Kingsley Emwinyore; Page, Andrew Nicolas; Milton, Abul Hasnat; Dibley, Michael John

    2015-08-21

    The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with mortality in children under 5 years of age using a nationally representative sample of singleton births for the period of 2004-2011. Pooled 2004, 2007 and 2011 cross-sectional data sets of the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Surveys were analysed. The surveys used a stratified two-stage cluster sample of 16,722 singleton live-born infants of the most recent birth of a mother within a 3-year period. Outcome measures were neonatal mortality (0-30 days), postneonatal mortality (1-11 months), infant mortality (0-11 months), child mortality (1-4 years) and under-5 mortality (0-4 years). Survival information for 16,722 singleton live-born infants and 522 deaths of children child deaths and 522 under-5 deaths. Multiple variable analysis showed that, over a 7-year period, mortality reduced significantly by 48% for postneonatal deaths, 33% for infant deaths and 29% for under-5 deaths, but there was no significant reduction in neonatal deaths (adjusted OR (AOR) = 0.79, 95% CI 0.59 to 1.06) or child deaths (AOR = 1.00, 95% CI 0.51 to 1.94). The odds of neonatal, postneonatal, infant, child and under-5 deaths decreased significantly among mothers who used contraceptive and mothers who had other children aged 3 years or older. The risk of neonatal, postneonatal, infant, child and under-5 deaths was significantly higher in mothers who reported a previous death of a sibling. Our study suggests that family planning is needed to further reduce the overall rate of under-5 deaths in Bangladesh. To reduce childhood mortality, public health interventions that focus on child spacing and contraceptive use by mothers may be most effective. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  1. Maternal socioeconomic and demographic factors associated with the sex ratio at birth in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Bang Nguyen; Adair, Timothy; Hill, Peter S

    2010-11-01

    In recent years Vietnam has experienced a high sex ratio at birth (SRB) amidst rapid socioeconomic and demographic changes. However, little is known about the differentials in SRB between maternal socioeconomic and demographic groups. The paper uses data from the annual Population Change Survey (PCS) in 2006 to examine the relationship of the sex ratio of the most recent birth with maternal socioeconomic and demographic characteristics and the number of previous female births. The SRB of Vietnam was significantly high at 111.4 (95% CI 109.7-113.1) for the period 1st April 2000 to 31st March 2006. Multivariate analysis reveals that sex of the most recent birth is strongly related with the number of previous female births. This association is consistent across different socioeconomic and demographic groups of women. Given the high SRB in Vietnam, further research into the reasons for high SRB in these groups is required, as are intervention programmes such as those raising the public awareness of its negative consequences.

  2. Who We Really Are: Demographic Factors that Predict Student Service Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Paul P.; Welch, Marshall

    2007-01-01

    Demographic data were collected from 38 program directors in a university-based community service center and a control group of 62 other students not engaged in any service activity randomly selected at a large, urban, research university. A series of multiple regression analysis were conducted to identify significant predictors of students likely…

  3. The Influence of Demographic/Psychological Factors and Preexisting Conditions on the Near-Death Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twemlow, Stuart W.; Gabbard, Glen O.

    1985-01-01

    Examined preexisting psychological, perceptual-cognitive, demographic, and physical differences between 34 adults reporting near-death experiences and 386 controls. Results indicated differences in perceptual-cognitive style in those reporting near-death experiences. Medical conditions have some effect on the experience. (JAC)

  4. Demographic and Instructor-Student Interaction Factors Associated with Community College Students' Intent to Persist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Yolanda F.; Hughes, Gail D.

    2014-01-01

    The classroom is the main point of contact for community college students due to their part-time status, employment, family responsibilities, and limited campus involvement. To examine the relationship between community college students' demographics and instructor interactions as they relate to intention to persist in college, researchers…

  5. Socio-demographic, Marital, and Psychosocial Factors Associated with Condom Use Negotiation Self-Efficacy Among Mozambican Women at Risk for HIV Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrão, Ana Luísa; McIntyre, Teresa M

    2017-08-22

    In Mozambique, women are the most affected by HIV/AIDS. Self-efficacy is one of the main predictors of effective use of a condom. Therefore, it is essential to identify the factors that influence condom-use negotiation self-efficacy in vulnerable women. The aim of this paper is to identify socio-demographic, marital, and psychosocial factors associated with condom-use negotiation self-efficacy among Mozambican women at risk for HIV infection. Participants were women (173) who were patients at the Gynecology Department of the Central Hospital of Beira, Mozambique, and at risk for HIV infection. Women completed measures of condom-use negotiation self-efficacy, HIV prevention knowledge, and perceived barriers against safer sex. The results showed that demographic and marital variables are associated with condom-use negotiation self-efficacy, namely, those having more than 9 years of education, who are younger and not living with a partner, and who talk about AIDS with partners report higher condom-use negotiation self-efficacy. Regarding psychosocial factors, higher HIV prevention knowledge and fewer perceived barriers to safer sex predict higher condom-use negotiation self-efficacy. These results can contribute to sexual health promotion and HIV/AIDS prevention in Mozambican women because they identify at-risk groups and marital and psychosocial malleable factors that can be targeted in AIDS prevention among at-risk Mozambican women.

  6. Varying influences of motivation factors on employees' likelihood to perform safe food handling practices because of demographic differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Jason D; Arendt, Susan W; Strohbehn, Catherine H; Meyer, Janell; Paez, Paola

    2010-11-01

    Food safety training has been the primary avenue for ensuring food workers are performing proper food handling practices and thus, serving safe food. Yet, knowledge of safe food handling practices does not necessarily result in actual performance of these practices. This research identified participating food service employees' level of agreement with four factors of motivation (internal motivations, communication, reward-punishment, and resources) and determined if respondents with different demographic characteristics reported different motivating factors. Data were collected from 311 food service employees who did not have any supervisory responsibilities. Intrinsic motivation agreement scores were consistently the highest of all four motivational factors evaluated and did not differ across any of the demographic characteristics considered. In contrast, motivation agreement scores for communication, reward-punishment, and resources did differ based on respondents' gender, age, place of employment, job status, food service experience, completion of food handler course, or possession of a food safety certification. In general, respondents agreed that these motivation factors influenced their likelihood to perform various safe food handling procedures. This research begins to illustrate how employees' demographic characteristics influence their responses to various motivators, helping to clarify the complex situation of ensuring safe food in retail establishments. Future research into why employee willingness to perform varies more for extrinsic motivation than for intrinsic motivation could assist food service managers in structuring employee development programs and the work environment, in a manner that aids in improving external motivation (communication, reward-punishment, and resources) and capitalizing on internal motivation.

  7. [Socio-demographic factors and leisure-time physical activity among men and women of Duque de Caxias / RJ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá Silva, Suzana Patrícia de; Sandre-Pereira, Gilza; Salles-Costa, Rosana

    2011-11-01

    To evaluate the prevalence and associated variables in leisure-time physical activity (LTPA), by gender, in Duque de Caxias/Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. This is a population-based cross-sectional study with 1,246 adults. During home visits, questionnaires were applied on LTPA, socio-demographic factors and anthropometric examinations were performed. Physical inactivity was high (70%) (p-value factor that increased the likelihood of men engaging in LTPA (OR = 2.75, p-value = 0.034), whereas among women, those who spent less time on domestic activities (OR = 0.99, p-value = 0.016), did not smoke (OR = 2.63, p-value = 0.039) and had greater accumulation of abdominal fat (OR = 2.72, p -value = 0.023), practiced LTPA. Men chose LTPAs considered masculine. Socio-demographic and anthropometric measures had different associations with LTPA between the genders.

  8. Demographic factors associated with loss to follow up in the management of chronic otitis media: case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, R; Fox, R; Srinivasan, R; Majithia, A; Singh, A

    2016-02-01

    The likelihood of a patient attending regular follow up can affect decision making when planning and performing tympanomastoid surgery. This study investigated whether demographic factors were associated with loss to follow up. A database of patients who had been investigated and treated for chronic otitis media was searched. Patients lost to follow up and a matching sample of patients who were formally discharged were identified. The demographic factors of age, sex and postcode were compared between the two groups. The information collected was also used to provide measures of deprivation. Fifty patients in each group were identified. Patients lost to follow up were significantly younger than patients formally discharged (p < 0.02), and were more likely to live in an area of education and training deprivation (p < 0.05). Younger patient age, and living in an area of education and training deprivation, are associated with a higher incidence of loss to follow up.

  9. Associations between socio-demographic characteristics and chemical concentrations contributing to cumulative exposures in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hongtai; Tornero-Velez, Rogelio; Barzyk, Timothy M

    2017-09-13

    Association rule mining (ARM) has been widely used to identify associations between various entities in many fields. Although some studies have utilized it to analyze the relationship between chemicals and human health effects, fewer have used this technique to identify and quantify associations between environmental and social stressors. Socio-demographic variables were generated based on U.S. Census tract-level income, race/ethnicity population percentage, education level, and age information from the 2010-2014, 5-Year Summary files in the American Community Survey (ACS) database, and chemical variables were generated by utilizing the 2011 National-Scale Air Toxics Assessment (NATA) census tract-level air pollutant exposure concentration data. Six mobile- and industrial-source pollutants were chosen for analysis, including acetaldehyde, benzene, cyanide, particulate matter components of diesel engine emissions (namely, diesel PM), toluene, and 1,3-butadiene. ARM was then applied to quantify and visualize the associations between the chemical and socio-demographic variables. Census tracts with a high percentage of racial/ethnic minorities and populations with low income tended to have higher estimated chemical exposure concentrations (fourth quartile), especially for diesel PM, 1,3-butadiene, and toluene. In contrast, census tracts with an average population age of 40-50 years, a low percentage of racial/ethnic minorities, and moderate-income levels were more likely to have lower estimated chemical exposure concentrations (first quartile). Unsupervised data mining methods can be used to evaluate potential associations between environmental inequalities and social disparities, while providing support in public health decision-making contexts.Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology advance online publication, 13 September 2017; doi:10.1038/jes.2017.15.

  10. The Impact Of Socio-Demographic Factors And Political Perceptions On Consumer Attitudes Towards Genetically Modified Foods: An Econometric Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Antonopoulou, Lina; Christos T. Papadas; Targoutzidis, Antonis

    2009-01-01

    This survey-based paper investigates the impact of socio-demographic factors, along with political perceptions, as expressed by attitudes towards globalization, on consumer attitudes towards GM foods, in Greece. Different aspects of consumer attitudes regarding GM foods are examined, such as general preference, banning, labeling, intention to purchase them at a sufficiently low price, the nutritional category of food product and the proximity of the genetic modification to the final product. ...

  11. Spatial prevalence of intellectual disability and related socio-demographic factors in Iran, using GWR: Case study (2006)

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Goli; Fatemeh Sadeghipour Kermany; Mehrdad Askarian

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although intellectual disability (ID) is a common disability in Iran, there is no investigation on the spatial distribution pattern of these patients in national level and the spatial maps for recognition the areas with higher prevalence of IDs and local neighborhoods of these regions or effect of socio-demographic factor on this scattering is not still available. This proposition motivated us to assess the population with ID in our country. Methods: In a cross-sectional study...

  12. Emotional intelligence in workplace: its relation with job performance, job satisfaction, organizational citizenship behavior, and some demographic factors

    OpenAIRE

    Gürbüz, Sait; YÜKSEL, Murad

    2008-01-01

    Aim of this study is to find out the relation between emotional intelligence and job performance, job satisfaction, organizational citizenship behavior, and some demographic factors. With this aim, an empirical study was conducted on 494 employees working in banking, ready - made clothing, tourism, medical, textile production, and retail sector in Istanbul region. According to the results of the study, it is proved that there is a significant association between emotional intelligence and som...

  13. Characterization of salt consumption among hypertensives according to socio-demographic and clinical factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Sia Perin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the relationship between the behaviors of salt consumption and socio-demographic and clinical variables. METHOD: sodium consumption was evaluated using the methods: self-reporting (considering 3 different behaviors related to salt consumption, 24- hr dietary recall, discretionary salt, food frequency questionnaire, estimation of total sodium intake and 24-hr urinary excretion of sodium (n=108. RESULTS: elevated salt intake according to the different measurements of consumption of the nutrient was associated with the variables: male sex, low level of schooling and monthly income, being Caucasian, and being professionally inactive; and with the clinical variables: elevated Body Mass Index, tensional levels, ventricular hypertrophy and the number of medications used. CONCLUSION: the data obtained shows a heterogenous association between the different behaviors related to salt consumption and the socio-demographic and clinical variables. This data can be used to optimize the directing of educational activities with a view to reducing salt consumption among hypertensives.

  14. Characterization of salt consumption among hypertensives according to socio-demographic and clinical factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perin, Milena Sia; Cornélio, Marilia Estevam; Rodrigues, Roberta Cunha Matheus; Gallani, Maria Cecília Bueno Jayme

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the relationship between the behaviors of salt consumption and socio-demographic and clinical variables. Sodium consumption was evaluated using the methods: self-reporting (considering 3 different behaviors related to salt consumption), 24- hr dietary recall, discretionary salt, food frequency questionnaire, estimation of total sodium intake and 24-hr urinary excretion of sodium (n=108). Elevated salt intake according to the different measurements of consumption of the nutrient was associated with the variables: male sex, low level of schooling and monthly income, being Caucasian, and being professionally inactive; and with the clinical variables: elevated Body Mass Index, tensional levels, ventricular hypertrophy and the number of medications used. The data obtained shows a heterogenous association between the different behaviors related to salt consumption and the socio-demographic and clinical variables. This data can be used to optimize the directing of educational activities with a view to reducing salt consumption among hypertensives.

  15. Prevalence and associated socio-demographic factors of chronic suppurative otitis media among rural primary school children of Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaheen, Md Mazharul; Raquib, Ahmed; Ahmad, Shaikh Muniruddin

    2012-08-01

    Chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) is a common community health disorder of childhood in all developing countries including Bangladesh. In children, it may cause significant delays in speech, cognitive, educational and psychological development. To determine prevalence of CSOM and its relationship with certain socio-demographic factors among rural primary school going children of Bangladesh. 4280 rural primary school children of palash upazilla of Narsingdi district, Bangladesh had underwent ENT check up by doctors trained in ENT and their guardians were interviewed regarding certain socio demographic factors using a pre tested protocol. 48% of them were boys and 52% were girls with a mean age of 8.8 years (SD±2.35). 5.63% of study population revealed to have CSOM and girls were relatively more sufferer than boys (6.6% vs 4.5%). Our study revealed statistically significant association of CSOM with age, sex, guardian's income, maternal education, family size, and sanitation of children. Housing though an important risk factor of CSOM but it was not evident in this study. Thus, improvement of the socio-demographic status and primary ear care education to children, their teachers and guardians can prevent these vulnerable children from developing CSOM and resultant complications. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The organizational commitment and its relation to certain demographic and psychological factors

    OpenAIRE

    Arias Galicia, Fernando; Facultad de Contaduría y Administración, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México; Varela Sosa, Daniel; Facultad de Ciencias Administrativas y Relaciones Industriales, Universidad de San Martín de Porres, Lima, Perú; Loli Pineda, Alejandro; Facultad de Psicología, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú; Quintana Otiniano, María; Facultad de Ciencias Administrativas y Relaciones Industriales, Universidad de San Martín de Porres, Lima, Perú

    2014-01-01

    One looks for to know the relation that exists between the organizational commitment and some demographic variables (studied by Mathieu and Zajac) in a sample of 190 people with a high education, originating of diverse varied organizations and so large. Was high correlation between affective commitment and general satisfaction with the work, also between affective commitment and commitment with the work, just as affective commitment and clarity of the roll. However the relation with hierarchy...

  17. Do Wealthier Households Save More? – The Impact of the Demographic Factor

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between wealth, ageing and saving behaviour of private households by using pooled cross sections of German consumption survey data. Different components of wealth are distinguished, as their impact on the savings rate is not homogeneous. On average, the effect attributed to real estate dominates the other components of wealth. In addition, the savings rate strongly responds to demographic trends. Besides the direct impact of the age structure, an indir...

  18. Socio-Demographic Factors, Social Support, Quality of Life, and HIV/AIDS in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrefa-Gyan, Tina; Cornelius, Llewellyn J; Okundaye, Joshua

    2016-01-01

    The increase in the access to biomedical interventions for people living with HIV/AIDS in the developing world has not been adequately matched with the requisite psychosocial treatments to help improve the effectiveness of biomedical interventions. Therefore, in this study the author seeks to determine whether socio-demographic characteristics and social support are associated with quality of life in individuals diagnosed with HIV/AIDS in Ghana. A convenience sample of 300 HIV/AIDS support group members was obtained via cross-sectional design survey. The Medical Outcome Studies (MOS) HIV Health Survey, the MOS Social Support Survey (MOS-SSS), and demographic questionnaire instruments were used to assess quality of life, social support, and demographic information respectively. Multiple regression analysis showed that there was a positive association between overall social support and overall quality of life (r = .51). It also showed that being younger, male, attending support group meetings for over a year, and having ≥ 13 years of schooling related to higher quality of life. Implications of the findings for practice, policy, and research in Ghana and the rest of the developing world are discussed.

  19. Reading fluency estimates of current intellectual function: demographic factors and effects of type of stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simos, Panagiotis G; Sideridis, Georgios D; Kasselimis, Dimitrios; Mouzaki, Angeliki

    2013-03-01

    The study explores the potential clinical value of reading fluency measures in complementing demographic variables as indices of current intellectual capacity. IQ estimates (based on the PPVT-R, WASI Vocabulary and Block Design subtests) were obtained from a representative, non-clinical sample of 386 Greek adults aged 48–87 years along with two measures of reading efficiency (one involving relatively high-frequency words—WRE—and the second comprised of phonotactically matched pseudowords—PsWRE). Both reading measures (number of items read correctly in 45 s) accounted for significant portions of variability in demographically adjusted verbal and performance IQ indices. Reading measures provided IQ estimates which were significantly closer to those predicted by demographic variables alone in up to 22% of individuals with fewer than 7 (across all ages) or 13 years of formal education (in the 70–87 year age range). PsWRE scores slightly outperformed WRE scores in predicting a person’s estimated verbal or performance IQ. Results are discussed in the context of previous findings using reading accuracy measures for low-frequency words with exceptional spellings in less transparent orthographic systems such as English.

  20. Oral health: locus of control, health behavior, self-rated oral health and socio-demographic factors in Istanbul adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peker, Kadriye; Bermek, Gulcin

    2011-01-01

    To determine oral health control beliefs of Istanbul adults using the Multidimensional Oral Health Locus of Control Scale (MOHLCS) after confirming its factorial validity and to examine the relationships between these beliefs, self-rated oral health, oral health behaviors and socio-demographic factors. The MOHLCS was administered to a sample of 1200 subjects aged ≥18 years in Istanbul chosen using a quota-sampling method (response 88%). The relationship between the MOHLCS and oral health behaviors, self-rated oral health and socio-demographic factors was assessed after confirming the factorial validity of the MOHLCS. The MOHLCS demonstrated satisfactory internal reliability. Factor analysis results showed a new four-factor solution, namely Internal, Dentist, Chance, and Socialization agents. Multivariate analysis showed that female gender, younger age, higher socioeconomic status, more frequent daily toothbrushing, and regular dental check-ups were associated with higher Internal beliefs, while older age, lower educational level, lower socioeconomic status, low toothbrushing frequency, and symptom-orientated dental attendance were associated with higher Chance beliefs. Being unmarried and low toothbrushing frequency were associated with lower Dentist beliefs. Males and older subjects had lower Socialization agents beliefs. Internal, Dentist and Chance beliefs were significantly associated with self-rated oral health. Compared with the original factor structure, the new factor structure had better goodness of fit for this sample. Self-rated oral health, socio-demographic factors, and oral health behaviors were significantly associated with oral health control beliefs. These beliefs may be useful for planning oral health promotion programs and for formulating advice given by oral health professionals about their patients' oral health behaviors.

  1. Factors That Contribute to the Adjustment of International Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesidor, Jean Kesnold; Sly, Kaye F.

    2016-01-01

    Leaving home to attend college is an important milestone for college students. However, the transition from home to college can be challenging, especially for students studying abroad. In this article, the authors explore factors that contribute to the academic, cultural, social, and psychological adjustments of international students. Adjustment…

  2. Associations between errors and contributing factors in aircraft maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Alan; Williamson, Ann

    2003-01-01

    In recent years cognitive error models have provided insights into the unsafe acts that lead to many accidents in safety-critical environments. Most models of accident causation are based on the notion that human errors occur in the context of contributing factors. However, there is a lack of published information on possible links between specific errors and contributing factors. A total of 619 safety occurrences involving aircraft maintenance were reported using a self-completed questionnaire. Of these occurrences, 96% were related to the actions of maintenance personnel. The types of errors that were involved, and the contributing factors associated with those actions, were determined. Each type of error was associated with a particular set of contributing factors and with specific occurrence outcomes. Among the associations were links between memory lapses and fatigue and between rule violations and time pressure. Potential applications of this research include assisting with the design of accident prevention strategies, the estimation of human error probabilities, and the monitoring of organizational safety performance.

  3. Factors That Contribute to ePortfolio Persistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibodeaux, Tilisa; Cummings, Cynthia; Harapnuik, Dwayne

    2017-01-01

    This study examined factors that contributed to persistent use, or discontinued use, of ePortfolios beyond the program of study, as perceived by former educational technology students in a graduate program. The related literature points to contemporary research that choice, ownership, voice, and authentic learning are growing trends emerging as…

  4. The effects of an exotic palm on a native palm during the first demographic stages: contributions to ecological management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luisa T. Mengardo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Biological invasions have negative impacts on native biota and consequently on biodiversity. In patches of Atlantic Forest in Brazil, the Australian palm tree Archontophoenix cunninghamiana has become invasive, whereas the endemic palm Euterpe edulis is threatened with extinction. The two species occupy parts of the same functional niche within the forests, which raises a question: Does the invasive species interfere with the recruitment of the native one when the two co-occur? We compared the initial demographic stages of these palms, and assumed that A. cunninghamiana would present better performance (higher rates of germination and seed viability and would feature allelopathic properties that could influence the recruitment of the native species. We investigated indirect and direct allelopathic interference, respectively, by watering E. edulis seeds with aqueous leachate solutions of A. cunninghamiana fruits and leaves and by conducting combined germination experiments. The leachate solutions neither inhibited germination nor affected the size of E. edulis seedlings. In the direct interference experiments, depulped A. cunninghamiana seeds had higher viability and germination rates than did E. edulis seeds. In E. edulis, exposure to A. cunninghamiana seeds did not affect germination nor seedling development but slightly decreased germination speed. In conclusion, A. cunninghamiana presented no significant allelopathic impediment to E. edulis establishment. However, because A. cunninghamiana seeds are usually depulped when dispersed by birds, the potential of the species to establish itself in the community surpasses that of E. edulis. We propose management strategies to enhance E. edulis performance and to restrict the spread of A. cunninghamiana.

  5. The Role of Defense Mechanisms, Personality and Demographical Factors on Complicated Grief following Death of a loved one by Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Rahimian-Boogar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Identification of the risk factors and psychological correlates of prolonged grief disorder is vital for health promotions in relatives of persons who died of cancer. The aim of this research was to investigate the role of defense mechanisms, character dimension of personality and demographic factors on complicated grief following a loss of a family member to cancer .Method: A number of 226 persons who had lost a family member to cancer in a cancer institute at Tehran University of Medical Science were selected through compliance sampling and completed the Inventory of complicated Grief-Revised (ICG-R, the Defense Styles Questionnaire (DSQ, the Character dimension of Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI, and the Demographical questionnaire. Data were analyzed by stepwise multiple regression analysis, using the PASW version 18 .Results: Findings revealed that neurotic defense style had a significant positive predictive role in the complicated grief; and cooperativeness, age of the deceased person, self-transcendence and mature defense style had a significant negative predictive role in complicated grief (p<0.001. R2 was 0.73 for the final model (p<.001.Conclusion: The results revealed that two character dimensions (low cooperativeness and self-transcendence, high neurotic defense style and young age of the deceased person were involved in the psychopathological course of the complicated and prolonged grief. It was concluded that personality characteristics of the grieving persons and demographics of the deceased person should be addressed in designing tailored interventions for complicated grief.

  6. Nutrient Patterns and Their Association with Socio-Demographic, Lifestyle Factors and Obesity Risk in Rural South African Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisa, Pedro T.; Pedro, Titilola M.; Kahn, Kathleen; Tollman, Stephen M.; Pettifor, John M.; Norris, Shane A.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify and describe the diversity of nutrient patterns and how they associate with socio-demographic and lifestyle factors including body mass index in rural black South African adolescents. Nutrient patterns were identified from quantified food frequency questionnaires (QFFQ) in 388 rural South African adolescents between the ages of 11–15 years from the Agincourt Health and Socio-demographic Surveillance System (AHDSS). Principle Component Analysis (PCA) was applied to 25 nutrients derived from QFFQs. Multiple linear regression and partial R2 models were fitted and computed respectively for each of the retained principal component (PC) scores on socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics including body mass index (BMI) for age Z scores. Four nutrient patterns explaining 79% of the total variance were identified: PCI (26%) was characterized by animal derived nutrients; PC2 (21%) by vitamins, fibre and vegetable oil nutrients; PC3 (19%) by both animal and plant derived nutrients (mixed diet driven nutrients); and PC4 (13%) by starch and folate. A positive and significant association was observed with BMI for age Z scores per 1 standard deviation (SD) increase in PC1 (0.13 (0.02; 0.24); p = 0.02) and PC4 (0.10 (−0.01; 0.21); p = 0.05) scores only. We confirmed variability in nutrient patterns that were significantly associated with various lifestyle factors including obesity. PMID:25984738

  7. Environmental factors and childhood Fever in areas of the Ouagadougou Health and Demographic Surveillance System, Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouba Djourdebbé, Franklin; Dos Santos, Stéphanie; Legrand, Thomas K; Soura, Abdramane Bassiahi

    2015-07-01

    Using data on 825 under-5 children from the Ouagadougou Health and Demographic Surveillance System collected in 2010, this article examines the effects of aspects of the immediate environment on childhood fever. Logit regression models were estimated to assess the effects of the quality of the local environment on the probability that a child is reported to have had a fever in the two weeks preceding the survey, after controlling for various demographic and socioeconomic variables. While the estimated impact of some environmental factors persisted in the full models, the effects of variables such as access to water and type of household waste management decreased in the presence of demographic, socioeconomic and neighbourhood factors. The management of waste water was found to significantly affect the occurrence of childhood fever. Overall, the results of the study call for more efforts to promote access to tap water to households at prices that are affordable for the local population, where the threats to child health appears to be greatest.

  8. Nutrient patterns and their association with socio-demographic, lifestyle factors and obesity risk in rural South African adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisa, Pedro T; Pedro, Titilola M; Kahn, Kathleen; Tollman, Stephen M; Pettifor, John M; Norris, Shane A

    2015-05-12

    The aim of this study was to identify and describe the diversity of nutrient patterns and how they associate with socio-demographic and lifestyle factors including body mass index in rural black South African adolescents. Nutrient patterns were identified from quantified food frequency questionnaires (QFFQ) in 388 rural South African adolescents between the ages of 11-15 years from the Agincourt Health and Socio-demographic Surveillance System (AHDSS). Principle Component Analysis (PCA) was applied to 25 nutrients derived from QFFQs. Multiple linear regression and partial R2 models were fitted and computed respectively for each of the retained principal component (PC) scores on socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics including body mass index (BMI) for age Z scores. Four nutrient patterns explaining 79% of the total variance were identified: PCI (26%) was characterized by animal derived nutrients; PC2 (21%) by vitamins, fibre and vegetable oil nutrients; PC3 (19%) by both animal and plant derived nutrients (mixed diet driven nutrients); and PC4 (13%) by starch and folate. A positive and significant association was observed with BMI for age Z scores per 1 standard deviation (SD) increase in PC1 (0.13 (0.02; 0.24); p = 0.02) and PC4 (0.10 (-0.01; 0.21); p = 0.05) scores only. We confirmed variability in nutrient patterns that were significantly associated with various lifestyle factors including obesity.

  9. Consumption of healthy foods and associated socio-demographic factors among Russian, Somali and Kurdish immigrants in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebayo, Folasade A; Itkonen, Suvi T; Koponen, Päivikki; Prättälä, Ritva; Härkänen, Tommi; Lamberg-Allardt, Christel; Erkkola, Maijaliisa

    2017-05-01

    We evaluated the consumption of healthy foods among Russian, Somali and Kurdish immigrants in Finland, and examined the relationship between socio-demographic factors and food consumption. We used data from the Migrant Health and Wellbeing Study (Maamu), a population-based health interview and examination survey in six different municipalities in Finland between 2010 and 2012. Altogether, 635 men and 737 women, aged 18-64 years, of Russian ( n = 527), Somali ( n = 337) and Kurdish ( n = 508) origin were included. The important socio-demographic determinants of healthy food consumption - sex, age, education, place of residence and household size - were assessed by logistic regression. Based on the consumption frequencies of recommended healthy foods - fruits, berries, vegetables, fish and rye bread - immigrants of Russian origin had higher consumption of healthy foods than their peers of Kurdish and Somali origin. Low consumption of fresh vegetables, fruits and berries was found among Somali immigrants. Sex and age were the most important determinants of healthy food consumption, as women and older age groups had diets closer to the national nutrition recommendations. High educational level was also positively associated with healthy food consumption. We found ethnic differences in the consumption of healthy foods among the immigrant groups of Russian, Somali and Kurdish origin in Finland. Socio-demographic factors, especially age, sex and education, seem to also play an important role in immigrants' food consumption. Further studies examining the consumption of fruits, berries and fresh vegetables among Somali immigrants in Finland are needed.

  10. Factor structure of the Athens Insomnia Scale and its associations with demographic characteristics and depression in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Cheng-Fang; King, Bryan H; Chang, Yu-Ping

    2010-03-01

    The eight-item Athens Insomnia Scale (AIS-8) is an instrument that has been used frequently to assess insomnia problems. Previous research on adults has found that the AIS-8 functioned as a sole component. This study aimed to examine the prevalence rates of insomnia problems on the AIS-8, the factor structure of the AIS-8 in adolescents and its associations with demographic characteristics and depression in adolescents. A total of 8319 adolescent students (4334 girls and 3985 boys, mean age = 14.7 years, standard deviation = 1.7 years) in southern Taiwan were recruited into this study and completed the AIS-8. We performed an exploratory factor analysis to examine the factor structure of the AIS-8, and used the parallel analysis for making decisions regarding factor retention. We also used multiple regression analysis models to determine the associations between insomnia and demographic characteristics and depression. The results found that a high proportion of adolescents had insomnia problems as measured by the AIS-8. The AIS-8 was composed of two different factors when used among a large adolescent population, including insomnia symptoms (factor 1) and subjective sleep and daytime distress (factor 2). While being male, being younger, and having depression were associated positively with the severity of insomnia symptoms (factor 1), being older, living in urban areas, and having depression were associated positively with the severity of subjective sleep and daytime distress (factor 2). Clinicians and researchers should consider the different meanings of the two factors of the AIS-8 when using this tool to assess insomnia problems in adolescents.

  11. A cross-sectional study of socio-demographic factors associated with patient access to primary care in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kert, Suzana; Švab, Igor; Sever, Maja; Makivić, Irena; Pavlič, Danica Rotar

    2015-04-21

    Primary care (PC) is the provision of universally accessible, integrated, person-centred, comprehensive health and community services. Professionals active in primary care teams include family physicians and general practitioners (FP/GPs). There is concern in Slovenia that the current economic crisis might change the nature of PC services. Access, one of the most basic requirements of general practice, is universal in Slovenia, which is one of the smallest European countries; under national law, compulsory health insurance is mandatory for its citizens. Our study examined access to PC in Slovenia during a time of economic crisis as experienced and perceived by patients between 2011 and 2012, and investigated socio-demographic factors affecting access to PC in Slovenia. Data were collected as a part of a larger international study entitled Quality and Costs of Primary Care in Europe (QUALICOPC) that took place during a period of eight months in 2011 and 2012. 219 general practices were included; in each, the aim was to evaluate 10 patients. Dependent variables covered five aspects of access to PC: communicational, cultural, financial, geographical and organizational. 15 socio-demographic factors were investigated as independent variables. Descriptive statistics, factor analysis and multilevel analysis were applied. There were 1,962 patients in the final sample, with a response rate of 89.6%. The factors with the most positive effect on access to PC were financial and cultural; the most negative effects were caused by organizational problems. Financial difficulties were not a significant socio-demographic factor. Greater frequency of visits improves patients' perception of communicational and cultural access. Deteriorating health conditions are expected to lower perceived geographical access. Patients born outside Slovenia perceived better organizational access than patients born in Slovenia. Universal medical insurance in Slovenia protects most patients from PC

  12. The association of socio-demographic status, lifestyle factors and dietary patterns with total urinary phthalates in Australian men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Y Bai

    Full Text Available To investigate the associations between socio-demographic status, lifestyle factors, dietary patterns and urinary total phthalate concentration in a cohort of South Australian men.We randomly selected 1527 males aged 39 to 84 from wave two of the Men Androgen Inflammation Lifestyle Environment and Stress (MAILES study. Total phthalate concentration was examined in fasting morning urine samples. Socio-demographic and lifestyle factors were assessed by questionnaire. Food intake was assessed by food frequency questionnaire (FFQ. Dietary patterns were constructed using factor analysis.Total phthalates were detected in 99.6% of the urine samples. The overall geometric mean (95% CI of total phthalate concentration was 112.4 (107.5-117.5 ng/mL. The least square geometric means (LSGMs of total phthalate concentration were significantly higher among people who were obese (127.8 ng/mL, consuming less than two serves fruit per day (125.7 ng/mL and drinking more than one can (375mL of carbonated soft drink per day (131.9 ng/mL. Two dietary patterns were identified: a prudent dietary pattern and a western dietary pattern. Both the western dietary pattern (p = 0.002 and multiple lifestyle risk factors including smoking, obesity, insufficient physical activity and the highest quartile of the western dietary pattern (p<0.001, were positively associated with total phthalate levels. There was no significant relationship between total phthalate concentration and socio-demographic status.Phthalate exposure is ubiquitous and positively associated with lifestyle risk factors in urban dwelling Australian men.

  13. Sexual life satisfaction and its associated socio-demographic and workplace factors among Chinese female nurses of tertiary general hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Feng; Jiang, Deguo; Lin, Xiaodong; Zhang, Wei; Zheng, Weifang; Cheng, Ce; Lin, Chongguang; Hu, Lirong; Zhuo, Chuanjun

    2017-08-15

    Adverse workplace factors such as job stress are reported to be associated with poor physical and mental health of nurses. However, associations between occupational factors and sexual life satisfaction (SLS) of nurses remain understudied. This study investigated SLS of Chinese female nurses of tertiary general hospitals and socio-demographic and occupational factors associated with reduced SLS of nurses. In this cross-sectional survey, 393 Chinese female nurses of four tertiary general hospitals completed a standardized socio-demographic and occupational characteristics questionnaire, Zung's Self-rating Scale for Depression, Job Content Questionnaire, and a self-report SLS question. Multiple ordinal logistic regression was used to identify factors related to reduced SLS. Fourteen point five percent female nurses were dissatisfied with their current sex lives. In multiple regression, related factors for decreased SLS included being unmarried (OR = 1.49), shift work (OR = 1.92), contract employment (OR = 1.63), high job demands (OR = 2.21), low job control (OR = 1.88), inadequate social support (OR = 2.32), and depression (OR = 3.14). Chinese female nurses of tertiary general hospitals have poor SLS. Reducing job stress and providing psycho-social support may help improve SLS of nurses.

  14. Socio-demographic and clinical factors related to mortality among the geriatric suicide attempters admitted to the emergency department

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    Yılmaz Zengin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The ratio of elderly people in Turkey is rapidly growing. Accordingly, psychiatric problems and suicidality among elderly people are growing concerns. In this study, we aimed to investigate the socio-demographic characteristics of older people who attempted suicide by drug and to identify risk factors affecting mortality. Methods: Patients who were over 65 years old and admitted to the emergency department of a university hospital due to drug-related suicide attempt between January 1, 2004 and December 30, 2014, were included into this retrospective cross-sectional study. Relationship between suicide attempt and mortality was investigated in regard to socio-demographic and clinical factors. Patients were divided into two groups according to whether they survived or died. Results: Of the 107 patients included in the study, 68.2% were female and 31.8% were male; 34.6% were married. Common reasons for suicide attempt were depression (34.6% and domestic violence (30.8%. Analgesics (33.6% were the most common drugs used in suicide attempts. The analysis of the factors related to suicide attempt and mortality revealed that significant factors were loneliness, being widowed, being retired, having adjustment disorder and anxiety disorder. Conclusion: Loneliness, being widowed, being retired, adjustment disorder, and anxiety disorder were found as the risk factors affecting mortality in geriatric suicide attempts.

  15. Individualized medicine and demographic change as determining workload factors in pathology: quo vadis?

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    Warth, Arne; Stenzinger, Albrecht; Andrulis, Mindaugas; Schlake, Werner; Kempny, Gisela; Schirmacher, Peter; Weichert, Wilko

    2016-01-01

    The advent of individualized medicine with novel guidelines, extended quality assessment as well as intensified conventional, immunohistochemical, and molecular characterization of diseases has led to a substantial increase of pathologists' workload. Furthermore, in industrialized countries, we are facing the challenges of demographic change with an aging population. This raises the question of how pathology will be affected by these developments in the future. We extracted German population data and data on the number of board-certified physicians and pathologists from official sources. These data were reviewed in the light of data on caseload, case complexity, auxiliary diagnostic procedures, and matching patient data from a large German pathology department serving as a sector independent regional service provider. The refinement of diagnostic procedures over the last decade has resulted in a 60 % increase in slide numbers per case, doubling of immunohistochemistry procedures, and more than tripling of molecular analyses. Correlation of this development to demographics suggests that an aging population will further increase the caseload and case complexity in the coming decades since patient age is tightly linked to both parameters. This development is currently not accompanied by a sufficient increase in the number of pathologists. Our data point toward an imbalance between the increase in pathology workload and the number of pathologists. Extrapolations suggest a further aggravation of this development in the future. Thus, healthcare systems need to address this problem urgently in order to cope with these challenges.

  16. On the reasons of radical forms of social protest: Reflections about principles of ‘Malthusian trap’ and demographic factors

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    E E Shults

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers reasons for radical mass forms of social protest in the context of the ‘Malthusian trap’ and structural-demographic theory of Jack Goldstone, which have become popular in the last two decades. The author critically evaluates these two conceptions and comes to the conclusion that the principles they underline are just concomitant factors, i.e. additional risk factors for political systems and regimes, rather than causes of radical mass forms of social protest. The author suggests a method of analysis that consists of studying the circumstances, i.e. the wide historical context, in which mass forms of social protest usually emerge, and provides a large number of illustrative examples. The scientific approach to the identification of social-historical determinants of radical forms of social protest implies that if something is a reason/cause of an event, then this reason/cause must be present whenever there is such an event both alone or within a complex of concomitant factors. The ‘Malthusian trap’ and demographic factors cannot be traced in all manifestations of radical mass forms of social protest in modern and contemporary history. Moreover, the ‘Malthusian trap’ and demographic pressure on the economy and social system do not always lead to mass forms of social protest. The wave of radical forms of social protest in the last decade, i.e. the so-called ‘color revolutions’, ‘Arab spring’, protest actions in France, England and the USA, once again confirms the relevance of the author’s approach and the importance of critical study of the traditional conceptions.

  17. The demographic and socioeconomic factors predictive for populations at high-risk for La Crosse virus infection in West Virginia.

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    Andrew D Haddow

    Full Text Available Although a large body of literature exists for the environmental risk factors for La Crosse virus (LACV transmission, the demographic and socioeconomic risk factors for developing LACV infection have not been investigated. Therefore, this study investigated the demographic and socioeconomic risk factors for LACV infection in West Virginia from 2003 to 2007, using two forward stepwise discriminant analyses. The discriminant analyses were used to evaluate a number of demographic and socioeconomic factors for their ability to predict: 1 those census tracts with at least one reported case of LACV infection versus those census tracts with no reported cases of LACV infection and 2 to evaluate significantly high-risk clusters for LACV infection versus significantly low-risk clusters for LACV infection. In the first model, a high school education diploma or a general education diploma or less and a lower housing densitywere found to be predictive of those census tracts with at least one case of LACV infection. A high school or a general education diploma or less, lower housing density, and housing built in 1969 and earlier were all found to be predictive of those census tracts displaying high-risk clusters versus census tracts displaying low-risk clusters in the second model. The cluster discriminant analysis was found to be more predictive than the census tract discriminant analysis as indicated by the Eigenvalues, canonical correlation, and grouping accuracy. The results of this study indicate that socioeconomically disadvantaged populations are at the highest risk for LACV infection and should be a focus of LACV infection prevention efforts.

  18. Pressure Ulcers: Factors Contributing to Their Development in the OR.

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    Engels, Dawn; Austin, Melody; McNichol, Laurie; Fencl, Jennifer; Gupta, Sat; Kazi, Haseeb

    2016-03-01

    The prevention of health care-associated pressure ulcers (HAPUs) is an important quality measure because HAPUs are considered a never event. The literature suggests that the prevalence rate of pressure ulcers is 8.5% or higher among patients who undergo surgical procedures that last longer than three hours. We performed a retrospective chart review to determine what factors contribute to the development of pressure ulcers in patients who undergo surgical procedures. The sample population included patients who acquired a pressure ulcer that was not present at admission and developed during their postoperative hospital stay. The project revealed consistent risk factors that may contribute to the development of pressure ulcers in patients who have undergone surgical procedures. These findings can drive the implementation of preventive measures to reduce the occurrence of HAPUs associated with surgical procedures.

  19. Mapping the Relationship of Contributing Factors for Preclinical Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lin; Zhao, Lei; Wong, Adrian; Wang, Defeng; Mok, Vincent

    2015-07-20

    While detecting and validating correlations among the contributing factors to the preclinical phase of Alzheimer's disease (pAD) has been a focus, a potent meta-analysis method to integrate current findings is essential. The entity-relationship diagram with nodes as entities and edges as relationships is a graphical representation that summarizes the relationships among multiple factors in an intuitive manner. Based on this concept, a new meta-analysis approach with this type of diagram is proposed to summarize research about contributing factors of pAD and their interactions. To utilize the information for enriched visualization, width and color of the edges are encoded with reporting times, number of pAD subjects, correlation coefficient, and study design (cross-sectional or longitudinal). The proposed Probabilistic Entity-Relationship Diagram (PERD) demonstrated its effectiveness in this research for studying pAD. Another kind of diagram with occurrence order for some factors was also proposed to provide sequential information of the factors. In addition, PERD could potentially develop into an online application named PERD-online, which would help researchers to pool findings on the same relationships and guide further tests to validate uncertain relationships in PERD. PERD as a generic graphical meta-analysis tool can also be applied in studying other multifactorial diseases.

  20. STUDY OF AETIOLOGICAL FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO PAEDIATRIC STRABISMUS

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    B. Dharmaraju

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available AIMS AND OBJECTIVES To know various causes, sex distribution, socioeconomic status, onset, severity, visual prognosis of paediatric strabismus. METHODOLOGY The present study was undertaken for a period of 18 months. All the patients were selected from those attending the outpatient department. 50 cases of squint were evaluated thoroughly to know the various factors responsible for squint and how it was caused. RESULTS Total Number of Patients who attended OPD were 72,431 (4000 per month. Total Number of Paediatric squint cases among them were 121. So, Incidence of Paediatric squint in general OP was-0.16%. In the present study of total 121 paediatric squint cases, 21 cases did not fulfil the inclusion criteria and in the remaining 100, cases were included by taking every 2nd patient. Esotropia is seen in 38 children contributing to 76% of total and exotropia is seen in 12 children contributing 24% of total cases. Most common cause of esotropia is Essential Infantile Esotropia contributing to 31% of total esotropias. Males are affected more commonly than females with an incidence of 60%. Esotropia is seen in 38 children contributing to 76% of total and exotropia is seen in 12 children contributing 24% of total cases. In this study, males are affected more commonly than females contributing to 60% of total and females constitute 40% of the total. In this study, incidence of paediatric squint is more commonly seen in lower socioeconomic population contributing 60% of the total. 15 cases are of congenital in onset constituting 30% of total and 35 cases are of acquired in onset constituting 70% of total. Small angle Esotropia and large angle Esotropia: In this study out of total 38 cases of esotropia, large angle esotropias are more common and contributing to 89% of the total. Out of total 50 cases, 16% had an angle of 30⁰. Out of 50 cases, significant family history was present in 15 cases contributing to 30% of total cases. Following early

  1. The Relationship between Multiple Substance Use, Perceived Academic Achievements, and Selected Socio-Demographic Factors in a Polish Adolescent Sample

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    Mazur, Joanna; Tabak, Izabela; Dzielska, Anna; Wąż, Krzysztof; Oblacińska, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Predictors of high-risk patterns of substance use are often analysed in relation to demographic and school-related factors. The interaction between these factors and the additional impact of family wealth are still new areas of research. The aim of this study was to find determinants of the most common patterns of psychoactive substance use in mid-adolescence, compared to non-users. A sample of 1202 Polish students (46.1% boys, mean age of 15.6 years) was surveyed in 2013/2014. Four patterns of psychoactive substance use were defined using cluster analysis: non-users—71.9%, mainly tobacco and alcohol users—13.7%, high alcohol and cannabis users—7.2%, poly-users—7.2%. The final model contained the main effects of gender and age, and one three-way (perceived academic achievement × gender × family affluence) interaction. Girls with poor perception of school performance (as compared to girls with better achievements) were at significantly higher risk of being poly-users, in both less and more affluent families (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 5.55 and OR = 3.60, respectively). The impact of family affluence was revealed only in interaction with other factors. Patterns of substance use in mid-adolescence are strongly related to perceived academic achievements, and these interact with selected socio-demographic factors. PMID:28009806

  2. The Relationship between Multiple Substance Use, Perceived Academic Achievements, and Selected Socio-Demographic Factors in a Polish Adolescent Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Mazur

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Predictors of high-risk patterns of substance use are often analysed in relation to demographic and school-related factors. The interaction between these factors and the additional impact of family wealth are still new areas of research. The aim of this study was to find determinants of the most common patterns of psychoactive substance use in mid-adolescence, compared to non-users. A sample of 1202 Polish students (46.1% boys, mean age of 15.6 years was surveyed in 2013/2014. Four patterns of psychoactive substance use were defined using cluster analysis: non-users—71.9%, mainly tobacco and alcohol users—13.7%, high alcohol and cannabis users—7.2%, poly-users—7.2%. The final model contained the main effects of gender and age, and one three-way (perceived academic achievement × gender × family affluence interaction. Girls with poor perception of school performance (as compared to girls with better achievements were at significantly higher risk of being poly-users, in both less and more affluent families (adjusted odds ratio (OR = 5.55 and OR = 3.60, respectively. The impact of family affluence was revealed only in interaction with other factors. Patterns of substance use in mid-adolescence are strongly related to perceived academic achievements, and these interact with selected socio-demographic factors.

  3. Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in human adipose tissue from northern Tunisia: Current extent of contamination and contributions of socio-demographic characteristics and dietary habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achour, Amani; Derouiche, Abdelkader; Barhoumi, Badreddine; Kort, Badreddine; Cherif, Driss; Bouabdallah, Sondes; Sakly, Mohsen; Rhouma, Khémais Ben; Touil, Soufiane; Driss, Mohamed Ridha; Tebourbi, Olfa

    2017-07-01

    The aims of the present study were to investigate the current exposure levels of persistent organochlorine compounds (OCs) in adipose tissues intraoperatively collected from 40 patients over 20 years undergoing non-cancer-related surgery residing in Northern region of Tunisia (Bizerte), which constitutes an exemplary case, and examined association between levels of contamination and both socio-demographic characteristics and dietary habits. Concentration of hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (α-HCH, β-HCH, γ-HCH and δ-HCH), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane isomers (p,p'-DDT and o,p'-DDT) and metabolites (p,p'-DDE, o,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDD and o,p'-DDD) and 12 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) congeners were measured using capillary gas chromatography with electron capture detector. Overall, residue levels of OCs followed the decreasing order of DDTs > PCBs > HCB > HCHs. DDTs levels ranged from 74.49 to 1834.76ngg(-1) lipid and contributing to more than 90% to the sum of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). p,p'-DDE was the most abundant in all samples and the p,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDE ratio (range between 1.85% and 58.45%) suggesting recent and ongoing exposure to banned commercial DDT products. PCB concentrations varied from 29.27 to 322.58ngg(-1) lipid and PCB-180, PCB-153 and PCB-138 were the dominant congeners accounting for 70% of total PCBs. We did not find significant correlations between OC exposure levels and sex, parity, habitat areas and smoking habits. In females, the adipose tissue concentrations of DDTs, HCB and PCB-118 were positively correlated with age. There was statistically significant relationship between body mass index (BMI) changes and the adipose tissue levels of HCB and HCHs. No association was found between OCPs levels and dietary factors. However, our study suggests that fish consumption may be an important contributor of PCBs adipose tissue content of PCBs in Tunisian people. The presented work is highly significant, being the

  4. Variation in actigraphy-estimated rest-activity patterns by demographic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Jonathan A; Quante, Mirja; Godbole, Suneeta; James, Peter; Hipp, J Aaron; Marinac, Catherine R; Mariani, Sara; Cespedes Feliciano, Elizabeth M; Glanz, Karen; Laden, Francine; Wang, Rui; Weng, Jia; Redline, Susan; Kerr, Jacqueline

    2017-06-26

    Rest-activity patterns provide an indication of circadian rhythmicity in the free-living setting. We aimed to describe the distributions of rest-activity patterns in a sample of adults and children across demographic variables. A sample of adults (N = 590) and children (N = 58) wore an actigraph on their nondominant wrist for 7 days and nights. We generated rest-activity patterns from cosinor analysis (MESOR, acrophase and magnitude) and nonparametric circadian rhythm analysis (IS: interdaily stability; IV: intradaily variability; L5: least active 5-hour period; M10: most active 10-hour period; and RA: relative amplitude). Demographic variables included age, sex, race, education, marital status, and income. Linear mixed-effects models were used to test for demographic differences in rest-activity patterns. Adolescents, compared to younger children, had (1) later M10 midpoints (β = 1.12 hours [95% CI: 0.43, 1.18] and lower M10 activity levels; (2) later L5 midpoints (β = 1.6 hours [95% CI: 0.9, 2.3]) and lower L5 activity levels; (3) less regular rest-activity patterns (lower IS and higher IV); and 4) lower magnitudes (β = -0.95 [95% CI: -1.28, -0.63]) and relative amplitudes (β = -0.1 [95% CI: -0.14, -0.06]). Mid-to-older adults, compared to younger adults (aged 18-29 years), had (1) earlier M10 midpoints (β = -1.0 hours [95% CI: -1.6, -0.4]; (2) earlier L5 midpoints (β = -0.7 hours [95% CI: -1.2, -0.2]); and (3) more regular rest-activity patterns (higher IS and lower IV). The magnitudes and relative amplitudes were similar across the adult age categories. Sex, race and education level rest-activity differences were also observed. Rest-activity patterns vary across the lifespan, and differ by race, sex and education. Understanding population variation in these patterns provides a foundation for further elucidating the health implications of rest-activity patterns across the lifespan.

  5. Combining demographic and genetic factors to assess population vulnerability in stream species

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    Erin L, Landguth; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Jones, Leslie W.; Waples, Robin S.; Whited, Diane; Lowe, Winsor H.; Lucotch, John; Neville, Helen; Luikart, Gordon

    2014-01-01

    Accelerating climate change and other cumulative stressors create an urgent need to understand the influence of environmental variation and landscape features on the connectivity and vulnerability of freshwater species. Here, we introduce a novel modeling framework for aquatic systems that integrates spatially explicit, individual-based, demographic and genetic (demogenetic) assessments with environmental variables. To show its potential utility, we simulated a hypothetical network of 19 migratory riverine populations (e.g., salmonids) using a riverscape connectivity and demogenetic model (CDFISH). We assessed how stream resistance to movement (a function of water temperature, fluvial distance, and physical barriers) might influence demogenetic connectivity, and hence, population vulnerability. We present demographic metrics (abundance, immigration, and change in abundance) and genetic metrics (diversity, differentiation, and change in differentiation), and combine them into a single vulnerability index for identifying populations at risk of extirpation. We considered four realistic scenarios that illustrate the relative sensitivity of these metrics for early detection of reduced connectivity: (1) maximum resistance due to high water temperatures throughout the network, (2) minimum resistance due to low water temperatures throughout the network, (3) increased resistance at a tributary junction caused by a partial barrier, and (4) complete isolation of a tributary, leaving resident individuals only. We then applied this demogenetic framework using empirical data for a bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) metapopulation in the upper Flathead River system, Canada and USA, to assess how current and predicted future stream warming may influence population vulnerability. Results suggest that warmer water temperatures and associated barriers to movement (e.g., low flows, dewatering) are predicted to fragment suitable habitat for migratory salmonids, resulting in the loss

  6. Spatial Prevalence of Intellectual Disability and Related Socio-Demographic Factors in Iran, Using GWR: Case Study (2006).

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    Goli, Ali; Kermany, Fatemeh Sadeghipour; Askarian, Mehrdad

    2014-03-01

    Although intellectual disability (ID) is a common disability in Iran, there is no investigation on the spatial distribution pattern of these patients in national level and the spatial maps for recognition the areas with higher prevalence of IDs and local neighborhoods of these regions or effect of socio-demographic factor on this scattering is not still available. This proposition motivated us to assess the population with ID in our country. In a cross-sectional study, we applied Moran's Index (Moran's I) which includes information about the strength of the neighboring association between counties, as global univariate distribution assessment. A geographically weighted regression was used to explore relation between ID patient's prevalence and some socio-demographic factors (migration and illiteracy rate, physician number (PN)/10,000 people and health-care centers (HCCs)/10,000 people). We found that spatial clusters of ID patients exist among Iran counties (Moran's I = 0.36, P socio-demographic factors in national scale. In rural areas, illiteracy has high association with ID especially in the south region of Iran. Urban area has random pattern of ID patients both within and between the Iran counties (Moran's I = 0.01, P > 0.3). According to the results, our Initial hypothesis about the existence of spatial clusters in distribution of people with ID in Iran was proven. Spatial autocorrelation between migration and illiteracy rate and prevalence of patients with ID was shown and was in agreement with our hypothesis. However, our supposition that the prevalence should have inverse relationship with PN and HCC was rejected.

  7. Diabetes and age-related demographic differences in risk factor control.

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    Egan, Brent M; Li, Jiexiang; Wolfman, Tamara E; Sinopoli, Angelo

    2014-06-01

    Disparate vascular outcomes in diabetes by race and/or ethnicity may reflect differential risk factor control, especially pre-Medicare. Assess concurrent target attainment for glycohemoglobin 2, P factor awareness and treatment were lower in Hispanics than whites. When treated, diabetes and hypertension control were greater in whites than blacks or Hispanics. Concurrent risk factor control is low in all diabetics and could improve with greater statin use. Insuring younger adults, especially Hispanic, could raise risk factor awareness and treatment. Improving treatment effectiveness in younger black and Hispanic diabetics could promote equitable risk factor control.

  8. Environmental risk factors contributing to childhood overweight and obesity

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    Anna Kawalec

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The rising prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and teenagers is a major challenge for public health. Obesity is a complex and heterogeneous disorder, affected by many interacting genetic and non-genetic factors. The aim of this article was to focus on the environmental risk factors for childhood obesity. Among different factors contributing to an increase in BMI, we highlighted the role of exposure to cigarette smoke, DDT, bisphenol A, pesticides, and noise. The correlation between exposure to environmental toxins during prenatal period and obesity development in later life was underlined. According to obesogenic environment hypothesis, some features of distal and proximal neighbourhood also have a pivotal impact on children's behaviour and may contribute to increasing the risk for overweight. The area of residence (urban or rural may affect access to sports facilities or other opportunities for physical activity. Therefore, for designing adequate prophylaxis, it is essential to take into account modifiable risk factors present in residential neighbourhood. Prevention of childhood obesity should integrate activities for both micro- and macro-environment surrounding the child.

  9. Sociocultural and Demographic Risk Factors for the Development of Multiple Sclerosis in Kuwait: A Case - Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shammri, Suhail N.; Hanna, Magdy G.; Chattopadhyay, Arpita; Akanji, Abayomi O.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Immunological, genetic and environmental factors are believed to play important roles in the pathogenesis of Multiple Sclerosis (MS). There have been many studies on risk factors for MS but these have been mainly in Caucasian populations; robust studies in Arab populations remain relatively uncommon. This study therefore aimed to identify behavioral, socio-cultural, and demographic factors associated with development of MS in Kuwait, a high income Arab country, currently undergoing a demographic transition. Subjects and methods In this case- control study, 195 Kuwaiti MS patients and 146 healthy age and sex-matched controls were recruited. Both groups of subjects were interviewed using a structured questionnaire, in relation to anthropometric, socio-cultural and demographic data, residence during the 1990/91 Gulf War and current and past medical history, including medications. We also clinically evaluated, and retrospectively reviewed medical records of patients to derive appropriate clinical information, including associated chronic medical illness requiring long-term treatment. Results On multiple logistic regression analysis after adjustment for potential confounders including age, gender and BMI, in all the subjects, a positive associations prevail with presence of MS and some sociocultural and demographic factors, which included non-Bedouin ethnicity (AOR 2, 95% CI 1.0-3.9, p 0.049), positive family history of MS (AOR 10.6, 95% CI 3.0-36.9), p < 0.001), and low daily sunlight exposure of < 15min/day (AOR 5.3, 95% CI 2.7-10.5 p < 0.001). In addition, while 41.8% of MS patients indicated at least one comorbidity, only 26.8% of the controls reported any associated physical illness, with the suggestion that presence of certain comorbidities might increase MS risk (AOR 2.4, 95% CI 1.3-4.7, p < 0.001). Other risk variables such as smoking status and mode of routine outdoor dressing were not significant in all the MS subjects taken as a whole, but

  10. Sociocultural and Demographic Risk Factors for the Development of Multiple Sclerosis in Kuwait: A Case - Control Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhail N Al-Shammri

    Full Text Available Immunological, genetic and environmental factors are believed to play important roles in the pathogenesis of Multiple Sclerosis (MS. There have been many studies on risk factors for MS but these have been mainly in Caucasian populations; robust studies in Arab populations remain relatively uncommon. This study therefore aimed to identify behavioral, socio-cultural, and demographic factors associated with development of MS in Kuwait, a high income Arab country, currently undergoing a demographic transition.In this case- control study, 195 Kuwaiti MS patients and 146 healthy age and sex-matched controls were recruited. Both groups of subjects were interviewed using a structured questionnaire, in relation to anthropometric, socio-cultural and demographic data, residence during the 1990/91 Gulf War and current and past medical history, including medications. We also clinically evaluated, and retrospectively reviewed medical records of patients to derive appropriate clinical information, including associated chronic medical illness requiring long-term treatment.On multiple logistic regression analysis after adjustment for potential confounders including age, gender and BMI, in all the subjects, a positive associations prevail with presence of MS and some sociocultural and demographic factors, which included non-Bedouin ethnicity (AOR 2, 95% CI 1.0-3.9, p 0.049, positive family history of MS (AOR 10.6, 95% CI 3.0-36.9, p < 0.001, and low daily sunlight exposure of < 15min/day (AOR 5.3, 95% CI 2.7-10.5 p < 0.001. In addition, while 41.8% of MS patients indicated at least one comorbidity, only 26.8% of the controls reported any associated physical illness, with the suggestion that presence of certain comorbidities might increase MS risk (AOR 2.4, 95% CI 1.3-4.7, p < 0.001. Other risk variables such as smoking status and mode of routine outdoor dressing were not significant in all the MS subjects taken as a whole, but demonstrated variably positive

  11. Factors associated with patient satisfaction in surgery: the role of patients' perceptions of received care, visit characteristics, and demographic variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfelder, Tonio; Klewer, Joerg; Kugler, Joachim

    2010-11-01

    Measures of satisfaction of surgical patients can be used to evaluate and redesign the process of care or to complement established procedures to improve quality of services. However, study findings regarding aspects of patient satisfaction are often inconsistent and depend on the setting. The primary goals of this research were to identify factors associated with satisfaction among patients in a surgical setting. Data used in this study were obtained from randomly selected 2699 surgical patients discharged during January-December 2008 from 26 hospitals who responded to a mailed survey. The instrument assessed satisfaction regarding 23 items of perceived care, patient demographic, and visit characteristics. Bivariate and multivariate techniques were used to reveal relations between indicators and overall satisfaction. Bivariate statistics showed strong relations between overall satisfaction and perceived care with weaker findings pertaining to demographic and visit characteristics. The Multivariate logistic regression predicting overall satisfaction demonstrated that patients receiving surgical services predominantly have similar demands and priorities regardless of age and gender. The strongest factors were (P < 0.05) the interpersonal manner of medical practitioners and nurses, organization of operations, admittance, and discharge, as well as perceived length of stay. This study identified factors that are related to satisfaction of surgical patients and indicated the intensity of this relationship. These findings support health care providers and medical practitioners with valuable information to meet needs and preferences of patients receiving surgical services. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Leaving from and returning to nursing practice: contributing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, Isabel; Taua, Chris

    2009-07-01

    Many nurses leave nursing and never return. Others return after a period of time. Given the global shortage of nurses a better understanding of these movements is needed. The present study focused on nurses who had been out of nursing for more than five years, and explored factors that influenced their leaving and return to practice. All the nurses who had undertaken a Competency Assessment Programme at a given New Zealand tertiary institution during 2005 were invited to participate. Of the 70 questionnaires mailed out 32 (44.5%) were completed and returned. Quantitative data were analysed using Microsoft Excel, and the qualitative data were coded and analysed by means of content analysis. For each, leaving and returning, three key issues emerged. Nurses left for personal reasons, to seek a career change, or because of poor working conditions. They returned when they had the personal freedom to do so, for fiscal reasons, or because they were motivated by some sense of unfinished business. These findings indicate that it is important for educators involved with Competency Assessment Programmes to collaborate with employers in ensuring that there are opportunities for re-entry to positive work environments, with a degree of flexibility that suits the demographic characteristics of those nurses returning to practice.

  13. Socio-demographic Risk Factors Associated with HIV Infection In Patients Seeking Medical Advice in a Rural Hospital of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Uria, Gerardo; Midde, Manoranjan; Naik, Praveen K

    2012-02-17

    Despite the fact that two thirds of HIV infected people in India are rural residents, risk factors associated with HIV infection in rural areas are not well known. In this study we have collected socio-demographic data of 6406 patients who were tested for HIV infection in a rural hospital of India and we have investigated risk factors associated with HIV. In women the most important risk factor was being a widow and the risk was higher in younger than in older widows. Other variables found to be associated with HIV infection were age between 25 and 45 years in men, low education level (especially those who only completed primary education) and working in a field not related to agriculture in scheduled castes and men from scheduled tribes. The results of this study express the need for HIV screening of widows who live in rural areas of Indian States with high HIV prevalence.

  14. Impact of Demographic, Socioeconomic, and Psychological Factors on Glycemic Self-Management in Adults with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Zacarias, Alicia A.; Mavarez-Martinez, Ana; Arias-Morales, Carlos E.; Stoicea, Nicoleta; Rogers, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is reported as one of the most complex chronic diseases worldwide. In the United States, Type 2 DM (T2DM) is the seventh leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Individuals with diabetes require lifelong personal care to reduce the possibility of developing long-term complications. A good knowledge of diabetes risk factors, including obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, family history of DM, and sedentary lifestyle, play an essential role in prevention and treatment. Also, sociodemographic, economic, psychological, and environmental factors are directly and indirectly associated with diabetes control and health outcomes. Our review intends to analyze the interaction between demographics, knowledge, environment, and other diabetes-related factors based on an extended literature search, and to provide insight for improving glycemic control and reducing the incidence of chronic complications. PMID:27672634

  15. Risk contributions in an asymptotic multi-factor framework

    CERN Document Server

    Tasche, D

    2005-01-01

    So far, regulatory capital requirements for credit risk portfolios are calculated in a bottom-up approach by determining the requirements at asset level and then adding up them. In contrast, economic capital for a credit risk portfolio is calculated for the portfolio as a whole and then decomposed into risk contributions of assets or sub-portfolios for, e.g., diagnostic purposes like identifying risk concentrations. In the "Asymptotic Single Risk Factor" model that underlies the most important part of the "Basel II Accord", bottom-up and top-down approach yield identical results. However, the model fails in detecting exposure concentrations and recognizing diversification effects. We investigate multi-factor extensions of the ASRF model and derive exact formulae for the risk contributions to Value-at-Risk and Expected Shortfall. As an application of the risk contribution formulae we introduce a new concept for a diversification index. The use of this new index is illustrated with an example calculated with a ...

  16. Understanding nurses' and physicians' fear of repercussions for reporting errors: clinician characteristics, organization demographics, or leadership factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castel, Evan S; Ginsburg, Liane R; Zaheer, Shahram; Tamim, Hala

    2015-08-14

    Identifying and understanding factors influencing fear of repercussions for reporting and discussing medical errors in nurses and physicians remains an important area of inquiry. Work is needed to disentangle the role of clinician characteristics from those of the organization-level and unit-level safety environments in which these clinicians work and learn, as well as probing the differing reporting behaviours of nurses and physicians. This study examines the influence of clinician demographics (age, gender, and tenure), organization demographics (teaching status, location of care, and province) and leadership factors (organization and unit leadership support for safety) on fear of repercussions, and does so for nurses and physicians separately. A cross-sectional analysis of 2319 nurse and 386 physician responders from three Canadian provinces to the Modified Stanford patient safety climate survey (MSI-06). Data were analyzed using exploratory factor analysis, multiple linear regression, and hierarchical linear regression. Age, gender, tenure, teaching status, and province were not significantly associated with fear of repercussions for nurses or physicians. Mental health nurses had poorer fear responses than their peers outside of these areas, as did community physicians. Strong organization and unit leadership support for safety explained the most variance in fear for both nurses and physicians. The absence of associations between several plausible factors including age, tenure and teaching status suggests that fear is a complex construct requiring more study. Substantially differing fear responses across locations of care indicate areas where interventions may be needed. In addition, since factors affecting fear of repercussions appear to be different for nurses and physicians, tailoring patient safety initiatives to each group may, in some instances, be fruitful. Although further investigation is needed to examine these and other factors in detail, supportive

  17. E-cigarette Use Related to Demographic Factors in Hawai‘i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, James W; Taira, Deborah A

    2016-01-01

    E-cigarette use is rapidly expanding in the United States and is projected to be a $3 billion industry by the end of this year. E-cigarette use in Hawai‘i is significantly higher than national averages. The goal of this study was to examine the relationship in Hawai‘i between demographic characteristics and several aspects of e-cigarette use including percentage of residents trying e-cigarettes, reasons for use, and perceived effects on health. Survey data were collected from a random sample of Hawai‘i residents via the telephone in the summer of 2015, using methodology similar to that of the Hawai‘i Health Survey. Chi-squared tests found e-cigarette use to be significantly associated with age (P =.001), gender (P =.03), ethnicity (P e-cigarettes, 21% said their use of regular cigarettes did not change, 6% said they reduced use of regular cigarettes, and 20% said they completely stopped smoking regular cigarettes. Multivariable logistic regression results suggest Native Hawaiians (OR=29.1, P =.01) and Filipinos (OR=24.3, P =.01) were significantly more likely to report perceived improved health due to e-cigarette use compared to Caucasians. Given existing health disparities for Native Hawaiians and Filipinos, the fact that these groups are significantly more likely than other ethnic/racial groups to report that e-cigarettes improved their health bears notice and highlights the need for additional research in this area. PMID:27738563

  18. [Socioeconomic, cultural and demographic maternal factors associated with dietary patterns of infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotero, Andréa Marques; Cabral, Poliana Coelho; da Silva, Giselia Alves Pontes

    2015-12-01

    To analyze dietary patterns of infants and its association with maternal socioeconomic, cultural, and demographic variables. A cross-sectional study was conducted with two groups of mothers of children up to 24 months (n=202) living in the city of Maceió, Alagoas, Northeast Brazil. The case group consisted of mothers enrolled in a Family Health Unit. The comparison group consisted of mothers who took their children to two private pediatric offices of the city. Dietary intake was assessed using a qualitative and validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The evaluation of the FFQ was performed by a method in which the overall rate of consumption frequency is converted into a score. Children of higher income families and mothers with better education level (control group) showed the highest median of consumption scores for fruits and vegetables (p<0.01) and meat, offal, and eggs (p<0.01), when compared with children of the case group. On the other hand, the median of consumption scores of manufactured goods was higher among children in the case group (p<0.01). Maternal socioeconomic status influenced the quality of food offered to the infant. In the case group, children up to 24 months already consumed industrial products instead of healthy foods on their menu. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  19. IMMIGRATION AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT: THE EFFECTS OF SOCIO CULTURAL AND DEMOGRAPHIC FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çağdaş Şirin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Academic engagement during the high school years, a period in which young people go through tremendous change, is one of the key predictors of success for college entrance and later developmental periods. This study aims to evaluate the effect of immigration on the academic achievement of high school students. Participants were 1016 students (545 male, 567 female attending high schools from four provinces in Istanbul that have the highest rates of immigration (Zeytinburnu, Gaziosmanpasa, Büyükçekmece and Esenyurt Regions. The sample was drawn from students in all four years of High School. This study provides a snapshot of migrant students’ academic achievement profiles as well as the demographic determinants that might have an influence on their performance such as gender, number of siblings, generation, working status and selected majors variables. Results demonstrated that third generation have higher English score but lower Turkish language score than the first generation, gender plays a significant role on English and Turkish Language score but not on Math score.

  20. Demographic responses of Heterocypris incongruens (Ostracoda related to stress factors of competition, predation and food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocio Fernandez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Heterocypris incongruens is a widely distributed ostracod which can maintain its populations under stressful conditions such as those in temporary ponds and under low-quality diets, for example, detritus. It often co-occurs with cladocerans and fish living in shallow water bodies. Nevertheless, little is known about its response to the presence of predators, its consumption capacity of cyanobacteria typically present in eutrophic systems, and its interaction with other species in similar habits. We studied here the demographic responses of H. incongruens fed the green alga Scenedesmus acutus, two strains of Microcystis cf. aeruginosa and Limnothrix sp. Experiments were conducted separately and together in the presence of the cladoceran Simocephalus vetulus and the cichlid fish, Oreochromis kairomones. The ostracod maintained growth in all treatments, the reproductive output decreased on dietary Limnothrix sp., and its life expectancy was significantly lower with the toxic strain of Microcystis. The coexistence of both crustacean species increased the rate of population growth (~ 0.33 day-1 of S. vetulus and life expectancy (36-44 days of H. incongruens on the test diets compared with controls (23-33 days. Our study suggests facilitation affects the interaction between the two microcrustaceans, especially on poor quality cyanobacterial diets.

  1. Violence against women in Pakistan: contributing factors and new interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmaliani, Rozina; Pasha, Aneeta; Hirani, Saima; Somani, Rozina; Hirani, Shela; Asad, Nargis; Cassum, Laila; McFarlane, Judith

    2012-12-01

    Pakistan ranks 125th out of 169 countries on the Gender Development Index and has high prevalence rates of Violence against Women (VAW). Contributing factors toward gender based violence at the micro, meso and macro levels include the acceptability of violence amongst both men and women, internalization of deservability, economic disempowerment, lack of formal education, joint family systems, entrenched patriarchal norms and values, and a lack of awareness of legal and other support systems. These factors have a long-lasting impact on the health of women and children. The gender disparities in the experience of women seeking health care in Pakistan are well-recognized and documented. In the past, common government policy responses to these disparities have included developing the role of community health workers (CHWs) and lady health visitors (LHVs). Despite being commendable initiatives, these too have been unsuccessful in addressing these multi-faceted disparities. Within this complex scenario, new interventions to address VAW and its impact on health in Pakistan include Group Counselling, Economic Skills Building, Health-Based Microfinance, and Family-Based models that increase male involvement, especially at the primary health care level. The purpose of this article is to outline key contributing factors to VAW, explore tested and new interventions, and highlight the opportunities that exist in implementing them.

  2. Economic Growth, Demographic Change and Rural-Urban Migration in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Fu-ning; LI Qing; XIANG Jing; ZHU Jing

    2013-01-01

    Is China able to maintain fast growth after three decades? This paper tries to answer this question by:1) arguing that factors contributed to sustained long-run growth at supply side; 2) focusing on contributions of demographic dividend especially that of rural-urban migration; and 3) analyzing rural demographic change with information collected through village-wide household survey. Policy alternatives to realize remaining potential demographic dividend are proposed based on the analysis of changing rural demographic structure.

  3. An Examination of Bullying in Georgia Schools: Demographic and School Climate Factors Associated with Willingness to Intervene in Bullying Situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori Goldammer

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Research dedicated to identification of precursors to cases of aggravated bullying in schools has led to enhanced knowledge of risk factors for both victimization and perpetration. However, characteristics among those who are more likely to intervene in such situations are less understood. The purpose of this study is to examine the associations between demographic characteristics, school climate and psychosocial factors, and willingness to intervene in a bullying situation among middle and high school students in Georgia.Methods: We computed analyses using cross-sectional data from the Georgia Student Health Survey II (GSHS 2006 administered to public school students in grades 6, 8, 10, and 12 (n=175,311. We used logistic regression analyses to determine the demographic, school climate and psychosocial factors associated with a willingness to intervene in a bullying situation.Results: Students who were white and who were girls were most likely to report willingness to intervene in bullying situations. Several school-climate factors, such as feeling safe at school, liking school, feeling successful at school and perceiving clear rules at school, were associated with willingness to intervene, while youth who reported binge drinking were less willing to intervene.Conclusion: These findings, while preliminary, indicate that girls, students who are white, and students who experience a relatively positive school climate and adaptive psychosocial factors are more likely to report that they would intervene in bullying situations. These findings may guide how bullying is addressed in schools and underscore the importance of safe school climates. [West J Emerg Med. 2013;14(4:324–328.

  4. Orbital Contributions to the Electron g Factor in Semiconductor Nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Georg W.; Varjas, Dániel; Skolasinski, Rafal; Soluyanov, Alexey A.; Troyer, Matthias; Wimmer, Michael

    2017-07-01

    Recent experiments on Majorana fermions in semiconductor nanowires [S. M. Albrecht, A. P. Higginbotham, M. Madsen, F. Kuemmeth, T. S. Jespersen, J. Nygård, P. Krogstrup, and C. M. Marcus, Nature (London) 531, 206 (2016), 10.1038/nature17162] revealed a surprisingly large electronic Landé g factor, several times larger than the bulk value—contrary to the expectation that confinement reduces the g factor. Here we assess the role of orbital contributions to the electron g factor in nanowires and quantum dots. We show that an L .S coupling in higher subbands leads to an enhancement of the g factor of an order of magnitude or more for small effective mass semiconductors. We validate our theoretical finding with simulations of InAs and InSb, showing that the effect persists even if cylindrical symmetry is broken. A huge anisotropy of the enhanced g factors under magnetic field rotation allows for a straightforward experimental test of this theory.

  5. Identification of contributing factors to pedestrian overpass selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Wu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the efficiency of overpass and the safety level of pedestrian, this paper aims to investigate the contributing factors for selective preference of overpass. Eight overpasses were investigated in Xi’an, and a questionnaire was conducted by the pedestrians near the overpass. Totally, 1131 valid samples (873 used of overpasses and 258 non-used of overpasses were collected. Based on the data, a binary logit (BL model was developed to identify what and how the factors affect the selective preference of overpass. The BL model was calibrated by the maximum likelihood method. Likelihood ratio test and McFadden-R2 were used to analyze the goodness-of-fit of the model. The results show that the BL model has a reasonable goodness-of-fit, and the prediction accuracy of the BL model can reach 81.9%. The BL model showed that the selective preference of overpass was significantly influenced by eight factors, including gender, age, career, education level, license, detour wishes, detour distance, and crossing time. Besides, the odds ratios of significant factors were also analyzed to explain the impacts of the factors on selective preference of overpass.

  6. An observational study of bullying as a contributing factor in youth suicide in Toronto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinyor, Mark; Schaffer, Ayal; Cheung, Amy H

    2014-12-01

    Bullying has been identified as a potential contributing factor in youth suicide. This issue has been highlighted in recent widely publicized media reports, worldwide, in which deceased youth were bullied. We report on an observational study conducted to determine the frequency of bullying as a contributing factor to youth suicide. Coroner records were reviewed for all suicide deaths in youth aged between 10 and 19 in the city of Toronto from 1998 to 2011. Data abstracted were recent stressors (including bullying), clinical variables, such as the presence of mental illness, demographics, and methods of suicide. Ninety-four youth suicides were included in the study. The mean age was 16.8 years, and 70.2% were male. Bullying was present in 6 deaths (6.4%), and there were no deaths where online or cyberbullying was detected. Bullying was the only identified contributing factor in fewer than 5 deaths. The most common stressors identified were conflict with parents (21.3%), romantic partner problems (17.0%), academic problems (10.6%), and criminal and (or) legal problems (10.6%). Any stressor or mental and (or) physical illness was detected in 78.7% of cases. Depression was detected in 40.4% of cases. Our study highlights the need to view suicide in youth as arising from a complex interplay of various biological, psychological, and social factors of which bullying is only one. It challenges simple cause-and-effect models that may suggest that suicide arises from anyone factor, such as bullying.

  7. Commuter motorcycle crashes in Malaysia: An understanding of contributing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxley, Jennifer; Yuen, Jeremy; Ravi, Mano Deepa; Hoareau, Effie; Mohammed, Mohammed Azman Aziz; Bakar, Harun; Venkataraman, Saraswathy; Nair, Prame Kumar

    2013-01-01

    In Malaysia, two-thirds of reported workplace-related fatal and serious injury incidents are the result of commuting crashes (especially those involving motorcyclists), however, little is known about the contributing factors to these collisions. A telephone survey of 1,750 motorcyclists (1,004 adults who had been involved in a motorcycle commuting crash in the last 2 years and 746 adult motorcyclists who had not been involved in a motorcycle crash in the last 2 years) was undertaken. The contributions of a range of behavioural, attitudinal, employment and travel pattern factors to collision involvement were examined. The findings revealed that the majority of participants were licensed riders, rode substantial distances (most often for work purposes), and reported adopting safe riding practices (helmet wearing and buckling). However, there were some concerning findings regarding speeding behaviour, use of mobile phones while riding, and engaging in other risky behaviours. Participants who had been involved in a collision were younger (aged 25-29 years), had higher exposure (measured by distances travelled, frequency of riding, and riding on high volume and higher speed roads), reported higher rates of riding for work purposes, worked more shift hours and had a higher likelihood of riding at relatively high speeds compared with participants who had not been involved in a collision. Collisions generally occurred during morning and early evening hours, striking another vehicles, and during normal traffic flow. The implications of these findings for policy decisions and development of evidence-based behavioural/training interventions addressing key contributing factors are discussed.

  8. Impact of demographic factors on management competencies of the municipal sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tripolitsioti Alexandra

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to define the competencies required for the administration of the sports facilities, of the municipal sport organizations and to compare them with selected variables, such as age, educational level, type of degree and years of employment. In the study participated 401 sport’s facilities managers, of the Municipal sport organizations of the country. They answered in a questionnaire designed for the study purposes, which was sent to them postal. The Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA between age, educational level, type of degree and years of employment revealed that: a there were statistically significant differences between the different age groups for the facility management factor (F(3, 397= 4.947, p< 0.002 and governance factor (F(3, 397= 3.170, p< 0.024, b there were statistically significant differences between the PhD holders, the Master holders, the Higher Education graduates or any other title for the event management factor (F(3, 397= 3.073, p< 0.028 and first aid/crisis management factor (F(3, 397= 4.311, p< 0.005, c there were statistically significant differences between the different titles for the first aid- crisis management factor (F(3, 397= 10.264, p< 0.000 and governance factor (F(3, 397= 4.104, p< 0.007 and d there were statistically significant differences between the total years of employment for the first aid-crisis management factor (F(3, 397= 6.869, p< 0.000 and governance factor (F(3, 397= 3.779, p< 0.011. It is concluded that the competency factors of the Sport’s Facilities managers of the municipal sport organizations are affected by the age, the educational level, the type of degree and the years of employment.

  9. Spatial prevalence of intellectual disability and related socio-demographic factors in Iran, using GWR: Case study (2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Goli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although intellectual disability (ID is a common disability in Iran, there is no investigation on the spatial distribution pattern of these patients in national level and the spatial maps for recognition the areas with higher prevalence of IDs and local neighborhoods of these regions or effect of socio-demographic factor on this scattering is not still available. This proposition motivated us to assess the population with ID in our country. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, we applied Moran′s Index (Moran′s I which includes information about the strength of the neighboring association between counties, as global univariate distribution assessment. A geographically weighted regression was used to explore relation between ID patient′s prevalence and some socio-demographic factors (migration and illiteracy rate, physician number (PN/10,000 people and health-care centers (HCCs/10,000 people. Results: We found that spatial clusters of ID patients exist among Iran counties (Moran′s I = 0.36, P 0.3. Conclusions: According to the results, our Initial hypothesis about the existence of spatial clusters in distribution of people with ID in Iran was proven. Spatial autocorrelation between migration and illiteracy rate and prevalence of patients with ID was shown and was in agreement with our hypothesis. However, our supposition that the prevalence should have inverse relationship with PN and HCC was rejected.

  10. Socio-demographic factors and long-term use of benzodiazepines in patients with depression, anxiety or insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjöstedt, Cecilia; Ohlsson, Henrik; Li, Xinjun; Sundquist, Kristina

    2017-03-01

    Former studies that have attempted to characterize individual socio-demographic factors associated with long-term benzodiazepine use were based on relatively small sample sizes and/or self-reported data. Our aim was to clarify this using large-scale primary health care data from Sweden. The present study covered 71 primary health care centres containing individual-level data from a total of 919, 941 individuals who visited a primary health care centre (PHCC) during the period 2001-2007. From this database we selected individuals 25 years or older with depression, anxiety and/or insomnia and who were prescribed a benzodiazepine within 0-90 as well as 91-270 days after their first clinical diagnosis of depression, anxiety and/or insomnia. Older age (OR, 2.92, 95% CI, 2.28-3.84), middle SES (OR, 1.22, 95% CI, 1.08-1.38), being on social welfare (OR, 1.40, 95% CI, 1.23-1.62) and not being married were associated with higher long-term benzodiazepine use. The PHCCs only explained a small part of the individual variation in long-term benzodiazepine use. Awareness of the impact on long-term benzodiazepine use of certain individual-level socio-demographic factors is important for health care workers and decision-makers who should aim at targeting general interventions at all primary health care centres. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Critical Analysis of Factors Contributing to the Formation of Interlanguage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵栩

    2015-01-01

    Interlanguage is a common phenomenon in foreign language learning process.It refers to the language system which is formed in a certain period in learners' second language or foreign language learning process.In the past,behaviorist learning theory and mentalist learning theory has dominated language learning for a long period of time,but both of them have some deficiencies.This paper is to make a critical analysis on the factors contributing to the formation of interlanguage,which reflects the practical importance of interlanguage to language teaching and learning.

  12. Critical Analysis of Factors Contributing to the Formation of Interlanguage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵栩

    2015-01-01

    Interlanguage is a common phenomenon in foreign language learning process.It refers to the language system which is formed in a certain period in learners’ second language or foreign language learning process.In the past,behaviorist learning theory and mentalist learning theory has dominated language learning for a long period of time,but both of them have some deficiencies.This paper is to make a critical analysis on the factors contributing to the formation of interlanguage,which reflects the practical importance of interlanguage to language teaching and learning.

  13. Analyzing the Impact of Residential Building Attributes, Demographic and Behavioral Factors on Natural Gas Usage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Livingston, Olga V.; Cort, Katherine A.

    2011-03-03

    This analysis examines the relationship between energy demand and residential building attributes, demographic characteristics, and behavioral variables using the U.S. Department of Energy’s Residential Energy Consumption Survey 2005 microdata. This study investigates the applicability of the smooth backfitting estimator to statistical analysis of residential energy consumption via nonparametric regression. The methodology utilized in the study extends nonparametric additive regression via local linear smooth backfitting to categorical variables. The conventional methods used for analyzing residential energy consumption are econometric modeling and engineering simulations. This study suggests an econometric approach that can be utilized in combination with simulation results. A common weakness of previously used econometric models is a very high likelihood that any suggested parametric relationships will be misspecified. Nonparametric modeling does not have this drawback. Its flexibility allows for uncovering more complex relationships between energy use and the explanatory variables than can possibly be achieved by parametric models. Traditionally, building simulation models overestimated the effects of energy efficiency measures when compared to actual "as-built" observed savings. While focusing on technical efficiency, they do not account for behavioral or market effects. The magnitude of behavioral or market effects may have a substantial influence on the final energy savings resulting from implementation of various energy conservation measures and programs. Moreover, variability in behavioral aspects and user characteristics appears to have a significant impact on total energy consumption. Inaccurate estimates of energy consumption and potential savings also impact investment decisions. The existing modeling literature, whether it relies on parametric specifications or engineering simulation, does not accommodate inclusion of a behavioral component. This

  14. Demographic characteristics and metabolic risk factors in Croatian children with urolithiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milošević, Danko; Batinić, Danica; Turudić, Daniel; Batinić, Danko; Topalović-Grković, Marija; Gradiški, Ivan Pavao

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess demographic data, clinical presentation, metabolic features, and treatment in 76 children with urolithiasis presented from 2002 to 2011. Urolithiasis is responsible for 2.5/1,000 pediatric hospitalizations, with new cases diagnosed in 1.1/1,000 admissions. From the observed period, two-fold rise of incidence rate was observed. Compiling the data from other pediatric institutions in our country, we estimated present overall incidence rate in Croatia as 6.5/100,000 children under 18 years. There were 41 boys and 35 girls (ratio 1.17:1). The mean age at diagnosis was 9.7 (range 0.8-16) years and follow-up duration was 5.3 (range 1.8-10) years. Renal colic (75.0 %) and hematuria (57.89 %) were the main symptoms. In 65.78 % of children, stones were unilateral. Stones were located in kidney in 52.63 %, in the ureter in 26.32 %, and in bladder in 6.58 % cases. Stone analysis showed calcium oxalate in 75.0 % of the cases. Associated urinary tract abnormalities were found in 19.73 % children. Most common metabolic disturbances were hypercalciuria (47.37 %) and idiopathic or mild hyperoxaluria (18.42 %). Urine saturation (EQUIL2) was elevated in 61.84 % cases. Spontaneous stone evacuation occurred in 51.21 % children. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy, surgical evacuation, and endoscopic removal of calculi were performed in 21.0, 6.58, and 5.26 % of cases, respectively. Follow-up conservative therapy, consisting of fluid/diet recommendations and additional potassium citrate and/or chlorothiazide in children with increased risk, was sufficient for stone recurrence prevention in 92.1 % of children. In conclusion, the study gave insight in epidemiology and metabolic disturbances of urinary stone disease in Croatian children.

  15. Interrelationships between demographic factors, development and the environment in the ESCAP region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, A

    1994-09-01

    The population of the ESCAP region is projected to reach 4.1 billion by the year 2010, or 812 million more people than there are currently. Rapid economic, demographic, and urban growth in the region have severely burdened available natural resources and environmental amenities, especially in mega-cities of eight million or more inhabitants, and will continue to do so well into the future. Accounting for a large share of economic activities, urban centers are growing very fast due largely to the combination of natural increase and migration. The adverse consequences of this ongoing urban expansion and overurbanization are, however, being felt in both periurban/suburban areas and within the cities. Residents inside cities suffer from inadequate housing, water supply shortages, inadequate sanitation, noise and congestion, and the general pollution of air and water. The main problem in surrounding areas is the use of agricultural lands and open spaces to make way for the necessary infrastructure. Associated deforestation also leads to the irreversible loss of land which should otherwise remain available for food production and to fulfill its natural ecological potential. Recognizing the direction and extent of these problems, some newly industrializing and developing countries in the ESCAP region have implemented or are starting to implement measures to alleviate environmental problems in their principal cities. Approaches include cleaning rivers close to urban areas, tree planting, reserving urban areas as green belts, site and service schemes, planning land use, upgrading slums, reducing the use of fossil fuels, and providing for people's basic needs. Recommendations are made to help guide governments in their efforts to ameliorate conditions in such circumstances.

  16. Environmental and demographic risk factors for campylobacteriosis: do various geographical scales tell the same story?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsenault Julie

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Campylobacter is a common cause of bacterial gastro-enteritis characterized by multiple environmental sources and transmission pathways. Ecological studies can be used to reveal important regional characteristics linked to campylobacteriosis risk, but their results can be influenced by the choice of geographical units of analysis. This study was undertaken to compare the associations between the incidence of campylobacteriosis in Quebec, Canada and various environmental characteristics using seven different sets of geographical units. Methods For each set of geographical unit, a conditional autoregressive model was used to model the incidence of reported cases of campylobacteriosis according to environmental (poultry density, ruminant density, slaughterhouse presence, temperature, and precipitation and demographic (population density, level of education characteristics. Models were compared in terms of number of significant predictors, differences in direction and magnitude of predictors, and fit of the models. Results In general, the number of significant predictors was reduced as the aggregation level increased. More aggregated scales tend to show larger but less precise estimates for all variables, with the exception of slaughterhouse presence. Regional characteristics associated with an increased regional risk of campylobacteriosis, for at least some geographical units, were high ruminant density, high poultry density, high population density, and presence of a large poultry slaughterhouse, whereas a reduction in risk was associated with a lower percentage of people with diplomas, a lower level of precipitation, and warmer temperature. Two clusters of elevated residual risk were observed, with different location and size depending on the geographical unit used. Conclusions Overall, our results suggest that the use of municipality or census consolidated subdivision were the most optimal scales for studying environmental

  17. Socio-demographic factors, reproductive history and risk of osteoarthritis in a cohort of 4.6 million Danish women and men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, K T; Pedersen, B V; Nielsen, N M;

    2011-01-01

    Studies addressing possible socio-demographic and reproductive factors in the aetiology of osteoarthritis (OA) are few. We studied possible influences of educational level, household income, marital status and parenting patterns on OA risk overall and at anatomical sites.......Studies addressing possible socio-demographic and reproductive factors in the aetiology of osteoarthritis (OA) are few. We studied possible influences of educational level, household income, marital status and parenting patterns on OA risk overall and at anatomical sites....

  18. Socio-demographic factors, reproductive history and risk of osteoarthritis in a cohort of 4.6 million Danish women and men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, K T; Pedersen, B V; Nielsen, N M

    2011-01-01

    Studies addressing possible socio-demographic and reproductive factors in the aetiology of osteoarthritis (OA) are few. We studied possible influences of educational level, household income, marital status and parenting patterns on OA risk overall and at anatomical sites.......Studies addressing possible socio-demographic and reproductive factors in the aetiology of osteoarthritis (OA) are few. We studied possible influences of educational level, household income, marital status and parenting patterns on OA risk overall and at anatomical sites....

  19. Sensitivity and specificity of WAIS-III/WMS-III demographically corrected factor scores in neuropsychological assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, M J; Heaton, R K

    2001-11-01

    This study explored the neurodiagnostic utility of 6 factor scores identified by recent exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of the WAIS-III and WMS-III: Verbal Comprehension, Perceptual Organization, Processing Speed, Working Memory, Auditory Memory and Visual Memory. Factor scores were corrected for age. education, sex and ethnicity to minimize their influences on diagnostic accuracy. Cut-offs at 1, 1.5 and 2 standard deviations (SDs) below the standardization sample mean were applied to data from the overlapping test normative samples (N = 1073) and 6 clinical samples described in the WAIS-III/WMS-III Technical Manual (N = 126). The analyses suggest that a I SD cut-off yields the most balanced levels of sensitivity and specificity; more strict (1.5 or 2 SD) cut-offs generally result in trading modest gains in specificity for larger losses in sensitivity. Finally, using combinations of WAIS-III/WMS-III factors together as test batteries, we explored the sensitivity and specificity implications of varying diagnostic decision rules (e.g.,1 vs. 2 impaired factors = "impairment"). For most of the disorders considered here, even a small (e.g., 3 factor) WAIS-III/WMS-III battery provides quite good overall diagnostic accuracy.

  20. Factors contributing to malnutrition in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung R; Chung, Sun J; Yoo, Sung-Hee

    2016-04-01

    Our objective in this study was to evaluate the nutritional status and to identify clinical, psychosocial, and nutritional factors contributing to malnutrition in Korean patients with Parkinson's disease. We used a descriptive, cross-sectional study design. Of 102 enrolled patients, 26 (25.5%) were malnourished and 27 (26.5%) were at risk of malnutrition based on Mini-Nutritional Assessment scores. Malnutrition was related to activity of daily living score, Hoehn and Yahr stage, duration of levodopa therapy, Beck Depression Inventory and Spielberger's Anxiety Inventory scores, body weight, body weight at onset of Parkinson's disease, and body mass index. On multiple logistic regression analysis, anxiety score, duration of levodopa therapy, body weight at onset of Parkinson's disease, and loss of body weight were significant factors predicting malnutrition in Parkinson's disease patients. Therefore, nutritional assessment, including psychological evaluation, is required for Parkinson's disease patients to facilitate interdisciplinary nutritional intervention for malnourished patients.

  1. How demographic and economic factors have influenced ways of residing measured by urbanisation, type of dwelling, and type of tenure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Hedvig

    in this period. The aim is especially to give an overview of how the economic and financial crisis affected the ways of residing in ten countries in: a) the Nordic countries, b) Western Europe, and in c) Eastern Europe. This is done by analysing how demographic and economic factors have influenced ways......The purpose of this paper is to present and discuss factors influencing ways of residing up to and during the years leading up to the Global Financial Crisis (GFC) as well as presently. The activity in the housing construction sector in the Nordic and Baltic countries was at a very high level until...... 2005–2007. Urban sprawl and overinvestment in business premises and housing were important risks to be considered. The high economic activity also led to an increase in the cost of housing and hence to affordability problems in major cities. Many new urban quarters and towns came into planning...

  2. The socio-demographic, environmental and reservoir factors associated with leptospirosis in an urban area of north-eastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, D S C; Guimarães, M J B; Portugal, J L; Medeiros, Z

    2009-03-01

    In an ecological study based on the 18 microregions that form the city of Recife, the capital of the Brazilian state of Pernambuco, associations between socio-demographic, environmental and reservoir factors and the incidence of leptospirosis in the city were investigated. Incidence over a 5-year period (2001-2005) and 14 variables were analysed, using central trend and dispersion measurements, Pearson's correlation and multiple linear regression. Variables relating to education, income, housing type, sewage system, rubbish collection and hydrographic factors were found to be significantly correlated with leptospirosis incidence (Plegal minimum (U.S.$83.55/month), and the proportion of households from which rubbish was dumped in skips, lakes, rivers or the sea or on vacant land - explained 60% (P=0.017) of the differences in disease risk observed between the various areas of the city.

  3. SIDS–CDF Hypothesis Revisited: Cause vs. Contributing Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siren, Pontus M. A.

    2017-01-01

    The sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)–critical diaphragm failure (CDF) hypothesis was first published by Siren and Siren in 2011 (1). Since its publication, the hypothesis has continued to generate interest and several colleagues have contributed perspectives and insights to it (2–5). The basic premise of the hypothesis is that the diaphragm is a vital organ that must continuously generate adequate force to maintain ventilation, and that CDF is a terminal event and the cause of death in SIDS. I have argued in two follow-up articles that all SIDS factors either increase the workload of the respiratory muscles, the diaphragm being the primary muscle affected, or reduce its force generating capacity (6, 7). The SIDS–CDF hypothesis posits that SIDS has many contributing factors but only one cause, namely, the failure of the vital respiratory pump. There are several known SIDS factors, such as the prone sleeping position, non-lethal infections, deep sleep, gestational prematurity, low birth weight, cigarette smoke, male gender, and altitude, but of these, some such as the prone sleeping position more significantly both impact diaphragm function and correlate with SIDS. However, SIDS cases are multifactorial and as such can be caused by different combinations of factors. An infection combined with a prone sleeping position and elevated room temperature could lead to SIDS, whereas in other circumstances, low birth weight, cigarette smoke, prone sleeping position, and altitude could result in CDF and SIDS. The SIDS–CDF hypothesis also posits that SIDS does not have a congenital or genetic origin, and that efforts to identify significant genetic anomalies in SIDS victims are unlikely to be successful (8–11). PMID:28138321

  4. [Assessment of socio-demographic factors in alcohol-addicted patients recurrently treated in a detoxification unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrostek Maj, Jan; Kamenczak, Aleksandra; Bock, Romana; Polewka, Andrzej; Krawczyk, Elzbieta

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the presented study was the assessment some socio-demographic factors of alcohol dependent patients more times hospitalized in Department of Toxicology in Kraków in the years 1999-2004. The repeatedly hospitalization of 334 patients (298 men and 36 women), aged from 17 to 71 years (mean 45.1 years) due the alcohol problem on the basis of clinic documentation were established. The following socio-demographics traits were taken in analysis: age, sex, marital status, place of living, education, kind of jobs, employment and others sources of money. The patients were admitted from 2 or more 29 times during 6 years. Medical history of addiction of mentioned patients was from 1 to 40 years, mean 25 years. 43.7% persons live single and 53.6% was married. The most patients live in Kraków (80%) and others near the town. The education of them: 15.0% ended high school, 28.7% "medium", 30.5% "low professional" and elementary school--13.8% of them. This factor was similar like regional data. Amount mentioned persons 25.8% worked for salary, 11.7% had own business, and 25.4% was retired, and 29.0% was unemployed. This last factor was worse liked similar from mentioned region. The kind of jobs of persons on the aspect of "social safety" was described. Among the mentioned chronic alcohol addicted persons about 18.8% of them with machines in traffic was worked (bus drivers i.e.) and 7.5% described persons in special jobs was worked (policemen, physician i.e.). The authors were suggested that mentioned factors due health services cost in Poland and propose integration of treatment of alcohol-addicted patients.

  5. Antibiotic consumption in relation to socio-demographic factors, co-morbidity, and accessibility of primary health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ternhag, Anders; Grünewald, Maria; Nauclér, Pontus; Wisell, Karin Tegmark

    2014-12-01

    Differences in antibiotic consumption between individuals are not only due to differences in primary infection morbidity, other non-medical factors are important. Our objective was to investigate how socio-demographic factors, co-morbidity, and access to primary care affect antibiotic prescribing. The study population included all 2 078 481 persons in Sweden who received at least one antibiotic prescription during 2010, and an unmatched control population of 788 580 individuals. We used record linkage to obtain data on co-morbidity, various socio-demographic variables, and waiting times for doctor appointments in primary care. We used logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) for antibiotic prescription. The results showed that over 20% of the population were prescribed antibiotics during 2010. Children aged 0-5 years, persons ≥ 75 years of age, those living in urban areas, and women compared with men, received many prescriptions. Co-morbidity was a strong factor that determined the number of antibiotic prescriptions: those with Charlson's index ≥ 3 had an OR of 3.03 (95% CI: 3.00-3.07) to obtain antibiotics in the adjusted analysis, compared with individuals without co-morbidity (Charlson's index 0). Short waiting times for a doctor's visit in primary care were associated with a higher number of antibiotic prescriptions. Individuals born in Sweden were prescribed more antibiotics compared with those born in another country. Specifically, persons born in any of the 27 EU countries (excluding Scandinavia) had an OR of antibiotic prescription of 0.78 (95% CI: 0.77-0.78) compared with native-born individuals. We conclude that non-medical factors strongly influence antibiotic prescriptions.

  6. Socio-demographic and lifestyle factors associated with folate status among non-supplement-consuming Canadian women of childbearing age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yipu; De Groh, Margaret; MacFarlane, Amanda J

    2014-05-09

    Mandatory folic acid fortification was implemented in Canada in 1998 to reduce the risk of neural tube defects (NTD). Our objective was to assess the relationship between socio-demographic factors and folate status in non-supplement-consuming Canadian women of childbearing age. Data on demographic factors, lifestyle factors, physical measures and red blood cell (RBC) folate concentration were collected from 1,008 non-supplement-consuming women aged 15-49 years in the Canadian Health Measures Survey (2007-2009). RBC folate ³906 nmol/L was used as a cut-off for optimal folate status for protection from NTD. Approximately 75% of non-supplement consuming women had an RBC folate concentration ³906 nmol/L. Young age (15-19 years), White ethnicity, less than secondary education, lowest income adequacy, smoking and high body mass index were associated with a higher prevalence of lower folate status. After adjustment, only young age (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.99-95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.25-3.18) was associated with lower folate status. Less than secondary education (adjusted OR 5.66, 95% CI: 1.10-29.04) and lowest income adequacy (adjusted OR 4.77, 95% CI: 1.06-21.49) were associated with lower folate status in women aged 15-24 and 25-49 years, respectively. Many risk factors for lower folate status identified before food fortification was implemented were not associated with folate status in our representative sample of non-supplement-consuming Canadian women. However, younger women, women aged 15-24 with less than secondary education and women aged 25-49 with low income adequacy remain at risk of lower folate status, supporting the continued promotion of folic acid supplement use to women of childbearing age.

  7. Cytotoxic Necrotizing Factor 1 Contributes to Escherichia coli Meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Hsien Wang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available E. coli is the most common Gram-negative bacteria causing neonatal meningitis, and E. coli meningitis continues to be an important cause of mortality and morbidity throughout the world. Recent reports of E. coli meningitis caused by antimicrobial resistant strains are a particular concern. These findings indicate that a novel strategy is needed to identify new targets for prevention and therapy of E. coli meningitis. Cytotoxic necrotizing factor 1 (CNF1 is a bacterial virulence factor associated principally with E. coli strains causing urinary tract infection and meningitis. We have shown that CNF1 contributes to E. coli invasion of the blood-brain barrier and penetration into the brain, the essential step in the development of E. coli meningitis, and identified the host receptor for CNF1, 37-kDa laminin receptor precursor (37LRP. CNF1, however, is a cytoplasmic protein and its contribution to E. coli invasion of the blood-brain barrier requires its secretion from the bacterial cytoplasm. No signal peptide is found in the CNF1 sequence. CNF1 secretion is, therefore, a strategy utilized by meningitis-causing E. coli to invade the blood-brain barrier. Elucidation of the mechanisms involved in CNF1 secretion, as shown in this report with the involvement of Fdx and YgfZ provides the novel information on potential targets for prevention and therapy of E. coli meningitis by virtue of targeting the secretion of CNF1.

  8. Understanding discrepancies in parent-child reporting of emotional and behavioural problems: Effects of relational and socio-demographic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Roy, Betty; Groholt, Berit; Heyerdahl, Sonja; Clench-Aas, Jocelyne

    2010-07-16

    Discrepancies between parents and children in their assessment of children's mental health affect the evaluation of need for services and must be taken seriously. This article presents the differences between parents' and children's reports of the children's symptoms and social impairment, based on the results of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). The interrelationship between relational aspects and socio-demographic factors with patterns of disagreement are explored. Differences in the prevalence and means of SDQ symptom and impact scores were obtained from 8,154 primary school children, aged between 10 and 13 years, and their parents. Agreement between matched pairs was measured using Pearson's and Spearman's rho correlations. Socio-demographic variables, communication patterns and parental engagement were analysed as possible correlates of informant discrepancies using bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models. In general, although children reported more symptoms, they reported less impact of perceived difficulties than parents. The parents were more consistent in their evaluation of symptoms and impact than were the children. Exploration of highly discrepant subgroups showed that, when children reported the most symptoms and impact, qualitative aspects of the parent-child relationship and family structure seemed to be more powerful predictors of disagreement than were gender of the child and socio-demographic variables. When parents reported the most symptoms and impact, low parental educational level, low income and male gender of the child played an additional role. Our findings underline the importance of paying attention to child reports of emotional-behavioural difficulties, particularly when parents do not identify these problems. Considerations on what meaning parent-child discrepancy might have in the context of the parent-child relationship or the family's psychosocial status should be integrated in the overall

  9. Understanding discrepancies in parent-child reporting of emotional and behavioural problems: Effects of relational and socio-demographic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heyerdahl Sonja

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Discrepancies between parents and children in their assessment of children's mental health affect the evaluation of need for services and must be taken seriously. This article presents the differences between parents' and children's reports of the children's symptoms and social impairment, based on the results of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ. The interrelationship between relational aspects and socio-demographic factors with patterns of disagreement are explored. Methods Differences in the prevalence and means of SDQ symptom and impact scores were obtained from 8,154 primary school children, aged between 10 and 13 years, and their parents. Agreement between matched pairs was measured using Pearson's and Spearman's rho correlations. Socio-demographic variables, communication patterns and parental engagement were analysed as possible correlates of informant discrepancies using bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models. Results In general, although children reported more symptoms, they reported less impact of perceived difficulties than parents. The parents were more consistent in their evaluation of symptoms and impact than were the children. Exploration of highly discrepant subgroups showed that, when children reported the most symptoms and impact, qualitative aspects of the parent-child relationship and family structure seemed to be more powerful predictors of disagreement than were gender of the child and socio-demographic variables. When parents reported the most symptoms and impact, low parental educational level, low income and male gender of the child played an additional role. Conclusions Our findings underline the importance of paying attention to child reports of emotional-behavioural difficulties, particularly when parents do not identify these problems. Considerations on what meaning parent-child discrepancy might have in the context of the parent-child relationship or the family

  10. Prevalence and socio-demographic factors associated with overweight and obesity among adolescents in Kaski district, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bishwas Acharya

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The occurrence of overweight and obesity is at increasing level in low income and developing countries and is not limited to high income countries only. Adolescent is at high risk for its development. Rationale: To find out the prevalence and associated socio-demographic factors responsible for overweight and obesity which are unrecognized health problems and are risk factors for non-communicable disease. To date no study has been done focusing overweight and obesity in Kaski district, Nepal and very few in context of Nepal. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity and their association with socio demographic factors among higher secondary school level adolescents in Kaski district, Nepal. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in Kaski district among 838 adolescents randomly selected from 12 schools using multistage cluster sampling from 24th October to 4th December, 2013 using self-administered questionnaire and anthropometric assessment. BMI for age was calculated using WHO Anthroplus software v.1.0.4 using cut off value of 85th percentile and 95th percentile for overweight and obesity respectively. Statistical analysis was done using SPSSv. 16.  Results: The study revealed 8.1% prevalence of overweight and obesity of among higher secondary level school adolescents with 5.8% overweight and 2.3% obese. Urban respondents were found significantly more overweight/obese than village respondents (p=0.001, OR=2.360. Adolescents of ethnic/indigenous group (p<0.001, OR=2.56, fathers’ with government job (p=0.011, OR=2.08, mothers’ with teaching job (p=0.038, OR=2.57 and average monthly family income more than or equal to NRs.25, 000 (p=0.007, OR=1.97 were found significantly more overweight and obese. But, other socio demographic factors like gender (p=0.26, birth order (p=0.404 and parents’ education (p=0.121 for fathers’ and p=0.282 for mothers’ education weren’t significantly associated

  11. Jordanian Mothers' Perceptions of Their Children's Social Competence: An Examination of Family Factors and Demographic Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Taleb, Tagreed Fathi; AlZoubi, Rifa Rafe

    2015-01-01

    Children's social competence is an area of research that receives minimal attention from Jordanian researchers. It is important to investigate this area of development so as to provide parents with information about the nature of social competence and possible factors affecting its development. This research study examined Jordanian mothers'…

  12. The Influence of Demographic and Economic Factors on Fear of Crime among African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Keith D.; Onyekwuluje, Anne B.

    1992-01-01

    Studies factors associated with fear of crime for 585 African-American urban residents from Atlanta (Georgia) and Washington (DC). Many residents thought the streets were safe day or night. Gender was a predictor of fear of crime during the day, and gender and age predicted fear of night crime. (SLD)

  13. Jordanian Mothers' Perceptions of Their Children's Social Competence: An Examination of Family Factors and Demographic Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Taleb, Tagreed Fathi; AlZoubi, Rifa Rafe

    2015-01-01

    Children's social competence is an area of research that receives minimal attention from Jordanian researchers. It is important to investigate this area of development so as to provide parents with information about the nature of social competence and possible factors affecting its development. This research study examined Jordanian mothers'…

  14. Post-MBA Industry Shifts: An Investigation of Career, Educational and Demographic Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Alvin; Bento, Regina; Arbaugh, J. B.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine factors that predict industry-level career change among MBA graduates. Design/methodology/approach: The study analyzed longitudinal data from the Management Education Research Institute (MERI)'s Global MBA Graduate Survey Dataset and MBA Alumni Perspectives Survey Datasets, using principal component…

  15. Individual and socio-demographic factors related to presenting problem and diagnostic impressions at a pediatric sleep clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubens, Sonia L; Patrick, Kristina E; Williamson, Ariel A; Moore, Melisa; Mindell, Jodi A

    2016-09-01

    Individual and socio-demographic factors have been found to be associated with sleep disturbances in children. Few studies have examined these factors among children presenting for care at pediatric sleep clinics. This study examined individual and socio-demographic factors in association with presenting problems and diagnostic impressions for new patients at an interdisciplinary pediatric sleep clinic. Data were collected from electronic medical records of 207 consecutive patients (54% male, 59% White, Meanage = 7.73, SD = 5.62). Older age, female gender, and White race were associated with higher likelihood of presenting with difficulty falling asleep; younger age, male gender, and Black race were associated with higher likelihood of presenting with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)-related concerns. Older age was associated with diagnostic impressions of inadequate sleep hygiene, insufficient sleep, circadian rhythm disorder/delayed sleep phase disorder, periodic limb movement disorder/restless legs syndrome, and insomnia, while younger age was associated with provisional OSA and behavioral insomnia of childhood (BIC) diagnoses. Male gender was associated with provisional OSA. White race was associated with BIC. Age-based analyses were also conducted to further understand the findings within a developmental context. Age- and gender-related findings converged with prevalence literature on pediatric sleep disorders. Race was only associated with presenting concern and BIC, and one association for neighborhood disadvantage was found within the age-based analysis. Results suggest a potential service delivery gap, with racial/ethnic minority youth being less likely to present for sleep services, despite prevalence data on the increased likelihood of sleep disturbances among these youth. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Dietary Patterns in Pregnancy in New Zealand—Influence of Maternal Socio-Demographic, Health and Lifestyle Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare R. Wall

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Exploration of dietary pattern associations within a multi-ethnic society context has been limited. We aimed to describe dietary patterns of 5664 pregnant women from the Growing Up in New Zealand study, and investigate associations between these patterns and maternal socio-demographic, place of birth, health and lifestyle factors. Participants completed a food frequency questionnaire prior to the birth of their child. Principal components analysis was used to extract dietary patterns and multivariable analyses used to determine associations. Four dietary components were extracted. Higher scores on, ‘Junk’ and ‘Traditional/White bread’, were associated with decreasing age, lower educational levels, being of Pacific or Māori ethnicity and smoking. Higher scores on, ‘Health conscious’ and ‘Fusion/Protein’, were associated with increasing age, better self-rated health, lower pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI and not smoking. Higher scores on ‘Junk’ and ‘Health conscious’ were associated with being born in New Zealand (NZ, whereas higher scores on ‘Fusion/Protein’ was associated with being born outside NZ and being of non-European ethnicity, particularly Asian. High scores on the ‘Health conscious’ dietary pattern showed the highest odds of adherence to the pregnancy dietary guidelines. In this cohort of pregnant women different dietary patterns were associated with migration, ethnicity, socio-demographic characteristics, health behaviors and adherence to dietary guidelines.

  17. Intimate partner violence before and during pregnancy: related demographic and psychosocial factors and postpartum depressive symptoms among Mexican American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Corrie L; Ciciolla, Lucia; Crnic, Keith A; Luecken, Linda J; Gonzales, Nancy A; Coonrod, Dean V

    2015-02-01

    Although research examining intimate partner violence (IPV) has expanded in recent years, there has been relatively little examination of the related demographic and psychosocial factors, as well as mental health outcomes, for IPV before and during pregnancy, especially in a Mexican American population. The current study provides a snapshot of the occurrence of IPV in a community sample of low-income, perinatal Mexican American women (n = 320). Results indicated that 13.1% of the women reported IPV before pregnancy and 11.3% reported IPV during pregnancy. For both IPV before and during pregnancy, women born in the United States were more likely to report IPV than foreign-born women. For IPV before pregnancy, women who were not in a serious romantic relationship or reported a history of childhood trauma were also more likely to report IPV. For IPV during pregnancy, women who reported higher general stress and lower social support were also more likely to report IPV. Finally, the current study provided strong evidence that a history of IPV predicted elevated postpartum depressive symptoms, above and beyond the impact of prenatal depressive symptoms. This study brings greater awareness to a complex and harmful situation in an understudied population. Results are discussed in terms of the relation between demographic and psychosocial risk for IPV before and during pregnancy, acculturation, and postpartum depressive symptoms, as well as the implications for the development of future prevention and intervention programs.

  18. Dietary Patterns in Pregnancy in New Zealand-Influence of Maternal Socio-Demographic, Health and Lifestyle Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Clare R; Gammon, Cheryl S; Bandara, Dinusha K; Grant, Cameron C; Atatoa Carr, Polly E; Morton, Susan M B

    2016-05-19

    Exploration of dietary pattern associations within a multi-ethnic society context has been limited. We aimed to describe dietary patterns of 5664 pregnant women from the Growing Up in New Zealand study, and investigate associations between these patterns and maternal socio-demographic, place of birth, health and lifestyle factors. Participants completed a food frequency questionnaire prior to the birth of their child. Principal components analysis was used to extract dietary patterns and multivariable analyses used to determine associations. Four dietary components were extracted. Higher scores on, 'Junk' and 'Traditional/White bread', were associated with decreasing age, lower educational levels, being of Pacific or Māori ethnicity and smoking. Higher scores on, 'Health conscious' and 'Fusion/Protein', were associated with increasing age, better self-rated health, lower pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and not smoking. Higher scores on 'Junk' and 'Health conscious' were associated with being born in New Zealand (NZ), whereas higher scores on 'Fusion/Protein' was associated with being born outside NZ and being of non-European ethnicity, particularly Asian. High scores on the 'Health conscious' dietary pattern showed the highest odds of adherence to the pregnancy dietary guidelines. In this cohort of pregnant women different dietary patterns were associated with migration, ethnicity, socio-demographic characteristics, health behaviors and adherence to dietary guidelines.

  19. Dietary Patterns in Pregnancy in New Zealand—Influence of Maternal Socio-Demographic, Health and Lifestyle Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Clare R.; Gammon, Cheryl S.; Bandara, Dinusha K.; Grant, Cameron C.; Atatoa Carr, Polly E.; Morton, Susan M. B.

    2016-01-01

    Exploration of dietary pattern associations within a multi-ethnic society context has been limited. We aimed to describe dietary patterns of 5664 pregnant women from the Growing Up in New Zealand study, and investigate associations between these patterns and maternal socio-demographic, place of birth, health and lifestyle factors. Participants completed a food frequency questionnaire prior to the birth of their child. Principal components analysis was used to extract dietary patterns and multivariable analyses used to determine associations. Four dietary components were extracted. Higher scores on, ‘Junk’ and ‘Traditional/White bread’, were associated with decreasing age, lower educational levels, being of Pacific or Māori ethnicity and smoking. Higher scores on, ‘Health conscious’ and ‘Fusion/Protein’, were associated with increasing age, better self-rated health, lower pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and not smoking. Higher scores on ‘Junk’ and ‘Health conscious’ were associated with being born in New Zealand (NZ), whereas higher scores on ‘Fusion/Protein’ was associated with being born outside NZ and being of non-European ethnicity, particularly Asian. High scores on the ‘Health conscious’ dietary pattern showed the highest odds of adherence to the pregnancy dietary guidelines. In this cohort of pregnant women different dietary patterns were associated with migration, ethnicity, socio-demographic characteristics, health behaviors and adherence to dietary guidelines. PMID:27213438

  20. Exploring the distribution of food stores in British Columbia: associations with neighbourhood socio-demographic factors and urban form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Jennifer L; Carpiano, Richard M; Fleming, Stuart; Lauster, Nathanael

    2011-07-01

    Several studies have identified disparities in access to food retailers among urban neighbourhoods with varied socio-demographic characteristics; but few studies have examined whether key zoning and siting mechanisms described in the urban planning literature explain differences in food store access. This study assessed associations between socio-demographic and urban planning variables with the availability of large supermarkets and stores selling fresh food within one kilometre buffers from residential addresses and the proximity to the closest food stores across 630 census tracts in British Columbia, Canada. Multivariate regression results indicated that neighbourhoods with higher median household income had significantly decreased access to food stores. Inclusion of urban planning factors in multivariate models, particularly housing and transportation considerations, explained much of the relation between area income and food store access, and were significant predictors of food store availability and proximity. Public health research and practice addressing food availability would benefit by incorporating theoretical perspectives from urban planning theory. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Relations between organizational commitment and demographic factors: a research in banking sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nizamettin Dogar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this research is to answer if organizational commitment changes according to demografic factors. Inputs gained from 200 person sample group from banking sector. According to the analysis it is found that affective and continuance commitment increases with age and job experience, and all componenets of commitment increase according to time in the last job. With the results derived from analysis, research’s support to organizational theory is discussed and some advices put forward.

  2. Stress Causing Factors Among Teachers in Elementary Schools and Their Relationship with Demographic and Job Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teuta Agai–Demjaha

    2015-07-01

    CONCLUSION: Our findings confirm that within the control category, the highest levels of perceived teacher’s work-related stress were caused by changes in terms and conditions without consultation and given responsibility without the authority to take decisions, while in the category support, the same was true for stress factors lack of funds/resources to do the job and limited or no access to training. We have also concluded that the lower-grade school teachers, female teachers, teachers for whom this is the first job and teachers with university education perceive more often the lack of authority to take decisions as a very stressful factor than the upper-grade school teachers, male teachers, teachers previously employed in another workplace, and those with high education. The lower-grade school teachers, older teachers and teachers with university education perceive more often changes in education as a very stressful factor than the upper grade school teachers, younger teachers and those with high education.

  3. QUALITY OF LIFE IN PATIENTS WITH INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASE: importance of clinical, demographic and psychosocial factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana MAGALHÃES

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Context Inflammatory bowel disease causes physical and psychosocial consequences that can affect the health related quality of life. Objectives To analyze the relationship between clinical and sociodemographic factors and quality of life in inflammatory bowel disease patients. Methods Ninety two patients with Crohn’s disease and 58 with ulcerative colitis, filled in the inflammatory bowel disease questionnaire (IBDQ-32 and a questionnaire to collect sociodemographic and clinical data. The association between categorical variables and IBDQ-32 scores was determined using Student t test. Factors statistically significant in the univariate analysis were included in a multivariate regression model. Results IBDQ-32 scores were significantly lower in female patients (P<0.001, patients with an individual perception of a lower co-workers support (P<0.001 and career fulfillment (P<0.001, patients requiring psychological support (P = 0.010 and pharmacological treatment for anxiety or depression (P = 0.002. A multivariate regression analysis identified as predictors of impaired HRQOL the female gender (P<0.001 and the perception of a lower co-workers support (P = 0.025 and career fulfillment (P = 0.001. Conclusions The decrease in HRQQL was significantly related with female gender and personal perception of disease impact in success and social relations. These factors deserve a special attention, so timely measures can be implemented to improve the quality of life of patients.

  4. Socio-demographic factors and selected clinical characteristics of patients with retinal vein occlusions in transitional Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manushaqe Rustani-Batku

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of our study was to assess the distribution of socio-demographic factors and the clinical profile of individuals diagnosed with retinal vein occlusion (RVO in Albania, a former communist country in South-eastern Europe which has been undergoing a rapid transition in the past decades. Methods: This study was carried out in 2013-2016 at the Primary Health Care Centre No. 2 in Tirana municipality, which is the capital of Albania. During this timeframe, on the whole, 44 patients were diagnosed with RVO at this primary health care centre (17 women and 27 men; overall mean age: 69.5±11.5 years. The diagnosis of RVO was based on signs and symptoms indicating a quick reduction of the sight (vision, fundoscopy, fluorescein angiography and the optical coherence tomography. Data on socio-demographic factors and clinical characteristics were also gathered for each study participant. Results: The prevalence of glaucoma was considerably higher in men than in women (67% vs. 24%, respectively, P=0.01. Diabetic retinopathy was somehow more prevalent in women than in men (18% vs. 11%, respectively, whereas an opposite finding was noted for the presence of hypertensive retinopathy (6% vs. 11%, respectively. The prevalence of cataract was higher in female patients compared with their male counterparts (18% vs. 7%, respectively, P=0.36. Both macular oedema and papillary oedema were almost equally distributed in men and in women (22% vs. 18% and 4% vs. 6%, respectively. All female patients had comorbid conditions compared to 85% of their male counterparts (P=0.15. The prevalence of hypertension was almost identical in both sexes (52% in men vs. 53% in women, whereas the prevalence of diabetes was somehow higher in men than in women (26% vs. 18%, respectively.   Conclusion: This is one of the very few studies informing about the distribution of socio-demographic factors and selected clinical characteristics of individuals diagnosed with RVO in

  5. External Factors Are Only one Element Contributing to Inflation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪红驹; 张晓晶

    2008-01-01

    Our paper first fully examines the stylized facts of the translation of global liquidity into other economic phenomena, transmission of international commodity prices into other forms, the contractionary effects of renminbi appreciation, and the factor price distortion enhanced by external shocks. It then uses the extension of Phillips curve and VAR model to test the impacts of external shocks on domestic inflation. The regression results indicate that: in the short run, world food price is the main reason for domestic inflation; the influence of world oil prices on inflation will take effect in the median and long term; renminbi appreciation is contractionary through a relatively long time; world interest rates have a certain impact on domestic prices; and the translation of global liquidity has no significant effects on domestic prices thanks to the central bank’s offset efforts. In sum, GDP growth is still the root cause of inflation and the external shocks are just one contributing factor. Therefore, the following policies would be vital to curbing inflation: maintaining a moderate rather than excessive growth rate, adjusting the distorted factor price to control investment demand, and increasing the flexibility of the exchange rate regime and making the independent monetary policy the first line of defense against external shocks.

  6. [PRESSURE ULCER: INCIDENCE AND DEMOGRAPHIC, CLINICAL AND NUTRITION FACTORS ASSOCIATED IN INTENSIVE CARE UNIT PATIENTS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira Costa, Ana Carolina; Sabino Pinho, Cláudia Porto; Almeida dos Santos, Alyne Dayana; Santos do Nascimento, Alexsandra Camila

    2015-11-01

    La úlcera por presión (UP) es una lesión localizada en la piel y/o tejido subyacente, generalmente sobre prominencias óseas, provocada por la presión y/o asociada a cizallamiento. Aunque evitable, todavía es muy prevalente, siendo destacable que en su etiología están involucrados múltiples factores. Objetivo: identificar la incidencia de úlceras por presión y los factores demográficos, clínicos y nutricionales asociados en pacientes internados en la UCI de un hospital universitario. Métodos: estudio prospectivo, observacional, con pacientes internados en una UCI de un hospital universitario ubicado en el nordeste brasileño, durante el periodo de junio a noviembre de 2014. Se determinó la UP a través de la inspección corporal tres veces a la semana durante el baño matinal, con base en las características establecidas por la National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel, 2014. Se recolectaron datos demográficos, clínicos, bioquímicos y nutricionales. Se utilizó la escala de Braden para verificar a los individuos con riesgo de desarrollo de UP. Resultados: la muestra se compuso de 51 pacientes, con un promedio de edad de 57,7(± 16,4) años. Se verificó una incidencia de UP del 52,9%, y los factores asociados a su desarrollo fueron: uso de droga vasoactiva (p = 0,029), tiempo de hospitalización > 10 días (p ≤ 0,001) y ausencia de anemia (p = 0,011). Conclusión: la elevada incidencia de UP resalta la vulnerabilidad de los pacientes en cuidados intensivos. A pesar de caracterizarse por ser una condición multifactorial, solo el uso de drogas vasoactivas, el tiempo de hospitalización y la ausencia de anemia se asociaron a la aparición de UP. Factores nutricionales y clínicos frecuentemente relacionados a las lesiones se asociaron con su desarrollo.

  7. Socio-Demographic Factors and Intergenesic Interval in Nicaraguan Immigrant Mothers in Costa Rica

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    Bonilla, Roger

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Adequate birth intervals are considered a positive factor in the health of mothers and their children. One of the objectives of this study is to compare the birth interval between Nicaraguan immigrant women and local mothers in Costa Rica. Birth intervals among Nicaraguan women are significantly shorter than the local ones (p 0.05. Nicaraguan women are 30% more likely to recur in the following pregnancy as compared with local women. The study of population minorities permits the preparation of public policies on international migration issues.

  8. Socio-demographic association of multiple modifiable lifestyle risk factors and their clustering in a representative urban population of adults: a cross-sectional study in Hangzhou, China

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    Wang Shengfeng

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To plan long-term prevention strategies and develop tailored intervention activities, it is important to understand the socio-demographic characteristics of the subpopulations at high risk of developing chronic diseases. This study aimed to examine the socio-demographic characteristics associated with multiple lifestyle risk factors and their clustering. Methods We conducted a simple random sampling survey to assess lifestyle risk factors in three districts of Hangzhou, China between 2008 and 2009. A two-step cluster analysis was used to identify different health-related lifestyle clusters based on tobacco use, physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption, and out-of-home eating. Multinomial logistic regression was used to model the association between socio-demographic factors and lifestyle clusters. Results A total of 2016 eligible people (977 men and 1039 women, ages 18-64 years completed the survey. Three distinct clusters were identified from the cluster analysis: an unhealthy (UH group (25.7%, moderately healthy (MH group (31.1%, and healthy (H group (43.1%. UH group was characterised by a high prevalence of current daily smoking, a moderate or low level of PA, low FV consumption with regard to the frequency or servings, and more occurrences of eating out. H group was characterised by no current daily smoking, a moderate level of PA, high FV consumption, and the fewest times of eating out. MH group was characterised by no current daily smoking, a low or high level of PA, and an intermediate level of FV consumption and frequency of eating out. Men were more likely than women to have unhealthy lifestyles. Adults aged 50-64 years were more likely to live healthy lifestyles. Adults aged 40-49 years were more likely to be in the UH group. Adults whose highest level of education was junior high school or below were more likely to be in the UH group. Adults with a high asset index were more likely to be in the MH group

  9. Cognitive function in schizophrenia and its association with socio-demographics factors

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    Bharti T Talreja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Schizophrenia is a chronic and debilitating psychiatric illness consisting primarily of positive and negative symptoms. However, cognitive deficits in various domains have been consistently replicated in patients with schizophrenia. Therefore, the present study was designed to assess cognitive impairment in schizophrenia and to correlate the same with sociodemographic factors. Materials and Methods: Cognitive function in 100 patients with schizophrenia as per Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM IV-TR criteria attending the psychiatry outpatient department (OPD of Department of Psychiatry, SBKS MIRC was assessed using Addenbrooke′s Cognitive Examination Revised (ACER rating scale and Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE and sociodemographic details was obtained using semistructured proforma. Data was analyzed by Chi-square and t-test. Results: About 70% patients of schizophrenia were found to have cognitive dysfunction for attention, concentration, memory, language, and executive function. Positive symptoms were associated with memory (P2 years and belonging to urban habitat showed more cognitive dysfunction. Male patients were associated with impairment in two domains of ACER: Language and memory. Conclusion: The study findings depict that persistent cognitive deficits are seen in patients with schizophrenia. Its correlation with sociodemographic factors showed that patients with >2 years of illness and belonging to urban habitat showed more cognitive dysfunction. Male patients were associated with language and memory impairment. Our study recommends that the neurocognitive impairment should be included in the DSM-V diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia.

  10. Socio-demographic factors of valuing autonomous and conformist educational styles in Serbia

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    Pavlović Zoran

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of preference of educational styles is highly relevant, since it points out both to the more general underlying value orientations and the expected or desired effects of socialization process. This paper deals with the level of acceptance and factors of valuing the autonomous and conformist educational styles among Serbian citizens, operationalised through estimation of importance of qualities that children should learn at home. Based on the three waves of World Values Survey, the analysis of data from Serbia was performed in longitudinal perspective in the period from 1996 to 2006 (total N=3700, as well as in comparative perspective, when the data obtained in Serbia were compared with the data collected in the European countries that participated in the last, fifth wave of World Values Survey (total N=23941. The results indicate that, in the observed period, on the average two thirds of citizens (64% are characterized by preference of autonomous educational style, while respondents' education and population size of settlement figure as the most important factors of preference. However, according to the level of acceptance of autonomy, Serbia is placed 16th out of 21 analyzed European countries, and therefore, in comparative perspective, valuing of autonomy in the country is on a relatively low level. The results imply that by a non-selective encouragement of autonomy in all students, by cooperation with parents or a more general promotion of knowledge, school may play an important role in this process.

  11. Clinical and demographic factors and outcome of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in relation to population ancestral origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Benoît; Logroscino, Giancarlo; Boumédiene, Farid; Labrunie, Anaïs; Couratier, Philippe; Babron, Marie-Claude; Leutenegger, Anne Louise; Preux, Pierre Marie; Beghi, Ettore

    2016-03-01

    To review how the phenotype and outcome of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) change with variations in population ancestral origin (PAO). Knowledge of how PAO modifies ALS phenotype may provide important insight into the risk factors and pathogenic mechanisms of the disease. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature concerning differences in phenotype and outcome of ALS that relate to PAO. A review of 3111 records identified 78 population-based studies. The 40 that were included covered 40 geographical areas in 10 subcontinents. Around 12,700 ALS cases were considered. The results highlight the phenotypic heterogeneity of ALS at time of onset [age, sex ratio (SR), bulbar onset], age at diagnosis, occurrence of comorbidities in the first year after diagnosis, and outcome (survival). Subcontinent is a major explanatory factor for the variability of the ALS phenotype in population-based studies. Some markers of ALS phenotype were homogeneously distributed in western countries (SR, mean age at onset/diagnosis) but their distributions in other subcontinents were remarkably different. Other markers presented variations in European subcontinents (familial ALS, bulbar onset) and in other continents. As a consequence, ALS outcome strongly varied, with a median survival time from onset ranging from 24 months (Northern Europe) to 48 months (Central Asia). This review sets the scene for a collaborative study involving a wide international consortium to investigate, using a standard methodology, the link between ancestry, environment, and ALS phenotype.

  12. [Life satisfaction and related socio-demographic factors during female midlife].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuadros, José Luis; Pérez-Roncero, Gonzalo R; López-Baena, María Teresa; Cuadros-Celorrio, Angela M; Fernández-Alonso, Ana María

    2014-01-01

    To assess life satisfaction and related factors in middle-aged Spanish women. This was a cross-sectional study including 235 women aged 40 to 65, living in Granada (Spain), healthy companions of patients visiting the obstetrics and gynecology clinics. They completed the Diener Satisfaction with Life Scale, the Menopause Rating Scale, the Perceived Stress Scale, the Insomnia Severity Index and a sociodemographic questionnaire containing personal and partner data. Internal consistency of each tool was also calculated. Almost two-thirds (61.3%) of the women were postmenopausal, and 43.8% had abdominal obesity, 36.6% had insomnia, 18.7% had poor menopause-related quality of life, 31.9% performed regular exercise, and 5.1% had severe financial problems. Life satisfaction showed significant positive correlations (Spearman's test) with female and male age, and inverse correlations with menopause-related quality of life, perceived stress and insomnia. In the multiple linear regression analysis, high life satisfaction is positively correlated with having a partner who performed exercise, and inversely with having work problems, perceived stress and the suspicion of partner infidelity. These factors explained 40% of the variance of the multiple regression analysis for life satisfaction in middle-aged women. Life satisfaction is a construct related to perceived stress, work problems, and having a partner, while aspects of menopause and general health had no significant influence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. HIV Infection among Young People in Northwest Tanzania: The Role of Biological, Behavioural and Socio-Demographic Risk Factors.

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    Francesca Lemme

    Full Text Available Young people are at high risk of HIV and developing appropriate prevention programmes requires an understanding of the risk factors for HIV in this age group. We investigated factors associated with HIV among participants aged 15-30 years in a 2007-8 cross-sectional survey nested within a community-randomised trial of the MEMA kwa Vijana intervention in 20 rural communities in northwest Tanzania.We analysed data for 7259(53% males and 6476(47% females. Using a proximate-determinant conceptual framework and conditional logistic regression, we obtained sex-specific Odds Ratios (ORs for the association of HIV infection with socio-demographic, knowledge, behavioural and biological factors.HSV-2 infection was strongly associated with HIV infection (females: adjOR 4.4, 95%CI 3.2-6.1; males: adjOR 4.2, 95%CI 2.8-6.2. Several socio-demographic factors (such as age, marital status and mobility, behavioural factors (condom use, number and type of sexual partnerships and biological factors (blood transfusion, lifetime pregnancies, genital ulcers, Neisseria gonorrhoeae were also associated with HIV infection. Among females, lifetime sexual partners (linear trend, p<0.001, ≥2 partners in the past year (adjOR 2.0, 95%CI 1.4-2.8, ≥2 new partners in the past year (adjOR 1.9 95%CI 1.2, 3.3 and concurrent partners in the past year (adjOR 1.6 95%CI 1.1, 2.4 were all associated with HIV infection.Efforts must be intensified to find effective interventions to reduce HSV-2. Effective behavioural interventions focusing on reducing the number of sexual partnerships and risk behaviour within partnerships are also needed. An increase in risky sexual behaviour may occur following marriage dissolution or when a young woman travels outside of her community and interventions addressing the needs of these subgroups of vulnerable women may be important.ClinicalTrial.gov NCT00248469.

  14. The Influence of Demographic Factor on Personal Innovativeness Towards Technology Acceptance

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    Noraini Mohamed Noh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Library and Media Teacher (LMT readiness of accepting and using technology innovation earlier than their colleagues could expedite the technology innovation process into the school education system. The aim of this study was to explore the impact of experience in using computer and the level of ICT knowledge towards personal innovativeness. This study employed a quantitative approach in the form of a survey. A total of 546 LMTs were randomly selected as research samples from Malaysian secondary and primary schools. Data were gathered through a set of instruments adapted from Rogers, using a five-point Likert scale. The construct consist of personal innovativeness and ICT knowledge. Data were analyzed descriptively and inferentially using means, percentage, frequency and multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA. Findings demonstrated that the majority of the Library and Media Teachers had moderate personal innovativeness. Experience in using computer, level of education and ICT knowledge level are found to influence and contribute to Library and Media Teachers’ personal innovativeness significantly.

  15. Breakfast habits and factors influencing food choices at breakfast in relation to socio-demographic and family factors among European adolescents. The HELENA Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallström, Lena; Vereecken, Carine A; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Patterson, Emma; Gilbert, Chantal C; Catasta, Giovina; Díaz, Ligia-Esperanza; Gómez-Martínez, Sonia; González Gross, Marcela; Gottrand, Frédéric; Hegyi, Adrienn; Lehoux, Claire; Mouratidou, Theodora; Widham, Kurt; Aström, Annika; Moreno, Luis A; Sjöström, Michael

    2011-06-01

    Breakfast consumption has been shown to be an important indicator of a healthy lifestyle. Little is known however about factors influencing breakfast consumption and food choices at breakfast in adolescents. The aim of the present study was therefore to describe breakfast habits, and factors influencing food choices at breakfast within the framework of the EU-funded HELENA Study, in 3528 adolescents from ten European cities. Additionally, socio-demographic differences in breakfast habits and in influencing factors were investigated. Half of the adolescents (and fewer girls than boys) indicated being regular breakfast consumers. Girls with mothers with a high level of education, boys from 'traditional' families and boys who perceived low family affluence were positively associated with breakfast consumption. Boys whose parents gave encouragement and girls whose peers ate healthily were more likely to be regular breakfast consumers. 'Hunger', 'taste', 'health concerns' and 'parents or guardian' were the most important influences on the adolescents' food choices at breakfast. Adolescents from southern Europe and girls reported to be more influenced by personal and socio-environmental factors. Socio-demographic differences, in particular regional and gender differences, need to be considered in discussions surrounding the development of nutritional intervention programs intended for adolescents.

  16. Factors Contributing to Personal Commitment in Chinese Interethnic Couples

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    Xinmiao Zhong

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Interethnic relationships are increasingly common in many societies, yet interethnic couples have a higher divorce rate compared to intraethnic couples. Given these facts and the dearth of research, this study aimed to identify factors that contribute to couples’ commitment in interethnic relationships. This study investigated the personal commitment of Chinese interethnic couples in the United Kingdom and the United States. Specifically, whether love, dyadic adjustment and “couple cultural identity” (i.e. acculturation to the partner and couple’s similarity on individualism/collectivism would predict personal commitment and whether each variable would account for unique variance in personal commitment of the participants. Thirty-seven Chinese/non-Chinese heterosexual couples participated in the study and significant relationships between love and personal commitment, dyadic adjustment and personal commitment were found. Also, couple cultural identity was important for women’s personal commitment. Multiple regression and structural equation modelling showed that partners in interethnic relationships defined personal commitment in different ways with men emphasizing love and dyadic adjustment, and women emphasizing love and acculturation to their partner. The discovery of the importance of couple cultural identity in contributing to personal commitment, besides love and dyadic adjustment, helps researchers to gain a greater understanding of such relationships and to extend the research on interethnic relationships.

  17. Demographic Factors, Corporate Social Responsibility, Employee Engagement and Corporate Reputation: A Perspective From Hotel Industries In Indonesia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    Hotel as a hospitality industry should manage its reputation as a valuable asset for the business continuity. The hotel's reputation is built up by the employee's perceptions of treatment and sense of belonging and engagement of the hotel. The purpose of this study is to analyze employee's perceptions of corporate social responsibility (CSR) activities, employee engagement, and corporate reputation that have been undertaken by the hotel industry in Jakarta and how demographic factors influence these perceptions. The structure equation model (SEM) was implemented to find each variable influence. Samples were taken from hotel employees who work in five-star hotels in Jakarta with 221 respondents (response rate 78.9%). The results indicate that CSR activities significantly influence employee engagement and corporate reputation, and at the same time, employee engagement significantly influences cor0orate reputation.

  18. System-related factors contributing to diagnostic errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thammasitboon, Satid; Thammasitboon, Supat; Singhal, Geeta

    2013-10-01

    Several studies in primary care, internal medicine, and emergency departments show that rates of errors in test requests and result interpretations are unacceptably high and translate into missed, delayed, or erroneous diagnoses. Ineffective follow-up of diagnostic test results could lead to patient harm if appropriate therapeutic interventions are not delivered in a timely manner. The frequency of system-related factors that contribute directly to diagnostic errors depends on the types and sources of errors involved. Recent studies reveal that the errors and patient harm in the diagnostic testing loop have occurred mainly at the pre- and post-analytic phases, which are directed primarily by clinicians who may have limited expertise in the rapidly expanding field of clinical pathology. These errors may include inappropriate test requests, failure/delay in receiving results, and erroneous interpretation and application of test results to patient care. Efforts to address system-related factors often focus on technical errors in laboratory testing or failures in delivery of intended treatment. System-improvement strategies related to diagnostic errors tend to focus on technical aspects of laboratory medicine or delivery of treatment after completion of the diagnostic process. System failures and cognitive errors, more often than not, coexist and together contribute to the incidents of errors in diagnostic process and in laboratory testing. The use of highly structured hand-off procedures and pre-planned follow-up for any diagnostic test could improve efficiency and reliability of the follow-up process. Many feedback pathways should be established so that providers can learn if or when a diagnosis is changed. Patients can participate in the effort to reduce diagnostic errors. Providers should educate their patients about diagnostic probabilities and uncertainties. The patient-safety strategies focusing on the interface between diagnostic system and therapeutic

  19. Factors contributing to the surgical retreatment of mandibular fractures

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    João Gualberto de Cerqueira Luz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate contributing factors in patients requiring surgical retreatment of mandibular fractures. Of all the patients with mandibular fractures who were treated using internal fixation at a trauma hospital over a seven-year period, 20 patients (4.7% required a second surgery and thus composed the “reoperated” group. The control group comprised 42 consecutive patients with mandibular fractures who were treated at the same clinic and who healed without complications. Medical charts were reviewed for gender, age, substance abuse history, dental condition, etiology, location of fracture, degree of fragmentation, fracture exposure, teeth in the fracture line, associated facial fractures, polytrauma, time elapsed between trauma and initial treatment, surgical approach and fixation system. Statistical analyses were performed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 20.0; descriptive statistics and the chi-squared test were used to determine differences between groups. Significant differences in substance abuse (p = 0.006, dental condition (p < 0.001, location of fracture (p = 0.010, degree of fragmentation (p = 0.003 and fracture exposure (p < 0.001 were found. With regard to age and time elapsed between trauma and initial treatment, older patients (31.4 years, SD = 11.1 and a delay in fracture repair (19.1 days, SD = 18.7 were more likely to be associated with reoperation. It was concluded that substance abuse, age, dental condition, location of fracture, degree of fragmentation, fracture exposure and the time between trauma and initial treatment should be considered contributing factors to the occurrence of complications that require surgical retreatment of mandibular fractures.

  20. Socio-demographic factors and fish eating trends in eastern community, Sri Lanka

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    Chandravathany Devadawson

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Fish are considered as a unique source of protein and long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA. In Sri Lankan population, fish consumption habits and attitudes are determined by the availability of fish and socio-demography of fish consumers. An extensive survey was carried out among fish consumers (N=1777 in stratified random manner. Among the total studied respondents, 73.3% of the respondents had eaten all type of fish while10% had only sea fishes, 19.5 % brackish water and rest 4.2% had eaten fresh water fishes. Furthermore, of total 19.1 % people had consumed fish daily while 80.9% people had consumed fish weekly or monthly. Results of the study concluded that 64 % studied respondents had fish at both lunch and dinner time while 25% had three times and rest11% consumed only at lunch. The choice of fish in market were determined by various factors such as taste (5.7%, smell (8.5%, appearance (51.5%, nutrition (2.1%, availability (12.7%, prize (37.3%, health (14%, quality (53%, shape (26.7% and considered all (24.2%. However, consumers were drawn their attention more than one factors in selecting fish from market. The results explained that quality of fish considered mostly in selection of fish with factors like prices and availability of fish. Among the studied respondents, the quantity of fish consumption varied with age such as 37.8% respondents which were belongs to the 36- 45 age group had 30-40g, while27.5 % were between ages of 46-55 had 41-50g daily and frequency of consumption was not independent of age (P<0.001. Of the total respondents, the trends of fish consumption for health purpose were varied and 37% respondents consume it to cure from heart diseases, while the 23% had fish to release pressure stroke (15%, eyesight (13% and during pregnancy (7%.

  1. Chronic hepatitis C in Austria, 1992-2006: genotype distribution and demographic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maieron, A; Metz-Gercek, S; Hackl, F; Luger, C; Ziachehabi, A; Strauss, R; Schöfl, R; Mittermayer, H

    2010-02-25

    Chronic hepatitis C is a leading cause of end-stage liver disease and, with a worldwide prevalence of up to 3%, is a pandemic infectious disease. Austria, like most western European countries can be considered as a low prevalence country. This analysis aimed to assess the distribution of hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes in patients with chronic HCV infection in Upper Austria. Between September 1992 and December 2006, we identified 1,318 consecutive patients who tested positive for HCV RNA. Genotyping was routinely performed in 1,239 of the 1,318 patients, and in a subgroup of 617 patients data on the source of transmission were collected. Additionally we obtained data on liver histology and body mass index in a subsample of 273 of the 617 patients. Hepatitis C genotypes 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 and co-infections were found in 80.4%, 4.5%, 12.3%, 2.7%, 0.1% and 0.2% of the patients, respectively. There was a highly significant age difference in relation to gender at the time of diagnosis of chronic hepatitis C, with women being older than men (men: 45.0 years; women: 49.3 years; p<0.0001). The number of new cases of chronic hepatitis C decreased substantially over the last decade, but although risk factors for obtaining HCV are well established, we did not find a decrease in the age of first diagnosis. Besides consistent screening in defined risk groups it is important to raise awareness for risk factors for HCV acquisition and liver disease progression.

  2. Socio-demographic and psychosocial factors associated with physical activity of working woman in Petaling Jaya, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siti Affira, K; Mohd Nasir, M T; Hazizi, A S; Kandiah, M

    2011-12-01

    This study was conducted on 215 working women from four private corporate companies in a suburb in Malaysia to determine the factors related to their physical activity levels. Data were collected using a questionnaire which included socio-demographic characteristics, the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), perceived barriers and benefits to physical activity, self-efficacy to physical activity and an 8-item questionnaire on current behavioral stage of physical activity. The majority of the respondents were Malay (81.9%) with 10.2% being Chinese and 7.9% Indian. Most of the respondents were executives (64.2%), while the rest were non-executives (24.7%) and managers (11.2%). The mean weight, height, BMI and waist circumference were 59.4 +/- 13.1 kg, 1.6 +/- 0.6 m, 23.7 +/- 4.8 kg/m2 and 77.0 +/- 12.1cm respectively. In this sample, 24.7% and 7.9% were overweight and obese respectively, while 34% were at risk of abdominal obesity. A total of 28.8% of the respondents had low physical activity level, while 48.8% and 22.3% were in the moderate and high physical activity categories respectively. An association was found between monthly income (chi2 = 110.17; p 0.05). Physical activity category was also positively correlated with perceived barriers (r = 0.227, p socio-demographic and psychosocial factors (except self-efficacy to physical activity) were found to have an association with physical activity level of the respondents. Further studies should be conducted to confirm these findings in the general working women population.

  3. Socioeconomic and Demographic Factors for Spousal Resemblance in Obesity Status and Habitual Physical Activity in the United States

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    Hsin-Jen Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies suggested that the married population has an increased risk of obesity and assimilation between spouses’ body weight. We examined what factors may affect married spouses’ resemblance in weight status and habitual physical activity (HPA and the association of obesity/HPA with spouses’ sociodemoeconomic characteristics and lifestyles. Medical Expenditure Panel Survey data of 11,403 adult married couples in the US during years 2006–2008 were used. Absolute-scale difference and relative-scale resemblance indices (correlation and kappa coefficients in body mass index (BMI and HPA were estimated by couples’ socioeconomic and demographic characteristics. We found that spousal difference in BMI was smaller for couples with a lower household income, for who were both unemployed, and for older spouses. Correlation coefficient between spouses’ BMI was 0.24, differing by race/ethnicity and family size. Kappa coefficient for weight status (obesity: BMI ≥ 30, overweight: 30 > BMI ≥ 25 was 0.11 and 0.35 for HPA. Never-working women’s husbands had lower odds of obesity than employed women’s husbands (OR = 0.69 (95% CI = 0.53–0.89. Men’s unemployment status was associated with wives’ greater odds of obesity (OR = 1.31 (95% CI = 1.01–1.71. HPA was associated with men’s employment status and income level, but not with women’s. The population representative survey showed that spousal resemblance in weight status and HPA varied with socioeconomic and demographic factors.

  4. Demographic and behavioral factors associated with daily sugar-sweetened soda consumption in New York City adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, Colin D; Matte, Thomas D; Van Wye, Gretchen; Young, Candace; Frieden, Thomas R

    2008-05-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the relations of socioeconomic and behavioral factors to frequent consumption of sugar-sweetened soda among New York City (NYC) adults and the relation of frequent consumption to body mass index (BMI; kg/m(2)). Data from the 2005 NYC Community Health Survey, a population-based telephone survey, were analyzed. Frequent consumption was defined as drinking one or more 12-oz servings of sugar-sweetened soda on an average day; 9,865 adults, aged 18 years and older, provided valid responses. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with frequent consumption, and linear regression models were used to assess the relation of frequent consumption to BMI. An estimated 27.5% of NYC adults are frequent sugar-sweetened soda consumers. Frequent consumption is independently associated with low household income (odds ratio [OR] = 1.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.4-2.1 for or =600% federal poverty level) and with ethnic group and nativity (e.g., OR = 3.1, 95% CI 2.6-3.7 for U.S.-born blacks vs. whites). Men report more consumption then women, but an association of less education with frequent consumption is stronger among women. Adjusting for demographics, frequent consumption is associated with more television viewing and with less physical activity. Adjusting for demographics and behaviors, frequent consumption was associated with higher BMI among women (0.7 BMI units, 95% CI 0.1-1.2) but not among men. Disparities in sugar-sweetened soda consumption mirror obesity disparities. Improved surveillance and interventions are needed to better quantify and reduce consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages, especially in groups most impacted by obesity.

  5. Body Esteem Among Women with Multiple Sclerosis and its Relationship with Demographic, Clinical and Socio-Psychological Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilski, M; Tasiemski, T; Dąbrowski, A

    2016-06-01

    The principal aim of this study was to verify if specific socio-demographic, clinical, and socio-psychological factors are correlates of body esteem in women with multiple sclerosis (MS). The study included 185 women with MS who completed the Body Esteem Scale (BES), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale (MSIS-29), Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire (B-IPQ), Actually Received Support Scale (a part of the Berlin Social Support Scale), and Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS). The patients were recruited as a result of cooperation with the Multiple Sclerosis Rehabilitation Centre in Borne Sulinowo and Polish Society of Multiple Sclerosis. The demographic characteristics of the participants and their illness-related problems were determined with a self-report survey. A hierarchical multiple regression revealed that four factors, psychological condition (R (2) = 0.23, p ≤ 0.001), received support (R (2) = 0.28, p ≤ 0.001), personal control (R (2) = 0.30, p ≤ 0.001), and physical condition (R (2) = 0.31, p ≤ 0.001), were significant correlates of the general body esteem in our study group of women with MS. The model explained 31 % of variance in body esteem. Positive body esteem, an important component of self-esteem in women with MS, is associated with better social support, overcoming negative illness-related appraisals and improvement of psychological well-being. Subjective perception of a negative impact of MS on one's physical condition may be helpful in the identification of women with MS being at increased risk of decreased body esteem.

  6. The water use of Indian diets and socio-demographic factors related to dietary blue water footprint.

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    Harris, Francesca; Green, Rosemary F; Joy, Edward J M; Kayatz, Benjamin; Haines, Andy; Dangour, Alan D

    2017-06-01

    Agriculture accounts for ~90% of India's fresh water use, and there are concerns that future food production will be threatened by insufficient water supply of adequate quality. This study aimed to quantify the water required in the production of diets in India using the water footprint (WF) assessment method. The socio-demographic associations of dietary WFs were explored using mixed effects regression models with a particular focus on blue (irrigation) WF given the importance for Indian agriculture. Dietary data from ~7000 adults living in India were matched to India-specific WF data for food groups to quantify the blue and green (rainfall) WF of typical diets. The mean blue and green WF of diets was 737l/capita/day and 2531l/capita/day, respectively. Vegetables had the lowest WFs per unit mass of product, while roots/tubers had the lowest WFs per unit dietary energy. Poultry products had the greatest blue WFs. Wheat and rice contributed 31% and 19% of the dietary blue WF respectively. Vegetable oils were the highest contributor to dietary green WF. Regional variation in dietary choices meant large differences in dietary blue WFs, whereby northern diets had nearly 1.5 times greater blue WFs than southern diets. Urban diets had a higher blue WF than rural diets, and a higher standard of living was associated with larger dietary blue WFs. This study provides a novel perspective on the WF of diets in India using individual-level dietary data, and demonstrates important variability in WFs due to different food consumption patterns and socio-demographic characteristics. Future dietary shifts towards patterns currently consumed by individuals in higher income groups, would likely increase irrigation requirements putting substantial pressure on India's water resources. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Maternal Demographic and Psychosocial Factors Associated with Low Birth Weight in Eastern Taiwan

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    Yin-Ming Li

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between birth weight and maternal sociodemographic characteristics was examined in a sample from two teaching hospitals in eastern Taiwan. Using a structured questionnaire, we conducted face- to-face interviews with women at antenatal clinics between 1998 and 1999 in Hualien City. One year later, we took the outcome of pregnancy from medical records and birth certificates from the Public Health Bureau of Hualien County. Of the 1,128 single live births, 6.8% had low birth weight (LBW using the World Health Organization cut-off of 2,500 g. LBW was more common in teenage ( 30 years, first-time, and unmarried mothers; those with basic/intermediate educational attainment; and residents of aboriginal districts. Teenage pregnancies were more likely than those in adults to be unplanned, and such mothers had smoking or alcohol-drinking behavior. Prevention of teenage pregnancy is crucial to lower LBW rates in eastern Taiwan. For adult mothers, basic or intermediate educational attainment, residence in an aboriginal district, and first-term pregnancy were significant factors associated with LBW, after adjustment for other psychosocial attributes, such as psychologic distress and poor family support. Thus, we should pay more attention when caring for pregnant women with such sociodemographic characteristics, and ensure that they have adequate prenatal care and can adopt a healthy lifestyle.

  8. Repeated-sprint ability - part I: factors contributing to fatigue.

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    Girard, Olivier; Mendez-Villanueva, Alberto; Bishop, David

    2011-08-01

    Short-duration sprints (ability to recover and to reproduce performance in subsequent sprints is probably an important fitness requirement of athletes engaged in these disciplines, and has been termed repeated-sprint ability (RSA). This review (Part I) examines how fatigue manifests during repeated-sprint exercise (RSE), and discusses the potential underpinning muscular and neural mechanisms. A subsequent companion review to this article will explain a better understanding of the training interventions that could eventually improve RSA. Using laboratory and field-based protocols, performance analyses have consistently shown that fatigue during RSE typically manifests as a decline in maximal/mean sprint speed (i.e. running) or a decrease in peak power or total work (i.e. cycling) over sprint repetitions. A consistent result among these studies is that performance decrements (i.e. fatigue) during successive bouts are inversely correlated to initial sprint performance. To date, there is no doubt that the details of the task (e.g. changes in the nature of the work/recovery bouts) alter the time course/magnitude of fatigue development during RSE (i.e. task dependency) and potentially the contribution of the underlying mechanisms. At the muscle level, limitations in energy supply, which include energy available from phosphocreatine hydrolysis, anaerobic glycolysis and oxidative metabolism, and the intramuscular accumulation of metabolic by-products, such as hydrogen ions, emerge as key factors responsible for fatigue. Although not as extensively studied, the use of surface electromyography techniques has revealed that failure to fully activate the contracting musculature and/or changes in inter-muscle recruitment strategies (i.e. neural factors) are also associated with fatigue outcomes. Pending confirmatory research, other factors such as stiffness regulation, hypoglycaemia, muscle damage and hostile environments (e.g. heat, hypoxia) are also likely to compromise

  9. Socio-demographic and health-related factors associated with cognitive impairment in the elderly in Taiwan

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    Chiu Herng-Chia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cognitive impairment is an age-related condition as the rate of cognitive decline rapidly increases with aging. It is especially important to better understand factors involving in cognitive decline for the countries where the older population is growing rapidly. The aim of this study was to examine the association between socio-demographic and health-related factors and cognitive impairment in the elderly in Taiwan. Methods We analysed data from 2119 persons aged 65 years and over who participated in the 2005 National Health Interview Survey. Cognitive impairment was defined as having the score of the Mini Mental State Examination lower than 24. The χ2 test and multiple logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association between cognitive impairment and variables of socio-demography, chronic diseases, geriatric conditions, lifestyle, and dietary factors. Results The prevalence of cognitive impairment was 22.2%. Results of multivariate analysis indicated that low education, being single, low social support, lower lipid level, history of stroke, physical inactivity, non-coffee drinking and poor physical function were associated with a higher risk of cognitive impairment. Conclusion Most of the characteristics in relation to cognitive impairment identified in our analysis are potentially modifiable. These results suggest that improving lifestyle behaviours such as regular exercise and increased social participation could help prevent or decrease the risk of cognitive impairment. Further investigations using longitudinal data are needed to clarify our findings.

  10. Perceptional and socio-demographic factors associated with household drinking water management strategies in rural Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Meha; Lim, Yili; Arce-Nazario, Javier A; Uriarte, María

    2014-01-01

    Identifying which factors influence household water management can help policy makers target interventions to improve drinking water quality for communities that may not receive adequate water quality at the tap. We assessed which perceptional and socio-demographic factors are associated with household drinking water management strategies in rural Puerto Rico. Specifically, we examined which factors were associated with household decisions to boil or filter tap water before drinking, or to obtain drinking water from multiple sources. We find that households differ in their management strategies depending on the institution that distributes water (i.e. government PRASA vs community-managed non-PRASA), perceptions of institutional efficacy, and perceptions of water quality. Specifically, households in PRASA communities are more likely to boil and filter their tap water due to perceptions of low water quality. Households in non-PRASA communities are more likely to procure water from multiple sources due to perceptions of institutional inefficacy. Based on informal discussions with community members, we suggest that water quality may be improved if PRASA systems improve the taste and odor of tap water, possibly by allowing for dechlorination prior to distribution, and if non-PRASA systems reduce the turbidity of water at the tap, possibly by increasing the degree of chlorination and filtering prior to distribution. Future studies should examine objective water quality standards to identify whether current management strategies are effective at improving water quality prior to consumption.

  11. Perceptional and socio-demographic factors associated with household drinking water management strategies in rural Puerto Rico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meha Jain

    Full Text Available Identifying which factors influence household water management can help policy makers target interventions to improve drinking water quality for communities that may not receive adequate water quality at the tap. We assessed which perceptional and socio-demographic factors are associated with household drinking water management strategies in rural Puerto Rico. Specifically, we examined which factors were associated with household decisions to boil or filter tap water before drinking, or to obtain drinking water from multiple sources. We find that households differ in their management strategies depending on the institution that distributes water (i.e. government PRASA vs community-managed non-PRASA, perceptions of institutional efficacy, and perceptions of water quality. Specifically, households in PRASA communities are more likely to boil and filter their tap water due to perceptions of low water quality. Households in non-PRASA communities are more likely to procure water from multiple sources due to perceptions of institutional inefficacy. Based on informal discussions with community members, we suggest that water quality may be improved if PRASA systems improve the taste and odor of tap water, possibly by allowing for dechlorination prior to distribution, and if non-PRASA systems reduce the turbidity of water at the tap, possibly by increasing the degree of chlorination and filtering prior to distribution. Future studies should examine objective water quality standards to identify whether current management strategies are effective at improving water quality prior to consumption.

  12. Examination of Turkish extreme athletes' personality traits in terms of gender and some demographic factors

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    Merve Ceylan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted for the purpose of examining the personality traits of extreme athletes. In line with this purpose a total of 227 extreme athletes, as 86 female and 141 male athletes selected through judgment sampling, that either actively compete or trains to compete in any of the branches of snowboarding, snowkiting, kitesurfing, windsurfing, river kayaking, mountain biking, free diving, paragliding and rafting were included within the sample group of the study. Questionnaire applications were carried out in extreme sports facilities throughout the country. Within the scope of the study, an 85-item short form of the Five Factor Personality Scale developed by Somer, Korkmaz and Tatar was used as the data collection tool. Data analysis was carried out by means of the SPSS 16.0 software and the percentages frequencies, mean, standard deviation and to find the differences between the sexes "independent t" test were calculated. Examining the obtained results showed that the male athletes have higher extravertion level from female athletes (p <0.05. This finding obtained in our study suggest that, in an essentially male-dominant society, the higher level of pressure women are subjected to in social, economic, cultural and psychological terms and the difficulties and pressure they experience in the working life are significant factors for women to be more introvert.     Özet Bu araştırma, ekstrem sporcuların kişilik özelliklerinin incelemesi amacıyla yapılmıştır. Bu amaç doğrultusunda araştırmaya, yargısal örnekleme yöntemiyle seçilmiş, snowboard, snowkite, uçurtma sörfü, rüzgar sörfü, akarsu ve nehir kanosu, dağ bisikleti, serbest dalış, yamaç paraşütü, kaya tırmanışı ve rafting branşlarında yarışmacı olan ya da bir yarışmaya katılmak için hazırlık yapan, 86’sı kadın, 141’i erkek olmak üzere 227 ekstrem sporcu katılmıştır.  Anket uygulamaları, ülke genelinde bulunan

  13. Urinary concentrations of parabens and their association with demographic factors: A population-based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hui-Seung; Kyung, Min-Sik; Ko, Ahra; Park, Jae-Hong; Hwang, Myung-Sil; Kwon, Ji-Eun; Suh, Jin-Hyang; Lee, Hee-Seok; Moon, Gui Im; Hong, Jin-Hwan; Hwang, In Gyun

    2016-04-01

    Parabens are broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents used in a range of consumer products, including personal care products, cosmetics, and food. Recently, the widespread use of parabens has raised concerns about the potential health risks associated with their endocrine-disrupting effect. In the present study, 2541 urine samples were collected and analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry for the determination of the concentrations of methyl paraben (MeP), ethyl paraben (EtP), propyl paraben (PrP) and butyl paraben (BuP). The detection rate and geometric mean concentrations of parabens in the general population followed the order MeP (97.7%; 116ng/mL)>EtP (97.2%; 24.7ng/mL)>PrP (96.7%; 11.0ng/mL)>BuP (83.5%; 1.13ng/mL). The composition profiles showed that MeP and EtP accounted for >90% of the urinary paraben concentration. We performed statistical analysis in order to evaluate differences between demographic variables and urinary concentrations. Our results showed that adjusted proportional change of MeP, PrP, and BuP in adults were 2.67-6.13 times higher in females than in males. The urinary concentrations of PrP in adults increased significantly with age. The adjusted proportional changes of MeP and PrP in adults were associated with increased body mass index (BMI). The adjusted proportional changes of BuP and PrP in children and adolescents were 1.44 and 1.69 times higher in females than in males. However, there was no clear association between paraben concentrations and demographic variables in the children and adolescents groups. The estimated daily intake (EDIurine) of MeP and EtP in adults were 301μg/kg bw/day, which is lower than the acceptable daily intake (ADI; 10mg/kg bw/day). In summary, our results revealed that the general population in Korea was exposed to parabens during 2009-2010, and most Koreans are exposed to parabens. The urinary levels of parabens varied by age group with demographic factors in the Korean population. The results of

  14. Evaluation of clinical and socio-demographic risk factors for antibacterial resistance of Helicobacter pylori in Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyanova, Lyudmila; Ilieva, Juliana; Gergova, Galina; Spassova, Zoya; Nikolov, Rossen; Davidkov, Lubomir; Evstatiev, Ivailo; Kamburov, Victor; Katsarov, Nikolai; Mitov, Ivan

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the clinical and socio-demographic risk factors for primary Helicobacter pylori antibacterial resistance. In total, 266 consecutive H. pylori strains, from untreated symptomatic adult patients who answered a questionnaire, were evaluated. Strain susceptibility to amoxicillin, metronidazole, clarithromycin and tetracycline was tested by a breakpoint susceptibility test. Metronidazole resistance was found in fewer (17.0 %) peptic ulcer patients than in non-ulcer subjects (28.3 %, P=0.037), as well as in fewer patients born in villages (12.7 %) than in those born in towns (27.6 %, P=0.016). Clarithromycin resistance varied from 8.8 to 23.4 % (P=0.009) within the hospital centres. The highest clarithromycin resistance rate was found in hospital centre A (23.4 %) compared to other centres (12.9 %, P=0.041). The factors sex, age, symptom duration, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug use, diabetes, type of profession and educational level were not associated with H. pylori resistance. Logistic regression revealed that the risk factors for metronidazole resistance were non-ulcer disease [odds ratio (OR) 1.95, 95 % confidence interval (95 % CI) 1.04-3.65] and a birthplace of a town (OR 2.64, 95 % CI 1.18-5.93). The hospital centre may be a risk factor (OR 2.07, 95 % CI 1.02-4.21) for clarithromycin resistance but further studies are required to verify this suggestion. In conclusion, the knowledge of the risk factors for H. pylori resistance to antibacterials could facilitate the treatment choice for H. pylori eradication.

  15. General and abdominal adiposity in a representative sample of Portuguese adults: dependency of measures and socio-demographic factors' influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalkowska, Joanna; Poínhos, Rui; Franchini, Bela; Afonso, Cláudia; Correia, Flora; Pinhão, Sílvia; Vaz de Almeida, Maria Daniel; Rodrigues, Sara

    2016-01-14

    The aims of this study were: (i) to estimate the dependency between BMI and waist:height ratio (WHtR) as measures of general and abdominal adiposity, and (ii) to evaluate the influence of socio-demographic factors on both measures and on their dependency in risk classification. Data from a cross-sectional study conducted in 2009 among a representative sample of 3529 Portuguese adults were used. Height, weight and waist were measured and socio-demographic data (sex, age, education level, occupational status, marital status, region of residence) were obtained. Using logistic regression, crude and adjusted OR for high general (BMI≥25·0 kg/m²) and abdominal (WHtR≥0·5) adiposity, and for incompatible classification between them, were calculated. Above half (50·8%) of the respondents had high BMI and 42·1% had high WHtR, and the rates were higher in men than in women. There was an inverse association between education level and both adiposity measures. The lowest prevalence of high general and abdominal adiposity was observed in students and singles, whereas the highest was found in retired, widowed and respondents from Azores, Madeira and Alentejo. Nearly a quarter of respondents (24·0%) were incompatibly classified by BMI and WHtR, with higher prevalence in men than in women and in low- than in high-educated people. Future surveys should focus on developing at least sex-specific cut-offs for both measures. Implementation of effective strategies for preventing and reducing high adiposity levels in Portugal should be directed primarily to men, older, low-educated individuals, as well as those living in the islands and poor regions of the country.

  16. Overweight in Brazilian industry workers: Prevalence and association with demographic and socioeconomic factors and soft drink intake

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    Pablo Magno da Silveira

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To estimate the prevalence of overweight in industry workers and its association with demographic and socioeconomic factors and soft drink intake (including type. Methods: This is a nationwide cross-sectional cohort survey of "Lifestyle and leisure habits of industry workers" conducted between 2006 and 2008 in 24 Brazilian federate units. The participants answered a previously tested questionnaire and self-reported their weight and height. Statistical analyses consisted of crude and adjusted Poisson regression. Results: Males and females had overweight prevalences of 45.7% (95%CI=45.1; 46.2 and 28.1% (95%CI=27.4; 28.9 respectively. Older and married individuals and those working in medium-sized and large factories were more likely to be overweight. Males with higher education levels and gross family incomes were also more likely to be overweight, but not females. Finally, men (PR=1.24; 95%CI=1.13; 1.36 and women (PR=1.40; 95%CI=1.22; 1.61 who consumed diet/light soft drinks were also more likely to be overweight than those who did not consume soft drinks. Conclusion: More than one-third of the workers were overweight according to their self-reported weight and height, and the prevalence of overweight was higher in males. Demographic and socioeconomic variables and diet/light soft drink intake were associated with overweight. These data may be helpful for the development of actions that reduce the risk of overweight in this population.

  17. Demographic, risk factors and motivations among blood donors with reactive serologic tests for syphilis in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, S C; de Almeida-Neto, C; Nishiya, A S; Oliveira, C D L; Ferreira, J E; Alencar, C S; Levi, J E; Salles, N A; Mendrone, A; Sabino, E C

    2014-06-01

    To identify the demographic characteristics, risk factors and motivations for donating among blood donors with reactive serologic tests for syphilis. Post-donation interviews with syphilis seropositive blood donors improve recruitment and screening strategies. This case-control study compares 75 Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) > 8, EIA+ (enzyme immunoassay) and FTA-ABS+ (fluorescent treponemal antibody); 80 VDRL-, EIA+ and FTA-ABS+; and 34 VDRL- and EIA- donors between 2004 and 2009. Donors were assessed by their demographic characteristics, sexual behaviour, history of alcohol and illicit drugs use, and motivations to donate. Donors with VDRL > 8 were more likely to be divorced [AOR = 12·53; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·30-120·81], to have had more than six sexual partners (AOR=7·1; 95% CI 1·12-44·62) and to report male-male-sex in the past 12 months (AOR=8·18; 95% CI 1·78-37·60). Donors with VDRL-, EIA+ and FTA-ABS+ were less likely to be female (AOR=0·26; 95% CI 0·07-0·96), more likely to be older (AOR=10·2; 95% CI 2·45-42·58 ≥ 39 and VDRL > 8) and 12·5% (VDRL-, EIA+ and FTA-ABS+) of donors reported that they had been at risk for HIV infection (P = 0·004). One-third of donors came to the blood bank to help a friend or a relative who needed blood. Although donors exposed to syphilis reported and recognised some high risk behaviour, most were motivated by direct appeal to donate blood. Monitoring the risk profile of blood donors can benefit public health and improve blood safety. © 2014 The Authors. Transfusion Medicine © 2014 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  18. Socio-economic and demographic factors related to HIV status in urban informal settlements in the Eastern Cape, South Africa.

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    Steenkamp, Liana; Venter, Danie; Walsh, Corinna; Dana, Pelisa

    2014-09-01

    The prevalence of HIV&AIDS is embedded in social and economic inequity and the relationship between social determinants and HIV incidence is well established. The aim of this study was to determine which socio-economic and demographic factors are related to HIV status in the age group 18 to 49 years in informal settlements in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 3 informal settlements (n = 752) during March 2013 within the Nelson Mandela Bay and Buffalo City districts. A proportional cluster sample was selected and stratified by area and formal plot/squatter households in open areas. Respondents who volunteered to participate had to provide informed written consent before trained, bilingual peer educators interviewed them and completed the structured questionnaire. HIV status was determined and information on demographic and socio-economic variables was included in the bivariate analysis. The prevalence of HIV was higher, at 17.3%, than the 2011 estimated national prevalence among the general population in South Africa. The level of education (χ(2) = 5.50, df = 1, p food insecurity (χ(2) = 4.77, df = 1, p < 0.05), cooking with cast iron pots (χ(2) = 15.0, df = 3, p < 0.05) and availability of perceived 'wealth' indicators like mobile telephones and refrigerators (χ(2) = 9.67, df = 2, p < 0.05) were significantly associated with HIV-status. No significant associations could be demonstrated between household income, the number of people living in the household and the availability of electricity/water and HIV status. As the observed levels of HIV prevalence underlined gender bias and failure to graduate from high school, future interventions should focus on HIV prevention in female schoolchildren. However, HIV infection is also prevalent among wealthier individuals in informal settlements, which indicates that renewed efforts should be made to improve sexual risk behaviour within this group.

  19. Spatial patterns of multidrug resistant tuberculosis and relationships to socio-economic, demographic and household factors in northwest Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viney, Kerri; McBryde, Emma S.; Clements, Archie C. A.

    2017-01-01

    Background Understanding the geographical distribution of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in high TB burden countries such as Ethiopia is crucial for effective control of TB epidemics in these countries, and thus globally. We present the first spatial analysis of multidrug resistant tuberculosis, and its relationship to socio-economic, demographic and household factors in northwest Ethiopia. Methods An ecological study was conducted using data on patients diagnosed with MDR-TB at the University of Gondar Hospital MDR-TB treatment centre, for the period 2010 to 2015. District level population data were extracted from the Ethiopia National and Regional Census Report. Spatial autocorrelation was explored using Moran’s I statistic, Local Indicators of Spatial Association (LISA), and the Getis-Ord statistics. A multivariate Poisson regression model was developed with a conditional autoregressive (CAR) prior structure, and with posterior parameters estimated using a Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulation approach with Gibbs sampling, in WinBUGS. Results A total of 264 MDR-TB patients were included in the analysis. The overall crude incidence rate of MDR-TB for the six-year period was 3.0 cases per 100,000 population. The highest incidence rate was observed in Metema (21 cases per 100,000 population) and Humera (18 cases per 100,000 population) districts; whereas nine districts had zero cases. Spatial clustering of MDR-TB was observed in districts located in the Ethiopia-Sudan and Ethiopia-Eritrea border regions, where large numbers of seasonal migrants live. Spatial clustering of MDR-TB was positively associated with urbanization (RR: 1.02; 95%CI: 1.01, 1.04) and the percentage of men (RR: 1.58; 95% CI: 1.26, 1.99) in the districts; after accounting for these factors there was no residual spatial clustering. Conclusion Spatial clustering of MDR-TB, fully explained by demographic factors (urbanization and percent male), was detected in the border

  20. Housing and Demographic Risk Factors Impacting Foot and Musculoskeletal Health in African Elephants [Loxodonta africana] and Asian Elephants [Elephas maximus] in North American Zoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Michele A; Hogan, Jennifer N; Meehan, Cheryl L

    2016-01-01

    For more than three decades, foot and musculoskeletal conditions have been documented among both Asian [Elephas maximus] and African [Loxodonta africana] elephants in zoos. Although environmental factors have been hypothesized to play a contributing role in the development of foot and musculoskeletal pathology, there is a paucity of evidence-based research assessing risk. We investigated the associations between foot and musculoskeletal health conditions with demographic characteristics, space, flooring, exercise, enrichment, and body condition for elephants housed in North American zoos during 2012. Clinical examinations and medical records were used to assess health indicators and provide scores to quantitate conditions. Using multivariable regression models, associations were found between foot health and age [P value = 0.076; Odds Ratio = 1.018], time spent on hard substrates [P value = 0.022; Odds Ratio = 1.014], space experienced during the night [P value = 0.041; Odds Ratio = 1.008], and percent of time spent in indoor/outdoor exhibits during the day [P value < 0.001; Odds Ratio = 1.003]. Similarly, the main risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders included time on hard substrate [P value = 0.002; Odds Ratio = 1.050] and space experienced in indoor/outdoor exhibits [P value = 0.039; Odds Ratio = 1.037]. These results suggest that facility and management changes that decrease time spent on hard substrates will improve elephant welfare through better foot and musculoskeletal health.

  1. Housing and Demographic Risk Factors Impacting Foot and Musculoskeletal Health in African Elephants [Loxodonta africana] and Asian Elephants [Elephas maximus] in North American Zoos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele A Miller

    Full Text Available For more than three decades, foot and musculoskeletal conditions have been documented among both Asian [Elephas maximus] and African [Loxodonta africana] elephants in zoos. Although environmental factors have been hypothesized to play a contributing role in the development of foot and musculoskeletal pathology, there is a paucity of evidence-based research assessing risk. We investigated the associations between foot and musculoskeletal health conditions with demographic characteristics, space, flooring, exercise, enrichment, and body condition for elephants housed in North American zoos during 2012. Clinical examinations and medical records were used to assess health indicators and provide scores to quantitate conditions. Using multivariable regression models, associations were found between foot health and age [P value = 0.076; Odds Ratio = 1.018], time spent on hard substrates [P value = 0.022; Odds Ratio = 1.014], space experienced during the night [P value = 0.041; Odds Ratio = 1.008], and percent of time spent in indoor/outdoor exhibits during the day [P value < 0.001; Odds Ratio = 1.003]. Similarly, the main risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders included time on hard substrate [P value = 0.002; Odds Ratio = 1.050] and space experienced in indoor/outdoor exhibits [P value = 0.039; Odds Ratio = 1.037]. These results suggest that facility and management changes that decrease time spent on hard substrates will improve elephant welfare through better foot and musculoskeletal health.

  2. [Insomnia and total sleep time in France: prevalence and associated socio-demographic factors in a general population survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, F; Richard, J-B; Léger, D

    2013-12-01

    Sleep is considered as a major protective factor for good health and quality of life. The epidemiology of chronic insomnia and other sleep disorders has recently been developed in France. The aim of this study was to evaluate total sleep time and the prevalence of chronic insomnia in the general population aged 15 to 85 years. It was also to investigate factors associated with sleep disorders. Within the framework of the Health Barometer 2010, a French general population survey, 27,653 15 to 85-year-old individuals were questioned about their health behaviors and attitudes, in particular about their sleeping time and habits. The average sleeping time of the 15 to 85-year-old was 7 hours 13 minutes. It was higher for women than for men (7 hours 18 minutes vs 7 hours 07 minutes; Psocio-demographic characteristics. Since the beginning of 1990s, a single-question inquiry on "sleeping problems present during the last 8 days" has been asked in the Health Barometer. The rate of subjects concerned increased from 1995, with a prevalence stabilized at a high level since 2000. Based on these data, we think that the surveillance of sleep disorders is an important public health issue and that prevention and health educational initiatives should be launched in the general population to promote a better quality of sleep. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. THE STUDY OF ANAEMIA & ITS RELATED SOCIO - DEMOGRAPHIC FACTORS AMONGST PREGNANT WOMEN IN RURAL COMMUNITY OF UTTAR PRADESH

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    Shams Khan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Anaemia in pregnant women is one of India’s major public health problems and is a major factor responsible for low birth weight. One fifth of the maternal deaths occurred worldwide due to anemia . OBJECTIVES: To find out prevalence of anaemia in pregnant women and it s association with socio demographic factors. Study Design: Cross sectional study. SETTING : The study was conducted in village Khera at RHTC , Rama Medical College Hospital and Research Centre , G h aziabad. MATERIAL & METHODS: The study was carried from Oct 2012 to June 2013. A total of 321 pregnant women with gestational period between 12 to 20 weeks were registered. H a emoglobin was estimated and peripheral smear examination was carried out. Statistical Analysis: Chi - Squar e test. RESULTS: A high prevalence of anaemia (79.75% was observed in pregnant women. Majority of the primipara were moderately anaemic (58.38% and were less than 20 years of age. 37% of multipara pregnant women were severely anaemic . Occurrence of anaemia in pregnancy was found to be inversely proportional to the socioeconomic class. Statistic ally significant association (P< 0.05 were found amongst anaemic pregnant women with their age , parity and socioeconomic class.

  4. Demographic and lifestyle factors associated with dioxin-like activity (CALUX-TEQ) in human breast milk in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, E A S; Hui, L L; Wong, T W; Hedley, A J

    2006-03-01

    Maternal exposure to dioxins and related compounds before conception may affect the health of the fetus. To identify factors affecting dioxin body load in Hong Kong, in 2002, total dioxin-like activity was estimated in 250 individual milk samples at 2-6 weeks postpartum, from a representative group of primiparous mothers, aged 18-42 years (mean 29 +/- 5 years), by a chemically activated luciferase expression (CALUX) bioassay. Associations between the CALUX-TEQ and 20 socio-demographic and dietary variables were examined separately in mothers younger than 30 years (n = 114) and 30 years or older (n = 119), by multiple linear regression analysis. CALUX-TEQ (mean 14.5 +/- 5.8 pg/g fat) significantly increased by 0.4-0.5 pg/g fat for every year of the mother's age. Mothers born in Guangdong province of China had a significantly higher CALUX-TEQ. Higher seafood consumption (older mothers; p = 0.07) and having a female baby (younger mothers; p = 0.002) were associated with a higher maternal CALUX-TEQ level. Age was the strongest factor affecting human dioxin levels in Hong Kong. Birthplace and residence are important indicators of variations in exposure to environmental pollution in the Asia Pacific region. Temporal trends in body loads of dioxins remain to be established and continuous monitoring of dioxins in humans and foods is necessary as a precautionary approach to guide environmental control measures and prevent exposure to infants.

  5. THE INFLUENCE OF THE CHOSEN SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC FACTORS ON THE QUALITY OF LIFE IN WOMEN AFTER GYNAECOLOGICAL SURGICAL PROCEDURES

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    Beata Karakiewicz

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to assess how the chosen socio-demographic factors effect the quality of life in the patients after gynaecological surgical procedures. Materials and Methods: Research was conducted in 2007 among 250 women operated in the Department of Reproduction and Gynaecology, the Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin. In this survey-based study, we used a standardized quality of life questionnaire, the Women’s Health Questionnaire (WHQ, developed by Dr Myra Hunter at London University. Results: The most numerous patients were those with sleep disorders (38,8%, 37,6% of the surveyed complained of troublesome menstrual symptoms, 26,8% of respondents had disturbing somatic symptoms, short memory and problems with concentration. The lowest percentage of women (12,4% felt anxiety and fear associated with the past gynaecological surgical procedure. Conclusions: 1. General satisfaction and good disposition is declared by the majority of patients after gynaecological surgical procedures. 2. Age, education, having a partner, place of residence, and the number of children are the factors which have significant effect on the quality of life in women after gynaecological procedures.

  6. Social and Demographic Factors Associated with Morbidities in Young Children in Egypt: A Bayesian Geo-Additive Semi-Parametric Multinomial Model.

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    Khaled Khatab

    Full Text Available Globally, the burden of mortality in children, especially in poor developing countries, is alarming and has precipitated concern and calls for concerted efforts in combating such health problems. Examples of diseases that contribute to this burden of mortality include diarrhoea, cough, fever, and the overlap between these illnesses, causing childhood morbidity and mortality.To gain insight into these health issues, we employed the 2008 Demographic and Health Survey Data of Egypt, which recorded details from 10,872 children under five. This data focused on the demographic and socio-economic characteristics of household members. We applied a Bayesian multinomial model to assess the area-specific spatial effects and risk factors of co-morbidity of fever, diarrhoea and cough for children under the age of five.The results showed that children under 20 months of age were more likely to have the three diseases (OR: 6.8; 95% CI: 4.6-10.2 than children between 20 and 40 months (OR: 2.14; 95% CI: 1.38-3.3. In multivariate Bayesian geo-additive models, the children of mothers who were over 20 years of age were more likely to have only cough (OR: 1.2; 95% CI: 0.9-1.5 and only fever (OR: 1.2; 95% CI: 0.91-1.51 compared with their counterparts. Spatial results showed that the North-eastern region of Egypt has a higher incidence than most of other regions.This study showed geographic patterns of Egyptian governorates in the combined prevalence of morbidity among Egyptian children. It is obvious that the Nile Delta, Upper Egypt, and south-eastern Egypt have high rates of diseases and are more affected. Therefore, more attention is needed in these areas.

  7. Biological factors contributing to bark and ambrosia beetle species diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohli, Jostein; Kirkendall, Lawrence R; Smith, Sarah M; Cognato, Anthony I; Hulcr, Jiri; Jordal, Bjarte H

    2017-05-01

    The study of species diversification can identify the processes that shape patterns of species richness across the tree of life. Here, we perform comparative analyses of species diversification using a large dataset of bark beetles. Three examined covariates-permanent inbreeding (sibling mating), fungus farming, and major host type-represent a range of factors that may be important for speciation. We studied the association of these covariates with species diversification while controlling for evolutionary lag on adaptation. All three covariates were significantly associated with diversification, but fungus farming showed conflicting patterns between different analyses. Genera that exhibited interspecific variation in host type had higher rates of species diversification, which may suggest that host switching is a driver of species diversification or that certain host types or forest compositions facilitate colonization and thus allopatric speciation. Because permanent inbreeding is thought to facilitate dispersal, the positive association between permanent inbreeding and diversification rates suggests that dispersal ability may contribute to species richness. Bark beetles are ecologically unique; however, our results indicate that their impressive species diversity is largely driven by mechanisms shown to be important for many organism groups. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  8. Influence of socio-demographic, labour and professional factors on nursing perception concerning practice environment in Primary Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parro Moreno, Ana; Serrano Gallardo, Pilar; Ferrer Arnedo, Carmen; Serrano Molina, Lucía; de la Puerta Calatayud, M Luisa; Barberá Martín, Aurora; Morales Asencio, José Miguel; de Pedro Gómez, Joan

    2013-11-01

    To analyze the perception of nursing professionals of the Madrid Primary Health Care environment in which they practice, as well as its relationship with socio-demographic, work-related and professional factors. Cross-sectional, analytical, observational study. Questionnaire sent to a total of 475 nurses in Primary Health Care in Madrid (former Health Care Areas 6 and 9), in 2010. Perception of the practice environment using the Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index (PES-NWI) questionnaire, as well as; age; sex; years of professional experience; professional category; Health Care Area; employment status and education level. There was a response rate of 69.7% (331). The raw score for the PES-NWI was: 81.04 [95%CI: 79.18-82.91]. The factor with the highest score was "Support from Managers" (2.9 [95%CI: 2.8-3]) and the lowest "Workforce adequacy" (2.3 [95%CI: 2.2-2.4]). In the regression model (dependent variable: raw score in PES-NWI), adjusted by age, sex, employment status, professional category (coefficient B=6.586), and years worked at the centre (coefficient B=2.139, for a time of 0-2 years; coefficient B=7.482, for 3-10 years; coefficient B=7.867, for over 20 years) remained at p≤0.05. The support provided by nurse managers is the most highly valued factor in this practice environment, while workforce adequacy is perceived as the lowest. Nurses in posts of responsibility and those possessing a higher degree of training perceive their practice environment more favourably. Knowledge of the factors in the practice environment is a key element for health care organizations to optimize provision of care and to improve health care results. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  9. Relative contribution of decreased productivity and survival to recent changes in the demographic trend of the Rivière George Caribou Herd

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    M. Crête

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The Rivière George caribou herd (RGCH was numerically low during the middle part of the century but apparently erupted in the sixties and the seventies. Puberty was early and pregnancy rate was high among RGCH females from 1973 until the mid-eighties when fecundity decreased significantly, in particular among sub-adults; productivity remained low in 1992. Autumn calf:female ratios reflected this trend in pregnancy, exceeding 50 calves: 100 cows between 1973 and 1983, but dropping thereafter progressively to a low of 24 in 1992. In 1993, this ratio rebounded back to 42. Annual adult survival rate of radio-collared females was high (0.95 at the beginning of the monitoring in 1984, but exhibited a variable but declining trend until 1992. Simulations were conducted to estimate the demographic trend of the RGCH between 1984 and 1992, using annual survival rates of radio-collared animals and annual autumn calffemale ratios to estimate calf production. Age structure played a minor role in estimating the finite rate of increase (Lamda. According to the simulations, the RGCH increased in size until 1987, and showed a slight decrease thereafter. The herd should have decreased by 12-15% between 1988 and 1993, according to the simulations. Productivity first caused a decline in Lamda, but in recent years decreased survival contributed slightly more than productivity to the reduction in Lamda. Estimation of the herd size by means of aerial censuses in 1976, 1984, 1988 and 1993 suggested a similar pattern in demographic trend, differences being statistically meaningless. We speculated on the future of the RGCH, that could have erupted after many decades of unfavourable weather. The herd will exhibit a rapid descent to low numbers if wolves show a numerical response to current caribou abundance, or if lichen availability on the winter range decreases due to competition with the adjacent and increasing Rivière aux Feuilles herd; otherwise it will exhibit

  10. Contribution of individual and environmental factors to physical activity level among Spanish adults.

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    José Antonio Serrano-Sanchez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lack of physical activity (PA is a major risk for chronic disease and obesity. The main aims of the present study were to identify individual and environmental factors independently associated with PA and examine the relative contribution of these factors to PA level in Spanish adults. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A population-based cross-sectional sample of 3,000 adults (18-75 years old from Gran Canaria (Spain was selected using a multistage stratified random sampling method. The participants were interviewed at home using a validated questionnaire to assess PA as well as individual and environmental factors. The data were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate logistic regression. One demographic variable (education, two cognitive (self-efficacy and perceived barriers, and one social environmental (organized format were independently associated with PA in both genders. Odds ratios ranged between 1.76-2.07 in men and 1.35-2.50 in women (both p<0.05. Individual and environmental factors explained about one-third of the variance in PA level. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Self-efficacy and perceived barriers were the most significant factors to meet an adequate level of PA. The risk of insufficient PA was twofold greater in men with primary or lesser studies and who are employed. In women, living in rural environments increased the risk of insufficient PA. The promotion of organized PA may be an efficient way to increase the level of PA in the general population. Improvement in the access to sport facilities and places for PA is a prerequisite that may be insufficient and should be combined with strategies to improve self-efficacy and overcome perceived barriers in adulthood.

  11. Urban Household Carbon Emission and Contributing Factors in the Yangtze River Delta, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xibao; Tan, Yan; Chen, Shuang; Yang, Guishan; Su, Weizhong

    2015-01-01

    Carbon reduction at the household level is an integral part of carbon mitigation. This study analyses the characteristics, effects, contributing factors and policies for urban household carbon emissions in the Yangtze River Delta of China. Primary data was collected through structured questionnaire surveys in three cities in the region – Nanjing, Ningbo, and Changzhou in 2011. The survey data was first used to estimate the magnitude of household carbon emissions in different urban contexts. It then examined how, and to what extent, each set of demographic, economic, behavioral/cognitive and spatial factors influence carbon emissions at the household level. The average of urban household carbon emissions in the region was estimated to be 5.96 tonnes CO2 in 2010. Energy consumption, daily commuting, garbage disposal and long-distance travel accounted for 51.2%, 21.3%, 16.0% and 11.5% of the total emission, respectively. Regulating rapidly growing car-holdings of urban households, stabilizing population growth, and transiting residents’ low-carbon awareness to household behavior in energy saving and other spheres of consumption in the context of rapid population aging and the growing middle income class are suggested as critical measures for carbon mitigation among urban households in the Yangtze River Delta. PMID:25884853

  12. Urban household carbon emission and contributing factors in the Yangtze River Delta, China.

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    Xibao Xu

    Full Text Available Carbon reduction at the household level is an integral part of carbon mitigation. This study analyses the characteristics, effects, contributing factors and policies for urban household carbon emissions in the Yangtze River Delta of China. Primary data was collected through structured questionnaire surveys in three cities in the region--Nanjing, Ningbo, and Changzhou in 2011. The survey data was first used to estimate the magnitude of household carbon emissions in different urban contexts. It then examined how, and to what extent, each set of demographic, economic, behavioral/cognitive and spatial factors influence carbon emissions at the household level. The average of urban household carbon emissions in the region was estimated to be 5.96 tonnes CO2 in 2010. Energy consumption, daily commuting, garbage disposal and long-distance travel accounted for 51.2%, 21.3%, 16.0% and 11.5% of the total emission, respectively. Regulating rapidly growing car-holdings of urban households, stabilizing population growth, and transiting residents' low-carbon awareness to household behavior in energy saving and other spheres of consumption in the context of rapid population aging and the growing middle income class are suggested as critical measures for carbon mitigation among urban households in the Yangtze River Delta.

  13. Health, alcohol and psychosocial factors in Eastern Europe study: dietary patterns and their association with socio-demographic factors in the Lithuanian urban population of Kaunas city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luksiene, Dalia Ieva; Baceviciene, Migle; Tamosiunas, Abdonas; Daugeliene, Evelina; Kranciukaite, Daina

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the main dietary patterns in the Lithuanian urban population and to determine their association with socio-demographic factors. Data from the survey performed in the framework of the HAPIEE (Health, Alcohol, Psychosocial factors In Eastern Europe) study were presented. A random sample of 7,087 individuals aged 45-72 years was screened in 2006-2008. Factor analysis of the main dietary patterns revealed a five-factor solution, which accounted for 47.8% of the variance: "fresh vegetables and fruit"; "sweets"; "porridge and cereals"; "potatoes, meat, boiled vegetables and eggs"; "chicken and fish". "Fresh vegetables and fruits" factor and "sweets" factor were inversely associated with age both in men and women: older people consumed less frequent than average of the particular food groups. Dietary patterns of people with good self-rated health and university education were healthier than among people with lower education and poorer health. Nutrition education efforts should focus on improving food diversity, with particular targeting of lower educated, single and older people.

  14. The relative contributions of disease and insects in the decline of a long-lived tree: a stochastic demographic model of whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jules, Erik S; Jackson, Jenell I.; van Mantgem, Phillip J.; Beck, Jennifer S.; Murray, Michael P.; Sahara, E. April

    2016-01-01

    Pathogens and insect pests have become increasingly important drivers of tree mortality in forested ecosystems. Unfortunately, understanding the relative contributions of multiple mortality agents to the population decline of trees is difficult, because it requires frequent measures of tree survival, growth, and recruitment, as well as the incidence of mortality agents. We present a population model of whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis), a high-elevation tree undergoing rapid decline in western North America. The loss of whitebark pine is thought to be primarily due to an invasive pathogen (white pine blister rust; Cronartium ribicola) and a native insect (mountain pine beetle; Dendroctonus ponderosae). We utilized seven plots in Crater Lake National Park (Oregon, USA) where 1220 trees were surveyed for health and the presence of blister rust and beetle activity annually from 2003–2014, except 2008. We constructed size-based projection matrices for nine years and calculated the deterministic growth rate (λ) using an average matrix and the stochastic growth rate (λs) by simulation for whitebark pine in our study population. We then assessed the roles of blister rust and beetles by calculating λ and λsusing matrices in which we removed trees with blister rust and, separately, trees with beetles. We also conducted life-table response experiments (LTRE) to determine which demographic changes contributed most to differences in λ between ambient conditions and the two other scenarios. The model suggests that whitebark pine in our plots are currently declining 1.1% per year (λ = 0.9888, λs = 0.9899). Removing blister rust from the models resulted in almost no increase in growth (λ = 0.9916, λs = 0.9930), while removing beetles resulted in a larger increase in growth (λ = 1.0028, λs = 1.0045). The LTRE demonstrated that reductions in stasis of the three largest size classes due to beetles contributed most to the smaller λ in the ambient condition

  15. Socio-demographic factors, comorbidity and diagnostic delay among women diagnosed with cervical, endometrial or ovarian cancer: a nationwide survey in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robinson, Kirstine Magtengaard; Christensen, Karl Bang; Ottesen, Bent Smedegaard

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the association between socio-demographic factors, comorbidity and diagnostic delay among gynaecological cancer patients. A questionnaire was sent to 1052 women diagnosed with cervical, endometrial or ovarian cancer between October 2006 and December 2007 in Denmark. Long...... diagnosed with cervical and endometrial cancer as opposed to ovarian cancer, and with working as opposed to being retired. In conclusion, this study found that socio-demographic factors and comorbidity play a role in the probability of experiencing long delays. If delays in diagnosis are to be reduced...

  16. Contribution of thermal and nonthermal factors to the regulation of body temperature in humans

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Igor B. Mekjavic; Ola Eiken

    2006-01-01

    .... This reciprocal inhibition theory, presumably reflecting the manner in which thermal factors contribute to homeothermy in humans, does not incorporate the effect of nonthermal factors on temperature regulation...

  17. Gastro-esophageal reflux disease symptoms and demographic factors as a pre-screening tool for Barrett's esophagus.

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    Xinxue Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Barrett's esophagus (BE occurs as consequence of reflux and is a risk factor for esophageal adenocarcinoma. The current "gold-standard" for diagnosing BE is endoscopy which remains prohibitively expensive and impractical as a population screening tool. We aimed to develop a pre-screening tool to aid decision making for diagnostic referrals. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A prospective (training cohort of 1603 patients attending for endoscopy was used for identification of risk factors to develop a risk prediction model. Factors associated with BE in the univariate analysis were selected to develop prediction models that were validated in an independent, external cohort of 477 non-BE patients referred for endoscopy with symptoms of reflux or dyspepsia. Two prediction models were developed separately for columnar lined epithelium (CLE of any length and using a stricter definition of intestinal metaplasia (IM with segments ≥ 2 cm with areas under the ROC curves (AUC of 0.72 (95%CI: 0.67-0.77 and 0.81 (95%CI: 0.76-0.86, respectively. The two prediction models included demographics (age, sex, symptoms (heartburn, acid reflux, chest pain, abdominal pain and medication for "stomach" symptoms. These two models were validated in the independent cohort with AUCs of 0.61 (95%CI: 0.54-0.68 and 0.64 (95%CI: 0.52-0.77 for CLE and IM ≥ 2 cm, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: We have identified and validated two prediction models for CLE and IM ≥ 2 cm. Both models have fair prediction accuracies and can select out around 20% of individuals unlikely to benefit from investigation for Barrett's esophagus. Such prediction models have the potential to generate useful cost-savings for BE screening among the symptomatic population.

  18. Effect of Demographic and Clinical Factors on New- Onset Diabetes Mellitus after Liver Transplantation in Iranian Patients

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    Soha Namazi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUNDS: New- onset diabetes after transplantation (NODAT is a serious complication which runs the risk of infections, morbidity and mortality. Older age, male sex, immunosuppressive agents and hepatitis C are reported as risk factors. The focus of this research is evaluating some demographic and clinical factors in development of NODAT in hepatic transplanted patients. This study aims to help identifying high risk recipients in order to prevent NODAT and improve transplantation prognosis.METHODS: In this study 134 liver recipients without pre- transplantation diabetes were investigated; 70 euglycemic and 64 with NODAT within 2 years after transplantation. All the patients were on tacrolimus- based immunosuppressive regimen. The role of recipients’ age, sex, body mass index (BMI, model for end- stage liver disease (MELD score, blood group, diseases leading to transplantation, tacrolimus dose and serum level, mycophenolate mofetil (MMF and prednisolone dose in the incidence of NODAT were assessed.RESULTS: The prevalence of NODAT in this study was 17.92%. The means of duration after transplantation that NODAT occurred, was 98.36± 21.62 days. The mean age of all patients was 37.83±16.26 years and 60.40% were females. Two groups were similar in terms of pre- transplantation fasting blood sugar (FBS (P=0.091. Age (P=0.001,OR=1.063,CI:1.025-1.102 and prednisolone dose (P<0.0001,OR=1.270,CI:1.163-1.388 the only independent predictors of NODAT, while tacrolimus daily dose and plasma level, MMF daily dose, sex, BMI and underlying diseases were not risk factors for NODAT.CONCLUSIONS: Recipients with older age and higher prednisolone dose are more prone to NODAT and need more accurate monitoring.

  19. Contribution factor of wood properties of three poplar clones to strength of laminated veneer lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fucheng Bao; Feng Fu; Elvin Choong; Chung-Yun Hse

    2001-01-01

    The term "Contribution Factor" (c.) was introduced in this paper to indicate the contribution ratio of solid wood properties to laminated veneer lumber (LVL) strength. Three poplar (Populus sp.) clones were studied, and the results showed that poplar with good solid wood properties has high Contribution Factor. The average Contribution...

  20. Factors contributing to communication skills development in cochlear implanted children

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    Ostojić Sanja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Over the last 10 years more than 300 persons received cochlear implant in Serbia and more than 90% of the recipients were children under 10 years of age. The program of cochlear implantation includes postoperative rehabilitation in which cognitive, integrative and developmental methods are used. The study was conducted to reveal factors affecting communication performance (CP of cochlear implanted (CI children. Special attention was focused on the influence of the duration and intensity of rehabilitation and hearing age on further development of communication skills. Methods. A group of 30 CI children (13 boys and 17 girls aged 2 to 5 years was enrolled in the study. All of the children had average intelligence and no other developmental disorder. They lived in families and attended rehabilitative seances 3 to 5 times a week. Their parents/ caregivers answered structured questionnaire about functioning after pediatric cochlear implantation (FAPCI and the results were the subject of detailed statistical analysis. Results. Analysis of variance did not show any difference between the boys and the girls regarding FAPCI achievements (F (1, 28 = 2.909; p = 0.099 and age aberration in CP score (F (1, 28 = 0.114, p = 0.738. Correlation analysis showed a statistically significant difference in FAPCI scores related to hearing age and duration of rehabilitation. Regression analysis (enter method showed that model consisting of indipendent variables significantly contributed to prediction of overall FAPCI scores and Adjusted R2 value could explain 32% difference in communication skills of participants in this study. Conclusion. Communication skills of CI children evaluated by FAPCI are falling behind normatives for normal hearing children 18.6 months on the average. Hearing age, duration and intensity of rehabilitation have positive predictive value for communication skills development. Later identification of hearing loss and later cochlear

  1. Factors contributing to communication skills development in cochlear implanted children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostojić, Sanja; Djoković, Sanja; Radić-šestić, Marina; Nikolić, Mina; Mikić, Branka; Mirić, Danica

    2015-08-01

    Over the last 10 years more than 300 persons received cochlear implant in Serbia and more than 90% of the recipients were children under 10 years of age. The program of cochlear implantation includes postoperative rehabilitation in which cognitive, integrative and developmental methods are used. The study was conducted to reveal factors affecting communication performance (CP) of cochlear implanted (Cl) children. Special attention was focused on the influence of the duration and intensity of rehabilitation and hearing age on further development of communication skills. A group of 30 CI children (13 boys and 17 girls) aged 2 to 5 years was enrolled in the study. All of the children had average intelligence and no other developmental disorder. They lived in families and attended rehabilitative seances 3 to 5 times a week. Their parents/caregivers answered structured questionnaire about functioning after pediatric cochlear implantation (FAPCI) and the results were the subject of detailed statistical analysis. Analysis of variance did not show any difference between the boys and the girls regarding FAPCI achievements (F(1, 28) = 2.909; p = 0.099) and age aberration in CP score (F(1,28) = 0.114, p = 0.738). Correlation analysis showed a statistically significant difference in FAPCI scores related to hearing age and duration of rehabilitation. Regression analysis (enter method) showed that model consisting of indipendent variables significantly contributed to prediction of overall FAPCI scores and Adjusted R2 value could explain 32% difference in communication skills of participants in this study. Communication skills of CI children evaluated by FAPCI are falling behind normatives for normal hearing children 18.6 months on the average. Hearing age, duration and intensity of rehabilitation have positive predictive value for communication skills development. Later identification of hearing loss and later cochlear implantation lead to delayed development of communication

  2. [Association between demographic characteristics and psychosocial factors of job stress in a sample of health care workers employed in two Italian hospitals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortese, C G; Gerbaudo, Laura; Benso, P G; Violante, B

    2009-01-01

    Job stress has negative effects on both health care work ers' (HCW) health and on work organization. To assess whether the presence of stressful conditions, individually considered, or combined in the iso-strain model, is significantly associated with specific socio-demographic characteristics, also with the aim of providing organizational tools for management to reduce stress in the working environment according to Italian law 81/2008. The extended version of the Job Content Questionnaire was administered to 265 healthy HCW in seven paired wards of two hospitals. The five psychosocial scales Job Demand (JD), Job Control (JC), Social Support (SS), Skill Underutilization (SuS), and Job Insecurity (JI) were calculated. The factors JD, JC, and SS were combined together to separate a group of 33 HCW in iso-strain conditions from another group of 232 HCW not in iso-strain conditions. Several socio-demographic variables were collected. Statistically significant associations were found between socio-demographic characteristics and psychosocial factors, whereas the iso-strain conditions were not related to any socio-demographic parameter. Data suggest the need for alternative policies to reduce job stress: for example, actions addressed to operative units or HCW with specific socio-demographic characteristics could be effective in improving individual psychosocial factors; however, integrated actions aimed at reorganizing the working environment as a whole should be implemented to correct iso-strain conditions.

  3. Health-related quality of life in Russian adults with epilepsy: the effect of socio-demographic and clinical factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melikyan, Elina; Guekht, Alla; Milchakova, Larisa; Lebedeva, Anna; Bondareva, Irina; Gusev, Eugeny

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate socio-demographic and clinical factors influencing the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of adult patients with epilepsy in a naturalistic treatment setting in Russia. The QOLIE-31 questionnaire and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were completed by 208 patients with a broad clinical spectrum of epilepsy (the mean age was 31.49±13.20 years and ranged from 18 to 74 years). In Russian adult patients with epilepsy, lower mean QOLIE-31 scores were obtained compared with previously published international data for overall HRQOL, emotional well-being, and cognitive functioning and social functioning subscales (pfactor associated with all HRQOL domains, except for medication effects and emotional well-being, whereas gender, education, family status, seizure type, employment, lateralization of epileptic foci, number of antiepileptic drugs, and the reported adverse events did not significantly affect HRQOL. The present study has revealed that longer duration of epilepsy, older age, higher seizure frequency, and depression are the potential predictors of worse HRQOL in adult Russian patients with epilepsy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Adult anthropometric measures and socio-demographic factors influencing age at menarche of university students in malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Md Golam; Wee, Ai-Sze; Ashaie, Maeirah; Kamarul, T

    2013-09-01

    Early onset of menarche has been shown to be associated with breast cancer and ischaemic heart disease. Studies on age at menarche of the Malaysian population are poorly documented. This study aimed to determine the influence of anthropometric and socio-demographic factors on the age at menarche of university students in Malaysia. Data were obtained in 2010-11 from 961 students between the ages of 18 and 25 years from the University of Malaya using stratified sampling, and multiple regression analysis was applied. Sixty-three per cent of students reached menarche at the age of 12 or 13 years, with the mean and median of age at menarche being 12.45 ± 1.17 and 12.01 years, respectively. Menarcheal age was positively associated with height (p<0.05) and negatively associated with BMI (p<0.001). Students from urban areas attained menarche earlier than those from rural areas (p<0.05). Students from small-sized families attained menarche earlier than those from larger families (p<0.05). First-born students experienced menarche earlier than those who were seventh-born or later. Obese and overweight students reached menarche earlier than students who were underweight or of normal weight (p<0.01). The variations in age at menarche among the Malaysian ethnic groups were statistically insignificant. The results suggest that heavier and first-born students from small families are more likely to attain menarche earlier than their counterparts.

  5. Estimating Survival Rates in Gastric Cancer Based on Pathologic and Demographic Factors in Fars Cancer Registry (2001-2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajaeifard Abdolreza

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gastric cancer remains as one of the leading causes of death worldwide. In patients with gastric cancer, the survival rate after diagnosis is relatively low. The present study aimed to evaluate the impact of demographic factors in estimation of survival rate in patients with gastric cancer in order to develop updated documents in these patients. Materials and Methods: All gastric cancer patients registered in Fars cancer registry from 2001-2006 were entered in the study. Vital status of the patients was asked by telephone contact. Survival rates were estimated using Kaplan-Meier method and compared by Log-rank test. All calculations were performed using STATA (v.8 software. The p value0.05. Conclusion: Our results showed that the survival rates of gastric cancer patients in our study were relatively low. Late diagnosis and delayed therapy are important reasons for low survival in these patients. Therefore, improving public education about primary symptoms of gastric cancer by media is recommended

  6. Drinking patterns and the association between socio-demographic factors and adolescents' alcohol use in three metropolises in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shijun; Du, Songming; Hu, Xiaoqi; Zou, Shurong; Liu, Weijia; Ba, Lei; Ma, Guansheng

    2015-02-12

    The current study was designed to investigate the drinking patterns and association between socio-demographic factors and adolescents' alcohol use among high school students from China's three metropolises, Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou. Using a self-administered questionnaire, we conducted a cross-sectional survey among 13,811 high school students from 136 schools between May and June 2013. A two-stage stratified sampling method was used for subject selection. The prevalence of lifetime drinking was 52.5%; in addition, 38.5% of the students were past-year drinkers, while 20.1% of them had consumed alcohol in the past 30 days. During the past year, 29.7% of the students reported that they drank once per month or less, and 22.0% of the students drank less than one standard drink (SD) per occasion. For the students who were not living with their mothers, as well as the students in higher socioeconomic status (SES), the adjusted odds of past and current drinking were significantly higher, compared with those who lived with both parents and low SES. Due to the high prevalence of alcohol consumption among junior and senior high school students in metropolises, attention should be paid by parents, school administrators, educational and public health agencies for making efforts collectively to reduce alcohol availability and drinking among adolescents.

  7. Drinking Patterns and the Association between Socio-Demographic Factors and Adolescents’ Alcohol Use in Three Metropolises in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shijun Lu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The current study was designed to investigate the drinking patterns and association between socio-demographic factors and adolescents’ alcohol use among high school students from China’s three metropolises, Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou. Using a self-administered questionnaire, we conducted a cross-sectional survey among 13,811 high school students from 136 schools between May and June 2013. A two-stage stratified sampling method was used for subject selection. The prevalence of lifetime drinking was 52.5%; in addition, 38.5% of the students were past-year drinkers, while 20.1% of them had consumed alcohol in the past 30 days. During the past year, 29.7% of the students reported that they drank once per month or less, and 22.0% of the students drank less than one standard drink (SD per occasion. For the students who were not living with their mothers, as well as the students in higher socioeconomic status (SES, the adjusted odds of past and current drinking were significantly higher, compared with those who lived with both parents and low SES. Due to the high prevalence of alcohol consumption among junior and senior high school students in metropolises, attention should be paid by parents, school administrators, educational and public health agencies for making efforts collectively to reduce alcohol availability and drinking among adolescents.

  8. Investigating the Relationship between Demographic Factors and Choice of Delivery Method in Pregnant Women in the City of Savojbolagh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Dadashi Eynsheykh

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the increased rate of cesarean section in recent decades and natural desire of women probably due to social, economic& cultural issues in our country. While that in many cases, vaginal delivery can be replaced by unnecessary cesarean. In the absence of need the trend of cesarean section has implications for both future healthy populations and the equitable distribution of maternity resources. The aim of the present study was to investigate demographic factors associated with the choice of delivery method.In this descriptive cross- sectional study with a random sampling, 283 pregnant women who were referred for control of pregnancy to two primary health care centers two health base were interviewed by Completing the questionnaire. After gathering information data by SPSS software &via descriptive statistical indicators were analyzed.35/7% of pregnant women who were studied willing to perform cesarean section. There was a significant relationship between the having a history of cesarean section and referral place for control of pregnancy with selection of the labor type (P 0.001. The reasons for selection of cesarean section were fear of labor pain, Prevention of genital rupture & physician recommendation.The rate of selecting cesarean section is higher than acceptable World Health Organization. Therefore, careful planning should be done to raise awareness, improve attitudes and change false beliefs in pregnant women & their husbands by health service's personnel.

  9. Diaper Dermatitis in Infants Admitted to Social Pediatrics Health Center: Role of Socio-demographic Factors and Infant Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayaoglu, Semra; Kivanc-Altunay, Ilknur; Sarikaya, Sezgi

    2015-10-01

    To determine infant diaper dermatitis (DD) at pediatrics health center; its relation to socio-demographic factors and infant care. The study included 113 infants aged 0-24 mo. Data on infants' age, sex, weight, mothers' education, nutrition, diaper change frequency, cleaning methods and prophylactic cream use were recorded. Infants with minimum one time rash, were accepted to have DD. Seventy six (67.3 %) infants had DD [32 girls (42.1 %), 44 boys (57 %), mean age: 6.5 mo]. Infants with DD had significantly higher age than those without (p 0.001). DD frequency in infants ≥4.5 mo-old was 5.8(2.4-13.7) times more than in infants ≤4.5 mo. Cleaning material types did not affect DD frequency. No significant difference was observed in DD with diaper change of ≤3 times and ≥4 times. Significant difference in DD increase was observed with supplementary food intake vs. without it (p 0.000). DD frequency in infants with supplementary food intake was 6.4 times (2.4-17.1) more than in those without it. Human milk intake was statistically significant in causing less occurrence of DD as shown in univariate model (p food intake and lack of cream use seem to be accountable for DD whereas human milk intake lessened the occurrence of DD. Mothers should be informed on dermatitis care and encouraged for breastfeeding.

  10. An examination of the mediating role of salt knowledge and beliefs on the relationship between socio-demographic factors and discretionary salt use: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Discretionary salt use varies according to socio-demographic factors. However, it is unknown whether salt knowledge and beliefs mediate this relationship. This study examined the direct and indirect effect of socio-demographic factors on salt knowledge and discretionary salt use in a sample of 530 Australian adults. Methods An internet based cross-sectional survey was used to collect data for this study. Participants completed an online questionnaire which assessed their salt knowledge, beliefs and salt use behaviour. Mplus was used to conduct structural equation modelling to estimate direct and indirect effects. Results The mean age of the participants was 49.2 years, and about a third had tertiary education. Discretionary salt use was inversely related to age (r=-0.11; psocio-demographic groups in their use of discretionary salt use can potentially be reduced through targeted salt knowledge and awareness campaigns. PMID:23418906

  11. DEMOGRAPHIC AND SOCIAL FACTORS INFLUENCING PUBLIC OPINION ON PROSTITUTION: AN EXPLORATORY STUDY IN KWAZULU-NATAL PROVINCE, SOUTH AFRICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Pudifin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines countervailing South African public opinion on the subject of prostitution in South Africa, and identifies the factors which might influence these attitudes. It also investigates the complex relationship between public opinion and the law. Whilst engaging in prostitution constitutes a criminal offence under the Sexual Offences Act 23 of 1957, it is generally ignored by the police, which results in a quasi-legalised reality on the ground. In recent years there has been growing demand for the decriminalisation of prostitution, and as a result the issue is currently under consideration by the South African Law Reform Commission. The Commission released a Discussion Paper on Adult ProSstitution in May 2009, and is expected to make recommendations to parliament for legal reform in this area. An exploratory survey of 512 South Africans revealed interesting correlations between opinion on prostitution and both demographic characteristics (including gender, age, race and education level and so-called "social" characteristics (including religiosity, belief in the importance of gender equality, the acceptance of rape myths, and a belief that prostitutes have no other options. The survey reveals two key findings in respect of the attitudes of South Africans to prostitution. Firstly, an overwhelming majority of South Africans - from all walks of life - remain strongly morally opposed to prostitution, and would not support legal reforms aimed at decriminalising or legalising prostitution. Secondly, our data confirm that these views are strongly influenced by certain demographic and 'social' variables. In particular, race, gender, religiosity, cohabitation status, and socio-economic status were found to be religiosity, cohabitation status, and socio-economic status were found to be statistically significantly related to opinions on prostitution, while other variables - particularly the belief in the importance of gender equality and the

  12. Impact of socio-demographic factors on the mitigating actions for climate change: a path analysis with mediating effects of attitudinal variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masud, Muhammad Mehedi; Akhatr, Rulia; Nasrin, Shamima; Adamu, Ibrahim Mohammed

    2017-09-25

    Socio-demographic factors play a significant role in increasing the individual's climate change awareness and in setting a favorable individual attitude towards its mitigation. To better understand how the adversative effects of climate change can be mitigated, this study attempts to investigate the impact of socio-demographic factors on the mitigating actions of the individuals (MAOI) on climate change. Qualitative data were collected from a face-to-face survey of 360 respondents in the Kuala Lumpur region of Malaysia through a close-ended questionnaire. Analysis was conducted on the mediating effects of attitudinal variables through the path model by using the SEM. Findings indicate that the socio-demographic factors such as gender, age, education, income, and ethnicity can greatly influence the individual's awareness, attitude, risk perception, and knowledge of climate change issues. The results drawn from this study also revealed that the attitudinal factors act as a mediating effect between the socio-demographic factors and the MAOI, thereby, indicating that both the socio-demographic factors and the attitudinal factors have significant effects on the MAOI towards climate change. The outcome of this study can help policy makers and other private organizations to decide on the appropriate actions to take in managing climate change effects. These actions which encompass improving basic climate change education and making the public more aware of the local dimensions of climate change are important for harnessing public engagement and support that can also stimulate climate change awareness and promote mitigating actions to n protect the environment from the impact of climate change.

  13. Relationship between adolescents’ family function with socio-demographic characteristics and behaviour risk factors in a primary care facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu S. Muyibi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The family as a unit of care has great effect in tackling adolescent problems and this could be influenced by family functioning.Objective: This study assesses the relationship between adolescents’ family functioning with socio-demographic characteristics and behavioural risk factors.Method: The research was a cross-sectional, hospital-based study carried out at the General Outpatients Department, University College Hospital (GOPD,UCH, Ibadan, over a period of three months. Four hundred subjects were recruited using a modified Guideline for Adolescent Preventive Services (GAPS questionnaire, with an incorporated family APGAR (Adaptation,Partnership, Growth, Affection, Resolve score table. The results were analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS, version 11 and the findings on the family assessment and behavioural risk factors were relayed to the respondents.Results: The ages of the adolescents ranged from 10 to 19 years. Of the subjects, 8% were sexually active. Mean age for first coitus among the respondents was 15 ± 2.4 years. The rate of ingestion of alcohol and cigarette smoking was very low. The family APGAR scores obtained revealed that 84.5% subjects were rated as having a functional family (7–10 points and 15.5% of the subjects were rated as having a dysfunctional family (0–6 points. There was a significant association between perceived family function and subjects’ occupation (p = 0.01, parent social class (p = 0.00 and subjects’ sexual activities (p = 0.00.Conclusion: The majority of the adolescents were rated as having functional families. Dysfunctional families had significantly sexually active respondents.

  14. Contribution of Spaceflight Environmental Factors to Vision Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanello, Susana B.

    2011-01-01

    the combined effects of radiation exposure and iron overload on sensitivity to radiation injury in rat eyes. All main eye structures will be analyzed in this study: retina, lens and cornea. A study in collaboration with the Space Human Factors and Habitability Element (SHFH) investigates the effects of lunar dust exposure on the rat cornea. It is anticipated that common underlying oxidative stress mechanisms of damage may be observed as a result of these three stressors: radiation, nutritional iron and lunar dust. The contribution of fluid shift is addressed by a study using rats subjected to hindlimb suspension. The hypothesis to be tested in this study is that the mechanical stress imparted by the pressure differential across the optic disc and lamina cribosa will impact oxygenation (therefore causing oxidative stress and hypoxia) and cell survival. This study also includes the assessment of two nutritional antioxidant countermeasures: epigallocatechin gallate (green tea) and resveratrol. Finally, as a result of two successful tissue sharing efforts, we are proceeding with the analysis of eye samples of mice aboard two shuttle missions: STS-133 and STS-135. Results from the STS-133 study are presented in an independent abstract. Briefly, the results show that spaceflight represents a source of environmental stress that directly translates into oxidative and cellular stress in the retina. Similar analysis is also planned for the cornea. These samples add large value to our current vision research as they provide data on the direct effects of low-earth orbit spaceflight on eye structures and physiology.

  15. Does Tenure Matter? Factors Influencing Faculty Contributions to Institutional Repositories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne M. Casey

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Institutional repositories (IRs provide colleges and universities a way to ensure stability of access to and dissemination of digital scholarly communications. Yet, many institutions report that faculty willingness to contribute to IRs is often limited. This study investigates faculty attitudes about IR contributions by tenure status and category of material. METHODS Two focus group interviews were conducted in the spring of 2009 among English department faculty at a large Midwestern university. One group consisted of tenured faculty and the other of tenure-track and adjunct faculty. RESULTS Both groups recognize the benefit of open access to research materials but expressed concern about their intellectual property rights. Untenured faculty spoke more about nonprint research. Both groups also shared concerns about contributing instructional materials, primarily in regard to plagiarism and outdated materials. In regard to faculty service, the tenured group discussed many items they would contribute, while the untenured faculty mentioned very little. DISCUSSION Some minor differences emerged related to experience and tenure status in regard to contributing research and instructional artifacts, but the major variation was the strong support tenured participants gave for contributing service items, compared to the untenured faculty, who did not view this category positively. Tenured faculty viewed the IR as a way to document their own service activities, investigate those of colleagues, and had fewer concerns about plagiarism or other negative effects in the service category. CONCLUSION Promoting faculty contribution of service-related items to an IR may be a way to encourage larger numbers to participate.

  16. Physiological and lifestyle factors contributing to risk and severity of peri-orbital dark circles in the Brazilian population*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Mary S; Schalka, Sérgio; Vanderover, Garrett; Fthenakis, Christina G.; Christopher, J; Bombarda, Patricia Camarano Pinto; Bueno, Juliana Regina; Viscomi, Bianca Lenci Inácio; Bombarda Júnior, Mário Sérgio

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Peri-orbital dark circles are a cosmetic concern worldwide, and have been attributed to hyperpigmentation from allergy or atopic dermatitis, blood stasis, structural shadowing effects, and a thin epidermis/dermis under the eye. It is of interest to better understand lifestyle and demographic risk factors and the relative impact of melanin, blood and epidermal/dermal factors on the severity of Peri-orbital dark circles. OBJECTIVE To compare by non-invasive imaging the impact of biological factors to a visual grading scale for Peri-orbital dark circles, and test the correlation of various demographic factors with Peri-orbital dark circles. METHODS Subjects completed a lifestyle and health survey, and Peri-orbital dark circles severity was evaluated using standardized photographs. Hyperspectral image analysis was used to assess the contributions of melanin, blood volume, degree of blood oxygen saturation, and dermal scattering. RESULTS Family history was the most significant risk factor for Peri-orbital dark circles. The average age of onset was 24 years, and earlier onset correlated with higher severity scores. Asthma was significantly associated with Peri-orbital dark circles scores, but self-reported allergy was not. In this study, sleep was not correlated with Peri-orbital dark circles scores. Hyperspectral imaging indicated that melanin was the dominant correlate for Peri-orbital dark circles severity, while oxygen saturation was secondary. The difference between under-eye and cheek measurements for ∆L*and ∆E* were the most significant instrumental parameters correlated with visual assessment of Peri-orbital dark circles severity. CONCLUSION Although typically associated with lack of sleep, risk of Peri-orbital dark circles is primarily hereditary. The main factors contributing to the appearance of Peri-orbital dark circles are melanin and (deoxygenated) blood. PMID:26375218

  17. Factors contributing to defaulting scheduled therapy sessions by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    contributing to caregivers' defaulting scheduled rehabilitation therapy sessions. Methods ... disabilities poses excess psychological2,3, physical, and economic strain on the caregiver4. ... Weekly clinics are conducted every. Monday for ...

  18. Educators' Perceptions of Factors Contributing to School Violence in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thematic content analysis was used to report results ... for violence, and violent acts are caused by the complex interaction of differing contributing variables and experiences. (Krug, Dahlberg ...... Warner, B. S., Weist, M. D., & Krulak, A. (1999).

  19. Dietary Patterns in Pregnancy in New Zealand-Influence of Maternal Socio-Demographic, Health and Lifestyle Factors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wall, Clare R; Gammon, Cheryl S; Bandara, Dinusha K; Grant, Cameron C; Atatoa Carr, Polly E; Morton, Susan M B

    2016-01-01

    .... We aimed to describe dietary patterns of 5664 pregnant women from the Growing Up in New Zealand study, and investigate associations between these patterns and maternal socio-demographic, place...

  20. Brief Report: Association between Socio-Demographic Factors, Screen Media Usage and Physical Activity by Type of Day in Spanish Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devis-Devis, Jose; Peiro-Velert, Carmen; Beltran-Carrillo, Vicente J.; Tomas, Jose Manuel

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between socio-demographic factors, screen media time usage, and light, moderate and vigorous activities on weekdays and weekends. Cross-sectional data was collected from 323 Spanish adolescents (mean age 13.59 years) who completed an interview administered recall questionnaire. Structural equation models…

  1. Disentangling the effects of evolutionary, demographic, and environmental factors influencing genetic structure of natural populations: Atlantic herring as a case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaggiotti, Oscar E.; Bekkevold, Dorte; Jørgensen, Hanne B.H.;

    2009-01-01

    carried out separate analyses of neutral and selected genetic variation, which allowed us to establish that the two most important factors affecting population structure were selection due to salinity at spawning sites and feeding migrations. The genetic signal left by the demographic history of herring...

  2. The Role of Exercise Self-Efficacy, Perceived Exertion, Event-Related Stress, and Demographic Factors in Predicting Physical Activity among College Freshmen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brannagan, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The focus of this study was to examine the relationship among precursors to physical activity, including exercise self-efficacy, perceived exertion, stress, and demographic factors, among college students. Design: This study employed an associational design. Setting: The study population was college freshmen in southeast Louisiana who…

  3. Do Demographic Factors, School Functioning, and Quality of Student-Teacher Relationships as Rated by Teachers Predict Internalising and Externalising Problems among Norwegian Schoolchildren?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drugli, May Britt; Klokner, Christian; Larsson, Bo

    2011-01-01

    The present study explored the association between child internalising and externalising problems in schools and demographic factors (sex and age), school functioning (academic performance and adaptive functioning) and teacher-reported student-teacher relationship quality in a cross-sectional study using structural equation modelling. The study…

  4. How are Closeness and Conflict in Student-Teacher Relationships Associated with Demographic Factors, School Functioning and Mental Health in Norwegian Schoolchildren Aged 6-13?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drugli, May Britt

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the association between teacher-reported student-teacher relationship quality (closeness and conflict) and demographic factors, school functioning and child mental health in a cross-sectional study. The study was conducted among a national sample of Norwegian school children (N?=?825) in grades 1 to 7. Bivariate analyses and…

  5. The Role of Exercise Self-Efficacy, Perceived Exertion, Event-Related Stress, and Demographic Factors in Predicting Physical Activity among College Freshmen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brannagan, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The focus of this study was to examine the relationship among precursors to physical activity, including exercise self-efficacy, perceived exertion, stress, and demographic factors, among college students. Design: This study employed an associational design. Setting: The study population was college freshmen in southeast Louisiana who…

  6. Trends in and socio-demographic factors associated with caesarean section at a large Tanzanian hospital, 2000 to 2013

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Caesarean section (CS) can prevent maternal or fetal complications. Sub-Saharan Africa has the lowest CS levels in the world but large variations are seen between and within countries. The tertiary hospital, Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre (KCMC) in Tanzania has had a high level of CS over years. Objectives: To examine trends in the socio-demographic background of babies born at KCMC from year 2000 to 2013, and trends in the CS percentage, and to identify socio-demographic ...

  7. Factors contributing to teenage pregnancy in the Capricorn district of the Limpopo Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mothiba, Tebogo M; Maputle, Maria S

    2012-07-11

    Teenage pregnancy refers to pregnancy of a woman of less than 19 years. It is found commonly amongst young people who have been disadvantaged and have poor expectations with regard to either their education or job market. Adolescents may lack knowledge of access to conventional methods of preventing pregnancy, as they may be afraid to seek such information. The study purpose was to identify factors contributing to teenage pregnancy in one village in the Capricorn District of the Limpopo Province. A quantitative descriptive research approach was chosen. Population consisted of all pregnant teenagers attending antenatal care during June to August 2007 at one clinic in the Capricorn District of the Limpopo Province. Simple random probability sampling was used to include 100 pregnant teenagers who satisfied the inclusion criteria. Data were collected through structured self-administered questionnaires. Descriptive statistical data analysis was used. Ethical considerations were ensured. Findings were classified as demographic data where 24% of the respondents were aged between 15-16 years and 76% were aged between 17-19 years. Findings further revealed that 60% of the respondents started to engage in sex at 13-15 years; 48% of the teenagers' partners were 21 years and above, 44% depended on a single parents' income; 20% father's income, 16% received a social grant and 8% lived on the pension fund of the grandparents. Pregnancy prevention strategies were recommended based on the results. The strategies focused on reproductive health services, male involvement and adult-teenager communication programmes.

  8. Factors associated with the introduction of prelacteal feeds in Nepal: findings from the Nepal Demographic and Health Survey 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanal, Vishnu; Adhikari, Mandira; Sauer, Kay; Zhao, Yun

    2013-08-08

    A prelacteal feed is any food except mother's milk provided to a newborn before initiating breastfeeding. Prelacteal feeding is a major barrier to exclusive breastfeeding. It is a prevalent practice in Nepal. Little is known about the factors associated with providing prelacteal feeds to the Nepalese newborn. This study explored the factors associated with providing prelacteal feeds to children under three years in Nepal using the Nepal Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) 2011. This study utilised the NDHS 2011 child dataset which is a nationally representative study. The rates of providing prelacteal feeds were reported as a proportion. Complex Sample Analysis method was used to account for the cluster design and sample weight of the study. Chi-square tests and multiple logistic regression were used to analyse the factors associated with providing prelacteal feeds. A sample of 3948 mothers were included in the study. A total of 841 [26.5% (95% CI: 23.1%-30.3%)] weighted proportion) of mothers reported of providing prelacteal feeds to their newborn infants. Plain water (n = 75), sugar/glucose (n = 35), gripe water (n = 3), sugar/salt solution (n = 3), fruit juice (n = 3), infant formula (n = 96), tea (n = 3) and other milk other than breast milk (n = 556) were some of the types of prelacteal feeds reported. The multiple regression analysis showed that the mothers who had no education, were not working, were from the middle wealth quintile, who had not attended four antenatal care visits, were first time mothers and who were from the Terai/Plain region were more likely to provide prelacteal feeds. Given that one in four infants were provided with prelacteal feeds, there is a need to implement breastfeeding promotion programs to increase the practice of exclusive breastfeeding and reduce prelacteal feeding practices. Breastfeeding counseling at antenatal clinics and peer support for exclusive breastfeeding should be included as part

  9. Factors associated with infant mortality in Nepal: a comparative analysis of Nepal demographic and health surveys (NDHS) 2006 and 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamichhane, Reeta; Zhao, Yun; Paudel, Susan; Adewuyi, Emmanuel O

    2017-01-10

    Infant mortality is one of the priority public health issues in developing countries like Nepal. The infant mortality rate (IMR) was 48 and 46 per 1000 live births for the year 2006 and 2011, respectively, a slight reduction during the 5 years' period. A comprehensive analysis that has identified and compared key factors associated with infant mortality is limited in Nepal, and, therefore, this study aims to fill the gap. Datasets from Nepal Demographic and Health Surveys (NDHS) 2006 and 2011 were used to identify and compare the major factors associated with infant mortality. Both surveys used multistage stratified cluster sampling techniques. A total of 8707 and 10,826 households were interviewed in 2006 and 2011, with more than 99% response rate in both studies. The survival information of singleton live-born infants born 5 years preceding the two surveys were extracted from the 'childbirth' dataset. Multiple logistic regression analysis using a hierarchical modelling approach with the backward elimination method was conducted. Complex Samples Analysis was used to adjust for unequal selection probability due to the multistage stratified cluster-sampling procedure used in both NDHS. Based on NDHS 2006, ecological region, succeeding birth interval, breastfeeding status and type of delivery assistance were found to be significant predictors of infant mortality. Infants born in hilly region (AOR = 0.43, p = 0.013) and with professional assistance (AOR = 0.27, p = 0.039) had a lower risk of mortality. On the other hand, infants with succeeding birth interval less than 24 months (AOR = 6.66, p = 0.001) and those who were never breastfed (AOR = 1.62, p = 0.044) had a higher risk of mortality. Based on NDHS 2011, birth interval (preceding and succeeding) and baby's size at birth were identified to be significantly associated with infant mortality. Infants born with preceding birth interval (AOR = 1.94, p = 0.022) or succeeding

  10. Understanding Alcohol Abuse among College Students: Contributing Factors and Strategies for Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iconis, Rosemary

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol abuse among college students has become a major public health concern. Individual, environmental, and demographic factors have each been associated with alcohol abuse in that population. In response to the enormous physical, emotional, and legal consequences that occur as a result of the abuse, colleges and universities are developing…

  11. Social and Demographic Factors Influencing Inferior Vena Cava Filter Retrieval at a Single Institution in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, S. Christian, E-mail: csmith@aemrc.arizona.edu; Shanks, Candace, E-mail: Candace.Shanks@osumc.edu; Guy, Gregory, E-mail: Gregory.Guy@osumc.edu; Yang, Xiangyu, E-mail: Xiangyu.Yang@osumc.edu; Dowell, Joshua D., E-mail: Joshua.Dowell@osumc.edu [The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology (United States)

    2015-10-15

    PurposeRetrievable inferior vena cava filters (IVCFs) are associated with long-term adverse events that have increased interest in improving filter retrieval rates. Determining the influential patient social and demographic factors affecting IVCF retrieval is important to personalize patient management strategies and attain optimal patient care.Materials and MethodsSeven-hundred and sixty-two patients were retrospectively studied who had a filter placed at our institution between January 2011 and November 2013. Age, gender, race, cancer history, distance to residence from retrieval institution, and insurance status were identified for each patient, and those receiving retrievable IVCFs were further evaluated for retrieval rate and time to retrieval.ResultsOf the 762 filters placed, 133 were permanent filters. Of the 629 retrievable filters placed, 406 met the inclusion criteria and were eligible for retrieval. Results revealed patients with Medicare were less likely to have their filters retrieved (p = 0.031). Older age was also associated with a lower likelihood of retrieval (p < 0.001) as was living further from the medical center (p = 0.027). Patients who were white and had Medicare were more likely than similarly insured black patients to have their filters retrieved (p = 0.024).ConclusionsThe retrieval rate of IVCFs was most influenced by insurance status, distance from the medical center, and age. Race was statistically significant only when combined with insurance status. The results of this study suggest that these patient groups may need closer follow-up in order to obtain optimal IVCF retrieval rates.

  12. Risk factors for low birth weight in Nigeria: evidence from the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maznah Dahlui

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low birth weight (LBW continues to be the primary cause of infant morbidity and mortality. Objective: This study was undertaken to identify the predictors of LBW in Nigeria. Design: The data for this study was extracted from the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey conducted by the National Population Commission. Several questionnaires were used in the survey, some covering questions on pregnancy characteristics. The inclusion criteria include mothers who gave birth to a child 5 years before the interview and aged 15–49 years who were either permanent residents or visitors present in the household on the night before the survey conducted. The birth weight of the infants was recorded from written records from the hospital cards or the mothers’ recall. Results: The prevalence of LBW in this study was 7.3%. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed an adjusted significant odds ratio for mothers from North West region (aOR 10.67; 95% CI [5.83–19.5], twin pregnancy (aOR 5.11; 95% CI [3.11–8.39], primiparous mother (aOR 2.08; 95% CI [1.15–3.77], maternal weight of less than 70 kg (aOR 1.92; 95% CI [1.32–2.78], and manual paternal employment (aOR 1.91; 95% CI [1.08–3.37]. Conclusions: The risk factors for LBW identified in this study are modifiable. In order to reduce this menace in Nigeria, holistic approaches such as health education, maternal nutrition, improvement in socio-economic indices, and increasing the quality and quantity of the antenatal care services are of paramount importance.

  13. Influence of household demographic and socio-economic factors on household expenditure on tobacco in six New Independent States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gotsadze George

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To identify demographic and socio-economic factors that are associated with household expenditure on tobacco in Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russian Federation, and Tajikistan. Methods Secondary analysis of the data available through the World Bank Living Standards Monitoring Survey conducted in aforementioned countries in 1995–2000. The role of different variables (e.g. mean age of household members, household area of residence, household size, share of adult males, share of members with high education in determining household expenditure on tobacco (defined as tobacco expenditure share out of total monthly HH consumption was assessed by using multiple regression analysis. Results Significant differences were found between mean expenditure on tobacco between rich and poor – in absolute terms the rich spend significantly more compared with the poor. Poor households devote significantly higher shares of their monthly HH consumption for tobacco products. Shares of adult males were significantly associated with the share of household consumption devoted for tobacco. There was a significant negative association between shares of persons with tertiary education within the HH and shares of monthly household consumption devoted for tobacco products. The correlation between household expenditures on tobacco and alcohol was found to be positive, rather weak, but statistically significant. Conclusion Given the high levels of poverty and high rates of smoking in the New Independent States, these findings have important policy implications. They indicate that the impact and opportunity costs of smoking on household finances are more significant for the poor than for the rich. Any reductions in smoking prevalence within poor households could have a positive economic impact.

  14. Demographic and lifestyle factors and survival among patients with esophageal and gastric cancer: The Biobank Japan Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Emiko; Ukawa, Shigekazu; Nakamura, Koshi; Hirata, Makoto; Nagai, Akiko; Matsuda, Koichi; Ninomiya, Toshiharu; Kiyohara, Yutaka; Muto, Kaori; Kamatani, Yoichiro; Yamagata, Zentaro; Kubo, Michiaki; Nakamura, Yusuke; Tamakoshi, Akiko

    2017-03-01

    Several studies have evaluated associations between the characteristics of patients with esophageal and gastric cancer and survival, but these associations remain unclear. We described the distribution of demographic and lifestyle factors among patients with esophageal and gastric cancer in Japan, and investigated their potential effects on survival. Between 2003 and 2007, 24- to 95-year-old Japanese patients with esophageal and gastric cancer were enrolled in the BioBank Japan Project. The analysis included 365 patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and 1574 patients with gastric cancer. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for mortality were estimated using medical institution-stratified Cox proportional hazards models. During follow-up, 213 patients with ESCC (median follow-up, 4.4 years) and 603 patients with gastric cancer (median follow-up, 6.1 years) died. Among patients with ESCC, the mortality risk was higher in ever drinkers versus never drinkers (multivariable HR = 2.37, 95% CI: 1.24, 4.53). Among patients with gastric cancer, the mortality risk was higher in underweight patients versus patients of normal weight (multivariable HR = 1.66, 95% CI: 1.34, 2.05). Compared to patients with gastric cancer with no physical exercise habit, those who exercised ≥3 times/week had a lower mortality risk (multivariate HR = 0.75, 95% CI = 0.61, 0.93). However, lack of stage in many cases was a limitation. Among patients with ESCC, alcohol drinkers have a poor prognosis. Patients with gastric cancer who are underweight also have a poor prognosis, whereas patients with physical exercise habits have a good prognosis. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Parenthood--a contributing factor to childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Fatma G; Kanikireddy, Sankarabharan; Patel, Manthan

    2010-07-01

    Prevalence of childhood obesity and its complications have increased world-wide. Parental status may be associated with children's health outcomes including their eating habits, body weight and blood cholesterol. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) for the years 1988-1994, provided a unique opportunity for matching parents to children enabling analyses of joint demographics, racial differences and health indicators. Specifically, the NHANES III data, 1988-1994, of 219 households with single-parents and 780 dual-parent households were analyzed as predictors for primary outcome variables of children's Body Mass Index (BMI), dietary nutrient intakes and blood cholesterol. Children of single-parent households were significantly (p single-parent households than dual-parent households (p single-parent status and excess weight in children. Further studies are needed to explore the dynamics of single-parent households and its influence on childhood diet and obesity. Parental involvement in the development of school- and community-based obesity prevention programs are suggested for effective health initiatives. Economic constraints and cultural preferences may be communicated directly by family involvement in these much needed public health programs.

  16. Parenthood—A Contributing Factor to Childhood Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma G. Huffman

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence of childhood obesity and its complications have increased world-wide. Parental status may be associated with children’s health outcomes including their eating habits, body weight and blood cholesterol. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES for the years 1988–1994, provided a unique opportunity for matching parents to children enabling analyses of joint demographics, racial differences and health indicators. Specifically, the NHANES III data, 1988–1994, of 219 households with single-parents and 780 dual-parent households were analyzed as predictors for primary outcome variables of children’s Body Mass Index (BMI, dietary nutrient intakes and blood cholesterol. Children of single-parent households were significantly (p < 0.01 more overweight than children of dual-parent households. Total calorie and saturated fatty acid intakes were higher among children of single-parent households than dual-parent households (p < 0.05. On average, Black children were more overweight (p < 0.04 than children of other races. The study results implied a strong relationship between single-parent status and excess weight in children. Further studies are needed to explore the dynamics of single-parent households and its influence on childhood diet and obesity. Parental involvement in the development of school- and community-based obesity prevention programs are suggested for effective health initiatives. Economic constraints and cultural preferences may be communicated directly by family involvement in these much needed public health programs.

  17. The School Absenteeism among High School Students: Contributing Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkis, Murat; Arslan, Gökmen; Duru, Erdinç

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the direct and indirect relationship between student school absenteeism, personal factors (academic self- perception, attitudes towards teacher and school, goal valuation and motivation/ self-regulation), family factors (parents' educational level and income), and academic achievement in structural equation…

  18. Factors Contributing to Self Control for Incarcerated Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winquist, Trancita

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine characteristics contributing to high self control for incarcerated youth. Subjects include fifty youth (8 females and 42 males) ages 14 through 18 incarcerated for at least 60 days. Data on subjects' responses from a validated measure (Grasmick et. al. Scale, 1993) and data from historical records, STAR reading…

  19. Physiological and lifestyle factors contributing to risk and severity of peri-orbital dark circles in the Brazilian population

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Matsui, Mary S; Schalka, Sérgio; Vanderover, Garrett; Fthenakis, Christina G; Christopher, J; Bombarda, Patricia Camarano Pinto; Bueno, Juliana Regina; Viscomi, Bianca Lenci Inácio; Bombarda Júnior, Mário Sérgio

    2015-01-01

    ... epidermis/dermis under the eye. It is of interest to better understand lifestyle and demographic risk factors and the relative impact of melanin, blood and epidermal/dermal factors on the severity of Peri-orbital dark...

  20. THE INFLUENCE OF SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC FACTORS ON JOB STRESS LEVEL IN FOREIGN-OWNED MANUFACTURING COMPANIES IN OGUN STATE, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajibade David

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the influence of socio-demographic factors on level of job stress in foreign-owned manufacturing companies in Ogun State, Nigeria with the specific objectives of investigating level of job stress as well as the socio-demographic characteristics influencing the job stress level. This study used cross sectional analytical design with quantitative approach. Data were collected using structured questionnaire and the data collected were statistically analyzed using percentage and weighted mean; while the hypotheses formulated were tested using spearman rank correlation and multiple regressions. The results of the study showed that with the exception of gender (P<0.05; coeff r = -0.003, and employees’ department (P<0.05; coeff r = -0.003 that impacted negatively on employees stress level, other socio-demographic characteristics such as age (P<0.05: coeff r = 0.074, marital status (P<0.05; coeff r = 0.125, educational level (P<0.05; coeff r = 0.037, employees’ cadre (P<0.05; coeff r= 0.038, years of working experience (P<0.05; coeff r= 0.146, income (P<0.05; coeff r= 0.025 and employees’ position (P<0.05; coeff r= 0.103 had positive impacts on the employees’ job stress level. This concludes that socio-demographic factors exert significant influence on employees’ job stress level. It is recommended that employers should always take into consideration employees’ socio-demographic characteristics when assessing their job stress level because it can provide useful information on specific individual characteristics influencing stress level in workplace.  Keywords: socio-demographic, stress, employees, cross sectional analytical, Ogun

  1. Elite Coaches Views on Factors Contributing to Excellence in Orienteering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeu Ferreira Celestino

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En el deporte de orientación, los estudios en el contexto de la excelencia deportiva son aún escasos. Las investigaciones realizadas hasta la fecha se han centrado en el análisis aislado de los factores específicos que contribuyen a la excelencia. El objetivo de este estudio, por tanto, fue identificar los factores que los entrenadores consideran de mayor prevalencia en el desarrollo y mantenimiento de la excelencia en este deporte. Diez entrenadores portugueses e españoles de orientación de nivel elite completaron entrevistas semi-estructuradas y los datos fueran analizados mediante el análisis de contenido. Los resultados mostraron que los entrenadores pusieron gran énfasis en un conjunto de factores personales, designados por factores de influencia primaria, donde se incluyen los atributos psicológicos, la preparación deportiva y los factores genéticos. Los entrenadores también identificaron los factores ambientales que ejercen una influencia secundaria, con especial énfasis en la familia, los aspectos socioculturales y los grupos de pares y de amistad. Por último, los entrenadores de elite reconocieron la necesidad de la interacción e interconexión entre estos factores de influencia primaria y secundaria para el desarrollo y mantenimiento de la excelencia en la orientación.

  2. Factors contributing to therapeutic effects evaluated in acupuncture clinical trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Guang-Xia

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Acupuncture treatment has been widely used for many conditions, while results of the increasing numbers of randomized trials and systematic reviews remain controversial. Acupuncture is a complex intervention of both specific and non-specific factors associated with therapeutic benefit. Apart from needle insertion, issues such as needling sensation, psychological factors, acupoint specificity, acupuncture manipulation, and needle duration also have relevant influences on the therapeutic effects of acupuncture. Taking these factors into consideration would have considerable implications for the design and interpretation of clinical trials.

  3. Associated Factors Contributing to Child Stunting in Yemen

    OpenAIRE

    Laetícia Rodrigues de Souza

    2015-01-01

    "Malnutrition is part of a vicious cycle involving associated underlying factors, which means that undernourishment is related not only to biological but also social aspects. As the causes of child malnutrition are complex, there are several models explaining its determinants. We have adapted the conceptual framework developed by Hien and Hoa (2009), which provides a way of understanding how different factors affecting child malnutrition may be connected. This framework allows us to verify ho...

  4. Factors contributing to the rheology of tomato puree

    OpenAIRE

    Abson, Rachael

    2013-01-01

    Tomato (Solanum Iycopersicum) puree is created by homogenising the flesh of tomato fruits. The viscosity of this material and the fibrous content is of commercial interest. Tomato puree consists of suspended particles (consisting of whole cells, broken cells and cellular fragments) in an aqueous serum. The contribution of the non-soluble and soluble material to tomato puree rheology was studied with reference to the varying composition of solids and firmness of tomato fruit at four stages of ...

  5. Factors predicting quality of life in a group of Polish subjects with multiple sclerosis: accounting for functional state, socio-demographic and clinical factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papuć, Ewa; Stelmasiak, Zbigniew

    2012-05-01

    Quality of life (QoL) has presently a firmly established position as an important endpoint in medical care. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic neurological disease with considerable effect on patients' QoL. QoL of MS patients from many European countries has already been assessed but little is known on health-related QoL of Polish subjects with MS. Few studies have taken into consideration multiple predictors of QoL. The aim of this study was to elicit the most relevant factors that determine QoL of Polish group of MS patients. Socio-demographic and clinical factors as well as the influence of disability level were analyzed in this study. 173 MS patients and 86 healthy controls underwent assessment using the Mini Mental Status Examination, WHOQOL-100, Beck Depression Inventory and Fatigue Severity Scale. Data were analyzed by a stepwise linear regression analysis. MS patients had significantly worse global QoL and worse QoL in physical and psychological health domains, lower level of independence, worse social relations and were less satisfied with the surrounding environment they lived in compared with healthy controls (pMS subjects had also higher level of depression and fatigue compared to healthy controls (pQoL of Polish MS patients were depression, disability level and fatigue. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The contributing factors to poor sleep experiences in according to the university students: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Insaf Altun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sleep problems among university students are common; however, the contributing factors to poor sleep experiences are still unclear. The purpose of this study is to examine the contributing factors to poor sleep experiences in university students. Materials and Methods: The study was cross-sectional, and the students completed self-report, anonymous questionnaires provided during an in-class survey. This is a single center study. A descriptive survey was conducted randomly on 256 university students in Turkey. The instruments for data collection consisted of the demographic data, and the contributing factors to poor sleep. Results: The most frequent self-reported cause to poor sleep experiences in according to the university students were exposure psychological problems (67.2%, stress (64.8%, exposure to tobacco smoke in the sleeping room (63,7%, pain (62,9%, having family problems (62,5%, being patient (55,1%, air quality of the room (55,1%, strenuous physical activity (53,9%, fatigue (53,5%, sadness (53,1%, noise that caused by other people in the room (52.0%, room scents (sweat, perfume, humidity, naphthalene, etc. (53.1%, depression (51, 6 %, anxiety, and tension (51, 1%. Conclusion: Students should be encouraged to solve psychological problems, to suitable stress-relieving measures, to follow sleep hygiene practice and adequate time management for academic and social activities.

  7. Socio-demographic association of non communicable diseases' risk factors in a representative population of school children: a cross-sectional study in Sousse (Tunisia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ghardallou, Meriam; Maatoug, Jihene; Harrabi, Imed; Fredj, Sihem Ben; Jihene, Sahli; Dendana, Emna; Sana, Bhiri; Zammit, Nawel; Boughammoura, Lamia; Ghannem, Hassen

    2016-02-27

    A better understanding of socio-demographic characteristics of subgroups, which have a high risk to develop chronic diseases, is essential to develop more efficient interventional programs especially for youth. This study aimed to determine the association between clusters of non communicable diseases (NCDs') risk factors and the socio-demographic characteristics among a sample of Tunisian school children. We conducted, in 2013/2014, a cross-sectional study among a proportional and stratified school children sample, selected in 17 elementary public schools in Sousse (Tunisia). A cluster analysis was used to identify different NCDs risk factors clusters, based on tobacco use, physical inactivity, unhealthy diet, and excess weight. Subsequent χ2-tests were used to identify differences between the NCDs risk factors clusters in regards to socio-demographic characteristics. Four clusters of NCDs risk factors were found: 1) Cluster 1: physical inactivity behavior with normal weight, 2) Cluster 2: physical inactivity behavior associated to excess weight, 3) Cluster 3: unhealthy diet associated to excess weight and low practice of physical activity, and 4) Cluster 4: smoking behavior with physical activity behavior. The pattern of cluster membership differed across sex (<10-3), school level, and socioeconomic level (<10-3) but there was no significant difference between clusters for mother's education levels and household tenure. This study can have important implications for health policy and practice. Indeed, it found that many subjects have simultaneous multiple NCDs risk factors which leads to identify groups at risk and implement integrated intervention program.

  8. Factors Contributing to Child Scrambling: Evidence from Ukrainian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mykhaylyk, Roksolana

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the word order phenomenon of optional scrambling in Ukrainian. It aims to test factors such as semantic features and object type that have been shown to affect scrambling in other languages. Forty-one children between 2 ; 7 and 6 ; 0, and twenty adult speakers participated in an elicited production experiment. The picture…

  9. Contribution of Educational Factors in the Capacity to Overcome Adversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomar, Joaquina; Montes de Oca, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify factors that predict resilience and social mobility in persons living in extreme poverty in Mexico by analyzing an extensive set of school-related variables. A total of 913 adults were surveyed, with 65.2% women and an average age of 43.71 years. Significant correlations were found between the seven…

  10. Factors contributing to young moped rider accidents in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Mette; Haustein, Sonja

    2016-01-01

    , attention error (52%) was the most frequently assigned accident factor. The majority (78%) of the accidents involved road rule breaching on the part of the moped rider. The results indicate that preventive measures should aim to eliminate violations and increase anticipatory skills among moped riders...

  11. Contribution of Educational Factors in the Capacity to Overcome Adversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomar, Joaquina; Montes de Oca, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify factors that predict resilience and social mobility in persons living in extreme poverty in Mexico by analyzing an extensive set of school-related variables. A total of 913 adults were surveyed, with 65.2% women and an average age of 43.71 years. Significant correlations were found between the seven…

  12. Factors Contributing to Adult Knowledge of Science and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, John H.; Needham, Mark D.

    2013-01-01

    Historically, most efforts to improve public knowledge of science and technology have focused on improvements in K-12 schooling, although post-secondary education and informal education have also been mentioned as important factors. Currently, little empirical data exist to determine how or when to best leverage science and technology education…

  13. Factors Related to Household Energy Use and Intention to Reduce It : The Role of Psychological and Socio-Demographic Variables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abrahamse, Wokje; Steg, Linda

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the relationships between household energy use and householders' intention to reduce their energy use on the one hand, and psychological variables and socio-demographic variables on the other More specifically, the study examined whether the explanation of household energy use an

  14. Factors Related to Household Energy Use and Intention to Reduce It : The Role of Psychological and Socio-Demographic Variables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abrahamse, Wokje; Steg, Linda

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the relationships between household energy use and householders' intention to reduce their energy use on the one hand, and psychological variables and socio-demographic variables on the other More specifically, the study examined whether the explanation of household energy use

  15. The Structure of Pathological Gambling among Korean Gamblers: A Cluster and Factor Analysis of Clinical and Demographic Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tae Kyung; LaBrie, Richard A.; Grant, Jon E.; Kim, Suck Won; Shaffer, Howard J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports the underlying structure of the demographic and clinical characteristics of level 3 (i.e., pathological) Korean casino gamblers. The participants reported their gambling behavior and clinical characteristics known to be associated with gambling problems (e.g., alcohol use problems, eating disorders, depression, anxiety, and…

  16. Intellectual Maturity of Children; Demographic and Socioeconomic Factors. United States. Vital and Health Statistics Series 11, Number 116.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Dale B.; Roberts, Jean

    Data on the intellectual maturity of children 6-11 years of age in the noninstitutionalized population of the U. S. is analyzed in relation to their demographic and socioeconomic background. This is the second report on the Goodenough-Harris Drawing Test, administered in the Health Examination Survey of 1963-65, and deals with the results in…

  17. Factors contributing to individual differences in facial expression categorisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Corinne; Guo, Kun

    2016-12-29

    Individuals vary in perceptual accuracy when categorising facial expressions, yet it is unclear how these individual differences in non-clinical population are related to cognitive processing stages at facial information acquisition and interpretation. We tested 104 healthy adults in a facial expression categorisation task, and correlated their categorisation accuracy with face-viewing gaze allocation and personal traits assessed with Autism Quotient, anxiety inventory and Self-Monitoring Scale. The gaze allocation had limited but emotion-specific impact on categorising expressions. Specifically, longer gaze at the eyes and nose regions were coupled with more accurate categorisation of disgust and sad expressions, respectively. Regarding trait measurements, higher autistic score was coupled with better recognition of sad but worse recognition of anger expressions, and contributed to categorisation bias towards sad expressions; whereas higher anxiety level was associated with greater categorisation accuracy across all expressions and with increased tendency of gazing at the nose region. It seems that both anxiety and autistic-like traits were associated with individual variation in expression categorisation, but this association is not necessarily mediated by variation in gaze allocation at expression-specific local facial regions. The results suggest that both facial information acquisition and interpretation capabilities contribute to individual differences in expression categorisation within non-clinical populations.

  18. Genetic Factors in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: Contribution to Disease Phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccarelli, Fulvia; Perricone, Carlo; Borgiani, Paola; Ciccacci, Cinzia; Rufini, Sara; Cipriano, Enrica; Alessandri, Cristiano; Spinelli, Francesca Romana; Sili Scavalli, Antonio; Novelli, Giuseppe; Valesini, Guido; Conti, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    Genetic factors exert an important role in determining Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) susceptibility, interplaying with environmental factors. Several genetic studies in various SLE populations have identified numerous susceptibility loci. From a clinical point of view, SLE is characterized by a great heterogeneity in terms of clinical and laboratory manifestations. As widely demonstrated, specific laboratory features are associated with clinical disease subset, with different severity degree. Similarly, in the last years, an association between specific phenotypes and genetic variants has been identified, allowing the possibility to elucidate different mechanisms and pathways accountable for disease manifestations. However, except for Lupus Nephritis (LN), no studies have been designed to identify the genetic variants associated with the development of different phenotypes. In this review, we will report data currently known about this specific association. PMID:26798662

  19. Method to determine factors contributing to thermoplastic sheet shrinkage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rensch, Greg J.; Frye, Brad A.

    A test method is presented for the determination of shrinkage behavior in vacuum-formed thermoplastic resin sheeting, as presently simulated for various resin lots, sheet-gage thicknesses, sheet orientations, and mold profiles. The thermoforming machine and vacuum-forming mold characteristics are discussed. It is established that the four variable factors exert statistically significant effects on the shrinkage response of three Declar resin lots, but that these are of no real practical significance for either engineering or manufacturing operations.

  20. Sociocultural factors contributing to teenage pregnancy in Zomba district, Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaphagawani, Nanzen Caroline; Kalipeni, Ezekiel

    2017-06-01

    This study explores sociocultural and other risk factors associated with unplanned teenage pregnancy in Zomba district of Malawi. Data were obtained from 505 participants under the age of 20 years using a questionnaire administered through face-to-face interviews held at five antenatal clinics. The data were analysed using descriptive statistics, frequency tables and chi-square analysis which allowed comparative understanding of the sociocultural risk factors for planned and unplanned teenage pregnancy in Zomba district. The findings revealed that teenage pregnancy is a major health and social problem. Over 76% of the teenage respondents in the study had experienced unplanned pregnancy. Among the prominent factors that stood out in the analysis for this high rate of teenage pregnancy were early sex and marriage, low contraceptive use, low educational levels, low socio-economic status, lack of knowledge of reproductive and sexual health, gender inequity, and physical/sexual violence. The consequences on teenage mothers of unplanned pregnancy have been tragic and have compromised their physical, psychological and socioeconomic wellbeing, not just on them but also their families and society at large. The findings point to the need for a multi-sectoral approach to tackle the problem on teenage pregnancy in this district, and likely throughout Malawi.

  1. Stochastic contribution to the growth factor in the LCDM model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, A. L.B.; Andrade, A. P.A.; Letelier, P. S.

    2009-01-01

    We study the effect of noise on the evolution of the growth factor of density perturbations in the context of the LCDM model. Stochasticity is introduced as a Wiener process amplified by an intensity parameter alpha. By comparing the evolution of deterministic and stochastic cases for different values of alpha we estimate the intensity level necessary to make noise relevant for cosmological tests based on large-scale structure data. Our results indicate that the presence of random forces underlying the fluid description can lead to significant deviations from the nonstochastic solution at late times for alpha>0.001.

  2. The Misuse of Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids among Iranian Re-crea¬tional Male Body-Builders and Their Related Psycho-So¬cio-Demographic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hooman ANGOORANI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The high prevalence and potential side effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS misuse by athletes has made it a major public health concern. Epidemiological studies on the abuse of such drugs are mandatory for developing effective preventive drug control programs in sports community. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of AAS abuse and their association with some psycho-socio-demographic factors in Iranian male recreational body-builders.Methods: Between March and October 2011; 906 recreational male body-builders from 103 randomly selected bodybuilding clubs in Tehran, Iran were participated in this study. Some psycho-socio- demographic factors including age, job, average family income, family size, sport experience (months, weekly duration of the sporting activity (h, purpose of participation in sporting activity, mental health as well as body image (via General Health Questionnaire and Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire, respectively, and history of AAS use were obtained by interviews using questionnaires.Results: Participants were all recreational male body-builders [mean age (SD: 25.7 (7.1, ranging 14-56 yr]. Self-report of AAS abuse was registered in 150 body-builders (16.6%. Among different psycho-socio-demographic factors, only family income and sport experience were inversely associated with AAS abuse.Conclusion: Lifetime prevalence of AAS abuse is relatively high among recreational body-builders based on their self-report. Some psycho-socio-demographic factors including family income and sport experience may influence the prevalence of AAS abuse. Keywords: Anabolic agents, Ergogenic, Doping, Iran, Body-building, Sports, Athlete

  3. Diagnostic, treatment, and demographic factors influencing survival in a population-based study of adult glioma patients in the San Francisco Bay Area1

    OpenAIRE

    Wrensch, Margaret; Rice, Terri; Miike, Rei; McMillan, Alex; Lamborn, Kathleen R.; Aldape, Kenneth; Prados, Michael D.

    2006-01-01

    We compare survival estimates for population-based glioma cases by using two diagnostic coding schemes, (1) the International Classification of Diseases, Oncology, second edition (ICD-O-2) as reported by the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program and (2) central neuropathology review diagnosis based on the World Health Organization II classification. In addition, among review categories, we estimate survival in relation to several patient demographic and treatment factors....

  4. Low self-esteem and psychiatric patients: Part II – The relationship between self-esteem and demographic factors and psychosocial stressors in psychiatric patients

    OpenAIRE

    Salsali, Mahnaz; Silverstone, Peter H

    2003-01-01

    Background The objective of the present study was to identify the effects and relative importance of demographic factors and psychosocial stressors on self-esteem of psychiatric patients. Method The present study was carried out on a consecutive sample of 1,190 individuals attending an open-access psychiatric outpatient clinic. Patients were diagnosed according to DSM III-R diagnostic criteria following detailed assessments. At screening, patients and controls completed two self-esteem questi...

  5. Neuromuscular factors contributing to in vivo eccentric moment generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, S; Kriellaars, D

    1997-07-01

    Muscle series elasticity and its contribution to eccentric moment generation was examined in humans. While subjects [male, n = 30; age 26.3 +/- 4.8 (SD) yr; body mass 78.8 +/- 13.1 kg] performed an isometric contraction of the knee extensors at 60 degrees of knee flexion, a quick stretch was imposed with a 12 degrees -step displacement at 100 degrees /s. The test was performed at 10 isometric activation levels ranging from 1.7 to 95.2% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). A strong linear relationship was observed between the peak imposed eccentric moment derived from quick stretch and the isometric activation level (y = 1.44x + 7.08; r = 0.99). This increase in the eccentric moment is consistent with an actomyosin-dependent elasticity located in series with the contractile element of muscle. By extrapolating the linear relationship to 100% MVC, the predicted maximum eccentric moment was found to be 151% MVC, consistent with in vitro data. A maximal voluntary, knee extensor strength test was also performed (5-95 degrees, 3 repetitions, +/-50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 degrees/s). The predicted maximum eccentric moment was 206% of the angle- and velocity-matched, maximal voluntary eccentric moments. This was attributed to a potent neural regulatory mechanism that limits the recruitment and/or discharge of motor units during maximal voluntary eccentric contractions.

  6. Factors Contributing to Foreign Direct Investment in Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariunzul Javzandorj

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1980s, globalization has led to a rapid increase in the growth of foreign direct investment (FDI all over the world. Mongolia for more than a decade has been in the process of radical transformation and has taken significant steps to build a market-based economic structure. Foreign Direct Investment plays a very important role in achieving rapid economic growth in the developing countries. This can be achieved by taking advantage of available mobilizing domestic savings, foreign capital, technology transfers, establishment of new premises and favorable foreign policies It is now widely acknowledged that FDI has potential benefits that can accrue to developing countries. This view is mainly based on the neo liberal and development economists. They suggest that FDI is crucial for economic growth as it provides the much needed capital for investment, increases competition in host countries economies, and helps local firms to become more productive by adopting more efficient technology or by investing in human or physical capital [1]. FDI is also said to contribute to growth in a substantive manner because it’s more stable than other forms of capital flows. This paper investigates the key drivers of foreign direct investment (FDI in Mongolia.

  7. Factors contributing to teenage pregnancy in the Capricorn district of the Limpopo Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tebogo M. Mothiba

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Teenage pregnancy refers to pregnancy of a woman of less than 19 years. It is found commonly amongst young people who have been disadvantaged and have poor expectations with regard to either their education or job market. Adolescents may lack knowledge of access to conventional methods of preventing pregnancy, as they may be afraid to seek such information. The study purpose was to identify factors contributing to teenage pregnancy in one village in the Capricorn District of the Limpopo Province.A quantitative descriptive research approach was chosen. Population consisted of all pregnant teenagers attending antenatal care during June to August 2007 at one clinic in the Capricorn District of the Limpopo Province. Simple random probability sampling was used to include 100 pregnant teenagers who satisfied the inclusion criteria. Data were collected through structured self-administered questionnaires. Descriptive statistical data analysis was used. Ethical considerations were ensured.Findings were classified as demographic data where 24% of the respondents were aged between 15–16 years and 76% were aged between 17–19 years. Findings further revealed that 60% of the respondents started to engage in sex at 13–15 years; 48% of the teenagers’ partners were 21 years and above, 44% depended on a single parents’ income; 20% father’s income, 16% received a social grant and 8% lived on the pension fund of the grandparents.Pregnancy prevention strategies were recommended based on the results. The strategies focused on reproductive health services, male involvement and adult-teenager communication programmes.

  8. Anxiety in early pregnancy: prevalence and contributing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubertsson, C; Hellström, J; Cross, M; Sydsjö, G

    2014-06-01

    Antenatal anxiety symptoms are not only a health problem for the expectant mother. Research has found that maternal anxiety may also have an impact on the developing baby. Therefore, it is important to estimate the prevalence of maternal anxiety and associated factors. The current study aims to estimate the prevalence of anxiety symptoms during the first trimester of pregnancy and to identify associated risk factors. Secondly, to investigate other factors associated with anxiety during early pregnancy including fear of childbirth and a preference for cesarean section. In a population-based community sample of 1,175 pregnant women, 916 women (78%) were investigated in the first trimester (gestation week 8-12). The Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS-A) was used to measure anxiety symptoms. The prevalence of anxiety symptoms (HADS-A scores≥8 during pregnancy) was 15.6% in early pregnancy. Women under 25 years of age were at an increased risk of anxiety symptoms during early pregnancy (OR 2.6, CI 1.7-4.0). Women who reported a language other than Swedish as their native language (OR 4.2, CI 2.7-7.0), reported high school as their highest level of education (OR 1.6, CI 1.1-2.3), were unemployed (OR 3.5, CI 2.1-5.8), used nicotine before pregnancy (OR 1.7, CI 1.1-2.5), and had a self-reported psychiatric history of either depression (OR 3.8, CI 2.6-5.6) or anxiety (OR 5.2, CI 3.5-7.9) before their current pregnancy were all at an increased risk of anxiety symptoms during early pregnancy. Anxiety symptoms during pregnancy increased the rate of fear of birth (OR 3.0, CI 1.9-4.7) and a preference for cesarean section (OR 1.7, CI 1.0-2.8). Caregivers should pay careful attention to history of mental illness to be able to identify women with symptoms of anxiety during early pregnancy. When presenting with symptoms of anxiety, the women might need counseling and or treatment in order to decrease her anxiety.

  9. Demographic factors associated with perceptions about water safety and tap water consumption among adults in Santa Clara County, California, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Erp, Brianna; Webber, Whitney L; Stoddard, Pamela; Shah, Roshni; Martin, Lori; Broderick, Bonnie; Induni, Marta

    2014-06-12

    The objective of this study was to examine differences in tap water consumption and perceptions of bottle versus tap water safety for Hispanics and non-Hispanic whites, as well as associations with other demographic characteristics. Data are from the Santa Clara County, California, Dietary Practices Survey (2011; N = 306). We used logistic regression to examine associations between demographic characteristics and 1) perceptions that bottled water is safer than tap and 2) primarily consuming tap water. Hispanics were less likely than non-Hispanic whites to primarily drink tap water (OR = 0.33; 95% CI, 0.11-0.99), although there was no significant difference in perceptions that bottled water is safer between these groups (OR = 0.50; 95% CI, 0.11-2.27). Hispanics may be an important population for interventions promoting tap water consumption.

  10. Fish consumption among pregnant women in London, Ontario: associations with socio-demographic and health and lifestyle factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sontrop, Jessica M; Campbell, M Karen; Evers, Susan E; Speechley, Kathy N; Avison, William R

    2007-01-01

    Intake of fish and omega-3 fatty acids is inversely related to adverse health outcomes; however, these relationships may be confounded by socio-economic status and health behaviours. This study's purpose was to describe the socio-demographic, health and lifestyle correlates of fish consumption among pregnant women. Pregnant women (n=2394) completed a telephone interview between 10-22 weeks' gestation (London, Ontario, 2002-5) containing questions on socio-demographic, health and lifestyle variables; dietary intake was measured using a 106-item validated food-frequency questionnaire. Unadjusted and adjusted risk ratios were obtained using a modified Poisson regression model. Infrequent fish consumption, socio-economic status and variables indicative of a less healthy lifestyle; these variables may act as confounders in studies evaluating fish consumption and health outcomes.

  11. Association of Socioeconomic Position and Demographic Characteristics with Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors and Healthcare Access among Adults Living in Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosey, G M; Samo, M; Gregg, E W; Barker, L; Padden, D; Bibb, S G

    2014-01-01

    Background. The burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is increasing in low-to-middle income countries. We examined how socioeconomic and demographic characteristics may be associated with CVD risk factors and healthcare access in such countries. Methods. We extracted data from the World Health Organization's STEPwise approach to surveillance 2002 cross-sectional dataset from Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia (FSM). We used these data to estimate associations for socioeconomic position (education, income, and employment) and demographics (age, sex, and urban/rural) with CVD risk factors and with healthcare access, among a sample of 1638 adults (25-64 years). Results. In general, we found significantly higher proportions of daily tobacco use among men than women and respondents reporting primary-level education (12 years). Results also revealed significant positive associations between paid employment and waist circumference and systolic blood pressure. Healthcare access did not differ significantly by socioeconomic position. Women reported significantly higher mean waist circumference than men. Conclusion. Our results suggest that socioeconomic position and demographic characteristics impact CVD risk factors and healthcare access in FSM. This understanding may help decision-makers tailor population-level policies and programs. The 2002 Pohnpei data provides a baseline; subsequent population health surveillance data might define trends.

  12. Demographic and socio-economic factors related to food intake and adherence to nutritional recommendations in a cohort of pre-school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Lise; Farmer, Anna; Girard, Manon; Burnier, Daniel; Porcherie, Marion

    2011-06-01

    To examine: (i) children's food intake and adherence to both Canada's Food Guide for Healthy Eating and Dietary Reference Intakes; and (ii) the social and demographic factors related to children's food intake. A cross-sectional study. Data were obtained through the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development 1998-2010, a representative sample (n 2103) of children born in 1998 in the province of Quebec, Canada. Information on energy, macronutrient and food consumption was derived from responses to a 24 h dietary recall interview addressed to children's mothers and day-care staff when the children were 4 years old. A total of 1549 children aged 4 years who participated in a nutritional sub-study. The mean daily total energy intake was 6360 kJ (1520 kcal) for girls and 6916 kJ (1653 kcal) for boys. For boys and girls alike, energy intake was comprised of approximately 54 % carbohydrates, 31 % fats and 15 % proteins. The mean number of servings consumed from each of the four essential food groups closely approached the dietary recommendations made by Canada's Food Guide for Healthy Eating; however, socio-economic and demographic factors, most notably mother's level of education, mother's immigrant status and sex of the child. Diet-related disparities associated with socio-economic and demographic factors exist from as early as 4 years of age.

  13. Association of Socioeconomic Position and Demographic Characteristics with Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors and Healthcare Access among Adults Living in Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Hosey

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD is increasing in low-to-middle income countries. We examined how socioeconomic and demographic characteristics may be associated with CVD risk factors and healthcare access in such countries. Methods. We extracted data from the World Health Organization’s STEPwise approach to surveillance 2002 cross-sectional dataset from Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia (FSM. We used these data to estimate associations for socioeconomic position (education, income, and employment and demographics (age, sex, and urban/rural with CVD risk factors and with healthcare access, among a sample of 1638 adults (25–64 years. Results. In general, we found significantly higher proportions of daily tobacco use among men than women and respondents reporting primary-level education (12 years. Results also revealed significant positive associations between paid employment and waist circumference and systolic blood pressure. Healthcare access did not differ significantly by socioeconomic position. Women reported significantly higher mean waist circumference than men. Conclusion. Our results suggest that socioeconomic position and demographic characteristics impact CVD risk factors and healthcare access in FSM. This understanding may help decision-makers tailor population-level policies and programs. The 2002 Pohnpei data provides a baseline; subsequent population health surveillance data might define trends.

  14. Demographic and psycbosocial factors regarding the decision to continue or interrupt a pregnancy in a group of low socioeconomic adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Becerra Heraud, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the demographic and psycho-social characteristics of a sample of 60 adolescents divided in two groups of 30 subjects each one (pregnant adolescents and adolescents with an induced abortion) and compare them. The results indicated the existence of some differences between both groups that may be relevant in the decision to have an abortion, for example the adolescent's age and occupation, her desire to become pregnant, the number of past pregnanci...

  15. Risk factors for low birth weight in Nigeria: evidence from the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Dahlui, Maznah; Azahar, Nazar; Oche, Oche Mansur; Aziz, Norlaili Abdul

    2016-01-01

    Background Low birth weight (LBW) continues to be the primary cause of infant morbidity and mortality. Objective This study was undertaken to identify the predictors of LBW in Nigeria. Design The data for this study was extracted from the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey conducted by the National Population Commission. Several questionnaires were used in the survey, some covering questions on pregnancy characteristics. The inclusion criteria include mothers who gave birth to a child...

  16. Risk factors for low birth weight in Nigeria: evidence from the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Dahlui, Maznah; Azahar, Nazar; Oche, Oche Mansur; Abdul Aziz, Norlaili

    2016-01-01

    Background: Low birth weight (LBW) continues to be the primary cause of infant morbidity and mortality.Objective: This study was undertaken to identify the predictors of LBW in Nigeria.Design: The data for this study was extracted from the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey conducted by the National Population Commission. Several questionnaires were used in the survey, some covering questions on pregnancy characteristics. The inclusion criteria include mothers who gave birth to a chil...

  17. Risk factors for low birth weight in Nigeria: evidence from the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Maznah Dahlui; Nazar Azahar; Oche Mansur Oche; Norlaili Abdul Aziz

    2016-01-01

    Background: Low birth weight (LBW) continues to be the primary cause of infant morbidity and mortality. Objective: This study was undertaken to identify the predictors of LBW in Nigeria. Design: The data for this study was extracted from the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey conducted by the National Population Commission. Several questionnaires were used in the survey, some covering questions on pregnancy characteristics. The inclusion criteria include mothers who gave birth to a ch...

  18. Demographic potential of the Russia’s northern regions as a factor and condition of economic development of the Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Vilgelmovich Fauzer

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the research relevance of all aspects of development of the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation consists the fact that in spite of limited stocks in the old rendered habitable regions of the country, Arctic is considered as a source of resources for socio-economic development of Russia. Based on the recognition that the territory is like a separate object of state observation, it is noted that the best resources for labor of the economy of Arctic may become demographic potential of adjacent northern regions. The different points of view and approaches to the definition of the demographic potential and a set of indicators by its assessment are given. On the basis of the statistical analysis of population dynamics and a level of birth rate and mortality, it is shown that quantitative demographic potential of the northern regions since 1990s significantly decreased. It was affected by the migratory outflow. It is revealed that in northern regions, there are still positive differences in age and sexual structure. Regional governments can use the results while drawing up Strategic plans of socio-economic development of territories. The article concludes with recommendations

  19. Relationships between high-stakes testing policies and student achievement after controlling for demographic factors in aggregated data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory J. Marchant

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available With the mandate of No Child Left Behind, high-stakes achievement testing is firmly in place in every state. The few studies that have explored the effectiveness of high-stakes testing using NAEP scores have yielded mixed results. This study considered state demographic characteristics for each NAEP testing period in reading, writing, mathematics, and science from 1992 through 2002, in an effort to examine the relation of high-stakes testing policies to achievement and changes in achievement between testing periods. As expected, demographic characteristics and their changes were related significantly to most achievement outcomes, but high-stakes testing policies demonstrated few relationships with achievement. The few relationships between high-stakes testing and achievement or improvement in reading, writing, or science tended to appear only when demographic data were missing; and the minimal relationships with math achievement were consistent with findings in previous research. Considering the cost and potential unintended negative consequences, high-stakes testing policies seem to provide a questionable means of improving student learning.

  20. Personality Factors in Elementary School Children: Contributions to Academic Performance over and above Executive Functions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuenschwander, Regula; Cimeli, Patrizia; Rothlisberger, Marianne; Roebers, Claudia M.

    2013-01-01

    Unique contributions of Big Five personality factors to academic performance in young elementary school children were explored. Extraversion and Openness (labeled "Culture" in our study) uniquely contributed to academic performance, over and above the contribution of executive functions in first and second grade children (N = 446). Well…

  1. Personality Factors in Elementary School Children: Contributions to Academic Performance over and above Executive Functions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuenschwander, Regula; Cimeli, Patrizia; Rothlisberger, Marianne; Roebers, Claudia M.

    2013-01-01

    Unique contributions of Big Five personality factors to academic performance in young elementary school children were explored. Extraversion and Openness (labeled "Culture" in our study) uniquely contributed to academic performance, over and above the contribution of executive functions in first and second grade children (N = 446). Well…

  2. Factors Contributing To The Sustainability Of 5S Programmes In Government Hospitals In Regional Director Of Health Services Area Kurunegala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. K.W.C.U.K Kendangamuwa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction 5S is the stepping stone for many quality improvement concepts and its roots date back to 16th century. When successfully implemented 5S gives many benefits to the organization as well as its stakeholders. Though 5S itself has a tool to sustain most of the organizations find it difficult to sustain the 5S practice over the time. Therefore the objective of this study was to find out the factors contributing to sustainability of 5S programmes in Government Hospitals in RDHS area Kurunegala. Methodology This study was a descriptive cross sectional study with two components. First component was to identify the 5S sustaining hospitals from not sustaining hospitals by validated evaluation sheet. Second component was to determine the factors contributing to sustainability of 5S programmes in selected study setting. Self-administrated questionnaire was used for this purpose. Total study population was 543 employees of all the categories of hospital staff. Calculated sample size was 422 and 375 were responded to the questionnaire giving response rate of 88.9. Results The study revealed that the implemented 5S programmes were sustaining in eight hospitals out of ten i.e. sustaining rate was 80. When it considered the degree of sustainability 50 of the selected hospitals reported more than 70 sustainability. This was considered as favourable trend in government health sector in healthcare quality point of view. Ten factors were studied as contributing factors for the 5S sustainability. Socio- demographic factors were also considered. Those ten factors were top management commitment leadership of the organization commitment of middle amp frontline managers commitment amp satisfaction of employees training amp changing attitude of employees motivation of employees organizational culture group cohesiveness community participation and customer satisfaction. Study revealed that organizational leadership customer satisfaction community

  3. Factors contributing to amphibian road mortality in a wetland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haijun GU; Qiang DAI; Qian WANG; Yuezhao WANG

    2011-01-01

    To understand road characteristics and landscape features associated with high road mortality of amphibians in Zoige Wetland National Nature Reserve,we surveyed road mortality along four major roads after rainfall in May and September 2007.Road mortality of three species,Rana kukunoris,Nanorana pleskei and Bufo minshanicus,was surveyed across 225 transects (115 in May and 110 in September).Transects were 100 m long and repeated every two kilometers along the four major roads.We used model averaging to assess factors that might determine amphibian road mortality.We recorded an average of 24.6 amphibian road mortalities per kilometer in May and 19.2 in September.Among road characteristics,road width was positively associated with road morality for R.kukunori and B.minshanicus.Traffic volume also increased the road mortality of B.minshanicus in September.Of the landscape features measured,area proportions of three types of grassland (wet,mesic and dry) within 1 km of the roads,particularly that of wet grassland,significantly increased road mortality for R.kukunori and total mortality across all three species.To most effectively reduce road mortality of amphibians in the Zoige wetlands,we suggest better road design such as avoiding wet grasslands,minimizing road width,underground passes and traffic control measures.The implementation of public transit in the area would reduce traffic volume,and hence mortality [Current Zoology 57 (6):768-774,2011].

  4. Gingival changes during pregnancy: III. Impact of clinical, microbiological, immunological and socio-demographic factors on gingival inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo-de-Albornoz, Ana; Figuero, Elena; Herrera, David; Cuesta, Pedro; Bascones-Martínez, Antonio

    2012-03-01

    To identify predictor variables involved in exacerbated gingival inflammation associated with pregnancy. In this cohort study, 48 pregnant and 28 non-pregnant women without periodontitis were included. The pregnant women were evaluated in the first, second and third trimester and at 3 months postpartum, whilst the non-pregnant women were evaluated twice, with a 6-month interval. At each visit, clinical [plaque index (PlI) and gingival index (GI)], hormonal (salivary progesterone and estradiol), immunological [gingival crevicular fluid interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and prostaglandin-E(2) ] and microbiological (periodontal pathogens culture) evaluations were performed. Statistical analysis was undertaken using exhaustive chi-square automatic interaction detection (exhaustive CHAID) to analyse the predictive value of the independent outcomes to develop pregnancy GI. PlI was the strongest predictor implicated in the GI throughout pregnancy and after delivery. During the second and third trimesters the presence of Porphyromonas gingivalis significantly contributed to the worsening of gingival inflammation. When compared with the non-pregnant group, significant differences were found in TNF-α amounts and concentrations and in the third trimester site-specific GI. Bacterial challenge to the gingival tissues, both quantitatively (PlI) and qualitatively (harbouring P. gingivalis) appears to affect the level of gingival inflammation observed during pregnancy. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  5. Biomechanical factors contributing to self-organization in seagrass landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, M.S.; Koehl, M.A.R.; Kopp, B.S.

    2007-01-01

    Field observations have revealed that when water flow is consistently from one direction, seagrass shoots align in rows perpendicular to the primary axis of flow direction. In this study, live Zostera marina shoots were arranged either randomly or in rows perpendicular to the flow direction and tested in a seawater flume under unidirectional flow and waves to determine if shoot arrangement: a) influenced flow-induced force on individual shoots, b) differentially altered water flow through the canopy, and c) influenced light interception by the canopy. In addition, blade breaking strength was compared with flow-induced force to determine if changes in shoot arrangement might reduce the potential for damage to shoots. Under unidirectional flow, both current velocity in the canopy and force on shoots were significantly decreased when shoots were arranged in rows as compared to randomly. However, force on shoots was nearly constant with downstream distance, arising from the trade-off of shoot bending and in-canopy flow reduction. The coefficient of drag was higher for randomly-arranged shoots at low velocities (< 30 cm s- 1) but converged rapidly among the two shoot arrangements at higher velocities. Shoots arranged in rows tended to intercept slightly more light than those arranged randomly. Effects of shoot arrangement under waves were less clear, potentially because we did not achieve the proper plant size?row spacing ratio. At this point, we may only suggest that water motion, as opposed to light capture, is the dominant physical mechanism responsible for these shoot arrangements. Following a computation of the Environmental Stress Factor, we concluded that even photosynthetically active blades may be damaged or broken under frequently encountered storm conditions, irrespective of shoot arrangement. We hypothesize that when flow is generally from one direction, seagrass bed patterns over multiple scales of consideration may arise as a cumulative effect of

  6. Electronic prescription as contributing factor for hospitalized patients' safety.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gimenes FRE

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The following study was performed to identify factors related to medication errors in the computerized physician order entry and their advantages and disadvantages according to doctors, nursing team and administrative officers. It is a survey descriptive study carried out at three units of a Brazilian academic hospital in the southeast area. The study was divided in two phases. In the first phase, we analyzed a total of 1,349 prescriptions from general medical unit, surgical and orthopaedic wards during 30 days consecutively. A semi-structured instrument, elaborated by a group of researchers for the study proposals, was used. In the second phase, a semi-structured questionnaire was applied to the health professionals containing closed and open items approaching their opinion about the composition of electronic prescription, the advantages and disadvantages of them, and their suggestions for its improvement. Out of 1,349 prescriptions observed, 17.5% presented deletions, 25.0% medicines written manually and 17.0% of them were incomplete. Some of the advantages pointed by health professionals were its legibility (37.5%, little time spent when elaborating and emitting them (20.5% and the way they are a practical and organized (8%. The disadvantages pointed were repetition of previous prescriptions (34%, typing mistakes (17%, dependence on computers (11% and alterations made manually (7%. We conclude, this way, that the computerized prescription order entry represents a great progress among the strategies used to minimize medication errors caused by prescriptions badly formulated. However, it doesn't eradicate the possibility of medication error occurrences, needing some system modifications.

  7. TECHNIQUES AND FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO DEVELOPING CRITICAL THINKING SKILLS

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    Irina Vladimirovna Glukhova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the issue of working out and introduction in educational process of higher educational institutions of the innovative technology for developing skills of critical thinking skills of the future specialists. Research is aimed at revealing of the factors promoting formation of students’ critical thinking in high schools; the search of strategy and the receptions actualizing creative abilities of students and helping to formation of an active, independent person. The author gives the reasoned proving that it’s necessary to set up the creative educational environment and adjustment of positive dialogue between the teacher and the trainee for education of such person, development of abilities of an objective reflection, interpretation of the phenomena, formulations of adequate conclusions, well-founded evaluating. Methods. The methods involve the analysis of the philosophical, psychology-pedagogical, methodical literature and the scientific periodical publications; generalisation of the Russian and foreign background, classification and arrangement of the considered issues, supervision. Results. Current approaches to the rendering of critical thinking and a problem of its formation in the scientific literature are considered; the concept «the creative educational environment» is specified; the ways of increasing the educational process efficiency are shown. Scientific novelty. The complex of procedures and the conditions promoting effective development of critical thinking skills is theoretically proved on the basis of the analysis of various information sources. Practical significance. The research outcomes and the recommended methods of critical thinking skills formation can be useful for the professors and lecturers of higher education institutions to optimize subject matter selection, techniques and methods of education under the conditions of dynamically updated educational process. 

  8. EJSCREEN Demographic Indicators 2016 Public

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EJSCREEN uses demographic factors as very general indicators of a community's potential susceptibility to the types of environmental factors included in this...

  9. EJSCREEN Demographic Indicators 2015 Internal

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EJSCREEN uses demographic factors as very general indicators of a community's potential susceptibility to the types of environmental factors included in this...

  10. EJSCREEN Demographic Indicators 2015 Public

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EJSCREEN uses demographic factors as very general indicators of a community's potential susceptibility to the types of environmental factors included in this...

  11. Association of self-reported physical activity patterns and socio-demographic factors among normal-weight and overweight Japanese men

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background It is still not known whether overweight men have different patterns and socio-demographic correlates of self-reported physical activity (PA) compared with normal-weight men. Thus, this study examined the perceived PA patterns and associated socio-demographic factors among normal-weight and overweight Japanese men. Methods Data were analyzed for 1,420 men (aged 44.48.3years) who responded to an Internet-based cross-sectional survey relating to socio-demographic variables, BMI status, and a short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Mann-Whitney, chi-square, and binary logistic regression analyses were employed. Results Normal-weight men were significantly more likely to attain 150 minutes per week of moderate-to-vigorous PA than overweight men (26.6% vs. 21.3%; p=0.035), whereas there were no significant proportional differences in total PA and walking between the two BMI subgroups. With PA, a significant interaction was observed between BMI status and household income (p=0.004 for total PA; p=0.02 for walking). In the subgroup analyses, having a lower household income (odds ratio, 0.63; 95% confidence interval, 0.41-0.96) was negatively associated with attaining 150 minutes of walking per week among normal-weight men. No significant associations between household income and attaining 150 minutes per week of total PA and walking were found among overweight men. Conclusions The results revealed that patterns and socio-demographic correlates of self-reported PA in overweight men are different from those in normal-weight men. This finding suggests the necessity of developing specific strategies for PA intervention among overweight men. Socio-demographic correlates of PA may be more important for normal-weight than overweight men. PMID:22490124

  12. Family socio-demographic factors and maternal obstetric factors influencing appropriate health-care seeking behaviours for newborn jaundice in Sagamu, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunlesi, Tinuade A; Ogunlesi, Funmilayo B

    2012-04-01

    Poor care-seeking behaviour of families may be responsible for the high prevalence of complications of newborn jaundice in the developing world. To examine the influence of family socio-demographic characteristics and maternal obstetric factors on health care-seeking behaviours for newborn jaundice and the inter-relationship between this behavior and severity of newborn jaundice. Mothers whose babies were referred to a Nigerian tertiary hospital with jaundice were studied in a cross-sectional survey for appropriate health-care seeking behaviours as well as the need for exchange transfusion and the occurrence of kernicterus in their babies. Out of 182 mother-baby pairs, 127 (69.8%) mothers recognized jaundice in their infants, 34.1% delayed care for ≥48 h, 40.6% sought medical care in orthodox health facilities while 20.9% did not seek care outside the home. In all, 61.5% mothers administered various medications to jaundiced babies. Appropriate health care-seeking behaviours were recorded among 28.6% mothers. Low maternal education had a significant relationship with delayed health care-seeking and the use of home remedies for newborn jaundice. A significantly higher proportion of babies who had home remedies had delayed care. Delayed care for ≥48 h was also significantly associated with high Total Serum Bilirubin on admission, higher requirement for exchange transfusion and higher occurrence of kernicterus. Intensive health education of families may help improve their health care-seeking behaviours for neonatal jaundice.

  13. The connection of socio-demographic factors and child-parent relationships to the psychological aspects of children’s development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobkin V. S.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Preschool childhood is a time of rapid development. During this period a child`s interaction with significant adults plays a very important role. The parent, as a mediator, defines the “zone of proximal development” (Vygotsky, 1984. The common assumption is that to determine a parent’s position, it is important to acknowledge both socio-demographic factors and the parameters which define the socio-psychological aspects of parent-child relationship. Hence, the type of research where a child’s psychological development is studied in the context of the socio-demographic and socio-psychological factors which determine the social situation of development, is very promising. Based on our previous research (Sobkin, Marich, 2002; Cheie, Veraksa, 2015, a program of experimental research intended to determine the interconnections between the socio-demographic and socio-psychological parameters of parent-child relationships, and the level of a child’s psychic development, was designed. The research was based upon the material obtained through testing 59 children between 5 and 7 years old with specially collected psychological testing methods (Veraksa A.N. etc, as well as from the results of a special sociological questionnaire presented to their mothers (Sobkin V.S. etc. The research was carried out in 2014-2015 in municipal kindergartens of Moscow. Among the socio-demographic factors analyzed, the most significant results were related to the child’s gender, the family structure, and the mother’s education. Thus, boys showed higher results on visual memory tests, and girls scored better on tests for self-control and social intelligence (higher ability to detect the reason for someone else’s negative emotions. Children from single-parent families had better results on verbal memory tests, but scored lower on those for self-control. Also they had less ability for decentration. The differences in mothers’ educational levels influenced the

  14. Effects of socio-demographic factors on parental monitoring, and regimen adherence among adolescents with type 1 diabetes: A moderation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liying; Ellis, Deborah A; Naar-King, Sylvie; Moltz, Kathleen; Carcone, April I; Dekelbab, Bassem

    2016-01-01

    Parental monitoring of adolescent diabetes care is an important predictor of adolescent regimen adherence. To date, no studies have investigated whether socio-demographic factors are associated with low levels of parental monitoring or differences in parental monitoring styles, and their moderating effects in families of adolescents with type 1 diabetes. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to determine whether youth and family socio-demographic factors moderated the relationship between monitoring and youth regimen adherence (i.e., mean frequency of blood glucose testing [BGT]). Data were collected from 267 adolescents with type 1 diabetes and their parents. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were employed. Socio-demographic factors accounted for 17.1% of the variance in adherence. After parental monitoring scales were entered, R(2) in all eight equations increased and R(2) change score in six of eight equations were significant. All models were significant after the interaction terms were entered. In the adolescent report models, parent age and family structure were both independently associated with adherence and also moderated the association between adolescent-report parental monitoring and adherence to diabetes care, in particular, adolescent report of parental direct observation/presence during diabetes care. In the parent report models, income was moderated the association between parent-report youth disclosure and adherence. Research should focus on identifying additional modifiable factors that place families at risk for low levels of parental monitoring of diabetes care. Future clinical research is needed to help identify risk factors for low levels of parental monitoring and develop interventions to promote optimal parenting skills that can support youth diabetes care.

  15. An analysis of factors contributing to household water security problems and threats in different settlement categories of Ngamiland, Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujinga, Krasposy; Vanderpost, Cornelis; Mmopelwa, Gagoitseope; Wolski, Piotr

    Globally, water security is negatively affected by factors that include climatic and hydrological conditions, population growth, rural-urban migration, increased per-capita water use, pollution and over-abstraction of groundwater. While Botswana has made strides in providing safe and clean water to its population since independence in 1966, over the years, a combination of factors have contributed to water security problems in different settlement categories of the country (i.e., primary, secondary, tertiary and ungazetted settlements) in general and in the district of Ngamiland in particular. To study water security problems differentiated by settlement category, this study employed quantitative data collection methods (i.e. household structured questionnaires) and qualitative data collection methods (i.e. key informant interviews, observation, focus group discussions and informal interviews), complemented by a review of relevant literature. Water security in all settlements is affected by status of the settlement, i.e. gazetted or ungazetted, climatic and hydrological factors and water governance challenges. In large villages such as Maun, factors threatening water security include population growth, urbanization, management challenges, old water supply and distribution infrastructure, increased demand for individual connections and changing lifestyles. Small gazetted and ungazetted settlements encounter problems related to limited sources of water supply as well as salinity of groundwater resources. In order to enhance water security in different settlement categories, Botswana has to develop a comprehensive water resources management strategy underpinned by integrated water resources management principles aimed at addressing factors contributing to water security problems. The strategy has to be settlement category specific. Large villages have to address factors related to demographic changes, urbanization, management challenges, water supply infrastructure

  16. Perceptual factors contribute more than acoustic factors to sound localization abilities with virtual sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume eAndeol

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Human sound localization abilities rely on binaural and spectral cues. Spectral cues arise from interactions between the sound wave and the listener’s body (head related transfer function, HRTF. Large individual differences were reported in localization abilities, even in young normal-hearing adults. Several studies have attempted to determine whether localization abilities depend mostly on acoustic cues or on perceptual processes involved in the analysis of these cues. These studies have yielded inconsistent findings, which could result from methodological issues. Here, we measured sound localization performance with normal and modified acoustic cues (i.e., with individual and non-individual HRTFs, respectively in 20 naïve listeners. Test conditions were chosen to address most methodological issues from past studies. Procedural training was provided prior to sound localization tests. The results showed no direct relationship between behavioral results and an acoustical metric (spectral-shape prominence of individual HRTFs. Despite uncertainties due to technical issues with the normalization of the HRTFs, large acoustic differences between individual and non-individual HRTFs seemed to be needed to produce behavioral effects. A subset of 15 listeners then trained in the sound localization task with individual HRTFs. Training included either visual correct-answer feedback (for the test group or no feedback (for the control group, and was assumed to elicit perceptual learning for the test group only. Few listeners from the control group, but most listeners from the test group, showed significant training-induced learning. For the test group, learning was related to pre-training performance (the poorer the pre-training performance, the greater the learning amount and was retained after one month.The results are interpreted as being in favor of a larger contribution of perceptual factors than of acoustic factors to sound localization abilities

  17. Influence of socio-demographic factors on physical activity participation in a sample of adults in Penang, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheah, Y K

    2011-12-01

    Given the importance of physical activity to health, this study investigated the socio-demographic determinants of physical activity participation in a sample of adults in Penang. Through convenience sampling, a total of 398 adults agreed to answer a prepared questionnaire on their socio-demographic background and physical activity participation. The data were analysed using the binary logit model. Frequent physical activity participation is defined as taking part more than 11 times in leisure-time physical activity such as swimming and jogging, each time lasting more than 15 minutes in a typical month, whereas participation that is less than the frequency and time duration specified above is referred to as infrequent physical activity. Age, male, being Chinese, high educational attainment, self-rated excellent health status and presence of family illnesses are positively associated with the likelihood of frequent participation in physical activity. On the contrary, being married, having low income and residing in rural areas are inversely related with the propensity of frequent physical activity participation. The majority in this sample of adults do not participate in physical activity frequently, and the reasons given include lack of health awareness, limited leisure time, budget constraints, and lack of sports amenities.

  18. [Socio-demographic factors and the dengue fever epidemic in 2002 in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Tatiana Rodrigues de Araujo; Medronho, Roberto de Andrade

    2008-09-01

    This study analyzed the dengue fever epidemic in 2002 and the socio-demographic context of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, using spatial analysis and statistical modeling. The incidence rate was calculated for resident dengue cases in the State in 2002. The study analyzed associations between incidence and socio-demographic variables and spatial autocorrelation using the Moran Global Index, which showed spatial dependence for both the outcome and the independent variables. A multivariate linear regression model was used. The variables' proportion of urban population, percentage of the population with running water, and percentage of coverage by the Family Health Program (FHP) explained 30.2% of the total variance in the epidemic's incidence rate. The model's residuals did not show spatial autocorrelation. The associations were in the expected direction, and the findings are corroborated by other studies that showed higher dengue incidence in areas characterized by growing urbanization and deficient running water and water supply, while highlighting the FHP as an important facilitator of vector control strategies.

  19. Effect of Maternal Socio-demographic Factors and Child Feeding Practice on Wasting Among Under Five Years Children in Slum Area of Rupandehi District in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, S; Ruchal, S; Timalsina, B; Acharya, D; Khadka, B; Gautam, V; Singh, J K

    2017-01-01

    Childhood wasting although well studied elsewhere, it has not been well understood about in slum area of Nepal. This study aimed to assess effect of socio-demographic factors and child feeding practice in the determination of wasting among the children under five years of age in slum area of Nepal. A community based cross-sectional study was performed among 150 children under five years of age from the slum area of Nepal between 1st January and 28th February 2013 using simple random sampling techniques. Multivariate analyses were performed to determine factors associated with wasting controlling the potential confounders. In a total of 150 under five years children, the prevalence of wasting was 56 (37.33%). The current study demonstrated that children of mothers from dalit Adjusted Odds Ratio (OR) 11.5; 95% CI: 03.1 - 41.3), aadibasi/janajati (AOR 4.6; 95% CI: 1.2 - 17.0), illiterate mothers (AOR 3.6; 95% CI: 1.1 - 13.6), laborer mothers (AOR 2.1; 95% CI: 1.1-9.4), child age group 25-36 months (AOR 2.8; 95% CI: 1.5-5.3), multiple child birth order (AOR 10.0; 95% CI: 2.5-25.0), children who were not fed colostrums (AOR 15.0; 95% CI: 1.25-10.0) were more likely to develop wasting compared to their counterparts. As incremental childhood wasting is associated with maternal socio-demographic factors and child feeding practice, health promotion strategies should focus maternal socio-demographic factors, age of children and early initiation of breast feeding for the improved child nutrition in slum area of Nepal.

  20. Demographic and Substance Use Factors Associated with Non-Violent Alcohol-Related Injuries among Patrons of Australian Night-Time Entertainment Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coomber, Kerri; Mayshak, Richelle; Hyder, Shannon; Droste, Nicolas; Curtis, Ashlee; Pennay, Amy; Gilmore, William; Lam, Tina; Chikritzhs, Tanya; Miller, Peter G.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between patron demographics, substance use, and experience of recent alcohol-related accidents and injuries that were not due to interpersonal violence in night-time entertainment districts. Cross-sectional interviews (n = 4016) were conducted around licensed venues in entertainment districts of five Australian cities. Demographic factors associated with non-violent alcohol-related injuries were examined, including gender, age, and occupation. The association between substance use on the night of interview; blood alcohol concentration (BAC), pre-drinking, energy drink consumption, and illicit drug use; and experience of injury was also explored. Thirteen percent of participants reported an alcohol-related injury within the past three months. Respondents aged younger than 25 years were significantly more likely to report an alcohol-related injury. Further, a significant occupation effect was found indicating the rate of alcohol-related injury was lower in managers/professionals compared to non-office workers. The likelihood of prior alcohol-related injury significantly increased with BAC, and self-reported pre-drinking, energy drink, or illicit drug consumption on the night of interview. These findings provide an indication of the demographic and substance use-related associations with alcohol-related injuries and, therefore, potential avenues of population-level policy intervention. Policy responses to alcohol-related harm must also account for an assessment and costing of non-violent injuries. PMID:28085105

  1. Prevalence, Demographic Characteristics and Associated Risk Factors of Malnutrition Among 0-5 Aged Children: A Cross-Sectional Study From Van, Eastern Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizilyildiz, Baran Serdar; Sönmez, Bülent; Karaman, Kamuran; Beger, Burhan; Mercen, Adnan; Alioglu, Süleyman; Cesur, Yasar

    2016-11-17

    Malnutrition in childhood is a dramatic indicator of poor socio-economical status worldwide. To recognize and reveal the socio-demographic features is crucial, especially for developing countries. Our aim was to investigate the prevalence and association with sociodemographic variables of malnutrition in 0-5 years old children in Van, Turkey. A total of 702 children are included in this cross-sectional study. Demographic features of subject including age, gender, family characteristics and other data were obtained. Nutritional assessment was done using anthropometric indices including weight-for-age, height-for-age, weight-for-height, head circumference and body mass index-for-age. Multivariate logistic regressions were carried out to assess malnutrition-associated factors. Prevalence of underweight, stunting and wasting were 19.7, 17.7 and 16.2%, respectively. Socio-demographic variables that statistical significantly in association with malnutrition were low monthly family income, educational level and employment status of father, parental consanguinity, number of pregnancies, regular intake of vitamin D and history of prematurity. The prevalence of children with head circumference-z score ≤2SD and body mass index-for-age ≤2SD were 9.8 and 16.3%, respectively. Multivariate analysis detected following risk factors for these indices; low monthly family income, history of prematurity, unemployed father and the period between pregnancies (1-2 years). We found that prevalence of malnutrition in the city of Van, was still higher than more developed regions of Turkey. The associated risk factors of malnutrition should be specifically interpreted by health professionals and also by government authorities that are responsible for making practical politics of public health.

  2. Prevalence, demographic characteristics and associated risk factors of malnutrition among 0-5 aged children: a cross-sectional study from Van, eastern Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baran Serdar Kizilyildiz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Malnutrition in childhood is a dramatic indicator of poor socio-economical status worldwide. To recognize and reveal the socio-demographic features is crucial, especially for developing countries. Our aim was to investigate the prevalence and association with sociodemographic variables of malnutrition in 0-5 years old children in Van, Turkey. A total of 702 children are included in this cross-sectional study. Demographic features of subject including age, gender, family characteristics and other data were obtained. Nutritional assessment was done using anthropometric indices including weight-for-age, height-for-age, weight-for-height, head circumference and body mass index-for-age. Multivariate logistic regressions were carried out to assess malnutrition- associated factors. Prevalence of underweight, stunting and wasting were 19.7, 17.7 and 16.2%, respectively. Socio-demographic variables that statistical significantly in association with malnutrition were low monthly family income, educational level and employment status of father, parental consanguinity, number of pregnancies, regular intake of vitamin D and history of prematurity. The prevalence of children with head circumference-z score ≤−2SD and body mass index-for-age ≤−2SD were 9.8 and 16.3%, respectively. Multivariate analysis detected following risk factors for these indices; low monthly family income, history of prematurity, unemployed father and the period between pregnancies (1- 2 years. We found that prevalence of malnutrition in the city of Van, was still higher than more developed regions of Turkey. The associated risk factors of malnutrition should be specifically interpreted by health professionals and also by government authorities that are responsible for making practical politics of public health.

  3. Psychosocial and socio-demographic factors associated with outcomes for patients undergoing rehabilitation for chronic whiplash associated disorders: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltov, Petko; Côte, Julie; Truchon, Manon; Feldman, Debbie Ehrmann

    2008-01-01

    Identify psychosocial and socio-demographic factors (measured prior to treatment) that were associated with post-treatment self-perceived pain and disability and two secondary outcomes: psychological distress, and return to work in patients undergoing multidisciplinary rehabilitation for chronic whiplash associated disorders (WAD). Interviews were conducted with 28 patients with chronic WAD at entry to and completion of an intensive rehabilitation program, and a telephone interview was carried out three months later. Participants completed pain and disability, and psychological distress questionnaires, at baseline and at both follow-ups. They also completed psychosocial questionnaires and provided socio-demographic information. The effect of each of the independent variables on the outcomes was first evaluated by simple regressions, and then subsequently by multiple regression analysis. Higher baseline pain and disability predicted higher pain and disability at both follow-ups (p factor that affected pain and disability post-rehabilitation. Psychosocial factors played a role in the prognosis of psychological distress and return to work.

  4. Assessment of Medication Adherence in Elderly Patients With Cardiovascular Diseases Based on Demographic Factors in Bushehr City in the Year 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahanpour

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background The growing global elderly population is in need of more prescription medications. Objectives The present study assessed medication adherence with respect to demographic factors among elderly patients with cardiovascular disease who were admitted to a teaching hospital as well as outpatients referred to treatment centers in Bushehr, Iran. Patients and Methods The present study was a descriptive-analytic cross-sectional study using a simple random sampling method that investigated 125 elderly patients with cardiovascular disease. Data were collected through the Medication Adherence Questionnaire. Data were analyzed by using descriptive statistics, and Pearson and Cramer’s V correlation analyses, using SPSS version 18. Results Among the patients, 57.6% and 42.4% were female and male, respectively. Moreover, 62.4% had high adherence to their prescribed medications. Frequency of medication use, history of previous hospitalization, and sex were significantly associated with adherence to medication (P < 0.05. Conclusions More than half of elderly patients with cardiovascular disease had high adherence to their medications. Demographic factors including the frequency of daily medication use, history of hospitalization, and female sex were associated with adherence to medication. By considering these factors, doctors and nurses increase medication adherence, especially for older adults.

  5. Investigation of the demographic and selective forces shaping the nucleotide diversity of genes involved in nod factor signaling in Medicago truncatula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Mita, Stéphane; Ronfort, Joëlle; McKhann, Heather I; Poncet, Charles; El Malki, Redouane; Bataillon, Thomas

    2007-12-01

    Symbiotic nitrogen-fixing rhizobia are able to trigger root deformation in their Fabaceae host plants, allowing their intracellular accommodation. They do so by delivering molecules called Nod factors. We analyzed the patterns of nucleotide polymorphism of five genes controlling early Nod factor perception and signaling in the Fabaceae Medicago truncatula to understand the selective forces shaping the evolution of these genes. We used 30 M. truncatula genotypes sampled in a genetically homogeneous region of the species distribution range. We first sequenced 24 independent loci and detected a genomewide departure from the hypothesis of neutrality and demographic equilibrium that suggests a population expansion. These data were used to estimate parameters of a simple demographic model incorporating population expansion. The selective neutrality of genes controlling Nod factor perception was then examined using a combination of two complementary neutrality tests, Tajima's D and Fay and Wu's standardized H. The joint distribution of D and H expected under neutrality was obtained under the fitted population expansion model. Only the gene DMI1, which is expected to regulate the downstream signal, shows a pattern consistent with a putative selective event. In contrast, the receptor-encoding genes NFP and NORK show no significant signatures of selection. Among the genes that we analyzed, only DMI1 should be viewed as a candidate for adaptation in the recent history of M. truncatula.

  6. Searching for the Final Answer: Factors Contributing to Medication Administration Errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pape, Tess M.

    2001-01-01

    Causal factors contributing to errors in medication administration should be thoroughly investigated, focusing on systems rather than individual nurses. Unless systemic causes are addressed, many errors will go unreported for fear of reprisal. (Contains 42 references.) (SK)

  7. Demographic, clinical and psychosocial factors identify a high-risk group for depression screening among predominantly Hispanic patients with Type 2 diabetes in safety net care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ell, Kathleen; Katon, Wayne; Lee, Pey-Jiuan; Guterman, Jeffrey; Wu, Shinyi

    2015-01-01

    Identify biopsychosocial factors associated with depression for patients with Type 2 diabetes. A quasi-experimental clinical trial of 1293 patients was predominantly Hispanic (91%) female (62%), mean age 53 and average diabetes duration 10 years; 373 (29%) patients were depressed and assessed by Patient Health Questionnaire-9. Demographic, baseline clinical and psychosocial variables were compared between depressed and nondepressed patients. Bivariate analyses found depression significantly associated (pidentified six key risk factors: greater disability, diabetes symptoms and regimen distress, female gender, less diabetes self-care and lack of A1C. In addition, after controlling for identified six factors, the number of psychosocial stressors significantly associated with increased risk of depression (adjusted odds ratio=1.37, 95% confidence intervals: 1.18-1.58, pidentify a high-risk group of patients needing depression screening. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Factors Contribute to Safety Culture in the Manufacturing Industry in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Ong Choon Hee

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explain the role of safety culture in the manufacturing industry in Malaysia and identify factors contribute to safety culture. It is suggested in this study that leadership support, management commitment and safety management system are important factors that contribute to safety culture. This study also provides theoretical implications to guide future research and offers practical implications to the managers in the development of safety culture. Given that ...

  9. Key Factors Contributing The Succes of Informal Sector Business Owners In Makssar

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Abdul

    2013-01-01

    - The purposess of this research are to investigate the key factors contributed to the informal sector businesses success how the key factors formed and how unique the key factaors contributed to daily profit The researh was undertaken in Makassar City South Sulawesi Indonesia by asking 450 respondent using listed indicators mentioned in questionmaires observasing the informal sector bussiness in several street in Makassar and asking the participants to list the importan indicators which a...

  10. Socio-demographic factors, reproductive history and risk of osteoarthritis in a cohort of 4.6 million Danish women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, K T; Pedersen, B V; Nielsen, N M; Hansen, A V; Jacobsen, S; Frisch, M

    2011-10-01

    Studies addressing possible socio-demographic and reproductive factors in the aetiology of osteoarthritis (OA) are few. We studied possible influences of educational level, household income, marital status and parenting patterns on OA risk overall and at anatomical sites. We linked national register data about socio-demographic variables, reproductive histories and OA hospital contacts to a cohort of 4.6 million Danes. Ratios of first OA hospitalisation rates (RRs) were calculated using Poisson regression. Overall, 100,437 women and 92,020 men had a first OA hospital contact during 91.5 million person-years between 1982 and 2008. Short education, low income and married status were significantly associated with increased OA risk, and persons with children were at higher risk of OA(overall) (RR=1.10 in women; RR=1.22 in men), OA(knee) (RRs 1.14; 1.28), OA(back) (RRs 1.18; 1.33), and OA(hand) (RRs 1.21; 1.43), but not of OA(hip) (RRs 0.96; 1.00) than persons without children. The RR of OA(overall) increased by a factor of 1.05 in women and 1.04 in men per additional child, most notably for OA(knee) in women (1.10 per child). Risk of OA hospitalisation was highest among married persons and persons with short education or low income. The similar or even stronger associations with reproductive factors in men than women suggest that unmeasured lifestyle factors rather than biological factors associated with pregnancy might explain the higher OA risk in persons with children. However, the particularly strong association between parity and risk of OA(knee) in women is compatible with a role of pregnancy-associated factors. Copyright © 2011 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Analysis of factors associated with patient satisfaction in ophthalmology: the influence of demographic data, visit characteristics and perceptions of received care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfelder, Tonio; Klewer, Joerg; Kugler, Joachim

    2011-11-01

    To identify factors associated with satisfaction among patients receiving ophthalmic services and to indicate the intensity of this relationship. The data used was obtained through a self-administered, post-visit questionnaire from randomly selected 507 patients treated in seven eye clinics in Germany. The instrument assessed satisfaction with several aspects of care and patient baseline and visit characteristics. Bivariate and multivariate techniques were used to reveal relations between indicators and overall satisfaction. Factor analysis yielded two